WorldWideScience

Sample records for live bird markets

  1. Environmental sampling for avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets, Indonesia.

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    Indriani, Risa; Samaan, Gina; Gultom, Anita; Loth, Leo; Irianti, Sri; Indryani, Sri; Adjid, Rma; Dharmayanti, Ni Luh Putu Indi; Weaver, John; Mumford, Elizabeth; Lokuge, Kamalini; Kelly, Paul M; Darminto

    2010-12-01

    To identify environmental sites commonly contaminated by avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets in Indonesia, we investigated 83 markets in 3 provinces in Indonesia. At each market, samples were collected from up to 27 poultry-related sites to assess the extent of contamination. Samples were tested by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and virus isolation. A questionnaire was used to ascertain types of birds in the market, general infrastructure, and work practices. Thirty-nine (47%) markets showed contamination with avian influenza virus in ≥ 1 of the sites sampled. Risk factors were slaughtering birds in the market and being located in West Java province. Protective factors included daily removal of waste and zoning that segregated poultry-related work flow areas. These results can aid in the design of evidence-based programs concerning environmental sanitation, food safety, and surveillance to reduce the risk for avian influenza virus A (H5N1) transmission in live-bird markets.

  2. Critical control points for avian influenza A H5N1 in live bird markets in low resource settings.

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    Samaan, Gina; Gultom, Anita; Indriani, Risa; Lokuge, Kamalini; Kelly, Paul M

    2011-06-01

    Live bird markets can become contaminated with and become a source of transmission for avian influenza viruses including the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain. Many countries affected by the H5N1-virus have limited resources for programs in environmental health, sanitation and disease control in live bird markets. This study proposes five critical control points (CCPs) to reduce the risk of H5N1-virus contamination in markets in low resource settings. The CCPs were developed based on three surveys conducted in Indonesia: a cross-sectional survey in 119 markets, a knowledge, attitudes and practice survey in 3 markets and a microbiological survey in 83 markets. These surveys assessed poultry workflow, market infrastructure, hygiene and regulatory practices and microbiological contamination with the H5N1-virus. The five CCPs identified were (1) reducing risk of receiving infected birds into the market, (2) reducing the risk of virus spread between different bird flocks in holding cages, (3) reducing surface contamination by isolating slaughter processes from other poultry-related processes, (4) minimizing the potential for contamination during evisceration of carcasses and (5) reducing the risk of surface contamination in the sale zone of the market. To be relevant for low resource settings, the CCPs do not necessitate large infrastructure changes. The CCPs are suited for markets that slaughter poultry and have capacity for daily disposal and removal of solid waste from the market. However, it is envisaged that the CCPs can be adapted for the development of risk-based programs in various settings.

  3. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China

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    Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling; Castellan, David; Liu, Hualei; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV), designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261), was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM) from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3’-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5’. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China. PMID:27391305

  4. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China.

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    Wang, Jingjing; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling; Castellan, David; Liu, Hualei; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV), designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261), was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM) from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China.

  5. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China.

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    Jingjing Wang

    Full Text Available One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV, designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261, was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China.

  6. Observations from a live bird market in Indonesia following a contained outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1).

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    Naysmith, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Live bird markets are considered high-risk environments facilitating viral transfer and replication of influenza A H5N1. In Indonesia, these markets have been the source for multiple human infections of H5N1 resulting in death, and thus have been the focus of government-led interventions. This paper examines the aftermath of an intervention in one market in Bali, Indonesia. It highlights the social and economic factors influencing the adoption of risk prevention behaviour and concludes by arguing for further qualitative research to understand why at-risk individuals fail to adopt biosecurity measures, even after recently experiencing an outbreak of avian influenza.

  7. Evaluating a surveillance system: live-bird market surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza, a case study.

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    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ike; Kabir, Junaidu; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Tseggai, Tesfai; Joannis, Tony; Okewole, Phillip; Kumbish, Peterside; Ahmed, Mohammed; Lombin, Lami; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was first reported in poultry in Nigeria in February 2006. The only human case that occurred was linked to contact with poultry in a live bird market (LBM). LBM surveillance was instituted to assess the degree of threat of human exposure to H5N1. The key indicator was detection of H5N1 in LBMs. We evaluated the surveillance system to assess its operations and attributes. We used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. We reviewed and analyzed passive surveillance data for HPAI (January 2006-March 2009) from the Avian Influenza National Reference Laboratory, and live bird market surveillance data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nigeria. We interviewed key stakeholders and reviewed reports of live bird market surveillance to obtain additional information on the operations of the system. We assessed the key system attributes. A total of 299 cases occurred in 25 (72%) states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The system detected HPAI H5N1 virus in 7 (9.5%) LBMs; 2 (29%) of which were from 2 (18.2%) states with no previous case. A total of 17,852 (91.5%) of samples arrived at the laboratory within 24 hours but laboratory analysis took over 7 days. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. The system is useful, flexible, complex and not timely, but appears to be meeting its objectives. The isolation of HPAI H5N1 virus in some of these markets is an indication that the markets are possible reservoirs of the virus in Nigeria. We recommend that the Federal Government of Nigeria should dedicate more funds for surveillance for HPAI as this will aid early warning and reduce the risk of a pandemic.

  8. Exchange of Newcastle disease viruses in Korea: the relatedness of isolates between wild birds, live bird markets, poultry farms and neighboring countries.

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    Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Myeong-Seob; Jang, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Yu-Na; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2012-03-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has a worldwide distribution and is often carried by wild ducks, which may represent one of the natural reservoirs. However, the epidemiological relatedness of NDV between wild ducks and domestic poultry is unclear. A total of 14 isolates were obtained from 8439 samples from live bird markets (LBMs) and wild bird populations in Korea during from 2007 to 2010. These isolates were characterized genetically and phylogenetic analysis was conducted to investigate the relatedness between isolates from wild birds, LBM and poultry farms. In phylogenetic analysis, all 14 isolates belonged to genotype I virus within class II. Of these, nine isolates from wild birds were most closely related to the Aomori-like cluster. The five LBM isolates were most closely related to the V4-like cluster. All isolates in this study were closely related to isolates from domestic duck farms in Korea and Chinese LBM isolates. The results indicate that NDV exchange occurs between wild birds, poultry farms, LBMs and neighboring countries. Enhanced NDV surveillance is required to monitor the introduction of variant NDV in consequence of evolution in LBMs and to investigate NDV epidemiology in various species of putative hosts.

  9. A Stakeholder Survey on Live Bird Market Closures Policy for Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

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    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Thuy; Fearnley, Lyle; Dinh, Xuan Tung; Tran, Thi Tram Anh; Tran, Trong Tung; Nguyen, Van Trong; Tago, Damian; Padungtod, Pawin; Newman, Scott H; Tripodi, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research in Vietnam and elsewhere has shown that live bird markets (LBMs) play a significant role in the ecology and zoonotic transmission of avian influenzas (AIs) including H5N1 and H7N9. Vietnam has a large number of LBMs reflecting the consumer preferences for live poultry. Under pressure to mitigate risks for H7N9 and other zoonotic AIs, Vietnam is considering, among other mitigation measures, temporary closures of LBMs as a policy to reduce risk of AI outbreaks. However, the efficacy of market closure is debated, particularly because little is known about how poultry traders may react, and whether trading may emerge outside formal marketplaces. Combining efforts of anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and veterinarians can be useful to elucidate the drivers behind poultry traders' reactions and better understanding the barriers to implementing risk mitigation measures. In this paper, we present results from a stakeholder survey of LBM stakeholders in Vietnam. Our qualitative data show that trading outside formal markets is very likely to occur in the event of a temporary LBM market closure. Our data show that the poultry value chain in Vietnam remains highly flexible, with traders willing and able to trade poultry in many possible locations. Our results indicate that simplification of the poultry value chain along with strict enforcement, engagement of stakeholders, and adequate communication would be a necessary prerequisite before market closure could be an effective policy.

  10. A Stakeholder Survey on Live Bird Market Closures Policy for Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam

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    Thi Thanh Thuy Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research in Vietnam and elsewhere has shown that live bird markets (LBMs play a significant role in the ecology and zoonotic transmission of avian influenzas (AIs including H5N1 and H7N9. Vietnam has a large number of LBMs reflecting the consumer preferences for live poultry. Under pressure to mitigate risks for H7N9 and other zoonotic AIs, Vietnam is considering, among other mitigation measures, temporary closures of LBMs as a policy to reduce risk of AI outbreaks. However, the efficacy of market closure is debated, particularly because little is known about how poultry traders may react, and whether trading may emerge outside formal marketplaces. Combining efforts of anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and veterinarians can be useful to elucidate the drivers behind poultry traders’ reactions and better understanding the barriers to implementing risk mitigation measures. In this paper, we present results from a stakeholder survey of LBM stakeholders in Vietnam. Our qualitative data show that trading outside formal markets is very likely to occur in the event of a temporary LBM market closure. Our data show that the poultry value chain in Vietnam remains highly flexible, with traders willing and able to trade poultry in many possible locations. Our results indicate that simplification of the poultry value chain along with strict enforcement, engagement of stakeholders, and adequate communication would be a necessary prerequisite before market closure could be an effective policy.

  11. Social network analysis of the movement of poultry to and from live bird markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

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    Kurscheid, J; Stevenson, M; Durr, P A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Kurscheid, S; Ambarawati, I G A A; Abdurrahman, M; Fenwick, S

    2017-02-04

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has resulted in large losses to the Indonesian poultry sector. Evidence suggests that live bird markets (LBMs) play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Knowledge of the frequency and type of contact between the various poultry market players should allow animal health authorities to develop a better understanding of factors influencing virus transmission between Indonesian villages. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 17 LBMs on the neighbouring Indonesian islands of Bali and Lombok to investigate the movement patterns of poultry to and from markets. Using social network analyses, a network of contacts was created for each island from a total of 413 live poultry traders and 134 customers. Individual nodes with high degree and/or betweenness were identified in each network. The Lombok network was more dense and connected than the Bali network indicating that disease transmission would be more efficient in the Lombok network. Our findings indicate that whilst live poultry are typically transported over relatively short distances of approximately 10 km, it is not uncommon for traders and customers to travel in excess of 100 km to buy or sell poultry, which may facilitate the spread of disease over a large geographical area. This study highlights the different roles markets play in poultry movement networks and their potential for disease dissemination. The identification of highly influential market nodes allows authorities to target HPAI surveillance activities to locations where disease is more likely to be present, which is crucial in low-resource settings. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Predictors for Risk Factors for Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Poultry Handlers in Live bird markets in Uganda.

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    Kirunda, H; Mugimba, K K; Erima, B; Mimbe, D; Byarugaba, D K; Wabwire-Mangen, F

    2015-08-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) are essential for marketing poultry, but have been linked to many outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) and its spread. In Uganda, it has been observed that demographic characteristics of poultry traders/handlers influence activities and decision-making in LBMs. The study investigated the influence of socio-demographic characteristics of poultry handlers: age, sex, religion, educational background, level of income, location of residence and region of operation on 20 potential risk factors for introduction and spread of AI in LBMs. Study sites included 39 LBMs in the four regions of Uganda. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 424 poultry handlers. We observed that background of education was a predictor for slaughter and processing of poultry in open sites. Location of residence was associated with slaughter of poultry from open sites and selling of other livestock species. Region influenced stacking of cages, inadequate cleaning of cages, feeders and drinkers, and provision of dirty feed and water. Specifically, bird handlers with secondary level of education (OR = 12.9, 95% CI: 2.88-57.4, P poultry than their counterparts without formal education. Comparatively, urbanite bird handlers were less likely to share poultry equipment (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.22-0.63, P Poultry handlers in Northern were 3.5 times more likely to practise insufficient cleaning of cages (OR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.52-8.09) compared to those in Central region. We demonstrated that some socio-demographic characteristics of poultry handlers were predictors to risky practices for introduction and spread of AI viruses in LBMs in Uganda. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Immunity-Related Protein Expression and Pathological Lung Damage in Mice Poststimulation with Ambient Particulate Matter from Live Bird Markets.

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    Meng, Kai; Wu, Bo; Gao, Jing; Cai, Yumei; Yao, Meiling; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the adverse health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected from live bird markets and to determine whether biological material in PM accounts for immune-related inflammatory response. Mice were exposed to a single or repeated dose of PM, after which the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, and chemokines in the lungs of infected mice were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histopathological analysis. Results after single and repeated PM stimulation with [Formula: see text] indicated that TLR2 and TLR4 played a dominant role in the inflammatory responses of the lung. Further analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-8, IP-10, and MCP-1 increased significantly, which could eventually contribute to lung injury. Moreover, biological components in PM were critical in mediating immune-related inflammatory responses and should therefore not be overlooked.

  14. High pathogenicity and low genetic evolution of avian paramyxovirus type I (Newcastle disease virus) isolated from live bird markets in Uganda.

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    Byarugaba, Denis K; Mugimba, Kizito K; Omony, John B; Okitwi, Martin; Wanyana, Agnes; Otim, Maxwell O; Kirunda, Halid; Nakavuma, Jessica L; Teillaud, Angélique; Paul, Mathilde C; Ducatez, Mariette F

    2014-10-01

    Newcastle disease is still a serious disease of poultry especially in backyard free-range production systems despite the availability of cross protective vaccines. Healthy-looking poultry from live bird markets have been suspected as a major source of disease spread although limited studies have been conducted to ascertain the presence of the virulent strains in the markets and to understand how they are related to outbreak strains. This study evaluated the occurrence of Newcastle disease virus in samples collected from poultry in live bird markets across Uganda. The isolates were pathoyped using standard methods (mean death time (MDT), intracelebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), and sequencing of the fusion protein cleavage site motif) and also phylogenetically analysed after sequencing of the full fusion and hemagglutin-neuraminidase genes. The isolates were classified into genotypes and subgenotypes based on the full fusion protein gene classification system and compared with other strains in the region and world-wide. Virulent avian paramyxovirus type I (APMV-1) (Newcastle disease virus) was isolated in healthy-looking poultry in live bird markets. The viruses belonged to a new subgenotype, Vd, in genotype V, and clustered together with Tanzania and Kenya strains. They harbored low genetic diversity. The occurrence of virulent AMPV-1 strains in live bird markets may serve as sources of Newcastle disease outbreaks in non-commercial farms.

  15. Genetic characterization of avian influenza subtype H4N6 and H4N9 from live bird market, Thailand

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    Kitikoon Pravina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A one year active surveillance program for influenza A viruses among avian species in a live-bird market (LBM in Bangkok, Thailand was conducted in 2009. Out of 970 samples collected, influenza A virus subtypes H4N6 (n = 2 and H4N9 (n = 1 were isolated from healthy Muscovy ducks. All three viruses were characterized by whole genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis and genetic comparison. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that the viruses clustered in the Eurasian lineage of influenza A viruses. Genetic analysis showed that H4N6 and H4N9 viruses display low pathogenic avian influenza characteristics. The HA cleavage site and receptor binding sites were conserved and resembled to LPAI viruses. This study is the first to report isolation of H4N6 and H4N9 viruses from birds in LBM in Thailand and shows the genetic diversity of the viruses circulating in the LBM. In addition, co-infection of H4N6 and H4N9 in the same Muscovy duck was observed.

  16. Biosecurity and Circulation of Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Live-Bird Markets in Bangladesh, 2012.

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    Biswas, P K; Giasuddin, M; Nath, B K; Islam, M Z; Debnath, N C; Yamage, M

    2015-12-14

    Bangladesh has been considered as one of the five countries endemic with highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1). Live-bird markets (LBMs) in south Asian countries are believed to play important roles in the transmission of HPAI H5N1 and others due to its central location as a hub of the poultry trading. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been promoting improved biosecurity in LBMs in Bangladesh. In 2012, by enrolling 32 large LBMs: 10 with FAO interventions and 22 without assistance, we assessed the virus circulation in the selected LBMs by applying standard procedures to investigate market floors, poultry stall floors, poultry-holding cases and slaughter areas and the overall biosecurity using a questionnaire-based survey. Relative risk (RR) was examined to compare the prevalence of HPAI H5N1 in the intervened and non-intervened LBMs. The measures practised in significantly more of the FAO-intervened LBMs included keeping of slaughter remnants in a closed container; decontamination of poultry vehicles at market place; prevention of crows' access to LBM, market/floor cleaning by market committee; wet cleaning; disinfection of floor/poultry stall after cleaning; and good supply of clean water at market (P < 0.05). Conversely, disposal of slaughter remnants elsewhere at market and dry cleaning were in operation in more of the FAO non-intervened LBMs (P < 0.05). The RR for HPAI H5N1 in the intervened and non-intervened LBMs was 1.1 (95% confidence interval 0.44-2.76), suggesting that the proportion positive of the virus in the two kinds of LBM did not vary significantly (P = 0.413). These observations suggest that the viruses are still maintained at the level of production in farms and circulating in LBMs in Bangladesh regardless of interventions, albeit at lower levels than in other endemic countries.

  17. Live bird markets of Bangladesh: H9N2 viruses and the near absence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza.

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    Nicholas J Negovetich

    Full Text Available Avian influenza surveillance in Bangladesh has been passive, relying on poultry farmers to report suspected outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza. Here, the results of an active surveillance effort focusing on the live-bird markets are presented. Prevalence of influenza infection in the birds of the live bird markets is 23.0%, which is similar to that in poultry markets in other countries. Nearly all of the isolates (94% were of the non-pathogenic H9N2 subtype, but viruses of the H1N2, H1N3, H3N6, H4N2, H5N1, and H10N7 subtypes were also observed. The highly pathogenic H5N1-subtype virus was observed at extremely low prevalence in the surveillance samples (0.08%, and we suggest that the current risk of infection for humans in the retail poultry markets in Bangladesh is negligible. However, the high prevalence of the H9 subtype and its potential for interaction with the highly pathogenic H5N1-subtype, i.e., reassortment and attenuation of host morbidity, highlight the importance of active surveillance of the poultry markets.

  18. Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

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    Johanna Kurscheid

    Full Text Available Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89% with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19-81. The main source of AI information was TV (78%, although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60% and respondents from Bali (43%. More than half (58% of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277 of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214 of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird

  19. Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

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    Kurscheid, Johanna; Millar, Joanne; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ambarawati, I Gusti Agung Ayu; Suadnya, Wayan; Yusuf, Ria Puspa; Fenwick, Stanley; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89%) with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19-81). The main source of AI information was TV (78%), although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60%) and respondents from Bali (43%). More than half (58%) of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277) of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214) of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird deaths

  20. Impact of the implementation of rest days in live bird markets on the dynamics of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza.

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    Fournié, G; Guitian, F J; Mangtani, P; Ghani, A C

    2011-08-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) act as a network 'hub' and potential reservoir of infection for domestic poultry. They may therefore be responsible for sustaining H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus circulation within the poultry sector, and thus a suitable target for implementing control strategies. We developed a stochastic transmission model to understand how market functioning impacts on the transmission dynamics. We then investigated the potential for rest days-periods during which markets are emptied and disinfected-to modulate the dynamics of H5N1 HPAI within the poultry sector using a stochastic meta-population model. Our results suggest that under plausible parameter scenarios, HPAI H5N1 could be sustained silently within LBMs with the time spent by poultry in markets and the frequency of introduction of new susceptible birds' dominant factors determining sustained silent spread. Compared with interventions applied in farms (i.e. stamping out, vaccination), our model shows that frequent rest days are an effective means to reduce HPAI transmission. Furthermore, our model predicts that full market closure would be only slightly more effective than rest days to reduce transmission. Strategies applied within markets could thus help to control transmission of the disease.

  1. Live bird markets characterization and trading network analysis in Mali: Implications for the surveillance and control of avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

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    Molia, Sophie; Boly, Ismaël Ardho; Duboz, Raphaël; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Guitian, Javier; Grosbois, Vladimir; Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2016-03-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) play an important role in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in poultry. Our study had two objectives: (1) characterizing LBMs in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of AI and ND, and (2) identifying which LBMs should be targeted for surveillance and control based on properties of the live poultry trade network. Two surveys were conducted in 2009-2010: a descriptive study in all 96 LBMs of an area encompassing approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population and a network analysis study in Sikasso county, the main poultry supplying county for the capital city Bamako. Regarding LBMs' characteristics, risk factors for the presence of AI and ND viruses (being open every day, more than 2 days before a bird is sold, absence of zoning to segregate poultry-related work flow areas, waste removal or cleaning and disinfecting less frequently than on a daily basis, trash disposal of dead birds and absence of manure processing) were present in 80-100% of the LBMs. Furthermore, LBMs tended to have wide catchment areas because of consumers' preference for village poultry meat, thereby involving a large number of villages in their supply chain. In the poultry trade network from/to Sikasso county, 182 traders were involved and 685 links were recorded among 159 locations. The network had a heterogeneous degree distribution and four hubs were identified based on measures of in-degrees, out-degrees and betweenness: the markets of Medine and Wayerma and the fairs of Farakala and Niena. These results can be used to design biosecurity-improvement interventions and to optimize the prevention, surveillance and control of transmissible poultry diseases in Malian LBMs. Further studies should investigate potential drivers (seasonality, prices) of the poultry trade network and the acceptability of biosecurity and behavior-change recommendations in the Malian socio-cultural context.

  2. Insight into live bird markets of Bangladesh: an overview of the dynamics of transmission of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jasmine C M; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Hasan, M Kamrul; Akhtar, Sharmin; Walker, David; Seiler, Patrick; Barman, Subrata; Franks, John; Jones-Engel, Lisa; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Kayali, Ghazi; Webster, Robert G

    2017-03-08

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have been recognized as threats to public health in Bangladesh since 2007. Although live bird markets (LBMs) have been implicated in the transmission, dissemination, and circulation of these viruses, an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of avian transmission of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses at the human-animal interface has been lacking. Here we present and evaluate epidemiological findings from active surveillance conducted among poultry in various production sectors in Bangladesh from 2008 to 2016. Overall, the prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in collected samples was 24%. Our data show that AIVs are more prevalent in domestic birds within LBMs (30.4%) than in farms (9.6%). Quail, chickens and ducks showed a high prevalence of AIVs (>20%). The vast majority of AIVs detected (99.7%) have come from apparently healthy birds and poultry drinking water served as a reservoir of AIVs with a prevalence of 32.5% in collected samples. HPAI H5N1 was more frequently detected in ducks while H9N2 was more common in chickens and quail. LBMs, particularly wholesale markets, have become a potential reservoir for various types of AIVs, including HPAI H5N1 and LPAI H9N2. The persistence of AIVs in LBMs is of great concern to public health, and this study highlights the importance of regularly reviewing and implementing infection control procedures as a means of reducing the exposure of the general public to AIVs.Emerging Microbes & Infections (2017) 6, e12; doi:10.1038/emi.2016.142; published online 8 March 2017.

  3. Diversity and evolution of avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets, free-range poultry and wild wetland birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Jun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Wang, Wen; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Yu, Bin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    The wide circulation of novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) highlights the risk of pandemic influenza emergence in China. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of AIVs in different ecological contexts, we surveyed AIVs in live poultry markets (LPMs), free-range poultry and the wetland habitats of wild birds in Zhejiang and Hubei provinces. Notably, LPMs contained the highest frequency of AIV infection, and the greatest number of subtypes (n = 9) and subtype co-infections (n = 14), as well as frequent reassortment, suggesting that they play an active role in fuelling AIV transmission. AIV-positive samples were also identified in wild birds in both provinces and free-range poultry in one sampling site close to a wetland region in Hubei. H9N2, H7N9 and H5N1 were the most commonly sampled subtypes in the LPMs from Zhejiang, whilst H5N6 and H9N2 were the dominant subtypes in the LPMs from Hubei. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole-genome sequences of 43 AIVs revealed that three reassortant H5 subtypes were circulating in LMPs in both geographical regions. Notably, the viruses sampled from the wetland regions and free-range poultry contained complex reassortants, for which the origins of some segments were unclear. Overall, our study highlights the extent of AIV genetic diversity in two highly populated parts of central and south-eastern China, particularly in LPMs, and emphasizes the need for continual surveillance.

  4. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in avian influenza negative birds from live bird markets and backyard and commercial farms in Ivory-Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouakou, A V; Kouakou, V; Kouakou, C; Godji, P; Kouassi, A L; Krou, H A; Langeois, Q; Webby, R J; Ducatez, M F; Couacy-Hymann, E

    2015-10-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two major viral diseases affecting the respiratory tracts of birds and whose impact on African poultry is still poorly known. In the present study we aimed at assessing NDV and IBV prevalences in Ivory-Coast by molecular screening of >22,000 avian swabs by nested PCR and by serology testing of close to 2000 avian sera from 2010 through 2012. The NDV and IBV seroprevalences over the study period reached 22% and 72%, respectively. We found 14.7% pooled swabs positive by PCR for NDV and 14.6% for IBV. Both pathogens are therefore endemic in Ivory-Coast. Economic losses associated with NDV and IBV infections still need to be evaluated. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Highly pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) virus infection among workers at live bird markets, Bangladesh, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Sharifa; Khan, Salah Uddin; Luby, Stephen P; Gurley, Emily S; Abedin, Jaynal; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Rahman, Mustafizur; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z; Veguilla, Vic; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Gillis, Eric; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Bresee, Joseph S; Rahman, Mahmudur; Uyeki, Timothy M; Katz, Jacqueline M; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The risk for influenza A(H5N1) virus infection is unclear among poultry workers in countries where the virus is endemic. To assess H5N1 seroprevalence and seroconversion among workers at live bird markets (LBMs) in Bangladesh, we followed a cohort of workers from 12 LBMs with existing avian influenza surveillance. Serum samples from workers were tested for H5N1 antibodies at the end of the study or when LBM samples first had H5N1 virus-positive test results. Of 404 workers, 9 (2%) were seropositive at baseline. Of 284 workers who completed the study and were seronegative at baseline, 6 (2%) seroconverted (7 cases/100 poultry worker-years). Workers who frequently fed poultry, cleaned feces from pens, cleaned food/water containers, and did not wash hands after touching sick poultry had a 7.6 times higher risk for infection compared with workers who infrequently performed these behaviors. Despite frequent exposure to H5N1 virus, LBM workers showed evidence of only sporadic infection.

  6. Bird on a (live) wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, M.

    2003-09-30

    Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.

  7. Prioritizing live bird markets at risk of avian influenza H5N1 virus contamination for intervention: a simple tool for low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, Gina; Indriani, Risa; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Lokuge, Kamalini; Cook, Alex R; Kelly, Paul M; Adjid, Rma

    2012-12-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) are at risk of contamination with the avian influenza H5N1 virus. There are a number of methods for prioritizing LBMs for intervention to curb the risk of contamination. Selecting a method depends on diagnostic objective and disease prevalence. In a low resource setting, options for prioritization are constricted by the cost of and resources available for tool development and administration, as well as the resources available for intervention. In this setting, tools can be developed using previously collected data on risk factors for contamination, and translated into prediction equations, including decision trees (DTs). DTs are a graphical type of classifier that combine simple questions about the data in an intuitive way. DTs can be used to develop tools tailored to different diagnostic objectives. To demonstrate the utility of this method, risk factor data arising from a previous cross-sectional study in 83 LBMs in Indonesia were used to construct DTs. A DT with high specificity was selected for the initial stage of an LBM intervention campaign in which authorities aim to focus intervention resources on a small set of LBMs that are at near-certain risk of contamination. Another DT with high sensitivity was selected for later stages in an intervention campaign in which authorities aim to detect and prioritize all LBMs with the risk factors for virus contamination. The best specific DT achieved specificity of 77% and the best sensitive DT achieved sensitivity of 90%. The specific DT had two variables: the size of the duck population in the LBM and the human population density in the LBM's district. The sensitive DT had three variables: LBM location, whether solid waste was removed from the LBM daily and whether the LBM was zoned to separate the bird holding, slaughtering and sale areas. High specificity or sensitivity will be preferred by authorities depending on the stage of the intervention campaign. The study demonstrates that simple

  8. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately...

  9. An evaluation of biosecurity compliance levels and assessment of associated risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection of live-bird-markets, Nigeria and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanmi, Olubunmi G; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem U; Oladele-Bukola, Mutiu O; El-Tahawy, Abdelgawad S; Elbestawy, Ahmed R; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2016-12-01

    Live bird market (LBM) is integral component in the perpetuation of HPAI H5N1, while biosecurity is crucial and key to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Biosecurity compliance level and risk factor assessments in 155LBMs was evaluated in Nigeria and Egypt through the administration of a 68-item biosecurity checklist, scored based on the modifications of previous qualitative data, and analysed for degree of compliance. LBMs were scored as "complied with a biosecurity item" if they had good-very good scores (4). All scores were coded and analysed using descriptive statistics and risk or protective factors were determined using univariable and multivariable logistic regression at p≤0.05. Trading of wild birds and other animal in the LBMs (Odd Ratio (OR)=34.90; p=0.01) and claims of hand disinfection after slaughter (OR=31.16; p=0.03) were significant risk factors while mandatory routine disinfection of markets (OR=0.13; p≤0.00), fencing and gates for live bird market (OR=0.02; p≤0.01) and hand washing after slaughter (OR=0.41; p≤0.05) were protective factors for and against the infection of Nigerian and Egyptian LBMs with the HPAI H5N1 virus. Almost all the LBMs complied poorly with most of the variables in the checklist (p≤0.05), but pathways to improved biosecurity in the LBMs existed. We concluded that the LBM operators play a critical role in the disruption of transmission of H5N1 virus infection through improved biosecurity and participatory epidemiology and multidisciplinary approach is needed.

  10. Live Bird Exposure among the General Public, Guangzhou, China, May 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyan Liao

    Full Text Available A novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9 caused a major outbreak in Mainland China in early 2013. Exposure to live poultry was believed to be the major route of infection. There are limited data on how the general public changes their practices regarding live poultry exposure in response to the early outbreak of this novel influenza and the frequency of population exposure to live poultry in different areas of China.This study investigated population exposures to live birds from various sources during the outbreak of H7N9 in Guangzhou city, China in 2013 and compared them with those observed during the 2006 influenza A(H5N1 outbreak. Adults were telephone-interviewed using two-stage sampling, stratified by three residential areas of Guangzhou: urban areas and two semi-rural areas in one of which (Zengcheng A(H7N9 virus was detected in a chicken from wet markets. Logistic regression models were built to describe practices protecting against avian influenza, weighted by age and gender, and then compare these practices across residential areas in 2013 with those from a comparable 2006 survey.Of 1196 respondents, 45% visited wet markets at least daily and 22.0% reported buying live birds from wet markets at least weekly in April-May, 2013, after the H7N9 epidemic was officially declared in late March 2013. Of those buying live birds, 32.3% reported touching birds when buying and 13.7% would slaughter the poultry at home. Although only 10.1% of the respondents reported raising backyard birds, 92.1% of those who did so had physical contact with the birds they raised. Zengcheng respondents were less likely to report buying live birds from wet markets, but more likely to buy from other sources when compared to urban respondents. Compared with the 2006 survey, the prevalence of buying live birds from wet markets, touching when buying and slaughtering birds at home had substantially declined in the 2013 survey.Although population exposures to live poultry

  11. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  12. The United States Regulations of Low Pathogenicity Avian Inlfuenza in the Live Bird Markets%美国活禽市场低致病性禽流感管理办法简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 潘涛; 李印; 宇传华; 孙向东

    2014-01-01

    2012年,美国农业部动植物卫生检验部门以及兽医服务系统联合出台了低致病性禽流感计划,主要针对活禽市场、禽类经销商以及饲养环节进行管理,包括登记制度、进行监测、卫生消毒等。该管理办法值得我们借鉴。%In 2012,Veterinary Services Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service USDA introduced a low pathogen-ic avian inlfuenza prevention and control plan. The plan was concentrated on the control of live bird markets,poultry distributors and production units,including registration,surveillance and disinfection,which is worth learning.

  13. Intense circulation of A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses in Cambodian live-bird markets with serological evidence of sub-clinical human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horm, Srey Viseth; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rith, Sareth; Ly, Sowath; Gambaretti, Juliette; Duong, Veasna; Y, Phalla; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Allal, Lotfi; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Dussart, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-07-20

    Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in poultry and environmental samples was conducted in four live-bird markets in Cambodia from January through November 2013. Through real-time RT-PCR testing, AIVs were detected in 45% of 1048 samples collected throughout the year. Detection rates ranged from 32% and 18% in duck and chicken swabs, respectively, to 75% in carcass wash water samples. Influenza A/H5N1 virus was detected in 79% of samples positive for influenza A virus and 35% of all samples collected. Sequence analysis of full-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/H5N1 viruses, and full-genome analysis of six representative isolates, revealed that the clade 1.1.2 reassortant virus associated with Cambodian human cases during 2013 was the only A/H5N1 virus detected during the year. However, multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of HA and NA genes revealed co-circulation of at least nine low pathogenic AIVs from HA1, HA2, HA3, HA4, HA6, HA7, HA9, HA10 and HA11 subtypes. Four repeated serological surveys were conducted throughout the year in a cohort of 125 poultry workers. Serological testing found an overall prevalence of 4.5% and 1.8% for antibodies to A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Seroconversion rates of 3.7 and 0.9 cases per 1000 person-months participation were detected for A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Peak AIV circulation was associated with the Lunar New Year festival. Knowledge of periods of increased circulation of avian influenza in markets should inform intervention measures such as market cleaning and closures to reduce risk of human infections and emergence of novel AIVs.

  14. Marketing is Dead! Long Live Marketing!

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the lectures included: Why marketing? Citizen, Consumer, Customer (Behavior) Who is the Father of Marketing? Some Antecedents of Marketing When Did Marketing Start? The Contributors of Marketing Where Did Marketing Start? Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization The Role of the Chief Marketing Officer Four Different CEO Views of Marketing Reality – Truth – Challenge (Why Can’t We Make It?) The Strong and Steady Progress of Marketi...

  15. Marketing is Dead! Long Live Marketing!

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the lectures included: Why marketing? Citizen, Consumer, Customer (Behavior) Who is the Father of Marketing? Some Antecedents of Marketing When Did Marketing Start? The Contributors of Marketing Where Did Marketing Start? Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization The Role of the Chief Marketing Officer Four Different CEO Views of Marketing Reality – Truth – Challenge (Why Can’t We Make It?) The Strong and Steady Progress of Marketi...

  16. Assisted living captures profitable market niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarito, K

    1995-05-08

    The $15 billion assisted-living industry has captured a profitable market niche and created a star on Wall Street. Sunrise Retirement Home of Falls Church (Va.), right, is a facility of the nation's largest assisted-living provider.

  17. 贵阳市2010-2013年活禽市场外环境禽流感病毒监测分析%Monitoring and analysis of live bird market external environment of the bird flu virus in Guiyang city from 2010 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞玫; 洪峰; 石作宏; 陆朝国; 陈梅; 喻仙; 杨鋆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of avian influenza virus subtype H5, H7, H9 in live bird market of Guiyang, assessmenting the risk of human avian influenza in Guiyang city. Method To Colecte the Sewage, cage wipe, stool samples of live bird market of Guiyang in 2010,2011,2012 ,2013 years. Detecting the nucleic acid of avian influenza virus FluA, H5, H7, H9.Result To colecte 607,368,468,921 specimens of the outside environment of live bird markets respectively In 2010,2011,2012,2013 years, the number of positive FluA respectively were 179,82,163,82.the positive rate respectively were 29.49%,22.28%,34.83%,8.90%. The positive rate of Sewage, cage wipe, stool were respectively highest,second, lowest. There was statistical significance in the difference of positive rate of specimens of each year each season.The avian influenza virus H7 were not detected in 4 years.Conclusion The avian influenza virus H5 H9 subtype were the predominant pathogens, winter was the high season in detecting of avian influenza virus,there was high risk of human infection with pathogenic avian influenza,the prevention and response of human avian influenza should be done.%目的:了解贵阳市活禽市场外环境禽流感病毒H5、H7、H9亚型污染状况,评估贵阳市市民发生人禽流感的风险。方法2010、2011、2012和2013年在全市活禽宰杀销售市场外环境采集笼具擦拭、粪便和污水标本,用实时荧光定量PCR法检测禽流感病毒FluA、H5、H7、H9核酸。结果2010年采集活禽市场外环境标本607份,FluA阳性179,阳性率为29.49%;2011年采集活禽市场外环境标本368份,FluA阳性82份,阳性率为22.28%;2012年采集活禽市场外环境标本468份,FluA阳性163份,阳性率为34.83%;2013年采集活禽市场外环境标本921份,FluA阳性82份,阳性率为8.90%。3种类型的标本中,污水的阳性率最高,其次是笼具擦拭标本,粪便的阳性率较低;各年各季节间标本

  18. Why do some adult birds skip breeding? A hormonal investigation in a long-lived bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Kriloff, Marion; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

    2011-10-23

    Skipping reproduction is often observed in long-lived organisms, but proximate mechanisms remain poorly understood. Since young and/or very old snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) commonly skip breeding, we tested whether they are physiologically able to breed during the pre-laying stage. To do so, we measured the ability of known-age (11-45 years old) petrels to release luteinizing hormone (LH, a crucial driver for breeding), by injecting exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Although young petrels exhibited low baseline LH levels, they were able to elevate LH levels after a GnRH challenge. Moreover, young and very old petrels showed a stronger decrease in LH levels after the 10 min post-GnRH injection compared with middle-aged petrels. Birds that skipped breeding were as able as breeders to release LH after a GnRH challenge, indicating that they had functional pituitaries. However, the decision to skip reproduction was linked to a strong LH decrease after the 10 min post-GnRH injection. Our result suggests that the youngest and the oldest petrels fail to maintain elevated baseline LH levels, thereby do not initiate reproductive activities. Skipping reproduction in long-lived birds probably results from age-related changes in the dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function.

  19. Investigation of geographic relationship between farmer's market with live birds and human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus based on internet data analysis%利用网络数据分析我国活禽市场与人感染H7N9禽流感病例的地理关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于伟文; 杜鹏程; 陈晨; 卢珊; 阚飙; 杜孝平; 徐建国

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨利用互联网数据分析活禽市场与人感染H7N9禽流感病例之间的地理关系.方法 利用网络大数据的方法,对人感染H7N9禽流感病例附近的活禽市场开展基于地理位置和可及性研究,搜索全部有病例报告地区的活禽市场,分析不同城市间活禽市场密度、人群密度、禽类生产密度等因素.结果 对42个报告病例的地级以上城市10615个活禽市场与病例所在地的距离分析表明,发病例数与常住人口密度、市场数量及其密度呈正相关性;在已报告的13个H7N9禽流感病毒检测阳性活禽市场中,除广东佛山市的3个市场外,其余都在5km内发现病例,表明活禽交易与病例的居住地分布密切相关;共识别出13个病例较集中的热点区域,分布在杭州、深圳等市.结论 H7N9禽流感病毒检测阳性活禽市场所在城市的报告病例数明显高于其他城市,且影响范围多在5km范围内,应重新审视农贸活禽市场在城市中的布局和设置.%Objective Farmer' s markets with live birds (FMLB) are key sites where human infections by influenza A virus subtype H7N9 happened.Approximately 80% cases have exposed to FMLB.This study is to investigate the geographic relationship between FMLB and human cases based on analysis of internet data of their geographic locations.Methods Using big data from internet,we searched all FMLB in the cities where the human cases have been reported,then analyzed geographic relations,and evaluated the possibility of visits of the patients to the FMLB around them.The densities of FMLB,population and live poultries were also analyzed.Results Forty-two cities and 10 615 markets were included in the study.It is indicated that the number of human cases has positive correlations with the population density,the number and density of markets.Except three markets in Foshan,human cases have been reported within 5 km of 10 of 13 markets,which shows that the live bird

  20. Avian H11 influenza virus isolated from domestic poultry in a Colombian live animal market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bluhm, Pedro; Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Cortez, Valerie; Marvin, Shauna A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Osorio, Jorge E

    2016-12-07

    Live animal markets (LAMs) are an essential source of food and trade in Latin American countries; however, they can also serve as 'hotbeds' for the emergence and potential spillover of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Despite extensive knowledge of AIV in Asian LAMs, little is known about the prevalence South American LAMs. To fill this gap in knowledge, active surveillance was carried out at the major LAM in Medellin, Colombia between February and September 2015. During this period, overall prevalence in the market was 2.67% and a North American origin H11N2 AIV most similar to a virus isolated from Chilean shorebirds asymptomatically spread through multiple bird species in the market resulting in 17.0% positivity at peak of infection. Phenotypically, the H11 viruses displayed no known molecular markers associated with increased virulence in birds or mammals, had α2,3-sialic acid binding preference, and caused minimal replication in vitro and little morbidity in vivo. However, the Colombian H11N2 virus replicated and transmitted effectively in chickens explaining the spread throughout the market. Genetic similarity to H11 viruses isolated from North and South American shorebirds suggest that the LAM occurrence may have resulted from a wild bird to domestic poultry spillover event. The ability to spread in domestic poultry as well as potential for human infection by H11 viruses highlight the need for enhanced AIV surveillance in South America in both avian species and humans.

  1. Avian H11 influenza virus isolated from domestic poultry in a Colombian live animal market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bluhm, Pedro; Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Cortez, Valerie; Marvin, Shauna A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Osorio, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Live animal markets (LAMs) are an essential source of food and trade in Latin American countries; however, they can also serve as ‘hotbeds' for the emergence and potential spillover of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Despite extensive knowledge of AIV in Asian LAMs, little is known about the prevalence South American LAMs. To fill this gap in knowledge, active surveillance was carried out at the major LAM in Medellin, Colombia between February and September 2015. During this period, overall prevalence in the market was 2.67% and a North American origin H11N2 AIV most similar to a virus isolated from Chilean shorebirds asymptomatically spread through multiple bird species in the market resulting in 17.0% positivity at peak of infection. Phenotypically, the H11 viruses displayed no known molecular markers associated with increased virulence in birds or mammals, had α2,3-sialic acid binding preference, and caused minimal replication in vitro and little morbidity in vivo. However, the Colombian H11N2 virus replicated and transmitted effectively in chickens explaining the spread throughout the market. Genetic similarity to H11 viruses isolated from North and South American shorebirds suggest that the LAM occurrence may have resulted from a wild bird to domestic poultry spillover event. The ability to spread in domestic poultry as well as potential for human infection by H11 viruses highlight the need for enhanced AIV surveillance in South America in both avian species and humans. PMID:27924808

  2. Hemosporidian parasites of free-living birds in the São Paulo Zoo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Monteiro, Eliana Ferreira; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Katayama, Michele Viana; Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Guida, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz; Simões, Roseli França; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies addressed the diversity of bird Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites. However, a few have been carried out in continental avian hotspot regions such as Brazil, a country with markedly different biomes, including Amazon, Brazilian Savanna, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Pantanal, and Pampas. We present the first study on hemosporidian (Haemosporida) parasites in free-living birds from an Atlantic Forest fragment where more than 80 avian species have been reported. Within this area, the São Paulo Zoo locates, and it is the fourth largest zoo in the world and the largest in Latin America. A total of 133 free-living bird samples representing 12 species were collected in the zoo, with the overall hemosporidian prevalence of 18 % by PCR-based diagnostics. Twenty-four positive PCR signals were reported from four different bird species, including migratory ones. Columba livia, an urban species, considered nowadays a pest in big cities, showed 100 % prevalence of Haemoproteus spp., mainly Haemoproteus columbae. We discuss the epidemiological importance of new parasites introduced by migratory birds in the São Paulo Zoo area and the risk it poses to the captive species, which are natives or exotics. We also warn about the influence these parasites can have on the biodiversity and the structure of host populations by altering the competitive interaction between the free-living and the captive birds.

  3. Causes of morbidity and mortality in free-living birds in an urban environment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenkat, Julia; Krautwald-Junghanns, M-E; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Free-living birds are often presented to veterinarians at rehabilitation centers as well as in private practice. Information about disease processes and causes of death of indigenous free-living birds can aid the clinician in establishing proper treatment and in the assessment of potential zoonotic risks. For the present study, pathogens as causes of morbidity and mortality were determined by performing a complete necropsy on free-living birds presented to the Clinic for Birds and Reptiles of the University of Leipzig (Germany) that died shortly after admission or were euthanized due to an unfavorable prognosis. Over a 2-year period, 251 birds representing 13 families (Accipitridae, Apodidae, Columbidae, Corvidae, Falconidae, Fringillidae, Hirundinidae, Paridae, Passeridae, Picidae, Strigidae, Sturnidae and Turdidae) were examined. Trauma (62%), including several bite injuries inducing bacterial septicemia caused by Pasteurella multocida, was the most common cause of morbidity. Parasitic disease (18%) was mainly caused by Trichomonas gallinae, Eucoleus dispar and Syngamus trachea. Metabolic disease (13%), including fibrous osteodystrophy, was almost exclusively limited to juvenile specimens. Different Enterobacteriaceae including E. coli, Salmonella Typhimurium DT040 as well as Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium were identified as causal agents of primary bacterial disease (5%). Primary bacterial infection as cause of death or disease was of major importance in nestlings. Viral infections, mycoses and intoxication had minor significance as causes of morbidity.

  4. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. from free-living wild birds from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Richtzenhain, Leonardo; Guimarães, Marta Brito; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Allegretti, Luciana; Sinhorini, Juliana Anaya; Duarte, Vanessa Vertematti; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2011-01-10

    In wild and domestic birds, cryptosporidiosis is often associated with infections by Cryptosporidium galli, Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis. In addition to these species, a number of avian Cryptosporidium species yet to be fully characterized are commonly found among exotic and wild avian isolates. The present study aimed to detect and identify samples of Cryptosporidium spp. from free-living wild birds, in order to contribute to the knowledge of the variability of this parasite in the free-living population of Brazil. Stool samples were collected from 242 birds, with the following proportions of individuals: 50 Emberizidae (20.7%), 112 Psittacidae (46.3%), 44 Cardinalidae (18.2%), 12 Turdidae (5.0%), eight Ramphastidae (3.3%), seven Icteridae (2.9%), three Estrilididae (1.2%), two Contigidae (0.8%), two Thraupidae (0.8%) and two Fringilidae (0.8%). Among the 242 fecal samples from wild birds, 16 (6.6%) were positive for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium. Molecular characterization of the 16 samples of Cryptosporidium, were performed with phylogenetic reconstructions employing 292 positions of 18S rDNA. None of the samples of birds was characterized as C. meleagridis. C. galli was identified in one rufous-bellied thrush (Turdus rufiventris), five green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), one slate-coloured seedeater (Sporophila schistacea), one goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) and three saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola). One goldfinch isolate, one buffy-fronted seedeater (Sporophila frontalis), one red-cowled cardinal (Paroaria dominicana) and one other saffron finch (S. flaveola) were identified as C. baileyi. Avian genotype II was found in an isolate from a white-eyed parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalma). Clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis in birds have already been described and the number of wild birds which were shedding parasites was high. Therefore, further epidemiological research and disease surveillance of birds in the

  5. Student Perceptions on Live-Case Projects: Undergraduate Marketing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Raghava Rao; Singh, Mandeep; Baldwin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an investigation into undergraduate students' perceptions on use of live projects as a teaching pedagogy in marketing research courses. Students in undergraduate marketing research courses from fall 2009 to spring 2013 completed an online questionnaire consisting of 17 items. The results suggested that student understanding of…

  6. Daily foraging patterns in free-living birds: exploring the predation-starvation trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonter, David N; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Sedgwick, Carolyn W; Hochachka, Wesley M

    2013-06-07

    Daily patterns in the foraging behaviour of birds are assumed to balance the counteracting risks of predation and starvation. Predation risks are a function of the influence of weight on flight performance and foraging behaviours that may expose individuals to predators. Although recent research sheds light on daily patterns in weight gain, little data exist on daily foraging routines in free-living birds. In order to test the predictions of various hypotheses about daily patterns of foraging, we quantified the activity of four species of passerines in winter using radio-frequency identification receivers built into supplemental feeding stations. From records of 472,368 feeder visits by tagged birds, we found that birds generally started to feed before sunrise and continued to forage at a steady to increasing rate throughout the day. Foraging in most species terminated well before sunset, suggesting their required level of energy reserves was being reached before the end of the day. These results support the risk-spreading theorem over a long-standing hypothesis predicting bimodality in foraging behaviour purportedly driven by a trade-off between the risks of starvation and predation. Given the increased energetic demands experienced by birds during colder weather, our results suggest that birds' perceptions of risk are biased towards starvation avoidance in winter.

  7. One Decade of Active Avian Influenza Wild Bird Surveillance in Belgium Showed a Higher Viroprevalence in Hunter-Harvested Than in Live-Ringed Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, M; Vangeluwe, D; Linden, A; Houdart, Ph; van den Berg, Thierry P; Lambrecht, B

    2016-05-01

    Active monitoring of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild birds was initiated in Belgium in 2005 in response to the first highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks occurring in Europe. In Belgium, active wild bird surveillance that targeted live-ringed and hunter-harvested wild birds was developed and maintained from 2005 onward. After one decade, this program assimilated, analyzed, and reported on over 35,000 swabs. The 2009-2014 datasets were used for the current analysis because detailed information was available for this period. The overall prevalence of avian influenza (AI) in samples from live-ringed birds during this period was 0.48% whereas it was 6.12% in hunter-harvested samples. While the ringing sampling targeted a large number of bird species and was realized over the years, the hunting sampling was mainly concentrated on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) during the hunting season, from mid-August to late January. Even when using just AI prevalence for live-ringed A. platyrhynchos during the hunting season, the value remained significantly lower (2.10%) compared to that detected for hunter-harvested mallards. One explanation for this significant difference in viroprevalence in hunter-harvested mallards was the game restocking practice, which released captive-bred birds in the wild before the hunting period. Indeed, the released game restocking birds, having an AI-naïve immune status, could act as local amplifiers of AI viruses already circulating in the wild, and this could affect AI epidemiology. Also, the release into the wild of noncontrolled restocking birds might lead to the introduction of new strains in the natural environment, leading to increased AI presence in the environment. Consequently, the release of naïve or infected restocking birds may affect AI dynamics.

  8. Detecting and measuring senescence in wild birds: experience with long-lived seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, I C

    2001-04-01

    This paper points out and discusses several practical and methodological problems that arise in attempts to detect and measure senescent declines in survival or breeding performance of wild animals, with specific emphasis on long-lived seabirds. Birds have no anatomical markers of age, so studies of age-related biology require marking individuals at the time of hatching and following them throughout their lives. Seabirds live longer than the working lifespan of biologists, and longer than the turnover times of study techniques or theories of senescence. Seabirds are exposed to changing environmental and demographic conditions and cannot be assumed to be in demographic equilibrium. Sample sizes of the oldest age-classes are always small, requiring either marking very large numbers of birds at hatching or continuing studies of old birds over many years. Incomplete sampling requires the use of mark-recapture models that have only been developed in the last 20years. Mortality selection resulting from demographic heterogeneity (selective survival of high-quality individuals) can offset or confound the effects of senescent changes within individuals. Many of these problems are amenable to solution and will be probably solved within a few years. In the meantime, this paper recommends that reviewers should be cautious about accepting published reports of senescent declines in natural populations.

  9. Senescence effects in an extremely long-lived bird: the grey-headed albatross Thalassarche chrysostoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Paulo; Phillips, Richard A; Phalan, Ben; Croxall, John P

    2006-07-07

    Studies attempting to document reproductive or other pre-lethal senescence effects in wild birds typically face an array of problems, including flaws in statistical analyses, non-adaptive philopatry to deteriorating environments, confounding effects arising from cohort heterogeneity and differential death rates of phenotypes and the frequent pairing of old birds to younger mates. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that birds could maintain a high level of physical fitness until old age, before being struck by a catastrophic illness leading quickly to their demise. The presence of terminally ill individuals in most datasets (and their greater incidence in older age categories) may therefore provide a false impression of progressive senescence in cross-sectional analyses. This study was designed explicitly to avoid all the known pitfalls linked to the demonstration of progressive senescence in wild populations, and involved one of the very longest-lived bird species. We show that, during incubation, old (aged 35 years and over) male grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chrysostoma make longer foraging trips, and have lower daily mass gains, than experienced mid-aged individuals (aged up to 28 years). This is, to our knowledge, the first report documenting reduced foraging performance with old age. Hatching and breeding success of pairs composed of two old individuals were reduced in comparison to mid-aged pairs. Overall results were very similar when analyses were repeated using only individuals known to have survived 1 or 2 years beyond field measurements (hence probably not suffering from the effects of an advanced terminal illness). We conclude that extremely long-lived individuals usually experience some degree of general physical deterioration, leading to reduced foraging and breeding performance, long before their final demise.

  10. Senescence effects in an extremely long-lived bird: the grey-headed albatross Thalassarche chrysostoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Paulo; Phillips, Richard A; Phalan, Ben; Croxall, John P

    2006-01-01

    Studies attempting to document reproductive or other pre-lethal senescence effects in wild birds typically face an array of problems, including flaws in statistical analyses, non-adaptive philopatry to deteriorating environments, confounding effects arising from cohort heterogeneity and differential death rates of phenotypes and the frequent pairing of old birds to younger mates. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that birds could maintain a high level of physical fitness until old age, before being struck by a catastrophic illness leading quickly to their demise. The presence of terminally ill individuals in most datasets (and their greater incidence in older age categories) may therefore provide a false impression of progressive senescence in cross-sectional analyses. This study was designed explicitly to avoid all the known pitfalls linked to the demonstration of progressive senescence in wild populations, and involved one of the very longest-lived bird species. We show that, during incubation, old (aged 35 years and over) male grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chrysostoma make longer foraging trips, and have lower daily mass gains, than experienced mid-aged individuals (aged up to 28 years). This is, to our knowledge, the first report documenting reduced foraging performance with old age. Hatching and breeding success of pairs composed of two old individuals were reduced in comparison to mid-aged pairs. Overall results were very similar when analyses were repeated using only individuals known to have survived 1 or 2 years beyond field measurements (hence probably not suffering from the effects of an advanced terminal illness). We conclude that extremely long-lived individuals usually experience some degree of general physical deterioration, leading to reduced foraging and breeding performance, long before their final demise. PMID:16769633

  11. High frequency of albinism and tumours in free-living birds around Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Bonisoli-Alquati, A; Mousseau, T A

    2013-09-18

    The effects of radioactive contamination on the phenotype of free-living organisms are poorly understood, mainly because of the difficulty of capturing the large numbers of individual specimens that are required to quantify rare events such as albinism and tumour formation. We hypothesized that the frequency of abnormalities like albinism and the frequency of radiation-induced diseases like cancer would increase with the level of background radiation, that the two markers of radiation would be positively correlated, and that the reduction in abundance of animals would be greater in species with a higher frequency of albinism and tumour formation, if these markers reliably reflected poor viability. Here we analyzed the frequency of albinistic feathers and tumours in a sample of 1669 birds captured during 2010-2012 at eight sites around Chernobyl that varied in level of background radiation from 0.02 to more than 200μSv/h. We recorded 111 cases of partial albinism and 25 cases of tumour formation. Nominal logistic models were used to partition the variance into components due to species and background radiation. Radiation was a strong predictor of the two markers in birds, with a small, but significant effect of species for albinism. The slope of the relationship between abundance and radiation in different bird species was significantly inversely correlated with the frequency of albinism and tumours, as was to be expected if a common underlying cause (i.e. radiation) affects both variables. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that background radiation is a cause of albinism and tumours, that albinism and tumours are biomarkers of radiation exposure, and that high frequencies of albinism and tumours were present despite the low viability of birds with these conditions.

  12. Protracted treatment with corticosterone reduces breeding success in a long-lived bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bethany F; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat; Wanless, Sarah; Butler, Adam; Heidinger, Britt J; Newell, Mark; Dawson, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Determining the physiological mechanisms underpinning life-history decisions is essential for understanding the constraints under which life-history strategies can evolve. In long-lived species, where the residual reproductive value of breeders is high, adult survival is a key contributor to lifetime reproductive success. We therefore expect that when adult survival is compromised during reproduction, mechanisms will evolve to redirect resources away from reproduction, with implications for reproductive hormones, adult body mass, nest attendance behaviour and breeding success. We investigated whether manipulating corticosterone, to simulate exposure to an environmental stressor, affected the secretion of prolactin and breeding success in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We used implanted Alzet® osmotic pumps to administer corticosterone to incubating kittiwakes at a constant rate over a period of approximately 8days. Manipulated birds were compared with sham implanted birds and control birds, which had no implants. There was no significant difference in the body mass of captured individuals at the time of implantation and implant removal. Corticosterone-implanted males showed lower nest attendance during the chick rearing period compared to sham-implanted males; the opposite pattern was found in females. Corticosterone treated birds showed a marginally significant reduction in breeding success compared to sham-implanted individuals, with all failures occurring at least 1week after implant removal. However, prolactin concentrations at implant removal were not significantly different from initial values. We were unable to measure the profile of change in corticosterone during the experiment. However, our results suggest a delayed effect of elevated corticosterone on breeding success rather than an immediate suppression of prolactin concentrations causing premature failure.

  13. Live marketing reinforces customer loyalty; Live-Marketing festigt die Loyalitaet der Bestandskunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, G. [Steinweg Inst., Koeln (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The liberalisation of the energy markets has entered into its second round. New, aggressively operating providers have taken up position. It is not without reason that public utilities, under pressure as they already are from the deregulation authorities and unaccustomed public criticism, feel concern about the rapidly changing competitive situation. Nevertheless, there is no reason to panic. As long as power supply companies do not allow themselves to be lulled into a false sense of security by the much acclaimed customer development programmes but build on their specific strengths as local suppliers, they will even profit from customers' willingness to change supplier. Paradoxically the new competitive environment offers public utilities and regional suppliers markedly better development opportunities than it does new suppliers.

  14. 9 CFR 82.5 - Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease... indicate that the birds are not infected with any communicable disease. (i) Pet birds that have been...

  15. New influenza A(H7N7) viruses detected in live poultry markets in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pengfei; Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Kong, Huihui; Liu, Liling; Guan, Yuntao; Suzuki, Yasuo; Chen, Hualan

    2016-12-01

    H7N7 avian influenza viruses have been widely detected in wild birds and domestic poultry since they were first detected in chickens in Italy in 1902. They can occasionally transmit to humans. Here, we isolated six H7N7 viruses in live poultry markets during routine surveillance from 2010 to 2013. Sequences analysis revealed that these viruses are reassortants bearing genes of H3N8, H7N3, H7N7, and H10N7 influenza viruses detected in wild birds and ducks, and can be categorized into three genotypes (A, B, and C). All six viruses bound to both human-type and avian-type receptors. The viruses in genotype B and C could replicate efficiently in the lungs and nasal turbinates of mice without prior adaptation, and the genotype C virus also replicated in the brain of two of three mice tested. It is important to continue to monitor the evolution of H7N7 viruses and to evaluate their potential to cause human infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird, the barnacle goose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliny Angela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories of ageing predict a trade-off between metabolism, reproduction, and maintenance. Species with low investment in early reproduction are thus expected to be able to evolve more efficient maintenance and repair mechanisms, allowing for a longer potential life span (intrinsic longevity. The erosion of telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of linear chromosomes, plays an important role in cellular and organismal senescence, signalling the onset of age-related disease due to accumulation of unrepaired somatic damage. Using extensive longitudinal data from a long-term study of a natural population of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis, we investigated individual rates of telomere length changes over two years in 34 birds between 0 and 22 years of age, covering almost 80% of the species’ lifespan. Results We show that telomeres in this long-lived bird are very well maintained, as theoretically expected, with an average loss rate of only 5 base pairs per year among adults. We thus found no significant relationship between change in telomere length and age. However, telomeres tended to shorten at a faster pace in juveniles compared to adults. For the first time, we demonstrate a faster telomere attrition rate in females compared to males. We found no correlation between telomere loss rate and adult survival or change in body mass. Conclusions Our results add further support for a link between longevity and telomere maintenance, and highlight the complexities of telomere dynamics in natural populations.

  17. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Rodríguez-Ruano

    Full Text Available Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia. The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host.

  18. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M; López-López, J Pablo; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host.

  19. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; López-López, J. Pablo; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M.; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host. PMID:26445111

  20. Salmonella spp. as a cause of mortality and clinical symptoms in free-living garden bird species in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, M; Pietkiewicz, M; Wieliczko, A

    2014-01-01

    Some species of garden birds are considered to be sensitive to Salmonella (S.) spp. infections. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of mortality of six free-living birds in one private property in suburban area of Wrocław (Poland). In 2013 Poland experienced prolonged winter, with low temperatures and snow precipitations. During March and April, two dead individuals of the Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus) and four dead individuals of the Greenfinch (Carduelis chloris) were found in proximity of the bird feeder. At the time of ringing procedure in the same area, faecal samples of all individuals belonging to these two species of birds were collected, regardless clinical symptoms. In total, twenty two faecal samples of birds belonging to both bird species were collected in the same property. All of them were Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium positive. The visible illness among European siskins and Greenfinches, caused by S. Typhimurium, sug- gests that both Eurasian siskin and Greenfinch may be potential reservoirs of Salmonella spp. Therefore they might play a role in transmission of zoonotic pathogens to other garden bird species or to people.

  1. Metabolic rate and membrane fatty acid composition in birds: a comparison between long-living parrots and short-living fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Magdalene K; Hulbert, A J; Buttemer, William A

    2012-01-01

    Both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) vary with body size in mammals and birds and it has been suggested that these are mediated through size-related variation in membrane fatty acid composition. Whereas the physical properties of membrane fatty acids affect the activity of membrane proteins and, indirectly, an animal's BMR, it is the susceptibility of those fatty acids to peroxidation which influence MLSP. Although there is a correlation between body size and MLSP, there is considerable MLSP variation independent of body size. For example, among bird families, Galliformes (fowl) are relatively short-living and Psittaciformes (parrots) are unusually long-living, with some parrot species reaching maximum lifespans of more than 100 years. We determined BMR and tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition in seven tissues from three species of parrots with an average MLSP of 27 years and from two species of quails with an average MLSP of 5.5 years. We also characterised mitochondrial phospholipids in two of these tissues. Neither BMR nor membrane susceptibility to peroxidation corresponded with differences in MLSP among the birds we measured. We did find that (1) all birds had lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in mitochondrial membranes compared to those of the corresponding tissue, and that (2) irrespective of reliance on flight for locomotion, both pectoral and leg muscle had an almost identical membrane fatty acid composition in all birds.

  2. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-antibodies in free-living birds of prey from Eastern Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büker, M; Picozzi, K; Kolb, S; Hatt, J-M

    2013-07-01

    Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is the most important arthropod-borne zoonosis-pathogen in the Northern hemisphere. Besides small mammals, birds, primarily Passeriformes and sea birds, play an important role in the transmission, distribution and maintenance of this disease. Previous studies on birds have focused mainly on the detection of Borrelia-infected ticks. However, the presence or absence of an infected tick cannot be taken as an indicator of the infective status of the avian host; to date this area of research has not been explored. In this study, serological analyses of blood collected from free-living birds of prey (n = 29) at the rehabilitation centre in Eastern Westphalia, Germany, highlights that birds of prey are also susceptible to B. burgdorferi and react immunologically to an infection. Increased antibody-levels could be found by using a modified Indirect Immunofluorescent-testing in two common buzzards, Buteo buteo, and two eagle owls, Bubo bubo. Further research regarding the serological diagnostics of B. burgdorferi within the avian host is required. In the future, it should be taken into account that birds of prey can be reservoirs for B. burgdorferi, as well as carriers of infected ticks; although at present their epidemiological importance is still to be confirmed.

  3. Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michael

    2009-08-22

    Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls.

  4. Identification of a novel reassortant A (H9N6) virus in live poultry markets in Poyang Lake region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Mingbin; Zeng, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Xiang; Deng, Zhiqiang; Yang, Lei; Chen, Wenbing; Li, Zi; Jiao, Ming; Xia, Wen; Han, Bin; Chen, Haiying; Shu, Yuelong; Wang, Dayan

    2017-08-24

    Live poultry markets (LPM) are one of the most important sources of human infection with avian influenza virus (AIV). During our routine surveillance of AIV, we identified an H9N6 virus (JX-H9N6) in a LPM in Nanchang city, Jiangxi Province, China. Using Bayesian coalescent analysis, it was predicted that JX-H9N6 had originated from a reassortment event between H9N2 and H6N6 AIVs in early 2014, instead of being derived from an H9N6 virus reported previously. Mutations in HA, PB1, PA, M, and NS protein, which could increase mammalian transmission and virulence, were also detected. Currently, both H9N2 and H6N6 AIVs are widely distributed in poultry and contribute to the generation of novel reassortant viruses causing human infection. Our findings highlight the importance of enhanced surveillance in birds for early prediction of human infections.

  5. Age-related mercury contamination and relationship with luteinizing hormone in a long-lived Antarctic bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Tartu

    Full Text Available Seabirds, as long-lived top predators, accumulate contaminants such as mercury (Hg, an established endocrine disruptor. In long lived species hormonal secretion varies with age; therefore, Hg-induced endocrine disruption may be exacerbated in some age classes. Here we investigated relationships between blood total Hg and luteinizing hormone (LH, a key pituitary hormone for the onset of breeding, in pre-laying known-age (11-45 years old snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea from Adélie Land, Antarctica. We predicted that 1 blood Hg would increase with advancing age as a consequence of bio-accumulation; and that 2 increasing blood Hg would be related to decreased concentrations of LH in the most Hg-contaminated individuals. Hg concentrations were higher in females than in males (p<0.001, and contrary to our prediction, decreased with advancing age in males (p = 0.009 and tended to do so in females (p = 0.06. The analysis of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N suggested that this unexpected pattern could originate from age and sex-related variations in trophic niche, and hence Hg exposure. Regarding LH, our prediction was only supported in young birds (≤23 years where baseline LH was inversely correlated with Hg concentrations (p = 0.04. Hg burden did not predict baseline LH or GnRH-induced LH in birds that were more than 23 years old. These results show that age and contaminants may interfere with major endocrine mechanisms and, together with other recent studies, support the view that Hg could be connected to LH secretion and could then impair the fitness of long-lived birds.

  6. Clean Air Markets - Where You Live (National and State Maps)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Where You Live accesses facility and unit attribute data as well as emissions data using a series of interactive national and state maps. This module allows the user...

  7. Level of Living and Participation in the Informal Market Sector among Rural Honduran Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danes, Sharon M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined factors that affect Honduran women's market sector participation and participation's impact on family level of living. Found differences between Honduran women in informal sector and in the formal sector, with women in the formal sector being younger and more likely to be married. Participation in either sector raised level of living for…

  8. Making Marketing Principles Tangible: Online Auctions as Living Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles M.; Suter, Tracy A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an effective course supplement for Principles of Marketing classes. An experiential project involving online auctions is offered to instructors seeking to create a more participatory student environment and an interactive teaching style. A number of learning points are illustrated that allow instructors to use an auction…

  9. Making Marketing Principles Tangible: Online Auctions as Living Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles M.; Suter, Tracy A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an effective course supplement for Principles of Marketing classes. An experiential project involving online auctions is offered to instructors seeking to create a more participatory student environment and an interactive teaching style. A number of learning points are illustrated that allow instructors to use an auction…

  10. Mesozoic retroposons reveal parrots as the closest living relatives of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Alexander; Paus, Martin; Kiefmann, Martin; Churakov, Gennady; Franke, Franziska Anni; Brosius, Jürgen; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2011-08-23

    The relationships of passerines (such as the well-studied zebra finch) with non-passerine birds is one of the great enigmas of avian phylogenetic research, because decades of extensive morphological and molecular studies yielded highly inconsistent results between and within data sets. Here we show the first application of the virtually homoplasy-free retroposon insertions to this controversy. Our study examined ~200,000 retroposon-containing loci from various avian genomes and retrieved 51 markers resolving early bird phylogeny. Among these, we obtained statistically significant evidence that parrots are the closest and falcons the second-closest relatives of passerines, together constituting the Psittacopasserae and the Eufalconimorphae, respectively. Our new and robust phylogenetic framework has substantial implications for the interpretation of various conclusions drawn from passerines as model organisms. This includes insights of relevance to human neuroscience, as vocal learning (that is, birdsong) probably evolved in the psittacopasseran ancestor, >30 million years earlier than previously assumed.

  11. Vitamin profiles in two free-living passerine birds under a metal pollution gradient - A calcium supplementation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra R; Espín, Silvia; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. We investigated the effect of calcium on plasma vitamin and carotenoid profiles and how these affected growth and survival in two passerine birds with different calcium turnover living along a metal pollution gradient. Vitamins (A, D3 and E) and carotenoids were quantified from blood plasma of great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. Metal concentrations in soil and in feces from the same nestlings were used to assess the exposure to air pollution. Additionally, we examined the vitamin level variation between developmental stages (eggs and nestlings within the same brood). Our results showed that generally higher concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids circulate in blood of great tits than in pied flycatchers. In general, birds inhabiting the polluted zone presented lower concentrations of the studied micronutrients. Calcium supplementation and metal pollution decreased vitamin A concentration in pied flycatcher, but not in great tit, while vitamin A affected growth and survival in great tit and pied flycatcher respectively. Our results suggest that populations under exposure to metal pollution may experience increased vitamin A deficiency, and that the two passerine species, while obtaining similar micronutrients in food, respond differently to environmental disturbance of nutrients.

  12. Timing of initial arrival at the breeding site predicts age at first reproduction in a long-lived migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter H; Dittmann, Tobias; Ludwigs, Jan-Dieter; Limmer, Bente; Ludwig, Sonja C; Bauch, Christina; Braasch, Alexander; Wendeln, Helmut

    2008-08-26

    In long-lived vertebrates, individuals generally visit potential breeding areas or populations during one or more seasons before reproducing for the first time. During these years of prospecting, they select a future breeding site, colony, or mate and improve various skills and their physical condition to meet the requirements of reproduction. One precondition of successful reproduction is arrival in time on the breeding grounds. Here, we study the intricate links among the date of initial spring arrival, body mass, sex, and the age of first breeding in the common tern Sterna hirundo, a long-lived migratory colonial seabird. The study is based on a unique, individual-based, long-term dataset of sexed birds, marked with transponders, which allow recording their individual arrival, overall attendance, and clutch initiation remotely and automatically year by year over the entire lifetime at the natal colony site. We show that the seasonal date of initial arrival at the breeding grounds predicts the individual age at first reproduction, which mostly occurs years later. Late first-time arrivals remain delayed birds throughout subsequent years. Our findings reveal that timing of arrival at the site of reproduction and timing of reproduction itself are coherent parameters of individual quality, which are linked with the prospects of the breeding career and may have consequences for fitness.

  13. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  14. Living without DAT: Loss and compensation of the dopamine transporter gene in sauropsids (birds and reptiles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, P V; Kasimi, B; Carleton, J; Velho, T A; Mello, C V

    2015-09-14

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a major regulator of synaptic dopamine (DA) availability. It plays key roles in motor control and motor learning, memory formation, and reward-seeking behavior, is a major target of cocaine and methamphetamines, and has been assumed to be conserved among vertebrates. We have found, however, that birds, crocodiles, and lizards lack the DAT gene. We also found that the unprecedented loss of this important gene is compensated for by the expression of the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene, and not the serotonin transporter genes, in dopaminergic cells, which explains the peculiar pharmacology of the DA reuptake activity previously noted in bird striatum. This unexpected pattern contrasts with that of ancestral vertebrates (e.g. fish) and mammals, where the NAT gene is selectively expressed in noradrenergic cells. DA circuits in birds/reptiles and mammals thus operate with an analogous reuptake mechanism exerted by different genes, bringing new insights into gene expression regulation in dopaminergic cells and the evolution of a key molecular player in reward and addiction pathways.

  15. Blood flow for bone remodelling correlates with locomotion in living and extinct birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Georgina H; Cassey, Phillip; Snelling, Edward P; Maloney, Shane K; Seymour, Roger S

    2014-08-15

    Nutrient arteries enter limb bones through discrete foramina on the shafts. They are required for bone remodelling in response to mechanical loading and dynamic forces imposed by locomotion. The cross-sectional area of the nutrient foramen of the femur represents an index of blood flow rate to the shaft and thus provides insight into the animal's level of activity. Morphometric data on femoral length, mass and foramen size from 100 extant bird species and eight extinct moa species were analysed allometrically and phylogenetically. The nutrient foramen blood flow index (Qi) and femur mass (Mf) increase with body mass (Mb). At 1 kg body mass, cursorial species have approximately 2.1 times higher Qi and 1.9 times heavier Mf than volant species. The scaling of Qi on Mf is independent of the primary mode of locomotion, but the ratio Qi/Mf decreases significantly in larger birds, although absolute Qi increases. The overall avian equation for Qi on Mb is not significantly different from previous data from mammals, but when differences in blood pressure are accounted for, estimated blood flow to the femur is approximately 1.9 times higher in cursorial birds than in mammals, possibly in relation to bipedalism and quadrupedalism, respectively. Femoral bone blood flow in both endothermic groups is estimated to be 50-100 times higher than in ectothermic reptiles. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Within-season increase in parental investment in a long-lived bird species: investment shifts to maximize successful reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N A; Griesser, M

    2015-01-01

    In nest-building species predation of nest contents is a main cause of reproductive failure and parents have to trade off reproductive investment against antipredatory behaviours. While this trade-off is modified by lifespan (short-lived species prioritize current reproduction; long-lived species prioritize future reproduction), it may vary within a breeding season, but this idea has only been tested in short-lived species. Yet, life history theory does not make any prediction how long-lived species should trade off current against future reproductive investment within a season. Here, we investigated this trade-off through predator-exposure experiments in a long-lived bird species, the brown thornbill. We exposed breeding pairs that had no prior within-season reproductive success to the models of a nest predator and a predator of adults during their first or second breeding attempt. Overall, parents reduced their feeding rate in the presence of a predator, but parents feeding second broods were more risk sensitive and almost ceased feeding when exposed to both types of predators. However, during second breeding attempts, parents had larger clutches and a higher feeding rate in the absence of predators than during first breeding attempts and approached both types of predators closer when mobbing. Our results suggest that the trade-off between reproductive investment and risk-taking can change in a long-lived species within a breeding season depending on both prior nest predation and renesting opportunities. These patterns correspond to those in short-lived species, raising the question of whether a within-season shift in reproductive investment trade-offs is independent of lifespan. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. The influence of genotype, market live weight, transportation, and holding conditions prior to slaughter on broiler breast meat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Cavani, C

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of genotype, market live weight, transportation time, holding time, and temperature on broiler breast fillet color under commercial processing in Italy. Color was evaluated using a Minolta Chroma Meter (Minolta Chroma Meter CR-300, Minolta Italia S.p.A., Milano, Italy) on a total of 6,997 broiler breast fillets (Pectoralis major muscle) from 79 different flocks chosen at random during a 6-mo period. The flocks were represented by Ross 508 and Cobb 500 genotypes of both genders, processed at different ages, and subjected to different antemortem conditions during transport and holding. Ross 508 broilers exhibited a lower hue angle (H*) than did Cobb 500 (45.12 vs. 48.52; P 3.3 kg) produced a darker breast meat (L* = 51.67) than did the lighter birds (210 km (a* = 3.28 and 3.04, respectively). The shortest holding time (9 h (L* = 52.12 and 52.04, respectively). Furthermore, an increase of both meat a* and saturation (C*) was observed with the advance in holding time. The holding temperature significantly affected the meat color. Breast fillets from birds held at 18 degrees C (L* = 53.11) (P 18 degrees C) also determined a lower breast meat a* (3.77 vs. 3.12 vs. 2.72, respectively; P < 0.001), b* (3.72 vs. 3.41 vs. 3.37, respectively; P < 0.05), C*, and H*. In conclusion, the holding time and temperature exerted the most important effect on broiler breast meat color. However, other factors, such as genotype, live weight, and transportation, may influence breast meat color.

  18. The role of the legal and illegal trade of live birds and avian products in the spread of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T

    2009-04-01

    The panzootic of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has become an international crisis. All parts of the world are now considered at risk due to trade globalisation, with the worldwide movement of animals, products and humans, and because of the possible spread of the virus through the migration of wild birds. The risk of introducing notifiable avian influenza (NAI) through trade depends on several factors, including the disease status of the exporting country and the type of products. The highest risk occurs in the trade of live birds. It is important to assess and manage these risks to ensure that global trade does not result in the dissemination of NAI. However, it is also important that the risk of infection is not used as an unjustified trade barrier. The role of the regulatory authorities is thus to facilitate the safe trade of animal products according to international guidelines. Nevertheless, the balance between acceptable risk and safe trade is difficult to achieve. Since the movements of poultry and birds are sometimes difficult to trace, the signature or 'identity card' of each isolated virus can be very informative. Indeed, sequencing the genes of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses has assisted greatly in establishing links and highlighting differences between isolates from different countries and tracing the possible source of introduction. Recent examples from Asia, Europe and Africa, supported by H5N1 molecular fingerprinting, have demonstrated that the sources of introduction can be many and no route should be underestimated.

  19. What factors drive prolactin and corticosterone responses to stress in a long-lived bird species (snow petrel Pagodroma nivea)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Moe, Børge; Blanc, Samuel; Chastel, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that individuals should adapt their parental investment to the costs and benefits of the current reproductive effort. This could be achieved by modulating the hormonal stress response, which may shift energy investment away from reproduction and redirect it toward survival. In birds, this stress response consists of a release of corticosterone that may be accompanied by a decrease in circulating prolactin, a hormone involved in the regulation of parental care. We lack data on the modulation of the prolactin stress response. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that individuals should modulate their prolactin stress response according to the fitness value of the current reproductive effort relative to the fitness value of future reproduction. Specifically, we examined the influence of breeding status (failed breeders vs. incubating birds) and body condition on prolactin and corticosterone stress responses in a long-lived species, the snow petrel Pagodroma nivea. When facing stressors, incubating birds had higher prolactin levels than failed breeders. However, we found no effect of body condition on the prolactin stress response. The corticosterone stress response was modulated according to body condition but was not affected by breeding status. We also performed an experiment using injections of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and found that the modulation of the corticosterone stress response was probably associated with a reduction in ACTH release by the pituitary and a decrease in adrenal sensitivity to ACTH. In addition, we examined whether prolactin and corticosterone secretion were functionally linked. We found that these two hormonal stress responses were not correlated. Moreover, injection of ACTH did not affect prolactin levels, demonstrating that short-term variations in prolactin levels are not governed directly or indirectly by ACTH release. Thus, we suggest that the corticosterone and prolactin responses to short

  20. Silent geographical spread of the H7N9 virus by online knowledge analysis of the live bird trade with a distributed focused crawler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Lu, Shan; Du, Pengcheng; Wang, Haiyin; Yu, Weiwen; Song, Huawen; Xu, Jianguo

    2013-12-01

    Unlike those infected by H5N1, birds infected by the newly discovered H7N9 virus have no observable clinical symptoms. Public health workers in China do not know where the public health threat lies. In this study, we used a distributed focused crawler to analyze online knowledge of the live bird trade in first-wave provinces, namely, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, and Shanghai, to track the new H7N9 virus and predict its spread. Of the 18 provinces proposed to be at high risk of infection, 10 reported human infections and one had poultry specimens that tested positive. Five provinces (Xinjiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, Shaanxi, and Tibet) as well as Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan were proposed to have no risk of H7N9 virus infection from the live bird trade. These data can help health authorities and the public to respond rapidly to reduce damage related to the spread of the virus.

  1. Interventions for avian influenza A (H5N1) risk management in live bird market networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guillaume Fournié; Javier Guitian; Stéphanie Desvaux; Vu Chi Cuong; Do Huu Dung; Dirk Udo Pfeiffer; Punam Mangtani; Azra C. Ghani

    2013-01-01

    ...) contact network and the implications for virus spread. Based on the movements of traders between LBMs, weighted and directed networks were constructed and used for social network analysis and individual-based modeling...

  2. Thoughts on Living Difficulties of Farmers and Marketing Economy in the Risk Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper combs the problems about living difficulties of farmers and marketing economy in the risk society and puts forward another point of view that with the theory of risk society,reconsider the dilemma of living choices of farmers under the background of marketing economy.On the basis of the statistics,the paper discloses the trend of larger and larger disparities of incomes between urban and rural areas;the paper explains the risks and uncertainties of life choices with the background of deepening marketing economy.In order to understand the life dilemma of farmers and marketing economy in the risk society,the paper makes an analysis from perspectives of the relationships between risk society and markets,the risks of farmers’ living choices.The results show that in the risk society,because of the division space from time,the personal farmers are devoid of the safe environment.Then the situation deepens to worse.In addition to the organization which is not in charge results in a situation that the personal farmers would take all risks by themselves.

  3. Economic Lives of Artists : Studies into Careers and the Labour Market in the Cultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rengers, M.

    2002-01-01

    The economic aspects of the lives of artists already puzzled classical economists such as Adam Smith and Alfred Marshall. Their theories provide the background for this book, which presents a number of empirical studies into careers and the labour market in the cultural sector. Leitmotivs are two mo

  4. Economic Lives of Artists : Studies into Careers and the Labor Market in the Cultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rengers, Merijn

    2002-01-01

    The economic aspects of the lives of artists already puzzled classical economists such as Adam Smith and Alfred Marshall. Their theories provide the background for this book, which presents a number of empirical studies into careers and the labour market in the cultural sector. Leitmotivs are two mo

  5. Economic Lives of Artists : Studies into Careers and the Labor Market in the Cultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rengers, Merijn

    2002-01-01

    The economic aspects of the lives of artists already puzzled classical economists such as Adam Smith and Alfred Marshall. Their theories provide the background for this book, which presents a number of empirical studies into careers and the labour market in the cultural sector. Leitmotivs are two mo

  6. Sustainable living in a Chinese city. Analysis and support for market-conscious urban planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the transition from a state-led industrial to a market-driven post-industrial urban economy, China’s planners are facing challenges in building sustainable living environment for the rapidly increasing and wealthier urban population.Citizens are the end-users of the sustainable city. Their prefer

  7. Beings of a Feather: Learning About the Lives of Birds with Amazonian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jernigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a memoir of the author's fieldwork experiences studying traditional knowledge of bird species in the Peruvian Amazon. It describes his growth as a researcher, in light of the practical and methodological challenges of carrying out this kind of work. It also relates how the author's thinking has evolved on questions of current theoretical interest in ethnobiology. The first section outlines how the author came to be interested in this topic while pursuing an ethnobotanical dissertation project. Next, the discussion follows his work with the indigenous Aguaruna and Iquito peoples, learning about and documenting their understandings of the nesting, foraging and reproductive behavior of local avian species. On one hand, he found that local people provided details of these behaviors that match, in many ways, the counts of academic ornithologists. However, local interpretations of why these behaviors take place are often framed by some very different assumptions. The author uses Victor Toledo's tripartite framework of kosmos (overarching belief systems, corpus (cognitive categories, and praxis (set of practices to discuss similarities and differences in Aguaruna, Iquito, and academic ornithology. He also discusses his progression of views on the topic of perspectivism and eventual preference for a theoretical framework favoring a polyontological approach to understanding Amazonian ethnoecology.

  8. Prevalence and molecular analyses of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella spp. in co-grazing small ruminants and wild-living birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 689 co-grazing small ruminants along with 446 wild-living birds were tested during two springs and autumns under two management systems at two Mid-Atlantic locations (~187 km in aerial distance) of the U.S. Fecal shedding of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella were, respectively, detected...

  9. In defense of a regulated market in kidneys from living vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippen, Benjamin E

    2005-12-01

    The current system of organ procurement which relies on donation is inadequate to the current and future need for transplantable kidneys. The growing disparity between demand and supply is accompanied by a steep human cost. I argue that a regulated market in organs from living vendors is the only plausible solution, and that objections common to opponents of organ markets are de-feasible. I argue that a morally defensible market in kidneys from living vendors includes four characteristics: (1) the priority of safety for both vendors and recipients, (2) transparency regarding the risks to vendors and recipients, (3) institutional integrity regarding guidelines for cooperating with kidney vendors, and (4) operation under a rule of law. I conclude with some remarks on remaining problems with this account, and offer some suggestions as to how these problems might be addressed.

  10. Campylobacter growth rates in four different matrices: broiler caecal material, live birds, Bolton broth, and brain heart infusion broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Battersby

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to characterise Campylobacter growth in enrichment broths (Bolton broth, brain heart infusion broth, caecal material (in vitro, and in the naturally infected live broilers (in vivo in terms of mean lag periods and generation times as well as maximum growth rates and population (cell concentration achieved. Methods: Bolton and brain heart infusion broths and recovered caecal material were inoculated with 10 poultry strains of Campylobacter (eight Campylobacter jejuni and two Campylobacter coli, incubated under microaerobic conditions, and Campylobacter concentrations determined periodically using the ISO 10272:2006 method. Caeca from 10 flocks, infected at first thinning, were used to characterise Campylobacter growth in the live birds. Mean generation times (G (early lag to exponential phase were calculated using the formula: G=t/3.3 logb/B. Mean lag times and µmax were calculated using the Micro Fit© Software (Version 1.0, Institute of Food Research. Statistical comparison was performed using GENSTAT ver. 14.1 (VSN International Ltd., Hemel, Hempstead, UK. Results: The mean lag periods in Bolton broth, brain heart infusion broth, caecal material, and in the live bird were estimated to be 6.6, 6.7, 12.6, and 31.3 h, respectively. The corresponding mean generation times were 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, and 6.7 h, respectively; maximum growth rates were 0.7, 0.8, 0.4, and 2 generations h−1 and the maximum populations obtained in each matrix were 9.6, 9.9, 7.8, and 7.4 log10 CFU/g, respectively. Conclusion: This study provides data on the growth of Campylobacter in a range of laboratory media, caecal contents, and in broilers which may be used to develop predictive models and/or inform science-based control strategies such as the maximum time between flock testing and slaughter, logistical slaughter, and single-stage depopulation of broiler units.

  11. Live pig markets in eastern Indonesia: Trader characteristics, biosecurity and implications for disease spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever has been negatively impacting pig production in Nusa Tenggara Timur province in eastern Indonesia since its introduction in the 1990s, with live market trade contributing to disease spread. To understand market trader knowledge and practices regarding pig management, biosecurity, pig movements and pig health (specifically CSF), a repeated survey was conducted with pig sellers and pig buyers at 9 market sites across West Timor and the islands of Flores and Sumba. A total of 292 sellers and 281 buyers were interviewed in 2009 during two periods (rounds), a high-demand month (September) and a low-demand month (November). Information was collected via questionnaire. The majority of traders were male (sellers: 89%; buyers: 87%) with the highest level of completed education being primary school (sellers: 48%; buyers: 41%). The primary occupation of most respondents was farming: 90% of sellers and 87% of buyers were smallholder pig farmers and tended to sell their own home-raised pigs at market (52%). Pigs were sold for monetary gain either for primary (52%) or extra income (44%). Markets tended to be selected based on a good reputation (62%), a location close to residence (62%) and having the desired pig type (59%). Pig sales through markets were reported to be highest from August to October with 31% of sellers trading pigs at two or more markets. Prices at market were significantly higher on Sumba compared to West Timor and cross-bred pigs were significantly more expensive than indigenous pigs. Understanding of CSF and biosecurity was limited: 85% of sellers and 83% of buyers had no prior knowledge of CSF. Fifty-four percent of sellers reported no use of any biosecurity practices at market. Most respondents (88%) were able to recognise at least one clinical sign of a sick pig. Informal pig movements were also identified: 18% of pig buyers purchased pigs directly from other farmers. This study has provided baseline information on market trader

  12. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Soler, Juan J.

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  13. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Soler, Juan J

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  14. Is Twitter for the Birds? Using Twitter to Enhance Student Learning in a Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Ben; Laffey, Des

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen unprecedented possibilities for the use of different technologies to enhance learning in marketing courses. Given the rapid and widespread diffusion of these technologies, particularly within the demographic of the student population, it is pertinent to explore and examine how such technologies can benefit student learning.…

  15. Is Twitter for the Birds? Using Twitter to Enhance Student Learning in a Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Ben; Laffey, Des

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen unprecedented possibilities for the use of different technologies to enhance learning in marketing courses. Given the rapid and widespread diffusion of these technologies, particularly within the demographic of the student population, it is pertinent to explore and examine how such technologies can benefit student learning.…

  16. Associations of urban environmental pollution with health-related physiological traits in a free-living bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerová, Petra; Vinklerová, Jitka; Hraníček, Jakub; Čorba, Vojtěch; Vojtek, Libor; Svobodová, Jana; Vinkler, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Urban environmental pollution results in contamination of the tissues of synanthropic organisms by toxic trace elements with potential impacts on human health. Passerine birds may serve as convenient indicators of such contamination. In this study we investigated the effect of blood and plumage contamination with heavy metals (lead Pb, cadmium Cd, copper Cu, chromium Cr) and arsenic metalloid (As) on condition, health and ornamental colour in free-living great tit (Parus major) males from 13 cities across the Czech Republic (EU), mist netted during the early breading season (April-May). Our results showed a significant association of heavy metal tissue contamination with immune function, namely leukocyte composition in the avian blood circulation. High heavy metal contamination in bird feathers was linked to a high heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, indicating long-term stress in individuals inhabiting heavily polluted environments. In contrast, males with higher concentrations of heavy metals in blood had a lower H/L ratio, assumingly due to the direct toxicity of heavy metals in certain cell types. This is also supported by traits indicative of anaemia-like haemolytic conditions (decreased absolute erythrocyte count) and increased haematopoiesis (a tendency for increased frequencies of immature erythrocytes). We did not find any association of heavy metal contamination with the bacteriolytic activity of plasma complement, feather growth or ornamentation (black breast stripe area and yellow colouration). There was no significant relationship between heavy metal contamination in blood or feathers and PM10 pollution at the study sites. Our correlational study is the first to show on a large geographic scale that despite strict European air pollution regulations and regular monitoring that have allowed general improvements in atmospheric contamination, non-degradable heavy metals persistently contaminate animal blood and feathers in anthropogenic environments at

  17. [Avian influenza virus in various environments and risk factors for the contamination of live poultry markets during winter and spring season in Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhao; Mao, Haiyan; Chen, Enfu

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of avian influenza virus in various environment and the influence factors for subtype H7 prevalence in live poultry markets. We collected environmental samples from various environments across 11 cities of Zhejiang province between October 2014 and March 2015. Cage surface swabs, chopping board surface swabs, feces, water for cleaning, drinking water and swabs of other surfaces were collected. A total of 6 457 samples were collected, including 4 487 samples from poultry markets, 820 samples from poultry farms, 715 samples from backyard poultry pens, 118 samples from poultry processing factories, 118 samples from wild bird habitats and 86 samples from other sites. The chi-squared test was used to compare virus prevalence among sample types, sites types, and poultry markets types. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze factors on H7 subtype prevalence in poultry markets. Of 6 457 samples, 32.54% (2 101) samples were positive for avian influenza, with 3.67% (237) positive for H5 subtype, 12.02%(776) positive for H7 subtype, 11.77%(760) positive for H9 subtype. Of 237 live poultry markets, 33.8% (80) were positive for H7 subtype. The prevalence of influenza A in poultry processing factories was the highest at 43.72% (101/231) (χ(2)=737.80, Pcontaminated most seriously by subtype H5/H7/H9 with the prevalence of 27.55% (1 236/4 487) (χ(2)=436.37, Pcontaminated most seriously by avian influenza. The types of poultry might be the factor which influenced the subtype H7 prevalence in poultry markets.

  18. Diversity, evolution and population dynamics of avian influenza viruses circulating in the live poultry markets in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Jun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Tian, Jun-Hua; Liao, Yong; Ying, Xu-Hua; Shao, Jian-Wei; Yu, Bin; Guo, Jing-Jing; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Peng, Ying; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2017-05-01

    Live poultry markets (LPMs) are an important source of novel avian influenza viruses (AIV). During 2015-2016 we surveyed AIV diversity in ten LPMs in Hubei, Zhejiang and Jiangxi provinces, China. A high diversity and prevalence of AIVs (totaling 12 subtypes) was observed in LPMs in these provinces. Strikingly, however, the subtypes discovered during 2015-2016 were markedly different to those reported by us in these same localities one year previously, suggesting a dynamic shift in viral genetic diversity over the course of a single year. Phylogenetic analyses revealed frequent reassortment, including between high and low pathogenic AIV subtypes and among those that circulate in domestic and wild birds. Notably, the novel H5N6 reassortant virus, which contains a set of H9N2-like internal genes, was prevalent in all three regions surveyed. Overall, these data highlight the profound changes in genetic diversity and in patterns of reassortment in those AIVs that circulate in LPMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-antibodies in free-living birds of prey from Eastern Westphalia, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Büker, M.; Picozzi, K; Kolb, S; Hatt, J M

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is the most important arthropodborne zoonosis-pathogen in the Northern hemisphere. Besides small mammals, birds, primarily Passeriformes and sea birds, play an important role in the transmission, distribution and maintenance of this disease. Previous studies on birds have focused mainly on the detection of Borrelia-infected ticks. However, the presence or absence of an infected tick cannot be taken as an indicator of t...

  20. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance.

  1. Where the Birds Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaKinster, James; Trautmann, Nancy; Burch, Carol; Watkins, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Species richness, migration, habitats, ecological niches, adaptations: Concepts such as these come alive when students explore and analyze landscapes, environmental characteristics, and related biological features represented on digital maps. Most students are familiar with navigation tools integrated into smartphone apps but may be surprised to…

  2. Airborne bacterial contaminations in typical Chinese wet market with live poultry trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin-Lei; Shao, Ming-Fei; Luo, Yi; Dong, Yu-Fang; Ouyang, Feng; Dong, Wen-Yi; Li, Ji

    2016-12-01

    Chinese wet markets with live poultry trade have been considered as major sources of pathogen dissemination, and sites for horizontal transfer of bacterial and viral pathogens. In this study, the pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in air samples collected at a typical Chinese wet market had been analysis and quantified. Corynebacterium minutissimum and other pathogenic bacteria accounted for 0.81-8.02% of the whole microbial community in different air samples. The four ARGs quantified in this study showed a comparable relative concentration (copies/ng_DNA) with municipal wastewater. Poultry manures were demonstrated to be important microbial contamination source in wet market, which was supported by both microbial composition based source tracking and the quantification of airborne microbial density. A series of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes indicators of poultry area contamination were successfully screened, which will be useful for the more convenient monitoring of airborne poultry area contamination. Our results indicate bioaerosols acted as important route for the transmissions of pathogens and ARGs. Continued surveillance of airborne microbial contamination is required in poultry trade wet market.

  3. Live Longer, Work Longer: Making It Happen in the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vodopivec

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An aging population and the corresponding shrinkage of the labor force will create a significant drag on economic growth and may jeopardize the economic well-being of some of the elderly. Thus working longer is an imperative – but extending working lives has proven difficult, both because workers do not want to work longer and because employers are lukewarm about employing older workers. As measures that can be taken to motivate workers to work longer, the paper proposes providing retirement incentives and attractive, flexible working arrangements. To induce employers to hire old workers, it suggests removing the obstacles imposed by restrictive labor market institutions, an increase in the human capital of workers via life-long learning, and addressing age-discrimination. Chances for extending working lives will also increase as the health of elderly workers is improved.

  4. Post-marketing surveillance of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine safety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yali; Dong, Duo; Cheng, Gang; Zuo, Shuyan; Liu, Dawei; Du, Xiaoxi

    2014-10-07

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most severe form of viral encephalitis in Asia and no specific treatment is available. Vaccination provides an effective intervention to prevent JE. In this paper, surveillance data for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) related to SA-14-14-2 live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (Chengdu Institute of Biological Products) was presented. This information has been routinely generated by the Chinese national surveillance system for the period 2009-2012. There were 6024 AEFI cases (estimated reported rate 96.55 per million doses). Most common symptoms of adverse events were fever, redness, induration and skin rash. There were 70 serious AEFI cases (1.12 per million doses), including 9 cases of meningoencephalitis and 4 cases of death. The post-marketing surveillance data add the evidence that the Chengdu institute live attenutated vaccine has a reasonable safety profile. The relationship between encephalitis and SA-14-14-2 vaccination should be further studied.

  5. Risk factors for avian influenza virus contamination of live poultry markets in Zhejiang, China during the 2015–2016 human influenza season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qimei; Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Mao, Haiyan; Chen, Enfu

    2017-01-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs), being a potential source of avian influenza virus, require effective environmental surveillance management. In our study, a total of 2865 environmental samples were collected from 292 LBMs during the 2015–2016 human influenza season from 10 cities in Zhejiang province, China. The samples were tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Field investigations were carried out to investigate probable risk factors. Of the environmental samples, 1519 (53.0%) were contaminated by A subtype. The highest prevalence of the H9 subtype was 30.2%, and the frequencies of the H5 and H7 subtype were 9.3% and 17.3%, respectively. Hangzhou and Jinhua cities were contaminated more seriously than the others. The prevalence of H5/H7/H9 in drinking water samples was highest, at 50.9%, and chopping board swabs ranked second, at 49.3%. Duration of sales per day, types of live poultry, LBM location and the number of live poultry were the main risk factors for environmental contamination, according to logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, LBMs in Zhejiang were contaminated by avian influenza. Our study has provided clues for avian influenza prevention and control during the human influenza season, especially in areas where LBMs are not closed. PMID:28256584

  6. Risk factors for avian influenza virus contamination of live poultry markets in Zhejiang, China during the 2015-2016 human influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qimei; Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Mao, Haiyan; Chen, Enfu

    2017-03-03

    Live bird markets (LBMs), being a potential source of avian influenza virus, require effective environmental surveillance management. In our study, a total of 2865 environmental samples were collected from 292 LBMs during the 2015-2016 human influenza season from 10 cities in Zhejiang province, China. The samples were tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Field investigations were carried out to investigate probable risk factors. Of the environmental samples, 1519 (53.0%) were contaminated by A subtype. The highest prevalence of the H9 subtype was 30.2%, and the frequencies of the H5 and H7 subtype were 9.3% and 17.3%, respectively. Hangzhou and Jinhua cities were contaminated more seriously than the others. The prevalence of H5/H7/H9 in drinking water samples was highest, at 50.9%, and chopping board swabs ranked second, at 49.3%. Duration of sales per day, types of live poultry, LBM location and the number of live poultry were the main risk factors for environmental contamination, according to logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, LBMs in Zhejiang were contaminated by avian influenza. Our study has provided clues for avian influenza prevention and control during the human influenza season, especially in areas where LBMs are not closed.

  7. "Social marketing" for early neonatal care: saving newborn lives in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Iram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, developing countries carry a large share of neonatal mortality in the world. According to UNICEF, almost 450 newborn children die every hour, mostly from preventable causes. Restricted access to quality and hygienic delivery services and limited knowledge about handling the newborn aggravate the situation. South Asia, and Pakistan in particular, have reduced their child and infant mortality during the last decade; however, neonatal mortality still remains unacceptably high. There are multiple reasons, mainly related to practices and behaviours of communities and traditional birth attendants. Rural and poor populations suffer most in Pakistan, where three out of five deliveries still occur at home. Traditional community practices and conservative norms drastically affect neonatal health outcomes. Preventing sepsis at the umbilical cord, keeping the baby at the correct temperature after birth and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding are three simple strategies or messages that need to be disseminated widely to prevent many neonatal mortalities and morbidities. Since inappropriate practices in handling newborns are directly linked with persistent and unremitting behaviours among health providers and the community at large, we suggest doing robust "social marketing" for saving newborn lives. The objective of the paper is to present a social-marketing strategy and a marketing mix that will help address and surmount actual barriers and promote alternative behaviours in early neonatal care.

  8. Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The release of animals to reestablish an extirpated population is a decision problem that is often attended by considerable uncertainty about the probability of success. Annual releases of captive-reared juvenile Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were begun in 1993 in central Florida, USA, to establish a breeding, non-migratory population. Over a 12-year period, 286 birds were released, but by 2004, the introduced flock had produced only four wild-fledged birds. Consequently, releases were halted over managers' concerns about the performance of the released flock and uncertainty about the efficacy of further releases. We used data on marked, released birds to develop predictive models for addressing whether releases should be resumed, and if so, under what schedule. To examine the outcome of different release scenarios, we simulated the survival and productivity of individual female birds under a baseline model that recognized age and breeding-class structure and which incorporated empirically estimated stochastic elements. As data on wild-fledged birds from captive-reared parents were sparse, a key uncertainty that confronts release decision-making is whether captive-reared birds and their offspring share the same vital rates. Therefore, we used data on the only population of wild Whooping Cranes in existence to construct two alternatives to the baseline model. The probability of population persistence was highly sensitive to the choice of these three models. Under the baseline model, extirpation of the population was nearly certain under any scenario of resumed releases. In contrast, the model based on estimates from wild birds projected a high probability of persistence under any release scenario, including cessation of releases. Therefore, belief in either of these models suggests that further releases are an ineffective use of resources. In the third model, which simulated a population Allee effect, population persistence was sensitive to the release decision

  9. Chemical magnetoreception: bird cryptochrome 1a is excited by blue light and forms long-lived radical-pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Liedvogel

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes (Cry have been suggested to form the basis of light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. However, to function as magnetic compass sensors, the cryptochromes of migratory birds must possess a number of key biophysical characteristics. Most importantly, absorption of blue light must produce radical pairs with lifetimes longer than about a microsecond. Cryptochrome 1a (gwCry1a and the photolyase-homology-region of Cry1 (gwCry1-PHR from the migratory garden warbler were recombinantly expressed and purified from a baculovirus/Sf9 cell expression system. Transient absorption measurements show that these flavoproteins are indeed excited by light in the blue spectral range leading to the formation of radicals with millisecond lifetimes. These biophysical characteristics suggest that gwCry1a is ideally suited as a primary light-mediated, radical-pair-based magnetic compass receptor.

  10. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  11. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  12. Living in the dark does not mean a blind life: bird and mammal visual communication in dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María Del Mar

    2017-04-05

    For many years, it was believed that bird and mammal communication 'in the dark of the night' relied exclusively on vocal and chemical signalling. However, in recent decades, several case studies have conveyed the idea that the nocturnal world is rich in visual information. Clearly, a visual signal needs a source of light to work, but diurnal light (twilight included, i.e. any light directly dependent on the sun) is not the only source of luminosity on this planet. Actually, moonlight represents a powerful source of illumination that cannot be neglected from the perspective of visual communication. White patches of feathers and fur on a dark background have the potential to be used to communicate with conspecifics and heterospecifics in dim light across different contexts and for a variety of reasons. Here: (i) we review current knowledge on visual signalling in crepuscular and nocturnal birds and mammals; and (ii) we also present some possible cases of birds and mammals that, due to the characteristics of their feather and fur coloration pattern, might use visual signals in dim light. Visual signalling in nocturnal animals is still an emerging field and, to date, it has received less attention than many other means of communication, including visual communication under daylight. For this reason, many questions remain unanswered and, sometimes, even unasked.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  13. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  14. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  15. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G R William; Robinson, Timothy P; Tatem, Andrew J; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Farrar, Jeremy J; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-06-17

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease.

  16. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G. R. William; Robinson, Timothy P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P.; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Hay, Simon I.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease. PMID:24937647

  17. Sustained live poultry market surveillance contributes to early warnings for human infection with avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shisong; Bai, Tian; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Peng, Bo; Liu, Hui; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Renli; Ma, Hanwu; Zhu, Wenfei; Wang, Dayan; Cheng, Jinquan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-08-03

    Sporadic human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N6) virus have been reported in different provinces in China since April 2014. From June 2015 to January 2016, routine live poultry market (LPM) surveillance was conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province. H5N6 viruses were not detected until November 2015. The H5N6 virus-positive rate increased markedly beginning in December 2015, and viruses were detected in LPMs in all districts of the city. Coincidently, two human cases with histories of poultry exposure developed symptoms and were diagnosed as H5N6-positive in Shenzhen during late December 2015 and early January 2016. Similar viruses were identified in environmental samples collected in the LPMs and the patients. In contrast to previously reported H5N6 viruses, viruses with six internal genes derived from the H9N2 or H7N9 viruses were detected in the present study. The increased H5N6 virus-positive rate in the LPMs and the subsequent human infections demonstrated that sustained LPM surveillance for avian influenza viruses provides an early warning for human infections. Interventions, such as LPM closures, should be immediately implemented to reduce the risk of human infection with the H5N6 virus when the virus is widely detected during LPM surveillance.

  18. Reading baby books: medicine, marketing, money and the lives of American infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Janet; Weiner, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article examines American baby books from the late nineteenth through the twentieth century. Baby books are ephemeral publications—formatted with one or more printed pages for recording developmental, health, and social information about infants and often including personal observations, artifacts such as photographs or palm prints, medical and other prescriptive advice, and advertisements. For historians they serve as records of the changing social and cultural worlds of infancy, offering insights into the interplay of childrearing practices and larger social movements.Baby books are a significant historical source both challenging and supporting current historiography, and they illustrate how medical, market and cultural forces shaped the ways babies were cared for and in turn how their won behavior shaped family lives. A typology of baby books includes the lavishly illustrated keepsake books of the late nineteenth century, commercial and public health books of the twentieth century, and on-line records of the present day. Themes that emerge over time include those of scientific medicine and infant psychology, religion and consumerism. The article relies on secondary literature and on archival sources including the collections of the UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library as well as privately held baby books.

  19. Photoperiod-independent changes in immunoreactive brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in a free-living, tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ignacio T; Bentley, George E; Wotus, Cheryl; Wingfield, John C

    2006-01-01

    Timing of seasonal reproduction in high latitude vertebrates is generally regulated by photoperiodic cues. Increasing day length in the spring is associated with changes in the brain that are responsible for mediating reproductive activities. A primary example of this is the increased content of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus in birds as they enter the spring breeding season. Increased GnRH activity stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary. These gonadotropins induce growth of the gonads and release of sex steroids which act on the brain to mediate reproductive behaviors. By contrast, seasonal breeding in the tropics can occur in the absence of significant changes in photoperiod. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated whether seasonal breeding in free-living tropical vertebrates is associated with seasonal changes in the GnRH system. We studied two populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) at the equator, separated by only 25 km, but with asynchronous reproductive phenologies associated with local climate and independent of photoperiodic cues. We collected brains and measured GnRH immunoreactivity (GnRH-ir) during each population's breeding and non-breeding periods. Breeding males had larger, but not more, GnRH-ir cells than non-breeding birds. The plasticity of the GnRH system was associated with local climate, such that the two populations exhibited asynchronous changes in GnRH-ir despite experiencing identical photoperiod conditions. Our results demonstrate that tropical birds can exhibit neural changes similar to those exhibited in higher latitude birds. However, these tropical populations appear to be using supplementary cues (e.g., rainfall, temperature, food availability) in a similar way to higher latitude species using an initial predictive cue (photoperiod). These results raise questions about the evolution of

  20. Aves en ambientes marinos y salinos: viviendo en hábitats secos Birds in marine and saline environments: living in dry habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2000-09-01

    water. Marine birds use salt glands, which produce excretion solutions more concentrated than seawater to eliminate excess salt. The physiology and phenotypic plasticity of nasal glands appears to be correlated with the ecological features of species. Birds can also minimize osmotic stress by choosing hypo-osmotic preys, preys with reduced water content, and/or by decreasing salt intake. Although the kidney of birds is clearly less efficiently in its capacity to concentrate the urine than that of mammals, there are interspecific differences in renal structure and physiology that may be correlated with the birds ecological habits, and hence to represent adaptive mechanism to prevent water loss. The kidney may be especially important in taxa that lack active salt gland, such as passerines. Passerines, which are supposed to have limited ability to use saline habitats, include several marine and salt-marsh species. In this review I show that the interaction of the kidney and rectum in osmoregulatory physiology, coupled with selective feeding behavior play a major role in the maintenance of water and salt balance of passerines living in salty environments.

  1. Dispersal and Transmission of Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 4 among Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfu Yin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 (APMV-4 is found sporadically in wild birds worldwide, and it is an economically important poultry pathogen. Despite the existence of several published strains, very little is known about the distribution, host species, and transmission of APMV-4 strains. To better understand the relationships among these factors, we conducted an APMV-4 surveillance of wild birds and domestic poultry in six provinces of China suspected of being intercontinental flyways and sites of interspecies transmission. APMV-4 surveillance was conducted in 9,160 wild birds representing seven species, and 1,461 domestic poultry in live bird markets (LMBs from December 2013 to June 2016. The rate of APMV-4 isolation was 0.10% (11/10,621, and viruses were isolated from swan geese, bean geese, cormorants, mallards, and chickens. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 11 isolated viruses indicated that all the isolates belonging to genotype I were epidemiologically connected with wild bird-origin viruses from the Ukraine and Italy. Moreover, chicken-origin APMV-4 strains isolated from the LBMs were highly similar to wild bird-origin viruses from nearby lakes with free-living wild birds. In additional, a hemagglutination-negative APMV-4 virus was identified. These findings, together with recent APMV-4 studies, suggest potential virus interspecies transmission between wild birds and domestic poultry, and reveal possible epidemiological intercontinental connections between APMV-4 transmission by wild birds.

  2. Marketing knowledge and strategy for SMEs: Can they live without it?

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; STOJANOVSKI, Mitre

    2012-01-01

    The literature has for more than two decades warned of operational, organizational, dysfunctional, market and managerial barriers hindering the marketing activities and plans of small companies. Small firms typically possess certain characteristics, which serve to differentiate them from larger organizations. These characteristics include inherent weaknesses with respect to capitalization and marketing awareness and practice. Many observed problems stemmed from businesses failing to practice ...

  3. Characteristics of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Wild Birds Confiscated in Illegal Trade Markets, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Carlos Alexandre Rey; Pereira, Ingrid Annes; de Araújo, Maiara dos Santos; Santos, André Felipe Mercês; Lopes, Rudi Pereira; Christakis, Sandra; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was investigated in 109 wild birds poached in the illegal wildlife trade in Rio de Janeiro; most of them are passerines from Thraupidae family and three from Psittacidae. One strain of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium and two strains of Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from passerine species and all of them showed resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs, like ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, tetracycline, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. PFGE showed 100% similarity among the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strain isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris) and the strains isolated from a human outbreak, in southern Brazil. The two Salmonella ser. Panama strains isolated from two chestnut-capped blackbirds (Chrysomus ruficapillus) present in the same catch showed the same clonal origin and have never been associated with epizooties and human outbreaks. Potential for dissemination of resistant Salmonella through situations offered by captive management and the isolation of the same strain from wild birds and human sources may become a problem for the conservation of natural populations and to public health.

  4. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  5. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  6. A multiplex PCR for detection of poxvirus and papillomavirus in cutaneous warts from live birds and museum skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tris, J; Williams, R A J; Abel-Fernández, E; Barreiro, J; Conesa, J J; Figuerola, J; Martinez-Martínez, M; Ramírez, A; Benitez, L

    2011-12-01

    Viral cutaneous lesions are frequent in some bird populations, though we are generally ignorant of the causal agent. In some instances, they represent a threat to livestock and wildlife health. We present here a multiplex PCR which detects and distinguishes infection by two such agents, avipoxviruses and papillomaviruses, in avian hosts. We assayed biopsies and superficial skin swabs from field and preserved museum skin specimens. Ninety-three percent of samples from symptomatic specimens tested positive for the presence of avipox (n = 23) or papillomavirus (n = 5). Sixteen and five sequences, corresponding to the P4b and L1 genes, were obtained from avipox and papillomavirus, respectively. One museum specimen, of Fringilla coelebs (chaffinch), was apparently infected with both viruses. Although papillomavirus sequences proved identical to previously published sequences, four novel avipox sequences were generated and used to build a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. Our tree recovered a similar topology to that of several recent authors; however, we also propose here two new minor avipox clades (B1b and B3). This multiplex PCR technique shows improved sensitivity compared to other avipox and papillomavirus assays, is able to detect a wide range of avipox and papillomavirus types (it amplifies all three avian-derived papillomavirus genera described thus far and sequences from both major avipox clades), and was even able to detect ancient viral DNA contained in museum specimens of greater than 75 years antiquity for both viruses.

  7. [Wild birds--a reservoir for influenza A virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griot, C; Hoop, R

    2007-11-01

    Influenza A viruses, in particular the H5 and H7 subtypes, have caused epizootic diseases in poultry for a long time. Wild aquatic birds and shorebirds form the natural virus reservoir. All influenza virus subtypes and almost all possible haemagglutinin/neuraminidase combinations have been detected in wild birds, whereas relatively few have been detected in humans and other mammals. In 1997, the emerging and spreading of the highly pathogenic strain H5N1 within Asia was supported by lack of hygiene in commercial poultry units and by the existence of live bird markets. During autumn 2005, migratory birds have been accused for spreading the infection along their flyways to Europe including Switzerland. For early detection of introduction to Europe, many countries have initiated surveillance programs for avian influenza in wild birds. Vaccines against influenza A viruses are existing for birds and are widely used to protect domestic fowl in endemic regions of Asia as well as valuable birds in zoos worldwide. Subtype H5N1 could be the progenitor virus of a new pandemic influenza virus. Therefore, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, Paris) as well as the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO, Rome) will need to increase their efforts to assist countries to combat the disease in the field.

  8. The prolactin response to an acute stressor in relation to parental care and corticosterone in a short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Baptiste; Chastel, Olivier; Jenni, Lukas

    2011-10-01

    Prolactin plays an important role in mediating parental care in birds, but little is known about changes in prolactin levels when animals disrupt their reproductive behaviour during emergency life-history stages. We investigated the variation of prolactin levels with breeding stage, sex, body condition and as a response to a standardized acute stressor in a small short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops under natural field conditions. We found higher baseline levels of prolactin in females during the brooding phase than in their mates which feed them and their chicks at this stage. Moreover, this is the first report of a differential prolactin stress-response between sexes with contrasting parental care within a breeding phase. Capture, handling and restraint induced a clear decrease of prolactin levels which was less pronounced in females at the very early stage of brooding compared to females in later stages. In contrast, the prolactin stress response in males remained nearly constant over the breeding stages and was stronger than in females. Baseline levels of prolactin, but not handling-induced levels, were positively correlated with body condition. We found a weak relationship between the decrease in prolactin due to acute handling stress and handling-induced levels of corticosterone. Taken together, both baseline and stress response levels of prolactin were related to the amount of parental care, although we found no relationship with reproductive success. It appears that the response to an acute stressor in prolactin levels is finely tuned to parental duties and investment. Hence, prolactin appears to be involved in mediating the trade-off between current reproduction versus self-maintenance and future reproduction.

  9. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  10. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  11. Small mammals of the Mongolian mountain steppe region near Erdensant: insights from live-trapping and bird pellet remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Isaac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the distribution, abundance and ecology of small mammals in Mongolia and as a result there is scant knowledge of the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on small mammal populations. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of small mammals in mountain steppe habitat from live-trapping and analysis of mammal remains from raptor pellets and below nests. During live-trapping, root voles ( Microtus oeconemus were the most commonly caught species accounting for 47.5 % of captures, striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis and pika ( Ochotona hyperborea accounted for 30 % and 22.5 % of captures respectively. Temperature influenced trapping success, with small mammals appearing to avoid being active at temperatures over 20 ̊C. The three species caught on the trapping grid appeared to avoid competition for resources through both temporal and spatial differences in the use of available habitat. Mammals identified from raptor pellets and other remains included the grey hamster ( Cricatulus migratorius , Siberian marmot ( Marmota sibirica , red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , long-tailed souslik ( Citellus undulatus and the Daurian mole ( Myospalax aspalax. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conservation of mammals in Mongolia and their co-existence with livestock and humans.

  12. Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds: Season and/or light intensity-dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Thomas; Sun, Jiachen; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2017-09-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species. Additionally, we looked at whether light intensity determined the severity of effects of ALAN on sleep. We therefore exposed animals to artificial light inside the nest box (3lx) in December (winter) and February (pre-breeding season). Results from February were compared with the results from a previous study in February, using a lower light intensity (1.6lx). We found little evidence for a season-dependent response. Effects of ALAN hardly differed between high and low light intensity. ALAN disrupted sleep with as main effect a decrease in sleep duration (≈-40min) as animals woke up earlier (≈-24min). However, compared to a natural dark situation sleep onset was delayed by high but not by low light intensity of ALAN. Our study underlines earlier found disruptive effects of ALAN on sleep of free-living animals. While we found no conclusive evidence for seasonal or light intensity-dependent effects of ALAN, additional experimental work using lower light intensities might show such differences. Examining potential management options is crucial in mitigating disruptive effects of light pollution, which will be an important focus for future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Barbraud, Christophe; Meillère, Alizée; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Delord, Karine; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Seabirds are top predators of the marine environment that accumulate contaminants over a long life-span. Chronic exposure to pollutants is thought to compromise survival rate and long-term reproductive outputs in these long-lived organisms, thus inducing population decline. However, the demographic consequences of contaminant exposure are largely theoretical because of the dearth of long-term datasets. This study aims to test whether adult survival rate, return to the colony and long-term breeding performance were related to blood mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), by using a capture–mark–recapture dataset on the vulnerable wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. We did not find evidence for any effect of contaminants on adult survival probability. However, blood Hg and POPs negatively impacted long-term breeding probability, hatching and fledging probabilities. The proximate mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects are likely multifaceted, through physiological perturbations and interactions with reproductive costs. Using matrix population models, we projected a demographic decline in response to an increase in Hg or POPs concentrations. This decline in population growth rate could be exacerbated by other anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate change, disease and fishery bycatch. This study gives a new dimension to the overall picture of environmental threats to wildlife populations. PMID:24920477

  14. Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Barbraud, Christophe; Meillère, Alizée; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Delord, Karine; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-07-22

    Seabirds are top predators of the marine environment that accumulate contaminants over a long life-span. Chronic exposure to pollutants is thought to compromise survival rate and long-term reproductive outputs in these long-lived organisms, thus inducing population decline. However, the demographic consequences of contaminant exposure are largely theoretical because of the dearth of long-term datasets. This study aims to test whether adult survival rate, return to the colony and long-term breeding performance were related to blood mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), by using a capture-mark-recapture dataset on the vulnerable wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. We did not find evidence for any effect of contaminants on adult survival probability. However, blood Hg and POPs negatively impacted long-term breeding probability, hatching and fledging probabilities. The proximate mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects are likely multifaceted, through physiological perturbations and interactions with reproductive costs. Using matrix population models, we projected a demographic decline in response to an increase in Hg or POPs concentrations. This decline in population growth rate could be exacerbated by other anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate change, disease and fishery bycatch. This study gives a new dimension to the overall picture of environmental threats to wildlife populations.

  15. Genetic diversity at neutral and adaptive loci determines individual fitness in a long-lived territorial bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Rosa; Carrete, Martina; Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José Antonio

    2012-08-22

    There is compelling evidence about the manifest effects of inbreeding depression on individual fitness and populations' risk of extinction. The majority of studies addressing inbreeding depression on wild populations are generally based on indirect measures of inbreeding using neutral markers. However, the study of functional loci, such as genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is highly recommended. MHC genes constitute an essential component of the immune system of individuals, which is directly related to individual fitness and survival. In this study, we analyse heterozygosity fitness correlations of neutral and adaptive genetic variation (22 microsatellite loci and two loci of the MHC class II, respectively) with the age of recruitment and breeding success of a decimated and geographically isolated population of a long-lived territorial vulture. Our results indicate a negative correlation between neutral genetic diversity and age of recruitment, suggesting that inbreeding may be delaying reproduction. We also found a positive correlation between functional (MHC) genetic diversity and breeding success, together with a specific positive effect of the most frequent pair of cosegregating MHC alleles in the population. Globally, our findings demonstrate that genetic depauperation in small populations has a negative impact on the individual fitness, thus increasing the populations' extinction risk.

  16. Use of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in molecular screening of Newcastle disease virus in poultry and free-living bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Rodrigues, Juliana Nogueira Martins; Seki, Meire Christina; de Moraes, Fabricio Edgar; Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; Durigon, Edison Luis; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple molecular method of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to differentiate Newcastle disease virus strains according to their pathogenicity, in order to use it in molecular screening of Newcastle disease virus in poultry and free-living bird populations. Specific primers were developed to differentiate LaSota--LS--(vaccine strain) and Sao Joao do Meriti--SJM--strain (highly pathogenic strain). Chickens and pigeons were experimentally vaccinated/infected for an in vivo study to determine virus shedding in feces. Validation of sensitivity and specificity of the primers (SJM and LS) by experimental models used in the present study and results obtained in the molecular analysis of the primers by BLAST made it possible to generalize results. The development of primers that differentiate the level of pathogenicity of NDV stains is very important, mainly in countries where real-time RT-PCR is still not used as a routine test. These primers were able to determine the presence of the agent and to differentiate it according to its pathogenicity.

  17. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  18. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  19. Splintering of tourism market: new appearing forms of cultural tourism as a consequence of changes in everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelincić, Daniela Angelina

    2009-03-01

    Within the concept of cultural tourism, this article defines relatively new concepts of creative and hobby tourism, which are detected as recent niche markets. Cultural tourism is a narrow specialized market, while creative and hobby tourism relate to even more specialized segments. Even these specialized forms of tourism have their market whose growth is very probable taking into account changes in everyday work as well as changes in the values of human activity in general. These changes reflect also the sector of tourism, which is obvious in the ever growing splintering of tourism market as well as of tourism forms. The article reviews theoretical concepts of cultural, creative and hobby tourism as to prepare the basis for applied tourist programmes. It looks into the history of cultural tourism as to see what changes occurred and brought it to life. Changes that have taken place in everyday lives of people and the impact of everyday free time activities on tourism are also analysed. Further splintering of the cultural tourism sector is noticed and cultural tourism sub-forms are detected by analysing some of the leading home style and creativity magazines. The article also proposes possible application of push/pull factors to creative/hobby tourism.

  20. Public Health Risk of Arsenic Species in Chicken Tissues from Live Poultry Markets of Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Zhang, Wenfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu

    2017-03-03

    Arsenic-based feed additives, such as roxarsone (ROX), are still legally and widely used in food animal production in many countries. This study was conducted to systematically characterize the content and speciation of arsenic in chicken tissues from live poultry markets and in commercial chicken feeds in Guangdong, a major poultry production and consumption province in China, and to assess the corresponding public health risk. The total arsenic contents in the commercial feeds could be modeled as a mixture of two log-normal distributions (geometric means: 0.66 and 17.5 mg/kg), and inorganic arsenic occurred at high levels (0.19-9.7 mg/kg) in those with ROX detected. In general, chicken livers had much higher contents of total arsenic compared to the muscle tissues (breast and drumstick), and chicken muscle from the urban markets contained arsenic at much higher levels than that from the rural markets. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (bladder and lung cancer) from dietary exposure to arsenic contained in chicken meat products on local markets was above the serious or priority level (10(-4)) for 70% and 30% of the adult populations in Guangzhou and Lianzhou, respectively. These findings indicate the significant need to phase out the use of arsenic-based feed additives in China.

  1. Validation of live animal ultrasonic measurements of body composition in market lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenheiser, J C; Greiner, S P; Lewis, R M; Notter, D R

    2010-09-01

    Market lambs from the state fair of Virginia (n = 172) were ultrasonically evaluated by 4 scan technicians and 3 image interpreters to determine accuracy of ultrasonic estimates of loin muscle area (ULMA), backfat thickness (UBF), and body wall thickness (UBW). Lambs were initially scanned at the preferred magnification setting of each technician; 2 chose 1.5x and 2 chose 2.0x. Lambs were then scanned a second time for ULMA and UBF with machine magnification settings changed from 1.5 to 2.0x, or vice versa, midway through the second scan. Lambs were then slaughtered, and analogous measurements [carcass loin muscle area, carcass backfat thickness, and carcass body wall thickness (CBW)] were recorded on chilled carcasses. Pooled, residual correlation coefficients within technicians and interpreters between ultrasonic measurements from the first scan and carcass measurements were 0.66 for loin muscle area, 0.78 for backfat thickness, and 0.73 for body wall thickness, but were reduced to 0.43, 0.69, and 0.50, respectively, by inclusion of linear effects of carcass weight in the model. Mean bias for technicians and interpreters ranged from -1.30 to -2.66 cm(2) for loin muscle area, -0.12 to -0.17 cm for backfat thickness, and 0.14 to -0.03 cm for body wall thickness; prediction errors ranged from 1.86 to 2.22 cm(2), 0.12 to 0.14 cm, and 0.35 to 0.38 cm, respectively. Pooled correlations between repeated measures were 0.67 for ULMA, 0.79 for UBF, and 0.68 for UBW at the same magnification and 0.73 for ULMA and 0.76 for UBF across different magnification settings. Mean differences between repeated measures were more variable among technicians and interpreters than statistics comparing ultrasound to carcass measures. Standard errors of repeatability ranged from 1.61 to 2.45 cm(2) for ULMA, 0.07 to 0.11 cm for UBF, and 0.36 to 0.42 cm for UBW. The effect of changing magnification setting on technician and interpreter repeatability was small for UBF and ULMA. The accuracy of

  2. You Cannot Live of Love Alone – The Interrelation of Legitimacy and Effectuation in Nascent Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Rask, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how success in legitimacy building can create restrictions and problems for new venture’s development in highly volatile settings. Through a longitudinal single in-depth case study in the nascent e-mobility market, we uncover unwanted effects of this process. In a nascent market...... entrepreneurs need to engage in legitimization activities targeted both at the emerging firm and the emerging industry in which it operates. The gaining of legitimacy from various stakeholders had two consequences: overconfidence which led to misunderstanding of commitment and a lack of learning as well...

  3. [Estimation of heritability and repeatability of resting metabolic rate in birds, with free-living pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca (Aves: Passeriformes) as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, A V; Kerimov, A B; Ivankina, E V

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of a trait heritability and repeatability can get at an idea of its usefulness for being an individual characteristic and its ability to change under selection pressure. Heritability and repeatability of energetic parameters still poorly studied in birds. The most important physiological characteristic of homoiotherms is resting metabolic rate (RMR), which, in the absence of productive processes, does not exceed basal metabolic rate (BMR). We estimated BMR repeatability in free-living pied flycatchers in Moscow Region (55 degrees 44' N, 36 degrees 51' E; 1992-2008) and Tomsk (56 degrees 20' N, 84 degrees 56' E; 2008-2009) populations over intervals from 40 days to 3 years. In Moscow Region population, BMR repeatability amounted to tau = 0.34 +/- 0.10 (n=80) if measured over 1 year interval, tau = 0.60 +/- 0.15 (n=19) if measured over 2 years interval, and tau = 0.85 +/- 0.13 (n=6) if measured over 3 years interval providing that consecutive BMR measurements were done in the same period of reproductive season. In Tomsk population, BMR repeatability, measured over 1 year interval, amounted to tau = 0.49 +/- 0.11 (n=50). Repeatability is a measure of a trait constancy and sets the upper limit of its heritability. To estimate RMR heritability, cross-fostering experiments have been conducted in 2003-2005 with flycatchers of Moscow Region population. RMR of chicks positively correlated with BMR of their biological fathers, whereas such correlation in metabolic rates between chicks and their foster fathers was absent. The RMR heritability estimate turned out to be h2 = 0.43 +/- 0.17 (n=210). The obtained estimates of heritability and repeatability of fundamental energetic traits are rather high for physiological features. This suggests the existence of a potential for direct selection on BMR and evolutionary stable diversity of avian populations with regard to basal metabolic rate.

  4. Labour-market marginalisation after mental disorders among young natives and immigrants living in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Magnus; Tinghög, Petter; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Saboonchi, Fredrik; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2017-06-23

    The aim was to investigate the associations between mental disorders and three different measures of labour-market marginalisation, and differences between native Swedes and immigrants. The study comprised 1,753,544 individuals, aged 20-35 years, and resident in Sweden 2004. They were followed 2005-2011 with regard to disability pension, sickness absence (≥90 days) and unemployment (≥180 days). Immigrants were born in Western countries (Nordic countries, EU, Europe outside EU or North-America/Oceania), or in non-Western countries (Africa, Asia or South-America). Mental disorders were grouped into seven subgroups based on a record of in- or specialised outpatient health care 2001-2004. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by Cox regression models with both fixed and time-dependent covariates and competing risks. We also performed stratified analyses with regard to labour-market attachment. Individuals with mental disorders had a seven times higher risk of disability pension, a two times higher risk of sickness absence, and a 20% higher risk of unemployment than individuals without mental disorders. Individuals with personality disorders and schizophrenia/non-affective psychoses had highest risk estimates for having disability pension and long-term sickness absence, while the risk estimates of long-term unemployment were similar among all subgroups of mental disorders. Among persons with mental disorders, native Swedes had higher risk estimates for disability pension (HR:6.6; 95%CI:6.4-6.8) than Western immigrants (4.8; 4.4-5.2) and non-Western immigrants (4.8; 4.4-5.1), slightly higher risk estimates for sickness absence (2.1;2.1-2.2) than Western (1.9;1.8-2.1), and non-Western (1.9;1.7-2.0) immigrants but lower risk estimates for unemployment (1.4;1.3-1.4) than Western (1.8;1.7-1.9) and non-Western immigrants (2.0;1.9-2.1). There were similar risk estimates among sub-regions within both Western and non-Western countries

  5. The effect and influence of closing live poultry markets to control and prevent human avian in fluenza infection%关闭活禽市场对防控人感染禽流感的成效与影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兆营; 沈雅; 杨丹丹

    2013-01-01

    活禽市场是城市人群感染禽流感的关键场所.关闭活禽市场,可以减少公众暴露风险,但无法从根本上杜绝人群暴露机会,禽流感真正的风险源是野鸟的高带毒率和分散、混乱的养殖,源头环节才是控制禽流感的关键.因此,关闭活禽市场并不能彻底改变鸟禽间的病毒感染谱和流行态势,对禽流感传播流行链影响有限,关闭活禽市场不仅剥夺了消费者的选择权,长远看也不利于家禽养殖业的健康发展和市场多元化需求,进而影响社会和经济的发展.%Live poultry markets are a critical risk factor for urban populations infected with avian influenza.Closing the live poultry markets could reduce the risk of public exposure,but would not fundamentally eliminate the potential for exposure.The true source of risk is the high infection rate of wild birds as well as dispersed and disorganized poultry farming practices.Source is the key control point for avian influenza.Therefore,shutting down live poultry markets is not a complete solution to changing the spectrum of infection and limiting the spread of avian influenza.Shutting down live poultry markets will have a limited impact on the chain of infection,and will only serve to deprive consumers of their right to choose.Looking to the future,this approach is also likely to have negative consequences for the healthy development of the poultry industry,and with it further impacts to societal and economic development.

  6. Target Audience of Live Opera Transmissions to Cinema Theatres from the Marketing Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Tahal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Opera has a famous history and even the present-day repertoire in opera houses mostly consists of classical and well-known works. Marketers are trying to find new ways that would enable opera lovers all over the world to enjoy top quality performances. One of the most successful models is real-time transmissions of operas to geographically remote cinemas. Cinemas from all around the world participate in the project. In this paper, the authors analyze the spectators´ profile and point out differences between North America and the Czech Republic, focusing on transmissions of performances by the Metropolitan Opera in New York. The authors submit a detailed analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of the spectators and the attendance frequency. Special attention is paid to the marketing profile of Czech spectators, based on primary data gathered in the research. The paper is a combination of research report and business case study. The study reveals that female visitors prevail. Elderly people are also represented in high percentages. The spectators are characterized by refined taste in their lifestyles and familiarity with modern technology.

  7. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M.

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  8. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M.

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  9. Two birds with one stone: Improving the quality of market information and inter-functional integration during product development by applying a means-end-chain approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Harmsen, Hanne

    The need for better links to the market as well as improved internal sharing and use of market information have been stressed as central for market oriented product development. In this paper we suggest a conseptual model for the identification of relevant market information (based...

  10. Two birds with one stone: Improving the quality of market information and inter-functional integration during product development by applying a means-end-chain approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2005-01-01

    The need for better links to the market as well as improved internal sharing and use of market information have been stressed as central for market oriented product development. In this paper we suggest a conceptual model for the identification of relevant market information (based...

  11. Avian information systems: Developing web-based bird avoidance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Buurma, L.; DeFusco, R.; Dekker, A.; Sierdsema, H.; Sluiter, F.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, H.; van Loon, E.

    2008-01-01

    Collisions between aircraft and birds, so-called "bird strikes," can result in serious damage to aircraft and even in the loss of lives. Information about the distribution of birds in the air and on the ground can be used to reduce the risk of bird strikes and their impact on operations en route and

  12. Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  13. Talking Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海文

    2005-01-01

    Many students of Englishthink thatlearning a new languageis very difficult.N ow think howdifficultitis to learn English whenyour brain is only the size of abird's brain。That is what som ebirds can do.M any different kinds of birdscan copy the sounds of lan-guage.A frican gray parrots are thebirds bestknown for this.Every D ecem ber in London,the N ationalCage and A viary BirdShow tries to find the best“talkbird in the world.O ne bird nam edPrudle stood outam ong the“talk-ing birds by winning this prizeevery...

  14. Immunogenicity of avian influenza H7N9 virus in birds: Identification of viral epitopes recognized by the immune system following vaccination and challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March of 2013, the first cases of H7N9 influenza were reported in humans in China and shortly thereafter the virus was isolated from poultry in live bird markets. In 2014, a second wave of human infections occurred with similar mortality rates. The genetic composition of these H7N9 influenza vi...

  15. Genetic diversity of newcastle disease virus in wild birds and pigeons in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeck, Chantal J; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T; Owoade, Ademola A; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R; Ottosson, Ulf; Muller, Claude P

    2013-12-01

    In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of the recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII, and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV in sub-Saharan Africa as well. We investigated 1,723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live-bird markets and sites important for wild-bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intracontinental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of spillover from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region.

  16. Effect of Live Poultry Market Closure on Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Activity in Guangzhou, China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Lau, Eric H Y; Li, Kuibiao; Leung, Y H Connie; Yang, Zhicong; Xie, Caojun; Liu, Yufei; Liu, Yanhui; Ma, Xiaowei; Liu, Jianping; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Kuncai; Luo, Lei; Di, Biao; Cowling, Benjamin J; Tang, Xiaoping; Leung, Gabriel M; Wang, Ming; Peiris, Malik

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the effect of closing live poultry markets in China on influenza A(H7N9) virus detection and viability. Intensive sampling was carried out before, during, and after a 2-week citywide market closure; the markets were cleaned and disinfected at the beginning of the closure period. Swab samples were collected at different sites within the markets and tested for H7N9 by real-time reverse transcription PCR and culture. During the closure, H7N9 viral RNA detection and isolation rates in retail markets decreased by 79% (95% CI 64%-88%) and 92% (95% CI 58%-98%), respectively. However, viable H7N9 virus could be cultured from wastewater samples collected up to 2 days after the market closure began. Our findings indicates that poultry workers and the general population are constantly exposed to H7N9 virus at these markets and that market closure and disinfection rapidly reduces the amount of viable virus.

  17. Effect of Live Poultry Market Closure on Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Activity in Guangzhou, China, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Lau, Eric H.Y.; Li, Kuibiao; Leung, Y.H. Connie; Yang, Zhicong; Xie, Caojun; Liu, Yufei; Liu, Yanhui; Ma, Xiaowei; Liu, Jianping; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Kuncai; Luo, Lei; Di, Biao; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Peiris, Malik

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effect of closing live poultry markets in China on influenza A(H7N9) virus detection and viability. Intensive sampling was carried out before, during, and after a 2-week citywide market closure; the markets were cleaned and disinfected at the beginning of the closure period. Swab samples were collected at different sites within the markets and tested for H7N9 by real-time reverse transcription PCR and culture. During the closure, H7N9 viral RNA detection and isolation rates in retail markets decreased by 79% (95% CI 64%–88%) and 92% (95% CI 58%–98%), respectively. However, viable H7N9 virus could be cultured from wastewater samples collected up to 2 days after the market closure began. Our findings indicates that poultry workers and the general population are constantly exposed to H7N9 virus at these markets and that market closure and disinfection rapidly reduces the amount of viable virus. PMID:26402310

  18. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Huang

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs near the patient's house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7% samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6% markets in 98 (80.3% counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%. All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential.

  19. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  20. Seasonal abundance of birds on the Bear River Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains interesting data on the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge such as how far the birds fly, how long do they live, how many have been banded,...

  1. Reassortment of Avian Influenza A/H6N6 Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runyu eYuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since early 2013, H7N9-subtype avian influenza virus (AIV has caused human infection in eastern China. To evaluate AIV contamination and the public risk of infection, we systematically implemented environmental sampling from live poultry markets in Guangdong Province. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and next-generation sequencing, we generated full nucleotide sequences of all 10 H6N6 AIVs isolated during sampling. Focusing on sequence analyses of hemagglutinin genes of the 10 H6N6 AIVs revealed that the viruses were low pathogenic AIVs with the typical hemagglutinin cleavage site of P-Q-I-E-T-R-G. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleocapsid genes of nine AIVs were of ST2853-like (H6-subtype lineage, ST192-like (N6-subtype lineage, and HN573-like (H6-subtype lineage, respectively; whereas the other five genes were of ST339-like (H6-subtype lineage. However, the polymerase PB2 and nucleocapsid genes of one strain (HZ057 were of GS/GD-like (H5N1-subtype and ST339-like lineages. Phylogenic analysis revealed that all eight genes of the 10 viruses belonged to Eurasian avian lineage. Altogether, the 10 AIVs were reassortants of different genetic groups of exchanges with the same virus subtype, thus illustrating the genetic diversity and complexity of H6N6-subtype AIVs in Guangdong Province.

  2. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  3. Western Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  4. Splintering of Tourism Market: New Appearing Forms of Cultural Tourism as a Consequence of Changes in Everyday Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Jelinčić, Daniela Angelina

    2009-01-01

    Within the concept of cultural tourism, this article defines relatively new concepts of creative and hobby tourism, which are detected as recent niche markets. Cultural tourism is a narrow specialized market, while creative and hobby tourism relate to even more specialized segments. Even these specialized forms of tourism have their market whose growth is very probable taking into account changes in everyday work as well as changes in the values of human activity in general. These changes ref...

  5. The Effects of Acute Restraint Stress on Plasma Levels of Prolactin and Corticosterone across Life-History Stages in a Short-Lived Bird: Gambel's White-Crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jesse S; Meddle, Simone L; Wingfield, John C

    2015-01-01

    The general reproductive effort model attempts to predict the resources that will be allocated to a current reproductive bout or to future survival by aborting the current reproductive attempt. Life-history theory predicts that short-lived species should devote more resources toward a reproductive event because brood value is far greater compared with that of long-lived species that have multiple breeding opportunities. Previous bird studies have used patterns of hormone secretion to understand the regulation of parental investment in response to environmental challenges, such as stress. The two key hormones investigated have been prolactin, which promotes parental investment, and corticosterone, which can reduce parental investment. Research on long-lived seabirds showed that prolactin levels decrease in response to a stressor, but the magnitude of the decline was positively correlated with future reproductive potential. However, little is known about the role of prolactin in short-lived species. Here we present prolactin and corticosterone data from a short-lived Arctic breeding, migratory songbird-the white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii-at multiple stages of the breeding and nonbreeding seasons following standardized acute restraint stress. These data show that both prolactin and corticosterone are modulated seasonally. Corticosterone levels increased significantly in response to acute restraint stress during the breeding season in both sexes, but prolactin levels did not change in response to acute restraint stress at any stage of the annual cycle. We found no relationship between corticosterone or prolactin at either baseline or peak induced levels during any stage of breeding.

  6. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  7. 活禽市场甲型流感病毒核酸检测分析%Detection of HA viral nucleic acid in live poultry markets and risk analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灵辉; 李晖; 林锦炎; 陈秋霞; 罗会明; 邹丽容; 莫艳玲; 柯昌文; 何剑峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe characteristics of hemagglutinin(HA) viral nucleic acid in live poultry markets in Pearl River Delta and to analyze potential risk factors of influenza A virus epidemic.Methods From May 2007 to April 2008 ,we conducted a survey in 42 live poultry markets in Pearl River Delta.Standard questionnaires were administered to market operators to collect information on market, types of birds and other animals in the markets, and cleaning and disinfecting practice.The market was visited every month and was sampled at least 4 wipes from cage surface, ground, and ditchwater.All samples were tested for viral nucleic acid of influenza A virusby real-time PCR.Risk factors were analysed for higher HA(influenza A virus) test rate.Results HA was identified in 876 of 3 864 samples tested with a positive rate of 22.67%.There were positive detections for all 7 cities with positive rates of 7.23% - 32.20%.There were positive results in every month with higher positive rates from September to February than average positive rate.The positive rate related to duck was 37.53% ,higher than other animals.The factors associated with higher positive rate than average included market location in town(odds ratio [OR]=9.37,1.07 -82.35) ,retail transaction(OR = 1.37,1.08 - 1.73) ,and slaughter in the market( OR = 1.37,1.08 - 1.73 ).Conclusion HA viral nucleic acid can be detected in live poultry markets.Market location in town, retail mode, slaughter in the market are risk factors for high positive rate.%目的 了解珠江三角洲活禽市场外环境甲型流感病毒核酸分布情况,分析高阳性率的影响因素.方法 2007年5月-2008年4月,在珠江三角洲7个城市选取42个活禽市场,使用统一的调查活禽市场一般情况;用拭子涂抹方法,采集外环境样品,采用荧光定量PCR方法检测甲型流感病毒核酸;对市场HA病毒核酸高阳性率的影响因素进行分析.结果 共检测样品3 864

  8. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  9. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali ACAR; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  10. Marketing marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  11. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  12. Does corticosterone regulate the onset of breeding in free-living birds?: The CORT-Flexibility Hypothesis and six potential mechanisms for priming corticosteroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Christine R; Breuner, Creagh W; Michael Romero, L

    2016-02-01

    For many avian species, the decision to initiate breeding is based on information from a variety of environmental cues, including photoperiod, temperature, food availability, and social interactions. There is evidence that the hormone corticosterone may be involved in delaying the onset of breeding in cases where supplemental cues, such as low food availability and inclement weather, indicate that the environment is not suitable. However, not all studies have found the expected relationships between breeding delays and corticosterone titers. In this review, we present the hypothesis that corticosterone physiology mediates flexibility in breeding initiation (the "CORT-Flexibility Hypothesis"), and propose six possible corticosterone-driven mechanisms in pre-breeding birds that may delay breeding initiation: altering hormone titers, negative feedback regulation, plasma binding globulin concentrations, intracellular receptor concentrations, enzyme activity and interacting hormone systems. Based on the length of the breeding season and species-specific natural history, we also predict variation in corticosterone-regulated pre-breeding flexibility. Although few studies thus far have examined mechanisms beyond plasma hormone titers, the CORT-Flexibility Hypothesis is grounded on a solid foundation of research showing seasonal variation in the physiological stress response and knowledge of physiological mechanisms modulating corticosteroid effects. We propose six possible mechanisms as testable and falsifiable predictions to help clarify the extent of HPA axis regulation of the initiation of breeding.

  13. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede brand

  14. Game Birds of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)

  15. Diving birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanet, Christophe; Masson, Lucien; McKinley, Gareth; Cohen, Robert; Ecole polytechnique Collaboration; MIT Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Many seabirds (gannets, pelicans, gulls, albatrosses) dive into water at high speeds (25 m/s) in order to capture underwater preys. Diving depths of 20 body lengths are reported in the literature. This value is much larger than the one achieved by men, which is of the order of 5. We study this difference by comparing the impact of slender vs bluff bodies. We show that, contrary to bluff bodies, the penetration depth of slender bodies presents a maximum value for a specific impact velocity that we connect to the velocity of diving birds.

  16. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the treatment of H7N9 bird flu. Bird flu vaccine The Food and Drug Administration has approved one ... continue to work on other types of bird flu vaccines. Recommendations for travelers If you're traveling to ...

  17. Migration of birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  18. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings.

  19. A Thankful Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜巧玲

    2002-01-01

    One day, I was playing in the woods when I saw a bird standing on a tree branch in the rain. “Poor bird, I thought, ”He has no home. “When I got home, I set down to make a house for the bird so that the bird would not catch rain any longer.

  20. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bird Importation website . Choosing a bird Match a bird's attitude, temperament, size, and activity level with your family, ... 2009;135:68-77 Compendium of Measures To Control Chlamydophila psittaci ... Pet Birds (Avian Chlamydiosis), 2010 [PDF – 17 pages] National Association ...

  1. HUMANE MARKETING, PEACE MARKETING AND REBRANDING MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Mircea NEDELEA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available According to humane marketing, the entire population of the Earth must be happy, content and even delighted, not only the clients of certain companies (as considered by the classical marketing. Therefore, from this viewing point, we are dealing with the necessary activity of rebranding the marketing itself. Humane marketing represents and concerns the entire economic system regarded from the point of view of the final result, seen by comparison to the happiness of the entire humanity. Humane marketing represents a new concept, a new vision, a new way of seeing the relationship between the individual and the society he lives in. The essence of the concept (orientation of humane marketing consists in identifying, anticipating and quantifying the needs and desires of humans and their satisfaction. Rebranding marketing will allow passing from a vicious marketing to a beneficial, humane marketing. We think that the society has reached a level of development which allows only one viable solution for evolution, namely to make a qualitative leap in the consciousness of the humanity, which should include, among others, the waiver of aggressive marketing made only in order to obtain profit, to the detriment of attaining human happiness, both individually and of the entire humanity.

  2. Tropical birds have a slow pace of life

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersma, Popko; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Walker, Amy; Williams, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    Tropical birds are relatively long-lived and produce few offspring, which develop slowly and mature relatively late in life, the slow end of the life-history axis, whereas temperate birds lie at the opposite end of this continuum. We tested the hypothesis that tropical birds have evolved a reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR). We measured BMR of 69 species of tropical birds, the largest data set amassed on metabolic rates of tropical birds, and compared these measurements with 59 estimates of B...

  3. An analysis of living environment of late Cretaceous pterosaur and birds in Linhai national geopark%临海国家地质公园晚白垩世翼龙及鸟类生存环境分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩; 齐岩辛

    2015-01-01

    Specimens of the pterosaur Zhej iangopterus linhaiensis and the birdYandangornis longicau-dus are found from upper Cretaceous strata in the Xiaoxiong basin in eastern Zhejiang Province.Having comprehensively analyzed these paleovertebrates’ossatures,occurrences and ecological behavior,com-bined with paleobotany,sporopollen assemblages,sedimentary,lithofacies,palaeogeographical and palae-oecological environments,as well as geologic background of their locality,it is considered that the Xiaox-iong basin inherited geological tectonic framework in Yongkang period during late period of early Creta-ceous,remnants of lakes and marshes spreaded all over the region,in where pterosaurs and birds living and multiplying during the early Xiaoxiong period of late Cretaceous.With intermittent volcanic erup-tions,pyroclastic material accumulating and dry hot climate,lakes and marshes shrank,the ecological en-vironmental degradation caused mass mortality of pterosaurs and birds.In mid-late Xiaoxiong period,a se-ries of large-scale acidic magmatic erupted and volcanic cinder piled,laying the foundations for evolution of rhyolite landform in Linhai national geopark.%临海浙江翼龙及长尾雁荡鸟化石赋存于浙东小雄盆地晚白垩世形成的地层中。通过对比化石骨骼结构及生态习性,结合对地质背景、古地理、古生态环境及化石产地剖面岩性岩相、沉积构造、化石赋存状态、古植物及孢粉组合等研究认为:小雄盆地继承了早白垩世晚期永康期陆相盆地的构造格局,晚白垩世小雄早期,盆地间分布众多残存的湖泊沼泽,它们是翼龙类和鸟类最后的栖息地。受间歇性火山喷发影响,空落相火山碎屑物导致的湖泊萎缩及沼泽化、水体酸化、气候干热等是造成生活在湖泊沼泽周边和翱翔于天空中的翼龙及鸟类集群死亡的主要因素。小雄中晚期,浙东地区经历了较大规模的酸性岩浆喷溢及火山喷发

  4. An integrative approach to understanding bird origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Zhou, Zhonghe; Dudley, Robert; Mackem, Susan; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Erickson, Gregory M; Varricchio, David J

    2014-12-12

    Recent discoveries of spectacular dinosaur fossils overwhelmingly support the hypothesis that birds are descended from maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs, and furthermore, demonstrate that distinctive bird characteristics such as feathers, flight, endothermic physiology, unique strategies for reproduction and growth, and a novel pulmonary system originated among Mesozoic terrestrial dinosaurs. The transition from ground-living to flight-capable theropod dinosaurs now probably represents one of the best-documented major evolutionary transitions in life history. Recent studies in developmental biology and other disciplines provide additional insights into how bird characteristics originated and evolved. The iconic features of extant birds for the most part evolved in a gradual and stepwise fashion throughout archosaur evolution. However, new data also highlight occasional bursts of morphological novelty at certain stages particularly close to the origin of birds and an unavoidable complex, mosaic evolutionary distribution of major bird characteristics on the theropod tree. Research into bird origins provides a premier example of how paleontological and neontological data can interact to reveal the complexity of major innovations, to answer key evolutionary questions, and to lead to new research directions. A better understanding of bird origins requires multifaceted and integrative approaches, yet fossils necessarily provide the final test of any evolutionary model.

  5. Bird Avoidance Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report on the bird avoidance model to predict bird strike hazards with low flying aircraft. Included is peak periods for different species of...

  6. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  7. Audubon Bird Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are a student reader, "The Story of Birds," a leaders' guide, a large colored Audubon bird chart, and a separate guide for the chart. The student reader is divided into eleven sections which relate to the various physical and behavioral features of birds such as feathers, feeding habits as related to the shape of bills and feet, nests,…

  8. A Clever Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仰清

    2000-01-01

    A man in Australia had a wonderful bird. There was no other bird like it . It was very,very clever. The bird could say any word --except one. It could not say the name of the town where it was born. The name of that town was Catano.

  9. High Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Northeastern China from 2013 to 2015 Reveals Potential Epidemic Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingze; Xie, Guangyao; Liu, Xinxin; Ai, Lili; Chen, Yanyu; Meng, Xin; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Jianjun; Sun, Yuzhang; Stoeger, Tobias; Ding, Zhuang; Yin, Renfu

    2015-12-28

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by the virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is one of the most important viral diseases of birds globally, but little is currently known regarding enzootic trends of NDV in northeastern China, especially for class I viruses. Thus, we performed a surveillance study for NDV in northeastern China from 2013 to 2015. A total 755 samples from wild and domestic birds in wetlands and live bird markets (LBMs) were collected, and 10 isolates of NDV were identified. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that five isolates from LBMs belong to class I subgenotype 1b, two (one from wild birds and one from LBMs) belong to the vaccine-like class II genotype II, and three (all from wild birds) belong to class II subgenotype Ib. Interestingly, the five class I isolates had epidemiological connections with viruses from southern, eastern, and southeastern China. Our findings, together with recent prevalence trends of class I and virulent class II NDV in China, suggest possible virus transmission between wild and domestic birds and the potential for an NDV epidemic in the future.

  10. Post-marketing safety surveillance for inactivated and live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccines in China, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wendi; Liu, Dawei; Li, Keli; Nuorti, J Pekka; Nohynek, Hanna M; Xu, Disha; Ye, Jiakai; Zheng, Jingshan; Wang, Huaqing

    2017-06-22

    Two types of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines, inactivated JE vaccine (JE-I) and live-attenuated JE vaccine (JE-L), are available and used in China. In particular, one JE-L, produced by a domestic manufacturer in China, was prequalified by WHO in 2013. We assessed the safety of JE vaccines in China during 2008-2013 using the Chinese National Adverse Events Following Immunization Information System (CNAEFIS) data. We retrieved AEFI reporting data about JE vaccines from CNAEFIS, 2008-2013, examined demographic characteristics of AEFI cases, and used administrative data on vaccine doses as denominator to calculate and compare crude reporting rates. We also used disproportionality reporting analysis between JE-I and JE-L to assess potential safety signals. A total of 34,879 AEFIs related with JE-I and JE-L were reported, with a ratio of male to female as 1.3:1; 361 (1.0%) cases were classified as serious. JE vaccines were administered concurrently with one or more other vaccines in 13,592 (39.0%) of cases. The overall AEFI reporting rates were 214.4 per million vaccination doses for JE-L and 176.9 for JE-I (rate ratio [RR]: 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3) in 2010-2013. Febrile convulsions (FC) following JE-I was found as a signal of disproportionate reporting (SDR). However, there was no significant difference between the reporting rates of FC of JE-I and JE-L (0.3 per million vaccination doses for JE-L, 0.4 for JE-I, p=0.05). While our analysis did not find apparent safety concern of JE vaccines in China, further study should consider JE-I vaccines and febrile convulsion, and taking more sensitive methods to detect signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Archaeopteryx: Dinosaur or Bird?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2011-01-01

    @@ An Archaeopteryx-like theropod dinosaur newly found from western Liaoning Province in northeastern China would make an unusual, if not unwelcome, gift for the 150th birthday of Archaeopteryx, the oldest bird as long-believed by paleontologists: Named as Xiaotingia zhengiis, the new species carries some critical traits suggesting that Archaeopteryx might have actually been a dinosaur.Naturally this breaking news stirred intense controversies.Was "The Oldest Bird" a bird? If not, what makes a bird? With these questions in mind, the author joined an exploration in search of "the real first bird" along with the paleontologists at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) under CAS.

  12. Isolation of H5N6, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza A viruses from air sampled at live poultry markets in China, 2014 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Huang, Guofeng; Zou, Lirong; Song, Yingchao; Gopinath, Divya; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Min; Lin, Jinyan; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lindsley, William G; Ke, Changwen; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Yen, Hui-Ling

    2016-09-01

    Zoonotic infections by avian influenza viruses occur at the human-poultry interface, but the modes of transmission have not been fully investigated. We assessed the potential for airborne and fomite transmission at live poultry markets in Guangzhou city and in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, during 2014 and 2015. Viral genome and infectious avian influenza A viruses of H5N6, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes were detected predominantly from particles larger or equal to 1 μm in diameter in the air sampled with cyclone-based bioaerosol samplers at the live poultry markets in Guangzhou. Influenza A(H9N2) viruses were ubiquitously isolated every month during the study period from air and environmental swabs, and different lineages of H9N2 virus were isolated from markets where chickens and minor land-based poultry were sold. The use of de-feathering devices increased the quantity of virus-laden airborne particles while market closure reduced the amount of such particles. The results highlight the possibility of airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses among poultry or from poultry to humans within such settings. This may explain epidemiological observations in which some patients with H7N9 infection reported being in markets but no direct contact with live poultry or poultry stalls.

  13. Isolation of H5N6, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza A viruses from air sampled at live poultry markets in China, 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Huang, Guofeng; Zou, Lirong; Song, Yingchao; Gopinath, Divya; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Min; Lin, Jinyan; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lindsley, William G.; Ke, Changwen; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Yen, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic infections by avian influenza viruses occur at the human–poultry interface, but the modes of transmission have not been fully investigated. We assessed the potential for airborne and fomite transmission at live poultry markets in Guangzhou city and in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, during 2014 and 2015. Viral genome and infectious avian influenza A viruses of H5N6, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes were detected predominantly from particles larger or equal to 1 μm in diameter in the air sampled with cyclone-based bioaerosol samplers at the live poultry markets in Guangzhou. Influenza A(H9N2) viruses were ubiquitously isolated every month during the study period from air and environmental swabs, and different lineages of H9N2 virus were isolated from markets where chickens and minor land-based poultry were sold. The use of de-feathering devices increased the quantity of virus-laden airborne particles while market closure reduced the amount of such particles. The results highlight the possibility of airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses among poultry or from poultry to humans within such settings. This may explain epidemiological observations in which some patients with H7N9 infection reported being in markets but no direct contact with live poultry or poultry stalls. PMID:27608369

  14. A Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 Infection in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, C; Rahman, B; Heywood, A E; MacIntyre, C R

    2016-01-10

    Despite a much higher rate of human influenza A (H7N9) infection compared to influenza A (H5N1), and the assumption that birds are the source of human infection, detection rates of H7N9 in birds are lower than those of H5N1. This raises a question about the role of birds in the spread and transmission of H7N9 to humans. We conducted a meta-analysis of overall prevalence of H5N1 and H7N9 in different bird populations (domestic poultry, wild birds) and different environments (live bird markets, commercial poultry farms, wild habitats). The electronic database, Scopus, was searched for published papers, and Google was searched for country surveillance reports. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to produce pooled estimates of the prevalence of H5N1 and H7N9 for various subcategories. A random effects logistic regression model was used to compare prevalence rates between H5N1 and H7N9. Both viruses have low prevalence across all bird populations. Significant differences in prevalence rates were observed in domestic birds, farm settings, for pathogen and antibody testing, and during routine surveillance. Random effects logistic regression analyses show that among domestic birds, the prevalence of H5N1 is 47.48 (95% CI: 17.15-133.13, P H7N9. In routine surveillance (where surveillance was not conducted in response to human infections or bird outbreaks), the prevalence of H5N1 is still higher than H7N9 with an OR of 43.02 (95% CI: 16.60-111.53, P H7N9 in humans has occurred at a rate approximately four times higher than H5N1, and for both infections, birds are postulated to be the source. Much lower rates of H7N9 in birds compared to H5N1 raise doubts about birds as the sole source of high rates of human H7N9 infection. Other sources of transmission of H7N9 need to be considered and explored.

  15. American Samoa ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabirds, wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls and terns in American Samoa. Vector polygons...

  16. Detection of avian influenza A(H7N9 virus from live poultry markets in Guangzhou, China: a surveillance report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqiu Chen

    Full Text Available A virologic surveillance program for A(H7N9 virus was conducted from April 15, 2013 to February 14, 2014 in Guangzhou, aiming to clarify the geographical distribution of A(H7N9 viruses among live poultry markets (LPMs and poultry farms in Guangzhou. Virological and serological surveys of poultry workers were also conducted to evaluate the risk of poultry-to-human transmission of the A(H7N9 virus.36 retail LPMs, 6 wholesale LPMs and 8 poultry farms were involved in our surveillance program. About 20 live poultry and environmental samples were obtained from each surveillance site at every sampling time. Different environmental samples were collected to represent different poultry-related work activities. RT-PCR and virus culture were performed to identify the A(H7N9 virus. Hemagglutinin inhibition assay and RT-PCR were conducted to detect possible A(H7N9 infection among poultry workers.A total of 8900 live poultry and environmental samples were collected, of which 131(1.5% were tested positive for A(H7N9 virus. 44.4% (16/36 of retail LPMs and 50.0% (3/6 of wholesale LPMs were confirmed to be contaminated. No positive samples was detected from poultry farms. A significant higher positive sample rate was found in environmental samples related to poultry selling (2.6% and slaughtering (2.4%, compared to poultry holding (0.9%. Correspondingly, A(H7N9 viruses were isolated most frequently from slaughter zone. In addition, 316 poultry workers associated with the 19 contaminated-LPMs were recruited and a low seroprevalence (1.6% of antibody against A(H7N9 virus was detected. An asymptomatic A(H7N9 infection was also identified by RT-PCR.Our study highlights the importance of conducting effective surveillance for A(H7N9 virus and provides evidence to support the assumption that slaughtering is the key process for the propagation of A(H7N9 virus in retail LPMs. Moreover, the ability of A(H7N9 virus to cross species barrier is proved to be still limited.

  17. Genetic diversity of avian influenza A (H10N8) virus in live poultry markets and its association with human infections in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingbin; Li, Xiaodan; Yuan, Hui; Zhou, Jianfang; Wu, Jingwen; Bo, Hong; Xia, Wen; Xiong, Ying; Yang, Lei; Gao, Rongbao; Guo, Junfeng; Huang, Weijuan; Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Xiang; Zou, Xiaohui; Chen, Tao; Wang, Dayan; Li, Qun; Wang, ShiWen; Chen, Shengen; Hu, Maohong; Ni, Xiansheng; Gong, Tian; Shi, Yong; Li, Jianxiong; Zhou, Jun; Cai, Jun; Xiao, Zuke; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Jian; Li, Dexin; Wu, Guizhen; Feng, Zijian; Wang, Yu; Chen, Haiying; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-01-15

    Following the first human infection with the influenza A (H10N8) virus in Nanchang, China in December 2013, we identified two additional patients on January 19 and February 9, 2014. The epidemiologic, clinical, and virological data from the patients and the environmental specimen collected from 23 local live poultry markets (LPMs) were analyzed. The three H10N8 cases had a history of poultry exposure and presented with high fever (>38°C), rapidly progressive pneumonia and lymphopenia. Substantial high levels of cytokines and chemokines were observed. The sequences from an isolate (A/Environment/Jiangxi/03489/2013 [H10N8]) in an epidemiologically linked LPM showed highly identity with human H10N8 virus, evidencing LPM as the source of human infection. The HA and NA of human and environmental H10N8 isolates showed high identity (99.1-99.9%) while six genotypes with internal genes derived from H9N2, H7N3 and H7N9 subtype viruses were detected in environmental H10N8 isolates. The genotype of the virus causing human infection, Jiangxi/346, possessed a whole internal gene set of the A/Environment/Jiangxi/10618/2014(H9N2)-like virus. Thus, our findings support the notion that LPMs can act as both a gene pool for the generation of novel reassortants and a source for human infection, and intensive surveillance and management should therefore be conducted.

  18. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  19. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Li

    Full Text Available Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC. We found that: (1 International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2 Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3 Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation

  20. Dosage compensation in birds

    OpenAIRE

    McQueen, H A; McBride, D; Miele, G; Bird, A.P.; Clinton, M

    2001-01-01

    The Z and W sex chromosomes of birds have evolved independently from the mammalian X and Y chromosomes [1]. Unlike mammals, female birds are heterogametic (ZW), while males are homogametic (ZZ). Therefore male birds, like female mammals, carry a double dose of sex-linked genes relative to the other sex. Other animals with nonhomologous sex chromosomes possess "dosage compensation" systems to equalize the expression of sex-linked genes. Dosage compensation occurs in animals as diverse as mamma...

  1. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  2. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  3. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  4. THERMAL CONDUCTANCE IN AQUATIC BIRDS IN RELATION TO THE DEGREE OF WATER CONTACT, BODY-MASS, AND BODY-FAT - ENERGETIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING IN A STRONG COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, J; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  5. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Teixeira

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified.

  6. Surveillance of Avian H7N9 Virus in Various Environments of Zhejiang Province, China before and after Live Poultry Markets Were Closed in 2013-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Wang

    Full Text Available To date, there have been a total of 637 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9 virus across mainland China, with 28% (179/637 of these reported in Zhejiang Province. Surveillance of avian H7N9 virus was conducted to investigate environmental contamination during H7N9 outbreaks. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of H7N9 in the environment, and the effects of poultry market closures on the incidence of human H7N9 cases.We collected 6740 environmental samples from 751 sampling sites across 11 cities of Zhejiang Province (China between January 2013 and March 2014. The presence of H7N9 was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, with prevalence compared between sites and over time. The relationship between environmental contamination and human cases of H7N9 infection were analyzed using Spearman's ranked correlation coefficient.Of the 6740 samples, 10.09% (680/6740 were H7N9-positive. The virus was found to circulate seasonally, and peaked during the spring and winter of 2013-2014. The prevalence of the virus decreased from the north to the southeast of the province, coinciding with the geographical distribution of human H7N9 cases. Compared with other sampling sites, live poultry markets (LPMs had the highest prevalence of H7N9 virus at 13.94% (667/4784. Of the various sample types analyzed, virus prevalence was highest for chopping board swabs at 15.49% (110/710. The prevalence of the virus in the environment positively correlated with the incidence of human H7N9 cases (r2 = 0.498; P < 0.01. Cities with a higher incidence of human H7N9 cases also had a higher prevalence of H7N9 among samples and at sampling sites. Following the closure of LPMs at the end of January 2014, the prevalence of H7N9 decreased from 19.18% (487/2539 to 6.92% (79/1141. This corresponded with a decrease in the number of human H7N9 cases reported.The prevalence of H7N9 virus in environmental samples oscillated

  7. Surveillance of Avian H7N9 Virus in Various Environments of Zhejiang Province, China before and after Live Poultry Markets Were Closed in 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Shelan; Mao, Haiyan; Yu, Zhao; Chen, Enfu; Chai, Chengliang

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, there have been a total of 637 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus across mainland China, with 28% (179/637) of these reported in Zhejiang Province. Surveillance of avian H7N9 virus was conducted to investigate environmental contamination during H7N9 outbreaks. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of H7N9 in the environment, and the effects of poultry market closures on the incidence of human H7N9 cases. Methods We collected 6740 environmental samples from 751 sampling sites across 11 cities of Zhejiang Province (China) between January 2013 and March 2014. The presence of H7N9 was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, with prevalence compared between sites and over time. The relationship between environmental contamination and human cases of H7N9 infection were analyzed using Spearman’s ranked correlation coefficient. Results Of the 6740 samples, 10.09% (680/6740) were H7N9-positive. The virus was found to circulate seasonally, and peaked during the spring and winter of 2013–2014. The prevalence of the virus decreased from the north to the southeast of the province, coinciding with the geographical distribution of human H7N9 cases. Compared with other sampling sites, live poultry markets (LPMs) had the highest prevalence of H7N9 virus at 13.94% (667/4784). Of the various sample types analyzed, virus prevalence was highest for chopping board swabs at 15.49% (110/710). The prevalence of the virus in the environment positively correlated with the incidence of human H7N9 cases (r2 = 0.498; P H7N9 cases also had a higher prevalence of H7N9 among samples and at sampling sites. Following the closure of LPMs at the end of January 2014, the prevalence of H7N9 decreased from 19.18% (487/2539) to 6.92% (79/1141). This corresponded with a decrease in the number of human H7N9 cases reported. Conclusions The prevalence of H7N9 virus in environmental samples oscillated seasonally

  8. Cross-species transmission and emergence of novel viruses from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-02-01

    Birds, the only living member of the Dinosauria clade, are flying warm-blooded vertebrates displaying high species biodiversity, roosting and migratory behavior, and a unique adaptive immune system. Birds provide the natural reservoir for numerous viral species and therefore gene source for evolution, emergence and dissemination of novel viruses. The intrusions of human into natural habitats of wild birds, the domestication of wild birds as pets or racing birds, and the increasing poultry consumption by human have facilitated avian viruses to cross species barriers to cause zoonosis. Recently, a novel adenovirus was exclusively found in birds causing an outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci infection among birds and humans. Instead of being the primary cause of an outbreak by jumping directly from bird to human, a novel avian virus can be an augmenter of another zoonotic agent causing the outbreak. A comprehensive avian virome will improve our understanding of birds' evolutionary dynamics.

  9. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Freeman J [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  10. Faktor-Faktor Risiko Tertular Flu Burung di Desa-Desa Kabupaten Klungkung, Bali (THE RISK FACTOR OF BIRD FLU CASES IN VILLAGES IN KLUNGKUNG REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Badiwangsa Temaja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried  out to identify the risk factor of  bird flu cases in villages in Klungkung regency,Bali. The data were collected through observation and interviews using questionnaire to head of householdsin villages of which were officially recorded as infected and uninfected area of bird flu.  Data was analyzedusing chi-square test and odds ratio to see the relationship AI infection and risks factors, as well as howsignificance is the relationship between them. The study showed that the crucial risk factor to bird flucases in infected villages were ceremonies (odds ratio : 2.401 and traditional rituals (odds ratio 3.229.The occurrence to bird flu in both villages is significantly affected by the following fctors: (1 poultry forconsuming, ceremony, and traditional ritual from markets and collected poultry, (2 disposal of deadchicken in to the  river, (3 the operation of villages markets, (4 Trading of live  poultry, (5 Commercialpoultry livestock in respected villages, (6 herding duck after rice harvesting, (7 frequency  of traditionalceremonies  in the villages.

  11. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  12. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  13. What Is Bird Flu?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢连香

    2004-01-01

    What is bird flu? It's a form of influenza believed to strike all birds. Though poultry (家禽)are believed to be especially prone to (倾向于)humans, no human-to-human transmission(传播) has been reported.

  14. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... areas identified on the basis of birds alone performed well in representing overall species diversity where birds were relatively speciose compared to the other taxa in the data sets. Adding species data for one taxon increased surrogate effectiveness better than adding genus- and family-level data...

  15. Phylogenetic and pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease viruses circulating in South China and transmission in different birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfeng eKang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Newcastle disease virus (NDV with high pathogenicity has frequently been isolated in poultry in China since 1948, the mode of its transmission among avian species remains largely unknown. Given that various wild bird species have been implicated as sources of transmission, in this study we genotypically and pathotypically characterized 23 NDV isolates collected from chickens, ducks, and pigeons in live bird markets (LBMs in South China as part of an H7N9 surveillance program during December 2013–February 2014. To simulate the natural transmission of different kinds of animals in LBMs, we selected three representative NDVs—namely, GM, YF18, and GZ289—isolated from different birds to evaluate the pathogenicity and transmission of the indicated viruses in chickens, ducks, and pigeons. Furthermore, to investigate the replication and shedding of NDV in poultry, we inoculated the chickens, ducks, and pigeons with 106 EID50 of each virus via intraocular and intranasal routes. Eight h after infection, the naïve contact groups were housed with those inoculated with each of the viruses as a means to monitor contact transmission. Our results indicated that genetically diverse viruses circulate in LBMs in South China’s Guangdong Province and that NDV from different birds have different tissue tropisms and host ranges when transmitted in different birds. We therefore propose the continuous epidemiological surveillance of LBMs to support the prevention of the spread of these viruses in different birds, especially chickens, and highlight the need for studies of the virus–host relationship.

  16. Behavior of emu bird (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Patodkar

    Full Text Available Emu is the second largest living bird of world belonging to order Ratite. This order is of flightless birds with flat breast bone and it includes emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary and kiwi. Emus are reared commercially in many parts of the world for their meat, oil, skin and feathers, which are of high economic value. The anatomical and physiological features of these birds appear to be suitable for temperate and tropical climatic conditions. Emu is newly introduced species in India. Although emu farming is considered to be economical, we have to study the behavior of emus to increase the profitability by providing housing, feeding and breeding facilities more or less same as that of in wild condition during their rearing in captivity and we will have to carry out comparative study of behavior in captivity as well as in wild condition. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 439-440

  17. Tropical birds have a slow pace of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Popko; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Walker, Amy; Williams, Joseph B

    2007-05-29

    Tropical birds are relatively long-lived and produce few offspring, which develop slowly and mature relatively late in life, the slow end of the life-history axis, whereas temperate birds lie at the opposite end of this continuum. We tested the hypothesis that tropical birds have evolved a reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR). We measured BMR of 69 species of tropical birds, the largest data set amassed on metabolic rates of tropical birds, and compared these measurements with 59 estimates of BMR for temperate birds. Our analyses included conventional least squares regression, regressions based on phylogenetic independent contrasts, and a comparison of BMR of 13 phylogenetically matched pairs, one species from the tropics and one from northerly temperate areas. Our triptych showed that tropical birds had a reduced BMR, compelling evidence for a connection between the life history of tropical birds and a slow pace of life. Further, tropical migrants breeding in temperate habitats had a lower BMR than did temperate residents, suggesting that these migrants have physiological traits consistent with a slow pace of life. In addition, we determined that tropical birds had a lower cold-induced peak metabolic rate and thermogenic metabolic scope than temperate species, a finding that is consistent with the hypothesis that their environment has not selected for high levels of thermogenesis, or alternatively, that a slow pace of life may be incompatible with high thermogenic capacity. We conclude that physiological function correlates with the suite of life-history traits.

  18. Oxyspiruriasis in zoo birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellayan, S; Jeffery, J; Oothuman, P; Zahedi, M; Krishnasamy, M; Paramaswaran, S; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-06-01

    Oxyspiruriasis caused by the bird eyeworm, Oxyspirura mansoni, a thelaziid nematode, in three species of pheasants, 3 Chrysolophus pictus (golden pheasant), 7 Lophura nycthemera (silver pheasant) and 9 Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant) in Zoo Negara Malaysia are reported. Birds with the disease were treated with a solution of 0.5% iodine or 0.5% lysol. Antistress powder for 4 days in water and non-strep vitamin powder in water was also provided. Control measures included removal of the cockroach intermediate host, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Surinam cockroach) from the vicinity of the birds. The golden pheasant is a new host for O. mansoni in peninsular Malaysia.

  19. [Birds' sense of direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohtola, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Birds utilize several distinct sensory systems in a flexible manner in their navigation. When navigating with the help of landmarks, location of the sun and stars, or polarization image of the dome of the sky, they resort to vision. The significance of olfaction in long-range navigation has been under debate, even though its significance in local orientation is well documented. The hearing in birds extends to the infrasound region. It has been assumed that they are able to hear the infrasounds generated in the mountains and seaside and navigate by using them. Of the senses of birds, the most exotic one is the ability to sense magnetic fields of the earth.

  20. Formative Assessment Using Social Marketing Principles to Identify Health and Nutrition Perspectives of Native American Women Living within the Chickasaw Nation Boundaries in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephany; Hunter, Toma; Briley, Chiquita; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice; Van Delinder, Jean; Standridge, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify health product and promotion channels for development of a Chickasaw Nation Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Education Program (SNAP-Ed) social marketing program. Methods: The study was qualitative and used social marketing principles to assess Native American women's views of health and nutrition. Focus groups (n = 8) and…

  1. Formative Assessment Using Social Marketing Principles to Identify Health and Nutrition Perspectives of Native American Women Living within the Chickasaw Nation Boundaries in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephany; Hunter, Toma; Briley, Chiquita; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice; Van Delinder, Jean; Standridge, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify health product and promotion channels for development of a Chickasaw Nation Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Education Program (SNAP-Ed) social marketing program. Methods: The study was qualitative and used social marketing principles to assess Native American women's views of health and nutrition. Focus groups (n = 8) and…

  2. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  3. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  4. Artificial insemination for breeding non-domestic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Temple, S.A.; Watson, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    Captive breeding of non-domestic birds has increased dramatically in this century, and production of young often exceeds that of the same number of birds in their native habitat. However, when infertility is a problem, artificial insemination can be a useful method to improve production. Artificial insemination programs with non-domestic birds are relatively recent, but several notable successes have been documented, especially with cranes and raptors. Three methods of artificial insemination are described--cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation. Cooperative artificial insemination requires training of birds imprinted on man and is used extensively in some raptor programs. The massage technique generally is used when there are larger numbers of birds to inseminate since it requires less training of the birds than with the cooperative method, and a larger number of attempted semen collections are successful. Although the best samples are obtained from birds conditioned to capture and handling procedures associated with the massage method, samples can be obtained from wild birds. Semen collection and insemination for the crane serves to illustrate some of the modifications necessary to compensate for anatomical variations. Collection of semen by electrical stimulation is not commonly used in birds. Unlike the other two methods which require behavioral cooperation by the bird, electroejaculation is possible in reproductively active birds without prior conditioning when properly restrained. Fertility from artificial insemination in captive non-domestic-birds has been good. Although some spermatozoal morphology has been reported, most aspects of morphology are not useful in predicting fertility. However, spermatozoal head length in the crane may have a positive correlation with fertility. Nevertheless, insemination with the largest number of live spermatozoa is still the best guarantee of fertile egg production.

  5. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The Chinese economy has contin- ued its robust pace due to large-scale profits from listed companies.Yet previous leading domestic cell phone producer Ningbo Bird took a large nosedive due to counterfeited cell phones,the costs of product develop- ment,and consumers’fickle phone buying habits. China Eastern Airlines strove to make a profit in the first half of this year after stumbling all of last year,and Singapore Airlines planned to take a 15.8-percent stake in the Chinese airline.Currently,institutional investors comprise the major proportion in the Chinese stock market,which kept rising amid sharp turbulence. Instant noodle prices came back to normal and the major noodle industry association was fined for fixing prices by the consumer watchdog.

  7. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  8. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  9. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  10. Tracking domestic ducks: A novel approach for documenting poultry market chains in the context of avian influenza transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Xiong, Yue; Wikelski, Martin; Heine, George; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Edwards, John; Guo, Fusheng; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Agro-ecological conditions associated with the spread and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) are not well understood, but the trade of live poultry is suspected to be a major pathway. Although market chains of live bird trade have been studied through indirect means including interviews and questionnaires, direct methods have not been used to identify movements of individual poultry. To bridge the knowledge gap on quantitative movement and transportation of poultry, we introduced a novel approach for applying telemetry to document domestic duck movements from source farms at Poyang Lake, China. We deployed recently developed transmitters that record Global Positioning System (GPS) locations and send them through the Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) cellular telephone system. For the first time, we were able to track individually marked ducks from 3 to 396 km from their origin to other farms, distribution facilities, or live bird markets. Our proof of concept test showed that the use of GPS-GSM transmitters may provide direct, quantitative information to document the movement of poultry and reveal their market chains. Our findings provide an initial indication of the complexity of source-market network connectivity and highlight the great potential for future telemetry studies in poultry network analyses.

  11. Bird Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Bird Vision system is a multicamera photogrammerty software application that runs on a Microsoft Windows XP platform and was developed at Kennedy Space Center by ASRC Aerospace. This software system collects data about the locations of birds within a volume centered on the Space Shuttle and transmits it in real time to the laptop computer of a test director in the Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room.

  12. A Clever Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳; 孙菊

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 It is getting hotter and hotter day by day.So the birds don't often fly in the sky in daytime.They usually fly in the evening to look for food.But a bird named Polly is very naughty.He just knows how to fly,so he wants to fly every day.One day,when he is flying in the forest,he feels very thirsty.

  13. Living in Living Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of current and potential applications of living technology to urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, while solutions involving living technology are reviewed. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed.

  14. 浙江省冬春季涉禽场所禽流感病毒污染特征及影响因素研究%Avian influenza virus in various environments and risk factors for the contamination of live poultry markets during winter and spring season in Zhejiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笑笑; 程伟; 余昭; 茅海燕; 陈恩富

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of avian influenza virus in various environment and the influence factors for subtype H7 prevalence in live poultry markets. Methods We collected environmental samples from various environments across 11 cities of Zhejiang province between October 2014 and March 2015. Cage surface swabs, chopping board surface swabs, feces, water for cleaning, drinking water and swabs of other surfaces were collected. A total of 6 457 samples were collected, including 4 487 samples from poultry markets, 820 samples from poultry farms, 715 samples from backyard poultry pens, 118 samples from poultry processing factories, 118 samples from wild bird habitats and 86 samples from other sites. The chi-squared test was used to compare virus prevalence among sample types, sites types, and poultry markets types. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze factors on H7 subtype prevalence in poultry markets. Results Of 6 457 samples, 32.54%(2 101) samples were positive for avian influenza, with 3.67%(237) positive for H5 subtype, 12.02%(776) positive for H7 subtype, 11.77%(760) positive for H9 subtype. Of 237 live poultry markets, 33.8% (80) were positive for H7 subtype. The prevalence of influenza A in poultry processing factories was the highest at 43.72%(101/231) (χ2=737.80, P<0.001). Poultry markets were contaminated most seriously by subtype H5/H7/H9 with the prevalence of 27.55%(1 236/4 487) (χ2=436.37, P<0.001). Compared with markets with 1 type of poultry, OR was 4.58 (95%CI:1.63-12.87) for markets with≥2 types of poultry. Conclusion Live poultry markets and poultry processing factories were contaminated most seriously by avian influenza. The types of poultry might be the factor which influenced the subtype H7 prevalence in poultry markets.%目的:分析浙江省涉禽场所外环境A型禽流感病毒污染特征及活禽市场被H7亚型污染的影响因素。方法2014年10月至2015年3月,于浙江省11个市的涉禽场所进行

  15. Wild Birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: biotyping and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from Audouin's gulls (Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available E. Coli biotyping and antimicrobial succeptibility tests were performed on fortyeight cloacal swabs collected from a popoulation of Audouin's gulls ((Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Lecce, Italy. The aim was to assess the pathogenic potential of the strains the gulls carry and shed into the environment and to gain a better understanding of the microbial pollution of the aera they live in.

  16. Wild Birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: biotyping and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from Audouin's gulls (Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Mallia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available E. Coli biotyping and antimicrobial succeptibility tests were performed on fortyeight cloacal swabs collected from a popoulation of Audouin's gulls ((Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Lecce, Italy. The aim was to assess the pathogenic potential of the strains the gulls carry and shed into the environment and to gain a better understanding of the microbial pollution of the aera they live in.

  17. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...... in when and where the bird compensated for the displacement. The last paper investigates effects of habitat shading on the performance of light-level based geolocation and compares experimental data with data from real tracking studies. This illustrates some of the potential problems and limitations...

  18. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  19. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, Luke; Scott, Graham W; Morrell, Lesley J

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds.

  20. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, Luke; Scott, Graham W.

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds. PMID:28212435

  1. Chinese and Foreign Bird Lovers Watch Birds in Deyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (SIFA) and the Chengdu Bird Watching Society, 60 Chinese and foreign bird lovers went to Deyang, a city in Sichuan Province that had suffered grave damages in the Wenchuan earthquake, to watch birds,

  2. Promoting Healthy Behaviours among Children Living in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods : development and evaluation of a Social Marketing intervention: the ‘Water Campaign’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.J. Kruitwagen - van de Gaar (Vivian)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focused on the development and evaluation of an intervention aimed to promote a healthy lifestyle among children. This intervention – the ‘Water Campaign’- was developed with Social Marketing, aimed to decrease the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among

  3. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Trevor M; Bousfield, R Barry; Bissett, Lucy A; Dyrting, Kitman C; Luk, Geraldine S M; Tsim, S T; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Webster, Robert G; Guan, Yi; Malik Peiris, J S

    2004-10-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza have occurred in Hong Kong in chickens and other gallinaceous poultry in 1997, 2001, twice in 2002 and 2003. High mortality rates were seen in gallinaceous birds but not in domestic or wild waterfowl or other wild birds until late 2002 when highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza occurred in waterfowl (geese, ducks and swans), captive Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) and other wild birds (Little Egret Egretta garzetta) at two waterfowl parks and from two dead wild Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) and a Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) in Hong Kong. H5N1 avian influenza virus was also isolated from a dead feral pigeon (Columba livia) and a dead tree sparrow (Passer montanus) during the second outbreak. The first waterfowl outbreak was controlled by immediate strict quarantine and depopulation 1 week before the second outbreak commenced. Control measures implemented for the second outbreak included strict isolation, culling, increased sanitation and vaccination. Outbreaks in gallinaceous birds occurred in some live poultry markets concurrently with the second waterfowl outbreak, and infection on a chicken farm was detected 1 week after the second waterfowl park outbreak was detected, on the same day the second grey heron case was detected. Subsequent virus surveillance showed the outbreaks had been contained.

  4. Effects of narasin (Skycis) on live performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs sold in a three-phase marketing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Gruber, S L; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding narasin (Skycis; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs sold in a 3-phase marketing system. Pigs ( = 1,232) were housed in 56 single-sex pens (22 pigs/pen) divided into 2 even blocks based on initiation of treatment. Each treatment × sex combination was replicated 14 times. Pigs were fed either 0 mg/kg narasin (control) or 15 mg/kg narasin for up to 85 d of finishing (initiated at an average of 52.95 kg BW). In each pen, 18% (4 pigs per pen) of pigs were sold in the first marketing group (Day 64 of dietary treatment), 50% (11 of the original 22) were sold in the second marketing group (Day 78), and 32% (the remaining 7 pigs) were sold in the third marketing group (Day 85). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with pen as the experimental unit. The model included the fixed effects of diet, sex, and their interaction. Block and replicate nested within block were random variables. Carcass data from pigs in marketing group 3 of block 2 was not collected due to inclement weather. Narasin had no effect on growth performance traits ( ≥ 0.15) in phases 1 (Days 1-28) or 2 (Days 29-56), regardless of sex. Barrows fed narasin had a 2.0% greater overall (Day 0-85) ADG than barrows fed the control diet ( < 0.01), but ADG of gilts was not different due to diet ( = 0.69). Regardless of sex, narasin improved ( = 0.03) feed efficiency (G:F) by 1.3% throughout the 85-d feeding period. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.21) of narasin on carcass composition in marketing groups 1 and 2. Narasin-fed barrows in marketing group 3 had 0.9 percentage units lower ( < 0.01) estimated carcass lean compared with barrows fed control diets (51.0 vs. 52.0%); no difference existed in gilts ( = 0.21). This is likely due to narasin-fed barrows of marketing group 3 tending ( = 0.06) to have 7.7% greater fat depth than control barrows of marketing group 3. Pooled

  5. [Anesthesia in birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F

    1987-01-01

    Anaesthesia in birds is ordered by law and is also necessary for various operations and manipulations. Anaesthesia by injection of Ketamin, which in special cases may be combined with Diazepam, has been found useful. Anaesthesia by inhalation with Halothan, Methoxyfluran or Isofluran is the most careful method. Local anaesthesia has few indications.

  6. Synanthropic birds and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pepe, Paola; Fioretti, Alessandro; Caputo, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the Campania region of southern Italy. Birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (Columba livia), 15 common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (Corvus corone). Each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. Ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. In particular, chewing lice were recovered with a prevalence of 100%, whereas Pseudolynchia canariensis (Hippoboscidae) were found only in pigeons with a prevalence of 80%. Regarding endoparasites, a total of seven helminth species were identified: three nematodes (Ascaridia columbae, Capillaria columbae, Physaloptera alata), one cestoda (Raillietina tetragona), one trematoda (Cardiocephalus longicollis), and two acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus globocaudatus and Centrorhynchus buteonis). The findings of the present study add data to the parasitologic scenario of synanthropic birds. This is important because parasitic infection can lead to serious health problems when combined with other factors and may affect flying performance and predatory effectiveness.

  7. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  8. AmBird: Mediating Intimacy for Long Distance Relationships through an Ambient Awareness System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sine; Stounbjerg, Rasmus Balthasar Kloth; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the AmBird concept that explores how to provide alternatives for mediating intimacy for people that are living apart. The initial design and implementation of the AmBird concept is described as well as a preliminary concept validation. Based on the lessons learned, we highli...... highlight the opportunities of AmBird to support multiple intimate acts and our future work....

  9. A Study on the Presence of Leucocytozoonosis in Wild Birds of Burdur District

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZMEN, Özlem; HALIGÜR, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, 53 wild birds (16 pigeons, 16 quails, 10 pheasants, 4 partridges, 3 stock doves, and 1 ibis, peacock, owl chick and falcon) were examined grossly and microscopically at the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Akdeniz. Thirty-seven of these birds were dead. Blood samples were taken from the 16 live birds before euthanasia. Tissue samples were also taken for histopathological examination during the necropsies. Leucocytozoon marchouxi was dia...

  10. Attracting Birds to Your Backyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods for drawing birds to outdoor education areas, including the use of wild and native vegetation. Lists specific garden plants suitable for attracting birds in each season. Includes a guide to commercial bird seed and instructions for building homemade birdfeeders and nestboxes. (LZ)

  11. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

  12. Birds and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, Rowena

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Climate change, perhaps more accurately described as climate disruption, is considered to be a major long-term threat to biodiversity, with a high probability that the underlying cause is due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy is an important component of a programme of measures to combat further climate change, to include improved energy efficiency and demand management. Wind energy is the most advanced renewable energy source and is a global industry onshore and, increasingly, offshore. However, as with any form of energy generation, wind energy also has potential environmental costs which have to be balanced against benefits. The environmental impacts on birds derive from the following: collision risk, in particular from the moving rotor blades; displacement arising from disturbance during construction, operation or decommissioning; habitat loss or change leading to alteration of food availability; barrier effects leading to deviation of long distance migratory flights or disruption of local flights between feeding, nesting, and roosting/loafing locations. Not all species of birds, or individuals within a species, are equally susceptible to negative interactions with wind turbines, and neither are the population consequences of impacts equivalent. Of greatest concern are bird species of conservation concern that exhibit behaviours that place them at risk of an adverse impact, notably when that impact leads to a reduction in population size that is unlikely to be compensated for. In particular, cumulative impacts arising from multiple wind farms or wind farms in combination with other developments are of concern. There has been a welcome increase in research effort and peer-reviewed publications on the subject of birds and wind energy in recent years. Increasing our understanding of impacts is essential to delivering possible solutions and this paper reviews current knowledge for birds. (Author)

  13. Avian Information Systems: Developing Web-Based Bird Avoidance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between aircraft and birds, so-called "bird strikes," can result in serious damage to aircraft and even in the loss of lives. Information about the distribution of birds in the air and on the ground can be used to reduce the risk of bird strikes and their impact on operations en route and in and around air fields. Although a wealth of bird distribution and density data is collected by numerous organizations, these data are not readily available nor interpretable by aviation. This paper presents two national efforts, one in the Netherlands and one in the United States, to develop bird avoidance nodels for aviation. These models integrate data and expert knowledge on bird distributions and migratory behavior to provide hazard maps in the form of GIS-enabled Web services. Both models are in operational use for flight planning and flight alteration and for airfield and airfield vicinity management. These models and their presentation on the Internet are examples of the type of service that would be very useful in other fields interested in species distribution and movement information, such as conservation, disease transmission and prevention, or assessment and mitigation of anthropogenic risks to nature. We expect that developments in cyber-technology, a transition toward an open source philosophy, and higher demand for accessible biological data will result in an increase in the number of biological information systems available on the Internet.

  14. “Il tempo è lo specchio dell’eternità”. Strategie e strumenti di heritage marketing nelle imprese longeve italiane / “Il tempo è lo specchio dell’eternità” (Time is the mirror of eternity. Heritage marketing strategies and tools In Italian long-lived firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Riviezzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro mira a indagare l’effettivo grado di utilizzo da parte delle imprese longeve italiane dei molteplici strumenti potenzialmente a disposizione per valorizzare in chiave strategica il proprio vissuto storico. A tal fi ne, si propone una sistematizzazione della letteratura sul tema atta a identificare in maniera puntuale i vari strumenti di heritage marketing e, successivamente, se ne indaga l’effettiva diffusione. In particolare, sono state raccolte e analizzate informazioni accurate sulle attività realizzate da 238 imprese di medie e grandi dimensioni iscritte nel Registro nazionale delle imprese storiche italiane di Unioncamere. L’indagine ha rivelato che le imprese longeve approcciano i singoli strumenti di heritage marketing in modo sperimentale e in mancanza di una visione integrata. Sono una minoranza quelle che mostrano di percepire i vantaggi di una convinta e pluriforme azione di valorizzazione del proprio vissuto storico. Il lavoro costituisce il primo esempio d’indagine su larga scala volta a investigare l’utilizzo dei diversi strumenti di heritage marketing e, rispetto a precedenti studi, si distingue per la numerosità delle imprese analizzate e per la completezza e l’eterogeneità degli strumenti considerati. The main aim of this study is to understand if and how Italian long-lived firms are oriented towards a strategic exploitation of their cultural and historical heritage. To this aim, first we reviewed the extant literature on the topic in order to identify the different tools potentially available to implement a heritage marketing strategy and, then, we investigated their actual level of use. A desk research covered 238 medium and large firms entered in the National Register of Italian Historical Firms edited by Unioncamere. For each firm we collected timely information about the different activities of heritage marketing carried out. Our study reveals that long-lived firms approach the single tools of

  15. Interspecific affinity among keratinolytic fungi associated with birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z

    1976-01-01

    Twelve species of keratin decomposers isolated from 923 samples of feathers, nests and pellets of 90 species of free-living birds were clustered in 4 "econs" (numerical ecological groups): (A) Artroderma tuberculatum, A. ciferrii, A. multifidum, A. cuniculi (associated with the birds nesting in hollows); (B) Ctenomyces serratus, Arthroderma quadrifidum, Chrysosporium evolceanui (moderately alkalophilic species associated with the birds having a frequent contact with the soil); (C) Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Aphanoascus fulvescens, Chrysosporium tropicum (alkalophilic and hygrophilic species); (D) Arthroderma curreyi, Aphanoascus terreus (the species common in water habitats and associated frequently with exoanthropic birds). Two simple numerical procedures were used and compared: (1) Jaccard's association coefficient, and Sörensen's complete linkage clustering; (2) Forbes's association coeficient adjusted with chi-square, and the 3-linkage clustering technique. The method (2) seemed to be more effective.

  16. Living through Exposure to Toxic Psychiatric Orthodoxies: Exploring Narratives of People with "Mental Health Problems" Who Are Looking for Employment on the Open Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets, Griet; Kristiansen, Kristjana; Van Hove, Geert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2007-01-01

    This article explores lived experiences and insights of five people with long-term "mental health problems", focusing on their search for employment in a disabling society. In our qualitative, inductive analysis we investigate why it seems almost impossible to attain a status as respected adult workers. We present five central findings: (1) losing…

  17. The perfume of reproduction in birds: Chemosignaling in avian social life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Samuel P.; Balthazart, Jacques; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a Special Issue (“Chemosignals and Reproduction”). Chemical cues were probably the first cues ever used to communicate and are still ubiquitous among living organisms. Birds have long been considered an exception: it was believed that birds were anosmic and relied on

  18. The perfume of reproduction in birds: Chemosignaling in avian social life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Samuel P.; Balthazart, Jacques; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a Special Issue (“Chemosignals and Reproduction”). Chemical cues were probably the first cues ever used to communicate and are still ubiquitous among living organisms. Birds have long been considered an exception: it was believed that birds were anosmic and relied on

  19. 3. Bird conservation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Expert assessors Tatsuya Amano, Cambridge University, UK Andy Brown, Natural England, UK Fiona Burns, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, UK Yohay Carmel, Israel Institute of Technology, Israel Mick Clout, University of Auckland, New Zealand Geoff Hilton, Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, UK Nancy Ockendon, Cambridge University, UK James Pearce-Higgins, British Trust for Ornithology, UK Sugoto Roy, Food and Environment Research Agency, DEFRA, UK Rebecca Smith, Cambridge University, UK William...

  20. Bird Watching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Being based in, and conducting business in, some of China's largest cities is an exciting, yet stressful occupation and 1 like to relax by taking a pair of binoculars, getting out into the open air of China's huge countryside, and spending time seeing what birds I can identify. I'm not really a twitcher (one who relentlessly pursues sightings of as many different species as possible)-just happy to get into nature. In my travels around the country, I listed

  1. Threatened bird valuation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Kerstin K; Ainsworth, Gillian B; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Garnett, Stephen T

    2014-01-01

    Threatened species programs need a social license to justify public funding. A contingent valuation survey of a broadly representative sample of the Australian public found that almost two thirds (63%) supported funding of threatened bird conservation. These included 45% of a sample of 645 respondents willing to pay into a fund for threatened bird conservation, 3% who already supported bird conservation in another form, and 15% who could not afford to pay into a conservation fund but who nevertheless thought that humans have a moral obligation to protect threatened birds. Only 6% explicitly opposed such payments. Respondents were willing to pay about AUD 11 annually into a conservation fund (median value), including those who would pay nothing. Highest values were offered by young or middle aged men, and those with knowledge of birds and those with an emotional response to encountering an endangered bird. However, the prospect of a bird going extinct alarmed almost everybody, even most of those inclined to put the interests of people ahead of birds and those who resent the way threatened species sometimes hold up development. The results suggest that funding for threatened birds has widespread popular support among the Australian population. Conservatively they would be willing to pay about AUD 14 million per year, and realistically about AUD 70 million, which is substantially more than the AUD 10 million currently thought to be required to prevent Australian bird extinctions.

  2. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days),

  3. Surveillance for Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007–10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona;

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark and Greenland, extensive surveillance of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild bird populations has been conducted from 2007 through 2010. In Denmark, the surveillance consisted of passive surveillance of wild birds found dead or sick across Denmark and active surveillance of apparently...... were birds that were found dead. In Greenland, samples were collected mainly from fecal droppings in breeding areas. Samples from 3555 live and apparently healthy wild birds were tested. All swab samples were tested by pan-influenza reverse transcriptase–PCR (RT-PCR), and the positive samples were...

  4. Understanding the biological concept "bird": A kindergarten case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Dilek

    The purpose of this qualitative, multiple case study of 14 students in a metropolitan public school in the Deep South was to find out, during a period of three months, what these kindergarten-aged children knew about birds, whether this knowledge represented current scientific thought, if such science instruction meaningfully affected their prior knowledge, and if so, what the factors during instruction that seemed to influence their understanding of the concept of bird were. The research was conducted in three phases; preinstruction interviews, instruction, and postinstruction interviews. The theoretical framework for this research was based on the Human Constructivism theory of learning (Mintzes, Wandersee and Novak, 1997). Instructional materials consisted of carefully chosen books (both fiction and non-fiction), guest speakers, field trips, a live bird in the classroom, students' observation journals, teacher-made classification and sorting activities, and picture-based concept maps. The findings suggest that young children's knowledge of birds was limited chiefly to birds' anatomical and morphological characteristics, with repeated references being made by the children to human characteristics. There was a positive, significant difference in young children's pre- and postinstruction scientific knowledge of birds. Although performance varied from child to child after instruction, most children were able to identify some common birds by name. Just one child resisted conceptual change. Kindergarten children's basic knowledge of bird behavior was limited to flight and eating. Although the children had more conceptual knowledge at the end, understanding still appeared to be shallow. The children did develop their skill in observing markedly. It also became evident that these kindergarten children needed more (a) experience in asking questions, (b) practice in techniques of visual representation, and (c) language development in order to be able to explain what they

  5. Wild bird surveillance in the Netherlands around outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 virus in 2014 within the context of global flyways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.H.; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Nolet, Bart A.; Slaterus, R.; Kharitonov, S.P.; De Vries, Peter; Vuong, O.; Majoor, F.; Kuiken, T.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses that emerged in poultry in east Asia since 2010 spread to Europe and North America by late 2014. Despite detections in migrating birds, the role of free-living wild birds in the global dispersal of H5N8 virus is unclear. Here, wild bird sampli

  6. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2011-02-04

    Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  7. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  9. Orientation in birds. The sun compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Koenig, K; Ganzhorn, J U; Ranvaud, R

    1991-01-01

    The sun compass was discovered by G. Kramer in caged birds showing migratory restlessness. Subsequent experiments with caged birds employing directional training and clock shifts, carried out by Hoffman and Schmidt-Koenig, showed that the sun azimuth is used, and the sun altitude ignored. In the laboratory, McDonald found the accuracy to be +/- 3 degrees(-)+/- 5 degrees. According to Hoffmann and Schmidt-Koenig, caged birds trained at medium northern latitudes were able to allow for the sun's apparent movement north of the arctic circle, but not in equatorial and trans-equatorial latitudes. In homing experiments, and employing clock shifts, Schmidt-Koenig demonstrated that the sun compass is used by homing pigeons during initial orientation. This finding is the principal evidence for the existence of a map-and-compass navigational system. Pigeons living in equatorial latitudes utilize the sun compass even under the extreme solar conditions of equinox, achieving angular resolution of about 3 degrees in homing experiments. According to preliminary analyses, the homing pigeons' ephemerides are retarded by several weeks (Ranvaud, Schmidt-Koenig, Ganzhorn et al.).

  10. Metal-related oxidative stress in birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivula, Miia J., E-mail: miikoi@utu.f [Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Eeva, Tapio, E-mail: teeva@utu.f [Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Metals can cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which render antioxidants incapable of defence against growing amounts of free radicals. Metal toxicity is related to their oxidative state and reactivity with other compounds. Our aim is to review the mechanisms on how metals cause oxidative stress and what is known about metal-induced oxidative stress in wildlife. Taking birds as model organisms, we summarize the mechanisms responsible for antioxidant depletion and give a view of how to detect metal-induced oxidative stress in birds by using different biomarkers. The mechanisms producing the harmful effects of oxidative stress are complex with different biomolecular mechanisms associated with ecotoxicological and ecological aspects. The majority of the studies concerning metals and ROS related to oxidative stress have focused on the biomolecular level, but little is known about the effects at the cellular level or at the level of individuals or populations. - Free-living birds can be used as effective indicators of metal-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Sellers to Preventive and Control Measures on Bird Flu, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated was the knowledge of preventive measures of avian influenza from farmers, live chicken sellers, and poultry veterinarian in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study using standardized questionnaire was conducted. Respondents included 236 poultry farmers, live chicken sellers (LCS, and veterinarian aged 12–70 years in contact with birds through husbandry. The study duration was from October 2010 to May 2011. Participants knowledge on transmission sources showed low understanding with highest being from bird-bird (57.3%. The medium most commonly utilized was electronic media (82.5% as information source. Respondents thought that vaccination of birds (80.6% would prevent infection. Farmers’ education on bird flu needs to be improved through veterinary public health and health promotion approach. Nonpharmaceutical preventive measures such as hand washing freely and avoidance of eye, nose, and mouth touching must be improved.

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  15. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  16. Pretty Bird by Bob Sinclair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recently I was reminded of a story which my mother swears is trus (though she doesn t call me Bobby muchanymore):Back in 1958,when I was just past four years old,my parents gave me a young parakeet.My mother determinedthat our parakeet would learn to talk,and to this end sat at the microphone of a borrowed tape recorder for a full 1/2hour,saying over and over again:“Pretty bird!Pretty bird!Pretty bird!Pretty bird!...”and so on.The resultingtaped message was played for our parakeet at least once pe...

  17. Bioaccumulation of polonium 210Po in marine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarzec, B; Fabisiak, J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the 210Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the 210Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of 210Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water.

  18. Bioaccumulation of polonium {sup 210}Po in marine birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarzec, B. [University of Gdansk, Faculty of Chemistry, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, ul. Sobieskiego 18/19, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: bosk@chemik.chem.univ.gda.pl; Fabisiak, J. [Naval Academy, Smidowicza 61, 81-103 Gdynia (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the {sup 210}Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of {sup 210}Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the {sup 210}Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of {sup 210}Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water.

  19. Fish and Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀波

    2010-01-01

    人物:B——Bird L——Little Fish M——Mother Fish N——Narracor(旁白)道具:角色头饰 N:一条生活在河里的Little Fish对天空充满了好奇,一心想飞到天空去看看。此时,Little Fish正依偎在Mother Fish身边,好奇地望着天空。

  20. Oxygen Uptake - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  1. Dissolved Oxygen - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  2. The influence of non-living mulch, mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rainfed fresh-market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fontanelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Weed control is often a major limitation for vegetable crops, since compared to arable crops fewer herbicides are available and the crops are more sensitive to weeds. Field experiments were carried out in the province of Pisa (Central Italy to determine the effect of two different mulches (black biodegradable plastic film and wheat straw and mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rain-fed fresh market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Rolling harrow, flaming machine and precision hoe for weed control, which were either built, enhanced or modified by the University of Pisa were used separately (mechanical-thermal strategy or in combination with a straw mulch (mechanical-thermal-straw strategy. These two innovative strategies were compared with the traditional farming system, which uses a biodegradable plastic mulch film. The strategies were compared in terms of machine performance, weed density, total labour requirement, weed dry biomass, and crop fresh yield at harvest. The total operative time for weed control was on average ~25 h ha-1 for the two systems, which included mulching, and over 30 h ha-1 for the mechanical-thermal strategy. The three strategies controlled weeds effectively, with only 30 g m-2 in each treatment. Tomato yield, however, was 35% higher for strategies that included mulching (both biodegradable film and straw.

  3. BIRD FLU MASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASAR KESKIN

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a disease of birds caused by influenza viruses closely related to human influenza viruses. The potential for transformation of avian influenza into a form that both causes severe disease in humans and spreads easily from person to person is a great concern for world health. The main purpose of a mask is to help prevent particles (droplets being expelled into the environment by the wearer. Masks are also resistant to fluids, and help protect the wearer from splashes of blood or other potentially infectious substances. They are not necessarily designed for filtration efficiency, or to seal tightly to the face. Masks and respirators are components of a number of infection control measures intended to protect healthcare workers, and prevent the spread of diseases. All healthcare workers who come into contact with a possible or probable case of any respiratory track infections should wear a respirator conforming to at least EN149:2001 FFP3. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(4.000: 296-306

  4. Tuberculosis in wild birds: implications for captive birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, K. A.; Dein, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of avian tuberculosis is widespread but the lack of visible epizootics makes assessment of its impact on wild birds difficult. Generally a low prevalence, widely-scattered, individual animal disease, avian tuberculosis is caused by the same agent in wild and domestic birds. Thus there exists the potential for disease transfer between these two groups in situations that result in direct contact such as wild animals newly captured or transferred from rehabilitation centers, and wild and captive animals intermingling in exhibit areas. During the past 7 yr, tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium, was diagnosed in 64 birds submitted to the National Wildlife Health Research Center from 16 states; avian tuberculosis was the primary diagnosis in 52 of the 64 birds, while the remaining 12 isolates were incidental findings. Twenty-eight of these birds were picked up during epizootics caused by other disease agents including avian cholera, botulism type C, and lead, organophosphorus compound, and cyanide poisoning. Twelve birds were found incidental to birds collected during disease monitoring programs and research projects, and 10 birds were collected by hunters or found sick and euthanatized. Tuberculosis lesions occurred (in order of decreasing frequency) in the liver, intestine, spleen, lung, and air sacs. Several unusual morphological presentations were observed in the gizzard, shoulder joint, jugular vein, face, nares and bill, ureter and bone marrow. Infected birds were collected during all 12 mo of the yr from a variety of species in the Anseriformes, Podicipediformes, Gruiformes, and Falconiformes. Nine of the 46 known age birds were immature indicating that lesions can develop during the first year.

  5. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  6. Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161473.html Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide Scientists recommend keeping ... birds can spread bird flu worldwide and monitoring migration routes could provide early warning of outbreaks, researchers ...

  7. Estimation of Muscle Mass by Ultrasonography Differs between Observers and Life States of Models in Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer-Boutin, Pascal; Cortés, Pablo A; Milbergue, Myriam; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography has proven to be a valuable noninvasive method of measure of muscle size in birds, but validation of its use in birds as small as black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; 11 g) is scarce. The effect of observers and life state (dead or alive) of models used for calibration on measurement quality is also poorly documented. Using 31 dead and 22 live chickadees, linear regressions between ultrasound and dissection measurements of pectoral and thigh muscles were fitted and compared between five different observers. R(2) values varied greatly between observers and were generally weaker in live birds, ranging between 0.02 and 0.59, despite high repeatability of measurement. Using equations calculated from dead birds to estimate muscle mass of live birds yielded much higher measurement errors (9%-18%) than when using equations calculated from live birds (5%-8%). Our results suggest that with careful training and using only calibration from live birds, ultrasonography can be a useful but limited tool to estimate muscle size of birds as small as the black-capped chickadee.

  8. Linking birds, fields and farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagemakers, P.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic decline in the presence of farmland birds during recent decades has provoked much attention in agri-environmental policy and ecological research. However, the still limited understanding of the socio-economical mechanisms that govern the decline in bird presence hampers the formulation

  9. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    TO THE POINT: The government vowed to improve farmers’ living stan- dards and underlined several tasks to be fulfilled this year in this regard. A majority of domestic individual investors suffered losses of more than 70 percent on their investments in mainland stock markets last year. Steel manufacturers were also unlucky in 2008 and lost a total of $1.87 billion in November alone. Despite pressure from the gloomy economic situation, more than 200 enterprises in Shanghai promised no layoffs. Tainted milk producer Sanlu declared bankruptcy. Insurance premiums in China hit a record high in 2008. A Swiss bank defied global financial uncertainties and set up a joint venture financial institution with China’s Founder Securities.

  10. Bird-eating Spiders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小明

    2002-01-01

    Many people are frightened by spiders (蜘蛛). They are especially afraid of large, hairyones. The largest and most frightening of all is thebird-eating spider, which lives in the hot, thickrain forests of northern South America.

  11. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    and many experiments are only becoming possible with the current development of tracking technologies. During this thesis work I have been tracking the poorly known movements of several species of long-distance migrants and document highly complex migration patterns. In three manuscripts these movements......Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... habitats with those in rural habitats. Some species have decreased the frequency of migrants and migration distance in urban environments, and others have not. The other manuscript describes the small scale movements of three different Palaearctic migrants during winter in Africa in a farmland habitat...

  12. PEACE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Peace marketing is a new concept which could be part of the category of the public international marketing  and it is, at the same time, a non-profit marketing. The concept of peace marketing is a new one, but one that should be developed because our future depends on the efficiency of the marketing campaigns for peace.

  13. Wild birds as pets in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil: an ethnozoological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licarião, Morgana R; Bezerra, Dandara M M; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2013-03-01

    Birds are one of the animals most widely used by humans and are highly valued as pets. The present work reports the use of wild birds as pets in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State (PB), Brazil. The owners' choice and perceptions of the species ecology was assessed as well. The methodology employed included unstructured and semi-structured interviews, guided tours and direct observations. A total of 26 bird species distributed among ten families and four orders were identified. The most frequently encountered order was Passeriformes (76.9%), with a predominance of the family Emberizidae (34.6%). The specimens kept as pets were principally obtained in public markets or between the breeders themselves. The popularity of birds as pets, compounded by the inefficiency of official controls over the commerce of wild animals has stimulated the illegal capture and breeding of wild birds in Campina Grande.

  14. Pinterest marketing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Kelby

    2012-01-01

    Tap into the marketing power of Pinterest People are using Pinterest to organize their digital lives. This hot social site lets users create visual bookmarks of their favorite things and 'pin' them on virtual pinboards. Now you can learn how to market on Pinterest with this hands-on guide. You'll discover how to launch new products, showcase your brand's personality, seek product approval, run innovative contests, and engage your community in a way that is difficult to replicate on other social networks. Helps you get the most out of marketing on Pinterest, a visual collection of bookmar

  15. A Bird Strike Handbook for Base-Level Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Pyrotechnics are some of the most effective bird control devices available. In spite of the diversity of pyrotechnic materials presently on the market (Dofusco...the market , the Air Force authorizes the pyrotechnic devices listed in Table 1. These devices can be procured from the respective Table of Allowances... Birdwatch Condition and replace with "on CCTV". JY. Page R-1, para2b(1). Line 2, change sighting surveys to R-2-2, R-3-2, and R-4-2. Delete R-2-1, R-3-1

  16. Epidemiological Surveillance of Avian Inlfuenza in Retail Live Poultry Markets of Guangzhou City in 2015%广州市2015年禽类市场禽流感流行病学监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹蓝; 李魁彪; 陈艺韵; 鲁恩洁; 苏文哲; 刘静雯; 陈宗遒; 陆剑云; 刘艳慧; 马钰

    2016-01-01

    为了解2015年广州市禽类市场的禽流感病毒污染情况,为科学制定人感染禽源流感病毒的防控措施提供基础数据,对2015年广州市12个区部分禽类市场的3447份样本进行了禽流感病毒荧光RT-PCR检测。结果显示:全部样品的A型禽流感病毒和H9亚型禽流感病毒的阳性率分别为12.56%和6.24%。1月份为A型和H9亚型禽流感阳性率最高的月份,阳性率分别为23.94%和14.73%。从化区的A型禽流感病毒阳性率最高(24.48%),黄埔区的H9亚型禽流感病毒阳性检出率最高(14.76%)。不同类型样品中,A型禽流感病毒阳性率最高为砧板、刀具类(15.16%),最低为冰鲜生鲜(7.78%)。H9亚型禽流感病毒阳性检出率最高为笼具(8.25%),最低为置物台面(2.84%)。结果表明:广州市禽类市场冬春季节禽流感病毒阳性率较高;全市各区禽类市场普遍存在禽流感病毒污染;禽类交易各环节中,宰杀和饲养环节的污染最为严重。建议在加强活禽交易市场全面清洗消毒的基础上,对不同季节、不同交易环节,采取差异化的和基于风险的消毒、监测措施,以降低人通过禽类市场感染禽流感病毒的风险。%To understand the distribution of avian influenza virus(AIV) in live poultry markets of Guangzhou city,to provide the technical supports for decision making on AIV prevention and control measures,3 447 samples including cloacal swabs and environmental swabs were collected and tested by real-time RT-PCR for AIV A type and H9 subtype. Of all samples,the positive rates of AIV A type and H9 subtype were 12.56% and 6.24% respectively. January witnessed the highest positive rates of A type and H9 subtype virus. The positive rate of A type in Conghua district was higher than in other 11 districts and the highest positive rate of H9 subtype virus among 12 districts was in Huangpu. The results indicated that AIV infection of

  17. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  18. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  19. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  20. Analysis of avian influenza virus surveillance in live poultry markets in Jining City, 2013-2014%济宁市2013-2014年活禽市场外环境禽流感监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 马利君; 颜丙新; 孙喜红; 姜文国

    2015-01-01

    目的了解济宁市活禽市场外环境禽流感病毒分布情况,评估人感染禽流感风险。方法选取6个活禽市场,采集禽类粪便等环境标本,采用实时荧光定量PCR对标本进行A型流感病毒(FluA)核酸检测,阳性标本进一步检测H5、H7、H9亚型禽流感病毒。结果2013—2014年共采集活禽市场禽类粪便及笼具表面等环境标本759份,核酸检测 FluA 阳性37份,阳性率4.87%。2014年阳性率高于2013年(7.99%对1.63%,χ2=16.61,P<0.01),冬春季高于夏秋季(7.98%对2.54%,χ2=11.85,P<0.01)。仅兖州市、微山县活禽市场检出阳性标本,不同地区活禽市场标本阳性率差异有统计学意义(χ2=29.72,P<0.01)。粪便等不同类型标本中均检出阳性标本,阳性率差异有统计学意义(χ2=40.97,P<0.01)。结论济宁市活禽市场中存在H5、H7、H9等禽流感病毒,有人感染禽流感风险,应加强人及外环境禽流感监测,并加强市场监管,落实检疫准入、消毒、休市等综合性防控措施。%Objective To understand the distribution of avian influenza virus in live poultry market, and assess the risk of human infection caused by avian influenza. Methods Six live poultry markets were selected for the study, the environmental samples were collected by swab smear, Influenza A virus nucleic acid was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR, the positive specimens were further subtypied. Results A total of 759 environmental samples were collected and tested, 37 samples were positive with avian influenza A virus nucleic acid, the overall positive rate was 4.87%.The positive rate in 2014 was higher than that in 2013(7.99% vs 1.63%,χ2=16.61,P<0.01) The positive rate in the winter-spring season was higher than that in the summer-autumn season (7.98% vs 2.54% , χ2=11.85, P<0.01) . Positive specimens were detected in Yanzhou City and Weishan County, there were statistically

  1. Was dinosaurian physiology inherited by birds? Reconciling slow growth in archaeopteryx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Erickson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeopteryx is the oldest and most primitive known bird (Avialae. It is believed that the growth and energetic physiology of basalmost birds such as Archaeopteryx were inherited in their entirety from non-avialan dinosaurs. This hypothesis predicts that the long bones in these birds formed using rapidly growing, well-vascularized woven tissue typical of non-avialan dinosaurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report that Archaeopteryx long bones are composed of nearly avascular parallel-fibered bone. This is among the slowest growing osseous tissues and is common in ectothermic reptiles. These findings dispute the hypothesis that non-avialan dinosaur growth and physiology were inherited in totality by the first birds. Examining these findings in a phylogenetic context required intensive sampling of outgroup dinosaurs and basalmost birds. Our results demonstrate the presence of a scale-dependent maniraptoran histological continuum that Archaeopteryx and other basalmost birds follow. Growth analysis for Archaeopteryx suggests that these animals showed exponential growth rates like non-avialan dinosaurs, three times slower than living precocial birds, but still within the lowermost range for all endothermic vertebrates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The unexpected histology of Archaeopteryx and other basalmost birds is actually consistent with retention of the phylogenetically earlier paravian dinosaur condition when size is considered. The first birds were simply feathered dinosaurs with respect to growth and energetic physiology. The evolution of the novel pattern in modern forms occurred later in the group's history.

  2. Evolution of olfaction in non-avian theropod dinosaurs and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François; Ridgely, Ryan C; McGee, Amanda R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2011-12-22

    Little is known about the olfactory capabilities of extinct basal (non-neornithine) birds or the evolutionary changes in olfaction that occurred from non-avian theropods through modern birds. Although modern birds are known to have diverse olfactory capabilities, olfaction is generally considered to have declined during avian evolution as visual and vestibular sensory enhancements occurred in association with flight. To test the hypothesis that olfaction diminished through avian evolution, we assessed relative olfactory bulb size, here used as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capabilities, in 157 species of non-avian theropods, fossil birds and living birds. We show that relative olfactory bulb size increased during non-avian maniraptoriform evolution, remained stable across the non-avian theropod/bird transition, and increased during basal bird and early neornithine evolution. From early neornithines through a major part of neornithine evolution, the relative size of the olfactory bulbs remained stable before decreasing in derived neoavian clades. Our results show that, rather than decreasing, the importance of olfaction actually increased during early bird evolution, representing a previously unrecognized sensory enhancement. The relatively larger olfactory bulbs of earliest neornithines, compared with those of basal birds, may have endowed neornithines with improved olfaction for more effective foraging or navigation skills, which in turn may have been a factor allowing them to survive the end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

  3. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  4. Anatomy of a Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  5. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  6. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  7. Angels, Demons, Birds and Dinosaurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Christopher Jacob

    2010-01-01

    of birds, setting the international agenda for research in bird evolution for the next 40 years. In Denmark, however, Heilmann's highly original work was generally ignored or even ridiculed by zoologists. This article demonstrates how Heilmann's artistic abilities played an important role in securing him...... international renown as a palaeontologist, while at the same time his lack of scientific credentials led to his complete isolation from the Danish zoological establishment. And it suggests that Heilmann's unyielding efforts to solve the riddle of bird evolution in the borderland between art and science...

  8. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  9. Social marketing in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Radha

    2011-01-01

    Social marketing is an important tool in the delivery of healthcare services. For any healthcare programme or project to be successful, community/consumer participation is required. The four principles of social marketing can guide policymakers and healthcare providers to successfully plan and implement health programmes. To review the existing literature in order to project the benefits of social marketing in healthcare. A search of periodical literature by the author involving social marketing and marketing concepts in health was carried out. Items were identified initially through health-oriented indexing services such as Medline, Health STAR and Cinahl, using the identifiers "social marketing" and "marketing in health". An extensive search was also carried out on educational database ERIC. A literature review of various studies on social marketing indicated that the selection of the right product (according to the community need) at the right place, with the right strategy for promotion and at the right price yields good results. However, along with technical sustainability (product, price, promotion and place), financial sustainability, institutional sustainability and market sustainability are conducive factors for the success of social marketing. The purpose of this literature review was to ascertain the likely effectiveness of social marketing principles and approaches and behaviour change communication towards health promotion. It is important for all healthcare workers to understand and respond to the public's desires and needs and routinely use consumer research to determine how best to help the public to solve problems and realise aspirations. Social marketing can optimise public health by facilitating relationship-building with consumers and making their lives healthier.

  10. Olestra consumption does not predict serum concentrations of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in free-living humans: early results from the sentinel site of the olestra post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornquist, M D; Kristal, A R; Patterson, R E; Neuhouser, M L; Rock, C L; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Cheskin, L J

    2000-07-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved olestra, a fat substitute, for use in snack foods. Previous studies had shown that olestra consumption could reduce absorption of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins. To determine the association between consumption of olestra-containing snack foods and serum concentrations of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in a free-living population, we interviewed independent population-based cross-sectional samples of 1043 adults before olestra was available and 933 adults 9 mo after olestra snacks were introduced into the marketplace in Marion County, IN, the first major test market for olestra. A cohort composed of 403 adults from the first survey, oversampling those most frequently reporting olestra consumption during follow-up telephone interviews, completed a second survey. We assessed diet, lifestyle factors and olestra consumption, and collected blood for assays for the serum concentrations of six carotenoids, four fat-soluble vitamins and lipids. Nine months after the introduction of olestra into the marketplace, 15.5% of Marion County residents reported consuming an olestra-containing snack in the previous month, with a median frequency among consumers of 3.0 times per month. There were no significant associations or consistent trends for decreased serum carotenoids or fat-soluble vitamins associated with olestra consumption, although cohort members consuming >/=2 g/d of olestra had adjusted total serum carotenoids 15% lower compared with baseline. There were increases in serum vitamin K concentrations associated with olestra consumption (P = 0.03 in the cross section and P = 0.06 in the cohort). In summary, there was no statistically significant evidence in this free-living population of associations between olestra consumption and decreased serum concentrations of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins.

  11. Bird Integumentary Melanins: Biosynthesis, Forms, Function and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Galván

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanins are the ubiquitous pigments distributed in nature. They are one of the main pigments responsible for colors in living cells. Birds are among the most diverse animals regarding melanin-based coloration, especially in the plumage, although they also pigment bare parts of the integument. This review is devoted to the main characteristics of bird melanins, including updated views of the formation and nature of melanin granules, whose interest has been raised in the last years for inferring the color of extinct birds and non-avian theropod dinosaurs using resistant fossil feathers. The molecular structure of the two main types of melanin, eumelanin and pheomelanin, and the environmental and genetic factors that regulate avian melanogenesis are also presented, establishing the main relationship between them. Finally, the special functions of melanin in bird feathers are also discussed, emphasizing the aspects more closely related to these animals, such as honest signaling, and the factors that may drive the evolution of pheomelanin and pheomelanin-based color traits, an issue for which birds have been pioneer study models.

  12. Bird migration advances more strongly in urban environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tryjanowski

    Full Text Available Urbanization has a marked effect on the reproduction and other ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In migrant birds, survival and reproductive output is influenced by the (missynchronization of arrival with the availability of resources. Many recent studies have shown that arrival timing is related to temperatures en-route and at destination. Because urban areas are "heat islands", with higher temperatures that influence earlier vegetation and invertebrate development, this should favour earlier arrival of migrant birds to cities rather than to rural areas. In this paper, we analysed differences between urban and rural habitats in mean dates and trends of first arrival dates of 18 species of migratory bird species in western Poland during 1983-2010. For many individual species, and overall, mean first arrival date was significantly earlier in rural areas than in urban areas (significant for 11 species. However, the trend towards earlier first arrival dates was stronger in urban areas for 15 of the 18 species (significantly stronger in four species. Consequently, arrival dates in urban areas are fast approaching, or have now matched or passed those in rural areas. These findings suggest that recent environmental changes may have more rapidly changed the migratory habits of birds occupying urban habitats than those occupying rural habitats.

  13. Bird Integumentary Melanins: Biosynthesis, Forms, Function and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Solano, Francisco

    2016-04-08

    Melanins are the ubiquitous pigments distributed in nature. They are one of the main pigments responsible for colors in living cells. Birds are among the most diverse animals regarding melanin-based coloration, especially in the plumage, although they also pigment bare parts of the integument. This review is devoted to the main characteristics of bird melanins, including updated views of the formation and nature of melanin granules, whose interest has been raised in the last years for inferring the color of extinct birds and non-avian theropod dinosaurs using resistant fossil feathers. The molecular structure of the two main types of melanin, eumelanin and pheomelanin, and the environmental and genetic factors that regulate avian melanogenesis are also presented, establishing the main relationship between them. Finally, the special functions of melanin in bird feathers are also discussed, emphasizing the aspects more closely related to these animals, such as honest signaling, and the factors that may drive the evolution of pheomelanin and pheomelanin-based color traits, an issue for which birds have been pioneer study models.

  14. Elevated frequency of cataracts in birds from chernobyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Alexander Mousseau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804, which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

  15. Elevated frequency of cataracts in birds from chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Møller, Anders Pape

    2013-01-01

    Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804), which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

  16. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  17. Likeability of Garden Birds: Importance of Species Knowledge & Richness in Connecting People to Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Interacting with nature is widely recognised as providing many health and well-being benefits. As people live increasingly urbanised lifestyles, the provision of food for garden birds may create a vital link for connecting people to nature and enabling them to access these benefits. However, it is not clear which factors determine the pleasure that people receive from watching birds at their feeders. These may be dependent on the species that are present, the abundance of individuals and the species richness of birds around the feeders. We quantitatively surveyed urban households from towns in southern England to determine the factors that influence the likeability of 14 common garden bird species, and to assess whether people prefer to see a greater abundance of individuals or increased species richness at their feeders. There was substantial variation in likeability across species, with songbirds being preferred over non-songbirds. Species likeability increased for people who fed birds regularly and who could name the species. We found a strong correlation between the number of species that a person could correctly identify and how connected to nature they felt when they watched garden birds. Species richness was preferred over a greater number of individuals of the same species. Although we do not show causation this study suggests that it is possible to increase the well-being benefits that people gain from watching birds at their feeders. This could be done first through a human to bird approach by encouraging regular interactions between people and their garden birds, such as through learning the species names and providing food. Second, it could be achieved through a bird to human approach by increasing garden songbird diversity because the pleasure that a person receives from watching an individual bird at a feeder is dependent not only on its species but also on the diversity of birds at the feeder.

  18. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican double... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food...

  19. Ten years of International Migratory Bird Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Wheeler; Susan Bonfield

    2005-01-01

    Public awareness and concern are crucial components of migratory bird conservation. Citizens who are enthusiastic about birds, informed about threats, and empowered to become involved in addressing those threats can make a tremendous contribution to maintaining healthy bird populations. One of the most successful vehicles for public education on migratory birds is...

  20. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  1. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  2. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL will design, fabricate, and fully characterize a 640x512 format HOT-BIRD FPA with increased quantum efficiency and extended spectral coverage. Unlike the small...

  3. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces AGENCY: Fish and... birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act... the Armed Forces to incidentally take migratory birds. The Authorization Act also stated that...

  4. 75 FR 53774 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird...

  5. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2012-13... RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds...

  6. Birds and bornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan L; Delnatte, Pauline; Guo, Jianhua; Heatley, J Jill; Tizard, Ian; Smith, Dale A

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, avian bornaviruses (ABV) were identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is a significant condition of captive parrots first identified in the late 1970s. ABV infection has subsequently been shown to be widespread in wild waterfowl across the United States and Canada where the virus infects 10-20% of some populations of ducks, geese and swans. In most cases birds appear to be healthy and unaffected by the presence of the virus; however, infection can also result in severe non-suppurative encephalitis and lesions similar to those seen in parrots with PDD. ABVs are genetically diverse with seven identified genotypes in parrots and one in canaries. A unique goose genotype (ABV-CG) predominates in waterfowl in Canada and the northern United States. ABV appears to be endemic in North American waterfowl, in comparison to what appears to be an emerging disease in parrots. It is not known whether ABV can spread between waterfowl and parrots. The discovery of ABV infection in North American waterfowl suggests that European waterfowl should be evaluated for the presence of ABV, and also as a possible reservoir species for Borna disease virus (BDV), a related neurotropic virus affecting horses and sheep in central Europe. Although investigations have suggested that BDV is likely derived from a wildlife reservoir, for which the shrew and water vole are currently prime candidates, we suggest that the existence of other mammalian and avian reservoirs should not be discounted.

  7. Unzipping bird feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments. PMID:24352674

  8. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  9. Orientation and navigation in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bouwman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  10. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  11. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the resp

  12. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Betsy Brock; Samantha C. Carlson; Molly Moilanen; Barbara A. Schillo

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the st...

  13. Avian pox in birds of prey (order Falconiformes) in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, J H; Cooper, J E

    1993-04-03

    Avian pox is an important disease in birds of prey in Bahrain. A live pigeon pox vaccine was administered to hunting falcons (Falco species) together with other therapeutic methods to arrest the development of primary stage pox lesions and for the treatment of well established secondary stage pox lesions. Quarantine and general hygiene procedures were also used as an integral part of the management and control of the disease.

  14. Internet marketing

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  15. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  16. Strategic Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Ned

    2015-01-01

    This chapter from The Library Marketing Toolkit focuses on marketing strategy. Marketing is more successful when it happens as part of a constantly-renewing cycle. The aim of this chapter is to demystify the process of strategic marketing, simplifying it into seven key stages with advice on how to implement each one. Particular emphasis is put on dividing your audience and potential audience into segments, and marketing different messages to each group. \\ud \\ud It includes case studies from T...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in Northwest...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in the...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  4. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Lee, Seoho; Ahsan, Syed S; Karlsson, Kolbeinn; Gabrielson, Richard; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Winkler, David W; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  5. Terror birds on the run: a mechanical model to estimate its maximum running speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R. Ernesto; Jones, Washington W

    2005-01-01

    ‘Terror bird’ is a common name for the family Phorusrhacidae. These large terrestrial birds were probably the dominant carnivores on the South American continent from the Middle Palaeocene to the Pliocene–Pleistocene limit. Here we use a mechanical model based on tibiotarsal strength to estimate maximum running speeds of three species of terror birds: Mesembriornis milneedwardsi, Patagornis marshi and a specimen of Phorusrhacinae gen. The model is proved on three living large terrestrial bird species. On the basis of the tibiotarsal strength we propose that Mesembriornis could have used its legs to break long bones and access their marrow. PMID:16096087

  6. Evolution of parental incubation behaviour in dinosaurs cannot be inferred from clutch mass in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchard, Geoffrey F; Ruta, Marcello; Deeming, D Charles

    2013-08-23

    A recent study proposed that incubation behaviour (i.e. type of parental care) in theropod dinosaurs can be inferred from an allometric analysis of clutch volume in extant birds. However, the study in question failed to account for factors known to affect egg and clutch size in living bird species. A new scaling analysis of avian clutch mass demonstrates that type of parental care cannot be distinguished by conventional allometry because of the confounding effects of phylogeny and hatchling maturity. Precociality of young but not paternal care in the theropod ancestors of birds is consistent with the available data.

  7. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  8. Blood protozoa of imported birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, R D; Rossi, G S

    1975-02-01

    Large numbers of birds, until recently, were brought into the United States each year. Countries of origin were varied, and included those of Australasia, Africa, South America, and the Caribbean islands, as well as other places. With them of course come their parasites, some of which may be potential pathogens to domestic avifauna. In part for this reason, a survey was undertaken of blood parasites of birds from pet shops and importers. So far a total of 1234 birds belonging to 186 species has been examined. Several new species and subspecies of avian Plasmodium have been found in the course of this study, including P. octamerium Manwell, 1968 in a Pintail Whydah, Vidua macoura, from Africa; P paranucleophilum Manwell & Sessler, 1971 in a South American tanager, Tachyphonus sp; and P. nucleophilum toucani Manwell & Sessler 1971 in a Swainson's Toucan, Ramphastos s. swainsonii. Plasmodium huffi Muniz, Soares & Battista is undoubtedly a synonym pro parte for the last. Plasmodium tenue Laveran & Maruliaz, long thought to be a synonym of Plasmodium vaughani Novy & MacNeal, was rediscovered and found to be a valid species. Plasmodium nucleophilum, infrequently seen in the New World, occurred in many Asian and African birds, and especially in starlings. Infections with other species of Plasmodium were common. Haemoproteus was the commonest blood parasite; Leucocytozoon was very rare as was Atoxoplasma (Lankesterella). The 2 families of birds best represented were the Fringillidae and the Psittacidae, but no blood parasites were seen in the latter. It is clear that imported birds are often infected with blood protozoa, some of which are unknown from native birds.

  9. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mukhin

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1 the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1, (2 the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3 the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1 the markedly reduced mobility and (2 the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1 influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better

  10. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  11. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  12. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  13. Associations between attributes of live poultry trade and HPAI H5N1 outbreaks: a descriptive and network analysis study in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otte Joachim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure of contact between individuals plays an important role in the incursion and spread of contagious diseases in both human and animal populations. In the case of avian influenza, the movement of live birds is a well known risk factor for the geographic dissemination of the virus among poultry flocks. Live bird markets (LBM's contribute to the epidemiology of avian influenza due to their demographic characteristics and the presence of HPAI H5N1 virus lineages. The relationship between poultry producers and live poultry traders (LPT's that operate in LBM's has not been adequately documented in HPAI H5N1-affected SE Asian countries. The aims of this study were to document and study the flow of live poultry in a poultry trade network in northern Vietnam, and explore its potential role in the risk for HPAI H5N1 during 2003 to 2006. Results Our results indicate that LPT's trading for less than a year and operating at retail markets are more likely to source poultry from flocks located in communes with a past history of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks during 2003 to 2006 than LPT's trading longer than a year and operating at wholesale markets. The results of the network analysis indicate that LPT's tend to link communes of similar infection status. Conclusions Our study provides evidence which can be used for informing policies aimed at encouraging more biosecure practices of LPT's operating at authorised LBM's. The results suggest that LPT's play a role in HPAI H5N1 transmission and may contribute to perpetuating HPAI H5N1 virus circulation amongst certain groups of communes. The impact of current disease prevention and control interventions could be enhanced by disseminating information about outbreak risk and the implementation of a formal data recording scheme at LBM's for all incoming and outgoing LPT's.

  14. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  15. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  16. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We......Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  17. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  18. THE BIRD PATICA IN BULGARIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper observes some words for waterfowls (aquatic birds occurring exclusively in South Slavic languages: пат, патка, пате, патица 'duck, goose' and some of their derivatives. The root in these words is generally attributed to common Slavic pъt'bird', but the origin of the vowel timbre (a instead of ъ is unclear. Furthermore, this root could also be found in Eastern and rarely Western Slavic names for another bird 'куропатка' ('Perdix'.  Here all of the attempts for explaining the root vowel are summarized; also I propose a new convergence with the turkish root pat-/pač-, which could have had strong influence on the root vowel in a number of derivatives in Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian and Croatian.

  19. Modelos de previsão de preços aplicados aos contratos futuros de boi gordo na BM&F Models of price forecasting applied to futures contracts of live cattle at the Brazilian Futures Market - BM&F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Angel Bressan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the applicability of time series models as a decision tool of buy and sell orders of live cattle futures contracts in the Brazilian Futures Market (BM&F, on dates close to expiration. The models considered are: ARIMA, Neural Networks and Dynamic Linear Models - DLM (this in the classic and bayesian approach. Weekly data, of the spot and futures markets, from 1996 to 1999, are used to calculate the forecasts. The main purpose is to calculate the returns, in buy/sell orders of live cattle futures between 1998 and 1999, in order to show the potentials or limitations of each model. The results show positive returns in almost all contracts analyzed, indicating the potential of the models as a decision tool in operating with futures contracts close to expiration date, with distinction on the performance of the Classic DLM and ARIMA models, although some differences in forecasting accuracy.

  20. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ There was no sign of recovery from the downturn of rare earth market.The overall rare earth market still presented slipping trend.There was no sufficient replenishment from NdFeB and phosphor producers.

  1. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese stock market showed signs of recovery and the new stock investors have been rushing in. Many people withdrew their insurance to invest in the stock market, as insurance watchdog statistics showed. Meanwhile, the Chinese trade surplus grew to

  2. 上海市部分鸟类寄生蠕虫感染情况调查%INVESTIGATION ON HELMINTHS IN BIRDS FROM SHANGHAI, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红玉; 裴恩乐; 黄兵; 李榴佳; 董辉; 朱顺海; 吴有陵; 吴迪; 赵其平; 姜连连; 王艳歌

    2013-01-01

    and Coturnixcoturnix. A total of 932 helminths were detected in 33 birds, 268 trematodas in 16 birds of 9 species, 631cestodes in 17 birds of 8 species, 17 nematodes in 12 birds of 7 species and 16 acanthocephalas in 7 birds of 4 species. These helminths were found in lungs, livers, kidneys and guts but not in hearts, tracheas, stomaches and subcutaneous layers. Among 932 helminthes observed in 33 birds, 746 helminths (80.04%) lived in guts of 27 birds (81.82%) and 182 helminths (19.53%) lived in livers of 8 birds (24.24%). High infection rates of helminthes were found in Columba and Turduscardis. Each of Columba examined in the study had 171 helminths and each Turduscardis had 123 helminths. These results suggested that birds from Shanghai markets carried a high diversity of helminths, including trematoda, cestode, nematode and acanthocephalan.

  3. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  4. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...

  5. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  6. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...

  7. Marketing automation

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2017-01-01

    The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the...

  8. Marketing mix

    OpenAIRE

    Fatrdlová, Adéla

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the evaluation of the marketing mix for company HET, analyzing every individual instruments and the subsequently for the improvements. This thesis is composed of two parts,literature reviewed and with personal advice for solution, which falls under subchapter suggestions and recommendations. The first part of thesis are basic concepts associated, included with marketing and marketing mix with a focus on four basic marketing tools. The second part describes the co...

  9. Marketing mix

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this thesis, with the official name Marketing mix, is to analyse the actual and future marketing mix in selected company, propose for its improvements and strategy for re-launching traditional footwear company and their products on the Czech market. The theoretical section focuses on the basic concepts of marketing, its history, actual trends and its principles. The theoretical findings are used in the following practical part. The practical section describes the curre...

  10. Postmoderne marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Urquizu, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis will challenge the traditional marketing perspective by adding a post-modern approach to marketing. Secondary an analysis of the post-modern consumer as well as the importance of neo tribalism in marketing will be described. Additionally the necessity of including countercultural segments and the importance of countercultures will be argued. Finally this thesis will examine which marketing method is the most useful when working with countercultures.

  11. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA); Constantin SASU; Geanina Constanța SPĂTARU (PRAVĂȚ)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presente...

  12. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor's Thesis deals with effective promotional tools called viral marketing. The main contribution of the thesis is the definition and history of viral marketing, making analysis of process of viral marketing, progresses definition and rules for creating a viral campaign. And also aspects are necessary for a successful viral spread. There are analysis of the characteristics of social media which are dividing according to the orientation and marketing tactics. Thesis is especially about so...

  13. Cellular metabolic rate is influenced by life-history traits in tropical and temperate birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Van Brocklyn, James; Wortman, Matthew; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    In general, tropical birds have a "slow pace of life," lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR), proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR]), using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal's life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  14. Cellular metabolic rate is influenced by life-history traits in tropical and temperate birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Jimenez

    Full Text Available In general, tropical birds have a "slow pace of life," lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR, proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR], using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal's life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  15. Service marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  16. Marketing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hottest financial market topic of the moment could be the subprime loan crisis in the United States. The crisis has stormed the U.S. stock market, dragging it to its biggest falls in a single trading day. Other markets, such as Japan’s, were also vul

  18. Shopper marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Klímová, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    The "Shopper marketing" thesis measures and evaluates the effectiveness of shopper marketing activities during the Sochi 2014 Olympic Games. This thesis includes empirical research conducted in an FMCG environment. The research implemented in this work investigates the shopper marketing practises and their effectiveness in selected Czech stores. The conclusions and recommendations within this diploma thesis are based on the analysis of research results.

  19. Stock Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亚玲

    2005-01-01

    There are stock markets in large cities in many countries. Stock markets in Paris, London, Tokyo, Shanghai and New York are among the largest and most well-known. The stock market, also called stock exchange, is a place where people can buy or sell shares of a factory or company. And each share means certain ownership of a factory or company.

  20. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHOVÁ, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  1. Marketing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  2. A comparison of auditory brainstem responses across diving bird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sara E.; Berlin, Alicia; Carr, Catherine E; Olsen, Glenn H.; Therrien, Ronald E; Yannuzzi, Sally E; Ketten, Darlene R

    2015-01-01

    There is little biological data available for diving birds because many live in hard-to-study, remote habitats. Only one species of diving bird, the black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), has been studied in respect to auditory capabilities (Wever et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 63:676–680, 1969). We, therefore, measured in-air auditory threshold in ten species of diving birds, using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The average audiogram obtained for each species followed the U-shape typical of birds and many other animals. All species tested shared a common region of the greatest sensitivity, from 1000 to 3000 Hz, although audiograms differed significantly across species. Thresholds of all duck species tested were more similar to each other than to the two non-duck species tested. The red-throated loon (Gavia stellata) and northern gannet (Morus bassanus) exhibited the highest thresholds while the lowest thresholds belonged to the duck species, specifically the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis). Vocalization parameters were also measured for each species, and showed that with the exception of the common eider (Somateria mollisima), the peak frequency, i.e., frequency at the greatest intensity, of all species' vocalizations measured here fell between 1000 and 3000 Hz, matching the bandwidth of the most sensitive hearing range.

  3. Avitourism and Australian Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Steven

    Full Text Available Formal protected areas will not provide adequate protection to conserve all biodiversity, and are not always designated using systematic or strategic criteria. Using a systematic process, the Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA network was designed to highlight areas of conservation significance for birds (i.e. IBA trigger species, and more recently general biodiversity. Land use activities that take place in IBAs are diverse, including consumptive and non-consumptive activities. Avitourism in Australia, generally a non-consumptive activity, is reliant on the IBA network and the birds IBAs aim to protect. However, companies tend not to mention IBAs in their marketing. Furthermore, avitourism, like other nature-based tourism has the potential to be both a threatening process as well as a conservation tool. We aimed to assess the current use of IBAs among Australian-based avitour companies' marketing, giving some indication of which IBAs are visited by avitourists on organised tours. We reviewed online avitour itineraries, recorded sites featuring in descriptions of avitours and which IBA trigger species are used to sell those tours. Of the 209 avitours reviewed, Queensland is the most featured state (n = 59 tours, and 73% feature at least one IBA. Daintree (n = 22 and Bruny Island (n = 17 IBAs are the most popular, nationally. Trigger species represent 34% (n = 254 out of 747 of species used in avitour descriptions. The most popular trigger species' are wetland species including; Brolga (n = 37, Black-necked Stork (n = 30 and Magpie Goose (n = 27. Opportunities exist to increase collaboration between avitour companies and IBA stakeholders. Our results can provide guidance for managing sustainability of the avitourism industry at sites that feature heavily in avitour descriptions and enhance potential cooperation between avitour companies, IBA stakeholders and bird conservation organisations.

  4. Avitourism and Australian Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Rochelle; Morrison, Clare; Arthur, J Michael; Castley, J Guy

    2015-01-01

    Formal protected areas will not provide adequate protection to conserve all biodiversity, and are not always designated using systematic or strategic criteria. Using a systematic process, the Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) network was designed to highlight areas of conservation significance for birds (i.e. IBA trigger species), and more recently general biodiversity. Land use activities that take place in IBAs are diverse, including consumptive and non-consumptive activities. Avitourism in Australia, generally a non-consumptive activity, is reliant on the IBA network and the birds IBAs aim to protect. However, companies tend not to mention IBAs in their marketing. Furthermore, avitourism, like other nature-based tourism has the potential to be both a threatening process as well as a conservation tool. We aimed to assess the current use of IBAs among Australian-based avitour companies' marketing, giving some indication of which IBAs are visited by avitourists on organised tours. We reviewed online avitour itineraries, recorded sites featuring in descriptions of avitours and which IBA trigger species are used to sell those tours. Of the 209 avitours reviewed, Queensland is the most featured state (n = 59 tours), and 73% feature at least one IBA. Daintree (n = 22) and Bruny Island (n = 17) IBAs are the most popular, nationally. Trigger species represent 34% (n = 254 out of 747) of species used in avitour descriptions. The most popular trigger species' are wetland species including; Brolga (n = 37), Black-necked Stork (n = 30) and Magpie Goose (n = 27). Opportunities exist to increase collaboration between avitour companies and IBA stakeholders. Our results can provide guidance for managing sustainability of the avitourism industry at sites that feature heavily in avitour descriptions and enhance potential cooperation between avitour companies, IBA stakeholders and bird conservation organisations.

  5. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  6. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge Bird List

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This bird list includes 293 species of birds which have been recorded on the refuge, principally on Bulls Island, and is based on observations by refuge personnel...

  7. Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163902.html Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm? Late-to-bed types ... 2017 FRIDAY, March 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Early birds may have a leg up over night owls ...

  8. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  9. Bat predation on nocturnally migrating birds

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Juste, Javier; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Agirre-Mendi, Pablo T.

    2001-01-01

    Bat predation on birds is a very rare phenomenon in nature. Most documented reports of bird-eating bats refer to tropical bats that occasionally capture resting birds. Millions of small birds concen- trate and cross over the world’s temperate regions during migra- tion, mainly at night, but no nocturnal predators are known to benefit from this enormous food resource. An analysis of 14,000 fecal pellets of the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) reveals that this species captures a...

  10. Handbook on Bird Management and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, MN. Pough , R. H. 1949. Audubon Land Bird Guide. Doubleday and Co., Garden City, NY. Pough , R. H. 1951. Audubon...Water Bird Guide. Doubleday and Co., Garden City, NY. Pough , R. H. 1957. Audubon Western Bird Guide. Doubleday and Co., Garden City, NY. Robbins, C. S...Guide to Western Birds. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA. This field guide is the counterpart to the eastern guide listed above Pough , R. H. 1949. Audubon

  11. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  12. 76 FR 48693 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... August 8, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded... RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...

  13. 76 FR 54051 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  14. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the 2010-11...

  15. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  16. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  17. Investigation on the Environmental Pollution Status of Avian Influenza Virus in Live Poultry Market in Guangdong Province during 2012-2015%2012-2015年广东省活禽市场外环境禽流感病毒污染状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹丽容; 毛小晓; 武婕; 宋颖超; 张欣; 倪汉忠; 梁丽君; 柯昌文

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of outer environment pollution for avian influenza virus from live poultry markets in Guangdong Province during 2012-2015 to discover potential human avian influenza incidence of risk factors and to provide scientific reference for the prevention and treatment of human avian influenza virus.Information management system data about in-fectious disease monitoring platform and descriptive epidemiology was used to analyze epidemiological features of various subtypes of virus from live poultry markets and to study outer environment pollution in Guangdong Province during 2012-2015.A total of 33 079 environmental samples were collected and tested from 2012 to 2015 in twenty-one cities,and the overall positive rate of avian influenza A virus was 24.23%.The positive rate of highly pathogenic H5、H7 and H9 viruses was 3.70%、3.89% and 13.53% respectively.Apart from the positive rate with the seasonal increase in 2012, the peak of FluA positive rate of emergence was in the spring and winter.Slaughter poultry chopping board surface had the highest positive rate (FluA 39.49%,H5 8.41%,H7 7.41%,H9 23.84%)of different parts or site specimens, while feces specimens had the lowest positive rate (FluA 14.99%,H5 1.73%,H7 2.38%,and H9 7.23%).Collec-ting specimens of related species,chicken (64.08%),duck (55.84%)and bird (51.92%),the positive rate of avi-an influenza virus is all above 50% and H5,H7 and H9 all can be checked out from related species.We also found that more regions distribution of H7 subtypes in the environment and the number of cases of corresponding regions H7N9 hu-man infection have significant correlation (r =0.689,P <0.689).Selecting 2 322 samples to detect nucleic acid of H6 subtype,the total positive rate was 2.58%,at the same time,selecting 153 specimens about H5,H6 and H9 subtype to detect the N subtype,H5N1,H5N2,H5N6,H6N2 and H9N2 subtype scan be checked out.HA (H5 and H7 and H9 and H6)and NA subtypes (N1,N2,N6)and other subtypes were checked

  18. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1967-01-01

    A Breeding Bird Survey of a large section on North America was conducted during June 1966. Cooperators ran a total of 585 Survey routes in 26 eastern States and 4 Canadian Provinces. Future coverage of established routes will enable changes in the abundance of North American breeding birds to be measured. Routes are selected at random on the basis of one-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 241/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced one-half mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms and the data are then transferred to machine punch cards. The average number of birds per route is tabulated by State, along with the total number of each species and the percent of routes and stops upon which they were recorded. Maps are presented showing the range and abundance of selected species. Also, a year-to-year comparison is made of populations of selected species on Maryland routes in 1965 and 1966.

  19. Notes on some Sumatran birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1948-01-01

    During the war I was able to identify some collections of birds from Sumatra, present in the Leiden Museum. These collections were brought together by E. Jacobson and W. C. van Heurn in the Padang Highlands in 1013; by W. Groeneveldt in the same area in 1914 and 1915; bij L. P. Cosquino de Bussy and

  20. Using birds to guide management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Budd

    2005-01-01

    Most years, bluebirds come home to Wyoming on the 23rd day of March. I know this date because I have watched the birds for decades. It is not a date of great ornithological importance. The 23rd of March is my mother's birthday, and my mother loves bluebirds. As a son, you tend to remember things like mothers and bluebirds.

  1. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  2. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  3. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans-Saharan m......Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...... in the population of the species. The papers show that adult and juvenile birds can use different migration strategies depending on time of season and prevailing conditions. Also, the fuel loads of some individuals were theoretically sufficient for a direct flight to important goal area, but whether they do so...

  4. Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Del

    2006-01-01

    Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

  5. The Marketing Mix in the Online Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talpau A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : The introduction of the Internet into our lives has brought many opportunities that affected also marketing. With the development of the Internet, online sales (e-sales have become more common in every day society and in a certain extend even replaced components of the traditional environment. The Internet is a new channel of communication which brings new opportunities in marketing. Nowadays, online marketing has taken over more and more of the budgets allocated for marketing, increasingly diminishing traditional marketing in favour of online promotion activities. This paper will present how the marketing mix adapts to the online environment.

  6. I LIKE LISTENING TO BIRDS SINGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向勤; 廖明娟

    2002-01-01

    Every early morning, birds' happy singing wakes me up. I get dressed quickly and have a wash and brush up, then watch birds and listen to them singing happily in the trees. The singing of different kinds of birds sounds like a piece of beautiful symphonic music. Birds’singing makes me relaxed and happy and it also recalls me something of the Past.

  7. Velogenic Newcastle disease in imported caged birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo, A.; Robinson, Y; Booth, T.; Munroe, F

    2000-01-01

    Velogenic Newcastle disease was diagnosed in pet birds intended for importation into Canada. Virological and histopathological examination confirmed the presence of the disease. The group of birds was denied entry into Canada. Similar birds illegally imported are a potential source of velogenic Newcastle disease virus and are a threat to domestic poultry.

  8. Velogenic Newcastle disease in imported caged birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, A; Robinson, Y; Booth, T; Munroe, F

    2000-05-01

    Velogenic Newcastle disease was diagnosed in pet birds intended for importation into Canada. Virological and histopathological examination confirmed the presence of the disease. The group of birds was denied entry into Canada. Similar birds illegally imported are a potential source of velogenic Newcastle disease virus and are a threat to domestic poultry.

  9. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  10. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  11. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of...

  12. 14 CFR 35.36 - Bird impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird impact. 35.36 Section 35.36... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.36 Bird impact. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests or... 4-pound bird at the critical location(s) and critical flight condition(s) of a typical installation...

  13. BIRD STRIKE INCIDENCE AT ADDIS ABABA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red eyed doves together), Black kites and Eurasian bee—eaters were ... Many airports in different parts of the world have employed various techniqnes to scare ... human bird-»scarers chasing away birds during take off and landing of aircraft. .... birds were killed by the engine blast only, without any visible damage to the.

  14. DNA barcoding of Dutch birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Aliabadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (COI can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and has been applied in a number of studies on birds. We here sequenced the COI gene for 387 individuals of 147 species of birds from the Netherlands, with 83 species being represented by >2 sequences. The Netherlands occupies a small geographic area and 95% of all samples were collected within a 50 km radius from one another. The intraspecific divergences averaged 0.29% among this assemblage, but most values were lower; the interspecific divergences averaged 9.54%. In all, 95% of species were represented by a unique barcode, with 6 species of gulls and skua (Larus and Stercorariusat least one shared barcode. This is best explained by these species representing recent radiations with ongoing hybridization. In contrast, one species, the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca showed deep divergences, averaging 5.76% and up to 8.68% between individuals. These possibly represent two distinct taxa, S. curruca and S. blythi, both clearly separated in a haplotype network analysis. Our study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for birds, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables to identify known Dutch bird species with a very high resolution. In addition some species were flagged up for further detailed taxonomic investigation, illustrating that even in ornithologically well-known areas such as the Netherlands, more is to be learned about the birds that are present.

  15. Social Marketing in Marketing Health

    OpenAIRE

    Janet, Evgen; Zaletel Kragelj, Lijana

    2008-01-01

    Health communication is one of key approaches in health promotion. In last decade more and more techniques used by commercial marketers are used, termed in this context »social marketing«. It became integrative and inclusive discipline that uses a wide range of social sciences and social policy approaches as well as marketing. Like commercial marketing, social marketing is also focused on the consumer, and similarly, it is the knowledge on what people want and need and how to persuade them to...

  16. Rates of dinosaur limb evolution provide evidence for exceptional radiation in Mesozoic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Choiniere, Jonah N

    2013-10-07

    Birds are the most diverse living tetrapod group and are a model of large-scale adaptive radiation. Neontological studies suggest a radiation within the avian crown group, long after the origin of flight. However, deep time patterns of bird evolution remain obscure because only limited fossil data have been considered. We analyse cladogenesis and limb evolution on the entire tree of Mesozoic theropods, documenting the dinosaur-bird transition and immediate origins of powered flight. Mesozoic birds inherited constraints on forelimb evolution from non-flying ancestors, and species diversification rates did not accelerate in the earliest flying taxa. However, Early Cretaceous short-tailed birds exhibit both phenotypic release of the hindlimb and increased diversification rates, unparalleled in magnitude at any other time in the first 155 Myr of theropod evolution. Thus, a Cretaceous adaptive radiation of stem-group birds was enabled by restructuring of the terrestrial locomotor module, which represents a key innovation. Our results suggest two phases of radiation in Avialae: with the Cretaceous diversification overwritten by extinctions of stem-group birds at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary, and subsequent diversification of the crown group. Our findings illustrate the importance of fossil data for understanding the macroevolutionary processes generating modern biodiversity.

  17. Archaeopteryx: Bringing the Dino-Bird to Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2011-01-25

    Some 150 million years ago, a strange creature died in a tropical lagoon that today is located in Bavaria, Germany. In 1861, a single feather of this creature was discovered. Not long afterward, a complete fossil was found with the same bird-like feathers but dinosaur-like anatomical features. Darwin had just published 'On the Origin of Species'; could this be the missing link that Darwin's supporters hoped to find? Recently, two of the now eleven discovered Archaeopteryx fossils, and that first feather, were brought to SLAC, where, using the intense X-ray beam, researchers searched for the chemical remains of the original living creatures. Please join us for this lecture, which will explain how the studies attempt to bring the original dino-bird back to life.

  18. Landscape, Legal, and Biodiversity Threats that Windows Pose to Birds: A Review of an Important Conservation Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Klem Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Windows in human residential and commercial structures in urban, suburban, and rural landscapes contribute to the deaths of billions of birds worldwide. International treaties, federal, provincial, state, and municipal laws exist to reduce human-associated avian mortality, but are most often not enforced for bird kills resulting from window strikes. As an additive, compared to a compensatory mortality factor, window collisions pose threats to the sustainability and overall population health of common as well as species of special concern. Several solutions to address the window hazard for birds exist, but the most innovative and promising need encouragement and support to market, manufacture, and implement.

  19. Un-ionized Ammonia (UIA) - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  20. Post-Haul Mortality - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  1. Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  2. Estimating the surface area of birds: using the homing pigeon (Columba livia as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina R. Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird.

  3. Ecological and Functional Traits in 99 Bird Species over a Large-Scale Gradient in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen C. Renner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A gap still exists in published data on variation of morphological and ecological traits for common bird species over a large area. To diminish this knowledge gap, we report here average values of 99 bird species from three sites in Germany from the Biodiversity Exploratories on 24 ecological and functional traits. We present our own data on morphological and ecological traits of 28 common bird species and provide additional measurements for further species from published studies. This is a unique data set from live birds, which has not been published and is available neither from museum nor from any other collection in the presented coverage. Dataset: available as the supplementary file. Dataset license: CC-BY

  4. Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.

    2005-01-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

  5. Estimating the surface area of birds: using the homing pigeon (Columba livia) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A

    2014-05-08

    Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird.

  6. Fruit color preference by birds and applications to ecological restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Gagetti

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecological restoration aims to retrieve not only the structure but also the functionality of ecosystems. Frugivorous birds may play an important role in this process due to their efficiency in seed dispersal. Color perception in these animals is highly developed, and then the colors of fleshy fruits may provide important clues for choosing plant species for restoration plans. This study aims to integrate bird color preferences and restoration of degraded areas, with an objective to evaluate the potential attractiveness to birds by colored fruits. We carried out an experiment with 384 artificial fruits made of edible modeling clay with the following colors: black, blue, green and red, with 96 fruits of each color in six sites, including four restored areas and two second-growth forest fragments. We also tested the possible effect of light intensity on fruit consumption by color. A total of 120 (38.6% were assumed to be consumed by birds, and the fruit consumption varied in response to the location and light incidence. Consumption of black and blue fruits was not related to site by chance. Notwithstanding, red and black fruits were consumed significantly more than any other colors, emphasizing bird preference to these colors, regardless of location. Enrichment with shade tolerant shrubs or forest species with black or red fruits may be an alternative way to manage established restorations. In recently established or new restorations, one may introduce pioneer shrubs or short-lived forest species which have blue fruits, but also those having black or red ones.

  7. [Stable morphologies and mosaicism in the macroevolution of birds (Neornithes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenkov, N V

    2015-01-01

    Modern orders of Neornithine birds are separated by distinct morphological gaps, hampering the development of particular models. of macroevolutionary transformations. However, recent decades have witnessed the discovery and extensive study of many fossil groups of birds, which shed light on the origin of modern higher taxa. These fossils further allow analyzing the whole process of the macroevolutionary change in this group of vertebrates during the Cenozoic. Here, a brief review is presented of the "transitional" taxa with special attention to representative of the clade Galloanseres. Almost all transitional groups of fossil birds do display mosaic morphology. It is noted that many stable morphologies (characters and character complexes) persist in different groups, occurring either as primitive states, or as advanced ones. The stable recurrence of these characters is caused by the persistence of stable ontogenetic pathways. On the other hand, independent evolution of various morphologies can be explained by the modular organization of the development. The modularity in the structure of the foot is used here as an example to show a possible way of the origin of the foot in extant perching birds (Passeriformes). The mosaic morphology of the transitional taxa is seen as the only possible way to overcome the evolutionary constraint of the parallel optimization of numerous organismal systems. It is noted that in course of macroevolutionary change, no complete filling of morphological gaps occur. Transitional forms are separated by additional gaps from their ancestors and descendants. Hence, stem groups are seen as the most probable ancestors of crown taxa. It is further noted that the evolutionary formation of some higher taxa of the living birds was initiated by the evolution of advanced morphology of the feeding apparatus and skull, while change in their. postcranial morphology was delayed.

  8. Dodo-Bird or Dressing Up the Pig and the Politics of Psychotherapy: A Reply to Vandenberghe and de Sousa (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautilli, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    It is fitting that the concept of all having one and having prizes is attributed to the Dodo-Bird. The dodo was a flightless bird. In shape and form it was similar to the modern turkey. The dodo was native to Mauritius, where it lived for thousands of years before domestic animals brought to Mauritius hunted it to extinction. The last live…

  9. Wild bird surveillance around outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus in the Netherlands, 2014, within the context of global flyways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); H.P. van der Jeugd; B.A. Nolet (Bart); R. Slaterus (Roy); S.P. Kharitonov; P.P. de Vries; O. Vuong (Spronken); F. Majoor (Frank); T. Kuiken (Thijs); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHighly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses that emerged in poultry in east Asia since 2010 spread to Europe and North America by late 2014. Despite detections in migrating birds, the role of free-living wild birds in the global dispersal of H5N8 virus is unclear. Here, wild

  10. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  11. Marketization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Design....../methodology/approach: Conceptual clarification and cross-cutting review of seven articles analysing marketization in six countries in three policy areas at the level of local government. Findings: Four ideal-type models are deduced: Quasi-markets, involving both provider competition and free choice for users; Classic contracting...... out; Benchmarking and yardstick competition; and Public-Private collaboration. On the basis of the review of the seven articles, it is found that all elements in all marketization models are firmly embedded but also under dynamic change within public service delivery systems. The review also...

  12. Artificial living crystals in confined environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Misko, Vyacheslav R; Tempere, Jacques; Kong, Minghui; Peeters, Francois M

    2017-06-01

    Similar to the spontaneous formation of colonies of bacteria, flocks of birds, or schools of fish, "living crystals" can be formed by artificial self-propelled particles such as Janus colloids. Unlike usual solids, these "crystals" are far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They fluctuate in time forming a crystalline structure, breaking apart and re-forming again. We propose a method to stabilize living crystals by applying a weak confinement potential that does not suppress the ability of the particles to perform self-propelled motion, but it stabilizes the structure and shape of the dynamical clusters. This gives rise to such configurations of living crystals as "living shells" formed by Janus colloids. Moreover, the shape of the stable living clusters can be controlled by tuning the potential strength. Our proposal can be verified experimentally with either artificial microswimmers such as Janus colloids, or with living active matter.

  13. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  14. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somveille, Marius; Manica, Andrea; Butchart, Stuart H M; Rodrigues, Ana S L

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes) where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  15. Stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Pachlerová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the stock market in the Czech republic. The first part of this work is focused on the characteristics concepts of the stock market. It is comprised of the definitions of the financial market, stocks, commodities, the stock exchange indexes and others. Introduction to the term Forex and definition of the types of stock exchanges and exchange trades. Introduction to the OTC trading and how the stock exchange work. In the analytical part there is introduction t...

  16. PPC Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Korousová, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes internet marketing and within in especially PPC advertising - including its structure and calculation of efficiency. There are two most commonly used PPC systems in the Czech Republic - AdWords and Sklik. Within these systems, there are marketing campaigns created and they consist of suitable marketing sets, which are combinations of ads and key words. Project Ehrliches Bier used the AdWords system for its campaign and within this system the project has been propagated si...

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The country was faced with heavy inflationary pressure as the CPI and PPI numbers both continued to run at a high growth rate.The government decided to enforce a tightened monetary policy and stock investors rushed to pull money out of the stock market and stash it in the banks.To save the stumbling stock market,QFIIs were allowed to triple their investments in China’s financial markets.

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:China’s financial markets remained stable in 2007, the central bank said,but the stock market stumbled on the heels of international market fluctuations.Food supplies were in short- age as the blizzard in southern provinces blocked transportation and destroyed farm produce.China Minmetals moved abroad to Canada for gold and copper,while the South Korean Lotte Shopping looked to China for the supermarket boom.

  19. Event marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze event-marketing activities of the small firm and propose new events. At first the theoretical part describes marketing and communication mix and then especially planning and development of event marketing campaign. Research data were collected by the method of survey to propose the new events. Randomly selected customers were asked to fill the questionnaire. Its results were integrated into the proposal of the new events. The interview was realized with the owner of...

  20. Market Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplow, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Market definition has long held a central place in competition law. This entry surveys recent analytical work that has called the market definition paradigm into question on a number of fronts: whether the process is feasible, whether market share threshold tests are coherent, whether the hypothetical monopolist test in merger guidelines is counterproductive, and whether and when the frequent focus on cross-elasticities is useful.

  1. Trade marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  2. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    LE, DUC

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  3. Online marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zrůst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate pay per click marketing as suitable marketing tool for promotion and distribution of a given product. The paper describes basic vocabulary related to PPC advertising, common metrics, tools used by online marketers, and logic of running PPC campaigns. The paper also tries to quantify impact of Internet on economies. The second part applies the theory to analysis of consumers' conversion path while searching online in common search engines where PPC marketi...

  4. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  5. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  6. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  7. Magnetoreception and baroreception in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The world as we know it is defined by our senses, although as humans we are equipped to receive and interpret only a fraction of the potential sensory information available. Birds have evolved with different sensory priorities to our own; they can use the Earth's magnetic field as a navigational aid, and are sensitive to slight changes in barometric pressure. These abilities help explain the impressive ability of many bird species to orientate, navigate, and maintain steady altitude during flight over long distances, even in the absence of clear visual cues. This review will explore the history of research into these "avian" senses, highlighting their likely mechanisms of action, underlying neuronal circuitry and evolutionary origins.

  8. Brominated flame retardants in birds of prey from Flanders, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). Toxicological Centre

    2004-09-15

    Since their introduction on the market, environmental levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are continuously increasing. This is caused by spillage and emission during production and use, but also by improper disposal at the end-of-life of the products in which they are used. These chemicals are highly persistent and lipophilic which results in bioaccumulation in fatty tissues of biota and biomagnification throughout the food chain. Because PBDEs have a high toxicological potential, this biomagnification can have serious health consequences for top-predators, such as birds of prey. Data about PBDE concentrations in terrestrial biota, especially in birds of prey, is scarce. A rapid increase of PBDE concentrations has been seen in pooled guillemot (Uria algae) eggs from the Baltic proper7 during the late 1970's and early 1980's, followed by a decrease during the 1990's8. In herring gull eggs from the Great Lakes, the PBDE concentrations increased exponentially from 1981 to 2000. Most of the studies look at concentrations in eggs, while less is known about tissue levels and distribution of these pollutants in birds of prey.

  9. Critical Care of Pet Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey Rowe

    2016-05-01

    Successful care of the critical pet bird patient is dependent on preparation and planning and begins with the veterinarian and hospital staff. An understanding of avian physiology and pathophysiology is key. Physical preparation of the hospital or clinic includes proper equipment and understanding of the procedures necessary to provide therapeutic and supportive care to the avian patient. An overview of patient intake and assessment, intensive care environment, and fluid therapy is included.

  10. Cranial kinesis in palaeognathous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussekloo, Sander W S; Bout, Ron G

    2005-09-01

    Cranial kinesis in birds is induced by muscles located caudal on the cranium. These forces are transferred onto the moveable parts of the skull via the Pterygoid-Palatinum Complex (PPC). This bony structure therefore plays an essential role in cranial kinesis. In palaeognathous birds the morphology of the PPC is remarkably different from that of neognathous birds and is thought to be related to the specific type of cranial kinesis in palaeognaths known as central rhynchokinesis. We determined whether clear bending zones as found in neognaths are present in the upper bill of paleognaths, and measured bending forces opposing elevation of the upper bill. A static force model was used to calculate the opening forces that can be produced by some of the palaeognathous species. We found that no clear bending zones are present in the upper bill, and bending is expected to occur over the whole length of the upper bill. Muscle forces are more than sufficient to overcome bending forces and to elevate the upper bill. The resistance against bending by the bony elements alone is very low, which might indicate that bending of bony elements can occur during food handling when muscles are not used to stabilise the upper bill. Model calculations suggest that the large processi basipterygoidei play a role in stabilizing the skull elements, when birds have to resist external opening forces on the upper bill as might occur during tearing leafs from plants. We conclude that the specific morphology of the palaeognathous upper bill and PPC are not designed for active cranial kinesis, but are adapted to resist external forces that might cause unwanted elevation of the upper bill during feeding.

  11. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term care and institutional living. Sheltered Housing Sheltered housing is often in a home that offers personal-care support, housekeeping services, and meals. Social work services and coordination for activities can be ...

  12. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if needs change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or their families usually pay for it. Health and long-term care insurance policies may cover ...

  13. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . HIV Treatment Works Get In Care HIV 101 Locate a ... Sharing Your Status Stay In Care Understanding Care HIV Treatment Cost of HIV Treatment Related Health Conditions Live ...

  14. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tryjanowski

    Full Text Available Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas. The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  15. Forest edges have high conservation value for bird communities in mosaic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraube, Julien; Archaux, Frédéric; Deconchat, Marc; van Halder, Inge; Jactel, Hervé; Barbaro, Luc

    2016-08-01

    A major conservation challenge in mosaic landscapes is to understand how trait-specific responses to habitat edges affect bird communities, including potential cascading effects on bird functions providing ecosystem services to forests, such as pest control. Here, we examined how bird species richness, abundance and community composition varied from interior forest habitats and their edges into adjacent open habitats, within a multi-regional sampling scheme. We further analyzed variations in Conservation Value Index (CVI), Community Specialization Index (CSI) and functional traits across the forest-edge-open habitat gradient. Bird species richness, total abundance and CVI were significantly higher at forest edges while CSI peaked at interior open habitats, i.e., furthest from forest edge. In addition, there were important variations in trait- and species-specific responses to forest edges among bird communities. Positive responses to forest edges were found for several forest bird species with unfavorable conservation status. These species were in general insectivores, understorey gleaners, cavity nesters and long-distance migrants, all traits that displayed higher abundance at forest edges than in forest interiors or adjacent open habitats. Furthermore, consistently with predictions, negative edge effects were recorded in some forest specialist birds and in most open-habitat birds, showing increasing densities from edges to interior habitats. We thus suggest that increasing landscape-scale habitat complexity would be beneficial to declining species living in mosaic landscapes combining small woodlands and open habitats. Edge effects between forests and adjacent open habitats may also favor bird functional guilds providing valuable ecosystem services to forests in longstanding fragmented landscapes.

  16. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Skórka, Piotr; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas). The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE) 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  17. Avian Influenza H5N1 and the Wild Bird Trade in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Brooks-Moizer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife trade and emerging infectious diseases pose significant threats to human and animal health and global biodiversity. Legal and illegal trade in domestic and wild birds has played a significant role in the global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, which has killed more than 240 people, many millions of poultry, and an unknown number of wild birds and mammals, including endangered species, since 2003. This 2007 study provides evidence for a significant decline in the scale of the wild bird trade in Hanoi since previous surveys in 2000 (39.7% decline and 2003 (74.1% decline. We attribute this to the enforcement of Vietnam's Law 169/2005/QD UBND, introduced in 2005, which prohibits the movement and sale of wild and ornamental birds in cities. Nevertheless, 91.3% (21/23 of bird vendors perceived no risk of H5N1 infection from their birds, and the trade continues, albeit at reduced levels, in open market shops. These findings highlight the importance of continued law enforcement to maintain this trade reduction and the associated benefits to human and animal health and biodiversity conservation.

  18. Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  19. Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  20. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines cl

  1. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  2. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market Dec. 10-20 Price of Pr-Nd oxide and Pr-Nd mischrnetal kept on rising in domestic market recently due to the tight supply of RE carbonate. Short supply of ion adsorption clay in southern China did not affect the prices of dysprosium and terbium obviously.

  3. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market Oct. 10~20 Price of Eu-rich and Yt-medium RE concentrate in domestic market rose to RMB $ 74,000/ton from RMB $72,000/ton. It was still on rising. Price of RE carbonate in Baotou was over RMB$10,000/ton due to the strict volume control of rare earth concentrate.

  4. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market May 10-20 Learned from Inner Mongolia Rare Earth Association,domestic rare earth market was in good situation driven by high demand. Price of neodymium rose strongly. Dysprosium oxide and terbium oxide still hovered at the higher price level. Price of europia remained stable.

  5. Market review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ RE Market June 10-20 Driven by price rising of Nd and Pr, domestic RE market was very active recently. It was thought that the price rising was led by the large demand of NdFeB magnet industry and tight supply of RE raw materials.

  6. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines

  7. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT:Along with the Chinese Government’s determination to crack down on insider trading, the mainland stock market has experienced more volatility recently with sharp ups and downs. Overall, however, the market is on a rising track. A sea change

  8. Agricultural Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  9. Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  10. Ambush marketing and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ünal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tactics used to reach to the mind of consumer who come under the messages of brands that sent from different fronts such as thousands of products (advertising, public relations, sponsorship, point of sale activities, promotion, etc differentiates and so to say It is lived lots of brand wars. Most of these wars are seen in areas of sports organizations. Sports is always in front of consumer in every moment of the life and being in brisk demand. It is transformed into an industry which has a large-scale by adding the power of influencing the sectors connected to each other.The world's leading companies are trying to increase their market shares by benefiting from the charm of the sports. Sports is one of the most popular areas about sponsorship. Sports has the highest share in the sponsorship areas. Ambush marketing has appeared as a major threat against sports sponsorship. Ambush marketing can also be described as an attempt of making the another company's name which is a competitor related with the event without paying a high price and also without violating the laws in the situations that official sponsorship exists in an organization which is involving the massess even a brand's sporting, social or even political event.Anyway, the efforts of preventing ambush marketing applications by the event owners and sponsors becoming very hard. There is not a clear result about whether ambush marketing is an ethical application or not and if it has a positive or a negative impact on the sports marketing. Further investigations will show us whether the war against ambush marketing will be successful or not.

  11. Ambush marketing and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ünal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tactics used to reach to the mind of consumer who come under the messages of brands that sent from different fronts such as thousands of products (advertising, public relations, sponsorship, point of sale activities, promotion, etc differentiates and so to say It is lived lots of brand wars. Most of these wars are seen in areas of sports organizations. Sports is always in front of consumer in every moment of the life and being in brisk demand. It is transformed into an industry which has a large-scale by adding the power of influencing the sectors connected to each other.The world's leading companies are trying to increase their market shares by benefiting from the charm of the sports.  Sports is one of the most popular areas about sponsorship. Sports has the highest share in the sponsorship areas. Ambush marketing has appeared as a major threat against sports sponsorship. Ambush marketing can also be described as an attempt of making the another company's name which is a competitor related with the event without paying a high price and also without violating the laws in the situations that official sponsorship exists in an organization which is involving the massess even a brand's sporting, social or even political event.Anyway, the efforts of preventing ambush marketing applications by the event owners and sponsors becoming very hard. There is not a clear result about whether ambush marketing is an ethical application or not and if it has a positive or a negative impact on the sports marketing. Further investigations will show us whether the war against ambush marketing will be successful or not.

  12. A new specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Hongshanornis longicresta: insights into the aerodynamics and diet of a basal ornithuromorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Chiappe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that contains all living birds. Here we report on a new specimen (DNHM D2945/6 referable to Hongshanornis longicresta that contributes significant information to better understand the morphology, trophic ecology, and aerodynamics of this species, as well as the taxonomy of the Hongshanornithidae. Most notable are the well-preserved wings and feathered tail of DNHM D2945/6, which afford an accurate reconstruction of aerodynamic parameters indicating that as early as 125 million years ago, basal ornithuromorphs had evolved aerodynamic surfaces comparable in size and design to those of many modern birds, and flight modes alike to those of some small living birds.

  13. A new specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Hongshanornis longicresta: insights into the aerodynamics and diet of a basal ornithuromorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Luis M; Zhao, Bo; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Chunling, Gao; Wang, Xuri; Habib, Michael; Marugan-Lobon, Jesus; Meng, Qingjin; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that contains all living birds. Here we report on a new specimen (DNHM D2945/6) referable to Hongshanornis longicresta that contributes significant information to better understand the morphology, trophic ecology, and aerodynamics of this species, as well as the taxonomy of the Hongshanornithidae. Most notable are the well-preserved wings and feathered tail of DNHM D2945/6, which afford an accurate reconstruction of aerodynamic parameters indicating that as early as 125 million years ago, basal ornithuromorphs had evolved aerodynamic surfaces comparable in size and design to those of many modern birds, and flight modes alike to those of some small living birds.

  14. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  15. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  16. Developing markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet

    2015-01-01

    , and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross......Situated at the intersection of markets and development, this commentary aims to promote a cross-fertilization of macromarketing and transformative consumer research (TCR) that directs attention to the sociocultural context and situational embeddedness of consumer experience and wellbeing, while...... acknowledging complex, systemic interdependencies between markets, marketing, and society. Based on a critical review of the meaning of development and an interrogation of various developmental discourses, the authors develop a conceptual framework that brings together issues of development, wellbeing...

  17. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  18. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presented to the society’s actual characteristics. This can be achieved by using appropriate marketing tools and methods; however, the particularities of religion must be taken into account in order not to alter its religious values.

  19. Does the oxidative stress theory of aging explain longevity differences in birds? I. Mitochondrial ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Magdalene K; Hulbert, A J; Buttemer, William A

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates are reported to be inversely related to maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) in mammals and also to be higher in short-living mammals compared to short-living birds. The mammal-bird comparison, however, is mainly based on studies of rats and pigeons. To date, there has been no systematic examination of ROS production in birds that differ in MLSP. Here we report a comparison of mitochondrial ROS production in two short-living (quails) and three long-living bird species (parrots) that exhibit, on average, a 5-fold longevity difference. Mitochondrial ROS production was determined both in isolated mitochondria (heart, skeletal muscle and liver) as traditionally done and also in intact erythrocytes. In all four tissues, mitochondrial ROS production was similar in quails and parrots and showed no correspondence with known longevity differences. The lack of a consistent difference between quails and parrots was not due to differences in mitochondrial content as ROS production in relation to oxygen consumption (determined as the free radical leak) showed a similar pattern. These findings cast doubt on the robustness of the oxidative stress theory of aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Supplement to the Faunal List of the Birds of the Moluccan Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.; Voous, K.H.

    1953-01-01

    A faunal list of the birds of the Moluccan Islands has been previously published by the first author (Treubia 19, part 2, May 1948, pp. 323— 402). Additional data have been collected since by Mr. G. A. L. de Haan during a period of several years in which this zealous collector lived in Halmahera and

  1. Seasonal timing of reproduction in a tropical bird, the Seychelles warbler : A field experiment using translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    Reproduction of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), a single-island endemic species living close to the equator, is characterized by a pronounced annual rhythm. The bird usually raises only one or two clutches of one egg each per year. Observational data suggest that seasonal changes

  2. Supplement to the Faunal List of the Birds of the Moluccan Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.; Voous, K.H.

    1953-01-01

    A faunal list of the birds of the Moluccan Islands has been previously published by the first author (Treubia 19, part 2, May 1948, pp. 323— 402). Additional data have been collected since by Mr. G. A. L. de Haan during a period of several years in which this zealous collector lived in Halmahera and

  3. Sero-survey of Avian Influenza in backyard poultry and wild bird species in Iran-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Mehrabadi, M H; Bahonar, A R; Vasfi Marandi, M; Sadrzadeh, A; Tehrani, F; Salman, M D

    2016-06-01

    In almost all villages in Iran backyard birds, especially chickens, are kept for egg and meat production. AI H9N2 subtype is endemic in Iran. Therefore, estimation of AI prevalence among these birds is important to determine the risk of transmission of infection to commercial farms. The aim of this study was to estimate subclinical infections or previous exposure to H5, H7, and H9 subtypes and to identify potentially important determinants of prevalence of this infectious at premises level in backyard poultry, bird gardens, zoos, and wild bird markets in Iran. A survey was conducted using a cross-sectional design throughout the entire country. A total of 329 villages, seven bird gardens, three zoos and five wild bird markets were included. In each village four families that kept birds were included in the collection of biological samples and background information. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used as the screening test and all ELISA-positive samples were examined with the HI test to differentiate H5, H7, and H9. Among the bird gardens, eight of 15 premises (53.3%) were positive in both the ELISA test and HI for H9N2. Testing of samples collected in the villages revealed that 296 out of 329 villages (90%) had positive ELISA tests and also HI tests for H9. The HI-H9 mean titers in positive units were significantly higher than negative units (Pbird gardens in the case of H9 (P>.05). The results of this study showed that among the risk variables, mountainous area was a protective factor and lack of hygienic disposal of dead birds was a risk factor for AI; this was also observed in rural poultry. The high sero-prevalence of influenza H9N2 in rural domestic poultry indicates that the disease is endemic. It is necessary to include backyard poultry in any surveillance system and control strategy due to the existence of AIV in backyard poultry and the possibility of transmission of infection to commercial poultry farms. Implementation of an AI

  4. A new specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Hongshanornis longicresta: insights into the aerodynamics and diet of a basal ornithuromorph

    OpenAIRE

    Luis M Chiappe; Bo Zhao; O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Gao Chunling; Xuri Wang; Michael Habib; Jesus Marugan-Lobon; Qingjin Meng; Xiaodong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that contains all living birds. Here we report on a new specimen (DNHM D2945/6) referable to...

  5. Bat predation on nocturnally migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, C; Juste, J; García-Mudarra, J L; Agirre-Mendi, P T

    2001-08-14

    Bat predation on birds is a very rare phenomenon in nature. Most documented reports of bird-eating bats refer to tropical bats that occasionally capture resting birds. Millions of small birds concentrate and cross over the world's temperate regions during migration, mainly at night, but no nocturnal predators are known to benefit from this enormous food resource. An analysis of 14,000 fecal pellets of the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) reveals that this species captures and eats large numbers of migrating passerines, making it the only bat species so far known that regularly preys on birds. The echolocation characteristics and wing morphology of this species strongly suggest that it captures birds in flight.

  6. Birds reveal their personality when singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Zsolt Garamszegi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in social behaviour may have consequences for mate choice and sexual signalling, because partners should develop preferences for personalities that maximize reproductive output. Here we propose that behavioural traits involved in sexual advertisement may serve as good indicators of personality, which is fundamental for sexual selection to operate on temperament. Bird song has a prominent and well-established role in sexual selection, and it displays considerable variation among individuals with a potentially strong personality component. Therefore, we predicted that features of song would correlate with estimates of personality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field study of free-living male collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we characterised personality based on the exploration of an altered breeding environment, and based on the risk taken when a potential predator was approaching during a simulated territorial interaction. We found that explorative and risk-taker individuals consistently sang at lower song posts than shy individuals in the presence of a human observer. Moreover, males from lower posts established pair-bonds relatively faster than males from higher posts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results may demonstrate that risk taking during singing correlates with risk taking during aggression and with exploration, thus personality may be manifested in different contexts involving sexual advertisement. These findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that the male's balance between investment in reproduction and risk taking is reflected in sexual displays, and it may be important information for choosy females that seek partners with personality traits enhancing breeding success.

  7. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:Beijing has set a new mission to become an inter- nationally recognized financial center.The mainland stock market rally slowed down and met with heavy selling pressure from those who gained a big profit from the previous market slump.In accordance with market performance,listed companies readjusted their refinanc- ing schemes and cut refinancing prices.Agricultural Bank of China marched toward listing,though problems still exist.China Eastern Airlines denied rumors of recent negotiations with Singapore Airlines and vowed to concentrate on securing sound travel conditions before the Beijing Olympic Games.China Customs strengthened efforts to block illegal grain exports.

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government vows to control the real estate market after a year of robust growth.To diversify financial investment tools,the regulatory authorities approved the launch of stock index futures,and short selling and margin trading to allow investors to hedge against risks.China overtakes the United States to become the world’s biggest auto market in2009.The country is also expected to become the largest consumer market in the world by2020.Google threatens to halt its China operations if it cannot reach a censorship agreement with the government.

  9. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ RE Market Mar.20~30 Affected by slight price falling of didymium oxide and didymium mischmetal,rare earth market was smooth recently.Price of most rare earth products was stable. Price of mixed rare earth carbonate increased from RMB$15,000~15,500/ton to RMB$16,000-16,500/ton in Baotou due to restriction of the product sales in spot market by main producers.Dealings are mostly done among long-term clients.Supply of rare earth carbonate was very tight.

  10. Market Sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2017-01-01

    , i.e. between understanding financial markets as captured by fads and fashions (mimesis), and at the same time understanding such markets on the basis of a notion of homo economicus (an essentially anti-mimetic figure). Identifying that tension not only sheds novel light on Shiller’s work, but also...... allows us to critically discuss Mirowski’s negative appraisal of Shiller’s behavioural finance programme. Further, we argue that the mimetic/anti-mimetic tension in Shiller’s work can equally be identified in a broader range of theories about financial markets, and that attending to it therefore opens up...

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese economy regains a solid footing as evidenced in August figures, though exports fail to deliver a needed turnaround. As one of the major driving forces, investments continued to pick up steam. When the stock and real estate markets become increasingly volatile, the gold market gains a chance to shine as a safe haven. Automakers are experiencing skyrocketing sales, but a few risks put their long-term prospects at stake. Chinese PC makers make a push into rural markets to gain an edge over foreign competitors.

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s state-owned enterprises are focusing on the stalwarts of the domestic economy, including the oil, telecommunications and power industries. Although auto sales have seen a period of sluggish demand, luxury car imports have been increasing. Steel mills will drop their prices in the fourth quarter because of excessive sup- ply. China’s stock markets, once taking the global lead in share price increases, have become the worst performing markets in the world. Along with the declining stock markets, mainland-listed companies also saw their profits drop in the first half of this year.

  13. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China vows to keep a stringent handle on the industrial overcapacity that is draining life from the economic revival. China Mobile pushes forward OPhone and its operating system in an aggressive push into the 3G market. As its tight grip over the market slips, the wireless titan cannot wait to regain lost ground. China’s manufacturing sector continues to pick up steam as evidenced by the climbing PMI. Soaring prices of pork and eggs reignite fears over inflation. The buoyant real estate market appears to be nearing a turning point as sales cool down.

  14. VIRAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    OLENTSOVA Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This project seeks to investigate how the company Gitz can create awareness towards their brand by using viral marketing. To do this we analyze which elements of viral marketing the company can use, to reach their goal. In order to utilize the selected tools of viral marketing best possible, we need to figure out the company’s customer segment and figure out how to reach that segment. This has been done with the use of Henrik Dahl’s Minerva-model that divides the population into f...

  15. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  16. A checklist of birds of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of birds of Kerala State is presented in this paper.  Accepted English names, scientific binomen, prevalent vernacular names in Malayalam, IUCN conservation status, endemism, Wildlife (Protection Act schedules, and the appendices in the CITES, pertaining to the birds of Kerala are also given.  The State of Kerala has 500 species of birds, 17 of which are endemic to Western Ghats, and 24 species fall under the various threatened categories of IUCN. 

  17. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  18. Effects of Grassland Bird Management on Nongame Bird Community Structure and Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report includes data on bird/habitat relations, breeding biology, and effects of succession and current management practices on grassland bird communities in the...

  19. Grassland bird surveys in support of the Michigan Breeding Bird Atlas II: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Grassland birds, as a group, have suffered the most severe population declines of any other North American birds (Herkert 1995, Herkert et al. 1996). Compared to...

  20. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building