WorldWideScience

Sample records for liver adverse effects

  1. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.

  2. Adverse effects of radiofrequency ablation of liver tumours in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M. C.; van Duijnhoven, F. H.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Rijken, A.; van Coevorden, F.; van der Sijp, J.; Prevoo, W.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a new treatment for liver tumours. Complications encountered after RFA in the Netherlands were evaluated in the present study. Methods: Between June 1999 and November 2003 patients undergoing RFA of irresectable liver tumours in eight medical centres were

  3. Bicalutamide-Associated Acute Liver Injury and Migratory Arthralgia: A Rare but Clinically Important Adverse Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga M. Gretarsdottir

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of acute liver injury and migratory arthralgia in a patient receiving bicalutamide treatment for prostate cancer. A 67-year-old male with metastatic prostate cancer presented with a 6-day history of migratory arthralgia. He had been undergoing treatment with bicalutamide for 4 months; 3 weeks prior to symptom appearance the bicalutamide dose had been increased. He had no other symptoms. Liver tests and inflammatory markers were markedly elevated. Serology for hepatitis viruses A, B, and C, CMV, and EBV and autoimmune causes were all negative, and an ultrasound of the upper abdomen was normal. There was no history of blood transfusion, intravenous drug abuse, or alcohol abuse. Due to the suspicion of a drug-induced symptomatology, bicalutamide was discontinued and the patient started on 30 mg prednisolone daily. Three weeks later he was symptom free and after 6 weeks his liver tests were almost normal. The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM suggested a high probability of liver injury. Bicalutamide has very rarely been reported as a causative agent for liver injury and to our knowledge never for migratory polyarthralgia. The migratory polyarthralgia was attributed to bicalutamide due to the absence of other etiological factors and the disappearance of symptoms after discontinuation of the drug. To our knowledge, this is the first published case report of migratory arthralgia and concomitant liver injury attributed to bicalutamide.

  4. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  5. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  6. Effects of Melatonin and Epiphyseal Proteins on Fluoride-Induced Adverse Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart, Liver, and Kidney of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis epiphyseal (pineal proteins (BEP and melatonin (MEL against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123–143 g body weights were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water, MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p., and BEP (100 µg/kg BW, i.p. for 28 days. There were significantly P<0.05 high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly P<0.05 attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats.

  7. [Adverse effects of oxcarbazepine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu; Gong, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine is a new antiepileptic drug. The results of clinical trials suggest that oxcarbazepine is well tolerated and has less drug interactions. It is being used more and more widely in clinical practice, but its adverse effects should not be ignored. The most common adverse effects of oxcarbazepine are usually related to the central nervous system and digestive system, including fatigue, drowsiness, diplopia, dizziness, nausea and vomit. The common skin adverse reaction is rash. Long-term use of oxcarbazepine may also cause hyponatremia. This article reviews the literature from China and overseas about the adverse effets of oxcarbazepine over the last 10 years in order to find information about rational clinical use of oxcarbazepine.

  8. Adverse outcome pathway development from protein alkylation to liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Tomislav; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lostia, Alfonso; Vinken, Mathieu; Munn, Sharon; Whelan, Maurice

    2017-04-01

    In modern toxicology, substantial efforts are undertaken to develop alternative solutions for in vivo toxicity testing. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept could facilitate knowledge-based safety assessment of chemicals that does not rely exclusively on in vivo toxicity testing. The construction of an AOP is based on understanding toxicological processes at different levels of biological organisation. Here, we present the developed AOP for liver fibrosis and demonstrate a linkage between hepatic injury caused by chemical protein alkylation and the formation of liver fibrosis, supported by coherent and consistent scientific data. This long-term process, in which inflammation, tissue destruction, and repair occur simultaneously, results from the complex interplay between various hepatic cell types, receptors, and signalling pathways. Due to the complexity of the process, an adequate liver fibrosis cell model for in vitro evaluation of a chemical's fibrogenic potential is not yet available. Liver fibrosis poses an important human health issue that is also relevant for regulatory purposes. An AOP described with enough mechanistic detail might support chemical risk assessment by indicating early markers for downstream events and thus facilitating the development of an in vitro testing strategy. With this work, we demonstrate how the AOP framework can support the assembly and coherent display of distributed mechanistic information from the literature to support the use of alternative approaches for prediction of toxicity. This AOP was developed according to the guidance document on developing and assessing AOPs and its supplement, the users' handbook, issued by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

  9. Targeted Nanotherapeutics Encapsulating Liver X Receptor Agonist GW3965 Enhance Antiatherogenic Effects without Adverse Effects on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism in Ldlr-/- Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Mikyung; Amengual, Jaume; Menon, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacological manipulation of liver X receptors (LXRs) has been an attractive therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis treatment as they control reverse cholesterol transport and inflammatory response. This study presents the development and efficacy of nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating the...

  10. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Network Development for Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are descriptive biological sequences that start from a molecular initiating event (MIE) and end with an adverse health outcome. AOPs provide biological context for high throughput chemical testing and further prioritize environmental health risk re...

  11. Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönthal, Axel H

    2011-06-01

    A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  13. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  14. [Management of adverse drug effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, R G

    2000-09-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are still considered one of the main problems of drug therapy. ADRs are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, decreased compliance and therapeutic success as well as high direct and indirect medical costs. Several considerations have to come into play when managing a potential ADR. It is critical to establish an accurate clinical diagnosis of the adverse event. Combining information about drug exposure together with considering other possible causes of the reaction is crucial to establish a causal relationship between the reaction and the suspected drug. Identification of the underlying pathogenesis of an ADR together with the severity of the reaction will have profound implications on continuation of drug therapy after an ADR. Since spontaneous reports about ADRs are a key stone of a functioning post-marketing surveillance system and therefore play a key role in improving drug safety, health care professionals are highly encouraged to report ADRs to a local or national organization. However, because the majority of ADRs is dose-dependent and therefore preventable, individualization of pharmacotherapy may have a major impact on reducing such events.

  15. Managing adverse effects of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, James N; Ramamurthy, Chethan; Borghaei, Hossein

    2018-05-01

    Remarkable efficacy has been achieved in a variety of cancer types by targeting immune checkpoints. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 inhibitor ipilimumab, the programmed death 1 inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab, and the programmed death ligand 1 inhibitors atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab are the agents currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of certain advanced malignancies. These agents mark a departure from both standard cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. However, they are associated with a unique set of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can manifest as a wide range of autoimmune phenomena. The irAEs can affect any system in the body and in rare cases are life-threatening. It is critical for the practicing medical oncologist to recognize and promptly treat any irAEs that may develop.

  16. A combination of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol or a combination of Mg and Zn are both able to reduce the adverse effects of lindane-poisoning on rat brain and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hfaiedh, Najla; Murat, Jean-Claude; Elfeki, Abdelfettah

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of supplementation with ascorbic acid (Vit C) and α-tocopherol (Vit E) or with Mg and Zn upon lindane-induced damages in liver and brain. Under our experimental conditions, lindane poisoning (5mg/kg body weight per day for 3 days) resulted in (1) an increased level of plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, (2) an increased activity of LDH, ALP, AST, ALT, (3) an oxidative stress in liver and brain as revealed by an increased level of lipids peroxidation (TBARS) and a decrease of glutathione-peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in liver and brain. In conclusion, both Vit C+E or Mg+Zn treatments display beneficial effects upon oxidative stress induced by lindane treatment in liver and brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The adverse effects of kava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kava, R

    2001-03-01

    In Fiji, kava is also known as yaqona or grog. A convenient sample of 300 kava drinkers in Nadi, Lautoka, Ba and Sigatoka were studied to see whether local people in Fiji experienced side effects of kava use. Because males usually consume kava in Fiji, we approached specific groups of people and asked them to participate in the survey. To evaluate the side effects of kava consumption, we interviewed housewives of male kava drinkers regarding specific effects of kava. We interviewed these housewives during kava drinking sessions since they were usually not taking part in the kava drinking. We also interviewed employers of these kava drinkers and the market vendors in Nadi Town since they were closely involved with kava drinkers. Wives of kava users felt deprived of basic family needs due to the amount of money spent on kava. In Urban schools, 64% males and 46.2% had tried kava. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of side effects of kava usage among a community sample of kava drinkers in Fiji and to compare the result with some of the side effects provided by other studies. The questionnaire also asked how much kava was consumed and the reasons. Since kava use is very much part of our everyday culture and existence, convincing people to change their behavior and kava consumption is a major tasks. I hope that this study would emphasize the need at a national level to educate people on the harmful effects of kava and the need for the health ministry to view very heavy kava intake as contributing to morbidity in Fiji.

  18. Adverse effects of marijuana use

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Kathleen E.; Kampman, Kyle M.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana has consistently been reported as the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States each year. Currently, the legalization of marijuana is up for debate across the nation. While marijuana use is prevalent among the adolescent population, research has shown that there can be devastating effects on health and well-being. A review of the literature shows that marijuana use can have a negative impact on physical health, psychological well-being, and multiple psychosocial out...

  19. Perspective on Lithotripsy Adverse Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar

    2008-09-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is an effective and without any doubt the least invasive procedure to treat upper urinary tract calculi. Acute complications are rarely reported and do not require specific treatment in most cases. However, one should be aware that energy levels sufficient for stone breakage are capable of damaging tissue as well, and significant hematoma—not only in the kidney but as well in surrounding organs—has been observed. Furthermore, only little is known about the long-term effects of SWL. Some authors have reported an increased incidence of hypertension and possibly also diabetes mellitus. Such chronic diseases—if indeed related to prior SWL—may be a late result of acute SWL-related trauma but the discussion on the underlying pathogenesis is controversial. Many factors have to be considered, such as the natural history of recurrent stone formers, technical principles of SWL, and differences in treatment protocols. Promising studies are currently underway to optimize stone breakage while limiting potential collateral damage. With this progress, SWL remains a safe treatment option for most urinary calculi.

  20. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  1. Liver Effects of Clinical Drugs Differentiated in Human Liver Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E. M. Vickers

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drugs with clinical adverse effects are compared in an ex vivo 3-dimensional multi-cellular human liver slice model. Functional markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, glutathione GSH and ATP levels, were affected by acetaminophen (APAP, 1 mM, diclofenac (DCF, 1 mM and etomoxir (ETM, 100 μM. Drugs targeting mitochondria more than GSH were dantrolene (DTL, 10 μM and cyclosporin A (CSA, 10 μM, while GSH was affected more than ATP by methimazole (MMI, 500 μM, terbinafine (TBF, 100 μM, and carbamazepine (CBZ 100 μM. Oxidative stress genes were affected by TBF (18%, CBZ, APAP, and ETM (12%–11%, and mitochondrial genes were altered by CBZ, APAP, MMI, and ETM (8%–6%. Apoptosis genes were affected by DCF (14%, while apoptosis plus necrosis were altered by APAP and ETM (15%. Activation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial energy, heat shock, ER stress, apoptosis, necrosis, DNA damage, immune and inflammation genes ranked CSA (75%, ETM (66%, DCF, TBF, MMI (61%–60%, APAP, CBZ (57%–56%, and DTL (48%. Gene changes in fatty acid metabolism, cholestasis, immune and inflammation were affected by DTL (51%, CBZ and ETM (44%–43%, APAP and DCF (40%–38%, MMI, TBF and CSA (37%–35%. This model advances multiple dosing in a human ex vivo model, plus functional markers and gene profile markers of drug induced human liver side-effects.

  2. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  3. Industrial wind turbines and adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Roy D; Krogh, Carmen M E; Horner, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Some people living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs) report experiencing adverse health and socioeconomic effects. This review considers the hypothesis that annoyance from audible IWTs is the cause of these adverse health effects. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published since 2000 that included the terms "wind turbine health," "wind turbine infrasound," "wind turbine annoyance," "noise annoyance" or "low frequency noise" in the title or abstract. Industrial wind turbines produce sound that is perceived to be more annoying than other sources of sound. Reported effects from exposure to IWTs are consistent with well-known stress effects from persistent unwanted sound. If placed too close to residents, IWTs can negatively affect the physical, mental and social well-being of people. There is sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that noise from audible IWTs is a potential cause of health effects. Inaudible low-frequency noise and infrasound from IWTs cannot be ruled out as plausible causes of health effects.

  4. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bogaczewicz; Tomasz Sobów

    2017-01-01

    Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine anal...

  5. Consequences of emergency contraceptives: the adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomin, Anne; Keller, Valentin; Daraï, Emile; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) offers women an important strategy to prevent unintended pregnancy following intercourse. Despite the constant improvement of availability of different molecules and techniques already existing (Yuzpe regimen, levonorgestrel, intrauterine device) and the emergence of ulipristal acetate, the numbers of unintended pregnancies and unplanned births could still be reduced. This review will evaluate all the information about the potential adverse effects and tolerability of each method of EC by putting them in balance with their safety and effectiveness. A literature search until December 2013 was performed to identify all trials studying the safety data available concerning EC. Different means of EC have been demonstrated to be generally safe and well tolerated. These data support women information in order to improve use and efficacy of EC.

  6. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Effects § 971.602 Significant adverse environmental effects. (a) Determination of significant adverse environmental effects. The Administrator will determine the potential for or the occurrence of any significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106...

  7. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse effect rates. 655.207 Section 655.207... Agricultural Employment § 655.207 Adverse effect rates. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the adverse effect rates for all agricultural and logging employment shall be the prevailing wage rates in the...

  8. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify the adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make this...

  9. Effects of elastase on fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kazuo; Shimizu, Yoshikazu; Hihara, Masafumi; Ando, Hideki; Nishiyama, Masateru; Tano, Hironobu

    1984-01-01

    Elastase (Elaszym 6T) was administered, in addition to the dietary instruction, to three patients with fatty liver. CT scanning revealed marked improvement in fatty liver. Transaminase levels returned to normal, total cholesterol levels tended to decrease, and HDL-cholesterol levels tended to increase. These results suggest that elastase is effective in the treatment of fatty liver. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. [Management of adverse effects with antituberculosis chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Wada, Masako

    2011-02-01

    Tuberculosis has now become a curable disease with chemotherapy. So it is natural that the present issues in tuberculosis management are focused on how to complete standard chemotherapy. In this context, management of adverse effects constitutes an essential part of antituberculosis chemotherapy, as well as directly observed therapy. In this symposium, discussions were held about three major subjects on this issue. First, hepatotoxicity develops frequently and has sometimes fatal outcome, which makes it the most problematic adverse effect. "Management of hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis chemotherapy" was published by the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis (JST) in 2006. Dr. Shinsho Yoshiba evaluated this recommendation and pointed out that the criteria for discontinuation of drug based on AST, ALT and bilirubin levels is too sensitive and the concept of predicting fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is lacking. He stressed the importance of monitoring serum prothrombin time for predicting FHF. Next, allergic drug reaction such as fever or skin rash often causes distress, although rarely fatal. As isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RFP) are key drugs for the cure, readministration of these drugs is often attempted by desensitization therapy. "Recommendation about desensitization therapy of antituberculosis drugs" was also published by JST in 1997. Dr. Yoshihiro Kobashi reported high success rates of 79 percent for INH and 75 percent for RFP according to this recommendation. He also reported correlated factor with the success, such as the longer period from the discontinuation to the desensitization therapy and lower doses of drugs at starting desensitization. Finally, we sometimes experience transient worsening of radiographical findings and general symptoms during antituberculosis chemotherapy. This is presumed to be due to allergic reaction to dead bacilli without requiring discontinuation of the drug. Differential diagnosis includes drug-induced pneumonia requring

  11. Adverse effects of e-cigarette exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, F Lee

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, a new source of nicotine exposure was introduced to the United States market, the electronic cigarette (ECIG) or "e-cigarette". Since then, the USA ECIG market has been doubling annually. Despite their widespread popularity, there is a paucity of existing data regarding ECIG toxicity. We report the experience of a statewide poison system. The database of a statewide poison system was queried for human ECIG exposures from 2010 (when Poisindex code first generated) through 2012. Year, age, manner and route of exposure, estimate exposure amount, product concentration, if evaluated at healthcare facility and symptoms were recorded. A total of 35 cases were identified--4 in 2010, 12 in 2011, 19 in 2012. Age range 8 months-60 years. Reported symptoms were mild and transient. Five patients were evaluated in an emergency department and none were admitted. Product concentrations ranged from 4 to 30 mg of nicotine per ml. Poison centers are likely to see an increase in exposures to ECIG given their growing popularity. Our modest results suggest that adverse effects and accidental exposures to ECIG cartridges are unlikely to result in serious toxicity.

  12. Adverse Effects of COX-2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish N. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (COXIBs were developed with the prime object of minimizing gastrointestinal adverse effects, which are seen with the use of traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Their long-term use is limited by the development of hypertension, edema, and congestive heart failure in a significant proportion of patients. NSAIDs block the activity of both COX isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, which mediate the enzymatic conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2 and other prostaglandin (PG metabolites. It is well established that the cardiovascular profile of COX-2 inhibitors can be accounted for by inhibition of COX-dependent PG synthesis. Following the COX-mediated synthesis of PGH2 from arachidonate, PGH2 is metabolized to one of at least five bioactive PGs, including PGE2, PGI2, PGF2, PGD2, or thromboxane A2 (TXA2. These prostanoids have pleiotropic cardiovascular effects, altering platelet function and renal function, and they are acting either as vasodilators or vasoconstrictors. Although COX-1 and COX-2 exhibit similar biochemical activity in converting arachidonate to PGH2in vitro, the ultimate prostanoids they produce in vivo may be different due to differential regulation of COX-1 and COX-2, tissue distribution, and availability of the prostanoid synthases. PGs have been established as being critically involved in mitigating hypertension, helping to maintain medullary blood flow (MBF, promoting urinary salt excretion, and preserving the normal homeostasis of thrombosis, and the researchers found that the use of COX-2 inhibitors caused many serious complications in altering the normal body homeostasis. The purpose of the present research is to explain briefly the side effects of COX-2 inhibitors on the renal and cardiovascular system.

  13. Adverse effects of excessive mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mujahid

    2008-01-01

    Research findings indicate that the use of mobile phones may lead to a number of symptoms such as headache, impaired concentration and memory, and also fatigue. The present study was designed to investigate whether the symptoms of ill health reported by young people may be associated with the use of mobile phone (MP) and to analyze its influence on health and development of medical students. The questionnaire was designed specifically for this study and contained items regarding health condition and health complaints as well as the frequency of MP use. The response rate was 86.6% (286 of 330 forms, completed by 73.77% males and 26.22% females). Most of the subjects (83.57%) had some knowledge about the adverse effects of MP use. 76.92% of the students carried one mobile, and 23.08% more than one. 55.94%, of the subjects reported the average daily MP use of less than 30 min, 27.97%, of 30-60 min, 11.53%, of 60-90 min and 4.54% of more than 90 min. 16.08% of the subjects complained of headache and 24.48% of fatigue. Impaired concentration was reported by 34.27% of respondents, memory disturbances by 40.56%, sleeplessness by 38.8%, hearing problems by 23.07%, and facial dermatitis by 16.78%. The sensation of warmth within the auricle and behind/around the ear was reported by 28.32%. Out of 286 subjects who participated in this study, 44.4% related their symptoms to mobile phone use. The findings of the present study indicate that mobile phones play a large part in the daily life of medical students. Therefore, its impact on psychology and health should be discussed among the students to prevent the harmful effects of mobile phone use.

  14. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bogaczewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine analogues used in standard doses, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, skin reactions, hypotension, convulsions, extrapyramidal symptoms and visual disturbances. Psychiatric side effects of chloroquine seem to be rare, but may manifest in a wide range of symptoms, such as confusion, disorientation, ideas of persecution, agitation, outbursts of violence, loss of interest, feeling sad, suicidal ideas and impaired insight. There is also a report of a manic episode with psychotic features in the course of bipolar disorder, and another case report of persecutory delusions, anxiety, derealisation and visual illusions triggered by chloroquine. The duration of psychiatric symptoms usually ranges from one to two weeks, and symptoms usually disappear within several days following cessation of chloroquine usage and starting psychiatric treatment where indicated. This article reviews the case studies of patients diagnosed with mental disorders resulting from the use of chloroquine, and discusses the management in such cases.

  15. The oral adverse effects of isotretinoin treatment in acne vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Isotretinoin is the most effective therapy to treat severe acne vulgaris and its systemic adverse effects have been well documented, but little is known on dental side effects over the course of treatment. Objectives: This prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in ...

  16. Non-hemorrhage-related adverse effects of rivaroxaban

    OpenAIRE

    Christopoulou, Eliza C.; Filippatos, Theodosios D.; Elisaf, Moses S.

    2017-01-01

    The direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban is useful in various indications that include venous deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis/treatment after knee/hip replacement surgery and prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Its mechanism of action has been mostly associated with hemorrhage-related adverse effects; thus a number of non-hemorrhage-related adverse effects of the drug have received less attention or go unrecognized. These adverse effects mainly include li...

  17. [Trends in drug-induced liver injury based on reports of adverse reactions to PMDA in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Chie; Maekawa, Keiko; Segawa, Katsunori; Hanatani, Tadaaki; Sai, Kimie; Saito, Yoshiro

    2012-01-01

    Reports on drug-related adverse reactions from manufacturing/distributing pharmaceutical companies or medical institutions/pharmacies are regulated under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of Japan, and this system is important for post-marketing safety measures. Although association between the medicine and the adverse event has not been clearly evaluated, and an incidence may be redundantly reported, this information would be useful to roughly grasp the current status of drug-related adverse reactions. In the present study, we analyzed the incidence of drug-induced liver injury by screening the open-source data publicized by the homepage of Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency from 2005 to 2011 fiscal years. Major drug-classes suspected to cause general drug-induced liver injury were antineoplastics, anti-inflammatory agents/common cold drugs, chemotherapeutics including antituberculous drugs, antidiabetics, antiulcers and antiepileptics. In addition, reported cases for fulminant hepatitis were also summarized. We found that antituberculous isoniazid and antineoplastic tegafur-uracil were the top two suspected drugs. These results might deepen understanding of current situations for the drug-induced liver injury in Japan.

  18. Liver transplantation in cirrhotic patients with diabetes mellitus: Midterm results, survival, and adverse events

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, J.J. (Jose J.); Herrero, J.I. (José Ignacio); Quiroga, J. (Jorge); Sangro, B. (Bruno); Gomez-Manero, N. (Noemí); Pardo, F. (Fernando); Cienfuegos, J.A. (Javier A.)

    2001-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is frequently associated with diabetes mellitus (DM), and this metabolic complication is also frequent after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The aim of our study is to investigate which factors are associated with DM before and after OLT and their impact on post-OLT evolution. We evaluated the prevalence of DM among 115 liver transplant candidates with cirrhosis and assessed their evolution after OLT (median follow-up, 41 m...

  19. 81-85 Community Awareness of Adverse Effects of No

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretary

    - inflammatory drugs. They were also asked if ... seek treatment for the pain. Only 8% of the study participants knew some adverse effects caused by ... (35%) of them did not know of any adverse effects due to NSAIDs but 53% cited potential ...

  20. Assessing long-term and rare adverse effects of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, R.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357218574

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies in the development of new medicines are primarily designed to investigate efficacy. Knowledge of adverse effects is therefore limited at the time of approval of new medicines. In this thesis several studies were conducted to investigate long-term and rare adverse effects of

  1. Adverse effects of ultraviolet irradiation in atopic dermatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, O.

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate adverse effects of ultraviolet irradiation (UV) in atopic dermatitis (AD). We focused on the two important adverse effects of UV: photosensitivity and skin cancer risk associated with calcineurin inhibitor treatment. In chapter 2 and 3 we found that

  2. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-10-17

    For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  3. Adverse effects of iodine thyroid blocking: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallek, L.; Krille, L.; Reiners, C.; Schneider, R.; Yamashita, S.; Zeeb, H.

    2008-01-01

    131 I, when released in a radiological or nuclear accident as happened recently in Fukushima (Japan)), may cause thyroid cancer as a long-term consequence. Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) is known to reduce the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Potential adverse effects of ITB have not been systematically investigated so far. This article summarises the results of a review on adverse effects of ITB based on a systematic literature search in scientific medical databases. A meta-analysis was not performed as identified studies displayed major heterogeneity. The search resulted in 14 articles relevant to the topic, reporting mostly on surveys, ecological and intervention studies. Only one study from Poland focused on effects (both desired and adverse) of an ITB intervention following the Chernobyl accident. All other studies reported on iodine administration in a different context. Overall, the studies did not reveal severe adverse reactions to potassium iodide in the general public. Since ITB is a protective measure only applied in very specific circumstances, scientifically sound studies of adverse effects are scarce and consequently the evidence base is weak. The assessment of adverse effects of ITB relies on indirect evidence from related areas. This study may contribute to ongoing developments in pharmaco-epidemiology aiming to better quantify adverse effects of medications and health care interventions including ITB. All rights reserved. (authors)

  4. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  5. Adverse effects of methotrexate in three psoriatic arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Hideki; Watarai, Akira; Nakano, Toshiaki; Katayama, Chieko; Nishiyama, Hiromi; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2014-04-01

    Methotrexate, a folic acid analogue with anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects, is commonly used to treat patients with severe destructive psoriatic arthritis and has considerable efficacy. Combined anti-tumor necrosis factor and MTX therapy result in less treatment discontinuation due to adverse events. Despite its efficacy, MTX may result in adverse effects including hepatic, pulmonary, and renal toxicity as well as lymphoproliferative disorders and predisposition to infection. We herein report rare adverse effects of MTX treatment, specifically asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis, renal cell carcinoma, and lateral uveitis, in three psoriatic arthritis patients treated with MTX. MTX is an important drug for the treatment for psoriatic arthritis patient, but an awareness of the possible adverse effects is needed.

  6. Adverse Effects of Waste Generation in Calabar Urban, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adverse Effects of Waste Generation in Calabar Urban, Nigeria. ... degradation, blocking of drainage and emission of greenhouse gases. We found a number of health hazards, ranging from pollution to diseases on both human and animals.

  7. Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with metabolic syndrome,[9] this is a serious adverse effect of which the .... and Toronto Nocturnal Hypersalivation Scale (TNHS).[15] The presence ..... Positive and negative symptoms in affected sib pairs with schizophrenia: ...

  8. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Talih, Farid; Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of ou...

  9. Adverse effects of stress on microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complex communities of microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract impact the health status of an animal. The health of an animal as well as production traits are also affected by exposure to stress. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dehorning stress on the gut ...

  10. Late intestinal adverse effects of radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Seiji; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Kaneko, Toru; Maruhashi, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the incidence and clinical appearance of late adverse intestinal effects in 88 patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy and 46 patients treated with radiotherapy alone for uterine cervical cancer. In the postoperative radiotherapy group, colitis, ileus and bowel fistules were seen in 13 patients (14.8%), 8 (9.1%), and 3 (3.4%) of the patients, respectively. Of these patients, 11 (12.5%) needed to have surgical therapy for these adverse effects. In the radiation alone group, 18 patients (39.1%) had colitis and 2 (4.3%) had ileus; of them, 2 patients (4.3%) needed to have surgical therapy. The higher incidence of so severe adverse effects as to require surgical therapy in the postoperative radiotherapy group indicates that adhesion caused by operation might have caused the occurrence of these adverse effects. Four of a total of 134 patients died of causes which might be attributable to irradiation. In 61 patients treated by radical hysterectomy without postoperative radiotherapy, intestinal adverse effects were not found. These results indicate that late intestinal adverse effects after radiotherapy are likely to occur in some cases very severely; therefore, careful consideration is necessary in the decision to use radiotherpay for uterine cervical cancer. (J.P.N.)

  11. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fazio P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasquale De Fazio,1 Raffaele Gaetano,1 Mariarita Caroleo,1 Gregorio Cerminara,1 Francesca Maida,2 Antonio Bruno,3 Maria Rosaria Muscatello,3 Maria Jose Jaén Moreno,4 Emilio Russo,2 Cristina Segura-García1 1Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, 2Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Pharmacology, University “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 3Department of Neurosciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 4Department of Social Health Sciences, Radiology and Physical Medicine, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain Abstract: Clozapine (CLZ is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate

  12. The two sides of adversity: the effect of distant versus recent adversity on updating emotional content in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Sara M; Armstrong, Laura Marie; Orejuela-Dávila, Ana I; Alverio, Tabitha

    2017-09-01

    Previous research suggests that adversity can have both adaptive and maladaptive effects, yet the emotional and working memory processes that contribute to more or less adaptive outcomes are unclear. The present study sought to investigate how updating emotional content differs in adolescents who have experienced past, recent, or no adversity. Participants who had experienced distant adversity (N = 53), no adversity (N = 58), or recent adversity only (N = 20) performed an emotion n-back task with emotional facial expressions. Results revealed that the distant adversity group exhibited significantly faster reaction times (RTs) than the no adversity and recent adversity only groups. In contrast, the recent adversity only group exhibited significantly slower RTs and more errors than the distant adversity and no adversity groups. These results suggest an emotion and executive control pathway by which both the benefits and negative effects of adversity may be conferred. Results also highlight the importance of time in assessing the impact of adversity.

  13. Adverse effects of the radioprotector WR2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairnie, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    S-2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR2721) has radioprotective properties, but it is also toxic - in man it causes nausea and vomiting. Since radiation also causes nausea and vomiting it is important to know whether WR2721 would increase or decrease the likelihood of nausea and vomiting after radiation. This question was investigated in rats using the phenomenon of aversion to the taste of saccharin, which is readily inducible and is understood to be controlled in rats by the same pathways that control nausea and vomiting in man. The taste aversion was induced by giving 0.2 Gy 60 Co γ radiation 30 min after drinking 0.1% saccharin, or WR2721 immediately after the saccharin, or giving both radiation and WR2721. There were appropriate controls. In sham-irradiated rats, WR2721 (40 or 200 mg/kg, but not 8 mg/kg) produced a significant taste aversion. When WR2721 (40 or 200 mg/kg) was given immediately after the saccharin to irradiated rats it increased the taste aversion significantly, but it did not have any effect at 8 mg/kg. It was concluded that at doses which were optimal for radioprotection (approx.200 mg/kg) or lower, WR2721 increased in rats the taste aversion induced by radiation. By inference if conditioned taste aversion is an appropriate paradigm, WR2721 would increase nausea and vomiting in man induced by radiation

  14. Adverse effects of fructose on cardiometabolic risk factors and hepatic lipid metabolism in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, M-R; Söderlund, S; Bogl, L H; Hakkarainen, A; Matikainen, N; Pietiläinen, K H; Räsänen, S; Lundbom, N; Björnson, E; Eliasson, B; Mancina, R M; Romeo, S; Alméras, N; Pepa, G D; Vetrani, C; Prinster, A; Annuzzi, G; Rivellese, A; Després, J-P; Borén, J

    2017-08-01

    Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or whether they are secondary to weight gain. To assess the effects of fructose (75 g day -1 ), served with their habitual diet over 12 weeks, on liver fat content and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a large cohort (n = 71) of abdominally obese men. We analysed changes in body composition, dietary intake, an extensive panel of cardiometabolic risk markers, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), liver fat content and postprandial lipid responses after a standardized oral fat tolerance test (OFTT). Fructose consumption had modest adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. However, fructose consumption significantly increased liver fat content and hepatic DNL and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate (a measure of β-oxidation). The individual changes in liver fat were highly variable in subjects matched for the same level of weight change. The increase in liver fat content was significantly more pronounced than the weight gain. The increase in DNL correlated positively with triglyceride area under the curve responses after an OFTT. Our data demonstrated adverse effects of moderate fructose consumption for 12 weeks on multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in particular on liver fat content despite only relative low increases in weight and waist circumference. Our study also indicates that there are remarkable individual differences in susceptibility to visceral adiposity/liver fat after real-world daily consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages over 12 weeks. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

  16. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  17. Effect of the Human Amniotic Membrane on Liver Regeneration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Operations are performed for broader liver surgery indications for a better understanding of hepatic anatomy/physiology and developments in operation technology. Surgery can cure some patients with liver metastasis of some tumors. Nevertheless, postoperative liver failure is the most feared complication causing mortality in patients who have undergone excision of a large liver mass. The human amniotic membrane has regenerative effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of the human amniotic membrane on regeneration of the resected liver. Methods. Twenty female Wistar albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups and underwent a 70% hepatectomy. The human amniotic membrane was placed over the residual liver in the experimental group. Relative liver weight, histopathological features, and biochemical parameters were assessed on postoperative day 3. Results. Total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. No difference in relative liver weight was observed between the groups. Hepatocyte mitotic count was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Hepatic steatosis was detected in the experimental group. Conclusion. Applying the amniotic membrane to residual liver adversely affected liver regeneration. However, mesenchymal stem cell research has the potential to accelerate liver regeneration investigations.

  18. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Walkíria Valeriano; de Andrade Gomes Silva, Maria Irene; Tavares Toscano, Luciana; Dantas de Oliveira, Klébya Hellen; de Lacerda, Lavoisiana Mateus; Sérgio Silva, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about sports supplementation, associated factors and self-perceived adverse effects. In a subsample of 86 individuals, blood pressure was measured and blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile markers, hepatic and renal function. The supplementation prevalence level was 58.3%, whereas the physicians and nutritionists indicated only 21.9%. The reported adverse effects were observed only by supplement users (acne, insomnia, aggressiveness, headaches and tachycardia). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the supplemented group when compared to the control group (p = 0.04), as in the subgroup of thermogenic users (p nutritional supplements without specialized orientation was elevated among physical exercise practitioners, being associated to adverse effects both by the users themselves and by clinical diagnosis.

  19. Incidence of immediate adverse effects of gadolinium contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Kouishi; Matsui, Satomi; Oikawa, Satoko; Habano, Youji; Ozaki, Daisuke; Ootake, Hidenori; Amanuma, Makoto; Endo, Keigo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the adverse effects of intravenous injection of one of 4 types of gadolinium contrast media in 6550 patients: gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), 4299 patients; gadodiamide (Gd-DTPA-BMA), 1612; gadoteridol (Gd (HP-DO3A)), 565; and gadoterate meglumin (Gd-DOTA), 74. Thirty-two (0.49%) patients experienced adverse effects, which included rash (18.8%), nausea (40.6%), vomiting (34.4%), and an unpleasant sensation in the throat (6.3%). No patient required hospitalization. We compared the incidence of adverse effects from the 4 types of contrast media and found no difference in sex, age, body region examined, or method of contrast administration. Incidence was significantly higher for Gd (HP-DO3A) than Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA-BMA (P<0.000001). (author)

  20. Adverse effects of orthodontic treatment: A clinical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talic, Nabeel F.

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment is associated with a number of adverse effects, such as root resorption, pain, pulpal changes, periodontal disease, and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Orthodontists should be aware of these effects and associated risk factors. Risk factors linked to root resorption include the duration of treatment, length, and shape of the root, trauma history, habits, and genetic predisposition. PMID:24151415

  1. Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocquard, Y.; Marion, J.L.; Goas, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system are increasingly met with. Both the brain and spinal cord may be involved. Whereas some forms have a favorable outcome, many run a relentlessly progressive course, failing to respond to treatment. Improvement of radiation protocols should achieve a lower complication rate [fr

  2. Methylmercury exposure and adverse cardiovascular effects in Faroese whaling men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Weihe, Pal; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg), a worldwide contaminant found in fish and seafood, has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. OBJECTIVE: We examined 42 Faroese whaling men (30-70 years of age) to assess possible adverse effects within a wide range of MeHg exposures from...

  3. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-31

    Jan 31, 2016 ... prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in Turkish patients .... For the control group, the dentists randomly included in the study 12 ..... soft tissue from infections.[9,12,24] Studies ...

  4. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-31

    Jan 31, 2016 ... prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in Turkish ... chronic oral disease of humankind that is characterized by progressive .... using a periodontal probe, mirror, and air syringe under adequate ..... reported that isotretinoin produced a significant salivary flow ...

  5. Modelling the adverse effects associated with ecstasy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, John E; Murphy, Philip N; Montgomery, Catharine; Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia

    2011-04-01

    Ecstasy, the street name for 3,4-meththylenedioxymethamphetamine, has been associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms and impaired psychological health in both problem and recreational users. The purpose of the present paper is to determine how these impairments are related to the history of polydrug use, and the conditions under which individuals ingest ecstasy. Associations between the variables of interest were investigated utilizing negative binomial regression. Liverpool and Preston in the North West of England. A convenience sample of 159 recreational ecstasy/polydrug users (80 males, 79 females). The sample was composed primarily of undergraduates. The dependent variable was the number of reported ecstasy-related adverse effects. Independent variables included quantitative aspects of ecstasy and other drug use, and the various beliefs and behaviours associated with ecstasy use. The number of adverse effects was associated positively with life-time exposure to ecstasy and negatively with period of abstinence from the drug. Adverse effects were more common among those who consumed ecstasy and alcohol concurrently, but were unrelated to other aspects of polydrug use. They were unaffected by whether the user took precautions when using the drug, and only weakly related to prior beliefs concerning the effects of ecstasy. Greater life-time exposure to ecstasy and consuming the drug concurrently with alcohol increase the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects, including paranoia, poor general health, irritability, confusion and moodiness. Adverse effects decrease with the period of abstinence from the drug. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Sarcopenia Adversely Impacts Postoperative Complications Following Resection or Transplantation in Patients with Primary Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Vicente; Amini, Neda; Spolverato, Gaya; Weiss, Matthew J.; Hirose, Kenzo; Dagher, Nabil N.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Cameron, Andrew A.; Philosophe, Benjamin; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is a surrogate marker of patient frailty that estimates the physiologic reserve of an individual patient. We sought to investigate the impact of sarcopenia on short- and long-term outcomes in patients having undergone surgical intervention for primary hepatic malignancies. Methods Ninety-six patients who underwent hepatic resection or liver transplantation for HCC or ICC at the John Hopkins Hospital between 2000 and 2013 met inclusion criteria. Sarcopenia was assessed by the measurement of total psoas major volume (TPV) and total psoas area (TPA). The impact of sarcopenia on perioperative complications and survival was assessed. Results Mean age was 61.9 years and most patients were men (61.4 %). Mean adjusted TPV was lower in women (23.3 cm3/m) versus men (34.9 cm3/m) (Psarcopenia. The incidence of a postoperative complication was 40.4 % among patients with sarcopenia versus 18.4 % among patients who did not have sarcopenia (P=0.01). Of note, all Clavien grade ≥3 complications (n=11, 23.4 %) occurred in the sarcopenic group. On multivariable analysis, the presence of sarcopenia was an independent predictive factor of postoperative complications (OR=3.06). Sarcopenia was not associated with long-term survival (HR=1.23; P=0.51). Conclusions Sarcopenia, as assessed by TPV, was an independent factor predictive of postoperative complications following surgical intervention for primary hepatic malignancies. PMID:25389056

  7. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  8. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  9. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned......) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals....

  10. Potential adverse effects of oseltamivir in rats: males are more vulnerable than females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Wael M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed Ali

    2011-09-01

    Oseltamivir is the most widely used antiviral drug for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. However, not much is known about its adverse effects. The potential side effects were investigated in male and female rats (140-170 g). Oseltamivir was administered at 2.2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 5 days. For both genders, treatment with oseltamivir resulted in significant reductions in the hepatic activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Also for both genders, oseltamivir produced modest reductions in the hepatic activities of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, quinone oxidoreductase, thioredoxin reductase, CYP1A1/2, and CYP3A, as well as hepatic glutathione content. For both genders, neither the kidney functions nor protein profile was affected by oseltamivir. Oseltamivir also caused significant elevation in serum levels of both triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol and in the activity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, in both genders. For male animals only, oseltamivir treatment elevated the serum level of total cholesterol as well as the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase, and reduced the hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Oseltamivir caused oxidative stress and acute toxicity in the liver, and disrupted the cholesterol and lipid metabolism but was less likely to cause serious drug interactions. There was a sexual differentiation in these adverse effects, with adverse effects being more evident in male rats.

  11. Categories of adverse health effects from indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weetman, D.F.; Munby, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a lack of precision in the definition of health, which leads to confusion in the assessment of adverse effects arising from indoor air pollution. Adverse health effects range from annoyance to life-threatening conditions. Survey responses suggest that males and females differ in their perception of a healthy person, but both sexes envisage a male in terms of positive fitness, strength, energy and the possession of an athletic body, rather than how long one was likely to live. Psychological fitness was relatively unimportant in describing the health of others, but was rates as very important with respect to one's own health. Mortality statistics tend to obscure the proportion of the population who suffer chronic illness that is not life threatening. Although health is largely determined by genetic constitution, lifestyle and environmental factors, the morale of an individual is also important. A new classification of the adverse effects on health of indoor air pollution is proposed: this includes 'comfort' responses, such as sick building syndrome (category 1); acute chemical effects, the nature of which depends upon the specific intoxicant (category 2B), and perceived chronic grave risk, including cancer causation (category 3). The magnitude of risk in this latter category is imprecise, because its measurement involves the technique of quantitative risk assessment. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 158 refs

  12. Adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting -A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Nania Mohamed Pakkir Maideen; Aََََbdurazak Jumale; Rajkapoor Balasubramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Millions of Muslims across the world observe Islamic fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, as well as the other specific dates in the lunar calendar year. While fasting during this month, Muslims refrain from eating or drinking from dawn to dusk. Islamic fasting is similar to alternate day fasting (ADF) since it incorporates an average of 12 hours of fasting and 12 hours of feasting periods. This present review study is aimed to find out the common adverse health effects ass...

  13. Adverse Effects of Smoking on Outcomes of Orthopaedic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sheung-tung Ho

    2017-01-01

    Smoking has many adverse effects on the musculoskeletal system, particularly on the outcomes after orthopaedic surgery. Smoking is associated with surgical site infection and postoperative wound complications after spine surgery, total joint arthroplasty, and fracture fixation; nonunion after spinal fusion, ankle fusion, osteotomy, and internal fixation and bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion; worse outcomes after lumbar disc prolapse, spinal stenosis, and cervical myelopathy surgery; peripro...

  14. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids....... Glucocortioids affect several cellular structures and functions, which may explain the observed adverse effects. Glucocorticoids can impair neuronal glucose uptake, decrease excitability, cause atrophy of dendrites, compromise development of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and disturb important cellular...

  15. Effect of selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Tian Deng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: A total of 68 patients with primary liver cancer who underwent left liver resection in our hospital between May 2012 and August 2015 were selected for study and divided into group A (selective hepatic inflow occlusion of left liver and group B (Prignle hepatic inflow occlusion according to different intraoperative blood occlusion methods, serum was collected before and after operation to determine liver enzyme content, the removed liver tissue was collected to determine energy metabolism indexes, inflammation indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Results: 1 d, 3 d and 5 d after operation, GPT, GOT, GGT, LDH and ALP content in serum of both groups were significantly higher than those before operation, and GPT, GOT, GGT, LDH and ALP content in serum of group A 1 d, 3 d and 5 d after operation were significantly lower than those of group B; ATP, ADP, AMP, PI3K, AKT, GSK3β, T-AOC, PrxI and Trx content in liver tissue of group A were significantly higher than those of group B while PTEN, IL-12p40, MDA and MPO content were significantly lower than those of group B. Conclusions: Selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection can reduce the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury, improve the energy metabolism of liver cells and inhibit inflammation and oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α activation induces hepatic steatosis, suggesting an adverse effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome. Antihyperlipidemic drugs are recommended as part of the treatment for NAFLD patients. Although fibrates activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, leading to the reduction of serum triglyceride levels, the effects of these drugs on NAFLD remain controversial. Clinical studies have reported that PPARα activation does not improve hepatic steatosis. In the present study, we focused on exploring the effect and mechanism of PPARα activation on hepatic triglyceride accumulation and hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice, Pparα-null mice and HepG2 cells were treated with fenofibrate, one of the most commonly used fibrate drugs. Both low and high doses of fenofibrate were administered. Hepatic steatosis was detected through oil red O staining and electron microscopy. Notably, in fenofibrate-treated mice, the serum triglyceride levels were reduced and the hepatic triglyceride content was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Oil red O staining of liver sections demonstrated that fenofibrate-fed mice accumulated abundant neutral lipids. Fenofibrate also increased the intracellular triglyceride content in HepG2 cells. The expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c and the key genes associated with lipogenesis were increased in fenofibrate-treated mouse livers and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effect was strongly impaired in Pparα-null mice treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate treatment induced mature SREBP-1c expression via the direct binding of PPARα to the DR1 motif of the SREBP-1c gene. Taken together, these findings indicate the molecular mechanism by which PPARα activation increases liver triglyceride accumulation and suggest an

  17. Ketamine for Pain Management-Side Effects & Potential Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Cheryl A; Ivester, Julius R

    2017-12-01

    An old anesthetic agent, ketamine is finding new use in lower doses for analgesic purposes. There are concerns stemming from its potential side effects-specifically psychomimetic effects. These side effects are directly related to dose amount. The doses used for analgesic purposes are much lower than those used for anesthesia purposes. A literature review was performed to ascertain potential side effects and/or adverse events when using ketamine for analgesia purposes. The search included CINAHL, PubMed, and Ovid using the search terms "ketamine," "ketamine infusion," "pain," "adverse events," "practice guideline," and "randomized controlled trial." Searches were limited to full-text, peer-reviewed articles and systematic reviews. Initially 1,068 articles were retrieved. The search was then narrowed by using the Boolean connector AND with various search term combinations. After adjusting for duplication, article titles and abstracts were reviewed, leaving 25 articles for an in-depth analysis. Specific exclusion criteria were then applied. The literature supports the use of ketamine for analgesic purposes, and ketamine offers a nonopioid option for the management of some pain conditions. Because ketamine is still classified as an anesthetic agent, health care institutions should develop their own set of policies and protocols for the administration of ketamine. By using forethought and understanding of the properties of ketamine, appropriate care may be planned to mitigate potential side effects and adverse events so that patients are appropriately cared for and their pain effectively managed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adverse CNS-effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiter, C H; Deckert, J

    1996-11-01

    In 1962 propranolol, the first beta adrenoceptor antagonist (beta blocker), was brought on to the market. There is now a host of different beta blockers available, and these compounds are among the most commonly prescribed groups of drugs. The efficacy of beta blockers has been proven predominantly for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Beta blockers are also used for certain types of CNS disorders, such as anxiety disorders, essential tremor and migraine. While low toxicity means that they have a favorable risk-benefit ratio, given the high intensity of use, it is essential to have a comprehensive knowledge of adverse events. Adverse events of beta blockers that can be related to the CNS are quite often neglected, even in textbooks of clinical pharmacology or review articles, and thus often misdiagnosed. The following article, therefore, after summarizing the use of beta blockers for CNS indications, critically reviews the literature on centrally mediated adverse events. General pharmacological features of beta blockers and their molecular basis of action will briefly be addressed to the extent that they are or may become relevant for central nervous pharmacotherapy and side-effects.

  19. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    ) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Electronic and manual searches were combined. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs...... the proportion of obese or overweight patients with type 2 diabetes who achieve normalisation of ALT. Additional research is needed to determine if the findings translate to clinical outcome measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO; CRD42013005779....

  20. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurological Adverse Effects of Antipsychotics in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Amador, Margarita; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Tapia, Cecilia; Moreno, Carmen; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Alda, José A; Muñoz, Daniel; Andrés Nestares, Patricia; Cantarero, Carmen Martínez; Arango, Celso

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate demographic, clinical, and treatment factors that may impact on neurological adverse effects in naive and quasi-naive children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. This was a 1-year, multicenter, observational study of a naive and quasi-naive pediatric population receiving antipsychotic treatment. Two subanalyses were run using the subsample of subjects taking the 3 most used antipsychotics and the subsample of antipsychotic-naive subjects. Total dyskinesia score (DyskinesiaS) and total Parkinson score (ParkinsonS) were calculated from the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center Involuntary Movement Scale, total UKU-Cognition score was calculated from the UKU Side Effect Rating Scale. Risk factors for tardive dyskinesias (TDs) defined after Schooler-Kaine criteria were studied using a logistic regression. Two hundred sixty-five subjects (mean age, 14.4 [SD, 2.9] years) with different Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I disorders were recruited. DyskinesiaS (P < 0.001) and ParkinsonS (P < 0.001) increased at 1-year follow-up. Risperidone was associated with higher increases in DyskinesiaS compared with quetiapine (P < 0.001). Higher increases in ParkinsonS were found with risperidone (P < 0.001) and olanzapine (P = 0.02) compared with quetiapine. Total UKU-Cognition Score decreased at follow-up. Findings were also significant when analyzing antipsychotic-naive subjects. Fifteen subjects (5.8%) fulfilled Schooler-Kane criteria for TD at follow-up. Younger age, history of psychotic symptoms, and higher cumulative exposure time were associated with TD at follow-up. Antipsychotics increased neurological adverse effects in a naive and quasi-naive pediatric population and should be carefully monitored. Risperidone presented higher scores in symptoms of dyskinesia and parkinsonism. Quetiapine was the antipsychotic with less neurological adverse effects. Younger subjects, psychosis, and

  2. Chemical and Hormonal Effects on STAT5b-Dependent Sexual Dimorphism of the Liver Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiyu Oshida

    expression associated with adverse effects on the liver.

  3. Review article. Adverse hematological effects of hexavalent chromium: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Rina Rani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Workers of tanneries, welding industries, factories manufacturing chromate containing paints are exposed to hexavalent chromium that increas¬es the risk of developing serious adverse health effects. This review elucidates the mode of action of hexavalent chromium on blood and its adverse effects. Both leukocyte and erythrocyte counts of blood sharply decreased in Swiss mice after two weeks of intraperitoneal treatment with Cr (VI, with the erythrocytes transforming into echinocytes. The hexavalent chromium in the blood is readily reduced to trivalent form and the reductive capacity of erythrocytes is much greater than that of plasma. Excess Cr (VI, not reduced in plasma, may enter erythrocytes and lymphocytes and in rodents it induces microcytic anemia. The toxic effects of chromium (VI include mitochondrial injury and DNA damage of blood cells that leads to carcinogenicity. Excess Cr (VI increases cytosolic Ca2+ activity and ATP depletion thereby inducing eryptosis. Se, vitamin C, and quercetin are assumed to have some protective effect against hexavalent chromium induced hematological disorders.

  4. Effect of airplane transport of donor livers on post-liver transplantation survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2016-11-07

    To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver ( P = 0.027). Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation.

  5. adverse effects of low dose methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.T.; Khan, D.A.; Khan, F.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the frequency of adverse effects attributed to Methotrexate (MTX) toxicity and serum minimum toxic concentration with low dose MTX in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from March 2010 to March 2011. Methodology: One hundred and forty adult patients of RA receiving low dose MTX (10 mg/week) for at least 3 months, ere included by consecutive sampling. Blood samples were collected 2 hours after the oral dose of MTX. Serum alanine transaminase and creatinine were analyzed on Hitachi and blood counts on Sysmex analyzer. Serum MTX concentration was measured on TDX analyzer. Results: Out of one hundred and forty patients; 68 males (49%) and 72 females (51%), 38 developed MTX toxicity (27%), comprising of hepatotoxicity in 12 (8.6%), nephrotoxicity in 3 (2.1%), anaemia in 8 (5.7%), leucopenia in 2 (1.4%), thrombocytopenia in 3 (2.1%), pancytopenia in 2 (1.4%), gastrointestinal adverse effects in 5 (3.6%) and mucocutaneous problems in 3 (2.1%). Receiver operating characteristic curve revealed serum minimum toxic concentration of MTX at cutoff value of 0.71 mu mol/l with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 76%. Conclusion: Adverse effects of low dose MTX were found in 27% of RA patients, mainly comprising of hepatotoxicity and haematological problems. MTX toxicity can be detected by therapeutic drug monitoring of serum concentration of 0.71 mu mol/l with sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 76% in the patients on low dose MTX maintenance therapy. (author)

  6. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  7. The adverse effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of thyroid disorders on reproductive health of the women of childbearing age, pregnancy outcome, fetal health, and neurodevelopment of the infant, providing comprehensive assessment of the treatments used for preventing hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism seems to be essential. Therefore, evaluating the efficacy of different treatments of the thyroid disorders would be beneficial in better managing and controlling the disease during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism (a deficiency of thyroid hormone is a common thyroid disorder, which might increase the incidence rate of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, and preterm delivery. Hyperthyroidism, which is not a common disorder during the pregnancy not only leads to similar adverse effects as hypothyroidism but also can result in stillbirth and intrauterine growth restriction. Levothyroxine is the preferred treatment of hypothyroidism and the only drug therapy recommended for treating hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to briefly review the adverse effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy and review the effects of recent suggested treatments for controlling thyroid disorders on pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  9. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  10. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  11. Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Mörike, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Statin-associated muscular adverse effects cover a wide range of symptoms, including asymptomatic increase of creatine kinase serum activity and life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Different underlying pathomechanisms have been proposed. However, a unifying concept of the pathogenesis of statin-related muscular adverse effects has not emerged so far. In this review, we attempt to categorize these mechanisms along three levels. Firstly, among pharmacokinetic factors, it has been shown for some statins that inhibition of cytochrome P450-mediated hepatic biotransformation and hepatic uptake by transporter proteins contribute to an increase of systemic statin concentrations. Secondly, at the myocyte membrane level, cell membrane uptake transporters affect intracellular statin concentrations. Thirdly, at the intracellular level, inhibition of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase results in decreased intracellular concentrations of downstream metabolites (e.g. selenoproteins, ubiquinone, cholesterol) and alteration of gene expression (e.g. ryanodine receptor 3, glycine amidinotransferase). We also review current recommendations for prescribers. PMID:25069381

  12. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breikaa, Randa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mosli, Hisham A. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nagy, Ayman A. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim.pharma@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  13. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and....../or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate...... their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic....

  14. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-02

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.

  15. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids...... reduces neurogenesis and cerebral volume, impairs memory and increases the incidence of cerebral palsy. Cerebral effects of glucocorticoids in later childhood have been less thoroughly studied, but apparent brain atrophy, reduced size of limbic structures and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported....... Glucocortioids affect several cellular structures and functions, which may explain the observed adverse effects. Glucocorticoids can impair neuronal glucose uptake, decrease excitability, cause atrophy of dendrites, compromise development of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and disturb important cellular...

  16. Cognition- and Dementia-Related Adverse Effects With Sacubitril-Valsartan: Analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Report System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Amichai; Hirsh Raccah, Bruria; Matok, Ilan; Muszkat, Mordechai

    2018-05-07

    Because neprilysin is involved in the degradation of amyloid-beta, there is concern that the angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril-valsartan could increase the risk for dementia. We analyzed adverse event cases submitted to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Report System from July 2015 to March 2017. Cognition- and dementia-related adverse event cases were defined with the use of broad and narrow structured medical queries. During the period evaluated, 9,004 adverse event reports (out of a total of 2,249,479) involved the use of sacubitril-valsartan. Based on the broad definition, sacubitril-valsartan was associated with cognition- and dementia-related adverse events in 459 reports (5.1%), but this was lower than the proportion of these reports among other medications (6.6%, reporting odds ratio [ROR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.79). Restricting the comparison to cases with age >60 years and with the use of a comparator group with heart failure resulted in no association between sacubitril-valsartan and dementia-related adverse events, with the use of both the broad and the narrow definitions (ROR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-1.02, and ROR 1.06, 95% CI 0.4-3.16, respectively). Sacubitril-valsartan is not associated with a disproportionately high rate of short-term dementia-related adverse effect reports. Long-term studies assessing cognitive outcomes are required to better establish the medication's cognition effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J.M. eNiesink

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The recreational use of cannabis can have persistent adverse effects on mental health. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and most, if not all, of the effects associated with the use of cannabis are caused by THC. Recent studies have suggested a possible protective effect of another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD. A literature search was performed in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science using the keyword ‘cannabidiol.’ After removing duplicate entries, 1295 unique titles remained. Based on the titles and abstracts, an initial selection was made. The reference lists of the publications identified in this manner were examined for additional references. Cannabis is not a safe drug. Depending on how often someone uses, the age of onset, the potency of the cannabis that is used and someone's individual sensitivity, the recreational use of cannabis may cause permanent psychological disorders. Most recreational users will never be faced with such persistent mental illness, but in some individuals cannabis use leads to undesirable effects: cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia and increased risks of developing chronic psychosis or drug addiction. Studies examining the protective effects of CBD have shown that CBD can counteract the negative effects of THC. However, the question remains of how the laboratory results translate to the types of cannabis that are encountered by real-world recreational users.

  18. Adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting -A literature review

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    Nania Mohamed Pakkir Maideen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Millions of Muslims across the world observe Islamic fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, as well as the other specific dates in the lunar calendar year. While fasting during this month, Muslims refrain from eating or drinking from dawn to dusk. Islamic fasting is similar to alternate day fasting (ADF since it incorporates an average of 12 hours of fasting and 12 hours of feasting periods. This present review study is aimed to find out the common adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting and the preventive measures to be followed to avoid them. Methods: The literature was reviewed through searching in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and reference lists to identify the related articles. Results: Many health benefits have been attributed to Islamic fasting, including the reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, and asthma. On the other hand, some studies have mentioned a few health problems associated with Islamic fasting, such as headaches, heartburn, constipation, dehydration, decreased sleep quality, and anemia, which may occur in some fasting individuals during Ramadan. Conclusion: Islamic fasting could be beneficial for health if it is performed correctly. During Ramadan, fasting individuals are advised to adhere to a balanced diet that contains sufficient portions of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, pulses, meat, fish, milk, and dairy products. Moreover, fasting individuals must drink adequate fluids, such as water, fresh fruit juices, and soups, in order to prevent the possible adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting.

  19. Surveillance of hepatic late adverse effects in a large cohort of long-term survivors of childhood cancer: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renée L.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Koot, Bart G. P.; Benninga, Marc A.; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Wilde, James C. H.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; Caron, Huib N.; van Dalen, Elvira C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are a growing group of young individuals with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of hepatic late adverse effects, defined as elevated liver enzymes, in a large cohort of CCS. The cohort consisted of all five-year CCS

  20. [Hepatic transit times and liver elasticity compared with meld in predicting a 1 year adverse clinical outcome of a clinically diagnosed cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Tomáš; Piešťanská, Zuzana; Hlavatý, Tibor; Holomáň, Jozef; Glasa, Jozef; Payer, Juraj

    Hepatic transit times measured by the contrast enhanced ultrasonography and liver elasticity were found to predict a clinically significant portal hypertension. However, these modalities we not yet sufficiently evaluated in predicting adverse clinical outcome in patients with clinically diagnosed cirrhosis (D´Amico stages > 1), having a clinically significant portal hypertension. The aim of our study was to assess the predictive power of the liver transit times and the liver elasticity on an adverse clinical outcome of clinically diagnosed cirrhosis compared with the MELD score. The study group included 48 consecutive outpatients with cirrhosis in the 2., 3. and 4. DAmico stages. Patients with stage 4 could have jaundice, patients with other complications of portal hypertension were excluded. Transit times were measured from the time of intravenous administration of contrast agent (Sonovue) to a signal appearance in a hepatic vein (hepatic vein arrival time, HVAT) or time difference between the contrast signal in the hepatic artery and hepatic vein (hepatic transit time, HTT) in seconds. Elasticity was measured using the transient elastography (Fibroscan). The transit times and elasticity were measured at baseline and patients were followed for up for 1 year. Adverse outcome of cirrhosis was defined as the appearance of clinically apparent ascites and/or hospitalization for liver disease and/or death within 1 year. The mean age was 61 years, with female/male ratio 23/25. At baseline, the median Child-Pugh score was 5 (IQR 5.0-6.0), MELD 9.5 (IQR 7.6 to 12.1), median HVAT was 22 s (IQR 19-25) and HTT 6 (IQR 5-9). HTT and HVAT negatively correlated with Child-Pugh (-0.351 and -0.441, p = 0.002) and MELD (-0.479 and -0.388, p = 0.006) scores. The adverse outcome at 1-year was observed in 11 cases (22.9 %), including 6 deaths and 5 hospitalizations. Median HVAT in those with/without the adverse outcome was 20 seconds (IQR 19.3-23.5) compared with 22 s (IQR 19-26, p

  1. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Blaner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A, as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered.

  2. Effect of splenectomy on liver cirrhosis and related surgical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONG Degang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis experience certain changes in spleen morphology and function, and there is always a controversy over whether to perform splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis. As a surgical treatment of recurrent portal hypertension complicated by esophagogastric variceal bleeding, splenectomy can reduce portal venous pressure, reduce the possibility of gastrointestinal bleeding, and correct the reduced white blood cell count and platelet count. It can also protect the liver by improving liver function, promoting regeneration of hepatocytes, and inhibiting the progression of liver fibrosis. With reference to available clinical and laboratory data, this article reviews the effect of splenectomy on the cirrhotic liver and related issues such as selection of surgical procedures and prevention and treatment of postoperative complications, in order to promote splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  3. Accuracy of liver function tests for predicting adverse maternal and fetal outcomes in women with preeclampsia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thangaratinam, Shakila; Koopmans, Corine M.; Iyengar, Shalini; Zamora, Javier; Ismail, Khaled M. K.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Khan, Khalid S.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Liver function tests are routinely performed in women as part of a battery of investigations to assess severity at admission and later to guide appropriate management. Objective. To determine the accuracy with which liver function tests predict complications in women with preeclampsia by

  4. Accuracy of liver function tests for predicting adverse maternal and fetal outcomes in women with preeclampsia : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thangaratinam, Shakila; Koopmans, Corine M.; Iyengar, Shalini; Zamora, Javier; Ismail, Khaled M. K.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Khan, Khalid S.

    Background. Liver function tests are routinely performed in women as part of a battery of investigations to assess severity at admission and later to guide appropriate management. Objective. To determine the accuracy with which liver function tests predict complications in women with preeclampsia by

  5. Hepatic decompensation/serious adverse events in post-liver transplantation recipients on sofosbuvir for recurrent hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neal; Bichoupan, Kian; Ku, Lawrence; Yalamanchili, Rachana; Harty, Alyson; Gardenier, Donald; Ng, Michel; Motamed, David; Khaitova, Viktoriya; Bach, Nancy; Chang, Charissa; Grewal, Priya; Bansal, Meena; Agarwal, Ritu; Liu, Lawrence; Im, Gene; Leong, Jennifer; Kim-Schluger, Leona; Odin, Joseph; Ahmad, Jawad; Friedman, Scott; Dieterich, Douglas; Schiano, Thomas; Perumalswami, Ponni; Branch, Andrea

    2016-03-07

    To determine the safety profile of new hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments in liver transplant (LT) recipients with recurrent HCV infection. Forty-two patients were identified with recurrent HCV infection that underwent LT at least 12 mo prior to initiating treatment with a Sofosbuvir-based regimen during December 2013-June 2014. Cases were patients who experienced hepatic decompensation and/or serious adverse events (SAE) during or within one month of completing treatment. Controls had no evidence of hepatic decompensation and/or SAE. HIV-infected patients were excluded. Cumulative incidence of decompensation/SAE was calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. Exact logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the composite outcome. Median age of the 42 patients was 60 years [Interquartile Range (IQR): 56-65 years], 33% (14/42) were female, 21% (9/42) were Hispanic, and 9% (4/42) were Black. The median time from transplant to treatment initiation was 5.4 years (IQR: 2.1-8.8 years). Thirteen patients experienced one or more episodes of hepatic decompensation and/or SAE. Anemia requiring transfusion, the most common event, occurred in 62% (8/13) patients, while 54% (7/13) decompensated. The cumulative incidence of hepatic decompensation/SAE was 31% (95%CI: 16%-41%). Risk factors for decompensation/SAE included lower pre-treatment hemoglobin (OR = 0.61 per g/dL, 95%CI: 0.40-0.88, P < 0.01), estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR = 0.95 per mL/min per 1.73 m(2), 95%CI: 0.90-0.99, P = 0.01), and higher baseline serum total bilirubin (OR = 2.43 per mg/dL, 95%CI: 1.17-8.65, P < 0.01). The sustained virological response rate for the cohort of 42 patients was 45%, while it was 31% for cases. Sofosbuvir/ribavirin will continue to be used in the post-transplant population, including those with HCV genotypes 2 and 3. Management of anemia remains an important clinical challenge.

  6. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  7. Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin-Ling; Wang, Jung-Der

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT), Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT), and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies. PMID:24159351

  8. Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Nein Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT, Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT, and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs, complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.

  9. Adverse respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentayeb, M; Simoni, M; Baiz, N; Norback, D; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Viegi, G; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2012-09-01

    Compared to the rest of the population, the elderly are potentially highly susceptible to the effects of outdoor air pollution due to normal and pathological ageing. The purpose of the present review was to gather data on the effects on respiratory health of outdoor air pollution in the elderly, on whom data are scarce. These show statistically significant short-term and chronic adverse effects of various outdoor air pollutants on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the elderly. When exposed to air pollution, the elderly experience more hospital admissions for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and higher COPD mortality than others. Previous studies also indicate that research on the health effects of air pollution in the elderly has been affected by methodological problems in terms of exposure and health effect assessments. Few pollutants have been considered, and exposure assessment has been based mostly on background air pollution and more rarely on objective measurements and modelling. Significant progress needs to be made through the development of 'hybrid' models utilising the strengths of information on exposure in various environments to several air pollutants, coupled with daily activity exposure patterns. Investigations of chronic effects of air pollution and of multi-pollutant mixtures are needed to better understand the role of air pollution in the elderly. Lastly, smoking, occupation, comorbidities, treatment and the neighbourhood context should be considered as confounders or modifiers of such a role. In this context, the underlying biological, physiological and toxicological mechanisms need to be explored to better understand the phenomenon through a multidisciplinary approach.

  10. Are there more adverse effects with lingual orthodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy; Kumar, Satish

    2017-12-22

    Data sourcesPubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and LILACS database, review of references cited in included articles and a manual search of leading orthodontic journals. No language restrictions were imposed in the search. Study authors were contacted when necessary.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in healthy patients that directly compared the adverse effects following treatment using buccal and lingual appliances. Studies involving single arch or dual arch appliances were considered. Studies on patients with systemic diseases, animal studies and in vitro studies were excluded. The primary outcomes of interest to the authors were a list of adverse effects: pain, caries, eating and speech difficulties and oral hygiene.Data extraction and synthesisTwo authors reviewed the titles and abstracts of all studies identified through the search without blinding to names of authors or publication dates. Selected articles from searches were evaluated independently by two authors against established inclusion criteria, disagreements were resolved by consensus or by consulting a third author. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool (randomised trials) and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for non-randomised studies. The level of agreement between the authors was assessed using the Cohen kappa statistic. A meta-analysis was performed to provide pooled effect estimate (expressed as odds ratio) as well as 95% confidence interval. The outcomes of interest were pain, caries, eating difficulties, speech difficulties and deficient oral hygiene. Heterogeneity was quantified using I2 statistic and potential causes explored. Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot.ResultsEight articles were included; three RCTs and five CCTs. One RCT was considered to be at high risk of bias, one moderate risk and one low risk. Of the non-randomised studies, four were low risk and one was high risk

  11. Effect of Combination Therapy with Atorvastatin and Ursodeoxycholic Acid on the Course of Ischemic Heart Disease with Co-Existent Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Karpyshyn

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions. The use of ursodeoxycholic acid in addition to atorvastatin in patients with ischemic heart disease, co-existent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity makes it possible to avoid the adverse effect of hypolipidemic therapy on the functional status of the liver.

  12. Adverse effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on reproductive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael K; Barra, Nicole G; Alfaidy, Nadia; Hardy, Daniel B; Holloway, Alison C

    2015-12-01

    Nicotine exposure during pregnancy through cigarette smoking, nicotine replacement therapies or e-cigarette use continues to be a widespread public health problem, impacting both fetal and postnatal health. Yet, at this time, there remains limited data regarding the safety and efficacy in using these nicotine products during pregnancy. Notably, reports assessing the effect of nicotine exposure on postnatal health outcomes in humans, including reproductive health, are severely lacking. Our current understanding regarding the consequences of nicotine exposure during pregnancy is limited to a few animal studies, which do not comprehensively address the underlying cellular mechanisms involved. This paper aims to critically review the current knowledge from human and animal studies regarding the direct and indirect effects (e.g. obesity) of maternal nicotine exposure, regardless of its source, on reproductive outcomes in pregnancy and postnatal life. Furthermore, this review highlights several key cellular mechanisms involved in these adverse reproductive deficits including oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. By understanding the interplay of the cellular mechanisms involved, further strategies could be developed to prevent the reproductive abnormalities resulting from exposure to nicotine in utero and influence informed clinical guidelines for pregnant women. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  13. Adverse effects of aromatherapy: a systematic review of case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Alotaibi, Amani; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review was aimed at critically evaluating the evidence regarding the adverse effects associated with aromatherapy. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant case reports and case series. Forty two primary reports met our inclusion criteria. In total, 71 patients experienced adverse effects of aromatherapy. Adverse effects ranged from mild to severe and included one fatality. The most common adverse effect was dermatitis. Lavender, peppermint, tea tree oil and ylang-ylang were the most common essential oils responsible for adverse effects. Aromatherapy has the potential to cause adverse effects some of which are serious. Their frequency remains unknown. Lack of sufficiently convincing evidence regarding the effectiveness of aromatherapy combined with its potential to cause adverse effects questions the usefulness of this modality in any condition.

  14. Cellular Senescence Promotes Adverse Effects of Chemotherapy and Cancer Relapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demaria, Marco; O'Leary, Monique N.; Chang, Jianhui; Shao, Lijian; Liu, Su; Alimirah, Fatouma; Koenig, Kristin; Le, Catherine; Mitin, Natalia; Deal, Allison M.; Alston, Shani; Academia, Emmeline C.; Kilmarx, Sumner; Valdovinos, Alexis; Wang, Boshi; de Bruin, Alain; Kennedy, Brian K.; Melov, Simon; Zhou, Daohong; Sharpless, Norman E.; Muss, Hyman; Campisi, Judith

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by irreversibly arresting cell proliferation. Senescent cells acquire a proinfl ammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Many genotoxic chemotherapies target proliferating cells nonspecifi cally, often with adverse reactions. In accord with prior

  15. Steam inhalation therapy: severe scalds as an adverse side effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baartmans, Martin; Kerkhof, Evelien; Vloemans, Jos; Dokter, Jan; Nijman, Susanne; Tibboel, Dick; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Background Steam inhalation therapy is often recommended in the treatment of a common cold. However, it has no proven benefit and may in fact have serious adverse side effects in terms of burn injuries. Aim To quantify the human and economic costs of steam inhalation therapy in terms of burn injury. Design and setting A prospective database study of all patients admitted to the burn centres (Beverwijk, Groningen, Rotterdam) and the hospital emergency departments in the Netherlands. Method Number and extent of burn injuries as a result of steam inhalation therapy were analysed, as well as an approximation made of the direct costs for their medical treatment. Results Annually, on average three people are admitted to in one of the Dutch burn centres for burns resulting from steam inhalation therapy. Most victims were children, and they needed skin grafting more often than adults. The total direct medical costs for burn centre and emergency department treatment were €115 500 (£93 000), emotional costs are not reflected. Conclusion As steam inhalation therapy has no proven benefit and the number and extent of complications of this therapy in terms of burn injury are significant, especially in children, steam inhalation therapy should be considered a dangerous procedure and not recommended anymore in professional guidelines and patient brochures. PMID:22781995

  16. Fidget spinners: Purported benefits, adverse effects and accepted alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Rachel A; Shah, Jay; Fruitman, Kate; Milanaik, Ruth Lynn

    2017-10-01

    In the span of a few months, fidget spinners have caught the eyes of millions of children, parents, educators and paediatricians. Fidget spinners, hand-held toys designed to spin freely in your grasp, have become a source of entertainment for consumers of all ages. Despite a lack of scientific evidence, toy marketers have advertised the benefits of fidget spinners for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other disorders (e.g. autism, anxiety, sensory issues). Parents are incentivized by these purported benefits to purchase fidget spinners to improve their child's concentration and decrease stress. While fidget spinners are a new phenomenon, existing therapy toys (e.g. sensory putty) have been used by occupational therapists for similar reasons, with comparably little research supporting these claims. The purpose of this review is to explore literature regarding sensory toys and examine educator/professional-reported concerns and medical adverse effects of using fidget spinners. Due to a recent surge in popularity, fidget spinners and other self-regulatory occupational therapy toys have yet to be subjected to rigorous scientific research. Thus, their alleged benefits remain scientifically unfounded. Paediatricians should be aware of potential choking hazards with this new fad, and inform parents that peer-reviewed studies do not support the beneficial claims.

  17. Adverse effect after external radiotherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Takano, Shingo; Yanaka, Kiyoyuki

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the effects on normal brain tissue of radiotherapy in relation to age and irradiation dose as determined from whole-brain sections of the autopsied brains with tumors. Twenty four patients (7 glioblastomas, 2 benign gliomas, 12 brain metastases, 2 malignant lymphomas, and 1 pituitary adenoma) older than 65 years (aged), and 17 younger than 65 years (non-aged) were treated by cobalt- or linear accelerator radiotherapy. Nine patients without brain disease (4 aged and 5 non-aged) were used as a control group. The histological findings were evaluated by grading the small and capillary vessels, fibrinoid necrosis, and myelination in the white matter in whole-brain sections. Those findings were compared to the irradiation doses within all radiation fields in whole-brain sections corresponding to CT scans. Hyalinization of the small vessels was observed within the postradiation 12 months in fields exposed to total doses of less than 800 neuret. Hyalinization of the capillary vessels was greater in the irradiated group than in the control group. Demyelination was observed within the postradiation 12 months in fields irradiated by more than 800 neuret in aged patients and in fields irradiated by less than 800 neuret in non-aged patients. Fibrinoid necrosis was observed after the post-radiation 12 months in fields irradiated by less than 800 neuret in aged patients and in fields irradiated by more than 800 neuret in non-aged patients. It is worth noting that in non-aged patients with brain tumors, adverse effects of radiotherapy on vessels and parenchyma were very high even in low-dose radiation areas; and in aged patients fibrinoid necrosis, which indicates irreversible damage of vessels, was observed in low-dose radiation areas. (author)

  18. Systematic review: ursodeoxycholic acid--adverse effects and drug interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempfling, W.; Dilger, K.; Beuers, U.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ursodeoxycholic acid is increasingly being used for the treatment of chronic cholestatic liver diseases. It appears to be generally well tolerated, but a systematic review on drug safety is lacking. AIM: As experimental data suggest a role of bile acids in the regulation of hepatic drug

  19. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Annelise V; Kavazis, Andreas N; Sirman, Aubrey E; Potts, Wayne K; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage.

  20. Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Barton Price, R.; Berkman, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the liver for focal lesions is extremely important because the liver is one of the most common sites for metastatic disease. Most patients with metastatic deposits to the liver have a survival rate of about 6 months. Thus, metastatic disease to the liver has an extremely grave prognosis. In the past patients with hepatic lesions had no therapeutic recourse. However, with recent aggressive surgical advances (such as partial hepatectomies) and hepatic artery embolization, survival of patients with hepatic metastases has increased. Thus it is important for noninvasive imaging not only to detect lesions early in their course, but also to give their true hepatic involvement and the extent of the neoplastic process elsewhere in the body. Recent advances in imaging have been rapidly changing over the past 5 years. These changes have been more rapid in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound than in radionuclide imaging. Thus, the question addressed in this chapter is: What is the relationship of hepatic ultrasound to the other current diagnostic modalities in detecting metastatic liver disease and other focal liver lesions? Also, what is its possible future relationship to nuclear magnetic resonance?

  1. The contribution of different information sources for adverse effects data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relative value and contribution of searching different sources to identify adverse effects data. The process of updating a systematic review and meta-analysis of thiazolidinedione-related fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was used as a case study. For each source searched, a record was made for each relevant reference included in the review noting whether it was retrieved with the search strategy used and whether it was available but not retrieved. The sensitivity, precision, and number needed to read from searching each source and from different combinations of sources were also calculated. There were 58 relevant references which presented sufficient numerical data to be included in a meta-analysis of fractures and bone mineral density. The highest number of relevant references were retrieved from Science Citation Index (SCI) (35), followed by BIOSIS Previews (27) and EMBASE (24). The precision of the searches varied from 0.88% (Scirus) to 41.67% (CENTRAL). With the search strategies used, the minimum combination of sources required to retrieve all the relevant references was; the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) website, Science Citation Index (SCI), EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, British Library Direct, Medscape DrugInfo, handsearching and reference checking, AHFS First, and Thomson Reuters Integrity or Conference Papers Index (CPI). In order to identify all the relevant references for this case study a number of different sources needed to be searched. The minimum combination of sources required to identify all the relevant references did not include MEDLINE.

  2. Effect of Prometheus liver assist system on systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethloff, T.; Tofteng, F.; Frederiksen, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    .008). No adverse effects were observed in any of the groups. Creatinine levels significantly decreased in the MARS group (P = 0.03) and hemodialysis group (P = 0.04). Platelet count deceased in the Prometheus group (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Extra-corporal liver support with Prometheus is proven to be safe...

  3. Effect of halofantrine administration on some liver and heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of halofantrine on liver and the heart was evaluated in 15 healthy adult human volunteers (11 females and 4 males), after a single oral dose of halofantrine given to each volunteer. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time intervals and analysed for the various liver and heart enzyme activities ...

  4. Pycnogenol may alleviate adverse effects in oncologic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Genovesi, D; Ledda, A; Vinciguerra, G; Ricci, A; Pellegrini, L; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Dugall, M; Cacchio, M; Di Renzo, A; Stuard, S

    2008-09-01

    A large variety of adverse reactions are well known to frequently occur during chemotherapy and radiotherapy in oncology. Specific medications exist to target individual side effects. The aim of this study was to explore in a pilot trial whether supplementation with French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol could alleviate side effects and improve patient's quality of life. Cancer patients who previously underwent surgery and who were in view of their pathology in relatively good condition, both physically and psychologically, were recruited for this study and divided into two groups. These patients received their first cycle of radiotherapy or chemotherapy, which lasted from 10 days up to 1 month. Then one group of patients received 150 mg Pycnogenol, the control group comparable placebo in a single-blinded fashion. The authors studied the occurrence of side effects and made attempts to judge their severity on a semi-quantitative visual analogue scale over a 2 months period starting after patients completed their first cycle of chemo- or radiotherapy, respectively. Twenty five radiotherapy patients receiving Pycnogenol showed a decreased frequency of essentially all investigated side-effects as compared to 21 patients receiving placebo, though in many categories the difference was limited. The most apparent improvements of acute side effects related to decreased soreness and ulceration in the mouth and throat as well as less dryness of the mouth and the eyes. A decreased incidence of nausea /vomiting, diarrhoea, edema and weakness was noticed, which was reflected by semi-quantitative evaluation suggesting that severity was only half or even less pronounced than in the control group. Only one case of deep vein thrombosis occurred in the Pycnogenol group whereas 2 cases of superficial vein thromboses and one case of deep vein thrombosis occurred in the control group (2.9% vs 10%). Thirty four chemotherapy patients were supplemented with Pycnogenol and another 30

  5. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under a license of scale-model mining systems which simulate commercial recovery could adversely affect... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES... Service or another Federal agency; (5) Meteorological observations and measurements, including the setting...

  6. Effects of Aflatoxin on Liver and Protective Effectiveness of Esterified Glucomannan in Merino Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Colakoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of total aflatoxin (AF given orally on liver in Merino rams were studied. In addition, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of an esterified glucomannan (EG for protection against aflatoxicosis. One-year-old 32 Merino rams were divided into four equal groups. The control group (C was fed with the commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/day of total AF. The EG group was fed with commercial feed plus 2 g/day of EG. The AF + EG group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/day of total AF and 2 g/day of EG. After feeding period, tissue samples were taken from the liver in order to perform histological analyses. Vacuolar degeneration with small and large droplets and hydropic degeneration in hepatocytes were observed in the AF group. The ceroid pigmentation was observed in macrophages in groups or one by one. It was observed that the fat rate in hepatocytes was 2.6% in the C group, 35.5% in the AF group, 2.9% in the EG group, and 9.6% in the AF + EG group. In conclusion, the adverse effects caused by aflatoxicosis on the liver could be ameliorated by adding EG to the ration.

  7. Comparison of Allergic Adverse Effects and Contrast Enhancement Between Iodixanol and Iopromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharekhanloo, Farideh; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media are the most commonly used contrast agents in the world with an annual application of 40-50 million. New non-ionic contrast agents are subdivided into low osmolar agents such as iopromide and iso-osmolar agents such as iodixanol. Regarding different biochemical characteristics, these agents are different in the allergic reactions and contrast enhancement and final lesion conspicuity. This study was carried out to compare allergic adverse effects and contrast enhancement between iodixanol and iopromide. One-hundred and twenty patients who were referred for abdominal CT scan to Besat Hospital were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (A and B). Group A received 100 cc iodixanol (300 mgI/mL) and group B received 100 cc iopromide (300 mgI/ml) by power injector. CT examination was performed using Helical CT Scanner (Somatom, Siemens, Germany). Sixty seconds after injection, images were obtained and enhancement of port, liver and aorta were determined. Allergic adverse effects were recorded one hour and up to one week after injection. Iodixanol produced a significantly greater enhancement of the hepatic, aorta and portal vein than iopromide (P < 0.01). Sixty seconds after injection, associated pain and heat sensation were less frequent in iodixanol in comparison with iopromide (P = 0.03). Immediate reactions such as nausea and vomiting were less frequent in iodixanol (P = 0.01). Late skin reactions such as rash was more frequent in iodixanol (P < 0.01). Iodixanol is safe and is better tolerated in the early phase of injection with better contrast enhancement and lesion conspicuity. Mild late skin rash is its disadvantage

  8. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  9. On the postradiation effect of cystamine in rat liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'yano, N.Ya.; Malinovskij, O.V.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of cystamine, classical radioprotector introduced prior to and after irradiation has been tested. The protector has been paralelly tested on the regenerating liver in a presynthetic phase of a mitotic cycle (G 1 ). White nonbred male mice have been irradiated with 205 and 6O5 rad on the RUM-11 X-ray apparatus prior to (intact liver) and 6 hours after (regenerating liver) partial hepatectomy. Cystamine has been injected to animals 15 min prior to irradiation and in different periods after irradiation in the concentration of 150 mg/kg of weight. The decrease in the share of cells with asymmetic chromosome transformations (bridges and fragments in the anaphase) has been the protector effectiveness index. It is shown that the protector is effective in the cells of a regenerating liver only when introduced before irradiation, while in the cells of an intact liver it produces a protective effect both prior to and 15 mins after irradiation. Cystamine effectiveness for cells of the intact and regenerating liver has been investigated by introducing it after irradiation of animals with 250 and 305 rad. It has been established that the protector makes it possible to modify the irradiation effect within 20 mins after irradiation in the cells of the intact liver (Go). Cystamine postradiation protection in the cells of the regenerating liver (G 1 ) is low if it is introduced immediately after irradiation (1 min) and is absent after 10 min. The dependence of cystamine postradiation protective effect on the moment of liver cell stimulation has been investigated. It has been shown that the modification of irradiation effect is possible within 5 hrs after irradiation if the protector is introduced 15 min after irradiation of animals with 250 rad. The mechanism of the preparation action is discussed

  10. [Effect of hepatic resection on development of liver metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, I; Palomares, T; Alonso, A; Portugal, V; Castro, B; Caramés, J; Méndez, J

    2003-11-01

    In the early stages of metastasis, development of the disease is dependent on growth factors produced by the host. There are clinical situations associated with an increase in these factors, such as partial resection of metastasized liver. Given the important role of hepatotrophic factors in liver regeneration, we have studied the effect of partial hepatectomy on the development of residual micrometastases in the liver, and on the neoplastic process as a whole. We used a murine model in which a rabdomiosarcoma was established by subcutaneous inoculation of syngeneic tumor cells in male Wag rats. Subsequently, the primary tumor was resected and/or a 40% hepatectomy was performed. The effect of these two surgical procedures on the tumor process was analyzed on the 25th and 35th days post-inoculation, and the percentage of regenerating hepatocytes was assessed. Both the tumorectomy and liver resection, when not combined, produced an increase in regional adenopathies without modifying the evolution of metastasis in the liver. However, when tumor excision and partial hepatectomy were performed simultaneously, there was a net increase in the metastatic process. In addition to a rapid spread of the disease (lung, mediastinum, retroperitoneum), the number of liver metastases increased by 300%. This development coincided with a steep rise in the percentage of regenerating hepatocytes, which nearly doubled that of the group subjected only to liver resection. We conclude that liver resection, alone or combined with excision of the primary tumor, may enhance tumor progression, both locally and at the metastasic level.

  11. Effects of percutaneous needle liver biopsy on dairy cow behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lene; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    In cattle, percutaneous needle liver biopsy is used for scientific examination of liver metabolism. The impact of the biopsy procedure is, however, poorly investigated. Our aim was to examine the behaviour of dairy cows during and after liver biopsy. Data were collected from 18 dry cows....... Percutaneous needle liver biopsies (after administration of local anaesthesia (2% Procaine)) and blood samples were taken during restraining. During the control treatment, animals were restrained and blood sampled. During the biopsy procedure, cows showed increased restlessness (P = 0.008), frequency of head...... behavioural changes for up to 19 h – and particularly for behaviour previously associated with pain. Even though the exact welfare impact of percutaneous needle liver biopsies in cows is not known, and the magnitude of the behavioural changes was limited, pain always has negative effects on animal welfare...

  12. Towards a new therapy protocol for liver metastases. Effect of boron compounds and BNCT on normal liver regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jorge E.; Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.

    2006-01-01

    The Taormina project developed a new method for BNCT treatment of multifocal unresectable liver metastases based on whole liver autograft. The Roffo Institute liver surgeons propose a new technique based on partial liver autograft that would pose less risk to the patient but would require significant healthy liver regeneration following BNCT. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of BPA, GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and (GB-10 + BPA) and of BNCT mediated by these boron compounds on normal liver regeneration in the Wistar rat. Normal liver regeneration, body weight, hemogram, liver and kidney function were assessed following partial hepatectomy post administration of BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10 + BPA) and post in vivo BNCT at the RA-6 Reactor. These end-points were evaluated 9 days following partial hepatectomy, the time at which complete liver regeneration occurs in untreated controls. The corresponding biodistribution studies were conducted to perform dosimetric calculations. BPA, GB-10 and (GB-10 + PBA) and in vivo BNCT mediated by these boron compounds in dose ranges compatible with therapy did not cause alterations in the outcome of normal liver regeneration, and did not induce alterations in body weight, hemogram, liver or kidney function. The experimental data available to date support the development of a new BNCT protocol for the treatment of liver metastases that requires the regeneration of normal liver past-BNCT. (author)

  13. Validity and reliability of a novel immunosuppressive adverse effects scoring system in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Calvin J; Arabi, Ziad; Venuto, Rocco C; Consiglio, Joseph D; Wilding, Gregory E; Tornatore, Kathleen M

    2014-06-12

    After renal transplantation, many patients experience adverse effects from maintenance immunosuppressive drugs. When these adverse effects occur, patient adherence with immunosuppression may be reduced and impact allograft survival. If these adverse effects could be prospectively monitored in an objective manner and possibly prevented, adherence to immunosuppressive regimens could be optimized and allograft survival improved. Prospective, standardized clinical approaches to assess immunosuppressive adverse effects by health care providers are limited. Therefore, we developed and evaluated the application, reliability and validity of a novel adverse effects scoring system in renal transplant recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) and mycophenolic acid based immunosuppressive therapy. The scoring system included 18 non-renal adverse effects organized into gastrointestinal, central nervous system and aesthetic domains developed by a multidisciplinary physician group. Nephrologists employed this standardized adverse effect evaluation in stable renal transplant patients using physical exam, review of systems, recent laboratory results, and medication adherence assessment during a clinic visit. Stable renal transplant recipients in two clinical studies were evaluated and received immunosuppressive regimens comprised of either cyclosporine or tacrolimus with mycophenolic acid. Face, content, and construct validity were assessed to document these adverse effect evaluations. Inter-rater reliability was determined using the Kappa statistic and intra-class correlation. A total of 58 renal transplant recipients were assessed using the adverse effects scoring system confirming face validity. Nephrologists (subject matter experts) rated the 18 adverse effects as: 3.1 ± 0.75 out of 4 (maximum) regarding clinical importance to verify content validity. The adverse effects scoring system distinguished 1.75-fold increased gastrointestinal adverse

  14. Are adverse effects incorporated in economic models? An initial review of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D; McDaid, C; Fonseca, T; Stock, C; Duffy, S; Woolacott, N

    2009-12-01

    To identify methodological research on the incorporation of adverse effects in economic models and to review current practice. Major electronic databases (Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Economic Evaluations Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, IDEAS, MEDLINE and Science Citation Index) were searched from inception to September 2007. Health technology assessment (HTA) reports commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) HTA programme and published between 2004 and 2007 were also reviewed. The reviews of methodological research on the inclusion of adverse effects in decision models and of current practice were carried out according to standard methods. Data were summarised in a narrative synthesis. Of the 719 potentially relevant references in the methodological research review, five met the inclusion criteria; however, they contained little information of direct relevance to the incorporation of adverse effects in models. Of the 194 HTA monographs published from 2004 to 2007, 80 were reviewed, covering a range of research and therapeutic areas. In total, 85% of the reports included adverse effects in the clinical effectiveness review and 54% of the decision models included adverse effects in the model; 49% included adverse effects in the clinical review and model. The link between adverse effects in the clinical review and model was generally weak; only 3/80 (manipulation. Of the models including adverse effects, 67% used a clinical adverse effects parameter, 79% used a cost of adverse effects parameter, 86% used one of these and 60% used both. Most models (83%) used utilities, but only two (2.5%) used solely utilities to incorporate adverse effects and were explicit that the utility captured relevant adverse effects; 53% of those models that included utilities derived them from patients on treatment and could therefore be interpreted as capturing adverse effects. In total

  15. Liver Stiffness Reflecting Right-Sided Filling Pressure Can Predict Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tatsunori; Ohtani, Tomohito; Kioka, Hidetaka; Tsukamoto, Yasumasa; Onishi, Toshinari; Nakamoto, Kei; Katsimichas, Themistoklis; Sengoku, Kaoruko; Chimura, Misato; Hashimoto, Haruko; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Sawa, Yoshiki; Sakata, Yasushi

    2018-01-12

    This study sought to investigate whether elevated liver stiffness (LS) values at discharge reflect residual liver congestion and are associated with worse outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Transient elastography is a newly developed, noninvasive method for assessing LS, which can be highly reflective of right-sided filling pressure associated with passive liver congestion in patients with HF. LS values were determined for 171 hospitalized patients with HF before discharge using a Fibroscan device. The median LS value was 5.6 kPa (interquartile range: 4.4 to 8.1; range 2.4 to 39.7) and that of right-sided filling pressure, which was estimated based on LS, was 5.7 mm Hg (interquartile range: 4.1 to 8.2 mm Hg; range 0.1 to 18.9 mm Hg). The patients in the highest LS tertile (>6.9 kPa, corresponding to an estimated right-sided filling pressure of >7.1 mm Hg) had advanced New York Heart Association functional class, high prevalence of jugular venous distention and moderate/severe tricuspid regurgitation, large inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter, low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, high serum direct bilirubin level, and a similar left ventricular ejection fraction compared with the lower tertiles. During follow-up periods (median: 203 days), 8 (5%) deaths and 33 (19%) hospitalizations for HF were observed. The patients in the highest LS group had a significantly higher mortality rate and HF rehospitalization (hazard ratio: 3.57; 95% confidence interval: 1.93 to 6.83; p direct bilirubin and brain natriuretic peptide levels, LS values were predictive of worse outcomes, even after adjustment for these indices. These data suggest that LS is a useful index for assessing systemic volume status and predicting the severity of HF, and that the presence of liver congestion at discharge is associated with worse outcomes in patients with HF. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of perches on liver health of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Hester, P Y; Hu, J Y; Yan, F F; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

    2014-07-01

    Fatty liver is a common energy metabolic disorder in caged laying hens. Considering that the egg industry is shifting from conventional cages to alternative housing systems such as enriched cages, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of perches on fat deposition and liver health in laying hens. Three hundred twenty-four 17-wk-old White Leghorn hens were housed in 1 of 4 treatments with 9 hens per cage. Treatment 1 hens never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had access to perches during the pullet phase only. Treatment 3 hens had access to perches during the laying phase only. Treatment 4 hens always had access to perches. Liver weight, abdominal fat pad weight, BW, liver fat, and circulating alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and adiponectin were determined. Provision of perches during either the rearing or laying phase did not affect liver health in 71-wk-old hens. However, perch access compared with no perch access during the egg laying phase reduced relative fat pad weight. These results suggest that providing perches as a means of stimulating activity reduced abdominal fat deposition in caged hens during the laying period. However, perch access in caged hens was ineffective in reducing fat deposition in the liver and altering enzyme activities related to improved liver function. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. CYP2D6 polymorphisms may predict occurrence of adverse effects to tamoxifen: a preliminary retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramage I

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ishani Wickramage,1 Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon,1 Merenchi Arachchige Yasantha Ariyaratne,2 Asanka Sudeshini Hewage,1 Tharmini Sundralingam,1 1Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IBMBB, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2National Cancer Institute, Maharagama, Sri Lanka Introduction and aims: Tamoxifen is an adjuvant drug effective in treating hormone ­receptor – positive breast cancer. However, 30%–50% of patients relapse and many develop adverse effects, such as hot flashes and fatty liver. Allelic variations altering the activity of cytochrome P450-2D6 enzyme affect response to tamoxifen by modulating metabolism of tamoxifen into its pharmacologically active metabolite endoxifen. Although association between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and recurrence of breast cancer in patients on tamoxifen had been reported, little evidence exists on association between these polymorphisms and adverse effects to tamoxifen. This study explored the association between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and tamoxifen effects, hitherto not studied in Sri Lanka. Methods: A retrospective preliminary study was carried out on 24 breast cancer patients on tamoxifen for minimally 3 months attending National Cancer Institute, Maharagama, Sri Lanka. They were not on CYP2D6-inhibiting drugs, chemotherapy or other endocrine therapy, and had no conditions that could occur as adverse effects to tamoxifen before starting the therapy. Their blood samples were collected, DNA was extracted and genotyped using SNaPshot Multiplex sequencing based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP assay. Results: SNP/allele frequencies detected: 1846G>A (confirmatory of *4 null allele=8.3%; 2549delA (confirmatory of *3 null allele=50%; 100C>T (suggestive of *10 reduced functional allele, in addition to other alleles=0%; combination of 2988G>A, -1584C and 2850C>T (strongly suggestive of *41 or other reduced functional allele=4.8%. Occurrence of heterozygous 2988G>A SNP with

  18. Effects of Radiofrequency Induced local Hyperthermia on Normal Canine Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Ok; Loh, John J. K.; Seong, Jin Sil

    1991-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of radiofrequency-induced local hyperthermia on the normal liver, histopathologic findings and biochemical changes after localized hyperthermia in canine liver were studied. Hyperthermia was externally administered using the Thermotron RF-8 (Yamamoto Vinyter Co., Japan; Capacitive type heating machine) with parallel opposed electrodes. Thirteen dogs were used and allocated into one control group (N=3) and two treatment groups according to the treatment temperature. Group I (N=5) was heated with 42.5±0.5.deg.C for 30 minutes, and Group(N=5) was heated with 45±0.5.deg.C for 15-30 minutes. Samples of liver tissue were obtained through a needle biopsy immediately after hyperthermia and 7, 14 and 28 days after treatment and examined for SGOT, SGPT and alkaline phosphatase. Although SGOT and SGPT were elevated after hyperthermia in both groups (three of five in each group), there was no liver cell necrosis or hyperthermia related mortality in Group I. A hydropic swelling of hepatocytes was prominent histologic finding. Hyperthermia with 45.deg.C for 30 minutes was fatal and showed extensive liver cell necrosis. In conclusion, liver damage day heat of 42.5±0.5.deg.C for 30 minutes is reversible, and liver damage by heat of 45±0.5.deg.C for 30 minutes can be fatal or irreversible. However, these results cannot be applied directly to human trial. Therefore, in order to apply hyperthermic treatment on human liver tumor safely, close observation of temperature with proper thermometry is mandatory. Hyperthermic treatment should be confined to the tumor area while sparing a normal liver as much as possible

  19. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Patel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The exact pathophysiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is not known. Previous studies suggest that dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs can cause oxidative stress in liver. We aim to study the effects of dietary AGEs on liver health and their possible role in the pathogenesis of NASH. METHODS: Two groups of mice were fed the same diet except the AGE content varied. One group was fed a high AGE diet and the second group was fed a regular AGE diet. Liver histology, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were assessed. RESULTS: Histology revealed that neutrophil infiltration occurred in the livers of the high AGE group at week 26; steatosis did not accompany liver inflammation. At week 39 livers from both groups exhibited macro- or micro-steatosis, yet no inflammation was detected. Higher insulin levels were detected in the regular AGE group at week 26 (P = 0.034, compared to the high AGE group. At week 39, the regular AGE group showed higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 and aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.02 than those of the high AGE group. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that a high AGE diet can cause liver inflammation in the absence of steatosis. Our results show that dietary AGEs could play a role in initiating liver inflammation contributing to the disease progression of NASH. Our observation that the inflammation caused by high AGE alone did not persist suggests interesting future directions to investigate how AGEs contribute to pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative pathways in the liver.

  20. [Herbs for calming liver and suppressing yang in treatment of hyperthyroidism with hyperactive liver yang: herbal effects on lymphocyte protein expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangping; Yin, Tao; Zhong, Guangwei; Li, Wei; Luo, Yanhong; Xiang, Lingli; Liu, Zhehao

    2011-07-01

    To observe the herbal effects on hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang by method for calming the liver and suppressing Yang and investigate its effects on the lymphocyte protein expression. This approach may lay a foundation for the further investigation of the curative mechanisms of calming the liver and suppressing Yang treatment. A total of 48 hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The treatment group was treated by method for calming the liver and suppressing Yang in accordance with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the control group with thiamazole tablets for three periods of treatment The therapeutic effects, the score of TCM symptom, electrocardiogram (P wave), thyroid hormones and ultrasound were observed in both groups before and after the treatment. The side effects in the treatment course were observed in both groups. The level of differential protein expression was analyzed by two-dimensional electrphoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionizaton time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The treatment group has the effect on stepping down the heart rate, cutting down the P wave amplitude changes, regulating the level of thyroid hormones and decreasing the volume of thyromegaly. There are not statistically significant between the treatment group and control group. However, the treatment group has obviously better effect on regulating TCM symptom and decreasing the side reaction than the control group (Peffective between the treatment group and control group. The average spots in lymphocyte for normal people, before and after treating hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang were (429 +/- 31), (452 +/- 28) and (437 +/- 36) spots respectively. Eight down-regulated protein expressions and 11 up-regulated protein expressions were obtained in the hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity

  1. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non-clinical control persons matched by gender, age and parents' socio-economic status. Assessment included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and parts of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Eighty-nine percent of the FEP group reported one or more adversities compared to 37% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all p<0.01). The risk of psychosis increased two and a half times for each additional adversity. All associations between specific adversities and psychosis decreased when they were adjusted for other adversities. Our findings suggest that there is a large shared effect of adversities on the risk of psychosis. Contrary to the call for further research into specific adversities, we suggest a search for mechanisms in the shared effects of traumatization. Clinical implications are thorough assessment of adversities and their possible effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydroxycut-induced Liver Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jan-Feb 2014 | Vol 4 ... supplements can be responsible for documented or undocumented adverse drug effects. The ... Keywords: Hydroxycut, Liver toxicity, Nutritional supplements ... Caffeine anhydrous: 200 mg* ... series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss.

  3. Genetic Predictors of Adverse Radiotherapy Effects: the Gene-PARE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Alice Y.; Atencio, David P.; Peters, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The development of adverse effects resulting from the radiotherapy of cancer limits the use of this treatment modality. The validation of a test capable of predicting which patients would be most likely to develop adverse responses to radiation treatment, based on the possession of speci...

  4. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part II: adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Meehan, Shane; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    The ideal dermal filler should offer long-lasting aesthetic improvement with a minimal side-effect profile. It should be biocompatible and stable within the injection site, with the risk of only transient undesirable effects from injection alone. However, all dermal fillers can induce serious and potentially long-lasting adverse effects. In Part II of this paper, we review the most common adverse effects related to dermal filler use.

  5. Genetic inhibition of CETP, ischemic vascular disease and mortality, and possible adverse effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine Holm; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schou, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether genetic variation in the CETP gene is consistent with a protective effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition on risk of ischemic events and on total mortality, without the adverse effects reported for torcetrapib.......This study tested whether genetic variation in the CETP gene is consistent with a protective effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition on risk of ischemic events and on total mortality, without the adverse effects reported for torcetrapib....

  6. [Intestinal cleaning for colonoscopy in children: effectiveness, adherence and adverse effects of schemes differentiated by age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Isabel; Arancibia, María Eugenia; Alliende, Francisco; Ríos, Gloria; Rodríguez, Lorena; Lucero, Yalda; Saelzer, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Adequate intestinal cleanliness is crucial to achieve optimal colonoscopy performance. Several bowel preparation (BP) schemes have been proposed, but there is still no consensus as regards which is the most suitable in paediatric patients. To describe the effectiveness, adherence, and adverse effects of BP protocols differentiated by age group in paediatric patients subjected to colonoscopy. Prospective, study that included patients PEG 3350 without electrolytes); 4y-9y 11 m (PEG 3350 without electrolytes + bisacodyl); 10 y-18 y (PEG 3350 with electrolytes). Demographic, clinical information, adherence and adverse effects were registered. Effectiveness was determined using a validated scale (Boston modified) during colonoscopy. A total of 159 patients were included, of which 87 (55%) were males, and with a median age of 4 years (range 1 m-17 years). Seventy eight percent of patients achieved successful BP. The higher effectiveness was observed in the groups of < 6 m (96%) and 10-18 y (91%). Constipation was significantly more frequent (29%) in the 4 yo-9 yo 11 m in which lower effectiveness was observed (69%). Good adherence was observed in 87% of patients. Adverse effects were observed in a third of patients, although they were mild and did not lead to the suspension of the BP. Satisfactory results were achieved with the BP schemes used, with a successful BP being obtained in 4 out of 5 patients. Results were different between groups, which is probably related to previous bowel transit and indicated medication.

  7. Comparison of search strategies in systematic reviews of adverse effects to other systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K; Zorzela, Liliane

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates that the methods used to identify data for systematic reviews of adverse effects may need to differ from other systematic reviews. To compare search methods in systematic reviews of adverse effects with other reviews. The search methodologies in 849 systematic reviews of adverse effects were compared with other reviews. Poor reporting of search strategies is apparent in both systematic reviews of adverse effects and other types of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews of adverse effects are less likely to restrict their searches to MEDLINE or include only randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The use of other databases is largely dependent on the topic area and the year the review was conducted, with more databases searched in more recent reviews. Adverse effects search terms are used by 72% of reviews and despite recommendations only two reviews report using floating subheadings. The poor reporting of search strategies in systematic reviews is universal, as is the dominance of searching MEDLINE. However, reviews of adverse effects are more likely to include a range of study designs (not just RCTs) and search beyond MEDLINE. © 2014 Crown Copyright.

  8. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1....

  9. Adverse effects associated with ethanol catheter lock solutions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermel, Leonard A; Alang, Neha

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial lock therapy has been widely utilized internationally for the prevention and management of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infections. One of the agents commonly utilized for lock therapy is ethanol. However, a systematic review of adverse events associated with ethanol locks has not been published. PubMed was searched to collect articles published from May 2003 through March 2014. The bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. In vitro studies of the mechanical properties of catheters after ethanol immersion have revealed changes predominantly in polyurethane catheters and to a lesser extent in silicone and Carbothane catheters. An elution of polymers from polyurethane and Carbothane catheters has been observed at the ethanol concentrations used in ethanol lock therapy. Ethanol above a concentration of 28% leads to plasma protein precipitation. Ethanol locks were associated with catheter occlusion in 11 studies and independently increased the risk of thrombosis compared with heparin lock in a randomized trial. Six studies noted abnormalities in catheter integrity, including one case leading to catheter embolization. Of note, five of these studies involved silicone catheters. Ethanol lock use was associated with systemic side effects in 10 studies and possible side effects in one additional study. Four studies noted liver function test abnormalities, predominantly transaminase elevation, related to ethanol lock use. However, a prospective study did not find any difference in the risk of doubling the transaminase level above the normal range during use of ethanol locks compared with not using an ethanol lock. The use of ethanol locks has been associated with structural changes in catheters, as well as the elution of molecules from the catheter polymers. Clinical studies have revealed systemic toxicity, increased catheter occlusion and breaches in catheter integrity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on

  10. Relation between dose of bendrofluazide, antihypertensive effect, and adverse biochemical effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J E; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the relevant dose of bendrofluazide for treating mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN--Double blind parallel group trial of patients who were given placebo for six weeks and then randomly allocated to various doses of bendrofluazide (1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg daily) or place...... of bendrofluazide to treat mild to moderate hypertension is 1.25-2.5 mg a day. Higher doses caused more pronounced adverse biochemical effects including adverse lipid effects. Previous trials with bendrofluazide have used too high doses....... relations between dose and effect were shown for potassium, urate, glucose, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B concentrations. The 1.25 mg dose increased only urate concentrations, whereas the 10 mg dose affected all the above biochemical variables. CONCLUSION--The relevant range of doses...

  11. Inhibitory effect of dietary capsaicin on liver fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt, Shanna; Stradiot, Leslie; Verhulst, Stefaan; Thoen, Lien; Mannaerts, Inge; van Grunsven, Leo A

    2015-06-01

    Virtually all chronic liver injuries result in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In their activated state, these cells are the main collagen-producing cells implicated in liver fibrosis. Capsaicin (CPS), the active compound of chili peppers, can modulate the activation and migration of HSCs in vitro. Here, we evaluated the potential protective and prophylactic effects of CPS related to cholestatic and hepatotoxic-induced liver fibrosis and its possible underlying mechanism of action. Male Balb/c mice received dietary CPS after 3 days of bile duct ligation (BDL) or before and during carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) injections. Mice receiving dietary CPS after BDL had a significant improvement of liver fibrosis accompanied by a decrease in collagen deposition and downregulation of activation markers in isolated HSCs. In the CCl4 model, dietary CPS inhibited the upregulation of profibrogenic markers. However, CPS could not attenuate the CCl4 -induced fibrosis when it was already established. Furthermore, in vitro CPS treatment inhibited the autophagic process during HSC activation. Dietary CPS has potential benefits in the therapy of cholestatic liver fibrosis and in the prophylaxis of hepatotoxic-induced liver injury. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Multidisciplinary approach to identification and remedial intervention for adverse late effects of cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCalla, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Because of advances in surgical technique, radiation therapy, and combined chemotherapy regimens, there has been a dramatic improvement in the survival of children with pediatric malignancies. All treatment modalities are associated with adverse effects that may be manifested months to years after therapy. This article has provided an overview of the physiologic and psychologic adverse effects of antineoplastic therapy and described the multidisciplinary approach used by one institution to identify and initiate appropriate remedial intervention. Nurses can learn to assist in the identification of adverse late effects, provide support to the family, and facilitate appropriate intervention

  13. Splenectomy during whole liver transplantation: a morbid procedure which does not adversely impact long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golse, Nicolas; Mohkam, Kayvan; Rode, Agnès; Pradat, Pierre; Ducerf, Christian; Mabrut, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Indications for splenectomy (SP) during whole liver transplantation (LT) remain controversial and SP is often avoided because of common complications. We aimed to evaluate specific complications of these combined procedures. Data were retrospectively analysed. Splenectomy was performed in patients with splenorenal shunt and/or splenic artery aneurysms or hypersplenism. Patients undergoing simultaneous transplantation and splenectomy (LTSP group) were matched to a non-splenectomy group (LT group). Between 1994 and 2013, we included 47 and 94 patients in LTSP and LT groups, respectively. The LTSP patients had a higher rate of pre-LT portal vein thrombosis (PVT). The LTSP group had a longer operative time and greater blood loss. Mean follow-up was 101 months and 5-year survivals were identical (LTSP 85% vs LT 88%, p = 0.831). Hospital morbidity and rejection incidence were comparable, whereas de novo PVT (34% vs 2%, p Splenectomy during LT is technically demanding and exposes recipients to a higher thrombosis rate, therefore portal vein patency must be specifically assessed postoperatively. In selected recipients, SP can be performed without increased mortality but at the price of worsening outcome as evidenced by greater risk of infection and PVT. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Melatonin Protective Effects against Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Khonakdar-Tarsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is a common phenomenon during liver surgery, transplantation, infection and trauma which results in damage and necrosis of the hepatic tissue through different pathways. Mechanisms involved in I/R damage are very intricate and cover several aspects. Several factors are involved in I/R-induced damages; briefly, decrease in sinusoidal perfusion and ATP generation because of low or no O2 supply, increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory factors and destruction of parenchymal cells resulted by these molecules are of the main causes of liver tissue injury during reperfusion. Melatonin’s antioxidant effect, and regulatory roles in the expression of different genes in the I/R insulted liver have been investigated by several studies. Melatonin and its metabolites are of the powerful direct scavengers of free radicals and ROS, so it can directly protect liver cell impairment from oxidative stress following I/R. In addition, this bioactive molecule up-regulates anti-oxidant enzyme genes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT. Tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α and interleukin-1 (IL-1, as potent pro-inflammatory factors, are generated in huge amounts during reperfusion. Melatonin is able to alleviate TNF-α generation and has hepatoprotective effect during I/R. It reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via reducing the binding of NF-κB to DNA. Imbalance between vasodilators (nitric oxide, NO and vasoconstrictors (endothelin, ET during I/R was shown to be the primary cause of liver microcirculation disturbance. Melatonin helps maintaining the stability of liver circulation and reduces hepatic injury during I/R through preventing alteration of the normal balance between ET and NO. The aim of this review was to explore the mechanisms of liver I/R injuries and the protective effects of melatonin against them.

  15. Effect of nanosilicon dioxide on growth performance, egg quality, liver histopathology and concentration of calcium, phosphorus and silicon in egg, liver and bone in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Samira; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir

    2017-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of nanosilicon dioxide (nSiO2) on performance, egg quality, liver histopathology and concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus and silicon (Si) in egg, liver and bone in laying quails. The experiment was administered using 60 laying quails at 16-26 weeks of age with five treatments [0 (control), 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg nSiO2 per kg of diet] and four replicates in a completely randomized design. During the experiment, the amount of feed intake was recorded weekly and performance parameters were measured. During the last 3 days of the experiment, all of the eggs in each replicate were collected and egg quality parameters were measured. At the end of 26 weeks of age, the birds were sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Liver samples from each treatment were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological assessment. The right thigh bone and a portion of liver were inserted in plastic bags and stored at - 20. The results showed that nSiO2 supplementation significantly affected egg weight and egg mass ( P 0.05) by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary supplementation of nSiO2 could improve bone density and performance without any adverse effect on the health of laying quails.

  16. Alcohol and cannabis: Comparing their adverse health effects and regulatory regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    The claim that the adverse health effects of cannabis are much less serious than those of alcohol has been central to the case for cannabis legalisation. Regulators in US states that have legalised cannabis have adopted regulatory models based on alcohol. This paper critically examines the claim about adverse health effects and the wisdom of regulating cannabis like alcohol. First, it compares what we know about the adverse health effects of alcohol and cannabis. Second, it discusses the uncertainties about the long term health effects of sustained daily cannabis use. Third, it speculates about how the adverse health effects of cannabis may change after legalisation. Fourth, it questions the assumption that alcohol provides the best regulatory model for a legal cannabis market. Fifth, it outlines the major challenges in regulating cannabis under the liberal alcohol-like regulatory regimes now being introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing Effects of Medication Therapy and Exercise Training with Diet on Liver enzyme Levels and Liver Sonography in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Nabizadeh Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the deposition of fat in liver cells, can cause fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cell damage if not controlled. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of medication therapy and exercise training with diet on liver enzyme levels and liver sonography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Materials & Methods :In this quasi-experimental study, female patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver were randomly divided into two groups: medication therapy (n = 10 and exercise therapy (n = 10 for 8 weeks. During this period, the exercise group performed exercise training three days a week for 90 minutes per session. The drug was given to the medication group. In both groups, the diet was 500 calories less than their daily energy. Before and after intervention, blood tests and liver sonography were executed. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS for Windows version 20. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by Student's t-test and Wilcoxon test on paired and unpaired data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results :In both groups, liver enzyme levels and disease severity in sonography reduced significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present research showed that both methods of therapy have the same effect on reducing the severity of NAFLD.

  18. The adverse effects of albendazole and praziquantel in mass drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2005 children in Mwea schools were treated with albendazole 400mg and praziquantel. 40mg/kg body ... treatment to three hundred children in one day, which makes the approach cost effective and should be ... sex, and whether they had had headache, fever, cough, .... incase of severe side effects their efficacy may not.

  19. [Adverse Effect Predictions Based on Computational Toxicology Techniques and Large-scale Databases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

     Understanding the features of chemical structures related to the adverse effects of drugs is useful for identifying potential adverse effects of new drugs. This can be based on the limited information available from post-marketing surveillance, assessment of the potential toxicities of metabolites and illegal drugs with unclear characteristics, screening of lead compounds at the drug discovery stage, and identification of leads for the discovery of new pharmacological mechanisms. This present paper describes techniques used in computational toxicology to investigate the content of large-scale spontaneous report databases of adverse effects, and it is illustrated with examples. Furthermore, volcano plotting, a new visualization method for clarifying the relationships between drugs and adverse effects via comprehensive analyses, will be introduced. These analyses may produce a great amount of data that can be applied to drug repositioning.

  20. A man who wanted to commit suicide by hanging himself: an adverse effect of ciprofloxacin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, A.I.A.; Heijden, F.M.M.A. van der; Berkmortel, H. van den; Kramers, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a man who developed recurrent depression and suicidal ideation with a serious plan to commit suicide as definite adverse effect of ciprofloxacin, which had been prescribed for recurrent prostatitis.

  1. Management of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in the treatment of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, FGA; Sleijfer, DT; de Graaf, JC; Coenen, JLLM; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2001-01-01

    The anticancer agents fluorouracil, raltitrexed, irinotecan and oxaliplatin show limited efficacy in the treatment of colorectal cancer and may be associated with substantial toxicity. Therefore, the prevention and reduction of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects is of major significance, in

  2. The development of search filters for adverse effects of surgical interventions in medline and Embase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su; Wright, Kath; Loke, Yoon Kong

    2018-03-31

    Search filter development for adverse effects has tended to focus on retrieving studies of drug interventions. However, a different approach is required for surgical interventions. To develop and validate search filters for medline and Embase for the adverse effects of surgical interventions. Systematic reviews of surgical interventions where the primary focus was to evaluate adverse effect(s) were sought. The included studies within these reviews were divided randomly into a development set, evaluation set and validation set. Using word frequency analysis we constructed a sensitivity maximising search strategy and this was tested in the evaluation and validation set. Three hundred and fifty eight papers were included from 19 surgical intervention reviews. Three hundred and fifty two papers were available on medline and 348 were available on Embase. Generic adverse effects search strategies in medline and Embase could achieve approximately 90% relative recall. Recall could be further improved with the addition of specific adverse effects terms to the search strategies. We have derived and validated a novel search filter that has reasonable performance for identifying adverse effects of surgical interventions in medline and Embase. However, we appreciate the limitations of our methods, and recommend further research on larger sample sizes and prospective systematic reviews. © 2018 The Authors Health Information and Libraries Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Health Libraries Group.

  3. The interpersonal adverse effects reported by 1008 users of antidepressants; and the incremental impact of polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John; Gee, Aimee; Diggle, Jacob; Butler, Helen

    2017-10-01

    Antidepressant drugs are being prescribed at ever increasing rates internationally, despite marginal benefit compared to placebo and a range of adverse effects. Most studies of adverse effects focus on biological phenomena. This article presents the results of an online survey of 1008 self-selected anti-depressant users in Britain, which asked about five adverse effects in the interpersonal domain. The most commonly reported among participants who took only antidepressants were: Sex Life - 43.7%, Work or Study - 27.0% and Social Life - 23.5%. These rates of interpersonal adverse effects were even higher for the 52% of participants who were also taking one or more other psychiatric drugs. Only about a half (48%) felt they had been given enough information about side effects by the prescriber. Those initially prescribed medication by a psychiatrist were more likely to be on several types of drugs and reported more adverse effects than those whose prescriber was a General Practitioner (GP). Researchers and prescribers are encouraged to pay greater attention to interpersonal adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Therapeutic effect of cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture on postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S K; Gao, W B; Liu, Y; He, H

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture on postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms. Methods: A total of 39 patients with postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms in The First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine from May 2013 to May 2017 were collected and divided into 2 groups randomly. The electroacupuncture group included 20 cases, the control group included 19 cases. Patients in the electroacupuncture group were treated by cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture (located in C3-5, sympathetic ganglion), while the control group were treated by metoclopramide combined with chlorpromazine for three days. The therapeutic effects of two groups were compared and the onset time were recorded. Results: Total effective rates of electroacupuncture group and control group were 95.0% and 47.4%, respectively. The onset time in electroacupuncture group and control group were (14.8±3.3) h and (30.5±3.1) h, respectively ( P electroacupuncture for 3 days, 6 cases were recovered, 3 cases became better, while 1 case demonstrated no response. No serious adverse reactions were appeared in each group. Conclusion: Cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture is an effective and safe treatment for postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms, and it can be used as a remedy for intractable hiccup patients who don't respond to drug treatment.

  5. [Comparative effectiveness of different treatment methods of liver failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, D E; Vershinina, M G; Pasechnik, I N; Sal'nikov, P S

    2014-01-01

    It was analyzed the results of treatment of 217 patients (139 men, 78 women) with chronic liver failure in case of liver cirrhosis of various etiology for study of degree of hepatic encephalopathyregression. All patients were divided into 3 groups. In the first group the drug therapy was used. In the second group additionallyplasma exchange was performed, in the third group - alsomolecular absorbent recirculating system was used (effectiveness of MARS-therapy).The results showed that the use of extracorporeal treatment techniques can effectively reduce the severity of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. MARS-therapy improved the neurological status of patientsmore significantly in this case. It is considered that the inclusion of MARS-therapy in the combined treatment of patients leads to a significant reduction of hepatic encephalopathyseverity (1-2 points), in comparison with other methods of treatment.

  6. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh

    2016-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been known as the hepatic feature of metabolic syndrome. Extra fat depots, especially in visceral areas, develop insulin resistance as a result of mild oxidation and inflammation. Insulin resistance induces lipolysis and releases free fatty acids into the circulation, where they are transported to the liver. In the liver, free fatty acids are converted to triglycerides and accumulate, causing simple steatosis that, if left untreated, can lead to steatohepatitis, and subsequently liver necrosis and cirrhosis.Flavonoids, a group of plant compounds with incredible biological characteristics, have shown advantages in pathological conditions. Beneficial effects of flavonoids against NAFLD and its related disorders have been observed in both animal and human studies. Various mechanisms have been found for their protection. Flavonoids prevent hepatosteatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver. They can also reduce caloric intake and decrease body weight and fat deposition in visceral tissues. Flavonoids are unique antioxidants that exert their beneficial effects through inhibition of nuclear factor κB, thereby attenuating release of inflammatory cytokines, which are triggers of insulin resistance. Finally, flavonoids have shown to increase adiponectin, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, correct dyslipidemia, and reduce blood pressure in patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationshi...

  8. Self-reported adverse effects as barriers to adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: In conclusion, self-reported barriers to optimal adherence included the use of non-prescribed drugs, and the presence of side effects such as insomnia, headaches and abdominal pain; while eating well was a facilitator. These findings emphasise the need for better communication between patients and ...

  9. Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgisson, Helgi; Paahlman, Lars; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Glimelius, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. The use of radiation therapy (RT) together with improvement in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer improves survival and reduces the risk for local recurrences. Despite these benefits, the adverse effects of radiation therapy limit its use. The aim of this review was to present a comprehensive overview of published studies on late adverse effects related to the RT for rectal cancer. Methods. Meta-analyses, reviews, randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on late adverse effects, due to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy and chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer, were systematically searched. Most information was obtained from the randomised trials, especially those comparing preoperative short-course 5x5 Gy radiation therapy with surgery alone. Results. The late adverse effects due to RT were bowel obstructions; bowel dysfunction presented as faecal incontinence to gas, loose or solid stools, evacuation problems or urgency; and sexual dysfunction. However, fewer late adverse effects were reported in recent studies, which generally used smaller irradiated volumes and better irradiation techniques; although, one study revealed an increased risk for secondary cancers in irradiated patients. Conclusions. These results stress the importance of careful patient selection for RT for rectal cancer. Improvements in the radiation technique should further be developed and the long-term follow-up of the randomised trials is the most important source of information on late adverse effects and should therefore be continued

  10. Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisson, Helgi; Paahlman, Lars; Gunnarsson, Ulf [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Dept. of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose. The use of radiation therapy (RT) together with improvement in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer improves survival and reduces the risk for local recurrences. Despite these benefits, the adverse effects of radiation therapy limit its use. The aim of this review was to present a comprehensive overview of published studies on late adverse effects related to the RT for rectal cancer. Methods. Meta-analyses, reviews, randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on late adverse effects, due to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy and chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer, were systematically searched. Most information was obtained from the randomised trials, especially those comparing preoperative short-course 5x5 Gy radiation therapy with surgery alone. Results. The late adverse effects due to RT were bowel obstructions; bowel dysfunction presented as faecal incontinence to gas, loose or solid stools, evacuation problems or urgency; and sexual dysfunction. However, fewer late adverse effects were reported in recent studies, which generally used smaller irradiated volumes and better irradiation techniques; although, one study revealed an increased risk for secondary cancers in irradiated patients. Conclusions. These results stress the importance of careful patient selection for RT for rectal cancer. Improvements in the radiation technique should further be developed and the long-term follow-up of the randomised trials is the most important source of information on late adverse effects and should therefore be continued.

  11. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its......Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used...... tabulated. Years 2001-10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991-2000. Years 1971-80 and 1981-90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951-1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were...

  12. Adverse effects of fluoride towards thyroid hormone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggar Abdullah Idris MZ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An easily ionized fluoride compound like Sodium Fluoride (NaF has been used thus far as a dental caries prevention substance. However, fluoride ions also have a negative effect because it is very toxic. Several types of research on the effect of fluoride on guinea pigs and human beings indicate the presence synthesis obstruction of T3 and T4 that causes declined production, known as hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism condition may obstruct tissue growth process and metabolism so as to impact various body organ systems. Preventive efforts against hypothyroidism caused by fluoride include avoiding diffusible fluoride compound intake, like NaF, in a long run systemic use, whereas efforts to overcome fluoride intoxication include consuming food that is rich in calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant.

  13. Adverse effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Mpho Bosupeng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions for the period from 1997 to 2010 for diverse economies, as well as the relationships between carbon dioxide discharges and output. The study applies cointegration and causality tests to validate these associations. The results of the Johansen cointegration test depict long-run associations between the quantity of passenger cars and carbon dioxide emissions in France, Sweden, Spain, Hungary and Japa...

  14. Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Raja K; Hassan, Zurina; Rümler, Anne; Rotter, Andrea; Amato, Davide; Dringenberg, Hans C; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Mitragynine is the major psychoactive alkaloid of the plant kratom/ketum. Kratom is widely used in Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and increasingly appears as a pure compound or a component of 'herbal high' preparations in the Western world. While mitragynine/kratom may have analgesic, muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, its addictive properties and effects on cognitive performance are unknown. We isolated mitragynine from the plant and performed a thorough investigation of its behavioural effects in rats and mice. Here we describe an addictive profile and cognitive impairments of acute and chronic mitragynine administration, which closely resembles that of morphine. Acute mitragynine has complex effects on locomotor activity. Repeated administration induces locomotor sensitization, anxiolysis and conditioned place preference, enhances expression of dopamine transporter- and dopamine receptor-regulating factor mRNA in the mesencephalon. While there was no increase in spontaneous locomotor activity during withdrawal, animals showed hypersensitivity towards small challenging doses for up to 14 days. Severe somatic withdrawal signs developed after 12 hours, and increased level of anxiety became evident after 24 hours of withdrawal. Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram. Chronic mitragynine administration led to impaired passive avoidance and object recognition learning. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Acute mucocutaneous and systemic adverse effects of Etretinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mortazavi H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study was carried out between 1993 to 1998 at Razi Skin Hospital, the affiliated Dermatology Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Eight hundred patients receiving etretinate for various skin diseases took part in this study. Among them, 457 patients with first admission to dermatologic clinic who had at least four regular sequential visits and responding to our questionnaire were selected to enter the study for evaluating acute toxicity of etretinate. Cheilitis with a frequency of 88 percent was the most frequent side effect. Hair loss (22.97%, dry mouth with thirst (15.09%, dryness of mucous membranes (13.12%, xerosis with pruritus (11.15%, nose bleeding (8.31%, paronychia (5.47%, facial dermatitis (3.06%, conjunctivitis (2.84% and in addition to mucocutaneous ones, chills (2.63%, headache (2.19%, mental depression (2.19%, urinary frequency (1.53% and papilledema (0.44% were among the other observed toxicities, The relationship between mucocutaneous side effect with dosage of etretinate, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucoctaneous toxicities and sex was significant, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucocutaneous toxicities and sex was significant (P<0.05. We observed four rare side effect in the patients including hair color lightening appering as whitening or blondness, hair waving, dyspareunia and gynecomastia. In conclusion, females were more to acute mucocutaneous toxicities of etretinate.

  16. Effect of previous exposure to hbv on liver histology and treatment response in chc patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the influence of previous exposure to HBV on liver histology and treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Rawalian Liver Clinic, Department of Medicine, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2011 to December 2012. Methodology: Medical records of CHC patients attending the Rawalian Liver Clinic were retrospectively analyzed. Virological and treatment responses along with histological changes were compared between cases (anti-HBc positive) and controls (anti-HBc negative). Significance was determined through chi-square test at p < 0.05. Results: Among the 592 CHC patients, 254 (42.9%) had serological evidence of a positive anti-HBc (cases) and 338 (57.1%), patients had negative anti-HBc (controls). No significant difference was found between ETR, SVR and treatment responses (n=220) between the two groups. Out of 65 patients whose liver biopsy data was available, cases were more likely to respond in the absence of fibrosis (63.2%, (n=24) vs. 36.8%, (n=14), p=0.001). The controls responded more in the presence of fibrosis (100% (n=9) vs. 0, p=0.001). There was no significant effect of anti-HBc positivity on grades of inflammation and consequent treatment response (p=0.14). Conclusion: There are a significant number of CHC patients with markers of previous HBV infection in Pakistani population. Previous HBV (anti-HBc positive) does not seem to have an adverse effect on liver histology and treatment responses in HBV infection. (author)

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of kaempferol against alcoholic liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Sun, Jianguo; Jiang, Zhihui; Xie, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferol is a biologically active component present in various plants. The hepatoprotective effect of kaempferol in drug-induced liver injury has been proven, while its effect against alcoholic liver injury (ALI) remains unclear. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of kaempferol against ALI in mice. The experimental ALI mice model was developed and the mice were treated with different doses of kaempferol for 4 weeks. The liver functions were observed by monitoring the following parameters: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) levels in serum; histopathological studies of liver tissue; oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH); the lipid peroxidation status by malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid accumulation by triglyceride (TG) level in serum; and the expression levels and activities of a key microsomal enzyme cytochrome 2E1 (CYP2E1), by both in vitro and in vivo methods. The ALI mice (untreated) showed clear symptoms of liver injury, such as significantly increased levels of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and excessive CYP2E1 expression and activity. The mice treated with different kaempferol dosages exhibited a significant decrease in the oxidative stress as well as lipid peroxidation, and increased anti-oxidative defense activity. The kaempferol treatment has significantly reduced the expression level and activity of hepatic CYP2E1, thus indicating that kaempferol could down regulate CYP2E1. These findings show the hepatoprotective properties of kaempferol against alcohol-induced liver injury by attenuating the activity and expression of CYP2E1 and by enhancing the protective role of anti-oxidative defense system.

  18. The influence of plan modulation on the interplay effect in VMAT liver SBRT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Emily; Pierce, Greg

    2017-08-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) uses multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves, gantry speed, and dose rate to modulate beam fluence, producing the highly conformal doses required for liver radiotherapy. When targets that move with respiration are treated with a dynamic fluence, there exists the possibility for interplay between the target and leaf motions. This study employs a novel motion simulation technique to determine if VMAT liver SBRT plans with an increase in MLC leaf modulation are more susceptible to dosimetric differences in the GTV due to interplay effects. For ten liver SBRT patients, two VMAT plans with different amounts of MLC leaf modulation were created. Motion was simulated using a random starting point in the respiratory cycle for each fraction. To isolate the interplay effect, motion was also simulated using four specific starting points in the respiratory cycle. The dosimetric differences caused by different starting points were examined by subtracting resultant dose distributions from each other. When motion was simulated using random starting points for each fraction, or with specific starting points, there were significantly more dose differences in the GTV (maximum 100cGy) for more highly modulated plans, but the overall plan quality was not adversely affected. Plans with more MLC leaf modulation are more susceptible to interplay effects, but dose differences in the GTV are clinically negligible in magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence for a neural dual-process account for adverse effects of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Nicolas; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Colzato, Lorenza; Beste, Christian

    2018-06-09

    Advantageous effects of cognitive control are well-known, but cognitive control may also have adverse effects, for example when it suppresses the implicit processing of stimulus-response (S-R) bindings that could benefit task performance. Yet, the neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical structures associated with adverse effects of cognitive control are poorly understood. We used an extreme group approach to compare individuals who exhibit adverse effects of cognitive control to individuals who do not by combining event-related potentials (ERPs), source localization, time-frequency analysis and network analysis methods. While neurophysiological correlates of cognitive control (i.e. N2, N450, theta power and theta-mediated neuronal network efficiency) and task-set updating (P3) both reflect control demands and implicit information processing, differences in the degree of adverse cognitive control effects are associated with two independent neural mechanisms: Individuals, who show adverse behavioral effects of cognitive control, show reduced small-world properties and thus reduced efficiency in theta-modulated networks when they fail to effectively process implicit information. In contrast to this, individuals who do not display adverse control effects show enhanced task-set updating mechanism when effectively processing implicit information, which is reflected by the P3 ERP component and associated with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, BA 40) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG; BA 8). These findings suggest that implicit S-R contingencies, which benefit response selection without cognitive control, are always 'picked up', but may fail to be integrated with task representations to guide response selection. This provides evidence for a neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical "dual-process" account of adverse cognitive control effects.

  20. Adverse effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Bosupeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions for the period from 1997 to 2010 for diverse economies, as well as the relationships between carbon dioxide discharges and output. The study applies cointegration and causality tests to validate these associations. The results of the Johansen cointegration test depict long-run associations between the quantity of passenger cars and carbon dioxide emissions in France, Sweden, Spain, Hungary and Japan. In addition, significant relations were observed between output and carbon dioxide discharges in Spain, Canada, India and Japan. Changes in output had substantial impact on emissions in Germany, Canada and India. The results also show that the number of passenger cars influences the magnitude of emissions in multiple economies. In conclusion, the automotive industry has to be considered in policies that aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  1. Adverse health effects of air pollutants in a nonsmoking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C A

    1996-07-17

    Utah Valley has provided an interesting and unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of respirable particulate air pollution (PM10). Residents of this valley are predominantly nonsmoking members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The area has moderately high average PM10 levels with periods of highly elevated PM10 concentrations due to local emissions being trapped in a stagnant air mass near the valley floor during low-level temperature inversion episodes. Due to a labor dispute, there was intermittent operation of the single largest pollution source, an old integrated steel mill. Levels of other common pollutants including sulfur dioxide, ozone, and acidic aerosol are relatively low. Studies specific to Utah Valley have observed that elevated PM10 concentrations are associated with: (1) decreased lung function; (2) increased incidence of respiratory symptoms; (3) increased school absenteeism; (4) increased respiratory hospital admissions; and (5) increased mortality, especially respiratory and cardiovascular mortality.

  2. Effect of ethanol on placenta and liver of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarachand, U.; Eapen, Jacob

    1977-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of ethanol in drinking water for 15 days induces fatty liver in non-pregnant female mice. A similar regimen fails to produce the same effect in liver and placenta of pregnant mice. In vivo incorporation of 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolysate into hepatic proteins, however, is impaired in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant mice following ethanol treatment. Placental and foetal liver protein syntheses remain unaffected by the treatment. A single intraperitoneal dose of ethanol in fed and fasted non-pregnant mice elicits a differential response with respect to incorporation of the labelled precursor. The results are discussed with reference to the apparent metabolic alterations due to pregnancy. (author)

  3. The adverse effect of 4-tert-octylphenol on fat metabolism in pregnant rats via regulation of lipogenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun; Kang, Eun-Jin; Park, Mee-Na; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Seung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Lee, Geun-Shik; Hwang, Dae-Youn; An, Beum-Soo

    2015-07-01

    Alkylphenols such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol, and bisphenol A are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Digestion and metabolism of food are controlled by many endocrine factors, including insulin, glucagon, and estrogen. These factors are differentially regulated during pregnancy. The alteration of nutritional intake and fat metabolism may affect the maintenance of pregnancy and supplementation of nutrients to the fetus, and therefore can cause severe metabolic diseases such as ketosis, marasmus and diabetes mellitus in pregnant individuals. In this study, we examined the effects of OP on fat metabolism in pregnant rats. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) was also administered as an estrogenic positive control. In our results, rats treated with OP showed significantly reduced body weights compared to the control group. In addition, histological analysis showed that the amount of fat deposited in adipocytes was reduced by OP treatment. To study the mechanism of action of OP in fat metabolism, we examined the expression levels of fat metabolism-associated genes in rat adipose tissue and liver by real-time PCR. OP and EE negatively regulated the expression of lipogenic enzymes, including FAS (fatty acid synthase), ACC-1 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1), and SCD-1 (stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1). The levels of lipogenic enzyme-associated transcription factors such as C/EBP-α (CAAT enhancer binding protein alpha) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c) were also reduced in both liver and adipose tissue. In summary, these findings suggest that OP has adverse effects on fat metabolism in pregnant rats and inhibits fat deposition via regulating lipogenic genes in the liver and adipose tissue. The altered fat metabolism by OP may affect the nutrition balance during pregnancy and can cause metabolism-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Targeting of superoxide dismutase to the liver results in anti-inflammatory effects in rats with fibrotic livers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, P J; Hirano, T; Kuipers, M E; Ito, Y; Smit, C; Hashida, M; Nishikawa, M; Beljaars, L; Meijer, D K; Poelstra, K

    1999-01-01

    Background/Aims: The rapid clearance from plasma and the limited uptake of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the liver hampers the effectiveness of this enzyme in liver diseases. We therefore compared the pharmacokinetics and in vivo efficacy of SOD with two modified forms of this protein: SOD coupled

  5. Therapeutic effects of the traditional medicinal plant Ipomoea stolonifera for the treatment of liver diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Xueting

    2016-01-01

    Liver diseases are categorized into acute liver failure (ALF) and chronic liver failure (CLF). Massive cell death is a hallmark of ALF and leads to a dramatic loss of liver function. Therefore, specific interventions targeted to prevent or attenuate this massive cell death may be very effective in

  6. Effect of insulin on aldolase turnover in irradiated rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komov, V.P.; Kirillova, N.V.; Bekdzhanyan, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of insulin on the rate of biosynthesis, ''half life'', spontaneous decomposition and transport of aldolase in mitochondria of liver and blood plasma of rats, subjected to whole-body X-irradiation. The hormone injected after irradiation was shown to normalize the rate of spontaneous decay and the time of aldolase functioning

  7. Histopathologic and apoptotic effect of nanosilver in liver of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silver nanoparticles can destroy bacteria, viruses and fungi; therefore, it is recommended as a disinfectant and can be used as a drug in the treatment of some non-curable viral disease in livestock. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nanosilver induced toxicity on the liver of broiler chickens.

  8. The effects of Momordica charantia on the liver in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit aqueous extract on the liver histopathological changes in neonatal rats streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus type II. Diabetes mellitus was induced in one day old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats with STZ (85 mg/kg) and monitored for ...

  9. Effects of antioxidants consumption and low protein diets on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of two types of antioxidants, a natural antioxidant (Eselenium) and a synthetic antioxidant (loxidan) in diets containing protein value lower than essential requirements, on performance and histopathological changes in the liver and intestine of Japanese quails. The experimental diets were: ...

  10. Measured moisture in buildings and adverse health effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Mark J; Macher, Janet M; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2018-04-23

    It has not yet been possible to quantify dose-related health risks attributable to indoor dampness or mold (D/M), to support the setting of health-related limits for D/M. An overlooked target for assessing D/M is moisture in building materials, the critical factor allowing microbial growth. A search for studies of quantified building moisture and occupant health effects identified three eligible studies. Two studies assessed associations between measured wall moisture content and respiratory health in the UK. Both reported dose-related increases in asthma exacerbation with higher measured moisture, with one study reporting an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 7.0 for night-time asthma symptoms with higher bedroom moisture. The third study assessed relationships between infrared camera-determined wall moisture and atopic dermatitis in South Korea, reporting an adjusted OR of 14.5 for water-damaged homes and moderate or severe atopic dermatitis. Measuring building moisture has, despite extremely limited available findings, potential promise for detecting unhealthy D/M in homes and merits more research attention. Further research to validate these findings should include measured "water activity," which directly assesses moisture availability for microbial growth. Ultimately, evidence-based, health-related thresholds for building moisture, across specific materials and measurement devices, could better guide assessment and remediation of D/M in buildings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all p... of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. METHOD: Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non-clinical...

  12. Adverse effects during the oral glucose tolerance test in post-bariatric surgery patients

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Heliana Fernanda de Albuquerque; Pedrosa,William; Diniz,Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Passos,Valéria Maria Azeredo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used in the screening of gestational diabetes, in diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in conjunction with fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and risk factors of adverse effects of OGTT in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, in addition to proposing standardization for ordering the OGTT in these patients. Subjects and methods This study assessed the incidence of adverse ...

  13. The Effect Of Extrinsic Motivation On Adversity Quotient In Patients With HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Misutarno, Misutarno; Puspitawati, Yulia Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, S...

  14. The Effect of Extrinsic Motivation on Adversity Quotient in Patients with Hiv/aids

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Misutarno, Misutarno; Puspitawati, Yulia Dewi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, S...

  15. Adverse Effects of Antidepressants for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Riediger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAntidepressants are widely used in the treatment of chronic pain. Applied doses are lower than those needed to unfold an antidepressive effect. While efficacy of antidepressants for chronic pain has been reported in large randomized-controlled trials (RCT, there is inconsistent data on adverse effects and tolerability. We aimed at synthesizing data from RCT to explore adverse effect profiles and tolerability of antidepressants for treatment of chronic pain.MethodsSystematic literature research and meta-analyses were performed regarding side effects and safety of different antidepressants in the treatment of chronic pain according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The National Center for Biotechnology Information library and MEDLINE were searched. Randomized placebo-controlled trials were included in quantitative data synthesis.ResultsOut of 1,975 screened articles, 33 papers published between 1995 and 2015 were included in our review and 23 studies were included in the meta-analyses. A higher risk for adverse effects compared to placebo was observed in all antidepressants included in our analyses, except nortriptyline. The most prevalent adverse effects were dry mouth, dizziness, nausea, headache, and constipation. Amitriptyline, mirtazapine, desipramine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, and nortriptyline showed the highest placebo effect-adjusted risk of adverse effects. Risk for withdrawal due to adverse effects was highest in desipramine (risk ratio: 4.09, 95%-confidence interval [1.31; 12.82] followed by milnacipran, venlafaxine, and duloxetine. The most common adverse effects under treatment with antidepressants were dry mouth, dizziness, nausea, headache, and constipation followed by palpitations, sweating, and drowsiness. However, overall tolerability was high. Each antidepressant showed distinct risk profiles of adverse effects.ConclusionOur synthesized data analysis confirmed overall

  16. Effects of Delta-tocotrienol Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, Inflammation, Oxidative stress and Hepatic Steatosis in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Muhammad Amjad; Khan, Dishad Ahmet; Ijaz, Aamir; Khan, Shamrez

    2018-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing public health problem worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for this disease. δ-Tocotrienol has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and may reduce liver injury in NAFLD. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of δ-tocotrienol in the treatment of NAFLD. The present study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study conducted in patients aged > 20 years, belonging to both sexes, having ultrasound-proven fatty liver disease, having a fatty liver index (FLI) of ≥ 60, and persistent elevation of alanine transaminase. A total of 71 patients were assigned to receive either oral δ-tocotrienol (n=35, 300 mg twice daily) or placebo (n=36) for 12 weeks. At the baseline and at the end of the study, clinical and biochemical parameters, including lipid profile, liver function tests, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Body mass index and FLI were calculated, and ultrasound grading of hepatic steatosis was performed. Out of 71 enrolled patients, 64 patients, 31 in the δ-tocotrienol group and 33 in the placebo group, completed the study. After 12 weeks of supplementation, δ-tocotrienol showed greater efficacy than placebo by decreasing serum aminotransferases, hs-CRP, MDA, and FLI score (phepatic steatosis on ultrasound examination. No adverse effects were reported. δ-Tocotrienol was safe, and it effectively improved aminotransferase levels and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in patients with NAFLD. Large-scale randomized clinical trials are warranted to further support these findings.

  17. Effects of seaweed-restructured pork diets enriched or not with cholesterol on rat cholesterolaemia and liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Bocanegra, Aranzazu; Méndez, M Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Reus, M Isabel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    Seaweed enriched-restructured pork (RP) is a potential functional food. However, indications of adverse effects associated with herbal medications, which include among others liver failure, toxic hepatitis, and death have been reported. Cholesterol feeding produces hepatomegalia and fat liver infiltration. The effect of seaweed-RP diet, cholesterol-enriched or not, on plasma cholesterol, liver damage markers, structure, and cytochrome CYP4A-1 were evaluated after 5 wk. Eight rat groups were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet plus 15% RP. The Cholesterol-control (CC), Cholesterol-Wakame (CW), Cholesterol-Nori (CN) and Cholesterol-Sea Spaghetti (CS) groups respectively consumed similar diets to control (C), Wakame (W), Nori (N), and Sea Spaghetti (S) but as part of hypercholesterolaemic diets. CN and CS significantly blocked the hypercholesterolaemic effect observed in CC group. After 5-wk, N and S diets increased the CYP4A-1 expression. However, seaweed-RPs were unable to reduce the histological liver alterations observed in CC group. Larger and more abundant hepatocellular alterations were found in CS and CN rats suggesting that the hypocholesterolaemic effects of these seaweed-RPs seem to be a two-edged sword as they increased liver damage. Future studies are needed to understand the involved mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genotoxic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic effects of tamoxifen in mouse liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Aline de; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Churchwell, Mona I.; Melnyk, Stepan; Latendresse, John R.; Muskhelishvili, Levan; Beland, Frederick A.; Pogribny, Igor P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Treatment of female mice with tamoxifen caused genotoxic changes in the livers. • Tamoxifen treatment did not affect the hepatic epigenome. • Tamoxifen caused over-expression of hepatic Lcn13 and Pparγ genes. • Mice are resistant to tamoxifen-induced liver carcinogenesis and fatty liver injury. - Abstract: Tamoxifen is a non-steroidal anti-estrogenic drug widely used for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer in women; however, there is evidence that tamoxifen is hepatocarcinogenic in rats, but not in mice. Additionally, it has been reported that tamoxifen may cause non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans and experimental animals. The goals of the present study were to (i) investigate the mechanisms of the resistance of mice to tamoxifen-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, and (ii) clarify effects of tamoxifen on NAFLD-associated liver injury. Feeding female WSB/EiJ mice a 420 p.p.m. tamoxifen-containing diet for 12 weeks resulted in an accumulation of tamoxifen-DNA adducts, (E)-α-(deoxyguanosin-N 2 -yl)-tamoxifen (dG-TAM) and (E)-α-(deoxyguanosin-N 2 -yl)-N-desmethyltamoxifen (dG-DesMeTAM), in the livers. The levels of hepatic dG-TAM and dG-DesMeTAM DNA adducts in tamoxifen-treated mice were 578 and 340 adducts/108 nucleotides, respectively, while the extent of global DNA and repetitive elements methylation and histone modifications did not differ from the values in control mice. Additionally, there was no biochemical or histopathological evidence of NAFLD-associated liver injury in mice treated with tamoxifen. A transcriptomic analysis of differentially expressed genes demonstrated that tamoxifen caused predominantly down-regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism genes accompanied by a distinct over-expression of the lipocalin 13 (Lcn13) and peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma (Pparγ), which may prevent the development of NAFLD. The results of the present study demonstrate that the resistance of mice to tamoxifen

  19. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.

  20. Adverse effects associated with intravenous pentamidine isethionate as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, U; Nielsen, T L

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the adverse effects of intravenous pentamidine isethionate, a retrospective study was carried out over a four-year period. Twenty-one acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients received intravenous pentamidine as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This was 13......% of the total number of patients with PCP in the department during that period. Four patients died during treatment and were not evaluated for side effects. Thirteen patients (13/17 = 76%) suffered from one or more minor side effects. The most common of these were gastrointestinal discomfort, pancreatitis......, nephro- and hepatotoxicity. Five patients (5/17 = 29%) experienced a major adverse effect. These were cardiac arrest (one patient), severe hypoglycaemia (one patient) and severe pancreatitis (three patients). In two patients, discontinuation of treatment was necessary due to adverse reactions. As long...

  1. Liver Progenitor Cell Line HepaRG Differentiated in a Bioartificial Liver Effectively Supplies Liver Support to Rats with Acute Liver Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Geert A. A.; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; van der Hoeven, Tessa V.; Maas, Martinus A. W.; Ruiter, An F. C.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2012-01-01

    A major roadblock to the application of bioartificial livers is the need for a human liver cell line that displays a high and broad level of hepatic functionality. The human bipotent liver progenitor cell line HepaRG is a promising candidate in this respect, for its potential to differentiate into

  2. Effect of liver histopathology on islet cell engraftment in the model mimicking autologous islet cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chirag S; Khan, Khalid M; Ma, Xiaobo; Li, Henghong; Wang, Juan; Fan, Lijuan; Chen, Guoling; Smith, Jill P; Cui, Wanxing

    2017-11-02

    The inflammatory milieu in the liver as determined by histopathology is different in individual patients undergoing autologous islet cell transplantation. We hypothesized that inflammation related to fatty-liver adversely impacts islet survival. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of fatty-liver to determine the outcome of syngeneic islet transplantation after chemical pancreatectomy. Mice (C57BL/6) were fed a high-fat-diet from 6 weeks of age until attaining a weight of ≥28 grams (6-8 weeks) to produce a fatty liver (histologically > 30% fat);steatosis was confirmed with lipidomic profile of liver tissue. Islets were infused via the intra-portal route in fatty-liver and control mice after streptozotocin induction of diabetes. Outcomes were assessed by the rate of euglycemia, liver histopathology, evaluation of liver inflammation by measuring tissue cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α by RT-PCR and CD31 expression by immunohistochemistry. The difference in the euglycemic fraction between the normal liver group (90%, 9/10) and the fatty-liver group (37.5%, 3/8) was statistically significant at the 18 th day post- transplant and was maintained to the end of the study (day 28) (p = 0.019, X 2 = 5.51). Levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were elevated in fatty-liver mice (p = 0.042, p = 0.037). Compared to controls cytokine levels were elevated after islet cell transplantation and in transplanted fatty-liver mice as compared to either fatty- or islet transplant group alone (p = NS). A difference in the histochemical pattern of CD31 could not be determined. Fatty-liver creates an inflammatory state which adversely affects the outcome of autologous islet cell transplantation.

  3. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...

  4. Confounding and Statistical Significance of Indirect Effects: Childhood Adversity, Education, Smoking, and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to (i assess the mediating role of smoking in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood, and (ii assess the change in estimates due to different mediator-response confounding factors (education, alcohol intake, and social support. The present analysis used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4,530, a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Seven childhood adversities (low mother's education, low father's education, low financial conditions, exposure to passive smoke, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress were used to create a childhood adversity score. Smoking status was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years (Tromsø IV, and ADS in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years (Tromsø V. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect and the proportion of mediated effect (% of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood via smoking in adulthood. The test-retest reliability of smoking was good (Kappa: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.63; 0.71 in this sample. Childhood adversity was associated with a 10% increased risk of smoking in adulthood (Relative risk: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.18, and both childhood adversity and smoking in adulthood were associated with greater levels of ADS in adulthood (p < 0.001. Smoking in adulthood did not significantly

  5. Tritium effect in peroxidation of ethanol by liver catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgaard, S.E.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of the rate of appearance of 3 H in water from [(1 R)-1- 3 H 1 ]-ethanol and the rate of acetaldehyde formation in the presence of rat or ox liver catalase under conditions of steady-state generation of H 2 O 2 allowed calculation of the 3 H isotope effect. The mean value of 2.52 obtained for rat liver catalase at 37 0 C and pH 6.3 to 7.7 was independent of both ethanol concentration and the rate of H 2 O 2 generation over a wide range. At 25 0 C a slightly lower mean value of 2.40 was obtained with the ox liver catalase. Neither the product, acetaldehyde, nor 4-methylpyrazole influenced the two rates measured in the assay. Relating the value obtained for the 3 H isotope effect to a known value for the 2 H isotope effect strongly supports the view that both values are close to the true isotope effect with the respective substituted compounds on the rate constant in the catalytic step involving scission of the C-H bond. The constancy of the isotope effect under various conditions makes it possible to use it for interpretations in vivo. It was established that β-D-galactose dehydrogenase exhibits B-specificity towards the nicotinamide ring in NAD. (author)

  6. Possible adverse effects of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in the Region of Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramon, Cecilie; Lindegaard Poulsen, Christina; Hartling, Ulla Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since the introduction of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine, young girls and women have reported a broad range of symptoms. These have been described as possible adverse effects of the vaccine. In this study, we describe demographic characteristics, symptomatology......, clinical and laboratory test results in patients referred with suspected adverse effects in the Region of Southern Denmark. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study. The patients filled out a questionnaire, were interviewed by a doctor and received a standard physical examination...... still in diagnostic workup when the present study concluded. CONCLUSIONS: The patients reported a wide range of symptoms. We found an overall low prevalence of POTS. It should be further investigated whether these patients might suffer from a functional disorder rather than from adverse effects...

  7. Prevalence of Adverse Effects Post-Brachytherapy on Women with Uterine Cervix Cancer in Durango, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia; Deras, Diana C.; Reyes, Francianella

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed at determining the local prevalence of adverse effects on women with CaCu that recieved LDR brachytherapy treatment at CECAN. The data was extracted from the patient's and medical physics' departement records. Non Gaussian statistics was used due to dose distribution characteristics. A total of 103 patients were studied with average age of 55±13 years and Ia-IV FIGO clinical clasification. The observed prevalence is higher than that reported by other studies. It was observed that patients with proctitis were prescribed a slightly higher dose than those without adverse effects (90% confidence). Patients with proctitis also presented higher age (95% confidence) when compared with the mean of the studied population. The inverse applies to the group with other adverse effects, its average age is lower than the mean (90% confidence).

  8. Characterization of scientific studies usually cited as evidence of adverse effects of GM food/feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel A; Parrott, Wayne A

    2017-10-01

    GM crops are the most studied crops in history. Approximately 5% of the safety studies on them show adverse effects that are a cause for concern and tend to be featured in media reports. Although these reports are based on just a handful of GM events, they are used to cast doubt on all GM crops. Furthermore, they tend to come from just a few laboratories and are published in less important journals. Importantly, a close examination of these reports invariably shows methodological flaws that invalidate any conclusions of adverse effects. Twenty years after commercial cultivation of GM crops began, a bona fide report of an adverse health effect due to a commercialized modification in a crop has yet to be reported. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Adverse health effects of cigarette smoke: aldehydes Crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde, hexanal and malonaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel I van; Sleijffers A; Schenk E; Rambali B; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Aerts LAGJM van; Vleeming W; Amsterdam JGC van; TOX

    2006-01-01

    Crotonaldehyde in cigarette smoke can be concluded to induce airway damage in humans. This is one conclusion derived from the existing data found in the literature and reported here in the discussion on adverse health effects and possible addictive effects due to the exposure of crotonaldehyde,

  10. The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings Concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)

  11. Energy drinks and their adverse health effects: A systematic review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fahad; Rehman, Hiba; Babayan, Zaruhi; Stapleton, Dwight; Joshi, Divya-Devi

    2015-04-01

    With the rising consumption of so-called energy drinks over the last few years, there has been a growing body of literature describing significant adverse health events after the ingestion of these beverages. To gain further insight about the clinical spectrum of these adverse events, we conducted a literature review. Using PubMed and Google-Scholar, we searched the literature from January 1980 through May 2014 for articles on the adverse health effects of energy drinks. A total of 2097 publications were found. We then excluded molecular and industry-related studies, popular media reports, and case reports of isolated caffeine toxicity, yielding 43 reports. Energy drink consumption is a health issue primarily of the adolescent and young adult male population. It is linked to increased substance abuse and risk-taking behaviors. The most common adverse events affect the cardiovascular and neurological systems. The most common ingredient in energy drinks is caffeine, and it is believed that the adverse events are related to its effects, as well as potentiating effects of other stimulants in these drinks. Education, regulation, and further studies are required.

  12. Effective treatment of steatosis and steatohepatitis by fibroblast growth factor 1 in mouse models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weilin; Struik, Dicky; Nies, Vera J M; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Harkema, Liesbeth; de Bruin, Alain; Verkade, Henkjan J; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M; van Zutphen, Tim; Jonker, Johan W

    2016-02-23

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder and is strongly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Currently, there is no approved pharmacological treatment for this disease, but improvement of insulin resistance using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), has been shown to reduce steatosis and steatohepatitis effectively and to improve liver function in patients with obesity-related NAFLD. However, this approach is limited by adverse effects of TZDs. Recently, we have identified fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) as a target of nuclear receptor PPARγ in visceral adipose tissue and as a critical factor in adipose remodeling. Because FGF1 is situated downstream of PPARγ, it is likely that therapeutic targeting of the FGF1 pathway will eliminate some of the serious adverse effects associated with TZDs. Here we show that pharmacological administration of recombinant FGF1 (rFGF1) effectively improves hepatic inflammation and damage in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and in choline-deficient mice, two etiologically different models of NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis was effectively reduced only in ob/ob mice, suggesting that rFGF1 stimulates hepatic lipid catabolism. Potentially adverse effects such as fibrosis or proliferation were not observed in these models. Because the anti-inflammatory effects were observed in both the presence and absence of the antisteatotic effects, our findings further suggest that the anti-inflammatory property of rFGF1 is independent of its effect on lipid catabolism. Our current findings indicate that, in addition to its potent glucose-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects, rFGF1 could be therapeutically effective in the treatment of NAFLD.

  13. Effects of phthalic acid esters on the liver and thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, R.H.; Mitchell, F.E.; Mann, A.; Chescoe, D.; Price, S.C.; Nunn, A.; Grasso, P.; Bridges, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects, over periods from 3 days to 9 months of administration, of diets containing di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate are very similar to those observed in rats administered diets containing hypolipidemic drugs such as clofibrate. Changes occur in a characteristic order commencing with alterations in the distribution of lipid within the liver, quickly followed by proliferation of hepatic peroxisomes and induction of the specialized P-450 isoenzyme(s) catalyzing omega oxidation of fatty acids. There follows a phase of mild liver damage indicated by changes in incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into DNA, by induction of glucose-6-phosphatase activity and a loss of glycogen, eventually leading to the formation of enlarged lysosomes through autophagy and the accumulation of lipofuscin. Associated changes are found in the kidney and thyroid. The renal changes are limited to the proximal convoluted tubules and are generally similar to changes found in the liver. The effects on the thyroid are more marked. Although the levels of thyroxine in plasma fall to about half normal values, serum triiodothyronine remains close to normal values while the appearance of the thyroid varies, very marked hyperactivity being noted 7 days after commencement of treatment, this is less marked at 14 days, but even after 9 months treatment there is clear cut evidence for hyperactivity with colloid changes which indicate this has persisted for some time. The short-term in vivo hepatic effects of the three phthalate esters can be reproduced in hepatocytes in tissue culture. All three phthalate esters, as well as clofibrate, have early marked effects on the metabolism of fatty acids in isolated hepatocytes. A hypothesis is presented to explain the progress from these initial metabolic effects to the final formation of liver tumors

  14. Iohexol and iopamidol myelography in the dog: a clinical trial comparing adverse effects and myelographic quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, W.R.; Blevins, W.E.; Jakovljevic, S.; Teclaw, R.F.; Han, C.M.; Hurd, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    In a blind clinical trial, adverse effects after iohexol and iopamidol myelography were evaluated in 151 dogs. Eighty-one dogs were given iohexol (240 mgI/ml) and 70 dogs were given iopamidol (200 mgI/ml) by pre-determined assignment. Each dog was evaluated postmyelographically for seizures, hyperthermia, prolonged recovery from anesthesia and intensification of pre-existing neural signs. Myelographic quality was evaluated with a subjective scoring method. In comparing iohexol and iopamidol groups, there was not a statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse effects or in myelographic quality. Iopamidol and iohexol appeared to be equally efficacious for routine canine myelography

  15. Pretreatment Predictors of Adverse Radiation Effects After Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Prooijen, Monique van; Cusimano, Michael; Tsao, May; Menard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Schwartz, Michael; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify vascular and dosimetric predictors of symptomatic T2 signal change and adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation, in order to define and validate preexisting risk models. Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were treated at our institution between 2005 and 2009. Eighty-five patients have at least 12 months of clinical and radiological follow-up. Any new-onset headaches, new or worsening seizures, or neurological deficit were considered adverse events. Follow-up magnetic resonance images were assessed for new onset T2 signal change and the volume calculated. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects. Results: There were 19 children and 66 adults in the study cohort, with a mean age of 34 (range 6–74). Twenty-three (27%) patients suffered adverse radiation effects (ARE), 9 patients with permanent neurological deficit (10.6%). Of these, 5 developed fixed visual field deficits. Target volume and 12 Gy volume were the most significant predictors of adverse radiation effects on univariate analysis (p 3 , above which the rate of ARE increased dramatically. Multivariate analysis target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage are the only significant predictors of ARE. The volume of T2 signal change correlates to ARE, but only target volume is predictive of a higher volume of T2 signal change. Conclusions: Target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage is the most accurate predictor of adverse radiation effects and complications after radiosurgery for AVMs. A high percentage of permanent visual field defects in this series suggest the optic radiation is a critical radiosensitive structure.

  16. THE EFFECT OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION ON ADVERSITY QUOTIENT IN PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The population was taken from ambulatory patients. There were 16 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was extrinsic motivation and dependent variable was Adversity Quotient. Data were collected by using questionnaire and interview, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level p=0.05. Result: The result revealed that there was an effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient of patients with HIV/AIDS (p=0.017. The extrinsic motivation was found to have an effect on control response (p=0.027 and origin response (p=0.028, there was no influence of extrinsic motivation on ownership response (p=0.334, reach (p=0.129 and endurance (p=0.161. Discussion: It can be concluded that the extrinsic motivation with intervention of social support has a positive effect on the improvement of Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS. Further studies should measure the effectiveness of Adversity Quotient training on acceptance response in patients with HIV/AIDS.

  17. Contribution of new technologies to characterization and prediction of adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquié, David; Heneweer, Marjoke; Botham, Jane; Ketelslegers, Hans; Markell, Lauren; Pfister, Thomas; Steiling, Winfried; Strauss, Volker; Hennes, Christa

    2015-02-01

    Identification of the potential hazards of chemicals has traditionally relied on studies in laboratory animals where changes in clinical pathology and histopathology compared to untreated controls defined an adverse effect. In the past decades, increased consistency in the definition of adversity with chemically-induced effects in laboratory animals, as well as in the assessment of human relevance has been reached. More recently, a paradigm shift in toxicity testing has been proposed, mainly driven by concerns over animal welfare but also thanks to the development of new methods. Currently, in vitro approaches, toxicogenomic technologies and computational tools, are available to provide mechanistic insight in toxicological Mode of Action (MOA) of the adverse effects observed in laboratory animals. The vision described as Tox21c (Toxicity Testing in the 21st century) aims at predicting in vivo toxicity using a bottom-up-approach, starting with understanding of MOA based on in vitro data to ultimately predict adverse effects in humans. At present, a practical application of the Tox21c vision is still far away. While moving towards toxicity prediction based on in vitro data, a stepwise reduction of in vivo testing is foreseen by combining in vitro with in vivo tests. Furthermore, newly developed methods will also be increasingly applied, in conjunction with established methods in order to gain trust in these new methods. This confidence is based on a critical scientific prerequisite: the establishment of a causal link between data obtained with new technologies and adverse effects manifested in repeated-dose in vivo toxicity studies. It is proposed to apply the principles described in the WHO/IPCS framework of MOA to obtain this link. Finally, an international database of known MOAs obtained in laboratory animals using data-rich chemicals will facilitate regulatory acceptance and could further help in the validation of the toxicity pathway and adverse outcome pathway

  18. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  19. The effect of phenobarbital on the transcriptional activity of liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardwick, J P; Schwalm, F; Richardson, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of phenobarbital on the transcriptional activity of liver was studied by measuring the synthesis of RNA by suspensions of hepatocytes isolated from rats treated with phenobarbital for various time periods. The absolute rates of RNA synthesis by isolated hepatocytes were determined by measuring the incorporation of [3H]orotic acid into RNA as UMP and the specific radioactivity of the UTP pool. The specific radioactivity of the UTP extracted from hepatocytes isolated from phenobarbit...

  20. Adrenergic Metabolic and Hemodynamic Effects of Octopamine in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelar Bracht

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite suppressants. A component of these extracts is octopamine, which is an adrenergic agent. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of octopamine on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways and hemodynamics. Octopamine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake, gluconeogenesis and the portal perfusion pressure. Octopamine also accelerated the oxidation of exogenous fatty acids (octanoate and oleate, as revealed by the increase in 14CO2 production derived from 14C labeled precursors. The changes in glycogenolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure were almost completely abolished by α1-adrenergic antagonists. The same changes were partly sensitive to the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. It can be concluded that octopamine accelerates both catabolic and anabolic processes in the liver via adrenergic stimulation. Acceleration of oxygen uptake under substrate-free perfusion conditions also means acceleration of the oxidation of endogenous fatty acids, which are derived from lipolysis. All these effects are compatible with an overall stimulating effect of octopamine on metabolism, which is compatible with its reported weight-loss effects in experimental animals.

  1. Statin-associated muscle-related adverse effects: a case series of 354 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Stephanie; Evans, Marcella A; Denenberg, Julie O; Golomb, Beatrice A

    2010-06-01

    To characterize the properties and natural history of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin)-associated muscle-related adverse effects (MAEs). Patient-targeted postmarketing adverse-effect surveillance approach coupling survey design with an open-ended narrative. University-affiliated health care system. Three hundred fifty-four patients (age range 34-86 yrs) who self-reported muscle-related problems associated with statin therapy. Patients with perceived statin-associated MAEs completed a survey assessing statin drugs and dosages; characteristics of the MAEs; time course of onset, resolution, or recurrence; and impact on quality of life (QOL). Cases were assessed for putative drug adverse-effect causality by using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale criteria and were evaluated for inclusion in groups for which mortality benefit with statins has been shown. Patients reported muscle pain (93%), fatigue (88%), and weakness (85%). Three hundred patients (85%) met literature criteria for probable or definite drug adverse-effect causality. Ninety-four percent of atorvastatin usages (240/255) generated MAEs versus 61% of lovastatin usages (38/62, pstatins reproduced MAEs in 100% of 39 rechallenges versus 73% (29/40) with lower potency rechallenges (pstatin initiation varied (median 14 wks); some MAEs occurred after long-term symptom-free use. Recurrence with rechallenge had a significantly shorter latency to onset (median 2 wks). The MAEs adversely affected all assessed functional and QOL domains. Most patients with probable or definite MAEs were in categories for which available randomized controlled trial evidence shows no trend to all-cause mortality benefit with statin therapy. This study complements available information on the properties and natural history of statin-associated MAEs, affirming dose dependence and strong QOL impact. The data indicating a dose-dependent relationship between MAE risk and recurrence suggest

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihyun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-05-11

    Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s) of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin.

  4. The Adverse Events and Hemodynamic Effects of Adenosine-Based Cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtlander, Thomas; Magedanz, Annett; Schmermund, Axel; Bramlage, Peter; Elsaesser, Amelie; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Mohrs, Oliver K.

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to prospectively assess the adverse events and hemodynamic effects associated with an intravenous adenosine infusion in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease and who were undergoing cardiac MRI. One hundred and sixty-eight patients (64 ± 9 years) received adenosine (140 μg/kg/min) during cardiac MRI. Before and during the administration, the heart rate, systemic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were monitored using a MRI-compatible system. We documented any signs and symptoms of potential adverse events. In total, 47 out of 168 patients (28%) experienced adverse effects, which were mostly mild or moderate. In 13 patients (8%), the adenosine infusion was discontinued due to intolerable dyspnea or chest pain. No high grade atrioventricular block, bronchospasm or other life-threatening adverse events occurred. The hemodynamic measurements showed a significant increase in the heart rate during adenosine infusion (69.3 ± 11.7 versus 82.4 ± 13.0 beats/min, respectively; p < 0.001). A significant but clinically irrelevant increase in oxygen saturation occurred during adenosine infusion (96 ± 1.9% versus 97 ± 1.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The blood pressure did not significantly change during adenosine infusion (systolic: 142.8 ± 24.0 versus 140.9 ± 25.7 mmHg; diastolic: 80.2 ± 12.5 mmHg versus 78.9 ± 15.6, respectively). This study confirms the safety of adenosine infusion during cardiac MRI. A considerable proportion of all patients will experience minor adverse effects and some patients will not tolerate adenosine infusion. However, all adverse events can be successfully managed by a radiologist. The increased heart rate during adenosine infusion highlights the need to individually adjust the settings according to the patient, e.g., the number of slices of myocardial perfusion imaging.

  5. Clearance of iron oxide particles in rat liver: effect of hydrated particle size and coating material on liver metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C; Johansson, Lars O; Hustvedt, Svein Olaf; Haldorsen, Anita G; Bjørnerud, Atle; Fayad, Zahi A; Ahlstrom, Haakan K

    2006-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the effect of the particle size and coating material of various iron oxide preparations on the rate of rat liver clearance. The following iron oxide formulations were used in this study: dextran-coated ferumoxide (size = 97 nm) and ferumoxtran-10 (size = 21 nm), carboxydextran-coated SHU555A (size = 69 nm) and fractionated SHU555A (size = 12 nm), and oxidized-starch coated materials either unformulated NC100150 (size = 15 nm) or formulated NC100150 injection (size = 12 nm). All formulations were administered to 165 rats at 2 dose levels. Quantitative liver R2* values were obtained during a 63-day time period. The concentration of iron oxide particles in the liver was determined by relaxometry, and these values were used to calculate the particle half-lives in the liver. After the administration of a high dose of iron oxide, the half-life of iron oxide particles in rat liver was 8 days for dextran-coated materials, 10 days for carboxydextran materials, 14 days for unformulated oxidized-starch, and 29 days for formulated oxidized-starch. The results of the study indicate that materials with similar coating but different sizes exhibited similar rates of liver clearance. It was, therefore, concluded that the coating material significantly influences the rate of iron oxide clearance in rat liver.

  6. Gender differences in the effects of childhood adversity on alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Grella, Christine E; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2017-07-01

    To examine gender differences in the associations between childhood adversity and different types of substance use disorders and whether gender moderates these relationships. We analyzed data from 19,209 women and 13,898 men as provided by Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender moderates the associations between childhood adversity and DSM-IV defined lifetime occurrence of alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders. We used multinomial logistic regression, weighted to be representative of the US adult civilian, noninstitutionalized population, and we calculated predicted probabilities by gender, controlling for covariates. To test which specific moderation contrasts were statistically significant, we conducted pair-wise comparisons corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni's method. For each type of substance use disorder, risk was increased by more exposure to childhood adversity, and women had a lower risk than men. However, moderation effects revealed that with more experiences of childhood adversity, the gender gap in predicted probability for a disorder narrowed in relation to alcohol, it converged in relation to drugs such that risk among women surpassed that among men, and it widened in relation to polysubstances. Knowledge regarding substance-specific gender differences associated with childhood adversity exposure can inform evidence-based treatments. It may also be useful for shaping other types of gender-sensitive public health initiatives to ameliorate or prevent different types of substance use disorders.

  7. Social Adversity and Antisocial Behavior: Mediating Effects of Autonomic Nervous System Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Shawn E; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yu

    2017-11-01

    The display of antisocial behaviors in children and adolescents has been of interest to criminologists and developmental psychologists for years. Exposure to social adversity is a well-documented predictor of antisocial behavior. Additionally, measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and heart rate, have been associated with antisocial behaviors including rule-breaking and aggression. Social neuroscience research has begun to investigate how neurobiological underpinnings affect the relationship between social adversity and antisocial/psychopathic behavior in children and adolescents. This study investigated the potential mediating effects of ANS activity on the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in a group of 7- to 10-year-old children from the community (N = 339; 48.2% male). Moderated multiple mediation analyses revealed that low resting heart rate, but not PEP or HRV, mediated the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in males only. Social adversity but not ANS measures were associated with antisocial behavior in females. Findings have implications for understanding the neural influences that underlie antisocial behavior, illustrate the importance of the social environment regarding the expression of these behaviors, and highlight essential gender differences.

  8. Adverse effects of biologics: a network meta-analysis and Cochrane overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, J. A.; Wells, G. A.; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2011-01-01

    Background Biologics are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and many other conditions. While the efficacy of biologics has been established, there is uncertainty regarding the adverse effects of this treatment. Since serious risks such as tuberculosis (TB) reactivation, serious...

  9. Late adverse effects of whole cranial irradiation in childhood hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Masanori; Nakata, Kensei; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Oouchi, Atsushi; Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the late adverse effects of childhood hematological disorders treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy including whole cranial irradiation at Sapporo Medical University Hospital. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy and 18-24 Gy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 14 patients were treated with 3-12.8 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for ALL, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), malignant lymphoma, and aplastic anemia (AA). Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 15 years old, and 28 were males and 14 were females. All patients were disease-free more than 2 years after diagnosis. Of 42 patients, 4 patients had decreased height (less than -2 S.D.), 3 patients required hormone replacement therapy, 2 patients had mental retardation, 3 patients had leukoencephalopathy, and 1 patient had a second malignancy. Except for the cases of decreased height, 3 of 7 late adverse effects were occurred in patients who had relapse of disease, and the risk of the adverse effects seemed to be higher for those patients whose doses of PCI were 22 Gy or more, or who received an additional craniospinal irradiation due to relapse of disease, and 18 Gy of PCI did not increase the risk of adverse effects. (author)

  10. Rodenticide incidents of exposure and adverse effects on non-raptor birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the adverse effects of rodenticides on birds has focused primarily on raptors. However, non-raptor birds are also poisoned (rodenticide exposure resulting in adverse effects including mortality) by rodenticides through consumption of the rodenticide bait and contaminated prey. A literature search for rodenticide incidents (evidence of exposure to a rodenticide, adverse effects, or exposure to placebo baits) involving non-raptor birds returned 641 records spanning the years 1931 to 2016. The incidents included 17 orders, 58 families, and 190 non-raptor bird species. Nineteen anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant rodenticide active ingredients were associated with the incidents. The number of incidents and species detected were compared by surveillance method. An incident was considered to have been reported through passive surveillance if it was voluntarily reported to the authorities whereas the report of an incident found through field work that was conducted with the objective of documenting adverse effects on birds was determined to be from active surveillance. More incidents were reported from passive surveillance than with active surveillance but a significantly greater number of species were detected in proportion to the number of incidents found through active surveillance than with passive surveillance (z = 7.61, p raptor bird poisonings from rodenticides may increase incident reportings and can strengthen the predictions of harm characterized by risk assessments.

  11. An overview of adverse health effects caused by mycotoxins and bioassays for their detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Leusden van FM; MGB

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to moulds and their (toxic) metabolites (mycotoxins) is a menace to human and animal health. A risk analysis can shed light on the actual risk of adverse health effects. In a previously published RIVM report (nr. 257852 002) on hazard identification the genera, Aspergillus, Penicillium,

  12. Evaluation of the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard: Effect on Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Marie-Claude; Duchaine, Caroline S; Aubé, Karine; Talbot, Denis; Mantha-Bélisle, Marie-Michèle; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; St-Hilaire, France; Biron, Caroline; Vézina, Michel; Brisson, Chantal

    2018-02-28

    Adverse psychosocial work factors are recognized as a significant source of psychological distress, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The impact of occupational health standards that aim to reduce these adverse work factors, such as the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard (QHES), is of great interest for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of QHES interventions targeting adverse psychosocial work factors on the prevalence of these factors and of psychological distress among ten Quebec organizations. These outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using validated instruments before (T1, n = 2849) and 2-3 years following (T2, n = 2560) QHES implementation. Beneficial effects of interventions were observed for two adverse psychosocial work factors: low rewards (ratio of prevalence ratios (PRs) = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.91) and low social support at work (ratio of PRs = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.77-1.03). Moreover, beneficial effects of interventions were also observed on the prevalence of high psychological distress (ratio of PRs = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75-0.998). Psychosocial interventions implemented in the context of this standard improved the psychosocial work environment and had beneficial effects on workers' mental health.

  13. Evaluation of the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard: Effect on Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Letellier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse psychosocial work factors are recognized as a significant source of psychological distress, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The impact of occupational health standards that aim to reduce these adverse work factors, such as the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard (QHES, is of great interest for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of QHES interventions targeting adverse psychosocial work factors on the prevalence of these factors and of psychological distress among ten Quebec organizations. These outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using validated instruments before (T1, n = 2849 and 2–3 years following (T2, n = 2560 QHES implementation. Beneficial effects of interventions were observed for two adverse psychosocial work factors: low rewards (ratio of prevalence ratios (PRs = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.91 and low social support at work (ratio of PRs = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.77–1.03. Moreover, beneficial effects of interventions were also observed on the prevalence of high psychological distress (ratio of PRs = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75–0.998. Psychosocial interventions implemented in the context of this standard improved the psychosocial work environment and had beneficial effects on workers’ mental health.

  14. Adverse radiation effect after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases : incidence, time course, and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Penny K.; Mendez, Joe; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna; Seymour, Zachary A.; Ma, Lijun; Molinaro, Annette M.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Nakamura, Jean L.; McDermott, Michael W.

    OBJECT The authors sought to determine the incidence, time course, and risk factors for overall adverse radiation effect (ARE) and symptomatic ARE after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. METHODS All cases of brain metastases treated from 1998 through 2009 with Gamma Knife SRS at

  15. Switching, Adverse Effects and Use of Over-the-Counter Analgesics among Users of Oral Anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Hyllested, Lea Maria Ronneberg; Meegaard, Line

    2017-01-01

    ) to a NOAC. Switching was most frequently caused by inconvenience (34%) and adverse effects (23%). Although half of all patients had recently bought over-the-counter analgesics, purchase of ibuprofen and aspirin was rare (6%). More VKA users than NOAC users felt limited in their everyday life because...

  16. Adverse effects in coronary angiography: a comparative study of different temperature contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Peng; Wang Qiulin; Cai Guocai; Li Lu; Jiang Licheng; Yang Zhen; Huang Xiuping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between different temperature contrast medium and the occurrence of adverse effects, including the chest discomfort, the changes of heart rate, ST segment and T wave, the operating time and the used dosage of contrast medium, in performing coronary angiography. Methods: According to the contrast medium temperature used in coronary angiography, the patients were randomly divided into two groups: room temperature group (n=521) and warm temperature group (n=522). The contrast medium used in warm temperature group was bathed in 37 ℃ water for 60 minutes when the coronary angiography was carried out. The T Wave amplitude changes ≥ 0.01 mv, ST segment depression ≥ 0.05 mv, changes in heart rate ≥ 10 times/min were brought into the positive accounting. The occurrence of adverse effects, such as palpitation, chest distress and pectoralgia, the operative time and the used dosage of contrast medium were recorded. The results were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences in the changes of heart rate, ST segment deviation, T wave change and operating time existed between the two groups (P<0.05). And the difference in the occurrence of adverse effects between the two groups was also statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: When performing coronary angiography, warming of the contrast medium with water bath is greatly conducive to the prevention of cardiac adverse effects. (authors)

  17. The Impact of Perceived Adverse Effects on Medication Changes in Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, Ruth H. E.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Denig, Petra

    Background: Given the importance of patient safety and well-being, we quantified the likelihood and type of medication changes observed after 5 possible adverse effects (AE) perceived by heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 18 months

  18. Perceived medication adverse effects and coping strategies reported by chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, R.H.E.; Denig, P.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Jaarsma, T.

    Data on medication adverse effects (AEs) in chronic heart failure (CHF) are primarily based on results from clinical trials. Little is known about AEs perceived by CHF patients in daily practice and how patients deal with these subjective AEs. To describe the scope and nature of perceived AEs of CHF

  19. The economic cost of adverse health effects from wildfire-smoke exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuho Kochi; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Patricia A. Champ; John B. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    The economic costs of adverse health effects associated with exposure to wildfire smoke should be given serious consideration in determining the optimal wildfire management policy. Unfortunately, the literature in this research area is thin. In an effort to better understand the nature of these economic costs, we review and synthesise the relevant literature in three...

  20. A Serious Adverse Effect of Pseudoephedrine Used For Common Cold Treatment : Ventricular Arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common cold is one of the frequently seen disease in childhood. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH is a sympathomimetic drug which is widely used for treatment of common cold as a decongestant on children. The aim of this case report is, to draw attention to serious adverse effects of PEH treatment. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 506-510

  1. Caregiver Acceptance of Adverse Effects and Use of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, Mark; Wolfson, Christina; Vandal, Alain C.; Bergman, Howard; Xie, Qihao

    2007-01-01

    Caregivers play a determining role in choosing treatments for persons with Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this study was to examine caregivers' willingness to have persons with Alzheimer's disease continue taking cholinesterase inhibitors in the event that any 1 of 11 adverse effects was to occur. Data were gathered via postal questionnaire…

  2. Adverse effects of nickel in transosseous wires and surgical implants: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwashindi, A; Dim, E M

    2014-01-01

    Transosseous wires used in the management of fractures are stainless steel alloys which contain nickel 14.5%, chromium 17.6%, iron 62.5% and molybdenum 2.8%. Gradual disintegration of the transosseous wires release nickel into the blood leading to increase nickel concentration in the blood. Nickel has been found to have some adverse systemic effects on the body. The aim of this paper is to discuss the sources of Nickel in the body as well as the systemic adverse effects of Nickel as a degradation product of stainless steel surgical implants. A study of pertinent literature on nickel as a content of stainless steel alloy used in implant surgery was done, taking note also of other sources of nickel in the body, the toxicokinetics of nickel and the related adverse effects of this metal and its compound in humans. As outcome,the sources of human exposure to nickel,distribution and metabolism of nickel in the body, host responseto stainless steel wires and the adverse effects of nickel in the body are presented. It may be necessary to discourage the use of wires or implants containing nickel in the management of fractures.The need for removal of these implants after they have served their purposes is emphasized.

  3. A man who wanted to commit suicide by hanging himself: an adverse effect of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amir I A; van der Heijden, Frank M M A; van den Berkmortel, Hanneke; Kramers, Kees

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a man who developed recurrent depression and suicidal ideation with a serious plan to commit suicide as definite adverse effect of ciprofloxacin, which had been prescribed for recurrent prostatitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...

  5. Adverse reactions, psychological factors, and their effect on donor retention in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.J.T.; Atsma, F.; van Dongen, A.; de Kort, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the effect of a vasovagal reaction (VVR) or needle reaction (NR) on the risk of stopping as a blood donor, taking into account variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Is stopping risk solely related to the adverse reaction itself, or do the TPB

  6. Trastuzumab-associated cardiac adverse effects in the herceptin adjuvant trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suter, Thomas M.; Procter, Marion; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Muscholl, Michael; Bergh, Jonas; Carlomagno, Chiara; Perren, Timothy; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Bighin, Claudia; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Ageev, Fail T.; Hitre, Erika; Groetz, Juergen; Iwata, Hiroji; Knap, Malgorzata; Gnant, Michael; Muehlbauer, Susanne; Spence, Alison; Gelber, Richard D.; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to investigate trastuzumab- associated cardiac adverse effects in breast cancer patients after completion of ( neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Patients and Methods The Herceptin Adjuvant ( HERA) trial is a three- group, multicenter,

  7. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: adverse effects of medications and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B E; Hatters-Friedman, S; Fernandes-Filho, J A; Anthony, K; Natowicz, M R

    2006-09-12

    The authors conducted a retrospective and brief prospective study of adverse effects of approximately 350 medications in 44 adults with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS). Some medications were relatively safe, whereas others, particularly haloperidol, risperidone, and chlorpromazine, were associated with neurologic worsening.

  8. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  9. Meta-analysis of recent studies on patients admitted to hospital due to adverse drug effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atiqi, R.; Cleophas, T. J.; van Bommel, E.; Zwinderman, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    The use of drugs has expanded during the previous decade. However, earlier studies oil patients admitted for adverse drugs effects (ADEs) have been heterogeneous. The objectives of this Study were to assess the number of recent admissions to hospital Clue to ADEs and to assess the degree of

  10. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Ortiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood.

  11. Effect of Qianggan capsules on insulin resistance index and liver fibrosis score in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of Qianggan capsules on liver fibrosis score and insulin resistance index in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Methods A total of 85 NAFLD patients who were treated in the Eighth People′s Hospital of Shanghai from August 2014 to July 2015 were enrolled and randomly divided into treatment group (45 patients and control group (40 patients. The patients in the treatment group were given Qianggan capsules, and those in the control group were given polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules. The course of treatment was 24 weeks for both groups. The changes in serum aminotransferases [aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT], homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and NAFLD fibrosis score (NAFLDFS after treatment were observed in both groups. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, before-after comparison within each group was made by paired t-test; and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results Both groups showed significant improvements in ALT and AST levels after treatment (all P<0.01. After treatment the treatment group showed significant reductions in HOMA-IR and NAFLDFS (3.58±0.85 vs 2.48±078,t=6.40,P<0.01; -1.78±1.24 vs -2.35±0.98,t=2.40,P<0.01 and the treatment group had significantly lower HOMA-IR and NAFLDFS than the control group(12.48±0.78 vs 3.09±0.89, t=3.36, P<0.01; -2.35±0.98 vs -1.48±1.08, t=3.80, P<0.01. No serious adverse events were observed during the course of treatment. Conclusion Qianggan capsules not only reduce the levels of serum aminotransferases, but also improve insulin resistance and reduce fibrosis degree in NAFLD patients.

  12. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisha Kelly Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders; drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included medical marijuana with a subheading for adverse effect. Only articles in adult patients were considered. In addition, medical marijuana or cannabis plus one of the following search terms were searched: drug interactions, herb-drug interactions, drug-related side effects and adverse drug reactions, substance-related disorders, addiction, and abuse. A free-text search was also conducted to identify articles not included in the MeSH term search. A bibliographic search was also conducted. Articles were included if they addressed adverse effects of medical marijuana for the treatment of a condition. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled clinical trials, and case reports were included in the review if the primary focus of the article related to the adverse effect profile of inhaled medical marijuana. Medical marijuana efficacy studies were not assessed. In the absence of this information, case reports or reports of inhaled recreational marijuana use was used. Studies were excluded if published in languages other than English. In addition, studies highlighting mechanisms of action, studies of pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetic effects were excluded, unless these effects were due to drug-drug interactions. Prescription products containing marijuana or derivatives were excluded from evaluation. An Internet search was conducted to locate the most up-to-date information on the laws concerning medical marijuana. Key findings: A PubMed search revealed 58 articles and 28 of

  13. Effect of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically alcohol-induced liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jinle; Zhu, Wenxue; Li, Zhixi; Ling, Shengbao

    2012-06-01

    The protective effects of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically ethanol-induced biochemical changes in male mice were investigated. Administration of ethanol (50%, v/v, 10 mL kg⁻¹) to mice for 6 weeks induced liver damage with a significant increase (P vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles (10 mL kg⁻¹ bw) along with alcohol significantly (P vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles showed better profiles of the antioxidant systems with relatively higher glutathione (GSH) content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. All these results were accompanied by histological observations in liver. The results demonstrate that both of the juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles have beneficial effects in reducing the adverse effect of alcohol.

  14. The adverse effect of real effective exchange rate change on trade balance in European transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Begović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most European transition countries have fixed or highly managed flexible exchange rate regimes. This exchange rate rigidity is sometimes argued to worsen the trade balance by keeping the currency overvalued. However, there is no unambiguous evidence that currency depreciation/devaluation positively affects trade balance and leads towards the adjustment, even in the short-run. Therefore, we examine the effect of real effective exchange rate (hereafter REER on trade balance in European transition economies over the period 2000-2015. By using fixed effect model for static and generalised method of moments for dynamic estimation, we find that there is an adverse effect of the REER on trade balance in European transition countries over the period 2000-2015. Namely, depreciation of REER deteriorates trade balance in European transition countries, which could be explained by high import dependence and low export capacity. This implies that policymakers in European transition countries should not use exchange rate policy to improve trade balance. This is important in the light of their accession towards European economic and monetary integration, implying that these countries should focus more on using fiscal, rather than monetary (and exchange rate, policy to adjust trade balance, which is one of the required real convergence towards the EU standards.

  15. Adverse Effects with Ambulatory Intravenous Immunoglobulin Administration in Adult Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Alicia Rodríguez-Mireles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common variable immunode ciency (CVID is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, affecting 1:25,000- 75,000 people. It is characterized by the absence or decrease antibody production. Treatment for CVID consists on human immunoglobulin administration, and the intravenous route is the most common route for administration, at 400-800 mg/kg of weight every 3-4 weeks. Adverse effects associated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg use occur in 25% of all infusions, with severe adverse reactions presenting in less than 1% of all patients. Acute renal failure can occur as a severe adverse reaction, which presents 1-10 days after starting IVIg treatment. In our center we implemented an ambulatory scheme for IVIg administration, which allows its administration in an average of 3 hours, without severe adverse effects. Objectives: To describe adverse effects and to evaluate the frequency of renal failure secondary to ambulatory IVIg administration in patients with common variable immunode ciency. Material and method: A descriptive and prospective study was done including adult patients con de nitive diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency, receiving IVIg at replacement dose every 3 weeks. All patients were evaluated with clinical exploration, somatometry, serum creatinine, albumin and urea determination, 24 hours creatinine clearance, glomerular ltration rate with CKD-EPI, and immediate renal function associated with accumulated IVIg. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: We determined adverse effects in 25 patients with common variable immunode ciency (15 women and 10 men, average age 36.7 years, during a 10 months period (January-September 2013. During this period 284 IVIg infusions were administered using our scheme, frequency of adverse effects were 12.9%, with 5.2% of early adverse effects and 7.7% late adverse effects, all being mild to moderate, in some cases required analgesic and

  16. Quality of life and adverse effects of olanzapine versus risperidone therapy in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Katarina Melo; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Ribeiro, Susana Barbosa; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo; do Socorro Costa Feitosa Alves, Maria; de Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes; de Paula Soares Rachetti, Vanessa; Filgueira Júnior, Antônio; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes

    2013-03-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the effects of treatment with an atypical antipsychotic drug (olanzapine or risperidone) on quality of life (QoL) and to document adverse effects in 115 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who attended the ambulatory service of Hospital Dr. João Machado, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and clinical variables were compared. The QoL Scale validated for Brazil (QLS-BR) was used to evaluate QoL, and adverse effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %. Patients in both drug groups showed severe impairment in the occupational domain of the QLS-BR. Global QLS-BR scores indicated impairment among risperidone users and severe impairment among olanzapine users. The most significant side effects were associated with risperidone, including asthenia/lassitude/fatigue, somnolence/sedation, paresthesia, change in visual accommodation, increased salivation, diarrhea, orthostatic posture, palpitations/tachycardia, erythema, photosensitivity, weight loss, galactorrhea, decreased sexual desire, erectile/orgasmic dysfunction, vaginal dryness, headache, and physical dependence. QoL was impaired in patients using olanzapine and in those using risperidone. Risperidone use was associated with psychic, neurological, and autonomous adverse effects and other side effects.

  17. Effect of gemcitabine chemotherapy on immune function and VEGF in patients with middle and advanced liver cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zuo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of gemcitabine chemotherapy on the immune function and VEGF in patients with middle and advanced liver cancer. Methods: A total of 90 patients with middle and advanced liver cancer who were admitted in our hospital from June, 2014 to July, 2015 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 45 cases in each group. The patients in the control group were given adriamycin, and the patients in the observation group were given gemcitabine chemotherapy. The efficacy, immunological function indicators, VEGF level, and the occurrence of adverse reactions in the two groups were compared. Results: IL-6 and TNF-毩 levels after treatment in the two groups were significantly elevated, and the increased degree in the observation group was significantly greater than that in the control group (P0.05. VEGF level after treatment in the two groups was significantly reduced, and the reduced degree in the observation group was significantly greater than that in the control group (P<0.05. The improvement of T cell subsets after treatment in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05. The occurrence rate of adverse reactions in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Gemcitabine chemotherapy on patients with middle and advanced liver cancer can effectively improve the immunological function, and enhance the efficacy, with a higher safety.

  18. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-02-02

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg ethanol increased GFAP expression and induced mislocation of the astrocyte-specific water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but decreased the levels of several cytokines. Surprisingly, glymphatic function increased in mice treated with 0.5 g/kg (low dose) ethanol following acute exposure, as well as after one month of chronic exposure. Low doses of chronic ethanol intake were associated with a significant decrease in GFAP expression, with little change in the cytokine profile compared with the saline group. These observations suggest that ethanol has a J-shaped effect on the glymphatic system whereby low doses of ethanol increase glymphatic function. Conversely, chronic 1.5 g/kg ethanol intake induced reactive gliosis and perturbed glymphatic function, which possibly may contribute to the higher risk of dementia observed in heavy drinkers.

  19. Systematic Review of Adverse Effects: A Further Step towards Modernization of Acupuncture in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junyi; Hu, Yanmei; Zhu, Yin; Yin, Ping; Xu, Shifen

    2015-01-01

    As a further step towards the modernization of acupuncture, the objective of this review was to figure out the frequency and severity of adverse complications and events in acupuncture treatment reported from 1980 to 2013 in China. All first-hand case reports of acupuncture-related complications and adverse events that could be identified in the scientific literature were reviewed and classified according to the type of complication and adverse event, circumstance of the event, and long-term patient outcome. The selected case reports were published between 1980 and 2013 in 3 databases. Relevant papers were collected and analyzed by 2 reviewers. Over the 33 years, 182 incidents were identified in 133 relevant papers. Internal organ, tissue, or nerve injury is the main complications of acupuncture especially for pneumothorax and central nervous system injury. Adverse effects also included syncope, infections, hemorrhage, allergy, burn, aphonia, hysteria, cough, thirst, fever, somnolence, and broken needles. Qualifying training of acupuncturists should be systemized and the clinical acupuncture operations should be standardized in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of acupuncture accidents, enhance the influence of acupuncture, and further popularize acupuncture to the rest of the world. PMID:26339265

  20. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Maisha Kelly Freeman; Pilar Z Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders); drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included med...

  1. The price of donation after cardiac death in liver transplantation : a prospective cost-effectiveness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hilst, Christian S.; IJtsma, Alexander J. C.; Bottema, Jan T.; van Hoek, Bart; Dubbeld, Jeroen; Metselaar, Herold J.; Kazemier, Geert; van den Berg, Aad P.; Porte, Robert J.; Slooff, Maarten J. H.

    This study aims to perform a detailed prospective observational multicenter cost-effectiveness study by comparing liver transplantations with Donation after Brain Death (DBD) and Donation after Cardiac Death (DCD) grafts. All liver transplantations in the three Dutch liver transplant centers between

  2. Adverse Biological Effect of TiO2 and Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Used in Bone Repair and Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangxue Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The adverse biological effect of nanoparticles is an unavoidable scientific problem because of their small size and high surface activity. In this review, we focus on nano-hydroxyapatite and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs to clarify the potential systemic toxicological effect and cytotoxic response of wear nanoparticles because they are attractive materials for bone implants and are widely investigated to promote the repair and reconstruction of bone. The wear nanoparticles would be prone to binding with proteins to form protein-particle complexes, to interacting with visible components in the blood including erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, and to being phagocytosed by macrophages or fibroblasts to deposit in the local tissue, leading to the formation of fibrous local pseudocapsules. These particles would also be translocated to and disseminated into the main organs such as the lung, liver and spleen via blood circulation. The inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and signaling pathway are elaborated to analyze the potential toxicological mechanism. Inhibition of the oxidative stress response and signaling transduction may be a new therapeutic strategy for wear debris–mediated osteolysis. Developing biomimetic materials with better biocompatibility is our goal for orthopedic implants.

  3. Adverse effects of gluten ingestion and advantages of gluten withdrawal in nonceliac autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Matthias, Torsten

    2017-12-01

    In light of the coincident surge in overall gluten intake and the incidence of autoimmune diseases, the possible biological adverse effects of gluten were explored. PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library databases were screened for reports published between 1964 and 2016 regarding the adverse effects of gluten as well as the effects of a gluten-free diet on autoimmune diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies describing gluten intake in animal models or cell lines and gluten-free diets in human autoimmune diseases were reviewed. Multiple detrimental aspects of gluten affect human health, including gluten-dependent digestive and extradigestive manifestations mediated by potentially immunological or toxic reactions that induce gastrointestinal inadequacy. Gluten affects the microbiome and increases intestinal permeability. It boosts oxidative stress and affects epigenetic behavior. It is also immunogenic, cytotoxic, and proinflammatory. Gluten intake increases apoptosis and decreases cell viability and differentiation. In certain nonceliac autoimmune diseases, gluten-free diets may help curtail the adverse effects of gluten. Additional in vivo studies are needed to unravel the puzzle of gluten effects in humans and to explore the potential beneficial effects of gluten-free diets in autoimmune diseases. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Adverse effects induced by ecgonine methyl ester to the zebra mussel: A comparison with the benzoylecgonine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parolini, Marco; Binelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine and its metabolites are the prevalent psychotropic substances in aquatic environment. However, to date the knowledge on their adverse effects to non-target organisms is inadequate. The aims of this study were to investigate sub-lethal effects induced by the ecgonine methyl ester (EME) to the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha and to compare its toxicity to that by benzoylecgonine (BE), the other main cocaine metabolite. EME sub-lethal effects were investigated by 14 days in-vivo exposures and a multi-biomarker approach. Slight variations in biomarker responses were found at 0.15 μg/L treatment. 0.5 μg/L EME treatment induced destabilization of lysosome membranes, an overall inactivation of defense enzymes, increases in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA fragmentation, but no variations in fixed genetic damage. The use of a biomarker response index (BRI) showed that at 0.5 μg/L both cocaine metabolites had the same toxicity to zebra mussels specimens. -- Highlights: •Sub-lethal effects induced by ecgonine methyl ester (EME) to D. polymorpha were investigated. •Realistic EME concentrations caused notable adverse effects in treated bivalves. •EME induced oxidative injuries to treated-mussel lipids, protein and DNA. •EME toxicity was comparable to the benzoylecgonine one. -- Environmentally relevant ecgonine methyl ester concentrations induced adverse effects to zebra mussels

  5. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P well as social isolation from the family and community.

  6. Systemic and Nonrenal Adverse Effects Occurring in Renal Transplant Patients Treated with mTOR Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I, sirolimus and everolimus, are immunosuppressive drugs largely used in renal transplantation. The main mechanism of action of these drugs is the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a regulatory protein kinase involved in lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, the inhibition of the crosstalk among mTORC1, mTORC2, and PI3K confers the antineoplastic activities of these drugs. Because of their specific pharmacological characteristics and their relative lack of nephrotoxicity, these inhibitors are valid option to calcineurine inhibitors (CNIs for maintenance immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy. However, as other immunosuppressive drugs, mTOR-I may induce the development of several adverse effects that need to be early recognized and treated to avoid severe illness in renal transplant patients. In particular, mTOR-I may induce systemic nonnephrological side effects including pulmonary toxicity, hematological disorders, dysmetabolism, lymphedema, stomatitis, cutaneous adverse effects, and fertility/gonadic toxicity. Although most of the adverse effects are dose related, it is extremely important for clinicians to early recognize them in order to reduce dosage or discontinue mTOR-I treatment avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical complications.

  7. A systematic review of possible serious adverse health effects of nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter N; Fariss, Marc W

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review to identify and critically evaluate studies of serious adverse health effects (SAHEs) in humans using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. Serious adverse health effects refer to adverse events, leading to substantial disruption of the ability to conduct normal life functions. Strength of evidence evaluations and conclusions were also determined for the identified SAHEs. We evaluated 34 epidemiological studies and clinical trials, relating NRT use to cancer, reproduction/development, CVD, stroke and/or other SAHEs in patients, and four meta-analyses on effects in healthy populations. The overall evidence suffers from many limitations, the most significant being the short-term exposure (≤12 weeks) and follow-up to NRT product use in most of the studies, the common failure to account for changes in smoking behaviour following NRT use, and the sparse information on SAHEs by type of NRT product used. The only SAHE from NRT exposure we identified was an increase in respiratory congenital abnormalities reported in one study. Limited evidence indicated a lack of effect between NRT exposure and SAHEs for CVD and various reproduction/developmental endpoints. For cancer, stroke and other SAHEs, the evidence was inadequate to demonstrate any association with NRT use. Our conclusions agree with recent statements from authoritative bodies.

  8. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7 years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7. Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.

  9. Technical evaluation report, AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Symposium on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics was to provide an update of the stae-of-the-art with respect to the prediction, simulation, and measurement of the effects of icing, anti-icing fluids, and various precipitation on the aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicles. Sessions were devoted to introductory and survey papers and icing certification issues, to analytical and experimental simulation of ice frost contamination and its effects of aerodynamics, and to the effects of heavy rain and deicing/anti-icing fluids.

  10. A Cohort Study on Long-Term Adverse Effects of Parental Drinking: Background and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Olea Lund

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have addressed adverse outcomes in children of parents with alcohol abuse/dependence, less is known about the possible long-term effects of more normative patterns of parental alcohol consumption, including drinking at lower risk levels and heavy episodic or binge drinking. The extent of harm from parental drinking may therefore be underestimated. With this research proposal, we describe a project that aims to assess possible long-term adverse effects of parental drinking by combining survey and nationwide registry data. Advantages of a longitudinal general population cohort design include that it allows for detailed information on parental drinking through survey data and identification of possible negative long-term health and social outcomes from exposure to parental drinking 1–19 years after exposure through continuously updated nationwide registers. The rich information available from combining survey and registry data allows us to take into account important confounders, mediators, and moderators.

  11. Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-02-15

    Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21-2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01-2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94-1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28-7.20, P < .001) was substantially greater than for either exposure alone, highlighting a potential interaction between neighborhood conditions and crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = -0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially

  12. Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C L; Coeli, C M; Pinheiro, R S; Brandão, E R; Camargo, K R; Aguiar, F P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes according to maternal age range in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002, and to evaluate the association between maternal age range and adverse birth outcomes using additive interaction to determine whether adequate prenatal care can attenuate the harmful effect of young age on pregnancy outcomes. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in women up to 24 years of age who gave birth to live children in 2002 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To evaluate adverse outcomes, the exposure variable was maternal age range, and the outcome variables were very preterm birth, low birth weight, prematurity, and low 5-minute Apgar score. The presence of interaction was investigated with the composite variable maternal age plus prenatal care. The proportions and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for adequate schooling, delivery in a public maternity hospital, and adequate prenatal care, and the outcomes according to maternal age range. The chi-square test was used. The association between age range and birth outcomes was evaluated with logistic models adjusted for schooling and type of hospital for each prenatal stratum and outcome. Attributable proportion was calculated in order to measure additive interaction. Of the 40,111 live births in the sample, 1.9% corresponded to children of mothers from 10-14 years of age, 38% from 15-19 years, and 59.9% from 20-24 years. An association between maternal age and adverse outcomes was observed only in adolescent mothers with inadequate prenatal care, and significant additive interaction was observed between prenatal care and maternal age for all the outcomes. Adolescent mothers and their newborns are exposed to greater risk of adverse outcomes when prenatal care fails to comply with current guidelines. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Results: Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21–2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01–2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94–1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28–7.20, P crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = −0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Conclusions: Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially adverse neighborhoods. PMID:28535284

  14. Repeated exposure to intra-amniotic LPS partially protects against adverse effects of intravenous LPS in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisslen, Tate; Hillman, Noah H; Musk, Gabrielle C; Kemp, Matthew W; Kramer, Boris W; Senthamaraikannan, Paranthaman; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2014-02-01

    Histologic chorioamnionitis, frequently associated with preterm births and adverse outcomes, results in prolonged exposure of preterm fetuses to infectious agents and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as LPS. Endotoxin tolerance-type effects were demonstrated in fetal sheep following repetitive systemic or intra-amniotic (i.a.) exposures to LPS, suggesting that i.a. LPS exposure would cause endotoxin tolerance to a postnatal systemic dose of LPS in preterm sheep. In this study, randomized pregnant ewes received either two i.a. injections of LPS or saline prior to preterm delivery. Following operative delivery, the lambs were treated with surfactant, ventilated, and randomized to receive either i.v. LPS or saline at 30  min of age. Physiologic variables and indicators of systemic and lung inflammation were measured. Intravenous LPS decreased blood neutrophils and platelets values following i.a. saline compared to that after i.a. LPS. Intra-amniotic LPS prevented blood pressure from decreasing following the i.v. LPS, but also caused an increased oxygen index. Intra-amniotic LPS did not cause endotoxin tolerance as assessed by cytokine expression in the liver, lung or plasma, but increased myeloperoxidase-positive cells in the lung. The different compartments of exposure to LPS (i.a. vs i.v.) are unique to the fetal to newborn transition. Intra-amniotic LPS incompletely tolerized fetal lambs to postnatal i.v. LPS.

  15. The Adverse Effects and Treatment Results of Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapy During Fasting/Non-Fasting State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliaz, Sinem; Tural Onur, Seda; Uysal, Mehmet Atilla; Chousein, Efsun Gonca Uğur; Tanriverdi, Elif; Bagci, Belma Akbaba; Bahadir, Ayse; Hattatoglu, Didem Gorgun; Ortakoylu, Mediha Gonenc; Yurt, Sibel

    2017-07-03

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most common addictions worldwide. Muslim smokers reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke during Ramadan due to the long fasting hours. We aimed to share our experience in a smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan by analyzing the efficacy and adverse effects of once-daily dosing of bupropion or varenicline in a fasting group compared with conventional dosing in a non-fasting group. We analyzed 57 patients who attended our smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan of 2014 and 2015, and at least one follow-up visit. For the fasting patients, we prescribed bupropion or varenicline after dinner (once daily) as the maintenance therapy. We recorded demographic characteristics of the patients, fasting state, drugs taken for smoking cessation, and the dosage of the medication. At the first follow-up visit, adverse effects seen with the treatment were recorded. We conducted telephone interviews 6 months after the first visits of the patients to learn the current smoking status of the groups. Of the total 57 patients, 20 (35.1%) were fasting and 37 (64.9%) were not fasting. Fasting and non-fasting patients were similar for sex, age, smoking pack-years, marital status, educational status, and mean Fagerström scores (p >.05). Adverse effects and quit rates after 6 months of follow-up were similar between the fasting and non-fasting groups (p >.05). Although our sample size was small, we found no difference in the rates of adverse effects or smoking cessation using a single daily oral dose of bupropion or varenicline between a fasting group and a non-fasting group that received conventional dosing.

  16. [Adverse muscle effects of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product with simvastatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipiainen-Seppänen, Oili; Savolainen, Elina; Elfving, Pia; Kononoff, Aulikki

    2009-01-01

    With the ageing population, drug interactions pose an increasing challenge to health professionals. We describe four patients, for whom concurrent administration of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product and simvastatin caused severe adverse effects on muscles, including muscle pain, soreness or fatigue or weakness, and in some patients also disintegration of muscle tissue, i.e. rhabdomyolysis. The metabolism of both drugs proceeds via the common CYP3A4 enzyme pathway.

  17. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred; Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May; Schwartz, Michael; Prooijen, Monique van; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Ménard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Laperriere, Norm; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  18. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...... conditions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and circulatory overload in patients with heart disease. Knowledge of the clinical signs of transfusion-related complications is important for clinicians in order to provide the best possible treatment....

  19. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Radiation Oncology Program and Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Prooijen, Monique van [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Millar, Barbara-Ann; Menard, Cynthia [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Kulkarni, Abhaya V. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada); Laperriere, Norm [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh, E-mail: Gelareh.Zadeh@uhn.on.ca [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  20. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences...... thereof. The article addresses a number of interest- protective legal mechanisms and necessity of their explicit incorporation in the contract. With emphasis on Material Adverse Effect clause the paper focuses on its exigency and applicability....

  1. A strategy for regulatory action when new adverse effects of a licensed product emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Price, Deirdre; Ferner, Robin E

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory agencies grant product licences (marketing authorizations) for medicinal products in the light of evidence that the balance between benefit and harm in the population is favourable. Here we consider a framework for allowing regulatory agencies to make rational decisions when reviewing product licences in the light of new information about harms that change that balance. The regulator can revoke the product licence, restrict the product's availability or change the 'label' in different ways. We examine the features of the adverse effect that may be relevant in making the decision: namely, individual differences in susceptibility; the possibility of monitoring; and the availability of protective strategies. The balance of benefit and harm, and the time-course and dose relation of the adverse effect play important roles in the decision-making process. We set out how these factors can help determine the logical response to new information on the balance between benefit and harm, and provide a series of relevant examples. We believe that when regulatory agencies have to decide how to amend the product licence of a drug when new serious adverse effects cause concern, they would find it useful to adopt a framework of this kind, using different strategies for different cases. Our proposed framework could also be useful in risk management planning during drug development.

  2. The Potential Return on Public Investment in Detecting Adverse Drug Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Krista F; Desai, Rishi J; Park, Moa; Gagne, Joshua J; Najafzadeh, Mehdi; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-06-01

    Many countries lack fully functional pharmacovigilance programs, and public budgets allocated to pharmacovigilance in industrialized countries remain low due to resource constraints and competing priorities. Using 3 case examples, we sought to estimate the public health and economic benefits resulting from public investment in active pharmacovigilance programs to detect adverse drug effects. We assessed 3 examples in which early signals of safety hazards were not adequately recognized, resulting in continued exposure of a large number of patients to these drugs when safer and effective alternative treatments were available. The drug examples studied were rofecoxib, cerivastatin, and troglitazone. Using an individual patient simulation model and the health care system perspective, we estimated the potential costs that could have been averted by early systematic detection of safety hazards through the implementation of active surveillance programs. We found that earlier drug withdrawal made possible by active safety surveillance would most likely have resulted in savings in direct medical costs of $773-$884 million for rofecoxib, $3-$10 million for cerivastatin, and $38-$63 million for troglitazone in the United States through the prevention of adverse events. By contrast, the yearly public investment in Food and Drug Administration initiated population-based pharmacovigilance activities in the United States is about $42.5 million at present. These examples illustrate a critical and economically justifiable role for active adverse effect surveillance in protecting the health of the public.

  3. Air pollution in India and related adverse respiratory health effects: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Tiwari, Pawan

    2018-03-01

    The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India. More than one million additional deaths can be attributed to household air pollution. Particulate matter with diameter 2.5 μm or less has been causatively linked with most premature deaths. Acute respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbations of preexisting obstructive airway disease and lung cancer are proven adverse respiratory effects of air pollution. Targeting air quality standards laid by WHO can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. India is currently exposed to high levels of ambient and household air pollutants. Respiratory adverse effects of air pollution are significant contributors to morbidity and premature mortality in India. Substantial efforts are being made at legislative, administrative, and community levels to improve air quality. However, much more needs to be done to change the 'status quo' and attain the target air quality standards. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COPM/A24.

  4. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grace; Kloner, Robert A; Rezkalla, Shereif

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Once illegal throughout the United States, cannabis is now legal for medicinal purposes in several states and for recreational use in 3 states. The current wave of decriminalization may lead to more widespread use, and it is important that cardiologists be made aware of the potential for marijuana-associated adverse cardiovascular effects that may begin to occur in the population at a greater frequency. In this report, the investigators focus on the known cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral effects of marijuana inhalation. Temporal associations between marijuana use and serious adverse events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, cardiomyopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cannabis arteritis have been described. In conclusion, the potential for increased use of marijuana in the changing legal landscape suggests the need for the community to intensify research regarding the safety of marijuana use and for cardiologists to maintain an awareness of the potential for adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of irradiation and of cysteamine on rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braquet, Monique.

    1979-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine: the effects of a cobalt 60 gamma irradiation received by an animal, the biological repercussions of the preliminary administration of cysteamine to the animal exposed. To this end the amount of damage caused by in vivo irradiation of rats was estimated at three levels: on the whole body; on an important organ, the liver; on a specific organite, the mitochondrion. The methods of investigation used fall mainly within the province of biochemical technology. Studies on the effects of ionizing radiations on rats irradiated for ten days at 900 roentgens showed a generalized attack on the whole system, known as the ''Acute Irradiation Syndrome'' and divisible into three phases: stage one, initial phase involving loss of weight and destruction of the liver. These symptoms appear early and reach a paroxysm on the 4th day after irradiation. Stage two, remission phase (from the 5th to the 8th day) when the weight variations become stabilised. Stage three, last phase, often leading to the death between the 9th and 10th days. During the same 10-day period, on the same irradiated rats, the changes in enzymatic systems were followed in order to estimate the magnitude of peroxidative phenomena within a subcellular particle such as the mitochondrion. The results obtained prove a strong disorganisation of the mitochondrial function [fr

  6. Efeitos indesejáveis dos hipolipemiantes: condutas na prática clínica Adverse effects of hypolipemic drugs: how to treat in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Forti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Os fármacos hipolipemiantes, apesar de diminuírem a morbimortalidade por doença coronariana, não são destituídos de efeitos indesejáveis. Estes freqüentemente são transitórios, mas podem ocorrer alterações clínicas e laboratoriais que exigem especial atenção e diferentes condutas. Neste artigo, os autores relatam fundamentalmente como proceder diante do comprometimento muscular e hepático, considerados efeitos adversos mais relevantes dos hipolipemiantes. De modo sucinto, apontam os demais efeitos e a respectiva conduta.Hypolipemic drugs improve coronary morbidity and mortality and appear to be safe; nevertheless appropriate monitoring is recommended. Adverse effects are reported that are frequently transitory. Severe adverse effects are infrequent, but clinicians must correctly screen them; symptoms and laboratory changes must be carefully interpreted. Often they call for special treatment and replacement of the hypolipemic drugs in use. This article emphasizes how to treat dyslipidemia if skeletal muscle and liver involvement are present. Briefly other adverse effects are also reported.

  7. The use of exercise interventions to overcome adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter Busch; Kistorp, Caroline; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe

    2016-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) induces severe hypogonadism and is associated with several adverse effects that negatively affect health and quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. ADT changes body composition characterized by an increase in fat mass and a reduction in muscle mass....... Some studies also indicate that exercise might moderate ADT-related changes in body composition. However, beneficial effects of exercise interventions on other ADT-related conditions have not been conclusively proven. Trials investigating the effects of ADT on fracture risk and development of diabetes...

  8. Adverse effects of parenteral dexamethasone in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamal Uddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pemphigus vulgaris is associated with high morbidity as well as significant mortality rate. Today the risk of death in pemphigus from the side effect of oral prednisolone is greater than risk of death from the disease itself. Objec­tive: To observe the adverse effects of parenteral dexamethasone compared with oral prednisolone in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. Methods: An interventional study was carried out in the department of Dermatology and Venereol­ogy, Bangabandu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total number of patients was thirty and among them fifteen patients were treated with parenteral dexamethasone (Group-A and other fifteen were treated with oral prednisolone (Group-B. Results: The study showed statistically significant differences of skin lesion as well as mucosal lesion of pemphigus after 6 weeks of therapy between of two groups (P<0.05. The most common adverse effects were increased body weight(40%, increased appetite(40%, and puffy face(40% in dexamethasone group. In prednisolone group, these side effects were 60% of the subjects. Other side effects in dexamethasone group were hyperglycemia (33.33%, hypertension (26.66%, and sleep disturbance (13.33%. In prednisolone group, other side effects were hyperglycemia(33.33%, hypertension(40%, gastritis (33.33%, nausea, vomiting (13.33% in each , reactivation of tuberculosis, herpes zoster infection, sleep disturbance, and mood change were 6.66% in each group. Conclusion: In the light of the findings of the study, we conclude that each of the treatment of dexamethasone group and prednisolone group is individually effective and safe in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris but adverse effects are less in parenteral dexamethasone group than oral prednisolone group. So parenteral dexamethasone can be used as an alternative drug in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris.

  9. 75 FR 7293 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... prevailing piece rate, the agreed-upon collective bargaining rate, or the Federal or State minimum wage rate...-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural... the new 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates (AEWRs) and the 2010 maximum allowable meal and travel...

  10. Effects of radiosensibilization by metronidazole on liver tissue in patients with gastric carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakova, A.M.; Stefani, N.V.; Zagrebin, V.M.; Senokosov, N.I.; Berdov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Metronidazole, used as radiosensitizer in preoperative radiotherapy of gastric carcinoma caused an increased glycogen accumulation in the left lobe of the liver with a radiation dose of 80-100 % of the isodose. The glycogen level was higher not only in comparison with the same liver area in patients without radiosensitizer but also with the right lobe of the own liver within in the area of stray radiation. The effect observed after radiation was considered as result of the sensitizing influence on liver tissue. The sensitizing effect of metronidazole depended on its concentration in the patient's serum. In the right lobe of the liver the glycogen level showed no alteration under metronidazole. Metronidazole reduced the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and cholinesterase in liver tissue independently of its concentration in the serum and of the radiation dose on particular parts of the liver. (author)

  11. Short-term effects of splenectomy on serum fibrosis indexes in liver cirrhosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Degang; Chen, Xiuli; Lu, Shichun; Guo, Qingliang; Lai, Wei; Wu, Jushan; Lin, Dongdong; Zeng, Daobing; Duan, Binwei; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jilei

    2015-01-01

    To determine the changing patterns of 4 liver fibrosis markers pre and post splenectomy (combined with pericardial devascularization [PCDV]) and to examine the short-term effects of splenectomy on liver fibrosis. Four liver fibrosis markers of 39 liver cirrhosis patients were examined pre, immediately post, 2 days post, and 1 week post (15 cases) splenectomy (combined with PCDV). The laminin (LN) level decreased immediately post surgery compared with the preoperative LN level (P splenectomy showed characteristic changes, splenectomy may transiently initiate the degradation process of liver fibrosis.

  12. Prostate cancer outcomes in France: treatments, adverse effects and two-year mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This very large population-based study investigated outcomes after a diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) in terms of mortality rates, treatments and adverse effects. Methods Among the 11 million men aged 40 years and over covered by the general national health insurance scheme, those with newly managed PCa in 2009 were followed for two years based on data from the national health insurance information system (SNIIRAM). Patients were identified using hospitalisation diagnoses and specific refunds related to PCa and PCa treatments. Adverse effects of PCa treatments were identified by using hospital diagnoses, specific procedures and drug refunds. Results The age-standardised two-year all-cause mortality rate among the 43,460 men included in the study was 8.4%, twice that of all men aged 40 years and over. Among the 36,734 two-year survivors, 38% had undergone prostatectomy, 36% had been treated by hormone therapy, 29% by radiotherapy, 3% by brachytherapy and 20% were not treated. The frequency of treatment-related adverse effects varied according to age and type of treatment. Among men between 50 and 69 years of age treated by prostatectomy alone, 61% were treated for erectile dysfunction and 24% were treated for urinary disorders. The frequency of treatment for these disorders decreased during the second year compared to the first year (erectile dysfunction: 41% vs 53%, urinary disorders: 9% vs 20%). The frequencies of these treatments among men treated by external beam radiotherapy alone were 7% and 14%, respectively. Among men between 50 and 69 years with treated PCa, 46% received treatments for erectile dysfunction and 22% for urinary disorders. For controls without PCa but treated surgically for benign prostatic hyperplasia, these frequencies were 1.5% and 6.0%, respectively. Conclusions We report high survival rates two years after a diagnosis of PCa, but a high frequency of PCa treatment-related adverse effects. These frequencies remain

  13. Infant titi monkey behavior in the open field test and the effect of early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larke, Rebecca H; Toubiana, Alice; Lindsay, Katrina A; Mendoza, Sally P; Bales, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling. Infant locomotor, vocalization, and exploratory behavior were quantified. Results indicated that age, sex, social condition, and early experience all had significant effects on infant behavior. Specifically, infants were generally more exploratory at 6 months and male infants were more exploratory than females. Infants distinguished between social and non-social conditions but made few behavioral distinctions between the attachment figure and other individuals. Infants which had adverse early life experience demonstrated greater emotional and physical independence, suggesting that early adversity led to resiliency in the novel environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Adverse Renal Effects of Novel Molecular Oncologic Targeted Therapies: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenar D. Jhaveri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel targeted anti-cancer therapies have resulted in improvement in patient survival compared to standard chemotherapy. Renal toxicities of targeted agents are increasingly being recognized. The incidence, severity, and pattern of renal toxicities may vary according to the respective target of the drug. Here we review the adverse renal effects associated with a selection of currently approved targeted cancer therapies, directed to EGFR, HER2, BRAF, MEK, ALK, PD1/PDL1, CTLA-4, and novel agents targeted to VEGF/R and TKIs. In summary, electrolyte disorders, renal impairment and hypertension are the most commonly reported events. Of the novel targeted agents, ipilumumab and cetuximab have the most nephrotoxic events reported. The early diagnosis and prompt recognition of these renal adverse events are essential for the general nephrologist taking care of these patients.

  15. Adverse reactions, psychological factors, and their effect on donor retention in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Atsma, Femke; van Dongen, Anne; de Kort, Wim

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of a vasovagal reaction (VVR) or needle reaction (NR) on the risk of stopping as a blood donor, taking into account variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Is stopping risk solely related to the adverse reaction itself, or do the TPB variables play a role as well? Emphasis is placed on possible sex differences. TPB variables were assessed within 12,051 whole blood donors. Also, donors reported the occurrence of adverse reactions during or after their last donation. Blood bank records were used to determine whether donors stopped donating within the next 2 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of self-reported adverse reactions on stopping risk, adjusting for the TPB variables. Analyses were performed separately for both sexes. Men have a lower odds of reporting a NR or a VVR than women (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.43; and OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.19-0.36, for NR and VVR, respectively). For both sexes, only a VVR was associated with stopping risk, which is higher in men (men, OR 3.95, 95% CI 2.19-7.11; women, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.35-2.35). After adjusting for the TPB variables both ORs declined (men, OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.86-6.15; women, OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17-2.14). Also, self-efficacy and affective attitude are negatively associated with adverse reactions. Female donors report more VVRs than male donors, but male donors have a higher stopping risk after a VVR than female donors. Coping differences and possible reporting tendencies might play a role. For donor retention purposes, prevention and coping techniques should take sex differences into account. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Kindling of Life Stress in Bipolar Disorder: Effects of Early Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Weiss, Rachel B; Burke, Taylor A; Boland, Elaine M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-05-01

    Most theoretical frameworks regarding the role of life stress in bipolar disorders (BD) do not incorporate the possibility of a changing relationship between psychosocial context and episode initiation across the course of the disorder. The kindling hypothesis theorizes that over the longitudinal course of recurrent affective disorders, the relationship between major life stressors and episode initiation declines (Post, 1992). The present study aimed to test an extension of the kindling hypothesis in BD by examining the effect of early life adversity on the relationship between proximal life events and prospectively assessed mood episodes. Data from 145 bipolar participants (59.3% female, 75.2% Caucasian, and mean age of 20.19 years; SD = 1.75 years) were collected as part of the Temple-Wisconsin Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum Project (112 Bipolar II; 33 Cyclothymic disorder). Participants completed a self-report measure of early adversity at baseline and interview-assessed mood episodes and life events at regular 4-month follow-ups. Results indicate that early childhood adversity sensitized bipolar participants to the effects of recent stressors only for depressive episodes and not hypomanic episodes within BD. This was particularly the case with minor negative events. The current study extends prior research examining the kindling model in BD using a methodologically rigorous assessment of life stressors and mood episode occurrence. Clinicians should assess experiences of early adversity in individuals with BD as it may impact reactivity to developing depressive episodes in response to future stressors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The effects of comfrey derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids on rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, M L; Clark, S P; Waring, J M; Wilson, R D; Wakefield, S J

    1991-01-01

    Three groups of young adult rats were fed pyrrolizidine alkaloids derived from Russian comfrey to study the effects of the herb on the liver. Group I animals received a single dose of 200 mg/kg body wt, Group II 100 mg/kg three times a week for 3 weeks and Group III 50 mg/kg three times a week for 3 weeks. All rats showed light and electron-microscopic evidence of liver damage, the severity of which was dose dependent. There was swelling of hepatocytes and hemorrhagic necrosis of perivenular cells. There was a concomitant loss of sinusoidal lining cells with disruption of sinusoidal wall and the sinusoids were filled with cellular debris, hepatocyte organelles and red blood cells. Extravasation of red blood cells was evident. Terminal hepatic venules were narrowed by intimal proliferation, and in Group II and III, reiculin fibres radiated from these vessels. These appearances have been described in veno-occlusive disease due to pyrrolizidine alkaloids from other plant sources such as Senecio and Crotalaria. The safety of comfrey, a widely used herb, in relation to human consumption requires further investigation.

  18. Adverse Effects of Antidepressants Reported by 1,431 people from 38 Countries: Emotional Blunting, Suicidality, and Withdrawal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John; Williams, James

    2018-06-04

    Studies of the adverse effects of antidepressants tend to focus on biological symptoms. The prevalence of suicidality and withdrawal effects are currently a source of controversy. To directly ascertain the experiences of an international sample of antidepressant users. An online survey asked adult antidepressant users whether they had experienced 20 adverse effects 'as a result of taking the antidepressant', and if so, to what degree of severity. 1,431 people from 38 countries responded. 61% of the respondents reported at least ten of the 20 effects, most commonly: 'Feeling emotionally numb' (reported by 71%), 'Feeling foggy or detached' (70%); 'Feeling not like myself' (66%), 'Sexual difficulties' (66%), 'Drowsiness' (63%), and 'Reduction in positive feelings' (60%). 'Suicidality' as a result of the drugs was reported by 50%. Withdrawal effects were reported by 59%, and 'Addiction' by 40%. Rates of adverse effects were higher for those prescribed multiple antidepressants and those who also took antipsychotics. Younger age and longer use of ADs were positively related to total adverse effects. One third did not recall being told about any side effects by the prescriber. Less than 5% were told about suicidality, emotional numbing, withdrawal effects or addiction. Asking people directly reveals far higher rates of adverse responses to antidepressants than previously understood, especially in the emotional, psychological and interpersonal domains. Given recent findings that antidepressants are only marginally more effective than placebo, the findings of the current study imply a cost-benefit analysis that cannot justify the extremely high prescription rates for these drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. The metabolic effects of diuron in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Simões, Mellina; Bracht, Lívia; Parizotto, Angela Valderrama; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2017-09-01

    A systematic study on the effects of diuron on the hepatic metabolism was conducted with emphasis on parameters linked to energy metabolism. The experimental system was the isolated perfused rat liver. The results demonstrate that diuron inhibited biosynthesis (gluconeogenesis) and ammonia detoxification, which are dependent of ATP generated within the mitochondria. Conversely, it stimulated glycolysis and fructolysis, which are compensatory phenomena for an inhibited mitochondrial ATP generation. Furthermore, diuron diminished the cellular ATP content under conditions where the mitochondrial respiratory chain was the only source of this compound. Besides the lack of circulating glucose due to gluconeogenesis inhibition, one can expect metabolic acidosis due to excess lactate production, impairment of ammonia detoxification and cell damage due to a deficient maintenance of its homeostasis. Some of the general signs of toxicity that were observed in diuron-treated rats can be attributed, partly at least, to the effects of the herbicide on energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Human exposure to non-ionizing radiation and potential adverse health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulevic, B.; Maric, B.; Zivkovic, D.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of protection from the non-ionizing radiation has presented an actual subject in the last twenty years both worldwide and in our country. Great attention has been paid to this problem throughout the world and there is not almost a field of human activities that disregards the effect of non-ionizing radiation to the human health.The object of this work is to point concisely, on the basis of numerous domestic and foreign referential data, to the potential adverse health effects caused by uncontrolled exposure to non-ionizing radiation. (author)

  1. Are the adverse effects of glitazones linked to induced testosterone deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse side-effects of the glitazones have been frequently reported in both clinical and animal studies, especially with rosiglitazone (RGZ and pioglitazone (PGZ, including congestive heart failure, osteoporosis, weight gain, oedema and anaemia. These led to consideration of an evidence-based hypothesis which would explain these diverse effects, and further suggested novel approaches by which this hypothesis could be tested. Presentation of hypothesis The literature on the clinical, metabolic and endocrine effects of glitazones in relation to the reported actions of testosterone in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease is reviewed, and the following unifying hypothesis advanced: "Glitazones induce androgen deficiency in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus resulting in pathophysiological changes in multiple tissues and organs which may explain their observed clinical adverse effects." This also provides further evidence for the lipocentric concept of diabetes and its clinical implications. Testing of the hypothesis Clinical studies to investigate the endocrine profiles, including measurements of TT, DHT, SHBG, FT and estradiol, together with LH and FSH, in both men and women with T2DM before and after RGZ and PGZ treatment in placebo controlled groups, are necessary to provide data to substantiate this hypothesis. Also, studies on T treatment in diabetic men would further establish if the adverse effects of glitazones could be reversed or ameliorated by androgen therapy. Basic sciences investigations on the inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by glitazones are also warranted. Implications of the hypothesis Glitazones reduce androgen biosynthesis, increase their binding to SHBG, and attenuate androgen receptor activation, thus reducing the physiological actions of testosterone, causing relative and absolute androgen deficiency. This hypothesis explains the adverse effects of glitazones on the heart and

  2. Evidence behind FDA alerts for drugs with adverse cardiovascular effects: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackham, Daniel M; C Herink, Megan; Stevens, Ian G; Cardoza, Natalie M; Singh, Harleen

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) periodically publishes Drug Safety Communications and Drug Alerts notifying health care practitioners and the general public of important information regarding drug therapies following FDA approval. These alerts can result in both positive and negative effects on patient care. Most clinical trials are not designed to detect long-term safety end points, and postmarketing surveillance along with patient reported events are often instrumental in signaling the potential harmful effect of a drug. Recently, many cardiovascular (CV) safety announcements have been released for FDA-approved drugs. Because a premature warning could discourage a much needed treatment or prompt a sudden discontinuation, it is essential to evaluate the evidence supporting these FDA alerts to provide effective patient care and to avoid unwarranted changes in therapy. Conversely, paying attention to these warnings in cases involving high-risk patients can prevent adverse effects and litigation. This article reviews the evidence behind recent FDA alerts for drugs with adverse CV effects and discusses the clinical practice implications. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  3. Diagnosis, prevention, and management of statin adverse effects and intolerance: Canadian Working Group Consensus update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, G B John; Tashakkor, A Yashar; Baker, Steven; Bergeron, Jean; Fitchett, David; Frohlich, Jiri; Genest, Jacques; Gupta, Milan; Hegele, Robert A; Ng, Dominic S; Pearson, Glen J; Pope, Janet

    2013-12-01

    The Proceedings of a Canadian Working Group Consensus Conference, first published in 2011, provided a summary of statin-associated adverse effects and intolerance and management suggestions. In this update, new clinical studies identified since then that provide further insight into effects on muscle, cognition, cataracts, diabetes, kidney disease, and cancer are discussed. Of these, the arenas of greatest controversy pertain to purported effects on cognition and the emergence of diabetes during long-term therapy. Regarding cognition, the available evidence is not strongly supportive of a major adverse effect of statins. In contrast, the linkage between statin therapy and incident diabetes is more firm. However, this risk is more strongly associated with traditional risk factors for new-onset diabetes than with statin itself and any possible negative effect of new-onset diabetes during statin treatment is far outweighed by the cardiovascular risk reduction benefits. Additional studies are also discussed, which support the principle that systematic statin rechallenge, and lower or intermittent statin dosing strategies are the main methods for dealing with suspected statin intolerance at this time. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative study on the adverse effects of flunixin, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone in miniature donkeys: haematological, biochemical and pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, A A; Derakhshanfar, A; Alinejad, A; Morovati, M

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the adverse effects of flunixin, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone when administered I/V to clinically normal miniature donkeys. Twenty clinically normal adult (2.0-2.5 years old) male miniature donkeys weighing 113-136 kg and 0.81- 0.86 m tall were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and administered either saline (n=5), 1.0 mg/kg flunixin (n=5), 2.2 mg/kg ketoprofen (n=5), or 4.4 mg/kg phenylbutazone (n=5) I/V at 0800 hours on Day 1, then every 12 h, for 12 days. The animals were observed every 8 h, and examined physically daily. Blood, faeces and urine samples were collected daily from all donkeys, for haematological indices and enzyme activities, occult blood, and urinalysis, respectively. Immediately after euthanasia, complete post-mortem examinations were performed on all donkeys, and gross lesions recorded. Histopathology was conducted on a wide range of tissues. Clinically, mild anorexia and diarrhoea were observed during the study only in donkeys treated with phenylbutazone. There was an effect of treatment with the non-steroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs (NSAID) on red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV) and enzyme activities, but not on urine. Lesions were observed in the glandular mucosa of the stomach of all donkeys treated with NSAID, including ulceration in most. Also, in donkeys treated with NSAID, hyperaemia, erosion and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract, and congestion of the liver, kidney and spleen, were observed. Microscopically, hepatic and renal lesions comprised biliary hyperplasia and interstitial nephritis, respectively. The gastrointestinal, hepatic and renal lesions observed in the donkeys treated with NSAID demonstrated the toxic potential of NSAID, which was greatest for animals treated with phenylbutazone, less for flunixin, and least for ketoprofen. When use of these compounds is contemplated in clinical cases, the risk of adverse effects and the comparative toxic potential should be considered

  5. A comprehensive review of regulatory test methods for endocrine adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manibusan, M K; Touart, L W

    2017-07-01

    Development of new endocrine disruption-relevant test methods has been the subject of intensive research efforts for the past several decades, prompted in part by mandates in the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). While scientific understanding and test methods have advanced, questions remain on whether current scientific methods are capable of adequately addressing the complexities of the endocrine system for regulatory health and ecological risk assessments. The specific objective of this article is to perform a comprehensive, detailed evaluation of the adequacy of current test methods to inform regulatory risk assessments of whether a substance has the potential to perturb endocrine-related pathways resulting in human adverse effects. To that end,  approximately 42 existing test guidelines (TGs) were considered in the evaluation of coverage for endocrine-related adverse effects. In addition to evaluations of whether test methods are adequate to capture endocrine-related effects, considerations of further enhancements to current test methods, along with the need to develop novel test methods to address existing test method gaps are described. From this specific evaluation, up to 35 test methods are capable of informing whether a chemical substance perturbs known endocrine related biological pathways. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that current validated test methods are adequate to discern substances that may perturb the endocrine system, resulting in an adverse health effect. Together, these test methods predominantly form the core data requirements of a typical food-use pesticide registration submission. It is recognized, however, that the current state of science is rapidly advancing and there is a need to update current test methods to include added enhancements to ensure continued coverage and public health and environmental protection.

  6. Industrial PM2.5 cause pulmonary adverse effect through RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Chen, Chongjun; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Pin-I; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-12-01

    According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM 2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM 2.5 , including oxidative damage, inflammatory response, lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the recruitment of macrophages. We found that water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts caused more severe cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of organic extracts. Both organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Inflammatory response, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the activation of NF-кB caused by both PM 2.5 extracts were attenuated by ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. This indicated that both PM 2.5 extracts could cause damage to epithelial cells through RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB activation. Furthermore, the upregulation of macrophage adhesion induced by both PM 2.5 extracts was also attenuated by Y-27632 in a co-culture model of macrophages and the epithelial cells. Therefore, our results support that industrial PM 2.5 extracts-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB pathway induces pulmonary adverse effect. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activation might have therapeutic potential in preventing lung disease associated with PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  8. Effects of insulin on messenger RNA activities in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.E.; Lee, K.L.; Kenney, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Liver poly(A) RNA, isolated from adrenalectomized rats after insulin treatment, was translated in a nuclease-treated lysate of rabbit reticulocytes and quantitated for both total activity and the capacity to synthesize the insulin-inducible enzyme tyrosine amino-transferase. Analysis of the translated products from poly(A) RNA isolated 1 h after insulin treatment showed a 2.7-fold increase in activity of tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA. During the same interval, the capacity of poly(A) RNA to direct the synthesis of total protein in lysates also changed, showing a 30 to 40% increase in translational activity/unit of RNA. Increased translatability was apparent in all fractions of poly(A) RNA separated by centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Insulin thus appears to mediated a generalized changed in mRNAs leading to increased capacity for translation; induction of tyrosine aminotransferase may reflect unusual sensitivity to this effect of the hormone

  9. Effect of Insulin Infusion on Liver Protein Synthesis during Hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan; Jespersen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis (HD) is a catabolic procedure that may contribute to the high frequency of protein-energy wasting among patients receiving maintenance HD. The present study investigated the additional effect of glucose and glucose-insulin infusion on liver protein synthesis during HD...... compared with a meal alone. Methods In a randomized cross-over study with three arms, 11 non-diabetic HD patients were assigned to receive a conventional HD session with either: • no treatment (NT) • IV infusion of glucose (G) • IV infusion of glucose-insulin (GI) During infusions blood glucose levels were...... maintained at 8.0-10.0 mmol/L by additional glucose infusion. Glucose and glucose-insulin infusions were commenced 2 h prior to HD and continued throughout the HD session. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline before infusion and followed by the only meal allowed during the study. Results Blood...

  10. Effect of monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults on adverse effects of earthquakes: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slow, Sandy; Florkowski, Christopher M; Chambers, Stephen T; Priest, Patricia C; Stewart, Alistair W; Jennings, Lance C; Livesey, John H; Camargo, Carlos A; Scragg, Robert; Murdoch, David R

    2014-12-15

    To determine whether supplementation with vitamin D improves resilience to the adverse effects of earthquakes. Opportunistic addition to an established randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Christchurch, New Zealand, where a prolonged series of catastrophic earthquakes beginning on 4 September 2010 occurred, which caused widespread destruction, fatalities, and extensive psychological damage. 322 healthy adults (241 women; 81 men) aged 18-67 who were already participating in the vitamin D and acute respiratory infections study (VIDARIS) between February 2010 and November 2011. Participants were randomised to receive an oral dose of either 200,000 IU vitamin D3 monthly for two months then 100,000 IU monthly (n=161) or placebo (n=161) for a total of 18 months. This is a post hoc analysis from the previously published VIDARIS trial. The primary endpoint in the current analysis was the self reported effects and overall adverse impact of the Christchurch earthquakes as assessed by questionnaire four months after the most destructive earthquake on 22 February 2011, which was used as the index event. The secondary end point was the number of "psychological" adverse events that participants reported at their usual monthly appointments as part of the original VIDARIS trial. 308 participants completed the earthquake impact questionnaire (n=152 in the vitamin D group and 156 in the placebo group). There was no significant difference in the number of self reported adverse effects between those receiving vitamin D supplementation and those receiving placebo. There was also no difference in the overall adverse impact score between treatment groups (χ(2) P=0.44). The exception was that those in the vitamin D group experienced more adverse effects on family relationships (22% v 13%; χ(2) P=0.03). The number of psychological adverse events-such as fatigue, stress, anxiety, and insomnia-that participants reported at their usual monthly appointments was significantly

  11. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  12. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  13. Vitamin C: intravenous use by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners and adverse effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Padayatty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal information and case reports suggest that intravenously administered vitamin C is used by Complementary and Alternate Medicine (CAM practitioners. The scale of such use in the U.S. and associated side effects are unknown.We surveyed attendees at annual CAM Conferences in 2006 and 2008, and determined sales of intravenous vitamin C by major U.S. manufacturers/distributors. We also queried practitioners for side effects, compiled published cases, and analyzed FDA's Adverse Events Database. Of 199 survey respondents (out of 550, 172 practitioners administered IV vitamin C to 11,233 patients in 2006 and 8876 patients in 2008. Average dose was 28 grams every 4 days, with 22 total treatments per patient. Estimated yearly doses used (as 25 g/50 ml vials were 318,539 in 2006 and 354,647 in 2008. Manufacturers' yearly sales were 750,000 and 855,000 vials, respectively. Common reasons for treatment included infection, cancer, and fatigue. Of 9,328 patients for whom data is available, 101 had side effects, mostly minor, including lethargy/fatigue in 59 patients, change in mental status in 21 patients and vein irritation/phlebitis in 6 patients. Publications documented serious adverse events, including 2 deaths in patients known to be at risk for IV vitamin C. Due to confounding causes, the FDA Adverse Events Database was uninformative. Total numbers of patients treated in the US with high dose vitamin C cannot be accurately estimated from this study.High dose IV vitamin C is in unexpectedly wide use by CAM practitioners. Other than the known complications of IV vitamin C in those with renal impairment or glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, high dose intravenous vitamin C appears to be remarkably safe. Physicians should inquire about IV vitamin C use in patients with cancer, chronic, untreatable, or intractable conditions and be observant of unexpected harm, drug interactions, or benefit.

  14. Meta-analysis of propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease--a Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the benefits and adverse effects of propylthiouracil for patients with alcoholic liver disease.......The aim of this review was to determine the benefits and adverse effects of propylthiouracil for patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  15. Adverse effects of perioperative paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, O; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kontinen, V K

    2014-01-01

    with the most common perioperative non-opioid analgesics: paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticoids (GCCs), gabapentinoids and their combinations. The review is based on data from systematic reviews with meta-analyses of analgesic efficacy and/or adverse effects...... of perioperative non-opioid analgesics, and randomised trials and cohort/retrospective studies. Generally, data on AE are sparse and related to the immediate post-operative period. For paracetamol, the incidence of AEs appears trivial. Data are inconclusive regarding an association of NSAIDs with mortality...

  16. Adverse Side Effects of Psychotropic Medication and Challenging Behavior: Pilot Work Assessing Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G; Schieber, Elizabeth; McMahon, Meara; Beard, Lisa; Wilkinson, Alyssa; Carpenter, Jaimie

    2017-12-01

    Psychotropic medications are often prescribed to reduce challenging behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Functional analyses (FAs) have demonstrated utility in assessing medication impact on behavior; however, the impact of adverse side effects (ASE) on challenging behavior is under-assessed. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology, similar to FAs, to explore potential medication ASE impact on challenging behavior in seven individuals with IDD. Results revealed response rate differences in designed ASE conditions for most participants. Outcomes support further development and use of this methodology to assess the presence and impact of ASEs.

  17. Renal function and symptoms/adverse effects in opioid-treated patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, G P; Lundström, S; Sjøgren, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal impairment and the risk of toxicity caused by accumulation of opioids and/or active metabolites is an under-investigated issue. This study aimed at analysing if symptoms/adverse effects in opioid-treated patients with cancer were associated with renal function. METHODS: Cross...... loss of appetite (P = 0.04). No other significant associations were found. CONCLUSION: Only severe constipation and loss of appetite were associated with low GFR in patients treated with morphine. Oxycodone and fentanyl, in relation to the symptoms studied, seem to be safe as used and titrated...

  18. Oral adverse effects of gastrointestinal drugs and considerations for dental management in patients with gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Karthik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal disease is associated with alterations in the mouth or influence the course of the dental diseases, and the dental health care workers are expected to recognize, diagnose, and treat oral conditions associated with gastrointestinal diseases and also provide safe and appropriate dental care for afflicted individuals. Drugs used in the management of these diseases result in oral adverse effects and also are known to interact with those prescribed during dental care. Hence, this article has reviewed the drug considerations and guidelines for drug use during dental management of patients with gastrointestinal diseases.

  19. Effect of heavy water on isolated rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.

    1981-01-01

    The rate of O 2 consumption by isolated rat liver mitochondria was determined polarographically with a Clark electrode at 25 0 C in the active (state 3), strongly coupled (state 4) and decoupled state of the mitochondria in media containing H 2 16 O, D 2 16 O or H 2 18 O. The results confirm the value of the D 2 O isotope effect in the form on an O 2 -consumption inhibition. In H 2 18 O no isotope effect has been detected in the state of controlled respiration. In contrast, a strongly marked inverse isotope effect has been found in the active state after ADP addition and in the decoupled state after DNP addition. This inverse isotope effect occurs in reactions involving a preceding equilibrium. According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis of oxidative phosphorylation the formation of hydronium ions is part of this reaction. The equilibrium constant k 2 = 0.9774 for the hydronium ion in H 2 16 O and H 2 18 O implies that the formation of the hydronium ion in H 2 18 O is preferred to that in H 2 16 O. The high inverse H 2 18 O isotope effect respiration shows that the formation of H 3 O + contributes to the vectorial proton transport, probably as a preceding equilibrium, and that in the active state of the respiratory chain this reaction may be the rate-determining step. (author)

  20. Effects of Bauhinia forficata Tea on Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage in Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Andréia Caroline Fernandes; Folmer, Vanderlei; da Silva, Marianne Pires; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Puntel, Gustavo Orione

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (BF) tea on oxidative stress and liver damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic male mice have remained 30 days without any treatment. BF treatment started on day 31 and continued for 21 days as a drinking-water substitute. We evaluated (1) BF chemical composition; (2) glucose levels; (3) liver/body weight ratio and liver transaminases; (4) reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation in liver; (5) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in liver; (6) δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) and nonprotein thiols (NPSH) in liver; (7) Nrf2, NQO-1, and HSP70 levels in liver and pancreas. Phytochemical analyses identified four phenols compounds. Diabetic mice present high levels of NQO-1 in pancreas, increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation in liver, and decrease in CAT activity. BF treatment normalized all these parameters. BF did not normalize hyperglycemia, liver/body weight ratio, aspartate aminotransferase, protein carbonyl, NPSH levels, and δ-ALA-D activity. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved in liver damage in hyperglycemic conditions. Our results indicated that BF protective effect could be attributed to its antioxidant capacity, more than a hypoglycemic potential.

  1. Effects of Bauhinia forficata Tea on Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage in Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caroline Fernandes Salgueiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (BF tea on oxidative stress and liver damage in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic male mice have remained 30 days without any treatment. BF treatment started on day 31 and continued for 21 days as a drinking-water substitute. We evaluated (1 BF chemical composition; (2 glucose levels; (3 liver/body weight ratio and liver transaminases; (4 reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation in liver; (5 superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities in liver; (6 δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D and nonprotein thiols (NPSH in liver; (7 Nrf2, NQO-1, and HSP70 levels in liver and pancreas. Phytochemical analyses identified four phenols compounds. Diabetic mice present high levels of NQO-1 in pancreas, increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation in liver, and decrease in CAT activity. BF treatment normalized all these parameters. BF did not normalize hyperglycemia, liver/body weight ratio, aspartate aminotransferase, protein carbonyl, NPSH levels, and δ-ALA-D activity. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved in liver damage in hyperglycemic conditions. Our results indicated that BF protective effect could be attributed to its antioxidant capacity, more than a hypoglycemic potential.

  2. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on chronic liver disease: systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Mosannen Mozaffari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is long known that vitamin D deficiency was common in patients with liver disease, but little is known on the therapeutic effects of vitamin D, especially in patients with chronic liver disease. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the literatures and study the evidences in which the effects of vitamin D supplementation had been investigated on the severity of chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed by using the following key terms “vitamin D supplementation” and “chronic liver disease” in the PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar to find relevant articles. After collecting the eligible documents, data were extracted and described based on the purpose of this review.Result: Of total 196 articles found, only 7 relevant documents with 518 studied patients were included. The results of this study showed that the levels of 25(OH D were considerably lower in patients with chronic liver disease. Findings showed that vitamin D supplementation can rise up the mean serum level of 25(OH D in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency, especially patients with liver cirrhosis.Conclusion:The results of this review showed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of liver disease and may have prognostic value in the assessment of liver disease. Also, it was shown that vitamin D supplementation may be helpful for the treatment of liver disease at least in certain groups of patients.

  3. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicine Herbs Decoction on Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aziyah Mat-Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective and curative activities of aqueous extract of decoction containing 10 Chinese medicinal herbs (HPE-XA-08 were evaluated in Sprague–Dawley albino rats with liver damage induced by thioacetamide (TAA. These activities were assessed by investigating the liver enzymes level and also histopathology investigation. Increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT levels were observed in rats with cirrhotic liver. No significant alterations of the liver enzymes were observed following treatment with HPE-XA-08. Histopathology examination of rats treated with HPE-XA-08 at 250 mg/kg body weight, however, exhibited moderate liver protective effects. Reduced extracellular matrix (ECM proteins within the hepatocytes were noted in comparison to the cirrhotic liver. The curative effects of HPE-XA-08 were observed with marked decrease in the level of ALP (more than 3x and level of GGT (more than 2x in cirrhotic rat treated with 600 mg/kg body weight HPE-XA-08 in comparison to cirrhotic rat treated with just water diluent. Reversion of cirrhotic liver to normal liver condition in rats treated with HPE-XA-08 was observed. Results from the present study suggest that HPE-XA-08 treatment assisted in the protection from liver cirrhosis and improved the recovery of cirrhotic liver.

  4. Adverse effects of homeopathy, what do we know? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stub, Trine; Musial, Frauke; Kristoffersen, Agnete A; Alræk, Terje; Liu, Jianping

    2016-06-01

    Homeopathy is a popular treatment modality among patient, however there is sparse research about adverse effects of homeopathy. A concept unique for homeopathy, is homeopathic aggravation that is understood as a transient worsening of the patients' symptoms before an expected improvement occurs. From a risk perspective it is vital that a distinction between homeopathic aggravations and adverse effects is established. There is a lack of systematic information on how frequent adverse effects and homeopathic aggravations are reported in studies. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Sixteen electronic databases were searched for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs). The searches were limited from the year 1995 to January 2011. Forty-one RCTs, with a total of 6.055 participants were included. A subtotal of 39 studies was included in the additional meta-analysis. A total of 28 trials (68%) reported adverse effects and five trials (12%) reported homeopathic aggravations. The meta-analysis (including six subgroup comparisons) demonstrated that no significant difference was found between homeopathy and control with OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86-1.14, I(2)=54%. More than two third of the adverse effects were classified as grade 1 (68%) and two third were classified as grade 2 (25%) and grade 3 (6%) according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Homeopathic aggravation was classified as grade 1 (98%) and grade 3 (2%), suggesting that homeopathic aggravations were reported to be less severe than adverse effects. The methodological quality according to a method recommended in the Cochrane handbook for RCTs, was high. Adverse effects including the concept of homeopathic aggravations are commonly reported in trials. The meta-analysis demonstrated that the proportion of patients experiencing adverse effects to be similar for patients randomized to homeopathic treatment compared to patients randomized to placebo and conventional medicine

  5. Effects of early-life adversity on immune function are mediated by prenatal environment: Role of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Bodnar, Tamara S; Holman, Parker J; Baglot, Samantha L; Lan, Ni; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the early postnatal environment to the pervasive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is poorly understood. Moreover, PAE often carries increased risk of exposure to adversity/stress during early life. Dysregulation of immune function may play a role in how pre- and/or postnatal adversity/stress alters brain development. Here, we combine two animal models to examine whether PAE differentially increases vulnerability to immune dysregulation in response to early-life adversity. PAE and control litters were exposed to either limited bedding (postnatal day [PN] 8-12) to model early-life adversity or normal bedding, and maternal behavior and pup vocalizations were recorded. Peripheral (serum) and central (amygdala) immune (cytokines and C-reactive protein - CRP) responses of PAE animals to early-life adversity were evaluated at PN12. Insufficient bedding increased negative maternal behavior in both groups. Early-life adversity increased vocalization in all animals; however, PAE pups vocalized less than controls. Early-life adversity reduced serum TNF-α, KC/GRO, and IL-10 levels in control but not PAE animals. PAE increased serum CRP, and levels were even higher in pups exposed to adversity. Finally, PAE reduced KC/GRO and increased IL-10 levels in the amygdala. Our results indicate that PAE alters immune system development and both behavioral and immune responses to early-life adversity, which could have subsequent consequences for brain development and later life health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy and adverse effects of intravenous lignocaine therapy in fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treharne GJ

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effects of intravenous lignocaine infusions (IV lignocaine in fibromyalgia. Methods Prospective study of the adverse effects of IV lignocaine in 106 patients with fibromyalgia; retrospective questionnaire study of the efficacy of IV lignocaine in 50 patients with fibromyalgia. Results Prospective study: Two major (pulmonary oedema and supraventricular tachycardia and 42 minor side-effects were reported. None had long-term sequelae. The commonest was hypotension (17 cases. Retrospective study: Pain and a range of psychosocial measures (on single 11-point scales improved significantly after treatment. There was no effect of the treatment on work status. The average duration of pain relief after the 6-day course of treatment was 11.5 ± 6.5 weeks. Conclusions Intravenous lignocaine appears to be both safe and of benefit in improving pain and quality of life for patients with fibromyalgia. This needs to be confirmed in prospective randomised controlled trials.

  7. Impact of the timing of hepatitis B virus identification and anti-hepatitis B virus therapy initiation on the risk of adverse liver outcomes for patients receiving cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jessica P; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Cantor, Scott B; Barbo, Andrea; Lin, Heather Y; Ahmed, Sairah; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Donato-Santana, Christian; Eng, Cathy; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Fisch, Michael J; McLaughlin, Peter; Simon, George R; Rondon, Gabriela; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Lok, Anna S

    2017-09-01

    Data on the incidence of adverse liver outcomes are limited for cancer patients with chronic (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-positive/hepatitis B core antibody [anti-HBc]-positive) or past (HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive) hepatitis B virus (HBV) after chemotherapy. This study was aimed at determining the impact of test timing and anti-HBV therapy on adverse liver outcomes in these patients. Patients with solid or hematologic malignancies who received chemotherapy between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. HBV testing and anti-HBV therapy were defined as early at the initiation of cancer therapy and as late after initiation. Outcomes included hepatitis flares, hepatic impairment, liver failure, and death. Time-to-event analysis was used to determine incidence, and multivariate hazard models were used to determine predictors of outcomes. There were 18,688 study patients (80.4% with solid tumors). The prevalence of chronic HBV was 1.1% (52 of 4905), and the prevalence of past HBV was 7.1% (350 of 4905). Among patients with solid tumors, late identification of chronic HBV was associated with a higher risk of hepatitis flare (hazard ratio [HR], 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-12.86), hepatic impairment (HR, 8.48; 95% CI, 1.86-38.66), liver failure (HR, 9.38; 95% CI, 1.50-58.86), and death (HR, 3.90; 95% CI, 1.19-12.83) in comparison with early identification. Among patients with hematologic malignancies and chronic HBV, the risk of death was 7.8 (95% CI, 1.73-35.27) times higher for persons with late initiation of anti-HBV therapy versus early initiation. Patients with late identification of chronic HBV had late or no anti-HBV therapy. Chronic HBV predicted liver failure in patients with solid or hematologic malignancies, whereas male sex and late identification were predictors for patients with solid tumors. Early identification correlates with early anti-HBV therapy and reduces the risk of liver failure and death in chronic HBV patients

  8. Expert panel evaluation of health information technology effects on adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Erika L; Kern, Lisa M; Brenner, Samantha; Hufstader, Meghan; Patel, Vaishali; Kaushal, Rainu

    2014-08-01

    Adverse events (AEs) among hospitalized patients occur frequently and result in significant sequelae. Federal policy is incentivizing health information technology (HIT) use, although research demonstrating safety benefits from HIT is mixed. Our objective was to evaluate the potential effects of HIT on reducing 21 different inpatient AEs. Identifying AEs most likely to be reduced by HIT can inform the design of future studies evaluating its effectiveness. We conducted a modified Delphi panel of national experts in HIT and safety. We conducted a focused literature review to inform the experts. Using a novel framework, experts rated each AE as 'definitely reduced by health IT,' 'possibly reduced by health IT' and 'not likely to be reduced by health IT'. From our panel discussion, experts identified six AEs as 'definitely reduced by health IT': (1) adverse drug events (ADEs) associated with digoxin; (2) ADE associated with IV heparin; (3) ADE associated with hypoglycaemic agents; (4) ADE associated with low molecular weight heparin and factor Xa inhibitor; (5) contrast nephropathy associated with catheter angiography; and (6) ADE hospital-acquired antibiotic-associated Clostridium difficile. Understanding the effects of HIT on patient outcomes will be essential to ensuring that the significant federal investment results in anticipated improvements. This study serves as an important early step in helping with the design of future work evaluating level of HIT infrastructure and rates of inpatient AEs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of social adversity and HIV on subcortical shape and neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Kuhn, Taylor P; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Bilder, Robert M; Williamson, Timothy J; Singer, Elyse J; Arentoft, Alyssa

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of social adversity (SA) and HIV infection on subcortical shape alterations and cognitive functions. Participants included HIV+ (n = 70) and HIV- (n = 23) individuals who underwent MRI, neurocognitive and clinical assessment, in addition to completing questionnaires from which responses were used to create an SA score. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were extracted from T1-weighted images. Parametric statistical analyses were used to compare the radial distance of the structure surface to a median curve to determine the presence of localized shape differences as a function of HIV, SA and their interaction. Next, multiple regression was used to examine the interactive association between HIV and SA with cognitive performance data. An HIV*SA interactive effect was found on the shape of the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Specifically, HIV-infected participants (but not HIV-uninfected controls) who evidenced higher levels of SA displayed an inward deformation of the surface consistent with reduced volume of these structures. We found interactive effects of HIV and SA on learning/memory performance. These results suggest that HIV+ individuals may be more vulnerable to neurological and cognitive changes in the hippocampus and amygdala as a function of SA than HIV- individuals, and that SA indicators of childhood SES and perceived racial discrimination are important components of adversity that are associated with cognitive performance.

  10. Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sitting Behavior on the General Health of Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmandi, Hadi; Choobineh, Alireza; Ghaem, Haleh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-07-01

    Excessive sitting behavior is a risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of sitting behavior and its adverse effects among Iranian office workers. This cross-sectional study included 447 Iranian office workers. A two-part questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The first part surveyed the demographic characteristics and general health of the respondents, while the second part contained the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) to assess symptoms. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software using Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. The respondents spent an average of 6.29 hours of an 8-hour working shift in a sitting position. The results showed that 48.8% of the participants did not feel comfortable with their workstations and 73.6% felt exhausted during the workday. Additionally, 6.3% suffered from hypertension, and 11.2% of them reported hyperlipidemia. The results of the NMQ showed that neck (53.5%), lower back (53.2%) and shoulder (51.6%) symptoms were the most prevalent problem among office workers. Based upon a multiple logistic regression, only sex had a significant association with prolonged sitting behavior (odds ratio = 3.084). Our results indicated that long sitting times were associated with exhaustion during the working day, decreased job satisfaction, hypertension, and musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in the shoulders, lower back, thighs, and knees of office workers. Sitting behavior had adverse effects on office workers. Active workstations are therefore recommended to improve working conditions.

  11. Effects of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on postpartum lactation start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiong; Hu, Yin; Zhang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Delay in lactation initiation causes maternal anxiety and subsequent adverse impact on maternal exclusive breast feeding. It is important to explore a safe and convenient way to promote lactation initiation. The feasibility of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on prevention of delayed lactation initiation was investigated in the present study. 320 women were enrolled and randomly divided into four groups, control group (80 women), point massage group (80 women), pith and trotter soup group (80 women), and massage + soup group (80 women) to compare the lactation initiation time. We found that women in point massage group, pith and trotter soup group and massage + soup group had earlier initiation of lactation compared with control group. Women in massage + soup group had the earliest initiation time of lactation. There were significant differences between massage + soup group and pith and trotter soup group. But, there were no significant differences between massage + soup group and massage group. We conclude that point massage of the liver and stomach channel is easy to operate and has the preventive effect on delayed lactation initiation. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Initiation of lactation is a critical period in postpartum milk secretion. Delays in lactation initiation lead to maternal anxiety and have an adverse impact on maternal exclusive breastfeeding. Sucking frequently by babies and mammary massage might be effective but insufficient for delayed lactation initiation. What the results of this study add: We found in the present study that lactation initiation is significantly earlier in women receiving routine nursing combined with point massage of liver and stomach channel, or pith trotters soup, or massage of liver and stomach channel with pith and trotters soup than in a control group receiving routine nursing. These three methods are all effective, while the most

  12. Effectiveness of Sedoanalgesia in Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Premedication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Orhan; Ates, Fehmi; Altintas, Engin; Saritas, Bunyamin

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Percutaneous needle liver biopsy (PLB) is frequently associated with pain and anxiety. This may discourage the patients for biopsy, and rebiopsies, if needed. We planned a study to investigate the efficacy of additional analgesia or sedation for PLB. Materials and methods: The study has been designed as a single-center, prospective study. The PLB was planned for 18- to 65-year-old consecutive patients who were included in the study. The patients were divided into three premedication groups as control, Meperidine, and Midazolam. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure each subject’s anxiety level. Fifteen minutes before the biopsy, 1 mL 0.9% NaCl subcutaneously (sc), 1 mg/kg (max 100 mg) Meperidine sc, or 0.1 mg/kg (max 5 mg) Midazolam intravenously was administered to patients respectively. Then PLB was done with 16 G Menghini needle. The day after, the patients were asked about feelings regarding biopsy. Results: Groups were similar by gender and age. The HADS scores prior to PLB and on visual analog scale (VAS, 1-10 points) score during PLB were similar. In the three groups, 7, 12, and 7 patients, respectively, experienced no pain. Other patients explained pain as mild or moderate or severe. The number of patients who agreed for possible rebiopsy was higher in Meperidine and Midazolam groups than in the control group. Conclusion: Premedication with Meperidine or Midazolam in PLB would improve patients’ tolerance, comfort, and attitude against a possible repeat PLB. How to cite this article: Sezgin O, Yaras S, Ates F, Altintas E, Saritas B. Effectiveness of Sedoanalgesia in Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Premedication. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(2):146-149. PMID:29201797

  13. Effects of dexamethasone on liver enzymes and some serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concomitant usage of dexamethasone and other medications may alter electrolyte metabolism and increase the formation of potentially hepatotoxic reactive metabolites which can contribute to elevated liver enzymes. The role of dexamethasone in liver functions and electrolyte metabolism during pregnancy in Yankasa ...

  14. the effect of cement dust exposure on haematological and liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    LIVER FUNCTION PARAMETERS OF CEMENT FACTORY WORKERS IN. SOKOTO ... to cement dust. (mean years of exposure = 9.6± 1.5 years) and 46 matched unexposed controls. ... was assessed by measuring serum liver function tests. .... of cement, may increase the risk of autoimmune disease. ... Mosby's Manual of.

  15. Side-Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on the Liver in Dogs and Hepatoprotective Effect of Plant Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szweda Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective effect of plant drugs against hepatic tissue injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs was assessed on Beagle dogs. The adverse effects of carprofen and robenacoxib on the hepatic tissue were evaluated on the basis of histopathological examination of liver sections. It was demonstrated that the use of NSAIDs with liquorice and composed plant remedy Pectosol¯ caused a reduction of hepatic adverse effects induced by the administration of NSAIDs. This fact indicates a hepatoprotective effect of the tested plant remedies during the treatment with NSAIDs. However, the results require further studies on a larger group of animals. Liquorice and Pectosol¯ reduce the hepatic side effects, which develop after the treatment with carprofen and, to a lesser extent, robenacoxib in young Beagles. Such studies allow to investigate the negative and positive effects of using robenacoxib and carprofen in dogs and, therefore, help to limit the NSAID-induced side effects on the liver in these animals.

  16. Are adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs different in symptomatic partial and idiopathic generalized epilepsies? The Portuguese-Brazilian validation of the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, H H; Alonso, N B; Vidal-Dourado, M; Carbonel, T D; de Araújo Filho, G M; Caboclo, L O; Yacubian, E M; Guilhoto, L M

    2011-11-01

    We report the results of administration of the Portuguese-Brazilian translation of the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP) to 100 patients (mean age=34.5, SD=12.12; 56 females), 61 with symptomatic partial epilepsy (SPE) and 39 with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) (ILAE, 1989) who were on a stable antiepileptic drug (AED) regimen and being treated in a Brazilian tertiary epilepsy center. Carbamazepine was the most commonly used AED (43.0%), followed by valproic acid (32.0%). Two or more AEDs were used by 69.0% of patients. The mean LAEP score (19 questions) was 37.6 (SD=13.35). The most common adverse effects were sleepiness (35.0%), memory problems (35.0%), and difficulty in concentrating (25.0%). Higher LAEP scores were associated with polytherapy with three or more AEDs (P=0.005), female gender (P0.001) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Depression: r=0.637, P<0.001; Anxiety: r=0.621, P<0.001) dimensions. LAEP overall scores were similar in people with SPE and IGE and were not helpful in differentiating adverse effects in these two groups. Clinical variables that influenced global LAEP were seizure frequency (P=0.050) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the last month (P=0.031) in the IGE group, and polytherapy with three or more AEDs (P=0.003 and P=0.003) in both IGE and SPE groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of triiodothyronine on rat liver chromatin protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruh, J.; Tichonicky, L.

    1976-01-01

    1) Injection of triiodothyronine to rats stimulates protein kinase activity in liver chromatin nonhistone proteins. A significant increase was found after two daily injections. A 4-fold increase was observed with the purified enzyme after eight daily injections of the hormone. No variations were observed in cytosol protein kinase activity. Electrophoretic pattern, effect of heat denaturation, effect of p-hydroxymercuribenzoate seem to indicate that the enzyme present in treated rats is not identical to the enzyme in control animals, which suggests that thyroid hormone has induced nuclear protein kinase. Diiodothyronine, 3, 3', 5'-triiodothyronine have no effect on protein kinase. 2) Chromatin non-histone proteins isolated from rats injected with triiodothyronine incorporated more 32 P when incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP than the chromatin proteins from untreated rats. Thyroidectomy reduced the in vitro 32 P incorporation. It is suggested that some of the biological activity of thyroid hormone could be mediated through its effect on chromatin non-histone proteins. (orig.) [de

  18. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees Jan; Spechler, Philip A.; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N.; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R.; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Background Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Methods Impulsivity was estimated

  19. A patient case highlighting the myriad of cutaneous adverse effects of prolonged use of hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Brett; Ryser, Ted; Neill, John; Aires, Daniel; Rajpara, Anand

    2017-11-15

    Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite primarily used to treat myeloproliferative disorders, and chronic treatment is associated with many cutaneous adverse effects ranging in severity from ichthyosis to aggressive nonmelanoma skin cancer. We report a 67-year-oldman with a history of polycythemia vera who was referred for management of progressively worsening dorsal hand lesions. The patient presented withhyperpigmentation, ichthyosis, plantar keratoderma, dermatomyositis-like eruptions, two squamous cell carcinomas, and actinic keratoses. The adversereactions observed were acknowledged to be related to chronic hydroxyurea use. The patient underwent Mohs excision of the squamous cell carcinomas and thehydroxyurea was promptly discontinued; subsequent cutaneous improvement of the dermatomyositislike lesions ensued. Another clinically suspicious aggressive squamous cell carcinoma was suspected and the patient was referred to the plastic surgery department for complete excision because of the size of the lesion. The patient remains on periodic dermatology follow up. We report a case that exemplifies the cutaneous adverse effects of chronic hydroxyurea therapy. Although many cases improve after drug discontinuation, strict photoprotection and ongoing surveillance are indicated given the recently proposed premalignant potential of dermatomyositis-like eruptions and the aggressive nature of hydroxyurea-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  20. Evaluation of the adverse effects of subcutaneous carprofen over six days in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steagall, P V M; Moutinho, F Q; Mantovani, F B; Passarelli, D; Thomassian, A

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the adverse effects of carprofen in seven healthy cats. Values for CBC, biochemical profiles and platelet aggregation were measured before and at seven days after SID treatment with subcutaneous carprofen: 4 mg/kg (day 1), 2mg/kg (day 2 and 3) and 1mg/kg (day 4 and 6) (CG) or 0.35 ml of saline (SG) for six days in a randomized, blinded, cross-over study with a four-week washout period. No treatment was given on day 5. Endoscopy of the GI tract was performed pre-treatment and on day 7 post-treatment. There were no significant changes in hematological profiles, biochemical profiles and endoscopy grading scores within nor between groups, except for lower albumin values at baseline than on day 7 (CG), and globulin and ALP values were higher at baseline than on day 7 in CG and SG. SC administration of carprofen over six days did not cause any adverse effects on gastrointestinal, hematological, or serum biochemical variables.

  1. HPV vaccines: their pathology-based discovery, benefits, and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alcina F; de Andrade, Cecilia V; Russomano, Fabio B; Rodrigues, Luana S L; Oliveira, Nathalia S; Provance, David William; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine illustrates the power of in situ-based pathologic analysis in better understanding and curing diseases. The 2 available HPV vaccines have markedly reduced the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, genital warts, and cervical cancer throughout the world. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, health care officials, and parents to refuse providing the recommended vaccination to the target population. The aims of the study were to discuss the discovery of HPV vaccine and review scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines. The strong type-specific immunity against HPV in humans has been known for more than 25 years. Multiple studies confirm the positive risk benefit of HPV vaccination with minimal documented adverse effects. The most common adverse effect, injection site pain, occurred in about 10% of girls and was less than the rate reported for other vaccines. Use of HPV vaccine should be expanded into more diverse populations, mainly in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN, are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN and genetic factors (MAO and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future.

  3. Prevention and management of statin adverse effects: A practical approach for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Arden R; Beach, Jessica E; Pearson, Glen J

    2018-01-01

    Statin-associated adverse effects, primarily muscle-related symptoms, occur in up to approximately one-third of patients in clinical practice. Recently, a Canadian Consensus Working Group outlined 6 key principles to assess and manage patients with goal-inhibiting statin intolerance, defined as a syndrome characterized by symptoms or biomarker abnormalities that prevent the long-term use of and adherence to indicated statin therapy, which includes a trial of at least 2 statins and precludes reversible causes of statin adverse effects. These principles ensure patients are appropriately receiving a statin and aware of both the benefits and risks of therapy. As well, they address factors that may increase the risk of statin-associated myopathy. A thorough assessment of patients' clinical and laboratory history should be performed in any patient presenting with muscle symptoms on statin therapy, followed by a systematic dechallenge/rechallenge approach. In practice, most patients with statin intolerance due to muscle symptoms will be able to tolerate another statin. This is of particular importance because of the relative paucity of compelling evidence demonstrating a cardiovascular benefit with nonstatin therapies. Pharmacists are ideally situated to provide patient education, recommend changes to therapy and monitor patients with goal-inhibiting statin intolerance.

  4. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  5. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Chiang, Tai-An

    2017-01-01

    Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN), are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN) and genetic factors (MAO) and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future. PMID:29376073

  6. The Impact of Exercise on Cancer Mortality, Recurrence, and Treatment-Related Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; Zopf, Eva M; Zhang, Xiaochen; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-01-01

    The combination of an increasing number of new cancer cases and improving survival rates has led to a large and rapidly growing population with unique health-care requirements. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to help address the issues faced by cancer patients. Supported by a growing body of research, major health organizations commonly identify the importance of incorporating exercise in cancer care and advise patients to be physically active. This systematic review comprehensively summarizes the available epidemiologic and randomized controlled trial evidence investigating the role of exercise in the management of cancer. Literature searches focused on determining the potential impact of exercise on 1) cancer mortality and recurrence and 2) adverse effects of cancer and its treatment. A total of 100 studies were reviewed involving thousands of individual patients whose exercise behavior was assessed following the diagnosis of any type of cancer. Compared with patients who performed no/less exercise, patients who exercised following a diagnosis of cancer were observed to have a lower relative risk of cancer mortality and recurrence and experienced fewer/less severe adverse effects. The findings of this review support the view that exercise is an important adjunct therapy in the management of cancer. Implications on cancer care policy and practice are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Comparative Rates of Mortality and Serious Adverse Effects Among Commonly Prescribed Opioid Analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David L; Lebin, Jacob A; Severtson, Stevan G; Olsen, Heather A; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Dart, Richard C

    2018-03-26

    The epidemic of prescription opioid overdose and mortality parallels the dispensing rates of prescription opioids, and the availability of increasingly potent opioid analgesics. The common assumption that more potent opioid analgesics are associated with higher rates of adverse outcomes has not been adequately substantiated. We compared the rate of serious adverse events among commonly prescribed opioid analgesics of varying potency. Serious adverse events (SAEs; defined as death, major medical effect, or hospitalization) resulting from exposure to tablets containing seven opioid analgesics (oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, tapentadol, and tramadol) captured by the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS ® ) System Poison Center Program were evaluated from 2010 through 2016. Rates of SAEs were adjusted for availability through outpatient dispensing data and regressed on morphine milligram equivalents (MME). There were 19,480 cases of SAE during the 7-year study period. Hydrocodone and oxycodone contributed to 77% of SAE cases. Comparing rates of outcome by relative potency, a hierarchy was observed with hydromorphone (8.02 SAEs/100 kg) and tapentadol (0.27 SAE/100 kg) as the highest and lowest rates, reflecting a 30-fold difference among individual opioid products. SAE rate and potency were related linearly-SAEs increased 2.04 per 100 kg drug dispensed for each 1-unit rise in MME (p = 0.004). Linear regression of SAE/100 kg drug dispensed and drug potency identified that MME comprised 96% of the variation observed. In contrast, potency did not explain variation seen using other study denominators (prescriptions dispensed, dosage units dispensed, and the number of individuals filling a prescription). Potency of a prescription opioid analgesic demonstrates a significant, highly positive linear relationship with exposures resulting in SAEs per 100 kg drug dispensed reported to poison centers

  8. PTH prevents the adverse effects of focal radiation on bone architecture in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Lan, Shenghui; Zhu, Ji; Lin, Tiao; Zhang, Xianrong; Siclari, Valerie A; Altman, Allison R; Cengel, Keith A; Liu, X Sherry; Qin, Ling

    2013-08-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment regimen for cancer patients. However, its adverse effects on the neighboring bone could lead to fractures with a great impact on quality of life. The underlying mechanism is still elusive and there is no preventive or curative solution for this bone loss. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a current therapy for osteoporosis that has potent anabolic effects on bone. In this study, we found that focal radiation from frequent scans of the right tibiae in 1-month-old rats by micro-computed tomography severely decreased trabecular bone mass and deteriorated bone structure. Interestingly, PTH daily injections remarkably improved trabecular bone in the radiated tibiae with increases in trabecular number, thickness, connectivity, structure model index and stiffness, and a decrease in trabecular separation. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that radiation mainly decreased the number of osteoblasts and impaired their mineralization activity but had little effects on osteoclasts. PTH reversed these adverse effects and greatly increased bone formation to a similar level in both radiated and non-radiated bones. Furthermore, PTH protects bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from radiation-induced damage, including a decrease in number and an increase in adipogenic differentiation. While radiation generated the same amount of free radicals in the bone marrow of vehicle-treated and PTH-treated animals, the percentage of apoptotic bone marrow cells was significantly attenuated in the PTH group. Taken together, our data demonstrate a radioprotective effect of PTH on bone structure and bone marrow and shed new light on a possible clinical application of anabolic treatment in radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Nitrous Oxide: It is not all about Hyperhomocysteinaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Once admired for its supposed safety, nitrous oxide is presently blamed to increase adverse cardiovascular effects through augmenting plasma homocysteine concentrations (1, 2. Hemodynamic alterations following the administration of nitrous oxide are extremely complicated and sometimes contradictory. Enhanced venous return, arterial pressure, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, pupillary dilation and diaphoresis occur under nitrous oxide administration consistent with sympathomimetic properties of nitrous oxide (3. Conversely, reductions in arterial pressure are also probable, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. Nitrous oxide can also depress myocardial contractility due to decreased availability of Ca2+ for contractile activation; yet, myocardial relaxation kinetics remains intact (4. In the presence of a volatile anesthetic, nitrous oxide decreases MVO2 (Myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial O2 extraction which may exacerbate myocardial ischemia during concomitant reductions in arterial pressure in patients with coronary artery disease. Consequently, it could be conjectured that probable adverse cardiovascular effects following nitrous oxide administration are variable and consequent of a multi-variable phenomenon rather than a single variable such as increased levels of homocysteine. Studied purely focusing on the effects of nitrous oxide are difficult to conduct due to the numerous confounding factors. In a study by Myles et al., hyperhomocysteinemia has been introduced as the source of the adverse cardiovascular effects of nitrous oxide. However, in this study, increased inspired oxygen concentrations were used to overcome arterial desaturation (1. Given the fact that a constant volume and flow rates are used throughout the anesthesia in a particular patient, increasing the concentrations of oxygen would be associated with decreased delivered nitrous oxide and volatile anesthetic concentrations

  10. Oculocutaneous albinism in sub-Saharan Africa: adverse sun-associated health effects and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Norval, Mary; Hertle, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically inherited autosomal recessive condition. Individuals with OCA lack melanin and therefore are susceptible to the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation, including extreme sun sensitivity, photophobia and skin cancer. OCA is a grave public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa with a prevalence as high as 1 in 1000 in some tribes. This article considers the characteristics and prevalence of OCA in sub-Saharan African countries. Sun-induced adverse health effects in the skin and eyes of OCA individuals are reviewed. Sun exposure behavior and the use of photoprotection for the skin and eyes are discussed to highlight the major challenges experienced by these at-risk individuals and how these might be best resolved. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  11. Influence of certain factors on the manifestations of the adverse effects of metrizamide myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y L; Du Boulay, G H; Paul, E

    1986-07-01

    Although metrizamide is now being superseded by other contrast media, the mechanisms of its side effects may be of fundamental importance. One hundered and four consecutive patients with suspected cervical cord or root lesion were studied prospectively for factors which might influence the side effects of metrizamide myelography. Elderly patients were more prone to develop mental confusion. An earlier onset of dizziness and/or vertigo was associated with the lumbar route of intrathecal injection. Perhaps surprisingly, phenobarbitone prophylaxis shortened the duration of confusion and delayed the onset of headaches. Other factors, viz. sex, excess intracranial flow of metrizamide and myelographic blockage were not shown to have a signifiant influence on the adverse reactions.

  12. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 2. Normal tissue specific sites and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue sites in the human body. Considers in detail the detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects and discusses prognostic outcomes. Clearly presents radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects. Provides the most current evidence-based medicine for cancer care survivorship guidelines. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 2 of this two-volume work comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue anatomic sites in the human body. The detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects are all considered in detail, and prognostic outcomes are discussed. Radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects are clearly presented. The text is accompanied by numerous supportive illustrations and tables.

  13. EFFECTS OF RESVERATROL ON LIVER FUNCTION OF OBESE FEMALE WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Araújo Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, lipolytic, and antifibrotic properties, which may be useful in supplementation of obese patients and with liver problems. This study evaluated the effects of 6-week resveratrol supplementation on the lipid profile and liver function of female Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity. Sixty-four Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 16: the control group (C; the control obese group (CO; the resveratrol group (R; and the resveratrol obese group (RO. At the end of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized for blood collection and subsequent euthanasia for collection of liver biopsy. The parameters for body weight, liver weight, retroperitoneal fat weight, serum lipid and liver profiles and histopathological analysis were evaluated. The 6-week resveratrol administration did not induce weight loss nor did it reduce the lipid profile; however, it decreased the liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP and reduced the incidence of steatosis (75.0% in group RO compared with group CO (81.2%. Thus, we concluded that resveratrol supplementation for the short period of six weeks had a beneficial effect on liver function by reducing hepatic steatosis and the liver enzymes AST and ALP in obese female rats. Keywords: liver function; obesity; rats; resveratrol.

  14. Biphasic effect of alcohol intake on the development of fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Ono, Masafumi; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Chika; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Ono, Naofumi; Eguchi, Takahisa; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Chayama, Kazuaki; Saibara, Toshiji; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro

    2015-11-01

    Fatty liver is an important clinical feature not only in alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, but in other chronic liver diseases as well. Our aim was to elucidate the effect and relationship between habitual alcohol intake and obesity in the development of fatty liver disease. We enrolled 8,029 subjects undergoing abdominal ultrasonography with general medical examinations, and analyzed the factors associated with fatty liver based on daily alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. For fatty liver, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose were significant and independent risk factors. Heavy alcohol intake (50 g/day) was a significant risk factor for fatty liver in women (odds ratio [OR], 3.35). Analysis based on the presence or absence of obesity revealed that moderate alcohol intake was a significant negative risk factor for fatty liver in both male and female obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) subjects (OR, 0.74 for non-obese and 0.39 for obese patients, respectively). Heavy alcohol intake was also a significant negative risk factor in obese males (0.62). In contrast, heavy alcohol intake was a risk factor in non-obese males (OR, 1.29) and in all females (OR, 2.22 for non-obese and 6.6 for obese patients, respectively). The influence of alcohol intake on fatty liver differed depending on the level of alcohol consumption, gender, and the presence of obesity, and showed biphasic effects.

  15. Differential renal adverse effects of ibuprofen and indomethacin in preterm infants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacifici GM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Maria Pacifici Medical School, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Section of Pharmacology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of renal adverse effects caused by ibuprofen or indomethacin in order to choose the safer drug to administer to preterm infants. Methods: The following three parameters of renal function were taken into consideration: 1 the urine output; 2 the serum creatinine concentration; and 3 the frequency of oliguria. The bibliographic search was performed using PubMed and Embase databases as search engines. Results: Urine output ranged from 3.5±1.2 to 4.0±1.4 mL/kg/h after ibuprofen treatment, and from 2.8±1.1 to 3.6±1.4 mL/kg/h after indomethacin treatment. The values for ibuprofen are significantly (P<0.05 higher than those for indomethacin. The serum creatinine concentrations ranged from 0.98±0.24 to 1.48±0.2 mg/dL after ibuprofen treatment, and from 1.06±0.24 and 2.03±2.10 mg/dL after indomethacin treatment. The values for ibuprofen are significantly (P<0.05 lower than those for indomethacin. The frequency of oliguria ranged from 1.0% to 9.6% (ibuprofen and from 14.8% to 40.0% (indomethacin, and was significantly lower following ibuprofen than indomethacin administration. In infants with body weight lower than 1,000 g, oliguria appeared in 5% (ibuprofen and 40% (indomethacin; P=0.02. Conclusion: Indomethacin is associated with more severe renal adverse effects than ibuprofen. Ibuprofen is less nephrotoxic than indomethacin and should be used to treat patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. Immaturity increases the frequency of adverse effects of indomethacin. Keywords: ibuprofen, indomethacin, patent-ductus-arteriosus, renal-side-effects

  16. The effect of brain based learning with contextual approach viewed from adversity quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningtyas, V.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi, R.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research was to find out the effect of Brain Based Learning (BBL) with contextual approach viewed from adversity quotient (AQ) on mathematics achievement. BBL-contextual is the model to optimize the brain in the new concept learning and real life problem solving by making the good environment. Adversity Quotient is the ability to response and faces the problems. In addition, it is also about how to turn the difficulties into chances. This AQ classified into quitters, campers, and climbers. The research method used in this research was quasi experiment by using 2x3 factorial designs. The sample was chosen by using stratified cluster random sampling. The instruments were test and questionnaire for the data of AQ. The results showed that (1) BBL-contextual is better than direct learning on mathematics achievement, (2) there is no significant difference between each types of AQ on mathematics achievement, and (3) there is no interaction between learning model and AQ on mathematics achievement.

  17. Review for carrageenan-based pharmaceutical biomaterials: favourable physical features versus adverse biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhan, Xiudan; Wan, Jianbo; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2015-05-05

    Carrageenan (CRG) is a family of natural polysaccharides derived from seaweeds and has widely been used as food additives. In the past decade, owing to its attractive physicochemical properties, CRG has been developed into versatile biomaterials vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, studies also emerged to reveal its adverse effects on the biological system. In this review, we critically appraise the latest literature (two thirds since 2008) on the development of CRG-based pharmaceutical vehicles and the perspective of using CRG for broader biomedical applications. We focus on how current strategies exploit the unique gelling mechanisms, strong water absorption and abundant functional groups of the three major CRG varieties. Notably, CRG-based matrices are demonstrated to increase drug loading and drug solubility, enabling release of orally administrated drugs in zero-order or in a significantly prolonged period. Other amazing features, such as pH-sensitivity and adhesive property, of CRG-based formulations are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the adverse influence of CRG on the human body and then suggest some future directions for the development of CRG-based biomaterials for broader applications in biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Renal Tubular Acidosis an Adverse Effect of PD-1 Inhibitor Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy El Bitar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune checkpoint blockade therapy is gaining popularity among oncologists for treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies. The widespread use of these agents resulted in increasing incidence of renal immune-related adverse events. Reported renal toxicity described so far includes acute interstitial nephritis, minimal change disease, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. We report the case of a 79-year-old female with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer on anti-PD-1 therapy nivolumab. After the 4th administration of nivolumab, the treatment course was complicated with normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Urine and blood studies were in favor of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA. Following a negative workup for an underlying etiology, immunotherapy-induced RTA was suspected. Withholding of the offending agent and initiation of steroid therapy resulted in adequate response. The present report provides the first presentation of RTA as a renal immune-related adverse event secondary to nivolumab. Nephrologists and oncologists should be familiar with potentially life-threatening renal side effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  19. Linking Adverse Childhood Effects and Attachment: A Theory of Etiology for Sexual Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Melissa D; Levenson, Jill S; Bolder, Tess

    2016-01-25

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem affecting significant portions of the population. Unfortunately, an agreed upon theory of etiology remains elusive leading to challenges in developing effective prevention and treatment interventions. Recently, there is a growing body of literature examining the role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the development of sexually violent behavior. This research has begun to explore the rates of various types of child maltreatments and family dysfunction in individuals who have been convicted of a sexual crime. These empirical inquiries have been primarily descriptive in nature and have not yet provided a cohesive theoretical model as to why the presence of ACEs might contribute to sexually abusive behavior. This article suggests that attachment theory offers an explanatory link between early adversity and sexually abusive behavior in adulthood. We first summarize important attachment theory concepts, then integrate them with research in the area of developmental psychopathology and ACEs, and finally propose a model by which attachment can be used as an explanatory theory for subsequent sexualized coping and sexually abusive behaviors. Finally, this article explores the implications for practice, policy, and research using this explanatory theory as a framework for understanding sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. The effect of pre-donation hypotension on whole blood donor adverse reactions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Nele S; Cusack, Leila; De Buck, Emmy; Compernolle, Veerle; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    Blood services are reliant upon healthy blood donors to provide a safe and adequate supply of blood products. Inappropriate variables contained within blood donor exclusion criteria can defer potentially appropriate donors. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of low pre-donation blood pressure, as compared with normal blood pressure, on adverse events in allogeneic whole blood donors. A systematic review was performed using highly sensitive search strategies within five databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) from inception date until April 12, 2013. Out of 8305 records, 10 observational studies were identified that addressed the question. Five of these studies (with a combined total of 1,482,020 donations and 2903 donors) included either a statistical analysis or an appropriate study design that controlled for possible confounding factors. Based on the currently available evidence, hypotension has not been shown to be an independent predictive factor for donor complications. However, the overall quality of evidence was rather limited and rated 'low,' using the GRADE approach. In conclusion there is currently no evidence that hypotensive blood donors have a greater risk for donor adverse events compared with their normotensive counterparts. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mediators and Adverse Effects of Child Poverty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, John M; Wood, David L; Duffee, James H; Kuo, Alice

    2016-04-01

    The link between poverty and children's health is well recognized. Even temporary poverty may have an adverse effect on children's health, and data consistently support the observation that poverty in childhood continues to have a negative effect on health into adulthood. In addition to childhood morbidity being related to child poverty, epidemiologic studies have documented a mortality gradient for children aged 1 to 15 years (and adults), with poor children experiencing a higher mortality rate than children from higher-income families. The global great recession is only now very slowly abating for millions of America's children and their families. At this difficult time in the history of our nation's families and immediately after the 50th anniversary year of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, it is particularly germane for the American Academy of Pediatrics, which is "dedicated to the health of all children," to publish a research-supported technical report that examines the mediators associated with the long-recognized adverse effects of child poverty on children and their families. This technical report draws on research from a number of disciplines, including physiology, sociology, psychology, economics, and epidemiology, to describe the present state of knowledge regarding poverty's negative impact on children's health and development. Children inherit not only their parents' genes but also the family ecology and its social milieu. Thus, parenting skills, housing, neighborhood, schools, and other factors (eg, medical care) all have complex relations to each other and influence how each child's genetic canvas is expressed. Accompanying this technical report is a policy statement that describes specific actions that pediatricians and other child advocates can take to attenuate the negative effects of the mediators identified in this technical report and improve the well-being of our nation's children and their families. Copyright © 2016 by the

  2. Influence of the ventilatory mode on acute adverse effects and facial thermography after noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Suzy Maria Montenegro; Melo, Luiz Henrique de Paula; Maia, Nathalia Parente de Sousa; Nogueira, Andrea da Nóbrega Cirino; Vasconcelos, Thiago Brasileiro; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Bastos, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    To compare the incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects and the variation in the temperature of facial skin by thermography after the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We included 20 healthy volunteers receiving NIV via oronasal mask for 1 h. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups according to the ventilatory mode: bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Facial thermography was performed in order to determine the temperature of the face where it was in contact with the mask and of the nasal dorsum at various time points. After removal of the mask, the volunteers completed a questionnaire about adverse effects of NIV. The incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects were higher in the individuals receiving BiPAP than in those receiving CPAP (16.1% vs. 5.6%). Thermographic analysis showed a significant cooling of the facial skin in the two regions of interest immediately after removal of the mask. The more intense acute adverse effects occurred predominantly among the participants in whom the decrease in the mean temperature of the nasal dorsum was lower (14.4% vs. 7.2%). The thermographic visual analysis of the zones of cooling and heating on the face identified areas of hypoperfusion or reactive hyperemia. The use of BiPAP mode was associated with a higher incidence and intensity of NIV-related acute adverse effects. There was an association between acute adverse effects and less cooling of the nasal dorsum immediately after removal of the mask. Cutaneous thermography can be an additional tool to detect adverse effects that the use of NIV has on facial skin. Comparar a incidência e a intensidade de efeitos adversos agudos e a variação da temperatura da pele da face através da termografia após a aplicação de ventilação não invasiva (VNI). Foram incluídos 20 voluntários sadios, de ambos os gêneros, submetidos à VNI com máscara oronasal por 1 h e divididos aleatoriamente em

  3. The effect of biologically active feed additives of humilid substances on the antioxidant system in liver mitochondria of gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Dyomshina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are organelles that are most sensitive to the action of stressors on any cell of the entire organism and exposure to chemicals which can cause its dysfunction and cell death in general. Especially sensitive to adverse conditions are liver mitochondria, where the processes of biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous metabolites are formed, not only in the liver, but also in other organs and tissues. Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause instant hepatic cytolysis and steatosis. Therefore, early detection of mitochondrial toxicity is important during preclinical studies of new pharmacological agents, as this will help avoid remote negative effects. The biologically active feed additive Humilid, a complex of humic acids known for their antidiarrheal, analgesic, immune-stimulating, and antimicrobial properties; shows a corrective effect on the activity of the lysosomal cathepsin; enhances the positive effect of hematopoiesis on hemoglobin and its quality indicators consisting of red blood cells; and activates the synthesis and accumulation of fibronectin expression that takes part in the formation of immunological protection of animals. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of complex biologically active feed additives based on humic substances on the biochemical indicators of the liver mitochondrial antioxidant system of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards, 1867. The experiment was conducted on mature (6 months Mongolian gerbils. The data obtained showing the influence of the biologically active feed additives Humilid, alone or in combination with ascorbate and Eco-impulse Animal, on the antioxidant defense system of liver mitochondria of gerbils are presented in this article. The proven antioxidant effect of humic substances in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver which inhibits the accumulation of oxidized products in the cells is shown, confirmed by the decrease in the number of TBA

  4. Effects of thyroid dysfunction-induced liver oxidative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unicornis

    were randomly divided into four groups of six each: the first group served as a ... significant increase in plasmatic activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, and liver malondialdehyde level. ...... cope with MD toxicity, more attention is needed to limit its.

  5. Therapeutic effects and adverse drug reactions are affected by icotinib exposure and CYP2C19 and EGFR genotypes in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Dong-Yang; Zhao, Qian; Wu, Yi-Wen; Tan, Fen-Lai; Wang, Yin-Xiang; Jiang, Ji; Hu, Pei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how CYP2C19 affects icotinib and metabolite' exposure, and to determine whether the exposure and EGFR genotype influences survival time, tumor metastasis and adverse drug reactions. 274 NSCLC patients who accepted 125 mg icotinib/t.i.d. were chosen from a phase III study. Blood samples were obtained in 672 nd (4th week) and 1,680 th hours (10th week), and plasma was used to quantify the concentration of icotinib and blood cells were sampled to check the genotypes. Clinical data were also collected at the same time, including EGFR genotypes. Plasma concentrations were assessed by HPLC-MS/MS and genotype by sequencing. All data were analyzed through SPSS 17.0 and SAS 9.2. CYP 2C19 genotypes affected bio-transformation from icotinib to M24 and M26, especially in poor-metabolisers. Higher icotinib concentrations (>1000 ng/mL) not only increased patient PFS and OS but also reduced tumor metastasis. Patients with mutant EGFR experienced a higher median PFS and OS (234 and 627 days), especially those with the 19del genotype demonstrating higher PR ratio. Patients who suffered grade II skin toxicity had a higher icotinib exposure than those with grade I skin toxicity or no adverse effects. Liver toxic reactions might occur in patients with greater M20 and M23 plasma concentrations. CYP2C19 polymorphisms significantly affect icotinib, M24 and M26 exposure. Patients with mutant EGFR genotype and higher icotinib concentration might have increased PFS and OS and lower tumor metastasis. Liver ADR events and serious skin effects might be respectively induced by greater M20, M23 and icotinib concentrations.

  6. Efficacy and adverse effects of icotinib in treatment of 30 NSCLC patients with brain metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-hong DAI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of icotinib in the treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with brain metastases. Methods  This study was performed at Tongji Hospital Cancer Center over the period between September 2011 and November 2015. Thirty cases of advanced NSCLC patients with icotinib monotherapy were enrolled, all with brain metastases, the median follow-up time being 24 months (5.5-49.0 months, with no case censored. The follow-up rate was 100%, and the data of efficacy and adverse effects were collected. Results  The intracranial progression-free survival (iPFS was 9.6 months, while no patient exhibited complete remission (CR, 8 patients showed partial remission (PR and 14 showed stable disease (SD in the intracranial foci. The intracranial disease control rate (DCR was 73.3%, and the objective remission rate (ORR was 26.7%. The extracranial progression-free survival (ePFS was 10.1 months, while no patient exhibited CR, 11 patients showed PR and 11 patients showed SD in the extracranial foci. The extracranial DCR was 73.3%, and the ORR was 36.7%. The one-year survival rate was 63.8% in all the 30 patients. Twelve (40.0% of the total 30 patients developed rash, five (16.7% developed grade 1 diarrhea, one (3.3% developed grade 2 transaminase elevation. None of the patients experienced headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, etc. Conclusion  Icotinib hydrochloride is effective and safe for NSCLC patients with brain metastasis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.06.11

  7. Potential Adverse Effects of Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Exposure in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Jenna; Snyder, Graham M; Finlayson, Samuel; Mahoney, Monica V; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The potential adverse effects of empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial use among patients with suspected but subsequently excluded infection have not been fully characterized. We sought novel methods to quantify the risk of adverse effects of broad-spectrum antimicrobial exposure among patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Among all adult patients admitted to ICUs at a single institution, we selected patients with negative blood cultures who also received ≥1 broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials were categorized in ≥1 of 5 categories based on their spectrum of activity against potential pathogens. We performed, in serial, 5 cohort studies to measure the effect of each broad-spectrum category on patient outcomes. Exposed patients were defined as those receiving a specific category of broad-spectrum antimicrobial; nonexposed were all other patients in the cohort. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital and ICU stay and nosocomial acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) or Clostridium difficile within 30 days of admission. Among the study cohort of 1918 patients, 316 (16.5%) died within 30 days, 821 (42.8%) had either a length of hospital stay >7 days or an ICU length of stay >3 days, and 106 (5.5%) acquired either a nosocomial ARB or C. difficile . The short-term use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials in any of the defined broad-spectrum categories was not significantly associated with either primary or secondary outcomes. The prompt and brief empiric use of defined categories of broad-spectrum antimicrobials could not be associated with additional patient harm.

  8. Surgical correction of scoliosis in children with spastic quadriplegia: benefits, adverse effects, and patient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Julian; Davies, Evan; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Sherry, Ned

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of nonprogressive syndromes of posture and motor impairment associated with lesions of the immature brain. Spastic quadriplegia is the most severe form with a high incidence of scoliosis, back pain, respiratory compromise, pelvic obliquity, and poor sitting balance. Surgical stabilization of the spine is an effective technique for correcting deformity and restoring sitting posture. The decision to operate in this group of patients is challenging. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of surgical correction of scoliosis in children with spastic quadriplegia, the adverse effects of this treatment, and what preoperative factors affect patient outcome after surgical correction. A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies describing benefits and adverse effects of surgery in spastic quadriplegia. Factors affecting patient outcome following surgical correction of scoliosis were assessed. Studies involving adults and nonspastic quadriplegia were excluded. A total of 10 case series and 1 prospective and 3 retrospective cohort studies met inclusion criteria. There was significant variation in the overall risk of complications (range, 10.9-70.9%), mortality (range, 2.8-19%), respiratory/pulmonary complications (range, 26.9-57.1%), and infection (range, 2.5-56.8%). Factors associated with a worse outcome were a significant degree of thoracic kyphosis, days in the intensive care unit, and poor nutritional status. Caregivers report a high degree of satisfaction with scoliosis surgery for children with spastic quadriplegia. There is limited evidence of preoperative factors that can predict patient outcome after scoliosis. There is a need for well-designed prospective studies of scoliosis surgery in spastic quadriplegia.

  9. The Adverse Effects of Environmental Noise Exposure on Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Schmidt, Frank; Schmidt, Erwin; Steven, Sebastian; Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Daiber, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that traffic noise exposure is linked to cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Noise is a nonspecific stressor that activates the autonomous nervous system and endocrine signaling. According to the noise reaction model introduced by Babisch and colleagues, chronic low levels of noise can cause so-called nonauditory effects, such as disturbances of activity, sleep, and communication, which can trigger a number of emotional responses, including annoyance and subsequent stress. Chronic stress in turn is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, comprising increased blood pressure and dyslipidemia, increased blood viscosity and blood glucose, and activation of blood clotting factors, in animal models and humans. Persistent chronic noise exposure increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, including arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, and stroke. Recently, we demonstrated that aircraft noise exposure during nighttime can induce endothelial dysfunction in healthy subjects and is even more pronounced in coronary artery disease patients. Importantly, impaired endothelial function was ameliorated by acute oral treatment with the antioxidant vitamin C, suggesting that excessive production of reactive oxygen species contributes to this phenomenon. More recently, we introduced a novel animal model of aircraft noise exposure characterizing the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to noise-dependent adverse oxidative stress-related effects on the vasculature. With the present review, we want to provide an overview of epidemiological, translational clinical, and preclinical noise research addressing the nonauditory, adverse effects of noise exposure with focus on oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 873–908. PMID:29350061

  10. Hepatoprotective Effect of Citral on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Sayuri Uchida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High doses of acetaminophen (APAP lead to acute liver damage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of citral in a murine model of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP. The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of citral. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO production and in histological analysis. The effect of citral on leukocyte migration and antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. Citral pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and γGT, MPO activity, and NO production. The histopathological analysis showed an improvement of hepatic lesions in mice after citral pretreatment. Citral inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that citral protects the liver against liver toxicity induced by APAP.

  11. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Ponce, Herson Antonio; Consolacion Martinez-Saldana, Maria; Rosa Rincon-Sanchez, Ana; Teresa Sumaya-Martinez, Maria; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juarez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients

  12. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge extract on liver cirrhosis in rats | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.extract(SMBE) on diethylnitrosamine(DEN)- induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods: SMBE was obtained by extracting dried Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. in water. Liver cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by injecting diethylnitrosamine in abdominal cavity once a week for ...

  13. Teratological effects of Cr (vi) on liver of cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayybah, S.; Tanveer, A.

    2008-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio liver showed disturbed histological architecture due to prolonged exposure of various sublethal chromium hexavalent doses (25,50,75,100,125 and 150mg/l) in temporal dose pattern as compared to control. In treated fish liver shrunken hepatocytes (25, 50, 75, 100mg/l) with isolated vacuole (75. 100mg/I), pyknotic nuclei and ruptured canaliculi (125, 150mg/l) were observed while control showed normal tissue structure. (author)

  14. Leukocytes and transfusion related adverse events: the effects of leuko-reduction process in the prevention of adverse reactions resulted from the transfusion of blood components: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehteramolsadat Hosseini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is commonly implemented to manage life and health-threatening conditions on a rapid and short-term basis. Over the years, ongoing technical advances have dramatically improved transfusion medicine to provide more safety and effectiveness. However, transfusion is still complicated with different adverse events that mainly induced by the presence of allogeneic leukocytes in the blood products. Several lines of evidence have shown that leukocytes in blood components are involved in the induction of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs, HLA alloimmunization and platelet refractoriness as well as the increased risk of the infectious diseases transmitted by leukotropic viruses including cytomegalovirus (CMV, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I/II and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. During current decades, introducing various leuko-reduction techniques have shown to be associated with less transfusion related adverse events and improved clinical outcomes. The lower incidence and severity of febrile transfusion reactions; reduced risk of transfusion related transmission of CMV or other leukocyte-associated infections, lowered incidence of alloimmune platelet refractoriness in addition to reducing risk of mortality and morbidity in patients are considered as clinical benefits of leuko-reduced products. Currently, by the use of 3rd and 4th generation of filters, the highest levels of leukoreduction in blood components have been achieved. Filtration techniques have also the advantages of being performed shortly after preparation of components (pre-storage or post-storage even at the patient’s bedside. However, it seems that pre-storage depletion of leukocytes provides better protection than post-storage techniques due to the elimination of leukocyte-derived cytokines effects which are increasingly released during storage. Particularly in platelet products, the earlier depletion of leukocyte also favors less platelet

  15. Effect of lead nitrate on the liver of the cichlid fish (Oreochromis niloticus): a light microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidr, Bothaina M; Mekkawy, Imam A A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Ohaida, Abdel Salam M I

    2012-09-15

    The adverse impacts of heavy metals on fish liver were evident with great variability among organs and species. The present study deals with the histological changes of the hepatocytes of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following exposure to 2.5, 5, 10 ppm of lead nitrate for 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks. The present results revealed that lead nitrate exerts some histological effects on the hepatic tissue after exposure to the first concentration in the form of dilatation and congestion of the blood vessels, vacuolation of hepatic cells, proliferation of connective tissue and hepatic necrosis. Leucocyte aggregation-mostly lymphatic in nature-was seen infiltrating hepatic tissue. These alterations became more pronounced in liver of fishes exposed to second concentrations indicating more progressive signs of necrosis. The presence of eosinophilic oedematous areas surrounding some blood vessels was also observed. Finally, at the third concentration, in addition to the above alterations, melanomacrophages, which store lipofuscin at the site of necrosis, were observed. These histological results imply that the fish liver may serve as a target organ for the toxicity of sublethal concentrations of lead nitrate.

  16. Evidence for the Adverse Effect of Starvation on Bone Quality: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kueper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and starvation’s possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200–800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  17. Evidence for the adverse effect of starvation on bone quality: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueper, Janina; Beyth, Shaul; Liebergall, Meir; Kaplan, Leon; Schroeder, Josh E

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition and starvation's possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200-800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  18. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed.

  19. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  20. Mitigating Adverse Effects of a Human Mission on Possible Martian Indigenous Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2000-07-01

    Although human beings are, by most standards, the most capable agents to search for and detect extraterrestrial life, we are also potentially the most harmful. While there has been substantial work regarding forward contamination with respect to robotic missions, the issue of potential adverse effects on possible indigenous Martian ecosystems, such as biological contamination, due to a human mission has remained relatively unexplored and may require our attention now as this presentation will try to demonstrate by exploring some of the relevant scientific questions, mission planning challenges, and policy issues. An informal, high-level mission planning decision tree will be discussed and is included as the next page of this abstract. Some of the questions to be considered are: (1) To what extent could contamination due to a human presence compromise possible indigenous life forms? (2) To what extent can we control contamination? For example, will it be local or global? (3) What are the criteria for assessing the biological status of Mars, both regionally and globally? For example, can we adequately extrapolate from a few strategic missions such as sample return missions? (4) What should our policies be regarding our mission planning and possible interaction with what are likely to be microbial forms of extraterrestrial life? (5) Central to the science and mission planning issues is the role and applicability of terrestrial analogs, such as Lake Vostok for assessing drilling issues, and modeling techniques. Central to many of the policy aspects are scientific value, international law, public concern, and ethics. Exploring this overall issue responsibly requires an examination of all these aspects and how they interrelate. A chart is included, titled 'Mission Planning Decision Tree for Mitigating Adverse Effects to Possible Indigenous Martian Ecosystems due to a Human Mission'. It outlines what questions scientists should ask and answer before sending humans to Mars.

  1. ADVERPred-Web Service for Prediction of Adverse Effects of Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Sergey M; Lagunin, Alexey A; Rudik, Anastasia V; Filimonov, Dmitry A; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2018-01-22

    Application of structure-activity relationships (SARs) for the prediction of adverse effects of drugs (ADEs) has been reported in many published studies. Training sets for the creation of SAR models are usually based on drug label information which allows for the generation of data sets for many hundreds of drugs. Since many ADEs may not be related to drug consumption, one of the main problems in such studies is the quality of data on drug-ADE pairs obtained from labels. The information on ADEs may be included in three sections of the drug labels: "Boxed warning," "Warnings and Precautions," and "Adverse reactions." The first two sections, especially Boxed warning, usually contain the most frequent and severe ADEs that have either known or probable relationships to drug consumption. Using this information, we have created manually curated data sets for the five most frequent and severe ADEs: myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, cardiac failure, severe hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity, with more than 850 drugs on average for each effect. The corresponding SARs were built with PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) software and had balanced accuracy values of 0.74, 0.7, 0.77, 0.67, and 0.75, respectively. They were implemented in a freely available ADVERPred web service ( http://www.way2drug.com/adverpred/ ), which enables a user to predict five ADEs based on the structural formula of compound. This web service can be applied for estimation of the corresponding ADEs for hits and lead compounds at the early stages of drug discovery.

  2. Serious adverse effects of gamma knife radiosurgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Tetsuro; Onishi, Hiroaki; Kohda, Yukihiko; Hirose, Genjiro

    2012-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been proposed as an alternative to surgical resection. We report serious adverse effects of the treatment after follow-up periods over 9 years in 11 patients treated with GKRS between 1997 and 2000. The target volume of the entorhinoamygdalohippocampectomy area was 4.8-17.1 ml. Marginal dose of 20-25 Gy to the 50% isodose was delivered. One patient was drowned after suffering seizure 7 months after GKRS. Two patients did not show any reduction in seizure frequency over 9 and 18 months. Both patients requested open surgery and became seizure-free postoperatively. Four of the other eight patients were classified as Engel's class I within 4 years after GKRS. One of the four patients experienced symptomatic radiation-induced cerebral edema transiently, one developed radiation necrosis and required surgery 5 years after GKRS, and one developed cognitive impairment with hemiparesis 10 years after GKRS. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a large cyst in the irradiated temporal lobe. This patient recovered fully after the cyst excision. Only one patient became seizure-free and antiepileptic drug-free without symptomatic radiation-induced complications. However, MR imaging revealed abnormal enhancement, cyst formation, and diffuse white matter change in the irradiated temporal lobe 9 years after GKRS. GKRS for MTLE causes adverse effects of delayed seizure remission and symptomatic radiation-induced complications. Therefore, GKRS cannot be considered as an ideal alternative to surgery for MTLE. Long-term follow-up studies including MR imaging with contrast medium are required for the patients even after successful control of seizures. (author)

  3. Evolution of pharmacological obesity treatments: focus on adverse side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, A J; Fujioka, K; Hompesch, M

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy directed toward reducing body weight may provide benefits for both curbing obesity and lowering the risk of obesity-associated comorbidities; however, many weight loss medications have been withdrawn from the market because of serious adverse effects. Examples include pulmonary hypertension (aminorex), cardiovascular toxicity, e.g. flenfluramine-induced valvopathy, stroke [phenylpropanolamine (PPA)], excess non-fatal cardiovascular events (sibutramine), and neuro-psychiatric issues (rimonabant; approved in Europe, but not in the USA). This negative experience has helped mould the current drug development and approval process for new anti-obesity drugs. Differences between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency, however, in perceptions of risk-benefit considerations for individual drugs have resulted in discrepancies in approval and/or withdrawal of weight-reducing medications. Thus, two drugs recently approved by the FDA, i.e. lorcaserin and phentermine + topiramate extended release, are not available in Europe. In contrast, naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR received FDA approval, and liraglutide 3.0 mg was recently approved in both the USA and Europe. Regulatory strategies adopted by the FDA to manage the potential for uncommon but potentially serious post-marketing toxicity include: (i) risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programmes; (ii) stipulating post-marketing safety trials; (iii) considering responder rates and limiting cumulative exposure by discontinuation if weight loss is not attained within a reasonable timeframe; and (iv) requiring large cardiovascular outcome trials before or after approval. We chronicle the adverse effects of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy and consider how the history of high-profile toxicity issues has shaped the current regulatory landscape for new and future weight-reducing drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs for osteoarthritis (OA are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD or relative risk (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87. Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction. Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs, mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use.

  5. Comparison of effectiveness and adverse effects of gefitinib, erlotinib and icotinib among patients with non-small cell lung cancer: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Gangling; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Shangzhi; Yan, Yizhong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2017-11-01

    The present network meta-analysis aimed to compare the effectiveness and adverse effects of gefitinib, erlotinib and icotinib in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two reviewers searched the Cochrane, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang databases for relevant studies. Studies were then screened and evaluated, and data was extracted. End-points evaluated for NSCLC included complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), progressive disease (PD), overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), median survival time (MST) and adverse effects, including rash, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, fatigue and abnormal liver function. For the analysis of incorporated studies, RevMan, SPSS, R and Stata software were used. A total of 43 studies with 7,168 patients were included in the network meta-analysis. No significant differences were observed in CR, PR, SD, PD, ORR or DCR between gefitinib, erlotinib and icotinib by using network meta analysis. Compared with gefitinib, erlotinib resulted in a higher rate of nausea and vomiting [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.0; 95% credible interval, 1.1-3.7]. However, no significant differences were observed in the rates of rash, diarrhea, fatigue or abnormal liver function using network meta-analysis. Compared with erlotinib, gefitinib resulted in a lower SD rate [OR=0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.99; P=0.04], and lower rates of rash (OR=0.45; 95% CI, 0.36-0.55; Panalysis of two congruent drugs. However, gefitinib resulted in a higher rate of rash compared with icotinib (OR=1.57; 95% CI, 1.18-2.09; P=0.002). Otherwise, no significant differences were observed in CR, PR, PD, ORR, DCR and abnormal liver function between gefitinib, erlotinib and icotinib through meta-analysis of two congruent drugs. The PFS rate for gefitinib, erlotinib and icotinib

  6. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF HYPOTHALAMIC BETA-ENDORPHIN NEURONS AGAINST ALCOHOL-INDUCED LIVER INJURIES AND LIVER CANCERS IN RAT ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, retrograde tracing has provided evidence for an influence of hypothalamic β-endorphin (BEP) neurons on the liver, but functions of these neurons are not known. We evaluated the effect of BEP neuronal activation on alcohol-induced liver injury and hepatocellular cancer. Methods Male rats received either BEP neuron transplants or control transplants in the hypothalamus and randomly assigned to feeding alcohol-containing liquid diet or control liquid diet for 8 weeks or to treatment of a carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Liver tissues of these animals were analyzed histochemically and biochemically for tissue injuries or cancer. Results Alcohol-feeding increased liver weight and induced several histopathological changes such as prominent microvesicular steatosis and hepatic fibrosis. Alcohol feeding also increased protein levels of triglyceride, hepatic stellate cell activation factors and catecholamines in the liver and endotoxin levels in the plasma. However, these effects of alcohol on the liver were reduced in animals with BEP neuron transplants. BEP neuron transplants also suppressed carcinogen-induced liver histopathologies such as extensive fibrosis, large focus of inflammatory infiltration, hepatocelluar carcinoma, collagen deposition, numbers of preneoplastic foci, levels of hepatic stellate cell activation factors and catecholamines, as well as inflammatory milieu and the levels of NK cell cytotoxic factors in the liver. Conclusion These findings are the first evidence for a role of hypothalamic BEP neurons in influencing liver functions. Additionally, the data identify that BEP neuron transplantation prevents hepatocellular injury and hepatocellular carcinoma formation possibly via influencing the immune function. PMID:25581653

  7. Cutaneous adverse effect during concomitant therapy with phenytoin and holoencefalica radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terradas, M.; Jachoian, A.; Santini, A.; Mara, C.; Ferreira, V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Phenytoin is one of anticonvulsant drugs (AC) which together with the Corticosteroids are used frequently in patients with intracranial tumors either early or metastatic; the association of treatments can cause adverse effects within which are skin reactions called erythema multiforme (EM) syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) whose incidence is 5 to 10%, with an increased risk are used when the AC associated with treatment with radiotherapy (RT).Case report: A 48 year old woman in whom primitive brain metastases were diagnosed breast cancer, so phenytoin, corticosteroids and performed RT presenting holoencefálica for such treatment maculo-papular skin reaction symmetrical onset zone Radiant treatment extension neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, oral mucositis, conjunctivitis and fever, which improved after stopping treatment altogether. Discussion: The clinical picture presented matches the description of the 30 Reported SJS / TEN in the literature with the use of AC and RT cases. The clinical course of the skin reactions in our patient represents the possible combined effect of phenytoin and RT as causative agents and analyzed the occurrence of side effects occurred in the third week of starting treatment with both therapeutic modalities such as what described in these reactions and improved frankly to stop treatment until disappear entirely. Cutaneous adverse reactions may occur as a complication severe in patients treated with RT and phenytoin and both treatments should suspend the first sign of side effects must continue once the patient recovered with AC radiant modifying drug treatment if necessary. There are differences of opinion regarding the prophylactic use of drug therapy in patients with AC intracranial tumors both early and metastatic. The American Academy of Neurology held a consensus in 2000 whose recommendations are non-routine use of AC in patients diagnosed intracerebral tumor that has not

  8. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls : Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Doris; Gustafsson, Per, E; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the normative population (n = 462) completed the questionnaire, the Linköping Youth Life Experience Scale (LYLES), together with Trauma Symptom Checklist for ...

  9. More effective assessment of adverse effects and comorbidities in epilepsy: results of a Phase II communication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, John M; Labiner, David M; Gilliam, Frank G; Penovich, Patricia E; Onofrey, Meaghan; Eagan, Corey A; Holmes, Gregory L

    2011-11-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate conversations about epilepsy between community-based neurologists and patients. Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs and mood/behavioral issues were infrequently discussed, and neurologists and patients disagreed about these issues postvisit. Follow-up research was conducted to assess the impact of a previsit assessment tool on discussions of epilepsy. Twenty neurologists reviewed a tool incorporating questions from validated instruments (Adverse Events Profile [AEP] and Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy [NDDI-E]). Naturally occurring interactions between neurologists and 60 patients were recorded. Neurologists and patients were interviewed separately. All components were transcribed and analyzed using sociolinguistics. Using the previsit assessment tool increased the number of discussions about adverse effects and mood/behavioral issues and increased neurologist-patient agreement about issues postvisit. Visit length did not increase significantly when the tool was used. Ten months after follow-up research, 50% of neurologists reported continuing to use the tool in everyday practice with patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Some effects of favorable and adverse electric fields on pool boiling in dielectric fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the application of an electric field on pool boiling in dielectric fluids were studied in this work.Two different geometries were used: one which is favorable to the bubble detachment (favorable electric field) and other which attract the bubbles toward the heater (adverse electric field).In the favorable electric field experiments, the void fraction and impact rate were calculated from the measured indicator function.Those parameters were obtained varying the probe-heater distance and the power to the heater.The results show a reduction of the void fraction with increasing applied voltage, probably caused by the combination of the dielectrophoretic force and a smaller bubble size due to the electric field application. Also, the impact rate decreases when a voltage is applied and the heat fluxes are close to the critical heat flux (CHF).On the other hand, the impact rate increases with voltage for moderate heat fluxes.Another interesting result is the approximately exponential decay of the void fraction and impact rate with the distance to the heater. Both the void fraction and the impact rate grow with heat flux if the heat fluxes are moderate, with or without applied voltage.For highest heat fluxes the void fraction still grows with heat flux if there are no applied electric fields while decreases with heat flux when there is an applied voltage. Similar behavior is observed in the impact rate.The boiling regimes was measured with adverse electric fields using two techniques.The heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime was measured on an electrically powered heater.The results in these experiments show a reduction in the CHF of 10 % for saturation conditions and 10 kV of applied voltage, and a reduction of up to 40 % for 20 oC of liquid subcooling.The boiling curve corresponding to the transition and film boiling was performed with quenching experiments.An increase in the heat flux was achieved when an electric field was applied in spite of the

  11. Clinical review: kinase inhibitors: adverse effects related to the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B

    2013-04-01

    The use of kinase inhibitors (KIs) in the treatment of cancer has become increasingly common, and practitioners must be familiar with endocrine-related side effects associated with these agents. This review provides an update to the clinician regarding the management of potential endocrinological effects of KIs. PubMed was employed to identify relevant manuscripts. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and incorporated. KIs, including small molecule KIs and monoclonal antibodies directed against kinases, have emerged over the past decade as an important class of anticancer agents. KIs specifically interfere with signaling pathways that are dysregulated in certain types of cancers and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Currently, at least 20 KIs are approved as cancer therapeutics. However, KIs may affect a broad spectrum of targets and may have additional, unidentified mechanisms of action at the cellular level due to overlap between signaling pathways in the tumor cell and endocrine system. Recent reports in the literature have identified side effects associated with KIs, including alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, adrenal function, and glucose metabolism. Clinicians need to monitor the thyroid functions of patients on KIs. In addition, bone density and vitamin D status should be assessed. Special care should be taken to follow linear growth and development in children taking these agents. Clinicians should counsel patients appropriately on the potential adverse effects of KIs on fetal development.

  12. Adverse effects of fullerenes (nC{sub 60}) spiked to sediments on Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, K., E-mail: kukka.tervonen@uef.fi [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Petersen, E.J. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Leppaenen, M.T.; Akkanen, J.; Kukkonen, J.V.K. [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, 80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    Effects of fullerene-spiked sediment on a benthic organism, Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta), were investigated. Survival, growth, reproduction, and feeding rates were measured to assess possible adverse effects of fullerene agglomerates produced by water stirring and then spiked to a natural sediment. L. variegatus were exposed to 10 and 50 mg fullerenes/kg sediment dry mass for 28 d. These concentrations did not impact worm survival or reproduction compared to the control. Feeding activities were slightly decreased for both concentrations indicating fullerenes' disruptive effect on feeding. Depuration efficiency decreased in the high concentration only. Electron and light microscopy and extraction of the worm fecal pellets revealed fullerene agglomerates in the gut tract but not absorption into gut epithelial cells. Micrographs also indicated that 16% of the epidermal cuticle fibers of the worms were not present in the 50 mg/kg exposures, which may make worms susceptible to other contaminants. - Highlights: > Effects of fullerene-spiked sediment on black worms were investigated. > Survival, growth, reproduction, and feeding rates were measured. > Exposure did not impact worm survival or reproduction. > Feeding rates and depuration efficiency were decreased. > Worms transferred fullerenes from the sediment to the sediment surface. - Exposure to fullerene-spiked sediment decreased black worms' feeding and depuration efficiency, but fullerenes did not appear to be absorbed into the microvilli.

  13. Mitigation of Adverse Effects Caused by Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions Through Optimal Wall Shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, May-Fun; Lee, Byung Joon

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the adverse effects of shock wave boundary layer interactions in high speed inlets include reduced total pressure recovery and highly distorted flow at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). This paper presents a design method for flow control which creates perturbations in geometry. These perturbations are tailored to change the flow structures in order to minimize shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) inside supersonic inlets. Optimizing the shape of two dimensional micro-size bumps is shown to be a very effective flow control method for two-dimensional SWBLI. In investigating the three dimensional SWBLI, a square duct is employed as a baseline. To investigate the mechanism whereby the geometric elements of the baseline, i.e. the bottom wall, the sidewall and the corner, exert influence on the flow's aerodynamic characteristics, each element is studied and optimized separately. It is found that arrays of micro-size bumps on the bottom wall of the duct have little effect in improving total pressure recovery though they are useful in suppressing the incipient separation in three-dimensional problems. Shaping sidewall geometry is effective in re-distributing flow on the side wall and results in a less distorted flow at the exit. Subsequently, a near 50% reduction in distortion is achieved. A simple change in corner geometry resulted in a 2.4% improvement in total pressure recovery.

  14. Treatment of heartwater : potential adverse effects of furosemide administration on certain homeostatic parameters in normal sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Diuretics, in particular furosemide, are generally recommended as a supportive treatment in the advanced stages of heartwater in ruminants. However, after what appeared to be possible adverse effects accompanying its use in field cases of heartwater, the effects of this drug on certain blood and urine parameters were investigated in normal sheep at the same dose rates. Diuresis with concomitant natriuresis was significant after furosemide administration, as was the expected plasma volume decrease. Other significant changes included metabolic alkalosis, hypokalaemia and reduced blood ionised calcium. The difference in duration of the diuretic effect and the duration of the changes in blood parameters from c. 3 h and c. 6 h respectively make it difficult to determine a time interval between successive treatments with furosemide. It appears that the probable cause of death of sheep with heartwater is a drastic reduction in blood volume and decreased cardiac output that leads to general circulatory failure. A therapeutic approach that involves further loss of plasma volume due to diuresis appears contradictory. The added effects of potentiating respiratory alkalosis and the terminal drop in blood ionised calcium seen in heartwater-affected animals indicate that the use of furosemide in supportive treatment of this disease is not warranted.

  15. Some effects of curry feeding on the rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opitz, S B

    1981-01-01

    The liver is the major site for the biotransformation and metabolism of most foreign substances that are absorbed into the body via the gastrointestinal tract. The present investigation was undertaken to ascertain whether curry spice constituents, affected liver function. Rats were administered curry powder either intragastrically by intubation, or mixed into their food. Liver function was assessed employing both biochemical and morphological approaches. Two non-invasive tests designed to appraise the in vivo drug-metabolising capabilities of the liver were utilised, viz. the aminopyrine breath test and the measurement of urinary ascorbic acid excretion. The functional integrity of the liver was also assessed by light and electron microscopy. There was no evidence to suggest that curry feeding influenced the hepatic drug-metabolising system as determined by the biochemical studies. The electron microscopical studies did, however, reveal increased activity of the Golgi complex and the lytic compartment. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ exhalation curves were found to undergo a change in shape from the expected single exponential decay to one in which two phases could be distinguished, which has not been previously reported. Furthermore, in vitro work by other investigators has indicated that aminopyrine and its major metabolites might be involved in a complex series of product-inhibition events. Finally, the occurrence of elongated, dumb-bell shaped mitochondria, with well-defined elaborations of the inner membrane, were noted as a characteristic feature in the hepatocytes situated immediately adjacent to the central venule.

  16. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148 aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003 on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  17. The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects Ann R. Kennedy Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 195 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, United States 19104-6072 The development of countermeasures for radiation induced adverse health effects is a lengthy process, particularly when the countermeasure/drug has not yet been evaluated in human trials. One example of a drug developed from the bench to the clinic is the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which has been developed as a countermeasure for radiation induced cancer. It was originally identified as a compound/drug that could prevent the radiation induced carcinogenic process in an in vitro assay system in 1975. The first observation that BBI could inhibit carcinogenesis in animals was in 1985. BBI received Investigational New Drug (IND) Status with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 (after several years of negotiation with the FDA about the potential IND status of the drug), and human trials began at that time. Phase I, II and III human trials utilizing BBI have been performed under several INDs with the FDA, and an ongoing Phase III trial will be ending in the very near future. Thus, the drug has been in development for 35 years at this point, and it is still not a prescription drug on the market which is available for human use. A somewhat less time-consuming process is to evaluate compounds that are on the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. These compounds would include some over-the-counter medications, such as antioxidant vitamins utilized in human trials at the levels for which Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been established. To determine whether GRAS substances are able to have beneficial effects on radiation induced adverse health effects, it is still likely to be a lengthy process involving many years to potentially decades of human trial work. The

  18. Adverse effects of caffeinated energy drinks among youth and young adults in Canada: a Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; Zukowski, Sara

    2018-01-09

    Energy drink consumption has increased dramatically among young Canadians, with anecdotal evidence of adverse health effects. There is a lack of population-based studies to examine the prevalence of adverse events from energy drinks, particularly among young people. The current study sought to assess adverse events from energy drinks among a population-based sample of youth and young adults in Canada. An online survey was conducted in 2015 with a national sample of youth (aged 12-17 yr) and young adults (aged 18-24 yr) recruited from a consumer panel. Respondents reported prior consumption of energy drinks as well as adverse outcomes, concurrent activities associated with the outcomes and whether medical attention was sought or considered. Adverse events from coffee were also assessed for comparison. Weighted analyses are reported. Of the 2055 respondents, 1516 (73.8%) reported having ever consumed an energy drink, and 1741 (84.7%) reported having ever consumed coffee (unweighted). Overall, 55.4% of respondents who had ever consumed an energy drink reported that they had experienced at least 1 adverse event, including fast heartbeat (24.7%), difficulty sleeping (24.1%), headache (18.3%), nausea/vomiting/diarrhea (5.1%), chest pain (3.6%) and seizures (0.2%); 3.1% had sought or had considered seeking medical help for an adverse event. The prevalence of reported adverse events was significantly greater among energy drink consumers than among coffee consumers (36.0%) (odds ratio [OR] 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-2.56]), as was the proportion who reported seeking or considering seeking medical help for adverse events (3.1% v. 1.4%) (OR 2.18 [95% CI 1.39-3.41]). More than half of youth and young adults who had consumed energy drinks reported adverse outcomes, some serious enough to warrant seeking medical help. The adverse outcomes were consistent with the physiologic effects of caffeine but were significantly more prevalent than with other sources of

  19. Effect of Daily Contact Lens Cleaning on Ocular Adverse Events during Extended Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Jerome; Rathi, Varsha M; de la Jara, Percy Lazon; Naduvilath, Thomas; Holden, Brien A; Willcox, Mark D P

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess what effect daily cleaning of contact lenses with a multipurpose disinfection solution (MPDS), during 30 nights extended wear, would have on contact lens-related adverse events. This was a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, 3-month clinical study in which 193 participants were dispensed with lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel lenses for a 30-day extended-wear schedule and with lenses replaced monthly. Participants were randomized to a control or test group. Test subjects were required to remove lenses daily after waking, clean them with the MPDS, and reinsert the lenses. Control subjects wore lenses without removal for 30 days extended wear. Handling-related lens contamination was assessed at the baseline visit. There was no significant difference between the test and control groups for the incidence of significant corneal infiltrative events (1.3 vs. 4.9%, p = 0.368), total corneal infiltrative events (2.6 vs. 4.9%, p = 0.682), or mechanical events (1.3 vs. 2.5%, p = 1.00). The test group had greater corneal staining (p lenses) resulted in isolation of Gram-positive bacteria from 92.5% of test lenses compared with 87.5% of control lenses (p = 0.712). Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 5% of test subjects compared with 2.5% of control subjects (p = 1.00). Fungus was isolated from 2.5% of subjects in both the test and control groups (p = 1.00). The intervention of daily morning cleaning of the lens surface with an MPDS during extended wear did not significantly influence the incidence of adverse events.

  20. Ambient Air Pollutants Have Adverse Effects on Insulin and Glucose Homeostasis in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia; Watanabe, Richard M.; Xiang, Anny H.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M.; Lurmann, Fred; Wilson, John P.; Trigo, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that air pollution plays a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms have yet to be established. We hypothesized that air pollution adversely affects insulin sensitivity and secretion and serum lipid levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were selected from BetaGene (n = 1,023), a study of insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function in Mexican Americans. All participants underwent DXA and oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests and completed dietary and physical activity questionnaires. Ambient air pollutant concentrations (NO2, O3, and PM2.5) for short- and long-term periods were assigned by spatial interpolation (maximum interpolation radius of 50 km) of data from air quality monitors. Traffic-related air pollution from freeways (TRAP) was estimated using the dispersion model as NOx. Variance component models were used to analyze individual and multiple air pollutant associations with metabolic traits. RESULTS Short-term (up to 58 days cumulative lagged averages) exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower insulin sensitivity and HDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio and higher fasting glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (all P ≤ 0.036). Annual average PM2.5 was associated with higher fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and LDL-C (P ≤ 0.043). The effects of short-term PM2.5 exposure on insulin sensitivity were largest among obese participants. No statistically significant associations were found between TRAP and metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to ambient air pollutants adversely affects glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and blood lipid concentrations. Our findings suggest that ambient air pollutants may contribute to the pathophysiology in the development of T2D and related sequelae. PMID:26868440

  1. Decreasing size of radiosensitive capsules from micro to nano, and its increased antitumor effect and decreasing adverse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, S.; Ehara, S.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Matsuyama, S.; Sato, Takahiro; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Sera, K.; Saito, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We have been developing microcapsules that release anticancer drug with response to radiation. We attempted to decrease the diameter of capsules. Then, two categories were tested in VIVO in C3He mice: (1) the antitumor effect in combination with radiation and subcutaneously injected nanocapsules, (2) the kidnetics of nanocapsules when they were injected intravenously. Microcapsules were produced by spraying a mixture of 3.0 % hyaluronic acid, 2.0 % alginate, 3.0 % H 2 O 2 , and 0.3 mmol carboplatin (Pt containing anticancer drug) onto a mixture of vibrated 0.3 mol FeCl 2 and 0.15 mol CaCl 2 . The antitumor effect was measured by measuring tumor diameter every day. The kinetics of microcapsules were expressed as the numbers of capsules in 5 views (25 x 25 μm) of micro PIXE camera and Pt concentration of quantiative PIXE. The generated microcapsules 752 ± 64 nm, which were significantly downsized relative to previous capsules. The accumulations of capsules in lungs, liver, and kidneys were decreased by downsizing, whereas those of tumors were increased. By adjusting Pt concentration in tumor, there were no significant differences in antitumor effect between not downsized and downsized microcapsules with combination with radiation. Decreased trapping of downsized microcapsules to lungs, liver, and kidneys, also increased trapping in tumors will lead to new targeted chemoradiotherapy via intravenous injection of microcapsules. (author)

  2. Adverse Effects of Nonsystemic Steroids (Inhaled, Intranasal, and Cutaneous): a Review of the Literature and Suggested Monitoring Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ratika; Fonacier, Luz S

    2016-06-01

    Inhaled, intranasal, and cutaneous steroids are prescribed by physicians for a plethora of disease processes including asthma and rhinitis. While the high efficacy of this class of medication is well known, the wide range of adverse effects, both local and systemic, is not well elucidated. It is imperative to monitor total steroid burden in its varied forms as well as tracking for possible side effects that may be caused by a high cumulative dose of steroids. This review article highlights the adverse effects of different steroid modalities as well as suggests a monitoring tool to determine steroid totality and side effects.

  3. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bultmann, Ute

    Background: Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined

  4. Mycorrhiza reduces adverse effects of dark septate endophytes (DSE) on growth of conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM). Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce), mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N) and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C) on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts and pathogens.

  5. Honeybees Produce Millimolar Concentrations of Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine for Breeding: Possible Adverse Effects of Neonicotinoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaz Wessler

    Full Text Available The worldwide use of neonicotinoid pesticides has caused concern on account of their involvement in the decline of bee populations, which are key pollinators in most ecosystems. Here we describe a role of non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh for breeding of Apis mellifera carnica and a so far unknown effect of neonicotinoids on non-target insects. Royal jelly or larval food are produced by the hypopharyngeal gland of nursing bees and contain unusually high ACh concentrations (4-8 mM. ACh is extremely well conserved in royal jelly or brood food because of the acidic pH of 4.0. This condition protects ACh from degradation thus ensuring delivery of intact ACh to larvae. Raising the pH to ≥5.5 and applying cholinesterase reduced the content of ACh substantially (by 75-90% in larval food. When this manipulated brood was tested in artificial larval breeding experiments, the survival rate was higher with food supplemented by 100% with ACh (6 mM than with food not supplemented with ACh. ACh release from the hypopharyngeal gland and its content in brood food declined by 80%, when honeybee colonies were exposed for 4 weeks to high concentrations of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (100 parts per billion [ppb] or thiacloprid (8,800 ppb. Under these conditions the secretory cells of the gland were markedly damaged and brood development was severely compromised. Even field-relevant low concentrations of thiacloprid (200 ppb or clothianidin (1 and 10 ppb reduced ACh level in the brood food and showed initial adverse effects on brood development. Our findings indicate a hitherto unknown target of neonicotinoids to induce adverse effects on non-neuronal ACh which should be considered when re-assessing the environmental risks of these compounds. To our knowledge this is a new biological mechanism, and we suggest that, in addition to their well documented neurotoxic effects, neonicotinoids may contribute to honeybee colony losses consecutive to a reduction of the ACh

  6. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  7. Effectiveness of Germination on Protein Hydrolysis as a Way To Reduce Adverse Reactions to Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukid, Fatma; Prandi, Barbara; Buhler, Sofie; Sforza, Stefano

    2017-11-15

    In this work, the aim is to study the effectiveness of germination on wheat protein degradation, with a specific focus on proteins involved in adverse reactions to wheat. The effects of 8 days of germination at 25 °C on the chemical composition and the protein profile were determined. Germination did not have a significant effect on starch, protein, lipid, and ash contents. General protein profile, as indicated by SDS-PAGE analysis, revealed that germination induced a relevant degradation in protein fraction. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, gluten peptides involved in celiac disease (CD) were identified and quantified using UPLC/ESI-MS technique. Also, CM3 protein, involved in baker's asthma and intestinal inflammation, was quantified by measuring a marker peptide. Statistical analysis underlined that germination and genotype had significant impact on the amount of both components. Regarding gluten peptides related to CD, germination enabled an average reduction of 47% in peptides eliciting adaptive immune response and 46% in peptides eliciting innate immune response. CM3 protein showed also a high average reduction (56%). Thus, this study suggests that germination might be a good bioalternative to provide a low "impact" raw ingredient for special wheat-based foodstuffs.

  8. Nivolumab, a new immunomodulatory drug, a new adverse effect; adrenal crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Karbek Akarca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the advancements in medicine, new information is obtained regarding cancer, new antineoplastic agents are developed. Frequent use of these new pharmacological agents emergency physicians to be vigilant about their side effects. We present a case of adrenal crisis in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, caused by an immunomodulatory drug; nivolumab. While adverse events are related to other immunomodulatory drugs have been reported in literature, our case is the first nivolumab-related adrenal failure to be reported. A patient with lung cancer presented to the emergency room(ER with nausea and vomiting. Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, persistent hypoglycemia led to the diagnosis of adrenal crisis. Having direct effect on the immune system, these drugs were claimed to be highly reliable. However, there is no reliable data on the side effect profile of these agents. It should be kept in mind that life-threatening auto-immune reactions may occur. Keywords: Nivolumab, Immunomodulation, CTLA 4 antigen, Adrenal crisis

  9. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  10. Why and for Whom May Coping Planning Have Adverse Effects? A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Stocker, Andrea; Scholz, Urte

    2018-05-09

    Coping planning, the formation of plans to overcome behavioral barriers is assumed to promote health behavior maintenance, but the literature on this is inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of a coping planning intervention that adversely affected maintained safe water consumption. We also explored perceived behavioral difficulty as a potential moderator of coping planning interventions. In the second phase of a cluster-randomised trial, households (N = 177 analyzed) were randomly allocated to a coping planning intervention or a comparison group (repetition of interventions from first intervention phase). Safe water consumption, the mechanisms of coping planning, and perceived difficulty were measured pre-post. The data were analyzed using mediation and moderated mediation analysis. Changes in behavioral intention mediated the intervention effects on behavioral maintenance (b = -0.36, 95% CI [-0.91, -0.03]). Changes in perceived coping planning (b = 0.08, 95% CI [-0.12, 0.34]), and maintenance self-efficacy (b = -0.13, 95% CI [-0.45, 0.01]) did not mediate the effects. Prior perceived difficulty moderated the coping planning intervention effects on maintenance via intention. Coping planning may decrease motivation for health behavior maintenance for persons who experienced few barriers prior to the planning intervention. © 2018 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. [PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT IN PALLIATIVE CARE. DRUG ADMINISTRATION ROUTE, CONTINUOUS SUBCUTANEOUS INFUSION, ADVERSE SIDE EFFECTS, SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez Álvarez, Rocío; Calderón Carrasco, Justo; García Colchero, Francisco; Postigo Mota, Salvador; Alburquerque Medina, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    To achieve well-being in patients in Palliative Care is required to know which are the most common symptoms, which are the drugs used for relief, which are the routes of administration of drugs that are suitable, how effective the drugs are and what incompatibilities, interactions and adverse effects occur. The aim of this article is to review the relevant issues in the management of the drugs commonly used by nursing in Palliative Care and presenting recommendations to clinical practice. Management interventions drugs for nurses in Palliative Care recommended by the scientific literature after a search of Scopus, CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, UpToDate and Google Scholar are selected. The oral route is the choice for patients in palliative situation and subcutaneous route when the first is not available. The symptoms, complex, intense and moody, should be systematically reevaluated by the nurse, to predict when a possible decompensation of it needing extra dose of medication. Nurses must be able to recognize the imbalance of well-being and act quickly and effectively, to get relief to some unpleasant situations for the patient as the pain symptoms, dyspnea or delirium. For the proper administration of rescue medication, the nurse should know the methods of symptomatic evaluation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, the time intervals to elapse between different rescues and nccocc rocnnnco t thocm

  12. Surveillance of adverse effects following vaccination and safety of immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Eliseu Alves; Luhm, Karin Regina; Monteiro, Sandra Aparecida Moreira Gomes; Freitas, Fabiana Ramos Martin de

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the review was to analyze conceptual and operational aspects of systems for surveillance of adverse events following immunization. Articles available in electronic format were included, published between 1985 and 2009, selected from the PubMed/Medline databases using the key words "adverse events following vaccine surveillance", "post-marketing surveillance", "safety vaccine" and "Phase IV clinical trials". Articles focusing on specific adverse events were excluded. The major aspects underlying the Public Health importance of adverse events following vaccination, the instruments aimed at ensuring vaccine safety, and the purpose, attributes, types, data interpretation issues, limitations, and further challenges in adverse events following immunization were describe, as well as strategies to improve sensitivity. The review was concluded by discussing the challenges to be faced in coming years with respect to ensuring the safety and reliability of vaccination programs.

  13. Effect of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana oil administered by gavage on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stress of mouse liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of daily intragastric administration of bullfrog oil (oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acid-rich oil, corresponding to 0.4% of body weight for four weeks, on fatty acid composition and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in mouse liver. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, biomarkers of tissue injury, were determined in liver homogenates and serum. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids, from 37 to 60% in the total fatty acid content were increased in the liver of the bullfrog oil-treated group (P < 0.05 compared to control. At the same time, a significant decrease in the relative abundance of 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0 (saturated fatty acids, from 49 to 25% was observed. The hepatic content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS was increased from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 12.3 ± 0.3 nmol TBA-MDA/mg protein and catalase activity was increased from 840 ± 32 to 1110 ± 45 µmol reduced H2O2 min-1 mg protein-1 in the treated group. Bullfrog oil administration increased AST and ALP activities in the liver (from 234.10 ± 0.12 to 342.84 ± 0.13 and 9.38 ± 0.60 to 20.06 ± 0.27 U/g, respectively and in serum (from 95.41 ± 6.13 to 120.32 ± 3.15 and 234.75 ± 11.5 to 254.41 ± 2.73 U/l, respectively, suggesting that this treatment induced tissue damage. ALT activity was increased from 287.28 ± 0.29 to 315.98 ± 0.34 U/g in the liver but remained unchanged in serum, whereas the GGT activity was not affected by bullfrog oil treatment. Therefore, despite the interesting modulation of fatty acids by bullfrog oil, a possible therapeutic use requires care since some adverse effects were observed in liver.

  14. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Psidium Guajava Leaves on Liver Enzymes, Histological Integrity and Hematological Indices in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboh, Friday E.; Okon, Iniobong E.; Ekong, Moses B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin and total protein levels, as well as the tissue histological assay are known to be useful in assessing the functional integrity of the liver. Also, assessment of red and white blood cells count, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations is useful in determining the effect of some chemical substances on hemotopoietic system. In recent times, reports from medicinal plants research indicate that extracts from some plants are both hepatotoxic and hematotoxic, while others on the other hand are reported to be hepatoprotective and hematopoietic in action. This study considers the effects of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) leaves on the histology and biochemical indices of liver function as well as hematological indices in rats. Methods In this study, phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves was carried out. Also, male and female rats were administered with 200 mg/kg body weight oral daily doses of aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves for a period of 30 days. At the end of the administration period, the rats were anaesthesized with chloroform vapors and dissected for the collection of blood and liver tissues which were used for the hematopoietic and liver functions investigations. Results Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant leaves showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenols, reducing compounds, saponins and tannins. Liver function tests revealed that the serum ALT, AST and ALP, as well as the concentrations of total protein and albumin in male and female rats were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the oral administration of the extract. Histopathological study also did not show any adverse alteration in the morphological architecture of the liver tissues in both sexes of the animal model. However, red blood cell counts, hemotocrit and hemoglobin concentrations increased

  15. A bioenergetics systems evaluation of ketogenic diet liver effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutfles, Lewis J; Wilkins, Heather M; Koppel, Scott J; Weidling, Ian W; Selfridge, J Eva; Tan, Eephie; Thyfault, John P; Slawson, Chad; Fenton, Aron W; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2017-09-01

    Ketogenic diets induce hepatocyte fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. To further evaluate how ketogenic diets affect hepatocyte bioenergetic infrastructure, we analyzed livers from C57Bl/6J male mice maintained for 1 month on a ketogenic or standard chow diet. Compared with the standard diet, the ketogenic diet increased cytosolic and mitochondrial protein acetylation and also altered protein succinylation patterns. SIRT3 protein decreased while SIRT5 protein increased, and gluconeogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis pathway proteins were variably and likely strategically altered. The pattern of changes observed can be used to inform a broader systems overview of how ketogenic diets affect liver bioenergetics.

  16. Fast neutron irradiation effects on liver chromatin structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Radu, L.

    1996-01-01

    The growing interest in neutron therapy requires complex studies on the mechanisms of neutron action on biological systems, especially on chromatin. The chromatin was extracted from a normal tissue-livers of Wistar rats - and from a tumoral tissue - Walker tumour maintained on Wistar rats. Irradiation doses from 5 Gy to 100 Gy by fast neutron intense beams produced via d(13.5 MeV) +Be (thick target) reaction at Bucharest U-120 Classical Cyclotron were used. To study the post-irradiation effects, various methods were employed. So, the variation in the 260 nm absorbency in chromatin thermal transition was pursuit. The chromatin-ethidium bromide complexes fluorescence with λ ex =480 nm and λ em =600 nm was analyzed. To determine chromatin DNA strand breaks a fluorimetric method, with cells' suspensions as starting material was used. This method requires a partial treatment with alkali producing three components: T-estimating the total fluorescence of DNA double helix, P-assigning the untwisting rate and B-the blank, where DNA is completely unfolded The percentsge of DNA double strand,-D-, remaining after this treatment, is: %D=100x(P-B)/(T-B). The intrinsic chromatin fluorescence was determined for tyrosine (λ ex =280 nm, λ em =305 nm), specific for badic chromatin prooteins, and for tryptophane (λ ex =290 nm, λ em =345 nm) specific for acid chromatin proteins. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed: The double fluorescent labelling of chromatin was realized with acridine orange for DNA and with dansyl chloride for chromatin proteins. Fluorescence intensity determinations were done with λ ex =505 nm, λ em =530 nm for acridine orange and with λ ex =323 nm, λ em =505 nm for dansyl chloride. A Pye Unicam SP 1800 spectrophotometer and a Aminco SPF 500 spectrofluorimeter were employed. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of Exercise on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver By Sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Anseong Hanju Clinic, Anseong (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Chungnam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accumulation state of fat in liver cells without excessive alcohol intake, and it has been studied that is closely related to obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for NAFLD and may prevent or to manage risk factors. This study was in progress for six months (2011 May 1 to October 31), of the 83 people who underwent abdominal ultrasound 11 people eventually were selected. Research results was as follows : First, the decreased body weight and body mass index (BMI), and the second, a decrease of the deepening of fatty liver in ultrasound diagnosis, and the third, steady movement reduces the deepening of fatty liver regardless of calories. Thus, the implication of this research is that long-term exercise programs have positive effects in the treatment of fatty liver.

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of Exercise on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver By Sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Yeon; Lim, Hyun Soo

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accumulation state of fat in liver cells without excessive alcohol intake, and it has been studied that is closely related to obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for NAFLD and may prevent or to manage risk factors. This study was in progress for six months (2011 May 1 to October 31), of the 83 people who underwent abdominal ultrasound 11 people eventually were selected. Research results was as follows : First, the decreased body weight and body mass index (BMI), and the second, a decrease of the deepening of fatty liver in ultrasound diagnosis, and the third, steady movement reduces the deepening of fatty liver regardless of calories. Thus, the implication of this research is that long-term exercise programs have positive effects in the treatment of fatty liver.

  19. Protective Effect of γ-Irradiated Dried Powder of Artichoke Leaves against CCl4 Oxidative Stress Induced in Rat Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; El shahat, A.N.; Mekawey, H.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Liver injuries are one of the most degenerative worldwide diseases and can lead to different complications. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is full of natural antioxidants and has hepato protective effect against liver toxicity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used as a first choice sterilization method of raw medicinal plants to be used in the phytotherapic industry worldwide .This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with γ- irradiated artichoke against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of artichoke leaves indicated that the value of some of the main phenolic constituents was elevated under the effect of γ-irradiation (10 KGy). CCl 4 administration resulted in significant increase in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and transaminase in addition to an increase in the level of total bilirubine, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose and the concentration of some lipid contents. Furthermore, CCl 4 administration reduced glutathione content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity as well as a remarkable decrease in the level of insulin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was observed. In CCl 4 -treated rats dietary supplemented with either raw or γ-irradiated artichoke, a significant amelioration was observed on the adverse effects of the above mentioned parameters induced by CCl 4 administration. The present findings concluded that artichoke may be useful, as dietary supplement and possess phenolic compounds, for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced hepatotoxicity

  20. Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, Elena; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2018-02-19

    Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke. Long-term AAS abusers have a higher incidence of arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, concentric left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy with impaired diastolic function and also sudden cardiac death. Changes of liver function and structure, up to hepatocellular carcinoma, have been described, mainly in cases of chronic misuse of 17α-alkylated AAS. Sleeplessness, increased irritability, depressive mood status are often observed in AAS abuse. In former AAS abusers depression, anxiety and melancholy may persist for many years. Due to negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis AAS can cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis up to azoospermia. In women the changes most often caused by AAS abuse are hirsutism, irreversible deepening of voice, dysmenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea with anovulation and infertility. AAS abuse notwithstanding, under clinical conditions testosterone remains the most important hormone for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism.

  1. Adverse effects as a consequence of being the subject of orthopaedic manual therapy training, a worldwide retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoomes-de Graaf, M; Thoomes, E; Carlesso, L; Kerry, R; Rushton, A

    2017-06-01

    Physical therapists (PTs) use a range of manual therapy techniques developed to an advanced level through postgraduate orthopaedic manipulative physical therapy (OMPT) programmes. The aim of this study was to describe the adverse effects experienced by students after having techniques performed on them as part of their OMPT training. A descriptive online survey of current students and recent graduates (≤5 years)m of OMPT programmes across the 22 Member Organisations of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists. The questionnaire was completed by 1640 respondents across 22 countries (1263 graduates, 377 students. Some 60% of respondents reported never having experienced adverse effects during their manual therapy training. Of the 40% who did, 66.4% reported neck pain, 50.9% headache and 32% low back pain. Most reports of neck pain started after a manipulation and/or mobilisation, of which 53.4% lasted ≤24 h, 38.1% > 24 h but <3 months and 13.7% still experienced neck pain to date. A small percentage of respondents (3.3%) reported knowing of a fellow student experiencing a major adverse effect. Mild to moderate adverse effects after practising manual therapy techniques are commonly reported, but usually resolve within 24 h. However, this survey has identified the reported occurrence of major adverse effects that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Immunosuppressant effect of cyclophosphamide activated in vitro by liver microsomes from different strains of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegin, L Iu; Zhirnov, G F; Mazurov, A V; Pevnitskiĭ, L A

    1981-07-01

    The paper is concerned with activation of cyclophosphamide by mouse liver microsomes in vitro. Liver microsomes from BALB/c mice metabolize cyclophosphamide more effectively as compared with those from DBA/2 mice, which manifested by a more intense output of products having alkylating or immunodepressant properties. This seems likely to be a consequence of the increased P-450 cytochrome content in liver microsomes from BALB/c mice, as well as of its structural characteristics in the mouse. The relationship between the immunodepressant effect of cyclophosphamide in vivo and in vitro in mice of varied genotypes is discussed.

  3. Cost effectiveness of selective decontamination of the digestive tract in liver transplant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enckevort, PJ; Zwaveling, JH; Bottema, JT; Maring, JK; Klompmaker, IJ; Slooff, MJH; TenVergert, EM

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the cost effectiveness of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) in liver transplant patients. Design: Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with an integrated economic evaluation. Setting: Two university hospitals in The Netherlands. Cost

  4. Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure: Modification by dietary supplementation of jaggery in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nrashant; Kumar, D.; Lal, Kewal; Raisuddin, S.; Sahu, Anand P.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of villages of eastern India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are exposed to arsenic mainly through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water they are compelled to depend on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas and situation is compounded by the lack of proper nutrition. The hypothesis that the deleterious health effects of arsenic can be prevented by modification of dietary factors with the availability of an affordable and indigenous functional food jaggery (sugarcane juice) has been tested in the present study. Jaggery contains polyphenols, vitamin C, carotene and other biologically active components. Arsenic as sodium-m-arsenite at low (0.05 ppm) and high (5 ppm) doses was orally administered to Swiss male albino mice, alone and in combination with jaggery feeding (250 mg/mice), consecutively for 180 days. The serum levels of total antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were substantially reduced in arsenic-exposed groups, while supplementation of jaggery enhanced their levels in combined treatment groups. The serum levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in arsenic-exposed groups, while in the arsenic-exposed and jaggery supplemented groups their levels were normal. The comet assay in bone marrow cells showed the genotoxic effects of arsenic, whereas combination with jaggery feeding lessened the DNA damage. Histopathologically, the lung of arsenic-exposed mice showed the necrosis and degenerative changes in bronchiolar epithelium with emphysema and thickening of alveolar septa which was effectively antagonized by jaggery feeding. These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic.

  5. Does Growth Impairment Underlie the Adverse Effects of Dexamethasone on Development of Noradrenergic Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Ko, Ashley; Seidler, Frederic J

    2018-06-20

    Glucocorticoids are given in preterm labor to prevent respiratory distress but these agents evoke neurobehavioral deficits in association with reduced brain region volumes. To determine whether the neurodevelopmental effects are distinct from growth impairment, we gave developing rats dexamethasone at doses below or within the therapeutic range (0.05, 0.2 or 0.8 mg/kg) at different stages: gestational days (GD) 17-19, postnatal days (PN) 1-3 or PN7-9. In adolescence and adulthood, we assessed the impact on noradrenergic systems in multiple brain regions, comparing the effects to those on somatic growth or on brain region growth. Somatic growth was reduced with exposure in all three stages, with greater sensitivity for the postnatal regimens; brain region growth was impaired to a lesser extent. Norepinephrine content and concentration were reduced depending on the treatment regimen, with a rank order of deficits of PN7-9 > PN1-3 > GD17-19. However, brain growth impairment did not parallel reduced norepinephrine content in magnitude, dose threshold, sex or regional selectivity, or temporal pattern, and even when corrected for reduced brain region weights (norepinephrine per g tissue), the dexamethasone-exposed animals showed subnormal values. Regression analysis showed that somatic growth impairment accounted for an insubstantial amount of the reduction in norepinephrine content, and brain growth impairment accounted for only 12%, whereas specific effects on norepinephrine accounted for most of the effect. The adverse effects of dexamethasone on noradrenergic system development are not simply related to impaired somatic or brain region growth, but rather include specific targeting of neurodifferentiation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure: modification by dietary supplementation of jaggery in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nrashant; Kumar, D; Lal, Kewal; Raisuddin, S; Sahu, Anand P

    2010-02-01

    Populations of villages of eastern India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are exposed to arsenic mainly through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water they are compelled to depend on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas and situation is compounded by the lack of proper nutrition. The hypothesis that the deleterious health effects of arsenic can be prevented by modification of dietary factors with the availability of an affordable and indigenous functional food jaggery (sugarcane juice) has been tested in the present study. Jaggery contains polyphenols, vitamin C, carotene and other biologically active components. Arsenic as sodium-m-arsenite at low (0.05 ppm) and high (5 ppm) doses was orally administered to Swiss male albino mice, alone and in combination with jaggery feeding (250 mg/mice), consecutively for 180 days. The serum levels of total antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were substantially reduced in arsenic-exposed groups, while supplementation of jaggery enhanced their levels in combined treatment groups. The serum levels of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased in arsenic-exposed groups, while in the arsenic-exposed and jaggery supplemented groups their levels were normal. The comet assay in bone marrow cells showed the genotoxic effects of arsenic, whereas combination with jaggery feeding lessened the DNA damage. Histopathologically, the lung of arsenic-exposed mice showed the necrosis and degenerative changes in bronchiolar epithelium with emphysema and thickening of alveolar septa which was effectively antagonized by jaggery feeding. These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adverse effects of levamisole in cocaine users: a review and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor Markus; van den Berg, Jorrit; Pennings, Ed; Venhuis, Bastiaan

    2017-06-01

    The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis. Females are more susceptible for both agranulocytosis and vasculitis. Another complication reported with levamisole-adulterated cocaine is leukoencephalopathy, a disabling and potentially fatal neurological disorder caused by cerebral demyelination. In this review, all adverse effects associated with therapeutic levamisole and levamisole-adulterated cocaine are described. In addition, this review provides an update of the pharmacology of levamisole, its metabolism, including toxic metabolites and metabolites that are relevant for levamisole's addition to cocaine. Special emphasis is put on the immunopathology and the dose-effect relationship of chronic levamisole exposure. Finally, a risk assessment is provided based on the current level of levamisole adulteration in street cocaine, the dose range calculated per gram and the pattern of chronic exposure in heavy or dependent users.

  8. Adverse Structural and Functional Effects of Marijuana on the Brain: Evidence Reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, David E; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    The growing use and legalization of cannabis are leading to increased exposures across all age groups, including in adolescence. The touting of its medicinal values stems from anecdotal reports related to treatment of a broad range of illnesses including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, muscle spasms, arthritis, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, post-traumatic stress, inflammatory bowel disease, and anxiety. However, anecdotal data and the high level of interest in this treatment must not obscure objective assessments of any potential and realized short- and long-term adverse effects of cannabis, particularly with respect to age of onset and chronicity of exposure. This critical review focuses on evidence-based research designed to assess both therapeutic benefits and harmful effects of cannabis exposure and is combined with an illustration of the neuropathologic findings in a fatal case of cannabis-induced psychosis. The literature and reported case provide strong evidence that chronic cannabis abuse causes cognitive impairment and damages the brain, particularly white matter, where cannabinoid 1 receptors abound. Contrary to popular perception, there are few objective data supporting preferential use of cannabis over conventional therapy for restoration of central nervous system structure and function in disease states such as multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, or schizophrenia. Additional research is needed to determine if subsets of individuals with various neurological and psychiatric diseases derive therapeutic benefits from cannabis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Moe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip joints of dogs with chronic hip dysplasia, and to record any side effects or complications of such treatment. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial was performed. Eighty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo, with 38 in the gold implantation group and 42 in the placebo group, and followed intensely for six months. The implantation technique was simple to perform, using fluoroscopy and with the dogs under inhalation anesthesia for about 30 minutes. Adverse effects, measured as pain or discomfort, were seen for a period of up to four weeks in 15 of the dogs in the gold implantation group, compared to six dogs in the placebo group. During implantation, a technical difficulty occurred as 82% of the dogs showed leakage of blood and/or synovia from the needles. The dogs in the gold implantation group were radiographed 18 months later. Of the 30 dogs that were radiographed at both inclusion and 24 months, 80% (24 dogs showed a deterioration of the coxofemoral arthrosis, the other six had stable disease evaluated by radiography. Migration of gold beads was only observed in one dog.

  10. The Adverse Effect of Spasticity on 3-Month Poststroke Outcome Using a Population-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Belagaje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several devices and medications have been used to address poststroke spasticity. Yet, spasticity’s impact on outcomes remains controversial. Using data from a cohort of 460 ischemic stroke patients, we previously published a validated multivariable regression model for predicting 3-month modified Rankin Score (mRS as an indicator of functional outcome. Here, we tested whether including spasticity improved model fit and estimated the effect spasticity had on the outcome. Spasticity was defined by a positive response to the question “Did you have spasticity following your stroke?” on direct interview at 3 months from stroke onset. Patients who had expired by 90 days (n=30 or did not have spasticity data available (n=102 were excluded. Spasticity affected the 3-month functional status (β=0.420, 95 CI=0.194 to 0.645 after accounting for age, diabetes, leukoaraiosis, and retrospective NIHSS. Using spasticity as a covariable, the model’s R2 changed from 0.599 to 0.622. In our model, the presence of spasticity in the cohort was associated with a worsened 3-month mRS by an average of 0.4 after adjusting for known covariables. This significant adverse effect on functional outcomes adds predictive value beyond previously established factors.

  11. Systemic effects of periodontitis: Lessons learned from research on atherosclerotic vascular disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanou, Panos N.

    2015-01-01

    Studies conducted over the past 25 years have focused on the role of periodontitis, an inflammatory condition of microbial etiology that destroys the tooth supporting tissues, as a systemic inflammatory stressor that can act as an independent risk factor of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVSD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). It has been suggested that periodontitis-associated bacteremias and systemic dissemination of inflammatory mediators produced in the periodontal tissues may result in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, while bacteria of oral origin may translocate into the feto-placental unit. Epidemiologic studies largely support an association between periodontitis and ASVD / APOs independent of known confounders; indeed, periodontitis has been shown to confer statistically significantly elevated risk for clinical events associated with ASVD and APOs in multivariable adjustments. On the other hand, intervention studies demonstrate that although periodontal therapy reduces systemic inflammation and improves endothelial function, it has no positive effect on the incidence of APOs. Studies of the effects of periodontal interventions on ASVD-related clinical events are lacking. This review summarizes key findings from mechanistic, association and intervention studies and attempts to reconcile the seemingly contradictory evidence that originates from different lines of investigation. PMID:26388299

  12. Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandin, Helena; Myrberg, Olle; Rundlöf, Torgny; Arvidsson, Ann-Kristin; Brenning, Gunilla

    2007-06-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of some commercially available GSE products and evaluate their effect in vitro on two cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. A couple on lifelong treatment with warfarin and continuous regular follow-ups took some drops of a GSE product for 3 days. The female patient experienced a minor subcutaneous haematoma 3 days later, and her international normalised ratio (INR) value was 7.9. This was reported to the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) as a spontaneous post-marketing report concerning adverse drug reactions/interactions. The composition of the GSE products was determined by proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The inhibitory effect of the GSE products on the cytochrome P450 enzymes was tested in an in vitro baculosome assay. The NMR analysis showed that all three investigated GSE products contained the synthetic preservative benzethonium chloride (BTC) in addition to glycerol and water. No authentic GSE extract was found in any of the three GSE products analysed. Furthermore, BTC was found to be a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activity in vitro. Our results suggest that BTC in the GSE products is responsible for the increase in the INR value in a patient on warfarin treatment.

  13. Systemic changes and adverse effects induced by retinopathy of prematurity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Wang, Yan-Li; Nie, Chuan; Luo, Xian-Qiong

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the potential systemic events during and after retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening. A prospective and descriptive designed study was conducted to detect the physiologic and pathological changes 24h before, during, and 72h after ROP screening. Control blood pressure (BP), saturation, pulse rate, and body temperature were routinely taken at various time internals before and after screening. Adverse effects pertain to cardiovascular system, respiratory system, gastric system, urinary system and nervous system were retrospect 0-72h after ROP screening at a 24-hour interval. Totally 1254 prematurity babies receiving ROP screening during Jan. 1(st) 2013 to Dec. 31(th) 2013 were enrolled in our survey. Compared to control vital sign data taken before the examination, there was a fluctuation in the diastolic BP with the increased 3.03 mm Hg (P=0.04) after 3 doses of mydriatic drops. Immediately after the examination, there was a further 12.64 mm Hg (Pprematurity with postconceptional age less than 31wk, the incidence of apnea (23.5%), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (8.7%), gastric residual (25.4%) and upper digestive tract hemorrhage (6.4%) also demonstrated a significant rise (P<0.01). In our study sample, ROP screening was associated with NEC, gastric residual and upper digestive tract hemorrhage. These gastrointestinal side effects, along with breath activity pattern change and vital signs indicators fluctuation, may be results of additional stress responses.

  14. Childhood adversity moderates the effect of ADH1B on risk for alcohol-related phenotypes in Jewish Israeli drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Edenberg, Howard J; Gelernter, Joel; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Childhood adversity and genetic variant ADH1B-rs1229984 have each been shown to influence heavy alcohol consumption and disorders. However, little is known about how these factors jointly influence these outcomes. We assessed the main and additive interactive effects of childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and parental divorce) and the ADH1B-rs1229984 on the quantitative phenotypes 'maximum drinks in a day' (Maxdrinks) and DSM-Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) severity, adjusting for demographic variables, in an Israeli sample of adult household residents (n = 1143) evaluated between 2007 and 2009. Childhood adversity and absence of the protective ADH1B-rs1229984 A allele were associated with greater mean Maxdrinks (mean differences: 1.50; 1.13, respectively) and AUD severity (mean ratios: 0.71; 0.27, respectively). In addition, childhood adversity moderated the ADH1B-rs1229984 effect on Maxdrinks (P < 0.01) and AUD severity (P < 0.05), in that there was a stronger effect of ADH1B-rs1229984 genotype on Maxdrinks and AUD severity among those who had experienced childhood adversity compared with those who had not. ADH1B-rs1229984 impacts alcohol metabolism. Therefore, among those at risk for greater consumption, e.g. those who experienced childhood adversity, ADH1B-rs1229984 appears to have a stronger effect on alcohol consumption and consequently on risk for AUD symptom severity. Evidence for the interaction of genetic vulnerability and early life adversity on alcohol-related phenotypes provides further insight into the complex relationships between genetic and environmental risk factors. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Transcriptome atlas of eight liver cell types uncovers effects of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... types, and bioinformatic and systems biology approaches were employed to analyse the relationship between above genes and rat liver regeneration. The results showed that the urocanic acid (UA) was degraded from histidine in Kupffer cells, acts on Kupffer cells itself and dendritic cells to generate immune suppression ...

  16. The effect of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the influence of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum total protein using 48 adult female rats in four groups -A as control and B, C and D as tests. The animals were further divided into two subgroups - treatment (A1 - D1; n=6 each) and reversal (A2 - D2; n=6 each). Groups A1&A2 ...

  17. The Effect of Tobacco Snuff Consumption on Liver Enzymes | Ugbor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the changes in liver biochemical profile following oral tobacco dust ingestion. Adult Wistar rats (42) weighing 150-300g were involved. They were divided into four groups; group A serving as control, while groups B, C and D served as the test groups. The test groups were further ...

  18. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation in treatment of liver cirrhosis: Updated views on how to attenuate their harmful effects on cataplerosis and ammonia formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeček, Milan

    2017-09-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) supplementation is common for patients with liver cirrhosis due to decreased levels of BCAA in the blood plasma of these patients, which plays a role in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and cachexia. The unique pharmacologic properties of BCAA also are a factor for use as supplementation in this population. In the present article, BCAA is shown to provide nitrogen to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) for synthesis of glutamate, which is a substrate for ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN) in the brain and muscles. The article also demonstrates that the favorable effects of BCAA supplementation might be associated with three adverse effects: draining of α-KG from tricarboxylic acid cycle (cataplerosis), increased GLN content and altered glutamatergic neurotransmission in the brain, and activated GLN catabolism to ammonia in the gut and kidneys. Cataplerosis of α-KG can be attenuated by dimethyl-α-ketoglutarate, l-ornithine-l-aspartate, and ornithine salt of α-KG. The pros and cons of GLN elimination from the body using phenylbutyrate (phenylacetate), which may impair liver regeneration and decrease BCAA levels, should be examined. The therapeutic potential of BCAA might be enhanced also by optimizing its supplementation protocol. It is concluded that the search for strategies attenuating adverse and increasing positive effects of the BCAA is needed to include the BCAA among standard medications for patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of an educational patient safety campaign on patients' safety behaviours and adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwappach, David L B; Frank, Olga; Buschmann, Ute; Babst, Reto

    2013-04-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives  The study aims to investigate the effects of a patient safety advisory on patients' risk perceptions, perceived behavioural control, performance of safety behaviours and experience of adverse incidents. Method  Quasi-experimental intervention study with non-equivalent group comparison was used. Patients admitted to the surgical department of a Swiss large non-university hospital were included. Patients in the intervention group received a safety advisory at their first clinical encounter. Outcomes were assessed using a questionnaire at discharge. Odds ratios for control versus intervention group were calculated. Regression analysis was used to model the effects of the intervention and safety behaviours on the experience of safety incidents. Results  Two hundred eighteen patients in the control and 202 in the intervention group completed the survey (75 and 77% response rates, respectively). Patients in the intervention group were less likely to feel poorly informed about medical errors (OR = 0.55, P = 0.043). There were 73.1% in the intervention and 84.3% in the control group who underestimated the risk for infection (OR = 0.51, CI 0.31-0.84, P = 0.009). Perceived behavioural control was lower in the control group (meanCon  = 3.2, meanInt  = 3.5, P = 0.010). Performance of safety-related behaviours was unaffected by the intervention. Patients in the intervention group were less likely to experience any safety-related incident or unsafe situation (OR for intervention group = 0.57, CI 0.38-0.87, P = 0.009). There were no differences in concerns for errors during hospitalization. There were 96% of patients (intervention) who would recommend other patients to read the advisory. Conclusions  The results suggest that the safety advisory decreases experiences of adverse events and unsafe situations. It renders awareness and perceived behavioural control without increasing concerns for safety and

  20. Reduction of adverse effects from intravenous acetylcysteine treatment for paracetamol poisoning: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D Nicholas; Dear, James W; Thanacoody, H K Ruben; Thomas, Simon H L; Eddleston, Michael; Sandilands, Euan A; Coyle, Judy; Cooper, Jamie G; Rodriguez, Aryelly; Butcher, Isabella; Lewis, Steff C; Vliegenthart, A D Bastiaan; Veiraiah, Aravindan; Webb, David J; Gray, Alasdair

    2014-02-22

    Paracetamol poisoning is common worldwide. It is treated with intravenous acetylcysteine, but the standard regimen is complex and associated with frequent adverse effects related to concentration, which can cause treatment interruption. We aimed to ascertain whether adverse effects could be reduced with either a shorter modified acetylcysteine schedule, antiemetic pretreatment, or both. We undertook a double-blind, randomised factorial study at three UK hospitals, between Sept 6, 2010, and Dec 31, 2012. We randomly allocated patients with acute paracetamol overdose to either the standard intravenous acetylcysteine regimen (duration 20·25 h) or a shorter (12 h) modified protocol, with or without intravenous ondansetron pretreatment (4 mg). Masking was achieved by infusion of 5% dextrose (during acetylcysteine delivery) or saline (for antiemetic pretreatment). Randomisation was done via the internet and included a minimisation procedure by prognostic factors. The primary outcome was absence of vomiting, retching, or need for rescue antiemetic treatment at 2 h. Prespecified secondary outcomes included a greater than 50% increase in alanine aminotransferase activity over the admission value. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT01050270). Of 222 patients who underwent randomisation, 217 were assessable 2 h after the start of acetylcysteine treatment. Vomiting, retching, or need for rescue antiemetic treatment at 2 h was reported in 39 of 108 patients assigned to the shorter modified protocol compared with 71 of 109 allocated to the standard acetylcysteine regimen (adjusted odds ratio 0·26, 97·5% CI 0·13-0·52; ppoisoning, a 12 h modified acetylcysteine regimen resulted in less vomiting, fewer anaphylactoid reactions, and reduced need for treatment interruption. This study was not powered to detect non-inferiority of the shorter protocol versus the standard approach; therefore, further research is needed

  1. Poor sleep quality has an adverse effect on childhood asthma control and lung function measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Youn Ho; Choi, Sun Hee; Jang, Sun Jung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Jee, Hye Mi; Kim, Mi Ae; Chae, Kyu Young; Han, Man Yong

    2017-08-01

    It is unclear as to whether sleep respiratory breathing disorder (SRBD) is a risk factor for uncontrolled asthma in children. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether SRBD may have an adverse effect on childhood asthma control and lung function measures. This was a cross-sectional study of 220 children with well-controlled (n = 108), partly controlled (n = 92), and uncontrolled asthma (n = 20) according to the Global Initiative for Asthma guideline. SRBD was assessed using the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ). The association of SRBD with partly controlled/uncontrolled asthma was investigated on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 220 children with asthma, 43 (19.6%) had SRBD: well-controlled, 16.7% (18/108); partly controlled, 21.7% (20/92); and uncontrolled, 25.0% (5/20; P = 0.54). There was a significant difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC; P = 0.007) and childhood asthma control test (C-ACT) score (P asthma control status, but not in PSQ score (P = 0.18). Children with obstructive sleep apnea (PSQ >0.33) had a lower C-ACT score compared with controls (PSQ ≤0.33; 19.6 ± 5.1 vs 22.0 ± 4.2, P = 0.002). PSQ score was negatively correlated with FEV 1 /FVC (r = -0.16, P = 0.02). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high PSQ score increased the odds of having partly controlled/uncontrolled asthma by 9.12 (95% CI: 1.04-79.72, P = 0.046) after adjusting for confounding factors. SRBD is an independent risk factor for partly controlled/uncontrolled asthma and has an adverse effect on lung function measures in children. Further research is warranted to determine whether the improvement of sleep quality may also enhance level of asthma control and lung function in children. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. [Changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Leng, J H; Zhang, J J; Jia, S Z; Li, X Y; Shi, J H; Dai, Y; Zhang, J R; Li, T; Xu, X X; Liu, Z Z; You, S S; Chang, X Y; Lang, J H

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the changes of mestruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system(LNG-IUS)for symptomatic adenomyosis in a prospective cohort study. Methods: From December, 2006 to December, 2014, patients of symptomatic adenomyosis diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were given LNG-IUS. Before and after placement of IUS, all patients' parameters were recorded, including carrying status of IUS, symptoms and scores of dysmenorrhea, menstruation scores, biochemical indicators, physical parameters, menstruation patterns and adverse effects. Risk factors for changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects, and their impact on treatment effects were analyzed. Results: Totally 1 100 cases met inclusion criteria, with median age 36 years(range 20-44 years), median follow-up 35 months(range 1 -108 months). During follow-up changes of menstruation patterns increased significantly with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations. On 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after the placement of LNG-IUS, 0, 5.8%(43/744), 6.9%(47/682), 10.1%(60/595), 17.3%(87/502), 27.2%(104/383)and 29.6%(82/277)patients achieved amenorrhea respectively( P 12 months after placement, abdominal pain and body weight increasing ≥5 kg/year were the most common adverse effects. Changes of menstruation patterns, total and subclassifications of adverse effects were neither dependent on patient parameters, treatment modes and treatment effects, nor could predict future LNG-IUS carrying status(all P > 0.05). After taking out of LNG-IUS, most changes of menstruation and adverse effects disappeared. Conclusions: During the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis, changes of menstruation patterns increase gradually with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations, while adverse effects decrease significantly. Changes of

  3. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hesami; Maryam Ayatollahi; Bita Geramizadeh; Akram Jamshidzadeh; Akbar Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), we used immunohistochemical analysis ...

  4. Adverse Life Experience and Psychological Distress in Adolescence: Moderating and Mediating Effects of Emotion Regulation and Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Hasking, Penelope A; Martin, Graham

    2016-10-01

    The current study tested whether emotion regulation and rumination moderated and/or mediated the relationship between accumulated adverse life experience and psychological distress in adolescence. In class, Australian high school students (n = 2637, 12-18 years, 68% female) from 41 schools completed well-validated measures of adverse life experience, emotion regulation, rumination and psychological distress, and were followed up 1 year later (n = 1973, 75% retention rate). Adjusting for age, gender and baseline psychological distress, adverse life experience predicted psychological distress 1 year later. Expressive suppression and rumination were positively associated with psychological distress. Cognitive reappraisal was negatively associated with psychological distress and moderated the relationship between adverse life experience and psychological distress. This relationship was also partially mediated by cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression and rumination. Promoting cognitive reappraisal and minimizing expressive suppression and rumination may be useful strategies to improve mental health for adolescents who have experienced adverse life events. Future research should examine whether adolescents who have experienced adverse life events can be trained in effective emotion regulation strategies and whether this training can prevent development of psychological maladjustment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Predicting Adverse Drug Effects from Literature- and Database-Mined Assertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Mary K; Sedykh, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Muratov, Eugene; Tropsha, Alexander

    2018-06-06

    Given that adverse drug effects (ADEs) have led to post-market patient harm and subsequent drug withdrawal, failure of candidate agents in the drug development process, and other negative outcomes, it is essential to attempt to forecast ADEs and other relevant drug-target-effect relationships as early as possible. Current pharmacologic data sources, providing multiple complementary perspectives on the drug-target-effect paradigm, can be integrated to facilitate the inference of relationships between these entities. This study aims to identify both existing and unknown relationships between chemicals (C), protein targets (T), and ADEs (E) based on evidence in the literature. Cheminformatics and data mining approaches were employed to integrate and analyze publicly available clinical pharmacology data and literature assertions interrelating drugs, targets, and ADEs. Based on these assertions, a C-T-E relationship knowledge base was developed. Known pairwise relationships between chemicals, targets, and ADEs were collected from several pharmacological and biomedical data sources. These relationships were curated and integrated according to Swanson's paradigm to form C-T-E triangles. Missing C-E edges were then inferred as C-E relationships. Unreported associations between drugs, targets, and ADEs were inferred, and inferences were prioritized as testable hypotheses. Several C-E inferences, including testosterone → myocardial infarction, were identified using inferences based on the literature sources published prior to confirmatory case reports. Timestamping approaches confirmed the predictive ability of this inference strategy on a larger scale. The presented workflow, based on free-access databases and an association-based inference scheme, provided novel C-E relationships that have been validated post hoc in case reports. With refinement of prioritization schemes for the generated C-E inferences, this workflow may provide an effective computational method for

  6. Mesotherapy-induced panniculitis treated with dapsone: case report and review of reported adverse effects of mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jennifer; Rao, Babar

    2006-01-01

    Mesotherapy is a procedure involving the injection of substances into the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Used in Europe for decades in the treatment of various medical conditions and cosmetic fat dissolution, the technique only recently became widely available in the United States. Mesotherapy has been surrounded by controversy pertaining to efficacy and has been associated with localized complications, including allergic reactions, necrosis, and infections. Panniculitis is a rare adverse reaction to mesotherapy that may result from injection pressure, local trauma, or the type of injected substances. Treatment options for complications are limited. We report a case of mesotherapy-induced panniculitis successfully treated with dapsone. This case illustrates one of the potential adverse effects of mesotherapy and suggests that dapsone may be effective in the treatment of panniculitis resulting from such injections. Reported adverse effects associated with mesotherapy are also reviewed.

  7. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  8. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? : An analytical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurston, George D; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have

  9. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George D; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies.This current report seeks to integrate the latest science into a general framework for interpreting the adversity of the human health effects of air pollution. Rather than trying to provide a catalogue of what is and what is not an adverse effect of air pollution, we propose a set of considerations that can be applied in forming judgments of the adversity of not only currently documented, but also emerging and future effects of air pollution on human health. These considerations are illustrated by the inclusion of examples for different types of health effects of air pollution. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  10. Effects of Video Games on the Adverse Corollaries of Chemotherapy in Pediatric Oncology Patients: A Single-Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J.; Rickard-Figueroa, Jorge L.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed effects of video games on adverse corollaries of chemotherapy in three pediatric oncology patients. Results indicated that access to video games resulted in reduction in the number of anticipatory symptoms experienced and observed, as well as a diminution in the aversiveness of chemotherapy side effects. (Author/NRB)

  11. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George D.; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D.; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W.; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J.; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T.; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies. This current report seeks to integrate the latest science into a general framework for interpreting the adversity of the human health effects of air pollution. Rather than trying to provide a catalogue of what is and what is not an adverse effect of air pollution, we propose a set of considerations that can be applied in forming judgments of the adversity of not only currently documented, but also emerging and future effects of air pollution on human health. These considerations are illustrated by the inclusion of examples for different types of health effects of air pollution. PMID:28077473

  12. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathway for Neurodevelopmental Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase-Induced Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate levels of thyroid hormones (TH) are needed for proper brain development and deficiencies lead to adverse neurological outcomes in humans and in animal models. Environmental chemicals have been shown to disrupt TH levels, yet the relationship between developmental exposur...

  13. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathway for Neurodevelopmental Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase-Induced Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Inhibition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adequate levels of thyroid hormones (TH) are needed for proper brain development, deficiencies may lead to adverse neurological outcomes in humans and animal models....

  14. Effects of defibrotide, a novel oligodeoxyribonucleotide, on ischaemia and reperfusion injury of the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Joon; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Song, Jin Ho; Oh, Byung Kwon; Choi, Myung Sup; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2002-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of defibrotide, a single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide, on ischaemia-reperfusion injury to the liver using a rat model. 2. Ischaemia of the left and median lobes was created by total inflow occlusion for 30 min followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Hepatic injury was assessed by the release of liver enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and lactic dehydrogenase, LDH). Hepatic oxidant stress was measured by superoxide production, lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate formation. Leukocyte-endothelium interaction and Kupffer cell mobilization were quantified by measuring hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO), polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence to superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and immunostaining of Kupffer cell. 3. Defibrotide treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of postreperfusion superoxide generation, lipid peroxidation, serum ALT activity, serum LDH activity, MPO activity, serum nitrite/nitrate level, leukocyte adherence to SMA, and Kupffer cell mobilization, indicating a significant attenuation of hepatic dysfunction. 4. A significant correlation existed between liver ischaemia/reperfusion and hepatic injury, suggesting that liver ischaemia/reperfusion injury is mediated predominantly by generation of oxygen free radicals and mobilization of Kupffer cells. 5. We conclude that defibrotide significantly protects the liver against liver ischaemia/reperfusion injury by interfering with Kupffer cell mobilization and formation of oxygen free radicals. This study provides strong evidence that defibrotide has important beneficial effects on acute inflammatory tissue injury such as that occurring in the reperfusion of the ischaemic liver.

  15. Interactive effects of genetic polymorphisms and childhood adversity on brain morphologic changes in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Ham, Byung-Joo; Han, Kyu-Man

    2018-03-10

    The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression. Childhood adversity is associated with structural changes in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as white matter tracts such as the corpus callosum, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Childhood adversity showed an interaction with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism, serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR), and FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene rs1360780 in brain morphologic changes in patients with depression and in a non-clinical population. Individuals with the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met and a history of childhood adversity had reduced volume in the hippocampus and its subfields, amygdala, and PFC and thinner rostral ACC in a study of depressed patients and healthy controls. The S allele of 5-HTTLPR combined with exposure to childhood adversity or a poorer parenting environment was associated with a smaller hippocampal volume and subsequent onset of depression. The FKBP5 gene rs160780 had a significant interaction with childhood adversity in the white matter integrity of brain regions involved in emotion processing. This review identified that imaging genetic studies on childhood adversity may deepen our understanding on the neurobiological background of depression by scrutinizing complicated pathways of genetic factors, early psychosocial environments, and the accompanying morphologic changes in emotion-processing neural circuitry. Copyright

  16. Early life adverse experiences and the effect on parenting stress and schizotypal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Hugill, Melanie; Fletcher, Ian; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    A robust amount of research indicates that childhood adverse experiences can have a detrimental impact on later relational experiences and mental health as an adult. Adverse childhood experiences, such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA), or other interpersonal traumas can affect the formation of secure attachments to caregivers. These insecure attachment styles persist into adulthood, affecting all subsequent relationships including that between parent and child. This thesis firstly examines the...

  17. Modeling risks: effects of area deprivation, family socio-economic disadvantage and adverse life events on young children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2010-06-01

    The effects of contextual risk on young children's behavior are not appropriately modeled. To model the effects of area and family contextual risk on young children's psychopathology. The final study sample consisted of 4,618 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) children, who were 3 years old, clustered in lower layer super output areas in nine strata in the UK. Contextual risk was measured by socio-economic disadvantage (SED) at both area and family level, and by distal and proximal adverse life events at family level. Multivariate response multilevel models that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level, and univariate multilevel models estimated the effect of contextual risk on specific and broad psychopathology measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The area SED/broad psychopathology association remained significant after family SED was controlled, but not after maternal qualifications and family adverse life events were added to the model. Adverse life events predicted psychopathology in all models. Family SED did not predict emotional symptoms or hyperactivity after child characteristics were added to the model with the family-level controls. Area-level SED predicts child psychopathology via family characteristics; family-level SED predicts psychopathology largely by its impact on development; and adverse life events predict psychopathology independently of earlier adversity, SED and child characteristics, as well as maternal psychopathology, parenting and education.

  18. Knowledge synthesis of benefits and adverse effects of measles vaccination: the Lasbela balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledogar, Robert J; Fleming, John; Andersson, Neil

    2009-10-14

    In preparation for a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to increase the demand for measles vaccination in Lasbela district of Pakistan, a balance sheet summarized published evidence on benefits and possible adverse effects of measles vaccination. The balance sheet listed: 1) major health conditions associated with measles; 2) the risk among the unvaccinated who contract measles; 3) the risk among the vaccinated; 4) the risk difference between vaccinated and unvaccinated; and 5) the likely net gain from vaccination for each condition. Two models revealed very different projections of net gain from measles vaccine. A Lasbela-specific combination of low period prevalence of measles among the unvaccinated, medium vaccination coverage and low vaccine efficacy rate, as revealed by the baseline survey, resulted in less-than-expected gains attributable to vaccination. Modelled on estimates where the vaccine had greater efficacy, the gains from vaccination would be more substantial. Specific local conditions probably explain the low rates among the unvaccinated while the high vaccine failure rate is likely due to weaknesses in the vaccination delivery system. Community perception of these realities may have had some role in household decisions about whether to vaccinate, although the major discouraging factor was inadequate access. The balance sheet may be useful as a communication tool in other circumstances, applied to up-to-date local evidence.

  19. Can α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation reduce adverse radiation effects on salivary glands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funegaard, U.; Johansson, I.; Ericson, T.; Malmer, B.; Henriksson, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether supplementation with antioxidant vitamins can reduce the adverse effects of irradiation on the salivary glands in the rat. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given a basic diet providing 0.6 mg α-tocopherol and no β-carotene per day. In two groups the basic diet was supplemented with 3.4 mg α-tocopherol and 6 mg β-carotene per day from 14 days before irradiation until 12 days after complete irradiation. One group of rats given basic diet and one group given supplemented diet were irradiated with 7 Gy daily for five consecutive days. Isoproterenol and pilocarpine-stimulated whole saliva was collected from all rats 2, 4 and 26 weeks after irradiation. Vitamin-supplemented irradiated rats had higher secretion rates on all three occasions compared with those of irradiated rats given basic diet. The changes in saliva composition seen in irradiated rats were less accentuated in vitamin-supplemented, irradiated rats. The proportions of acinar cells were significantly decreased both in parotid and submandibular glands 26 weeks after irradiation. Supplementation with α-tocopherol and β-carotene did not alter the morphology of the glands. (author)

  20. [Prevention of adverse effects in latex allergic patients: organizing a latex safe operating theatre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonalumi, Sabrina; Barbonaglia, Patrizia; Bertocchi, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    In 2001 the General Health Direction of Region Lombardia approved (decree n. 22303) a guideline for the prevention of latex allergic reactions in patients and health care workers. This document provides general recommendations in order to standardize behaviors in regional health care facilities. The reason is due to a rise in the incident of reactions to latex products in the last 20 years. Nowadays the prevalence is higher in certain risk groups (subjected to frequent and repeated exposures) rather than the general population. The aim of the project was to organize a latex safe operating theatre in the Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena of Milan (Fondazione) and to standardize behaviors in order to prevent adverse effects in latex allergic patients. Thanks to the literature review and the creation of a multidisciplinar team, we produced a protocol. Therefore, we requested manufacturers the certification of the latex content of their products. Results and conclusion. When latex allergic patients need to undergone surgery in our hospital, a latex safe operating theatre is organized by personnel following a multidisciplinar protocol. No allergic reactions were experienced during surgical procedures after the creation of an environment as free as possible from latex contamination. The project will involve an emergency room, one room or more of a ward and of the outpatients department.

  1. Adverse respiratory effects associated with cadmium exposure in small-scale jewellery workshops in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Subhabrata; Blanc, Paul D; Sahu, Subhashis

    2013-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important metal with both common occupational and environmental sources of exposure. Although it is likely to cause adverse respiratory effects, relevant human data are relatively sparse. A cross-sectional study of 133 workers in jewellery workshops using Cd under poor hygienic conditions and 54 referent jewellery sales staffs was performed. We assessed symptoms, performed spirometry, measured urinary Cd levels in all study subjects and quantified airborne total oxidant contents for 35 job areas in which the studied workforce was employed. We tested the association of symptoms with exposure relative to the unexposed referents using logistic regression analysis, and tested the association between urinary Cd levels and lung function using multiple regression analysis, adjusting for demographics, smoking and area-level airborne oxidants. Exposed workers had 10 times higher urinary Cd values than referents (geometric mean 5.8 vs 0.41 µg/dl; p600 ml decrement for each, pdecrement in FVC and a 39 ml decrement in FEV1 (p<0.01), taking into account other covariates including workplace airborne oxidant concentrations. This cohort of heavily exposed jewellery workers experienced frequent respiratory symptoms and manifested a marked deficit in lung function, demonstrating a strong response to Cd exposure.

  2. Does partial expander deflation exacerbate the adverse effects of radiotherapy in two-stage breast reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celet Ozden, Burcu; Guven, Erdem; Aslay, Isik; Kemikler, Gonul; Olgac, Vakur; Soluk Tekkesin, Merva; Serarslan, Bengul; Tumerdem Ulug, Burcak; Bilgin Karabulut, Aylin; Arinci, Atilla; Emekli, Ufuk

    2012-02-20

    The optimum protocol for expander volume adjustment with respect to the timing and application of radiotherapy remains controversial. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. Metallic port integrated anatomic breast expanders of 250 cc were implanted on the back of each animal and controlled expansion was performed. Group I underwent radiotherapy with full expanders while in Group II, expanders were partially deflated immediately prior to radiotherapy. Control group did not receive radiotherapy.The changes in blood flow at different volume adjustments were investigated in Group II by laser Doppler flowmetry. Variations in the histopathologic properties of the irradiated tissues including the skin, capsule and the pocket floor, were compared in the biopsy specimens taken from different locations in each group. A significant increase in skin blood flow was detected in Group II with partial expander deflation. Overall, histopathologic exam revealed aggravated findings of chronic radiodermatitis (epidermal atrophy, dermal inflammation and fibrosis, neovascularisation and vascular changes as well as increased capsule thickness) especially around the lower expander pole, in Group II. Expander deflation immediately prior to radiotherapy, may augment the adverse effects, especially in the lower expander pole, possibly via enhanced radiosensitization due to a relative increase in the blood flow and tissue oxygenation.

  3. Avoiding adverse employment effects from electricity taxation in Norway: What does it cost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjertnaes, Geir H.

    2011-01-01

    Welfare analyses of energy taxes typically show that systems with uniform rates perform better than differentiated systems. However, most western countries include some exemptions for their energy-intensive export industries and thereby avoid this potential welfare gain. find that uniform taxation of carbon emissions in combination with a wage subsidy preserves jobs in these industries at a lower welfare cost compared with a differentiated system. The wage subsidy scheme generates a substantial welfare gain per job saved. This study, however, finds that welfare costs are substantial when less accurate policy measures, represented by production-dependent subsidies, protect jobs in Norwegian electricity-intensive industries. The welfare cost per job preserved by this subsidy scheme amounts to approximately 60% of the wage cost per job, suggesting that these jobs are expensive to preserve. A uniform electricity tax combined with production-dependent subsidies preserves jobs at a lower welfare cost compared with the current differentiated electricity tax system. - Highlights: → Avoiding adverse employment effects from electricity taxation is costly in Norway. → Uniform Norwegian electricity tax with job-preserving subsidies improves welfare. → The welfare cost of Norwegian job-saving subsidies amounts to 60% of the wage.

  4. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

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    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  5. Does partial expander deflation exacerbate the adverse effects of radiotherapy in two-stage breast reconstruction?

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    Celet Ozden Burcu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimum protocol for expander volume adjustment with respect to the timing and application of radiotherapy remains controversial. Methods Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. Metallic port integrated anatomic breast expanders of 250 cc were implanted on the back of each animal and controlled expansion was performed. Group I underwent radiotherapy with full expanders while in Group II, expanders were partially deflated immediately prior to radiotherapy. Control group did not receive radiotherapy. The changes in blood flow at different volume adjustments were investigated in Group II by laser Doppler flowmetry. Variations in the histopathologic properties of the irradiated tissues including the skin, capsule and the pocket floor, were compared in the biopsy specimens taken from different locations in each group. Results A significant increase in skin blood flow was detected in Group II with partial expander deflation. Overall, histopathologic exam revealed aggravated findings of chronic radiodermatitis (epidermal atrophy, dermal inflammation and fibrosis, neovascularisation and vascular changes as well as increased capsule thickness especially around the lower expander pole, in Group II. Conclusions Expander deflation immediately prior to radiotherapy, may augment the adverse effects, especially in the lower expander pole, possibly via enhanced radiosensitization due to a relative increase in the blood flow and tissue oxygenation.

  6. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol as an antagonist of adverse corticosteroid effects on phosphate and calcium metabolism in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, R; Vattimo, A; Turchetti, V; Righi, G

    1984-10-01

    The present study was performed in 30 patients who needed steroid therapy: courses of triamcinolone or DTM 8-15 given orally lasted 30 days. In 15 of these patients glucoactive corticosteroids were administered in combination with 5 micrograms/day of 25OH-vitamin D3 (25OHD3). 47Calcium oral test and 99mTc-MDP kinetics, as an index of bone turnover, were performed at the beginning of the therapy and after 30 days. At the end of treatment a significant improvement of intestinal radiocalcium transport together with a decrease in bone turnover in the group of patients treated with 25OHD3 was observed. As it concerns plasma calcium level, inorganic phosphate, the urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate and hydroxyproline no significant difference between the two groups examined were noticed. These results indicate that the adverse effects of glucoactive corticosteroids on intestinal calcium transport and bone turnover may be counteracted by the combined administration of physiological doses of 25OHD3.

  7. Cytogenetic risks and possible adverse health effects by narcotic substances dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movafagh, Abolfazl; Haeri, Ali; Kolahi, Ali Asghar; Hassani-Moghadam, Hossein

    2012-09-01

    Illicit drug abuse has crossed social, economic, and geographical borders, and remains one of the major health problems that modern society is facing worldwide. The role of multiple drug abuse as a basic for chromosome damage has been overlooked and it is important to determine its possible adverse health effects. This study aimed to compare the frequency of chromosomal damages between drug addicts and free drug controls. Cytogenetic study was obtained from 146 illicit drug-users and 200 free drug controls. Subjects were grouped into three categories depending on main drug of dependence. Cytogenetic studies on cultured lymphocytes showed an increase the frequency of chromosomal damages among addicts including opiate (5.89%), heroin (7.65%), and crystal (4.9%) when compared with drug free controls (1.45%). The frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was breaks, gaps, marker, and acentric, respectively. Our findings are also important as they are among the first to suggest here, illicit drug addiction continue to be significant public health problems in Iran.

  8. [Adverse side effects of antiretroviral therapy: relationship between patients' perception and adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Teresa; del Cacho, Elena; López, Ester; Codina, Carles; Tuset, Montserrat; de Lazzari, Elisa; Miró, Josep M; Gatell, Josep M; Ribas, Josep

    2007-06-23

    To evaluate the relationship between perceived adverse side effects (AE) and non-adherence associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). For 6 consecutive months, patients taking HAART who came to the Pharmacy Department were interviewed. In the questionnaire they had to answer if they had experienced any AE over the past 6 months, what did they do in response to AE and what was the clinical evolution. Adherence was measured by pill counts or by pharmacy records (when pill counts were not possible). Of 1,936 interviewed patients, 661 (34.1%) reported AE over the past 6 months. The type of antiretroviral drug regimen and starting, re-starting or changing HAART over the past 6 months were significantly associated with AE. Patients who reported AE were 1.4 times more likely to be non-adherents. The most frequently reported AE were diarrhea followed by central nervous system abnormalities and by other gastrointestinal disturbances. In patients starting HAART, 62% of AE improved or disappeared during the first 4 weeks of therapy. Patients who report AE have worst adherence. AE are more frequent in patients starting HAART but in most cases they improve with time and/or symptomatic therapy.

  9. Alkaloids in the human food chain--natural occurrence and possible adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Soffers, Ans E M F; Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their bioactivation to reactive alkylating intermediates. Several quinolizidine alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, ergot alkaloids and steroid alkaloids are active without bioactivation and mostly act as neurotoxins. Regulatory agencies are aware of the risks and have taken or are considering appropriate regulatory actions for most alkaloids. These vary from setting limits for the presence of a compound in feed, foods and beverages, trying to define safe upper limits, advising on a strategy aiming at restrictions in use, informing the public to be cautious or taking specific plant varieties from the market. For some alkaloids known to be present in the modern food chain, e.g., piperine, nicotine, theobromine, theophylline and tropane alkaloids risks coming from the human food chain are considered to be low if not negligible. Remarkably, for many alkaloids that are known constituents of the modern food chain and of possible concern, tolerable daily intake values have so far not been defined. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills.Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea.It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  11. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

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    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  12. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

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    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  13. Adverse effects of salivary contamination for adhesives in restorative dentistry. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pooja; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2017-06-01

    To review and critically analyze the literature concerning the influence of salivary contamination on the bond quality of adhesives used in restorative materials by comparing and contrasting the different adhesive materials. A detailed search on PUBMED, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and Web of Science was carried out to identify publications on salivary contamination and dental adhesive materials, from 1990-2017 (March) which resulted in a total of 6,202 web-identified publications. After screening titles/abstracts and de-duplicating, 54 publications were selected that matched the requirements for this review. The condition for selection was English literature concerning the effect of salivary contamination on the adhesives used in restorative dentistry. The obtained articles were systematically evaluated. Salivary contamination of adhesives during restorative procedures statistically (64.6%) showed an adverse effect on adhesives, occurring either at one or many stages of restoration. Methodological dissimilarities impeded the direct comparison of the selected studies. Nevertheless, the 2-step etch and rinse adhesives were relatively less vulnerable to salivary contamination than the others. 65% of the evaluated studies for decontamination achieved improved bonding when the contaminated surface was subjected to some kind of decontamination procedure. However, the duration and other specificities were not standard in all the evaluations and need further research to assess the course of action. It is necessary to do long term studies to evaluate the effectiveness of contaminated adhesive over time. Salivary contamination is a potential cause for poor bond quality of adhesive systems during restorative procedures and to provide a successful treatment, proper care must be taken to ensure the operating area is free from contamination. Understanding the properties of the materials and its constituents as well as considering measures to manage the potential

  14. Dose-dependent adverse effects of salinomycin on male reproductive organs and fertility in mice.

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    Olajumoke Omolara Ojo

    steroidogenesis. Spermatogenesis was however observed in testis 28 days after Salinomycin withdrawal. The results indicate reversible dose-dependent adverse effects of Salinomycin on male reproductive system of mice.

  15. Comparative evaluation of adverse effects in the use of powder trivalent antivenom and liquid antivenoms in Bothrops snake bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran Mendonça da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Snake bite, a problem in public health, generally occurs where there is no electric power. METHODS: A comparative clinical study was conducted with 102 victims of Bothrops snake bite, from the state of Amazonas, Brazil; 58 victims were treated with liofilizated trivalent antivenom serum (SATL and 44 victims treated with liquid bivalent and monovalent antivenom serum (SAMBL. RESULTS: 17% (10/58 of patients presented adverse effects with the SATL and 25% (11/44 with the SAMBL. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistic difference in number of adverse effects between the two types of snake bite antivenom.

  16. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    silica (Permissible Exposure Limit [PEL] 0.05 mg/m3) but more toxic than the nuisance dust titanium dioxide (TiO2 [PEL 5.0 mg/m3]). A PEL for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during a six-month stay on the lunar surface was established, in consultation with an independent, extramural panel of expert pulmonary toxicologists, at 0.3 mg/m3. The PEL provided for lunar dust is limited to the conditions and exposure specified therefore additional research remains to be accomplished with lunar dust to further address the issues of activation, address other areas of more unique lunar geology (Glotch et al., 2010; Greenhagen et al., 2010), examine potential toxicological effects of inhaled or ingested dust upon other organ systems, such cardiovascular, nervous systems, and examine effects of acute exposure to massive doses of dust such as may occur during off-nominal situations. Work to support the establishment of PELs for Martian dust and dusts of asteroids remains to be accomplished. The literature that describes health effects of exposure to toxic terrestrial dusts provides substantial basis for concern that prolonged exposure to respirable celestial dust could be detrimental to human health. Celestial bodies where a substantial portion of the dust is in the respirable range or where the dusts have large reactive surface areas or contain transition metals or volatile organics, represent greater risks of adverse effects from exposure to the dust. It is possible that in addition to adverse effects to the respiratory system, inhalation and ingestion of celestial dusts could pose risks to other systems

  17. The adverse effects of high fat induced obesity on female reproductive cycle and hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha Reddy

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for abnormal reproductive cycle and tissue damage in female mice. It leads to earlier puberty, menarche in young females and infertility. There are extensive range of consequences of obesity which includes type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Obesity is the interaction between dietary intake, genes, life style and environment. The interplay of hormones estrogen, insulin, and leptin is well known on energy homeostasis and reproduction. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of high fat induced obesity on reproductive cycles and its hormonal abnormalities on mice model. Two week, 3 month and 8 month long normal (WT) and very high fat diet (VHFD) diet course is followed. When mice are fed with very high fat diet, there is a drastic increase in weight within the first week later. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in leptin levels in 6 month VHFD treated animals. 2 week, 3 month and 6 month time interval pap smear test results showed number of cells, length of estrous cycle and phases of the estrous cycle changes with VHFD mice(n=30) compared to normal diet mice(n=10). These results also indicate that the changes in the reproductive cycles in VHFD treated female mice could be due to the changes in hormones. Histo-pathological analyses of kidney, ovary, liver, pancreas, heart and lungs showed remarkable changes in some tissue on exposure to very high fat. Highly deposited fat packets observed surrounding the hepatocytes and nerve cells.

  18. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavarapu, Keerthana; Kang, Mitchell; Shin, Jaewook James; Rothstein, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects.

  19. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthana Kesavarapu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects.

  20. Clinical effect of systemic chemotherapy combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in treatment of breast cancer with liver metastases

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    LI Liye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effect of systemic chemotherapy combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE in the treatment of breast cancer with liver metastases. MethodsA total of 86 female breast cancer patients with liver metastases who were treated in the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences from December 2012 to December 2014 were selected and equally divided into experimental group and control group. The patients in the control group received systemic chemotherapy, and those in the experimental group received systemic chemotherapy combined with TACE. The clinical effect, changes in lesions, and patients′ quality of life (QOL scores after treatment were compared between two groups. The t-test was applied for comparison of continuous data between the two groups, and the chi-square test was applied for comparison of categorical data between the two groups. ResultsThe experimental group had a significantly higher overall response rate than the control group (90.70% vs 58.14%, χ2=13.07, P=0.001. Compared with the control group, the experimental group had significantly smaller diameters of tumors and lymph nodes after treatment (t=4.26 and 4.63, both P<0.001, as well as significantly higher QOL scores at 3 and 6 months after treatment (t=6.30 and 3.89, both P<0001. ConclusionSystemic chemotherapy combined with TACE has a significant therapeutic effect in breast cancer patients with liver metastases, and can improve patients′ symptoms, reduce adverse drug reactions, and improve QOL. As a safe and reliable therapeutic method, it is worthy of clinical application.

  1. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND ADVERSE EVENTS OF THEIR APPLICATION

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    Nina Đukanović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds originating from testosterone. Their main effects are the control of development and expression of male secondary sexual characteristics, which are known as androgenic effects, and encourage muscle growth or anabolic effects. Anabolic androgenic steroids are most commonly used illegal substances. Besides these physiological effects, which are achieved using therapeutic doses of these preparations, higher doses than recommended, especially over the longer term, may be associated with the emergence of numerous adverse events. Adverse events may be registered in almost all organs and organ systems, but usually include changes in the reproductive system, skin, liver and cardiovascular system.

  2. Effects of antiretroviral agents during pregnancy on liver enzymes and amylase in HIV-exposed, uninfected newborn infants

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    Patrícia El Beitune

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of antiretroviral drugs administered to pregnant women on amylase and liver enzymes of the neonate. A prospective study was conducted on 52 neonates divided into three groups: infants born to HIV-infected mothers taking zidovudine (ZDV group, n = 18, infants born to mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (TT group, n = 22 and infants born to normal women (control group, n = 12. Umbilical cord blood from the newborn infant was used to determine liver transaminases and amylase. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric tests, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The median levels for TT group newborns were 33.3 U/L for oxaloacetic transaminase, 21.5 U/L for pyruvic transaminase, 1.9 mg/dL for total bilirubin, 153 mg/dL for alkaline phosphatase, and 9.6 U/L for amylase. These results did not differ from those obtained for Control newborns or newborns exposed to ZDV alone. No association was observed between the use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and adverse effects on neonatal amylase and hepatic parameters at birth.

  3. Effect of taurine on attenuating chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion our results indicated that taurine supplementation could be a protection against chemotherapy-induced toxicities probably by its antioxidant capacity. Present study showed effectiveness of taurineon the chemotherapy-related toxicities and some of the complications during the maintenance period of treatment following coadministration in young adults with ALL.

  4. Methyleugenol hepatocellular cancer initiating