WorldWideScience

Sample records for litter production chemistry

  1. The Chemistry of Cat Litter: Activities for High School Students to Evaluate a Commercial Product's Properties and Claims Using the Tools of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, Teresa; Marchetti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Educating future scientists and citizens is more effective if students are guided to correctly apply what they learned in school to their daily lives. This experience-based work is focused on the study of a well-known commercial product: cat litter. This material offers different starting points for a critical examination. Questions related to…

  2. Effects of elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and tropospheric O{sub 3} on leaf litter production and chemistry in trembling aspen and paper birch communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.; King, J.S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science; Giardina, C.P. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Houghton, MI (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and elevated ozone (O{sub 3}) on the quantity and timing of nutrient release to plants and on soil carbon formation rates, and how they are influenced by the combined change in litter quality and quantity. The changes in leaf litter in response to environmental changes was characterized in order to understand the influence of global change on forests. Free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) technology was used to examine leaf litter production and biochemical input to soil in response to elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} treatments. The study involved collecting litter from aspen and birch-aspen communities that had been exposed to FACE and O{sub 3} treatments for 6 years. The hypothesis of growth differentiation balance was used as the basis to develop other hypotheses regarding litter chemistry responses to elevated levels of carbon dioxide and ozone. It was assumed that environmental factors that increase the net balance of plant carbon sources relative to growth sinks will increase the allocation of photosynthate to the production of carbon-based secondary compounds. Litter was analyzed for concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, soluble sugars, lipids, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and carbon-based defensive compounds such as soluble phenolics and condensed tannins. The study showed that high levels of ozone greatly increased litter concentrations of soluble sugars, soluble phenolics and condensed tannins, but there were no major effects of elevated carbon dioxide or elevated ozone on the concentrations of individual carbon structural carbon hydrates such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It was concluded that in the future, the inputs of nitrogen, soluble sugars, condensed tannins, soluble phenolics, cellulose and lignin to forest soils can change as a result of small changes in litter chemistry resulting from elevated CO{sub 2}, tropospheric O{sub 3}, and changes in litter biomass

  3. Measurement of broiler litter production rates and nutrient content using recycled litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    It is important for broiler producers to know litter production rates and litter nutrient content when developing nutrient management plans. Estimation of broiler litter production varies widely in the literature due to factors such as geographical region, type of housing, size of broiler produced, and number of flocks reared on the same litter. Published data for N, P, and K content are also highly variable. In addition, few data are available regarding the rate of production, characteristics, and nutrient content of caked litter (cake). In this study, 18 consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on the same litter in experimental pens under simulated commercial conditions. The mass of litter and cake produced was measured after each flock. Samples of all litter materials were analyzed for pH, moisture, N, P, and K. Average litter and cake moisture content were 26.4 and 46.9%, respectively. Significant variation in litter and cake nutrient content was observed and can largely be attributed to ambient temperature differences. Average litter, cake, and total litter (litter plus cake) production rates were 153.3, 74.8, and 228.2 g of dry litter material per kg of live broiler weight (g/kg) per flock, respectively. Significant variation in litter production rates among flocks was also observed. Cumulative litter, cake, and total litter production rates after 18 flocks were 170.3, 78.7, and 249.0 g/kg, respectively. The data produced from this research can be used by broiler producers to estimate broiler litter and cake production and the nutrient content of these materials.

  4. Effects of fire frequency on litter decomposition as mediated by changes to litter chemistry and soil environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari D Ficken

    Full Text Available Litter quality and soil environmental conditions are well-studied drivers influencing decomposition rates, but the role played by disturbance legacy, such as fire history, in mediating these drivers is not well understood. Fire history may impact decomposition directly, through changes in soil conditions that impact microbial function, or indirectly, through shifts in plant community composition and litter chemistry. Here, we compared early-stage decomposition rates across longleaf pine forest blocks managed with varying fire frequencies (annual burns, triennial burns, fire-suppression. Using a reciprocal transplant design, we examined how litter chemistry and soil characteristics independently and jointly influenced litter decomposition. We found that both litter chemistry and soil environmental conditions influenced decomposition rates, but only the former was affected by historical fire frequency. Litter from annually burned sites had higher nitrogen content than litter from triennially burned and fire suppression sites, but this was correlated with only a modest increase in decomposition rates. Soil environmental conditions had a larger impact on decomposition than litter chemistry. Across the landscape, decomposition differed more along soil moisture gradients than across fire management regimes. These findings suggest that fire frequency has a limited effect on litter decomposition in this ecosystem, and encourage extending current decomposition frameworks into disturbed systems. However, litter from different species lost different masses due to fire, suggesting that fire may impact decomposition through the preferential combustion of some litter types. Overall, our findings also emphasize the important role of spatial variability in soil environmental conditions, which may be tied to fire frequency across large spatial scales, in driving decomposition rates in this system.

  5. Effects of fire frequency on litter decomposition as mediated by changes to litter chemistry and soil environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficken, Cari D; Wright, Justin P

    2017-01-01

    Litter quality and soil environmental conditions are well-studied drivers influencing decomposition rates, but the role played by disturbance legacy, such as fire history, in mediating these drivers is not well understood. Fire history may impact decomposition directly, through changes in soil conditions that impact microbial function, or indirectly, through shifts in plant community composition and litter chemistry. Here, we compared early-stage decomposition rates across longleaf pine forest blocks managed with varying fire frequencies (annual burns, triennial burns, fire-suppression). Using a reciprocal transplant design, we examined how litter chemistry and soil characteristics independently and jointly influenced litter decomposition. We found that both litter chemistry and soil environmental conditions influenced decomposition rates, but only the former was affected by historical fire frequency. Litter from annually burned sites had higher nitrogen content than litter from triennially burned and fire suppression sites, but this was correlated with only a modest increase in decomposition rates. Soil environmental conditions had a larger impact on decomposition than litter chemistry. Across the landscape, decomposition differed more along soil moisture gradients than across fire management regimes. These findings suggest that fire frequency has a limited effect on litter decomposition in this ecosystem, and encourage extending current decomposition frameworks into disturbed systems. However, litter from different species lost different masses due to fire, suggesting that fire may impact decomposition through the preferential combustion of some litter types. Overall, our findings also emphasize the important role of spatial variability in soil environmental conditions, which may be tied to fire frequency across large spatial scales, in driving decomposition rates in this system.

  6. Enhanced litter input rather than changes in litter chemistry drive soil carbon and nitrogen cycles under elevated CO2: a microcosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingli Lui; John S. King; Fitzgerald L. Booker; Christian P. Giardina; H. Lee Allen; Shuijin Hu

    2009-01-01

    Elevated CO2 has been shown to stimulate plant productivity and change litter chemistry. These changes in substrate availability may then alter soil microbial processes and possibly lead to feedback effects on N availability. However, the strength of this feedback, and even its direction, remains unknown. Further, uncertainty remains whether...

  7. Effects of top-dressing recycled broiler litter on litter production, litter characteristics, and nitrogen mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    Top-dressing is a method of broiler litter management in which a thin layer of new, clean litter material is spread over the top of previously used litter prior to placement of a new flock. This fresh layer of bedding material increases the absorptive capacity of the litter and decreases litter caking. Although this practice has been widely used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to quantify the effects the practice has on broiler performance, litter production rates, and nutrient content, or the ability of broiler litter to retain manure N and prevent volatilization. An experiment was conducted to quantify these parameters under simulated commercial conditions in a research facility. Nine consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on recycled broiler litter that had previously been used for 9 flocks. Control pens received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed pens received a thin layer of new rice hulls (1 to 2 cm) before the placement of each flock. Nitrogen loss was calculated using the mass balance method. Average broiler performance was not different between the top-dressed and control pens. Top-dressing of litter significantly (P dressed pens compared with control pens. As a result, litter C:N ratios were significantly higher for pens with top-dressed litter. Differences in N loss between the treatments were not consistent. Average N loss for all flocks was 10.61 and 11.92 g of N/kg of marketed broiler for control and top-dressed pens, respectively, or 20.1 and 22.5% of N inputs, respectively. Based on this experiment, top-dressing of recycled broiler litter would not be recommended as a strategy to reduce the volatilization of N from broiler rearing facilities and, in fact, may actually increase N loss.

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 on litter chemistry and subsequent invertebrate detritivore feeding responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Dray

    Full Text Available Elevated atmospheric CO2 can change foliar tissue chemistry. This alters leaf litter palatability to macroinvertebrate detritivores with consequences for decomposition, nutrient turnover, and food-web structure. Currently there is no consensus on the link between CO2 enrichment, litter chemistry, and macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. To identify any unifying mechanisms, we presented eight invertebrate species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with litter from Alnus glutinosa (common alder or Betula pendula (silver birch trees propagated under ambient (380 ppm or elevated (ambient +200 ppm CO2 concentrations. Alder litter was largely unaffected by CO2 enrichment, but birch litter from leaves grown under elevated CO2 had reduced nitrogen concentrations and greater C/N ratios. Invertebrates were provided individually with either (i two litter discs, one of each CO2 treatment ('choice', or (ii one litter disc of each CO2 treatment alone ('no-choice'. Consumption was recorded. Only Odontocerum albicorne showed a feeding preference in the choice test, consuming more ambient- than elevated-CO2 birch litter. Species' responses to alder were highly idiosyncratic in the no-choice test: Gammarus pulex and O. albicorne consumed more elevated-CO2 than ambient-CO2 litter, indicating compensatory feeding, while Oniscus asellus consumed more of the ambient-CO2 litter. No species responded to CO2 treatment when fed birch litter. Overall, these results show how elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter litter chemistry, affecting invertebrate feeding behaviour in species-specific ways. The data highlight the need for greater species-level information when predicting changes to detrital processing-a key ecosystem function-under atmospheric change.

  9. Plant litter chemistry and mycorrhizal roots promote a nitrogen feedback in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina Wurzburger; Ronald L. Hendrick

    2009-01-01

    1. Relationships between mycorrhizal plants and soil nitrogen (N) have led to the speculation that the chemistry of plant litter and the saprotrophy of mycorrhizal symbionts can function together to...

  10. Mangrove litter production and organic carbon pools in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mngazana Estuary is an important source of mangrove litter and POC for the adjacent marine environment, possibly sustaining nearshore food webs. Keywords: Dissolved organic carbon, harvesting, litter production, mangroves, particulate organic carbon, Rhizophora mucronata, South Africa African Journal of Aquatic ...

  11. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smyo

    aimed at elucidating the effects of combinations of these products as litter on poultry production, such as .... The bulbs on the ceiling were used ... sample, curved fibrous and acicular mordenites were derived from volcanic glass (Figure 2b).

  12. Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, B.

    2009-04-01

    Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients. B. Berg, Dipartimento Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Complesso Universitario, Monte San Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy and Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland. Studies of several processes, using climatic gradients do provide new information as compared with studies at e.g. a single site. Decomposition of plant litter in such gradients give response in decomposition rates to natural climate conditions. Thus Scots pine needle litter incubated in a climate gradient with annual average temperature (AVGT) ranging from -0.5 to 6.8oC had a highly significant increase in initial mass-loss rate with R2 = 0.591 (p<0.001) and a 5o increase in temperature doubled the mass-loss rate. As a contrast - needle litter of Norway spruce incubated in the same transect had no significant response to climate and for initial litter a 5o increase increased mass-loss rate c. 6%. For more decomposed Scots pine litter we could see that the effect of temperature on mass-loss rate gradually decreased until it disappeared. Long-term decomposition studies revealed differences in litter decomposition patterns along a gradient, even for the same type of litter. This could be followed by using an asymptotic function that gave, (i) a measure a maximum level of decomposition, (ii) the initial decomposition rate. Over a gradient the calculated maximum level of decomposition decreased with increasing AVGT. Other gradient studies revealed an effect of AVGT on litter chemical composition. Pine needle litter from stands under different climate conditions had nutrient concentrations related to AVGT. Thus N, P, K, and S were positively related to AVGT and Mn negatively, all of them significantly. This information may be used to explain the changing pattern in decomposition over the gradient.

  13. Irrigation, fertilization and initial substrate quality effects on decomposing Loblolly pine litter chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    Changes in carbon chemistry (i.e., carbon compound classes such as aromatics, phenolics, etc.) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) litter were examined during three years of decomposition under factorial combinations of irrigation and fertilization treatments. Cross polarization magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance...

  14. Photochemically induced carbon dioxide production as a mechanism for carbon loss from plant litter in arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, L. A.; Bohnet, C.; King, J. Y.

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the potential for abiotic mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2) via photodegradation to account for carbon (C) loss from plant litter under conditions typical of arid ecosystems. We exposed five species of grass and oak litter collected from arid and mesic sites to a factorial design of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UV pass, UV block), and sterilization under dry conditions in the laboratory. UV pass treatments produced 10 times the amount of CO2 produced in UV block treatments. CO2 production rates were unaffected by litter chemistry or sterilization. We also exposed litter to natural solar radiation outdoors on clear, sunny days close to the summer solstice at midlatitudes and found that UV radiation (280-400 nm) accounted for 55% of photochemically induced CO2 production, while shortwave visible radiation (400-500 nm) accounted for 45% of CO2 production. Rates of photochemically induced CO2 production on a per-unit-mass basis decreased with litter density, indicating that rates depend on litter surface area. We found no evidence for leaching, methane production, or facilitation of microbial decomposition as alternative mechanisms for significant photochemically induced C loss from litter. We conclude that abiotic mineralization to CO2 is the primary mechanism by which C is lost from litter during photodegradation. We estimate that CO2 production via photodegradation could be between 1 and 4 g C m-2 a-1 in arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Taken together with low levels of litter production in arid systems, photochemical mineralization to CO2 could account for a significant proportion of annual carbon loss from litter in arid ecosystems.

  15. Solar ultraviolet radiation alters alder and birch litter chemistry that in turn affects decomposers and soil respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Titta; Haimi, Jari; Tegelberg, Riitta; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Vapaavuori, Elina; Aphalo, Pedro Jose

    2009-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV)-A and UV-B radiation were excluded from branches of grey alder (Alnus incana) and white birch (Betula pubescens) trees in a field experiment. Leaf litter collected from these trees was used in microcosm experiments under laboratory conditions. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the different UV treatments on litter chemical quality (phenolic compounds, C, N and lignin) and the subsequent effects of these changes on soil fauna and decomposition processes. We measured the decomposition rate of litter, growth of woodlice (Porcellio scaber), soil microbial respiration and abundance of nematodes and enchytraeid worms. In addition, the chemical quality of woodlice feces was analyzed. The exclusion of both UV-A and UV-B had several effects on litter chemistry. Exclusion of UV-B radiation decreased the C content in litter in both tree species. In alder litter, UV exclusion affected concentration of phenolic groups variably, whereas in birch litter there were no significant differences in phenolic compounds. Moreover, further effects on microbial respiration and chemical quality of woodlice feces were apparent. In both tree species, microbial CO(2) evolution was lower in soil with litter produced under exclusion of both UV-A and UV-B radiation when compared to soil with control litter. The N content was higher in the feces of woodlice eating alder litter produced under exclusion of both UV-A and UV-B compared to the control. In addition, there were small changes in the concentration of individual phenolic compounds analyzed from woodlice feces. Our results demonstrate that both UV-A and UV-B alter litter chemistry which in turn affects decomposition processes.

  16. Effect of Paper Waste Products as a Litter Material on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Özlü

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted to determine the possibilities of using the paper waste products as a litter material in broiler production. A total of 468 Ross 308 broilers were used in this experiment. Litter materials were rice hulls (RH, waste paper (WP and mix of them (50 % RH + 50 % WP. BW was approximately 60 g heavier in waste paper group compare to other two litter groups at 42d of age. Type of litter material had no significant effects on feed conversion ratio, livability and leg defect. Therefore, paper waste products have potential as an alternative litter material for broiler production.

  17. Rain forest nutrient cycling and productivity in response to large-scale litter manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tana E; Lawrence, Deborah; Clark, Deborah A; Chazdon, Robin L

    2009-01-01

    Litter-induced pulses of nutrient availability could play an important role in the productivity and nutrient cycling of forested ecosystems, especially tropical forests. Tropical forests experience such pulses as a result of wet-dry seasonality and during major climatic events, such as strong El Niños. We hypothesized that (1) an increase in the quantity and quality of litter inputs would stimulate leaf litter production, woody growth, and leaf litter nutrient cycling, and (2) the timing and magnitude of this response would be influenced by soil fertility and forest age. To test these hypotheses in a Costa Rican wet tropical forest, we established a large-scale litter manipulation experiment in two secondary forest sites and four old-growth forest sites of differing soil fertility. In replicated plots at each site, leaves and twigs (forest floor. We analyzed leaf litter mass, [N] and [P], and N and P inputs for addition, removal, and control plots over a two-year period. We also evaluated basal area increment of trees in removal and addition plots. There was no response of forest productivity or nutrient cycling to litter removal; however, litter addition significantly increased leaf litter production and N and P inputs 4-5 months following litter application. Litter production increased as much as 92%, and P and N inputs as much as 85% and 156%, respectively. In contrast, litter manipulation had no significant effect on woody growth. The increase in leaf litter production and N and P inputs were significantly positively related to the total P that was applied in litter form. Neither litter treatment nor forest type influenced the temporal pattern of any of the variables measured. Thus, environmental factors such as rainfall drive temporal variability in litter and nutrient inputs, while nutrient release from decomposing litter influences the magnitude. Seasonal or annual variation in leaf litter mass, such as occurs in strong El Niño events, could positively

  18. Microbiological and chemical properties of litter from different chicken types and production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omeira, N.; Barbour, E.K.; Nehme, P.A.; Hamadeh, S.K.; Zurayk, R.; Bashour, I.

    2006-01-01

    Chicken litter is produced in large quantities from all types of poultry raising activities. It is primarily used for land application, thus it is essential to analyze its properties before it is released to the environment. The objective of this study is to compare the microbiological and chemical properties of litter generated from layer and broiler chickens reared under intensive and free-range production systems. The microbiological analysis consisted of the enumeration of total bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus species, Salmonella species and Clostridium perfringens. Chicken litter from layers reared under intensive and free range systems showed lower mean total bacterial count than the litter collected from chicken broilers reared under either of the two systems (P = 0.0291). The litter from intensive layers had the lowest mean total coliform counts (P = 0.0222) while the lowest Staphylococcus species count was observed in the litter from free-range layers (P = 0.0077). The C. perfringens count was the lowest in chicken litter from intensively raised broilers and layers (P = 0.0001). The chemical properties of litter from the different chicken types and production systems were compared based on determination of pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cadmium and zinc. Litter from free-range broilers showed the highest pH value (P = 0.0005); however, the electrical conductivity was higher in the litter from both intensive and free-range layers compared to the litter from both broiler production systems (P = 0.0117). Chicken litter from intensive systems had higher nitrogen content than litter from free-range systems (P = 0.0000). The total phosphorus was the lowest in free-range broiler litter (P = 0.0001), while the total potassium was the lowest in litter from intensively managed broilers (P = 0.0000). Zinc appeared higher in litter from layers compared to that from broilers (P = 0.0101). The cadmium content was higher

  19. Microbiological and chemical properties of litter from different chicken types and production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeira, N. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Barbour, E.K. [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)]. E-mail: eb01@aub.edu.lb; Nehme, P.A. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamadeh, S.K. [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Zurayk, R. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Bashour, I. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2006-08-15

    Chicken litter is produced in large quantities from all types of poultry raising activities. It is primarily used for land application, thus it is essential to analyze its properties before it is released to the environment. The objective of this study is to compare the microbiological and chemical properties of litter generated from layer and broiler chickens reared under intensive and free-range production systems. The microbiological analysis consisted of the enumeration of total bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus species, Salmonella species and Clostridium perfringens. Chicken litter from layers reared under intensive and free range systems showed lower mean total bacterial count than the litter collected from chicken broilers reared under either of the two systems (P = 0.0291). The litter from intensive layers had the lowest mean total coliform counts (P = 0.0222) while the lowest Staphylococcus species count was observed in the litter from free-range layers (P = 0.0077). The C. perfringens count was the lowest in chicken litter from intensively raised broilers and layers (P = 0.0001). The chemical properties of litter from the different chicken types and production systems were compared based on determination of pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cadmium and zinc. Litter from free-range broilers showed the highest pH value (P = 0.0005); however, the electrical conductivity was higher in the litter from both intensive and free-range layers compared to the litter from both broiler production systems (P = 0.0117). Chicken litter from intensive systems had higher nitrogen content than litter from free-range systems (P = 0.0000). The total phosphorus was the lowest in free-range broiler litter (P = 0.0001), while the total potassium was the lowest in litter from intensively managed broilers (P = 0.0000). Zinc appeared higher in litter from layers compared to that from broilers (P = 0.0101). The cadmium content was higher

  20. Microbiological and chemical properties of litter from different chicken types and production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeira, N; Barbour, E K; Nehme, P A; Hamadeh, S K; Zurayk, R; Bashour, I

    2006-08-15

    Chicken litter is produced in large quantities from all types of poultry raising activities. It is primarily used for land application, thus it is essential to analyze its properties before it is released to the environment. The objective of this study is to compare the microbiological and chemical properties of litter generated from layer and broiler chickens reared under intensive and free-range production systems. The microbiological analysis consisted of the enumeration of total bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus species, Salmonella species and Clostridium perfringens. Chicken litter from layers reared under intensive and free range systems showed lower mean total bacterial count than the litter collected from chicken broilers reared under either of the two systems (P=0.0291). The litter from intensive layers had the lowest mean total coliform counts (P=0.0222) while the lowest Staphylococcus species count was observed in the litter from free-range layers (P=0.0077). The C. perfringens count was the lowest in chicken litter from intensively raised broilers and layers (P=0.0001). The chemical properties of litter from the different chicken types and production systems were compared based on determination of pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cadmium and zinc. Litter from free-range broilers showed the highest pH value (P=0.0005); however, the electrical conductivity was higher in the litter from both intensive and free-range layers compared to the litter from both broiler production systems (P=0.0117). Chicken litter from intensive systems had higher nitrogen content than litter from free-range systems (P=0.0000). The total phosphorus was the lowest in free-range broiler litter (P=0.0001), while the total potassium was the lowest in litter from intensively managed broilers (P=0.0000). Zinc appeared higher in litter from layers compared to that from broilers (P=0.0101). The cadmium content was higher in the litter from

  1. Leaf litter production of mahogany along street and campus forest of Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F. P.; Abdullah, M.; Solichin; Hadiyanti, L. N.; Widianingrum, K.

    2018-03-01

    The leaf litter of trees along the existing streets on campus UNNES if not managed properly will be scattered and become garbage. Leaf litter Production in UNNES campus is not known for certain. UNNES does not own mapping of leaf litter Production of dominant tree species on campus. This cause leaf waste management is not optimal yet. There is still a lot of leaf litter that is discharged (not processed) because it exceeds the capacity of the fertilizer production equipment in the compost house. Aims of this study were to examine leaf litter production of dominant trees in Universitas Negeri Semarang and evaluate the relationship between leaf litter and average rainfall. Purposive sampling method placed pouches of nylon gauze measuring 1 × 1 mm2 as litter trap container with size 1 x l m2 (10 points mounted along street and campus forest). Litter trap mounted at the height of 50 cm above ground level. Leaf litter will be taken once a week for three months to observe the litter production. The litter was then dried by the oven at 70 ° C for 48 hours to obtain constant dry weight. Based on the results of the research, it was known that Mahogany tree in UNNES campus area has the potential to produce the litter of about 10 ton/ha / 3months in campus forest area and 2.5 ton/ha / 3months along campus street. There is a significant relationship between litter production of Mahogany leaves and precipitation during August - October 2017.

  2. Decoupling the direct and indirect effects of climate on plant litter decomposition: Accounting for stress-induced modifications in plant chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2018-04-01

    Decomposition of plant litter is a fundamental ecosystem process that can act as a feedback to climate change by simultaneously influencing both the productivity of ecosystems and the flux of carbon dioxide from the soil. The influence of climate on decomposition from a postsenescence perspective is relatively well known; in particular, climate is known to regulate the rate of litter decomposition via its direct influence on the reaction kinetics and microbial physiology on processes downstream of tissue senescence. Climate can alter plant metabolism during the formative stage of tissues and could shape the final chemical composition of plant litter that is available for decomposition, and thus indirectly influence decomposition; however, these indirect effects are relatively poorly understood. Climatic stress disrupts cellular homeostasis in plants and results in the reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolic pathways, which leads to changes in the quantity, composition, and organization of small molecules and recalcitrant heteropolymers, including lignins, tannins, suberins, and cuticle within the plant tissue matrix. Furthermore, by regulating metabolism during tissue senescence, climate influences the resorption of nutrients from senescing tissues. Thus, the final chemical composition of plant litter that forms the substrate of decomposition is a combined product of presenescence physiological processes through the production and resorption of metabolites. The changes in quantity, composition, and localization of the molecular construct of the litter could enhance or hinder tissue decomposition and soil nutrient cycling by altering the recalcitrance of the lignocellulose matrix, the composition of microbial communities, and the activity of microbial exo-enzymes via various complexation reactions. Also, the climate-induced changes in the molecular composition of litter could differentially influence litter decomposition and soil nutrient cycling. Compared

  3. Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available he sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposition in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K, half life (t0,5 and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 . The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%. The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

  4. Effects of stream water chemistry and tree species on release and methylation of mercury during litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Martin Tsz Ki; Finlay, Jacques C; Nater, Edward A

    2008-12-01

    Foliage of terrestrial plants provides an important energy and nutrient source to aquatic ecosystems but also represents a potential source of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg). In this study, we examined how different stream water types and terrestrial tree species influenced the release of Hg from senesced litter to the water and its subsequent methylation during hypoxic litter decomposition. After laboratory incubations of maple leaf litter for 66 days, we observed 10-fold differences in dissolved Hg (DHg, tree species collected at the same site and incubated with the same source water, litter from slower decomposing species (e.g., cedar and pine) yielded higher DHg concentrations than those with more labile carbon (e.g., maple and birch). Percent MeHg, however, was relatively similar among different leaf species (i.e., 61-86%). Our study is the first to demonstrate that stream water chemistry and terrestrial plant litter characteristics are important factors determining Hg release and methylation during hypoxic litter decomposition. These results suggest that certain watershed and aquatic ecosystem properties can determine the levels of MeHg inputs during litterfall events.

  5. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of natural zeolite, consisting mainly of clinoptilolite and mordenite, as a component of the litter material in broiler houses on the performance of the broilers and on some litter characteristics. Live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, viability and leg and body ...

  6. Correlation of foliage and litter chemistry of sugar maple, Acer saccharum, as affected by elevated CO2 and varying N availability, and effects on decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. S. King; K. S. Pregitzer; D. R. Zak; M. E. Kubiske; W. E. Holmes

    2001-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide has the potential to alter leaf litter chemistry, potentially affecting decomposition and rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine whether growth under elevated atmospheric CO2 altered the quality and microbial decomposition of leaf litter of a widely...

  7. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on competition between the mosquitoes Aedes albopictus and Ae. triseriatus via changes in litter quality and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Baldwin, A H; Sullivan, J; Leisnham, P T

    2013-05-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter aquatic communities via changes in allochthonous litter inputs. We tested effects of atmospheric CO2 on the invasive Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and native Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) via changes in competition for microbial food or resource inhibition/toxicity. Quercus alba L. litter was produced under elevated (879 ppm) and ambient (388 ppm) atmospheric CO2. Saplings grown at elevated CO2 produced greater litter biomass, which decayed faster and leached more tannins than saplings at ambient CO2. Competition was tested by raising larvae in different species and density combinations provisioned with elevated- or ambient-CO2 litter. Species-specific performance to water conditions was tested by providing single-species larval cohorts with increasing amounts of elevated- or ambient-CO2 litter, or increasing concentrations of tannic acid. Larval densities affected some fitness parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. triseriatus, but elevated-CO2 litter did not modify the effects of competition on population growth rates or any fitness parameters. Population growth rates and survival of each species generally were affected negatively by increasing amounts of both elevated- and ambient-CO2 litter from 0.252 to 2.016 g/liter, and tannic acid concentrations above 100 mg/liter were entirely lethal to both species. Aedes albopictus had consistently higher population growth rates than Ae. triseriatus. These results suggest that changes to litter production and chemistry from elevated CO2 are unlikely to affect the competitive outcome between Ae. albopictus and Ae. triseriatus, but that moderate increases in litter production increase population growth rates of both species until a threshold is exceeded that results in resource inhibition and toxicity.

  8. Links between plant litter chemistry, species diversity, and below-ground ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Courtney L; Bowman, William D

    2008-12-16

    Decomposition is a critical source of plant nutrients, and drives the largest flux of terrestrial C to the atmosphere. Decomposing soil organic matter typically contains litter from multiple plant species, yet we lack a mechanistic understanding of how species diversity influences decomposition processes. Here, we show that soil C and N cycling during decomposition are controlled by the composition and diversity of chemical compounds within plant litter mixtures, rather than by simple metrics of plant species diversity. We amended native soils with litter mixtures containing up to 4 alpine plant species, and we used 9 litter chemical traits to evaluate the chemical composition (i.e., the identity and quantity of compounds) and chemical diversity of the litter mixtures. The chemical composition of the litter mixtures was the strongest predictor of soil respiration, net N mineralization, and microbial biomass N. Soil respiration and net N mineralization rates were also significantly correlated with the chemical diversity of the litter mixtures. In contrast, soil C and N cycling rates were poorly correlated with plant species richness, and there was no relationship between species richness and the chemical diversity of the litter mixtures. These results indicate that the composition and diversity of chemical compounds in litter are potentially important functional traits affecting decomposition, and simple metrics like plant species richness may fail to capture variation in these traits. Litter chemical traits therefore provide a mechanistic link between organisms, species diversity, and key components of below-ground ecosystem function.

  9. mangrove litter production and seasonality of dominant species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.A

    storminess, and sea-level rise (Snedaker, 1995; Nigel, 1998). In the last .... mangrove species (three-levels) were entered as fixed factors, with the total litter components ..... Mangroves and climate change in the Florida and Caribbean region:.

  10. Production of litter and detritus related to the density of mangrove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Mulya, Miswar; Arlen, HJ

    2018-03-01

    Research about the production of leaf litter and detritus related to the density of mangrove trees has been done. The aims of this research are to know and analyze the amount of litter and detritus produced to the density of mangrove trees. The production and collection of leaf litter were carried out in five stations. Production of detritus and decomposition rate were calculated by measuring its dry weight. The density and level of mangrove trees were determined using transect quadratic method. The relationship between the leaf litter and detritus production ratio related to mangrove density were then analyzed. Results showed that mangrove trees with the density of 766.67 ind ha‑1 ccould produce the amount of litter and detritus to about 28597.33 gha‑1day‑1and 1099.35 gha‑1day‑1 while mangrove trees with the density of 1300 ind ha‑1 could produce the amount of litter and detritus to about 35093.33 g/ha/day and 1216.68 gha‑1day‑1 respectively. Data analysis showed that the increment of mangrove density is linearly related to the production increment of litter and detritus.

  11. Litter production and its nutrient concentration in some fuelwood trees grown on sodic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India))

    1992-01-01

    Litter production was estimated in 8-year-old tree plantations of Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Dalbergia sisso, and Terminalia arjuna planted in a monoculture tree cropping system on sodic soils of Lucknow Division, India. Mean annual litter fall of these trees amounted to 5.9, 7.4, 5.0 and 5.4 t ha[sup -1], respectively. Irrespective of tree species, the leaf litter concentrations of N, K and Ca were greater than those of P and Mg. The concentration of nutrients in leaf tissues was negatively correlated for N and Ca, with the magnitude of leaf fall in D. sissoo, but was positively correlated for Ca and Mg in A. nilotica; no such correlations were found in P. juliflora and T. arjuna. The variations in the concentration of leaf litter nutrient did not appear to be species specific but depended on adverse edaphic properties including the fertility status of sodic soil. A. nilotica and P. juliflora with bimodal patterns of litter fall return greater amounts of nutrients to the soil surface than D. sissoo and T. arjuna which have unimodal patterns of litter fall. The study indicated the potential benefit of a mixed plantation system having variable leaf fall patterns among the planted trees so providing constant litter mulch to help in conserving soil moisture. (author).

  12. Ant-mediated effects on spruce litter decomposition, solution chemistry, and microbial activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, B.; Schramm, Andreas; Kalbitz, K.

    2006-01-01

    the effects of ants and aphid honeydew on litter solution of Norway spruce, microbial enzyme activities, and needle decomposition in a field and greenhouse experiment during summer 2003. In the field, low ant densities had relatively little effects on litter solution 30 cm away from a tree trunk...... and %N were not affected by ants or honeydew. Our results suggest that ants have a distinct and immediate effect on solution composition and microbial activity in the litter layer indicating accelerated litter decay whereas the effect of honeydew was insignificant. Keywords: Ants; Decomposition; Formica......Forest management practices often generate clear-cut patches, which may be colonized by ants not present in the same densities in mature forests. In addition to the associated changes in abiotic conditions ants can initiate processes, which do not occur in old-growth stands. Here, we analyse...

  13. Links between plant litter chemistry, species diversity, and below-ground ecosystem function

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Courtney L.; Bowman, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Decomposition is a critical source of plant nutrients, and drives the largest flux of terrestrial C to the atmosphere. Decomposing soil organic matter typically contains litter from multiple plant species, yet we lack a mechanistic understanding of how species diversity influences decomposition processes. Here, we show that soil C and N cycling during decomposition are controlled by the composition and diversity of chemical compounds within plant litter mixtures, rather than by simple metrics...

  14. Processes controlling the production of aromatic water-soluble organic matter during litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Kaiser, K.; Filley, T.R.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a

  15. Leaf litter processing in West Virginia mountain streams: effects of temperature and stream chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquelyn M. Rowe; William B. Perry; Sue A. Perry

    1996-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter detrital processing in headwater streams, which receive the majority of their nutrient input as terrestrial leaf litter. Early placement of experimental leaf packs in streams, one month prior to most abscission, was used as an experimental manipulation to increase stream temperature during leaf pack breakdown. We studied leaf...

  16. The multidimensional causal factors of 'wet litter' in chicken-meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Moss, Amy F; Groves, Peter J; Wilkinson, Stuart J; Stuetz, Richard M; Selle, Peter H

    2016-08-15

    The problem of 'wet litter', which occurs primarily in grow-out sheds for meat chickens (broilers), has been recognised for nearly a century. Nevertheless, it is an increasingly important problem in contemporary chicken-meat production as wet litter and associated conditions, especially footpad dermatitis, have developed into tangible welfare issues. This is only compounded by the market demand for chicken paws and compromised bird performance. This review considers the multidimensional causal factors of wet litter. While many causal factors can be listed it is evident that the critical ones could be described as micro-environmental factors and chief amongst them is proper management of drinking systems and adequate shed ventilation. Thus, this review focuses on these environmental factors and pays less attention to issues stemming from health and nutrition. Clearly, there are times when related avian health issues of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis cannot be overlooked and the development of efficacious vaccines for the latter disease would be advantageous. Presently, the inclusion of phytate-degrading enzymes in meat chicken diets is routine and, therefore, the implication that exogenous phytases may contribute to wet litter is given consideration. Opinion is somewhat divided as how best to counter the problem of wet litter as some see education and extension as being more beneficial than furthering research efforts. However, it may prove instructive to assess the practice of whole grain feeding in relation to litter quality and the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Additional research could investigate the relationships between dietary concentrations of key minerals and the application of exogenous enzymes with litter quality. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Meta-analysis as a tool to study crop productivity response to poultry litter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research on the use of poultry litter (PL) under different agricultural practices in the USA has shown both negative and positive effects on crop productivity (either yield or aboveground biomass). However, these experimental results are substantially dependent on the experimental set-up, ...

  18. Differences in productive robustness in rabbits selected for reproductive longevity or litter size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard, R; Baselga, M; Blas, E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a line selected for reproductive longevity (LP) to confront productive challenges compared to a line selected during 31 generations for litter size at weaning (V). A total of 133 reproductive rabbit does were used (72 and 61 from LP and V lines,...

  19. Plant litter chemistry alters the content and composition of organic carbon associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in invaded ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Mioko; Suseela, Vidya; Simpson, Myrna; Powell, Brian; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2017-10-01

    Through the input of disproportionate quantities of chemically distinct litter, invasive plants may potentially influence the fate of organic matter associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in some of the ecosystems they invade. Although context dependent, these native ecosystems subjected to prolonged invasion by exotic plants may be instrumental in distinguishing the role of plant-microbe-mineral interactions from the broader edaphic and climatic influences on the formation of soil organic matter (SOM). We hypothesized that the soils subjected to prolonged invasion by an exotic plant that input recalcitrant litter (Japanese knotweed, Polygonum cuspidatum) would have a greater proportion of plant-derived carbon (C) in the aggregate fractions, as compared with that in adjacent soil inhabited by native vegetation that input labile litter, whereas the soils under an invader that input labile litter (kudzu, Pueraria lobata) would have a greater proportion of microbial-derived C in the silt-clay fraction, as compared with that in adjacent soils that receive recalcitrant litter. At the knotweed site, the higher C content in soils under P. cuspidatum, compared with noninvaded soils inhabited by grasses and forbs, was limited to the macroaggregate fraction, which was abundant in plant biomarkers. The noninvaded soils at this site had a higher abundance of lignins in mineral and microaggregate fractions and suberin in the macroaggregate fraction, partly because of the greater root density of the native species, which might have had an overriding influence on the chemistry of the above-ground litter input. At the kudzu site, soils under P. lobata had lower C content across all size fractions at a 0-5 cm soil depth despite receiving similar amounts of Pinus litter. Contrary to our prediction, the noninvaded soils receiving recalcitrant Pinus litter had a similar abundance of plant biomarkers across both mineral and aggregate fractions, potentially because of

  20. Production of biogas from poultry litter mixed with the co-substrate cow dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Roman Miah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter (a mixture of rice hulls, sawdust and chicken excreta of broilers mixed with the co-substrate cow dung and poultry droppings was evaluated under anaerobic conditions for the production of biogas (methane. Four laboratory scale reactors, R1, R2, R3 and R4, were set up with different proportions of waste poultry litter, cow dung and poultry droppings and had a 6% total solid concentration. Digestion was carried out for 50 days at room temperature, 32 ± 3 °C. Volatile solid degradation and specific gas production in the four reactors was 46%, 51.99%, 51.96%, 43% and 0.263, 0.469, 0.419, 0.221 l/g, respectively, based on the volatile solid (VS feed. The methane yields were 71%, 72.5%, 72.6% and 70%, respectively. The COD reductions were 46.1%, 50.76%, 48.23% and 45.12%, respectively. A kinetic analysis showed that the anaerobic digestion of poultry litter with a co-substrate followed first order kinetics. Among the experimental reactors, R2 (25% cow dung, 75% poultry litter gave the optimum results: a VS reduction of 51.99%, a specific gas yield of 0.469 l/g and a methane yield of 72.5%.

  1. Responses of primary production, leaf litter decomposition and associated communities to stream eutrophication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunck, Bárbara; Lima-Fernandes, Eva; Cássio, Fernanda; Cunha, Ana; Rodrigues, Liliana; Pascoal, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the eutrophication effects on leaf litter decomposition and primary production, and on periphytic algae, fungi and invertebrates. According to the subsidy-stress model, we expected that when algae and decomposers were nutrient limited, their activity and diversity would increase at moderate levels of nutrient enrichment, but decrease at high levels of nutrients, because eutrophication would lead to the presence of other stressors and overwhelm the subsidy effect. Chestnut leaves (Castanea sativa Mill) were enclosed in mesh bags and immersed in five streams of the Ave River basin (northwest Portugal) to assess leaf decomposition and colonization by invertebrates and fungi. In parallel, polyethylene slides were attached to the mesh bags to allow colonization by algae and to assess primary production. Communities of periphytic algae and decomposers discriminated the streams according to the trophic state. Primary production decomposition and biodiversity were lower in streams at both ends of the trophic gradient. - Highlights: • Algae and decomposers discriminated the streams according to the eutrophication level. • Primary production and litter decomposition are stimulated by moderate eutrophication. • Biodiversity and process rates were reduced in highly eutrophic streams. • Subsidy-stress model explained biodiversity and process rates under eutrophication. - Rates of leaf litter decomposition, primary production and richness of periphytic algae, fungi and invertebrates were lower in streams at both ends of the trophic gradient

  2. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products -12 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Higher Learning. Generations of students would vouch for the fact that he has the uncanny ability to present the chemistry of natural products logically and with feeling. The most interesting chemical aspect of a molecule is its. reactivHy pattern. NR Krishnaswamy. In this part of the series, dynamic organic chemistry and.

  3. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  4. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products Architectural Designs in Molecular Constructions. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 37-43 ...

  5. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 40-46 ...

  6. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural engine Products - Structure and Biological Functions. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 23-30 ...

  7. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products - Architectural Designs in Molecular Constructions. N R Krishnaswamy. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1287-1293 ...

  8. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Higher Learning. ... The Series on "learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products". Nature is a remarkable ... skeletal structure to the interior electronic configu- ration ... Among the advantages of this approach are the fact that unlike the.

  9. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion from dilution with or without solid and liquid separations of broiler litter manures to biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, Airon Magno; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi; Silva, Adriane de Andrade; Romantine, Camila Machado [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The environmental concern about the manure management in farms has increased between farmers and mainly in consumers. The poultry production generates a large amount of solid waste and consumes too much energy to keep the feeding, ventilation and heat systems working properly. So, studies aiming the energetic sustainability of poultry production have been developed. In this study were used 6 (six) Indian's batch-load digester, supplied with broiled litter reused in three lots of broiler chicken. The treatments were, screened broiler litter and non-screened broiler litter, in a four parts of water for broiler litter (4/1) dilution. The biogas volume produced (m{sup 3}) was evaluated in 63 trial days and presented the dates weekly. There were different significant (p<0.01) between treatments, observed that on third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth weeks were noticed superiority in the nonscreened broiler litter treatment. With this trial, we conclude that the non-screened broiler litter produced a larger and faster biogas quantity than the screened broiler litter treatment and is an easier way to manage the manure produced in farms. (author)

  10. Effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus soil chemistry and runoff water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Mark S; Daniel, Tommy C; DeLaune, Paul B; Sharpley, Andrew N; Lory, John A

    2013-11-01

    Continuous application of poultry litter (PL) significantly changes many soil properties, including soil test P (STP); Al, Fe, and Ca concentrations; and pH, which can affect the potential for P transport in surface runoff water. We conducted rainfall simulations on three historically acidic silt loam soils in Arkansas, Missouri, and Virginia to establish if long-term PL applications would affect soil inorganic P fractions and the resulting dissolved reactive P (DRP) in runoff water. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were taken to find sites ranging in Mehlich-3 STP from 20 to 1154 mg P kg. Simulated rainfall events were conducted on 3-m plots at 6.7 cm h, and runoff was collected for 30 min. Correlation between Mehlich-3 and runoff DRP indicated a linear relationship to 833 mg Mehlich-3 P kg. As Mehlich-3 STP increased, a concomitant increase in soil pH and Ca occurred on all soils. Soil P fractionation demonstrated that, as Mehlich-3 STP generally increased above 450 mg P kg (from high to very high), the easily soluble and loosely bound P fractions decreased by 3 to 10%. Water-insoluble complexes of P bound to Al and Ca were the main drivers in the reduction of DRP in runoff, accounting for up to 43 and 38% of total P, respectively. Basing runoff DRP concentration projections solely on Mehlich-3 STP may overestimate runoff P losses from soils receiving long-term PL applications due to dissolution of water-insoluble Ca-P compounds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. LITTER PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT ADDITION IN ATLANTIC FOREST AREAS IN SANTA MARIA DE JETIBÁ, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was accomplished on Espíndula Farm, Santa Maria de Jetibá (ES, with the objective of evaluating the litter and nutrients deposition in areas with different succession stadiums. Two areas were selected with different vegetable coverings, defined as: (SF Secondary Forest, with about 25 ha of area, corresponding to an old area of cassava cultivation with about 50 years in process of ecological succession and where today there is a secondary forest and an Old Secondary Forest (OSF corresponding to a forest area that has just been submitted to a selective wood extraction for use of the farm itself. In each one of vegetal areas, approximately 0.1 ha was delimited and in these ten conical collectors were randomized distributed. The litter collections were accomplished monthly from November 2003 to October 2005. After drying, the material was stratified and the total contributed and the contribution of the different fractions, and the nutritious addition were evaluated. It was not verified significant differences among the total of litter deposited among the areas, being the highest production values observed in the summer, 5.70 Mg ha-1 (SF and 5.73 Mg ha-1(OSF, possibly due to the winds and rain mechanical action. The fraction of higher contribution was the foliar, corresponding to 74.62% for the SF area and 69.46% for the OSF area

  12. Chemical Properties, Decomposition, and Methane Production of Tertiary Relict Plant Litters: Implications for Atmospheric Trace Gas Production in the Early Tertiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavitt, J. B.; Bartella, T. M.; Williams, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    Throughout the early Tertiary (ca. 65-38 Ma) Taxodiaceae-dominated (redwood) wetland forests occupied the high latitudes and were circumpolar in their distribution. Many of these forests had high standing biomass with moderate primary productivity. The geographic extent and amount of Tertiary coals and fossil forests throughout Arctic Canada suggests large areas of wetland forests that may have cycled substantial quantities of carbon, particularly methane until they were replaced by cold tolerant Pinus, Picea, and Larix following climatic cooling associated with the Terminal Eocene Event. To test this hypothesis we compared physiochemical properties, decomposition, and trace gas production of litter from extant Metasequoia, Pinus, Picea, and Larix. Initial results from plantation-grown trees indicate Metasequoia litter is a better source of labile organic substrate than pinaceous litter. Metasequoia litter contained the least lignin and highest amounts of water-soluble compounds of the four litter types studied. Analysis of the lignin structure using cupric oxide oxidation indicates that Metasequoia lignin is enriched in 4'-hydroxyacetophenone and 4'- Hydroxy-3'-methoxyacetophenone relative to the pinaceous litter. In a 12-month decomposition study using litterbags, average litter mass loss was greater for Metasequoia litter (62%) compared to the pinaceous species (50%). Moreover, Metasequoia litter incubated under anoxic conditions produced nearly twice as much CO2 (ca. 4.2 umol/g.day) and CH4 (2.1 umol/g.day) as the pinaceous litter (2.4 umol/g.day for CO2; 1.2 umol/g.day for CH4). Our results support the idea of greater decomposability and palatability of Metasequoia litter as compared to Larix, Picea, or Pinus. Provided that the biochemical properties of Metasequoia have remained relatively stable through geologic time, it appears that early Tertiary Metasequoia-dominated wetland forests may have had higher microbial driven trace gas production than the

  13. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SERIES I ARTICLE. Learning Organic Chemistry. Through Natural Products. 2. Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry. N R Krishnaswamy was initiated into the world of natural products by T R. Seshadri at University of. Delhi and has carried on the glorious traditions of his mentor. He has taught at Bangalore University,.

  14. Teaching 'natural product chemistry' in Tanzania | Buchanan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products 'historically' and 'today' have vast importance. This article describes the course 'Natural Product Chemistry', a new course in the 2011/2012 academic year in the Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences at St. John's University of Tanzania. It reveals how the course has been applied to the African and ...

  15. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ocimar Manzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and groundwater chemistry and soil CO2 respiration were studied in forests on sandy soils, whereas drought sensitivity of poorly-drained valley soils was investigated in an artificial drainage experiment. Slightly changes in litter decomposition or water chemistry were observed as a consequence of artificial drainage. Riparian plots did experience higher litter decomposition rates than campina forest. In response to a permanent lowering of the groundwater level from 0.1 m to 0.3 m depth in the drainage plot, topsoil carbon and nitrogen contents decreased substantially. Soil CO2 respiration decreased from 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1 before drainage to 2.5±0.2 and 0.8±0.1 µmol m-2 s-1 eight and 11 months after drainage, respectively. Soil respiration in the control plot remained constant at 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1. The above suggests that more frequent droughts may affect topsoil carbon and nitrogen content and soil respiration rates in the riparian ecosystem, and may induce a transition to less diverse campinarana or short-statured campina forest that covers areas with strongly-leached sandy soil.

  16. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products From Molecular and Electronic Structures to Reactivity. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 12-18 ...

  17. Flow chemistry syntheses of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastre, Julio C; Browne, Duncan L; Ley, Steven V

    2013-12-07

    The development and application of continuous flow chemistry methods for synthesis is a rapidly growing area of research. In particular, natural products provide demanding challenges to this developing technology. This review highlights successes in the area with an emphasis on new opportunities and technological advances.

  18. Biogas production: litter from broilers receiving direct-fed microbials and an enzyme blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Ferreira Menegucci Praes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of additives used in the feed of broilers on anaerobic bio-digestion of poultry litter was evaluated. Four diets were used: NC: negative control; DFM: NC + 500 ppm direct-fed microbials (DFM containing Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis; ENZ: diet formulated with an enzyme blend (20 ppm phytase, 200 ppm protease and 200 ppm xylanase; DFM+E: ENZ + DFM. Substrates for the anaerobic bio-digestion were prepared with litter from each treatment, containing 4 % total solids (TS. These were used in 16 continuous bio-digesters with a 2 kg d−1 load, to determine the production and potential biogas production and composition during an 85-day period. Influent and effluent samples were collected for the amounts of TS and volatile solids (VS, fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber [NDF], acid detergent fiber [ADF] and lignin, nutrients (N, P and K, and total and thermotolerant coliforms to be determined. For all treatments a reduction in the following effluents was observed as follows: TS (49, 48, 48 and 50 % VS (70, 54, 55 and 62 % NDF (91, 90, 95 and 96 % ADF (89, 88, 93 and 94 % and lignin (80, 76, 89 and 88 %. The efficiency of the treatment for coliforms in bio-digesters was higher than 90 % in the 85-day period in all treatment groups. There was a reduction in biogas and methane production when DFM (5500 and 4000 mL and DFM + E (5800 and 4100 mL were used, compared to treatments NC (6300 mL and 4400 and ENZ (6400 and 4500 mL. The potential production of reduced TS and VS was higher in ENZ (1:00 and 1.74 106 mL kg−1 when compared to NC (0.88 and 1:02 106 mL kg−1, DFM (0.80 and 1:40 106 mL kg−1 and DFM + E (0.88 1:25 and 106 mL kg−1. The additives did not affect the percentage of methane production, and all treatments showed values higher than 70 %. Adding enzymes to the diet of broilers influences the litter characteristics and, as a consequence, increases biogas production. The addition of DFM and DFM + E to

  19. Effect of litter quality on foot pad dermatitis, hock burns and breast blisters in broiler breeders during the production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, Eija; Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Foot pad dermatitis and hock burn lesions are a form of contact dermatitis, a condition affecting skin areas in contact with unsuitable or irritating material. Contact dermatitis is a common problem, reducing the welfare of broilers, and is believed to also affect broiler breeders. However, there is very little research on contact dermatitis in breeders. This study followed the severity of foot pad lesions in broiler breeders throughout the production period. At slaughter the presence of hock burns and breast blisters was also determined. In addition, changes in litter condition over time and the impact of litter quality on foot pads were evaluated. The study was performed on 10 broiler breeder farms, including altogether 18 flocks. Foot pads of 100 hens per flock were assessed at the end of rearing period, three times during the production period, and at slaughter. Foot pad and hock lesions, as well as litter condition were scored on a 5-point scale. Litter quality was evaluated as pH, moisture and ammonia content. The condition of foot pads deteriorated towards slaughter age, with the occurrence of severe lesions reaching a maximum of 64% on average at slaughter. Hock lesions and breast blisters were rare. The litter layer became drier over time. Although poorer litter condition and wetness influenced foot pad health negatively, the effect on severe lesions was not significant. We also observed a negative effect on foot pad condition of larger slat areas. In conclusion, maintaining good litter quality alone is not enough to ensure healthy foot pads in broiler breeders.

  20. Vegetation Characterization and Litter Production on the Rehabilitated Mined Area of Mussoorie Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana JOSHI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The floristic diversity of four different age series in rehabilitated mined area which represents the degraded ecosystem was examined. Phytosociological analysis revealed that the highest number of plant species (38 nos. including tree, shrubs, herbs and grasses were found in eight years old (Site II rehabilitated site followed by eleven years old (Site I and six years old (Site 3 (33 nos. and least was in four years old Site IV (29 nos.. Maximum total basal area was represented by site I followed by site II, site III and site IV. With reference to annual litter production it was highest in Site I (5286 Kg/ha followed by Site III (1193.2 Kg/ha, Site II (804.0 kg/ha and least in Site IV (262.0 Kg/ha.

  1. Production of cellulases by fungal cultures isolated from forest litter soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sri Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were the isolation and screening of fungal cultures from forest litter soil for cellulases production. In the present study, four fungal cultures were isolated and identified. Among these fungal cultures, three belonged to the genus Aspergillus and one belonged to the genus Pencillium. These fungal cultures were tested to find their ability to produce cellulases, that catalyze the degradation of cellulose, which is a linear polymer made of glucose subunits linked by beta-1, 4 glycosidic bonds. The fungal isolate 3 (Aspergillus sp. was noticed to show maximum zone of hydrolysis of carboxy-methyl cellulose and produce higher titers of cellulases including exoglucanase, endoglucanase and beta -D-glucosidase. The activities of the cellulases were determined by Filter paper assay (FPA, Carboxy-methly cellulase assay (CMCase and beta -D-glucosidase assay respectively. The total soluble sugar and extracellular protein contents of the fungal filtrates were also determined.

  2. Chemistry of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruett, D.J.; Sherrow, S.A.; Toth, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This task is concerned primarily with the fundamental chemistry of the actinide and fission product elements. Special efforts are made to develop research programs in collaboration with researchers at universities and in industry who have need of national laboratory facilities. Specific areas currently under investigation include: (1) spectroscopy and photochemistry of actinides in low-temperature matrices; (2) small-angle scattering studies of hydrous actinide and fission product polymers in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents; (3) kinetic and thermodynamic studies of complexation reactions in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions; and (4) the development of inorganic ion exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide separations. Recent results from work in these areas are summarized here

  3. Litter Production and Decomposition Rate in the Reclaimed Mined Land under Albizia and Sesbania Stands and Their Effects on some Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suhartoyo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation establishment is considered as a critical step of mined land rehabilitation. The growing plants do not only prevent soil erosion, but also play important roles in soil ecosystem development. Their litterfall is the main process of transferring organic matter and nutrients from aboveground tree biomass to soil. Thus, its quantification would aid in understanding biomass and nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem. This study was aimed to investigate the litter production and its decomposition rate in a reclaimed mined land using albizia and sesbania, and their effects on some soil properties. The litter under each stand was biweekly collected for four months. At the same time litter samples were decomposed in mesh nylon bags in soils and the remaining litters were biweekly measured. Soil samples were taken from 0-15 cm depths from each stand for analyses of soil organic C, total N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. The results demonstrated that total litter production under albizia (10.58 t ha-1 yr-1 was almost twice as much as that under sesbania stands (5.43 t ha-1 yr-1. Albizia litter was dominated by leaf litter (49.26% and least as understory vegetation (23.31%, whereas sesbania litter was more evenly distributed among litter types. Decomposition rates of all litters were fastest in the initial stage and then gradually decreased. Sesbania leaf litters decomposed fastest, while albizia twigs slowest. Differences in the litter production and decomposition rates of the two species had not sufficiently caused significant effects on organic-C, total N, and CEC of the soils after one year of revegetation.

  4. Production and standing crop of litter and humus in a forest exposed to chronic gamma irradiation for twelve years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous exposure since 1961 of an oak-pine forest at Brookhaven National Laboratory to chronic gamma irradiation has shown: (1) progressive reduction in litter production from the first year through 1965; (2) greater litter production in 1973 compared to 1965 at exposure rates below 9 R/day primarily because of the prolific sprouting of the oaks, especially Quercus alba; (3) further reduction in litter production in intermediate zones (14-49 R/day) from 1965 to 1973 as a result of replacement of the forest by a Carex pensylvanica mat; (4) increased litter production in the high exposure zone (125 R/day) in 1973 as a result of colonization by adventive species; (5) reduction in the standing crop of litter by 1973 at the lowest exposure rate studied (3.5 R/day) although in 1965 there was no reduction at exposure rates up to 15 R/day; (6) decline in humus content at 4.6 R/day and above with the standing crop in the Carex zone exceeding that of the shrub and damaged forest zones of lower exposures. Both further losses and partial recovery in the production and storage of organic matter have occurred since 1965. These changes constitute a portion of the long-term response of the forest to chronic disturbance. The pattern of response is the result of ecosystem processes that are still not in equilibrium with the chronic disturbance and which were not predictable from short-term studies, even those spanning as much as 4 yr

  5. Influence of Production System, Sex and Litter Size on Growth Rates in Turcana Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamb meat production has become the main source of income in the Romanian sheep farming industry, representing over 66% of the total returns. Turcana breed represents over 70% of the national flock, and 92% of the sheep bred in western Romania. However, meat production potential and growth rates of the breed are low, and thus strategies to improve performance of the Turcana lambs need to be identified. Aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that sex and litter size have on the growth rates of lambs from Turcana breed under extensive and semi-intensive production systems. Weaning weight was significantly (p≤0.001 influenced by the production system, with lambs reared extensively registering a average body weights of 18.23±0.094 kg at the age of 90 days, while the semi-intensively reared lambs registered an average weight of 20.19±0.082 kg. It was concluded that all three factors taken into study significantly influence growth rates in Turcana lambs and that weight of the lamb(s at the age of 28 days should be included as a selection trait within the Turcana breed genetic improvement plan.

  6. A comparison of litter production in young and old baldcypress (Taxodium distichum L.) stands at Caddo Lake, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, John W.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Keeland, Bobby D.; Darville, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Aboveground primary productivity for cypress forests was assessed from measurements of litter production in two age groups and in two hydrological regimes (standing water and free-flowing). Caddo Lake, located in northeast Texas on the Texas-Louisiana border, offered a unique study site since it is dominated by extensive stands composed entirely of Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich, (baldcypress) in different age groups. Young stands (approximately 100 years old) are found along the shoreline and on shallow flooded islands. Old stands (-150 to 300 years old) are found in deeper water where they were continuously flooded. Litter production over three years from October 1998 to September 2001 was measured. Litter consisting of leaves, twigs, bark, reproductive parts, and Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. (Spanish moss) was collected monthly using 0.5 m2 floating traps. Tree diameters were measured within 200 m2 circular plots in each stand. The young stands supported densities greater than 2,000 stems/ha and a mean stand basal area of 72.3 m2/ha, whereas old stands supported lower densities of about 500 stems/ha but with a similar mean stand basal area of 73.3 m2/ha. There was a significant difference between old and young stands for overall yearly litter production, averaging about 670 g/m2/yr in the young stands and 460 g/m2/yr in the old stands. Leaves and twigs were significantly greater in the young stands, while reproductive parts were higher in old stands. Litter collections between years or hydrological regimes were not significantly different.

  7. Foliage litter quality and annual net N mineralization: comparison across North American forest sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Neal A; Binkley, Dan

    1997-07-01

    The feedback between plant litterfall and nutrient cycling processes plays a major role in the regulation of nutrient availability and net primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. While several studies have examined site-specific feedbacks between litter chemistry and nitrogen (N) availability, little is known about the interaction between climate, litter chemistry, and N availability across different ecosystems. We assembled data from several studies spanning a wide range of vegetation, soils, and climatic regimes to examine the relationship between aboveground litter chemistry and annual net N mineralization. Net N mineralization declined strongly and non-linearly as the litter lignin:N ratio increased in forest ecosystems (r 2  = 0.74, P mineralization decreased linearly as litter lignin concentration increased, but the relationship was significant (r 2  = 0.63, P mineralization across this range of sites (r 2  litter lignin:N ratio and net N mineralization from forest floor and mineral soil was similar. The litter lignin:N ratio explained more of the variation in net N mineralization than climatic factors over a wide range of forest age classes, suggesting that litter quality (lignin:N ratio) may exert more than a proximal control over net N mineralization by influencing soil organic matter quality throughout the soil profile independent of climate.

  8. Identification of a practical and reliable method for the evaluation of litter moisture in turkey production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinco, L J; Giacomelli, S; Campana, L; Chiari, M; Vitale, N; Lombardi, G; Veldkamp, T; Hocking, P M

    2018-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to compare 5 different methods for the evaluation of litter moisture. 2. For litter collection and assessment, 55 farms were selected, one shed from each farm was inspected and 9 points were identified within each shed. 3. For each device, used for the evaluation of litter moisture, mean and standard deviation of wetness measures per collection point were assessed. 4. The reliability and overall consistency between the 5 instruments used to measure wetness were high (α = 0.72). 5. Measurement of three out of the 9 collection points were sufficient to provide a reliable assessment of litter moisture throughout the shed. 6. Based on the direct correlation between litter moisture and footpad lesions, litter moisture measurement can be used as a resource based on-farm animal welfare indicator. 7. Among the 5 methods analysed, visual scoring is the most simple and practical, and therefore the best candidate to be used on-farm for animal welfare assessment.

  9. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular...... the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matterprotein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism...... by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton...

  10. TEACHING 'NATURAL PRODUCT CHEMISTRY' IN TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    cultural differences to chemistry learning was highlighted in a Chemistry Education ... knowledge has been blended into the course are discussed. .... was given for Traditional African Medicine (TAM): “Traditional African medicine is a.

  11. Soil Biochemical Changes Induced by Poultry Litter Application and Conservation Tillage under Cotton Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri Sajjala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc. have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT, and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decreased the activity of these enzymes at 10–20 cm. The increase in enzyme activity was a good indicator of intensive soil microbial activity in different soil management practices. Poultry litter (PL application under NT, MT, and rye cropping system could be considered as effective management practices due to the improvement in carbon (C content and the biochemical quality at the soil surface. The activities of the studied enzymes were highly correlated with soil total nitrogen (STN soil organic carbon (SOC at the 0–10 cm soil depth, except for acid phosphatase where no correlation was observed. This study revealed that agricultural practices such as tillage, PL, and cover crop cropping system have a noticeable positive effect on soil biochemical activities under cotton production.

  12. Access to litter during rearing and environmental enrichment during production reduce fearfulness in adult laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantsaeter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke

    2017-01-01

    Exaggerated fear-reactions are associated with injurious flying, smothering, feather pecking and other events that compromise animal welfare in laying hens. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chicks with access to litter during the first five weeks of life would be less fearful...... as adult hens compared to birds reared without access to litter. The hypothesis was tested in a national on-farm study in commercial aviary flocks in Norway. Five rearing farmers divided the pullets into two groups within their rearing houses. While the chicks were enclosed inside the aviary rows during...... reared with paper) were visited. During the visit, the fearfulness of the adult birds was tested in a stationary person test and a novel object test. The data was analysed by ANOVA or logistic regression as appropriate. The access to litter during rearing did not influence the number of birds...

  13. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-08-01

    Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

  14. Endogenous cellulase production in the leaf litter foraging mangrove crab Parasesarma erythodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, T H Hanh; Lee, Shing Yip

    2015-01-01

    The sesarmid crab Parasesarma erythodactyla consumes large amounts of mangrove leaf litter but its biochemical capacity for cellulose digestion is poorly known. We demonstrate the presence of endo-β-1,4-glucanase, β-glucosidase and total cellulase activities in the digestive juice of this crab. The highest total cellulase activity was observed at mildly acidic pH (5 to 6) and temperature between 30 and 50°C. A 1752bp cDNA containing an open reading frame of 1386bp encoding a putative endo-β-1,4-glucanase (EG) of 461 amino acids was identified in the crab's hepatopancreas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing techniques. P. erythodactyla endo-β-1,4-glucanase (PeEG) contains a glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GHF9) catalytic domain with all catalytically important residues conserved, and shows high sequence identity to GHF9 EGs reported from other arthropods. The endogenous origin of PeEG was confirmed by PCR amplification of a ~1.5kb DNA fragment, containing a phase 1 intron flanked by two exon sequences identical to the cDNA, from genomic DNA isolated from the crab's muscle tissue. PeEG encoding cDNA is the first endogenous EG sequence reported from the brachyuran crabs. Using degenerate primers, we also isolated 204bp cDNA fragments with sequences affiliated to EG from the hepatopancreas of eight other mangrove crabs of the Sesarmidae (Neosarmatium trispinosum and Sesarmoides borneensis), Macrophthalmidae (Ilyograpsus daviei, Australoplax tridentata, and Macrophthalmus setosus), Varunidae (Pseudohelice subquadrata), Heloeciidae (Heloecius cordiformis), and Ocypodidae (Uca perplexa) families, suggesting that endogenous cellulase production may be a common characteristic among the detritivorous mangrove crabs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CDOM PRODUCTION BY MANGROVE LEAF LITTER AND SARGASSUM COLONIES IN FLORIDA KEYS COASTAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have investigated the importance of leaf litter from red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and living Sargassum plants as sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to the coastal ocean waters and coral reef system of the Florida Keys. The magnitude of UVB exposure t...

  16. Safety considerations for continuous hydrogen production test apparatus with capacity of 50 N-litter hydrogen per hour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuki, Kaoru; Akino, Norio; Shimizu, Saburo; Nakajima, Hayato; Higashi, Shunichi; Kubo, Shinji

    2001-03-01

    Since the thermochemical hydrogen production Iodine-Sulfur process decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen using toxic chemicals such as sulfuric acid, iodine and hydriodic acid, safety considerations are very important in its research and development. Therefore, before construction of continuous hydrogen production test apparatus with capacity of 50 N-litter hydrogen per hour, comprehensive safety considerations were carried out to examine the design and construction works of the test apparatus, and the experimental plans using the apparatus. Emphasis was given on the safety considerations on prevention of breakage of glasswares and presumable abnormalities, accidents and their countermeasures. This report summarizes the results of the considerations. (author)

  17. Free range and deep litter poultry production systems: effect on performance, carcass yield and meat composition of cockerel chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogunle, Olajide Mark; Olaniyi, Olagoke Ayobami; Egbeyale, Lawrence Tokunbo; Akinola, Olufemi Sunday; Shittu, Taofeek A; Abiola, Samuel Soladoye; Ladokun, Abimbola O; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out on 150 cockerel chickens each of Harco Black and Novogen strains to determine their performance, carcass yield and meat composition on free range and deep litter production systems. The birds were brooded for 4 weeks and thereafter allotted to the different production systems for a period of 12 weeks. Each production system was allotted 150 chicks (75 chicks per strain) with three replicates of 25 chicks. The birds on deep litter production system were fed ad libitum while each bird on free range was fed 50 % of its daily feed requirement. On the 84 th day, a total of 36 birds were randomly selected for analysis of the carcass yield and meat composition. The data generated were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental arrangement. Novogen strain consumed less feed (P free range and had the best feed/gain (2.72). A higher (P free range. The tibia proximal length and breadth, and tibia distal length and breadth were significantly (P free range, Harco black had more meat (85.69 g) than bone (18.07 g) in the breast while Novogen had the lowest meat/bone (2.38). Conclusively, Novogen strain should be raised on free range for a better performance in terms of feed/gain, but for higher meat composition, Harco black is a better strain.

  18. Effect of the litter material on drinking water quality in broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Garcia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of drinking water and its effect on broiler performance, drinking water quality was studied using six different litter materials. The presence of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli was investigated. The following litter materials were used in the trial: wood shavings, rice husks, chopped Napier grass (Pennisetum pupureum, 50% sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L. + 50% wood shavings, 50% sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L. + 50% rice husks, and plain sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L.. A number of 1620 Ross® one-day-old chicks were reared in 54 pens measuring 4.5 m² each, equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder. Water samples were collected in sterile tubes on days 28 and 42 of the rearing period, and submitted to the laboratory for analyses. Microbiological data were organized by classes expressed in a logarithm scale, where the lowest contamination corresponds to class 1 and the highest contamination to class 4. Results showed that total coliform contamination was higher on day 28 than in the end of the rearing period, and that E. coli presence was detected during both analyzed periods. The litter materials that presented lower degree of water contamination, predominantly class 1, were sugarcane bagasse and 50% of sugarcane bagasse and 50% of rice husks.

  19. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and...

  20. Fission product chemistry in severe nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-09-01

    A specialist's meeting was held at JRC-Ispra from 15 to 17 January 1990 to review the current understanding of fission-product chemistry during severe accidents in light water reactors. Discussions focussed on the important chemical phenomena that could occur across the wide range of conditions of a damaged nuclear plant. Recommendations for future chemistry work were made covering the following areas: (a) fuel degradation and fission-product release, (b) transport and attenuation processes in the reactor coolant system, (c) containment chemistry (iodine behaviour and core-concrete interactions)

  1. Effect of the silvicultural treatment on canopy properties, litter and seed production in beech coppices under conversion to high forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is widely distributed in Italy where it covers 1035103 ha, mainly concentrated in the mountainous areas at altitudes above 900 m. The major part is represented by high forest often issued from the conversion of coppice woods, which in the past was the silvicultural system most widely applied mainly to provide fire wood. The social changes occurred in the second half of the last century –fire wood market crisis and the increasing importance of environmental issues- enhanced the conversion into high forest of large areas previously managed as coppice by means of different silvicultural treatments and practices. Nevertheless, the environmental benefits of this choice were not adequately investigated. Results of annual measurements (1992-2009 made in a beech coppice stand aged 65 are here reported. The study area is located on the Alpe di Catenaia, a pre-Apennine outcrop close to Arezzo (Central Italy. Variables strictly related to stand productivity and dynamics such as annual litter and seed production, leaf area index (LAI and transmittance (PAR were measured in the research area of Buca Zamponi to estimate the effects of two theses, natural evolution (TEST and conversion into high forest (DIR. Three thinnings were undertaken in the latter thesis in 1972, 1987 and 2002. Additional theses of natural evolution (CONTR and advance seed cutting (TS were added in 2002 in a nearby study area (Eremo della Casella. Results showed the high productivity of coppice stands, under conversion to high forest, with mean values of annual total litter, leaf litter and leaf area index of 5 Mg ha-1, 3 Mg ha-1 and 6 m2m-2, respectively. These findings confirm both the prompt response of beech to intensive thinning cycles and the reliability of undertaking coppice conversion into high forest. Furthermore, the positive trend observed in the ecological parameters and the high consistency of leaf fraction, highlight the still juvenile

  2. An Application of the Phosphorus Consistent Rule for Environmentally Acceptable Cost-Efficient Management of Broiler Litter in Crop Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Adhikari, Murali; Martin, Neil R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We calculated the profitability of using broiler litter as a source of plant nutrients using the phosphorus consistent litter application rule. The cost saving by using litter is 37% over the use of chemical fertilizer-only option to meet the nutrient needs of major crops grown in Alabama. In the optimal solution, only a few routes of all the possible routes developed were used for inter- and intra- county litter hauling. If litter is not adopted as the sole source of crop nutrients, the best environmental policy may be to pair the phosphorus consistent rule with taxes, marketable permits, and subsidies.flaws

  3. Produção de serapilheira em área reflorestada Litter production in a reforested

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Moreira

    2004-02-01

    ppen as Cwa-type, with humid and hot summers and dry and cold winters. Litter average production was estimated monthly by 21 0.25 m² collectors, randomly distributed in each of the different topographic situations. Average litter production of undergrowth in the dry season was 697 kg/ha and 407 kg/ha in the wet season. These are intermediate values between the semi-decidual seasonal forest fragments of São Paulo state and the Floresta da Tijuca (reforested area, areas at more advanced stages of secondary succession; and upper values when compared with other reforested areas in São Paulo. The results allowed to conclude that: a litter production had a strong seasonal variation, especially a more intense deposition during the dryest months; b litter productions differ in each topographic situation; c the undergrowth production is a strong sign of the growth and ecological equilibrium of this new forest.

  4. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft guidance provides... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft guidance...

  5. T R Seshadri's Contributions to the Chemistry of Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sri Sathya Sai Institute of. Higher Learning. Generations of students would vouch for the fact that he has the uncanny ability to present the chemistry of natural products logically and with feeling. Keywords. Flavonoids, lichen metabolite, methylation, Elbs-Seshadri oxi- dation, structure elucidation, natural products synthesis.

  6. Potential production from poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw; Potencial de producao de biogas da cama de aviario, esterco de galinhas e palha de trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio L.; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], email: fabio.zanatta@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard; Schonberg, Mandy [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Post Harvest Technology Dept.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2011-07-01

    Poultry litter is a sub product of growth chicken, rich in nitrogen and used like fertilizer in grains and forage production. Normally is applied in the fields without treatment. It's a very good material to be used for biogas generation because his compounds are chicken manure, straw and others organics compounds like coffee and rice husks. The biogas produced by poultry litter can be used for electric generation or for the heating systems of chicken production. The aimed of this work was evaluated the biogas and methane production of poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw. The experiment was made in the Biogastechnikum Laboratory of Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), in Potsdam-Germany, from May to December 2010, according the rule VDI 4630 (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure). According to set conditions of the experiment, the results for biogas production are 393.25, 398.37 e 518.44 Nl biogas/kg{sub TSadded} and methane 223.72, 229.68, e 272.73 Nlmethane/kg{sub TSadded}; for poultry litter, poultry manure and wheat straw, respectively. (author)

  7. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton Zanchi, F.; Waterloo, M.J.; Dolman, A.J.; Groenendijk, M.; Kruijt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and

  8. Chemistry - Toward efficient hydrogen production at surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Christensen, Claus H.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy.......Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy....

  9. Influence of poultry litter and plant density on the production and chemical composition of the essential oil of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Tabaldi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production and chemical composition of the essential oil of Brazilian pepper fruits grown in single and double rows using different doses of semi decomposed poultry litter in two evaluation times. The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Grande Dourados, in the city of Dourados, state o- Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from October 2009 to November 2010. Brazilian pepper plants were grown in single and double rows in soil with incorporated poultry litter at the doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 5 factorial experiment in a randomized block design with four replications. Fruits were harvested 180 and 390 days after transplant (DAT. There was a significant interaction for fresh weight of fruits and weight of 50 fruits, being the values higher at 180 DAT in the double rows with increasing poultry litter doses. Fruits harvested 390 DAT showed higher diameter compared with those harvested 180 DAT. The number of fruits per bunch was significantly influenced by the doses of poultry litter, presenting a linear increase with increasing doses. The essential oil of the Brazilian pepper fruits obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry exhibited predominance of monoterpenes, highlighting α-pinene (20.14% as the major constituent. The chemical composition of the essential oil was not influenced by the number of plant rows in the plot or by the doses of poultry litter in any evaluation time. Therefore, the cultivation of Brazilian pepper plants is recommended in double rows, with 13.59 t ha-1 of incorporated poultry litter in the soi, and with harvest of 180 DAT for higher fruit production.

  10. Impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortmans, C.; Van Uffelen, P.; Van den Berghe, S.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains a series of papers presented at SCK-CEN's workshop on the impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour. Contributing authors discuss different processes affecting the behaviour of fission products in different types of spent nuclear fuel. In addition, a number of papers discusses the behaviour of actinides and fission products released from spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste in geological disposal conditions

  11. Chemistry of fission products for accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    Current knowledge concerning the chemical state of the fission product elements during the development of accidents in water reactor systems is reviewed in this paper. The fission product elements which have been considered are Cs, I, Te, Sr and Ba but aspects of the behavior of Mo, Ru and the lanthanides are also discussed. Some features of the reactions of the various species of these elements with other components of the reactor systems are described. The importance of having an adequate knowledge of thermodynamic data and phase equilibria of relatively simple systems in order to interpret experimental observations on complex multi-component systems is stressed

  12. Regulatory simplification of fission product chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, J.B.J.; Soffer, L.

    1986-01-01

    The requirements for design provisions intended to limit fission product escape during reactor accidents have been based since 1962 upon a small number of simply-stated assumptions. These assumptions permeate current reactor regulation, but are too simple to deal with the complex processes that can reasonably be expected to occur during real accidents. Potential chemical processes of fission products in severe accidents are compared with existing plant safety features designed to minimize off-site consequences, and the possibility of a new set of simply-stated assumptions to replace the 1982 set is discussed

  13. Natural products – learning chemistry from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fraser, P.D.; Kayser, O.; Martens, S.; Tissier, A.; Krol, van der A.R.; Wessjohann, L.; Warzecha, H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as

  14. The chemistry of isoindole natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Speck, Klaus; Magauer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the chemical and biological aspects of natural products containing an oxidized or reduced isoindole skeleton. This motif is found in its intact or modified form in indolocarbazoles, macrocyclic polyketides (cytochalasan alkaloids), the aporhoeadane alkaloids, meroterpenoids from Stachybotrys species and anthraquinone-type alkaloids. Concerning their biological activity, molecular structure and synthesis, we have limited this review to the most inspiring examples...

  15. Chemistry of natural products: A veritable approach to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even with the advent of newer technologies such as combinatorial chemistry, robotics, high throughput screening (HTS), bioinformatics, and in silico molecular modelling, natural products still play a crucial role in drug discovery. This is because they provide an unparalleled range of chemical diversity on which the newer ...

  16. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products A Practical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products A Practical Approach. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 25-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in drug discovery and chemical biology. With the introduction of novel, innovative concepts and strategies for synthetic efficiency, natural product synthesis in the 21st century is well poised to address the challenges and complexities faced by natural product chemistry and will remain essential to progress in biomedical sciences. PMID:25043880

  18. Influence of Rabbit Sire Genetic Origin, Season of Birth and Parity Order on Doe and Litter Performance in an Organic Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare both the performance of litters derived from two sire genetic origins (SGO, Vienna Blue (VB and Burgundy Fawn (BF, along successive seasons of birth (SB; winter, spring, summer and autumn, and doe reproductive performance in an organic production system. A total of fifty-eight does consisting of a mixture of crosses of several medium-large size breeds at different parity order (P, 1 = nulliparous; 2 = primiparous; ≥3 = multiparous and twelve males (6 VB and 6 BF were housed indoors at environmental conditions that followed seasonality. An extensive reproductive rhythm was used and kits were weaned at 46±6 d of age. Doe reproductive performance and the data of 105 litters (55 from VB and 50 from BF SGO were recorded throughout the SB. No statistically significant differences related to SGO effect were observed. As regards parity order, multiparous does showed higher live weights (LW (p<0.05, total born (p<0.01, total born alive (p<0.05 per delivery, and litter weight of born alive (p<0.05, but lower milk output at 21st d than primiparous does (p<0.05. The extensive reproductive rhythm mainly increased litter performance at birth in multiparous does but was not sufficient to permit a complete recovery of body reserves lost during lactation. Autumn SB negatively affected doe LW variation between deliveries. The number of pups born and born alive per delivery (p<0.05 and litter size at 21 d of age and at weaning (p<0.01 were lower during hot SB. Due to the lower litter size of pups born in summer and autumn, their individual weight at 21st d of age and daily individual growth rate 0 to 21 d were higher than those of pups born in winter (p<0.001. Litter performance at 21st d of age and individual pup pre-weaning growth rate were poorer for those born in spring than in other seasons due to the harmful effects of increased environmental temperatures. SB affected most of the performance traits of does and young

  19. Identifying Sources of Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    VEIGA Joana Mira; FLEET David; KINSEY Sue; NILSSON Per; VLACHOGIANNI Thomais; WERNER Stefanie; GALGANI Francois; THOMPSON Richard; DAGEVOS Jeroen; GAGO Jesus; SOBRAL Paula; CRONIN Richard

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life-cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor...

  20. Radionuclide production and radiopharmaceutical chemistry with BNL cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wolf, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) radiopharmaceutical chemistry program focuses on production and utilization of radionuclides having a half-life of > 2 hr. However, a major portion of the BNL program is devoted to short-lived radionuclides, such as 11 C and 18 F. Activities encompassed in the program are classified into seven areas: cyclotron parameters, radiochemistry, design and rapid synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals and labeled compounds, radiotracer evaluation in animals, studies in humans, technology transfer, and several other areas

  1. 40 CFR 158.210 - Experimental use permit data requirements for product chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for product chemistry. 158.210 Section 158.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for product chemistry. All product chemistry data, as described in...

  2. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Fogh, C.L. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in a Belarussian-American-Danish collaborative project. Here the total radiological impact of the scheme is considered. This means that not only the dose reductive effect of the forest decontamination is taken into account, but also the possible adverse health effects in connection with the much needed bio-energy production. This report presents the results of an in-country, commercial-scale investigation of the effect of a baghouse filter in retaining contaminants so that they are not released to the atmosphere in the biomass energy production process. Approximately 99,5 % of the activity of a commercially representative, dust-laden boiler flue gas was removed from the stream by using a combination of a cyclone and a baghouse filter. (au)

  3. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in aBelarussian-American-Danish collaborative project....... Here the total radiological impact of the scheme is considered. This means that not only the dose reductive effect of the forest decontamination is taken into account, but also the possible adverse healtheffects in connection with the much needed bio-energy production. This report presents the results...

  4. Social representations of nutrition: proposal production of teaching materials chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ventura Fonseca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the stages of production of didactic material of Chemistry (thematic unit on nutrition, and the results of its application in a classroom of basic education. The research was developed in a public school in Rio Grande do Sul, where the researcher acted exploring their own teaching practice, with reference to the records held in his field journal and written productions of the learners. The work is focused on the research, through a questionnaire, social representations of the students, who guided the topics to be addressed in the thematic unit as well as the effects of this focus on the dynamics of teaching. In addition, other actions have been implemented, such as the analysis of the relationship between the subject of nutrition and chemical knowledge presented by textbooks of Chemistry, the research field of Education in Chemistry / Science and the guiding documents of high school. It was found that, considered to be the organization of representations of students in an educational environment problem-solving, the ability to interact with the same scientific concepts was enhanced, facilitating learning processes.

  5. Chemistry in production of heavy water and industrial solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Industries are the temples of modern science built on the robust foundation of science and technology. The genesis of giant chemical industries is from small laboratories where the scientific thoughts are fused and transformed into innovative technologies Heavy water production is an energy intensive giant chemical industry where various hazardous and flammable chemicals are handled, extreme operating conditions are maintained and various complex chemical reactions are involved. Chemistry is the back bone to all chemical industrial activities and plays a lead role in heavy water production also. Heavy Water Board has now mastered the technology of design, construction, operation and maintenance of Heavy Water plants as well as fine tuning of the process make it more cost effective and environment friendly. Heavy Water Board has ventured into diversified activities intimately connected with our three stages of Nuclear Power Programme. Process development for the production of nuclear grade solvents for the front end and back end of our nuclear fuel cycle is one area where we have made significant contributions. Heavy Water Board has validated, modified and fine-tuned the synthesis routes for TBP, D2EHPA, TOPO, TAPO TIAP, DNPPA, D2EHPA-II, DHOA etc and these solvents were accepted by end users. Exclusive campaigns were carried out in laboratory scale, bench scale and pilot plant scale before scaling up to industrial scale. The process chemistry is understood very well and chemical parameters were monitored in every step of the synthesis. It is a continual improvement cycle where fine tuning is carried out for best quality and yield of product at lowest cost. In this presentation, an attempt is made to highlight the role of chemistry in the production of Heavy Water and industrial solvents

  6. Practicability of Lignocellulosic Waste Composite in Controlling Air Pollution from Leaves Litter through Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrsini, Mahadevan; Teoh, Yi Peng; Ng, Qi Hwa; Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Xian Ooi, Zhong; Siew Shuit, Hoong; Hoo, Peng Yong

    2018-03-01

    Environmental degradation through greenhouse emission have spurred nation’s interest on feedstock-based fuel. Yet, development of this clean biofuel is obstructed by the expensive feedstock which takes up most of the production cost. Therefore, as an alternative, utilization of widely available lignocellulosic residues with relatively no commercial significance has been considered. This present work emphasizes on mango (Mangifera indica) leaves one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste in Malaysia. Through implementation of this biomass for bioethanol production, continuous allowance of air pollution with a deleterious impact to the country’s environment could be reduced. The high concentration of sugar (16-18%w/v) in the form of cellulose and hemicellulose is ultimately the reason behind the selection of these leaves as a substrate for bioethanol production. Hence, in this study, a comparison of biomass composition in Harum Manis, Sunshine and Chokanan mango leaves were conducted to detect the most suitable substrate source to produce biofuel. At the end of the biomass evaluation, Harum Manis mango leaves turned out to be the most competitive bioethanol crop as these leaves reported to be made up of 34.71% cellulose and 44.02% hemicellulose which summed up to give highest fermentable sugar source with a lignin content of 19.45%.

  7. Plant n-alkane production from litterfall altered the diversity and community structure of alkane degrading bacteria in litter layer in lowland subtropical rainforest in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tung-Yi; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chao, Wei-Chun; Fan, Cheng-Wei

    2018-03-01

    n-Alkane and alkane-degrading bacteria have long been used as crucial biological indicators of paleoecology, petroleum pollution, and oil and gas prospecting. However, the relationship between n-alkane and alkane-degrading bacteria in natural forests is still poorly understood. In this study, long-chain n-alkane (C14-C35) concentrations in litterfall, litter layer, and topsoil as well as the diversity and abundance of n-alkane-degrading bacterial communities in litter layers were investigated in three habitats across a lowland subtropical rainforest in southern Taiwan: ravine, windward, and leeward habitats in Nanjenshan. Our results demonstrate that the litterfall yield and productivity of long-chain n-alkane were highest in the ravine habitats. However, long-chain n-alkane concentrations in all habitats were decreased drastically to a similar low level from the litterfall to the bulk soil, suggesting a higher rate of long-chain n-alkane degradation in the ravine habitat. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) analysis using next-generation sequencing data revealed that the relative abundances of microbial communities in the windward and leeward habitats were similar and different from that in the ravine habitat. Data mining of community amplicon sequencing using the NCBI database revealed that alkB-gene-associated bacteria (95 % DNA sequence similarity to alkB-containing bacteria) were most abundant in the ravine habitat. Empirical testing of litter layer samples using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for determining alkB gene levels confirmed that the ravine habitat had higher alkB gene levels than the windward and leeward habitats. Heat map analysis revealed parallels in pattern color between the plant and microbial species compositions of the habitats, suggesting a causal relationship between the plant n-alkane production and microbial community diversity. This finding indicates that the diversity and relative abundance of microbial communities in the

  8. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  9. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  10. Marine Natural Product Chemistry and the Interim: A Novel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Jeffrey S.; Medcalf, Darrell G.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a course designed to strengthen a student's background in organic chemistry, demonstrate the interfacing of chemistry and biology, expose undergraduates to graduate research, provide familiarity with instrumentation, and provide a novel field experience. (Author/GS)

  11. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Using New Combinatorial Chemistry Derived Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Stucky, Galen D. (PI); McFarland, Eric W. (PI)

    2004-10-25

    Solar photoelectrochemical water-splitting has long been viewed as one of the “holy grails” of chemistry because of its potential impact as a clean, renewable method of fuel production. Several known photocatalytic semiconductors can be used; however, the fundamental mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood and no known material has the required properties for cost effective hydrogen production. In order to investigate morphological and compositional variations in metal oxides as they relate to opto-electrochemical properties, we have employed a combinatorial methodology using automated, high-throughput, electrochemical synthesis and screening together with conventional solid-state methods. This report discusses a number of novel, high-throughput instruments developed during this project for the expeditious discovery of improved materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Also described within this report are results from a variety of materials (primarily tungsten oxide, zinc oxide, molybdenum oxide, copper oxide and titanium dioxide) whose properties were modified and improved by either layering, inter-mixing, or doping with one or more transition metals. Furthermore, the morphologies of certain materials were also modified through the use of structure directing agents (SDA) during synthesis to create mesostructures (features 2-50 nm) that increased surface area and improved rates of hydrogen production.

  12. PRODUCCIÓN DE HOJARASCA FINA EN BOSQUES ALTO ANDINOS DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA FINE LITTER PRODUCTION IN HIGH ANDEAN FORESTS FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Zapata Duque

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de Quercus humboldtii y reforestados (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fue evaluada la producción de hojarasca por un periodo de 2 años. Se utilizaron trampas de hojarasca con el fin de recoger el material desprendido del dosel para su posterior separación en fracciones y pesado respectivo. El promedio de caída de hojarasca anual para Q. humboldtii, P. patula y C. lusitanica fue de 7877,20; 8362,47 y 3725,97 kg ha-1año-1 respectivamente; siendo la fracción foliar la que mayor participación tuvo en la producción total. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos de producción de hojarasca según fracciones por cobertura en función de diferentes variables hidrológicas, tales como la intensidad y la cantidad de lluvia del período simultáneo a la recolección de la hojarasca o inmediatamente anterior.Litter production was measured over two years in a montane oak forest (Quercus humboldtii and in pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia ( Colombia . Litter traps were used in order to collect litterfall to be subsequently separated into fractions and weighed. Annual mean litterfall for Q. humboldtii, P. patula and C. lusitanica was of 7877,20; 8362,47 and 3725,97 kg ha-1year-1 respectively; being the leaf fraction of highest participation in total production. Multiple linear regression models were used to fit litter production for each fraction and forest cover as a function of different hydrological variables such as intensity and quantity of precipitation, both during the period when the leaf litter was collected and immediately preceding one.

  13. PRN 98-1: Self-Certification of Product Chemistry Data with Attachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pesticide Programs has established a self-certification program for certain product chemistry data of manufacturing-use products and end-use products produced by a non-integrated formulation system.

  14. Long-term litter decomposition controlled by manganese redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter; Harmon, Mark E; Mao, Jingdong; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus

    2015-09-22

    Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter was paralleled by variations in Mn oxidation state and concentration. A detailed chemical imaging analysis of the litter revealed that fungi recruit and redistribute unreactive Mn(2+) provided by fresh plant litter to produce oxidative Mn(3+) species at sites of active decay, with Mn eventually accumulating as insoluble Mn(3+/4+) oxides. Formation of reactive Mn(3+) species coincided with the generation of aromatic oxidation products, providing direct proof of the previously posited role of Mn(3+)-based oxidizers in the breakdown of litter. Our results suggest that the litter-decomposing machinery at our coniferous forest site depends on the ability of plants and microbes to supply, accumulate, and regenerate short-lived Mn(3+) species in the litter layer. This observation indicates that biogeochemical constraints on bioavailability, mobility, and reactivity of Mn in the plant-soil system may have a profound impact on litter decomposition rates.

  15. Influence of Covering Reused Broiler Litter with Plastic Canvas on Litter Characteristics and Bacteriology and the Subsequent Immunity and Microbiology of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa, D; Lourenço, M; Souza, A; Bueno, A; Pereira, A; Sfeir, M; Santin, E

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In broiler production, the litter is reused for consecutives flocks, and it is treated during down time between flocks to reduce its microbial load. Although covering the litter with a plastic canvas is a common litter treatment in the field, there is little scientific information available on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of covering broiler litter with a plastic canvas for eight days on litter microbiological, physical, and chemical parameters, and...

  16. Soil Carbon Chemistry and Greenhouse Gas Production in Global Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, A. E.; Turner, B. L.; Lamit, L. J.; Smith, A. N.; Baiser, B.; Clark, M. W.; Hazlett, C.; Lilleskov, E.; Long, J.; Grover, S.; Reddy, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands play a critical role in the global carbon cycle because they contain approximately 30% of the 1500 Pg of carbon stored in soils worldwide. However, the stability of these vast stores of carbon is under threat from climate and land-use change, with important consequences for global climate. Ecosystem models predict the impact of peatland perturbation on carbon fluxes based on total soil carbon pools, but responses could vary markedly depending on the chemical composition of soil organic matter. Here we combine experimental and observational studies to quantify the chemical nature and response to perturbation of soil organic matter in peatlands worldwide. We quantified carbon functional groups in a global sample of 125 freshwater peatlands using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the drivers of molecular composition of soil organic matter. We then incubated a representative subset of the soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to determine how organic matter composition influences carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions following drainage or flooding. The functional chemistry of peat varied markedly at large and small spatial scales, due to long-term land use change, mean annual temperature, nutrient status, and vegetation, but not pH. Despite this variation, we found predictable responses of greenhouse gas production following drainage based on soil carbon chemistry, defined by a novel Global Peat Stability Index, with greater CO2 and CH4 fluxes from soils enriched in oxygen-containing organic carbon (O-alkyl C) and depleted in aromatic and hydrophobic compounds. Incorporation of the Global Peat Stability Index of peatland organic matter into earth system models and management strategies, which will improve estimates of GHG fluxes from peatlands and ultimately advance management to reduce carbon loss from these sensitive ecosystems.

  17. Atmospheric Photooxidation Products and Chemistry of Current-use Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murschell, T.; Farmer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural, commercial, and residential applications across the United States. Pesticides can volatilize off targets and travel long distances, with atmospheric lifetimes determined by both physical and chemical loss processes. In particular, oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) can reduce the lifetime and thus atmospheric transport of pesticides, though the rates and oxidation products of atmospheric pesticide oxidation are poorly understood. Here, we investigate reactions of current-use pesticides with OH. MCPA, triclopyr, and fluroxypyr are herbicides that are often formulated together to target broadleaf weeds. We detect these species in the gas-phase using real-time high resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) with both acetate and iodide reagent ions. We used an Oxidative Flow Reactor to explore OH radical oxidation and photolysis of these compounds, simulating up to 5 equivalent days of atmospheric aging by OH. Use of two ionization schemes allowed for the more complete representation of the OH radical oxidation of the three pesticides. The high resolution mass spectra allows us to deduce structures of the oxidation products and identify multi-generational chemistry. In addition, we observe nitrogen oxides, as well as isocyanic acid (HNCO), from some nitrogen-containing pesticides. We present yields of species of atmospheric importance, including NOx and halogen species and consider their impact on air quality following pesticide application.

  18. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  19. Trees as templates for tropical litter arthropod diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, David A; Johnston, Mary K; Kaspari, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Increased tree species diversity in the tropics is associated with even greater herbivore diversity, but few tests of tree effects on litter arthropod diversity exist. We studied whether tree species influence patchiness in diversity and abundance of three common soil arthropod taxa (ants, gamasid mites, and oribatid mites) in a Panama forest. The tree specialization hypothesis proposes that tree-driven habitat heterogeneity maintains litter arthropod diversity. We tested whether tree species differed in resource quality and quantity of their leaf litter and whether more heterogeneous litter supports more arthropod species. Alternatively, the abundance-extinction hypothesis states that arthropod diversity increases with arthropod abundance, which in turn tracks resource quantity (e.g., litter depth). We found little support for the hypothesis that tropical trees are templates for litter arthropod diversity. Ten tree species differed in litter depth, chemistry, and structural variability. However, the extent of specialization of invertebrates on particular tree taxa was low and the more heterogeneous litter between trees failed to support higher arthropod diversity. Furthermore, arthropod diversity did not track abundance or litter depth. The lack of association between tree species and litter arthropods suggests that factors other than tree species diversity may better explain the high arthropod diversity in tropical forests.

  20. A by-product of swine slaughtering as a protein source in broiler diets: effects on performance, composition of excreta, litter quality and on foot pad health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölln, M; Loi-Brügger, A; Kamphues, J

    2017-06-01

    Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is of great concern in poultry industry, and dietary strategies are needed to improve foot pad health because of animal welfare and economic reasons. As the main factor for the development of FPD is the DM content of litter (consisting mainly of excreta; Kamphues et al., 2011), there are different dietary approaches to influence this disease pattern. In two consecutive trials, a total of 200 broilers were kept from day 7 until the 35th day of life. They were divided into four groups at each trial and fed with one of four experimental diets, based on wheat and corn mainly, but differing in the protein source: Group 1 was fed a diet with soya bean meal (SBM) as the main protein source, whereas Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were assigned to diets with 4, 8 and 12% of a protein-rich (66.7% CP in DM) by-product of swine slaughtering [Swine Protein Meal (SPM); in exchange for SBM]. The inclusion of 12% SPM resulted in a decreased dietary potassium content of about 3 g/kg diet (Group 1 vs. 4). Increasing dietary levels of the by-product (8 and 12%) led to lowered feed intake (Group 1 vs. 4: ~10%) and weight gain (Group 1 vs. Group 4: ~8.5%). Although highest DM contents of excreta and litter were determined in Group 4, foot pad health was not influenced positively as hypothesized. Remarkable was the observed 'stickiness' of excreta when the by-product was included in the diet at increasing levels, presumably due to the high proportion of bones in the by-product. In conclusion, substituting SBM by 4% of the by-product of swine slaughtering in broiler diets did not impair performance parameters, but led to the most favourable foot pad scores in this study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The influence of broiler activity, growth rate, and litter on carbon dioxide balances for the determination of ventilation flow rates in broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, S; Estellés, F; Cambra-López, M; Torres, A G; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2011-11-01

    Carbon dioxide balances are useful in determining ventilation rates in livestock buildings. These balances need an accurate estimation of the CO(2) produced by animals and their litter to determine the ventilation flows. To estimate the daily variation in ventilation flow, it is necessary to precisely know the daily variation pattern of CO(2) production, which mainly depends on animal activity. The objective of this study was to explore the applicability of CO(2) balances for determining ventilation flows in broiler buildings. More specifically, this work aimed to quantify the amount of CO(2) produced by the litter, as well as the amount of CO(2) produced by the broilers, as a function of productive parameters, and to analyze the influence of broiler activity on CO(2) emissions. Gas concentrations and ventilation flows were simultaneously measured in 3 trials, with 1 under experimental conditions and the other 2 in a commercial broiler farm. In the experimental assay, broiler activity was also determined. At the end of the experimental trial, on the day after the removal of the broilers, the litter accounted for 20% of the total CO(2) produced, and the broilers produced 3.71 L/h of CO(2) per kg of metabolic weight. On the commercial farm, CO(2) production was the same for the 2 cycles (2.60 L/h per kg of metabolic weight, P > 0.05). However, substantial differences were found between CO(2) and broiler activity patterns after changes in light status. A regression model was used to explain these differences (R(2) = 0.52). Carbon dioxide increased with bird activity, being on average 3.02 L/h per kg of metabolic weight for inactive birds and 4.73 L/h per kg of metabolic weight when bird activity was highest. Overall, CO(2) balances are robust tools for determining the daily average ventilation flows in broiler farms. These balances could also be applied at more frequent intervals, but in this case, particular care is necessary after light status changes because of

  2. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  3. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  4. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  5. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  6. The susceptibility of soil enzymes to inhibition by leaf litter tannins is dependent on the tannin chemistry, enzyme class and vegetation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Daniella J; Tharayil, Nishanth; Preston, Caroline M; Gerard, Patrick D

    2012-12-01

    By inhibiting soil enzymes, tannins play an important role in soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization. The role of tannin chemistry in this inhibitory process, in conjunction with enzyme classes and isoforms, is less well understood. Here, we compared the inhibition efficiencies of mixed tannins (MTs, mostly limited to angiosperms) and condensed tannins (CTs, produced mostly by gymnosperms) against the potential activity of β-glucosidase (BG), N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), and peroxidase in two soils that differed in their vegetation histories. Compared with CTs, MTs exhibited 50% more inhibition of almond (Prunus dulcis) BG activity and greater inhibition of the potential NAG activity in the gymnosperm-acclimatized soils. CTs exhibited lower BG inhibition in the angiosperm-acclimated soils, whereas both types of tannins exhibited higher peroxidase inhibition in the angiosperm soils than in gymnosperm soils. At all of the tested tannin concentrations, irrespective of the tannin type and site history, the potential peroxidase activity was inhibited two-fold more than the hydrolase activity and was positively associated with the redox-buffering efficiency of tannins. Our finding that the inhibitory activities and mechanisms of MTs and CTs are dependent on the vegetative history and enzyme class is novel and furthers our understanding of the role of tannins and soil isoenzymes in decomposition. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  8. Broiler diet modification and litter storage: impacts on phosphorus in litters, soils, and runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joshua M; Sims, J Thomas; Maguire, Rory O; Saylor, William W; Angel, C Roselina; Turner, Benjamin L

    2005-01-01

    Modifying broiler diets to mitigate water quality concerns linked to excess phosphorus (P) in regions of intensive broiler production has recently increased. Our goals were to evaluate the effects of dietary modification, using phytase and reduced non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) supplementation, on P speciation in broiler litters, changes in litter P forms during long-term storage, and subsequent impacts of diets on P in runoff from litter-amended soils. Four diets containing two levels of NPP with and without phytase were fed to broilers in a three-flock floor pen study. After removal of the third flock, litters were stored for 440 d at their initial moisture content (MC; 24%) and at a MC of 40%. Litter P fractions and orthophosphate and phytate P concentrations were determined before and after storage. After storage, litters were incorporated with a sandy and silt loam and simulated rainfall was applied. Phytase and reduced dietary NPP significantly reduced litter total P. Reducing dietary NPP decreased water-extractable inorganic phosphorus (IP) and the addition of dietary phytase reduced NaOH- and HCl-extractable organic P in litter, which correlated well with orthophosphate and phytic acid measured by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), respectively. Although dry storage caused little change in P speciation, wet storage increased concentrations of water-soluble IP, which increased reactive P in runoff from litter-amended soils. Therefore, diet modification with phytase and reduced NPP could be effective in reducing P additions on a watershed scale. Moreover, efforts to minimize litter MC during storage may reduce the potential for dissolved P losses in runoff.

  9. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  10. Variation in leaf litter production and resorption of nutrients in abundant tree species in Nyungwe tropical montane rainforest in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirambangutse, Brigitte; Mirindi Dusenge, Eric; Nsabimana, Donat; Bizuru, Elias; Pleijel, Håkan; Uddling, Johan; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    , phosphorus and other nutrients is being studied to analyse the nutrient saving efficiency of different species within the primary and secondary forest communities. This is made by analyzing the nutrient content within fresh and fallen leaves of most abundant pioneer and climax species. Results from litterfall patterns as well as foliar, litter and soil carbon and nutrients are currently being compiled and will be reported.

  11. Influence of Covering Reused Broiler Litter with Plastic Canvas on Litter Characteristics and Bacteriology and the Subsequent Immunity and Microbiology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In broiler production, the litter is reused for consecutives flocks, and it is treated during down time between flocks to reduce its microbial load. Although covering the litter with a plastic canvas is a common litter treatment in the field, there is little scientific information available on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of covering broiler litter with a plastic canvas for eight days on litter microbiological, physical, and chemical parameters, and on the intestinal microbiota and immunity of broilers. In the first trial, reused litter from a previous flock was distributed into three treatments, with six replicates each: L1 (negative control, litter free from Salmonella Enteritidis (SE and Eimeria maxima (EM and not covered, L2 (positive control, litter with SE and EM, and not covered, and L3 (litter with SE and EM, and covered with plastic canvas for eight days. Litter total bacteria, Enterobacteria, Lactobacillus, SE, and EM counts, and litter pH, temperature, moisture, and ammonia emission were determined on days 1 and 8. In the second trial, broilers were housed on those litters according to the treatments described above, and their intestinal microbiota, gut CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages, and liver and intestinal pro-inflammatory interleukin (IFN-γ, IL-1β e IL-18 levels were evaluated on days 14 and 28. A significant reduction of litter bacterial populations was observed in the litter covered with plastic canvas. A significantly higher mRNA IFN-γ gene expression (12.5-fold was observed in the jejunum and liver of broilers reared on the litter with Enterobacteria counts. No EM reduction was observed in the covered litter. Covering reused broiler litter with plastic canvas reduces initial litter bacterial load as a result of the interaction between physical and chemical parameters.

  12. Odour emissions from poultry litter - A review litter properties, odour formation and odorant emissions from porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-07-15

    Odour emissions from meat chicken sheds can at times cause odour impacts on surrounding communities. Litter is seen as the primary source of this odour. Formation and emission of odour from meat chicken litter during the grow-out period are influenced by various factors such as litter conditions, the environment, microbial activity, properties of the odorous gases and management practices. Odour emissions vary spatially and temporally. This variability has made it challenging to understand how specific litter conditions contribute to odour emissions from the litter and production sheds. Existing knowledge on odorants, odour formation mechanisms and emission processes that contribute to odour emissions from litter are reviewed. Litter moisture content and water thermodynamics (i.e. water activity, Aw) are also examined as factors that contribute to microbial odour formation, physical litter conditions and the exchange of individual odorant gases at the air-water interface. Substantial opportunities exist for future research on litter conditions and litter formation mechanisms and how these contribute to odour emissions. Closing this knowledge gap will improve management strategies that intercept and interfere with odour formation and emission processes leading to an overall reduction in the potential to cause community impacts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of microbial communities in phosphorus cycling during litter decomposition in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret Sevilla, E.; Brodie, E.; Bouskill, N.; Hao, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient with a reduced availability in tropical forests. In these ecosystems, P is recycled highly efficiently through resorption and mineralization and P immobilization in the microbial biomass prevents its loss through occlusion in the soil mineral fraction. To improve models of ecosystem response to global change, further studies of the above and belowground plant and microbial traits related to P availability and uptake, are required. In tropical forests, high temperature and rainfall lead to some of the highest rates of litter decomposition on earth. Litter decomposition is a complex process mediated by a range of trophic groups: meso and microfauna initiate litter turnover through litter fragmentation facilitating colonization by fungi, and bacteria mediate the mineralization of organic matter and release of nutrients. To determine the important functional traits of these players in the efficient cycling of P in soils with low P availability, we are performing a leaf litter decomposition experiment in a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico. Nylon litterbags with three mesh sizes (2mm, 20 μm and 0.45 μm) containing litter with different chemistry (tabonuco and palm) will be deployed on soil surface and sampled 6 times throughout 12 months. The use of different mesh sizes will allow us to identify the leading roles in litter turnover by physical allowance and/or exclusion of the decomposers. The 2 mm bags allow meso and microfauna, roots, fungi and bacteria. 20 μm bags will exclude fauna and roots and 0.45 μm only allow some bacteria. We hypothesize that fungi will dominate over bacteria in earlier stages of the decomposition with a higher production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. On the other hand, bacterial biomass is expected to increase with time. Qualitative changes in both fungal and bacterial communities along the decomposition process are also expected leading to changes in enzyme activity. We also postulate an

  14. Impact of chemistry on production and utilization of radioisotopes and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.

    2011-01-01

    The year 2011, declared as the International Year of Chemistry (IYC), commemorates the centenary of the award of Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Madam Curie for her pioneering work on the discovery of Radium and Polonium. Her invaluable discovery and her other research pursuits, as well as other subsequent discoveries in nuclear sciences, including by her daughter and son-in-law - Irene Curie and Frederic Joliot - who in 1935 discovered the phenomenon of artificially induced radioactivity (that later bagged the Nobel Prize), led to several noteworthy applications. The author, as a member of 'Indian radioisotope family' and the DAE programmes on radioisotopes and related radiation technology since August 1972, narrates in this article a series of select chemistry-related milestones that enabled vital developments in the production of isotope products and their applications. Ingenious and often simple chemistry-based solutions instituted by the researchers stand out in the enormous progress achieved over the years and highly significant practical applications rendered a reality. Appropriate examples can be cited from both the Indian scenario and international developments over the past nearly four decades. The long list will include inter alia the following: change of eluent from dilute nitric acid to normal saline to obtain medical-grade pertechnetate from molybdate adsorbed an acidic alumina (ushering in 99m Tc generators for (radio)pharmacy use); premixing a reducing agent like stannous chloride with ligand and freeze-drying the mixture - 'lyophilised kit' - (providing an easy access to 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals); introduction of an iodine atom in place of an aryl hydrogen as a non-isotopic label in organic compound of interest (birth of radioiodinated compounds for biomedical use); bifunctional chelates designed to link radiometals with biological or pharmaceutical compound (radiolabeled biological analogues for medical use); nucleophilic substitution by fluoride

  15. Application of solid waste from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in Agrocybe aegerita cultivation: mushroom production, lignocellulolytic enzymes activity and substrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Kelkar, Vinaya

    2009-06-01

    The degradation and utilization of solid waste (SW) from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter by Agrocybe aegerita was evaluated through mushroom production, loss of organic matter (LOM), lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, lignocellulose degradation and mushroom nutrients content. Among the substrate combinations (SCs) tested, substrates composed of 10-20% SW, 70-80% wheat straw and 10% millet was found to produce the highest mushroom yield (770.5 and 642.9 g per 1.5 kg of substrate). LOM in all SCs tested varied between 8.8 and 48.2%. A. aegerita appears to degrade macromolecule components (0.6-21.8% lignin, 33.1-55.2% cellulose and 14-53.9% hemicellulose) during cultivation on the different SCs. Among the seven extracellular enzymes monitored, laccase, peroxidase and CMCase activities were higher before fruiting; while xylanase showed higher activities after fruiting. A source of carbohydrates (e.g., millet) in the substrate is needed in order to obtain yield and biological efficiency comparable to other commercially cultivated exotic mushrooms.

  16. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Vermue, E.; Buurman, P.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter samples. Litter of P. euramerica was clearly different from that of P. nigra and P. alba. The latter two had higher contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and cutin/cutan, while the former had higher c...

  17. Carbon dynamics in peatlands under changing hydrology. Effects of water level drawdown on litter quality, microbial enzyme activities and litter decomposition rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakova, P.

    2010-07-01

    Pristine peatlands are carbon (C) accumulating wetland ecosystems sustained by a high water level (WL) and consequent anoxia that slows down decomposition. Persistent WL drawdown as a response to climate and/or land-use change directly affects decomposition: increased oxygenation stimulates decomposition of the 'old C' (peat) sequestered under prior anoxic conditions. Responses of the 'new C' (plant litter) in terms of quality, production and decomposability, and the consequences for the whole C cycle of peatlands are not fully understood. WL drawdown induces changes in plant community resulting in shift in dominance from Sphagnum and graminoids to shrubs and trees. There is increasing evidence that the indirect effects of WL drawdown via the changes in plant communities will have more impact on the ecosystem C cycling than any direct effects. The aim of this study is to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of WL drawdown on the 'new C' by measuring the relative importance of (1) environmental parameters (WL depth, temperature, soil chemistry) and (2) plant community composition on litter production, microbial activity, litter decomposition rates and, consequently, on the C accumulation. This information is crucial for modelling C cycle under changing climate and/or land-use. The effects of WL drawdown were tested in a large-scale experiment with manipulated WL at two time scales and three nutrient regimes. Furthermore, the effect of climate on litter decomposability was tested along a north-south gradient. Additionally, a novel method for estimating litter chemical quality and decomposability was explored by combining Near infrared spectroscopy with multivariate modelling. WL drawdown had direct effects on litter quality, microbial community composition and activity and litter decomposition rates. However, the direct effects of WL drawdown were overruled by the indirect effects via changes in litter type composition and

  18. Thermochromatographic investigations of fission product transport and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growcock, F.B.; Aronson, S.; Friedlander, M.; Skalyo, J. Jr.; Hosseini, A.; Taylor, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    A thermochromatographic technique has been developed to investigate the chemical states of fission products from irradiated fuel as well as in fission product simulation studies. Some recent work on iodine transport and on release of fission products from irradiated fuel kernels will be discussed

  19. 40 CFR 158.310 - Product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PAI TGAI or PA 9, 21 830.7300 Density/relative density/bulk density R MP and TGAI EP and TGAI 9 830... an oxidizing or reducing agent. 14. Required when the product contains combustible liquids. 15. Required when the product is potentially explosive. 16. Required when the product is an emulsifiable liquid...

  20. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage production, tissue and soil nutrient concentration under three N based broiler litter regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is considered as most important forage legume grown in Kentucky. Alfalfa supports many livestock production systems including the beef, dairy, and horse industries in Kentucky. Being a legume, alfalfa typically meets its N requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation, but h...

  1. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermue, E.; Buurman, P.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter

  2. Fission product tellurium chemistry from fuel to containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed on the speciation of tellurium in-core and inside the primary heat transport system (PHTS) under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. Data from recent Knudsen-cell experiments on the volatilization of Cs 2 Te were incorporated into the calculation. These data were used to recalculate thermodynamic quantities for Cs 2 Te(g), including Δ f G o (298 K)= -118±9 kJ.mol -1 . The description of the condensed high-temperature cesium-tellurium phase was expanded to include Cs 2 Te 3 (c) in addition to Cs 2 Te(c). These modifications were incorporated into the database used in the equilibrium calculations; the net effect was to stabilize the condensed cesium-tellurium phase and reduce the vapour pressure of Cs 2 Te(g) between 1200 and 1600 K. The impact of tellurium speciation in containment, after release from the PHTS, is discussed along with the possible effect of tellurium on iodine chemistry. (author) 10 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs

  3. Fission product tellurium chemistry from fuel to containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-01

    Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed on the speciation of tellurium in-core and inside the primary heat transport system (PHTS) under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. Data from recent Knudsen-cell experiments on the volatilization of Cs{sub 2}Te were incorporated into the calculation. These data were used to recalculate thermodynamic quantities for Cs{sub 2}Te(g), including {Delta}{sub f}G{sup o}(298 K)= -118{+-}9 kJ.mol{sup -1}. The description of the condensed high-temperature cesium-tellurium phase was expanded to include Cs{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(c) in addition to Cs{sub 2}Te(c). These modifications were incorporated into the database used in the equilibrium calculations; the net effect was to stabilize the condensed cesium-tellurium phase and reduce the vapour pressure of Cs{sub 2}Te(g) between 1200 and 1600 K. The impact of tellurium speciation in containment, after release from the PHTS, is discussed along with the possible effect of tellurium on iodine chemistry. (author) 10 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  4. Chemistry of fission product iodine under nuclear reactor accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Bell, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The radioisotopes of iodine are generally acknowledged to be the species whose release into the biosphere as a result of a nuclear reactor accident is of the greatest concern. In the course of its release, the fission product is subjected to differing chemical environments; these can alter the physicochemical form of the fission product and thus modify the manner and extent to which release occurs. Both the chemical environments which are characteristic of reactor accidents and their effect in determining physical and chemical form of fission product iodine have been studied extensively, and are reviewed in this report. 76 refs

  5. Ecological restoration of litter in mined areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Nino Diniz, Najara; Schweizer, Daniella; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Casagrande, José Carlos; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The success of ecological restoration projects depends on going monitoring of key ecological variables to determine if a desired trajectory has been established and, in the case of mining sites, nutrient cycling recovery plays an utmost importance. This study aimed to quantify and compare the annual litter production in native forests, and in restoration sites established in bauxite mines. We collected samples in 6 native forest remnants and 6 year-old restoration sites every month for a period of one year, in the city of Poços de Caldas/MG, SE Brazil. 120 wire collectors were used (0,6x0,6) and suspended 30cm above the soil surface. The material was dried until constant weight, weighed and fractionated in leaves, branches and reproductive material. The average annual litter production was 2,6 Mg ha-1 in native forests and 2,1 in forest in restoration sites, differing statistically. Litter production was higher in the rainy season, especially in September. Among the litter components, the largest contributor to total production was the fraction leaves, with 55,4% of the total dry weight of material collected, followed by reproductive material which contributed 24,5% and branches, with 20%. We conclude that the young areas in restoration process already restored important part, but still below the production observed in native areas.

  6. Incorporation of Consumer Products in the Teaching of Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes eight experiments involving the use of common consumer products that could be incorporated into quantitative and instrumental analysis laboratories. Discusses these activities in terms of illustration of principles, awareness, and critical thinking. (CW)

  7. GREEN CHEMISTRY. Shape-selective zeolite catalysis for bioplastics production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusselier, Michiel; Van Wouwe, Pieter; Dewaele, Annelies; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2015-07-03

    Biodegradable and renewable polymers, such as polylactic acid, are benign alternatives for petrochemical-based plastics. Current production of polylactic acid via its key building block lactide, the cyclic dimer of lactic acid, is inefficient in terms of energy, time, and feedstock use. We present a direct zeolite-based catalytic process, which converts lactic acid into lactide. The shape-selective properties of zeolites are essential to attain record lactide yields, outperforming those of the current multistep process by avoiding both racemization and side-product formation. The highly productive process is strengthened by facile recovery and practical reactivation of the catalyst, which remains structurally fit during at least six consecutive reactions, and by the ease of solvent and side-product recycling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. The chemistry of fission products for accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    Current knowledge concerning the chemical state of the fission product elements during the development of accidents in water reactor systems is reviewed in this paper. The fission products elements which have been considered are Cs, I, Te, Sr and Ba but aspects of the behaviour of Mo, Ru and the lanthanides are also discussed. Some features of the reactions of the various species of these elements with other components of the reactor systems are described. The importance of having an adequate knowledge of thermodynamic data and phase equilibria of relatively simple systems in order to interpret experimental observations on complex multi-component systems is stressed

  9. Chemistry of nickel and copper production from sulphide ores | Love ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nickel is one of Zimbabwe's principle metallurgical exports. It is processed to a very high level of purity and hence has a high value. The economics of nickel production can be difficult, as the selling value of nickel varies tremendously with time, from a low of US$ 3 900 per ton in late 1998 to US$ 10 100 per ton in May 2000, ...

  10. Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Marcela L; Labuckas, Diana O; Lamarque, Alicia L; Maestri, Damián M

    2010-09-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Efficient process intensification of fine chemical production: a new classification tool for flow chemistry technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Graaff, M.P. de; Bassett, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals industry needs to innovate to beat international competition and resolve environmental issues. Process intensification by flow chemistry is the most promising route for this change, as it can reduce raw material and energy consumption, waste production, lead

  12. Properties of neutron-rich nuclei studied by fission product nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.; Henry, E.A.; Griffin, H.C.; Lien, O.G. III; Lane, S.M.; Stevenson, P.C.; Yaffe, R.P.; Skarnemark, G.

    1979-09-01

    A review is given of the properties of neutron-rich nuclei studied by fission product nuclear chemistry and includes the techniques used in elemental isolation and current research on the structure of nuclei near 132 Sn, particle emission, and coexisting structure in both neutron-poor and neutron-rich nuclei. 35 references

  13. Steel corrosion products solubility under conditions simulating various water chemistry parameters in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodov, A.A.; Kritskij, V.G.; Zarembo, V.I.; Puchkov, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    To simulate construction material corrosion product mass transfer model in power plant circuits calculation of iron oxide and hydroxide solubility, depending on water chemistry parameters: temperature, pH-value, content of dissolved in water hydrogen and oxygen, is carried out

  14. Case studies on sugar production from underutilized woody biomass using sulfite chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; M. Subhosh Chandra; Roland Gleisner; William Gilles; Johnway Gao; Gevan Marrs; Dwight Anderson; John Sessions

    2015-01-01

    We examined two case studies to demonstrate the advantages of sulfite chemistry for pretreating underutilized woody biomass to produce sugars through enzymatic saccharification. In the first case study, we evaluated knot rejects from a magnesium-basedsulfite mill for direct enzymatic sugar production.We found that the sulfite mill rejects are an excellent feedstock for...

  15. Long-term litter input manipulation effects on production and properties of dissolved organic matter in the forest floor of a Norway spruce stand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Kaiser, K.; Stepper, C.; van Loon, E.; Gerstberger, P.; Kalbitz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Environmental factors such as climate and atmospheric CO2 control inputs of plant-derived matter into soils, which then determines properties and decomposition of soil organic matter. We studied how dissolved organic matter (DOM) in forest floors responded to six years of litter

  16. Update on Production Chemistry of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Stuart; Kirby, Stefan; Allis, Rick; Moore, Joe; Fischer, Tobias

    2018-02-12

    Analyses of production fluids from the Roosevelt Hot Springs reservoir were acquired from well sampling campaigns in 2015 and 2016. The resulting data have been recalculated to reservoir conditions by correcting for effects of steam loss, and the values are compared to legacy data from earlier reports to quantify changes with time in response to fluid production. The reservoir composition is similar to that at the start of reservoir exploitation, having near neutral pH, total dissolved solids of 7000-10,000 mg/kg, and ionic ratios of Cl/HCO3 ~50-100, Cl/SO4 ~50-100, and Na/K ~4-5. Cation, gas and silica geothermometers indicate a range of equilibration temperatures between 240 and 300 °C, but quartz-silica values are most closely consistent with measured reservoir temperatures and well enthalpies. The largest change in fluid composition is observed in well 54-3. The fluid has evolved from being fed by a single phase liquid to a twophase mixture of steam and liquid due to pressure draw down. The fluid also shows a 25% increase in reservoir chloride and a ~20° C decrement of cooling related to mixing with injected brine. The other production wells also show increase in chloride and decrease in temperature, but these changes diminish in magnitude with distance from injection well 14-2. Stable isotope compositions indicate that the reservoir water is largely meteoric in origin, having been modified by hydrothermal waterrock interaction. The water has also become progressively enriched in isotopic values in response to steam loss and mixing of injectate. N2-Ar-He and helium isotope ratios indicate a deep magmatic source region that probably supplies the heat for the hydrothermal system, consistent with recent Quaternary volcanism in the Mineral Mountains.

  17. Influence of radiolytic products on the chemistry of uranium VI in brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchini, J-F.; Reed, D.T.; Borkowski, M.; Rafalski, A.; Conca, J.

    2004-01-01

    In the near field of a salt repository of nuclear waste, ionizing radiations can strongly affect the chemistry of concentrated saline solutions. Radiolysis can locally modify the redox conditions, speciation, solubility and mobility of the actinide compounds. In the case of uranium VI, radiolytic products can not only reduce U(VI), but also react with uranium species. The net effect on the speciation of uranyl depends on the relative kinetics of the reactions and the buildup of molecular products in brine solutions. The most important molecular products in brines are expected to be hypochlorite ion, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Although U(VI) is expected not to be significantly affected by radiolysis, the combined effects of the major molecular radiolytic products on the chemistry of U(VI) in brines have not been experimentally established previously. (authors)

  18. The Effect of the Litter Materials on Broiler Chickens Welfare and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Gençoğlan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review the quality and types of the litter material and its effect on the welfare and performance of the broiler chickens. Since the most suitable broiler rearing system is on the littered floor, the litter material is of great importance. Demand for litter material is also increasing, depending on the development in broiler production. Straws, wood shavings, and sawdust are widely used as litters material. Beside these, materials such as wheat, barley, rye, oats, sunflower, rice, hazelnut, maize, soya, peanut, cotton and sugarcane are used purely or mixed as a litters material. The quality of the litter is determined with the litter moisture, pH, ammonium nitrate content, caking level and water holding capacity. The ideal litter material should have a moisture content of 20-25%, a pH of 8-10, and ammonia content should not exceed 25 ppm. The thickness of the litter changes between 2 and 10 cm according to the type of the litter, and size of it should not exceed 0.6 cm. Increase in the litter moisture increases pH, NH3 concentration and caking. The type of litter material effects on the performance, welfare, health, behavior and product quality of broiler chickens. In addition, there are negative effects of litter materials on carcass defects, foot-leg problems, breast blisters or bruises, decrease in living power, and increase of microorganism development due to litter moisture, increase of gas and dust formation in poultry. These adverse effects cause large economic losses in intensive enterprises. For this reason, the quality and type of litter material is very important in broiler rearing.

  19. Bridging the gap: basic metabolomics methods for natural product chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Oliver A H; Hügel, Helmut M

    2013-01-01

    Natural products and their derivatives often have potent physiological activities and therefore play important roles as both frontline treatments for many diseases and as the inspiration for chemically synthesized therapeutics. However, the detection and synthesis of new therapeutic compounds derived from, or inspired by natural compounds has declined in recent years due to the increased difficulty of identifying and isolating novel active compounds. A new strategy is therefore necessary to jumpstart this field of research. Metabolomics, including both targeted and global metabolite profiling strategies, has the potential to be instrumental in this effort since it allows a systematic study of complex mixtures (such as plant extracts) without the need for prior isolation of active ingredients (or mixtures thereof). Here we describe the basic steps for conducting metabolomics experiments and analyzing the results using some of the more commonly used analytical and statistical methodologies.

  20. Fission product release as a function of chemistry and fuel morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; Osetek, D.J.; Petti, D.A.; Hagrman, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the consequences of severe reactor accidents requires knowledge of the location and chemical form of fission products throughout the accident sequence. Two factors that strongly influence the location and chemical form of fission products are the chemistry within the core and the morphology of the fuel or fuel-bearing debris. This paper reviews the current understanding of the these factors garnered from integral and separate effect experiments and the TMI-2 accident, and provides perspective on the significance of contributing phenomena for the analysis of severe accidents, particularly during the in-vessel phase. Information has been obtained recently on phenomena affecting the release of fission products from fuel and the reactor vessel during the in-vessel melt progression phase of a severe accident. The influence of a number of these phenomena will be reviewed, including fuel chemistry, H 2 /H 2 O ratio, fuel liquefaction, molten pools, and debris beds. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Potential for post-closure radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: aboveground biomass, litter production rates, and the distribution of root mass with depth at material disposal area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Sean B.; Christensen, Candace; Jennings, Terry L.; Jaros, Christopher L.; Wykoff, David S.; Crowell, Kelly J.; Shuman, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) is disposed of at LANL's Technical Area (T A) 54, Material Disposal Area (MDA) G. The ability of MDA G to safely contain radioactive waste during current and post-closure operations is evaluated as part of the facility's ongoing performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA). Due to the potential for uptake and incorporation of radio nuclides into aboveground plant material, the PA and CA project that plant roots penetrating into buried waste may lead to releases of radionuclides into the accessible environment. The potential amount ofcontamination deposited on the ground surface due to plant intrusion into buried waste is a function of the quantity of litter generated by plants, as well as radionuclide concentrations within the litter. Radionuclide concentrations in plant litter is dependent on the distribution of root mass with depth and the efficiency with which radionuclides are extracted from contaminated soils by the plant's roots. In order to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G, surveys are being conducted to assess aboveground biomass, plant litter production rates, and root mass with depth for the four prominent vegetation types (grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees). The collection of aboveground biomass for grasses and forbs began in 2007. Additional sampling was conducted in October 2008 to measure root mass with depth and to collect additional aboveground biomass data for the types of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees that may become established at MDA G after the facility undergoes final closure, Biomass data will be used to estimate the future potential mass of contaminated plant litter fall, which could act as a latent conduit for radionuclide transport from the closed disposal area. Data collected are expected to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G and ultimately aid in the assessment and subsequent

  2. Does moder development along a pure beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) chronosequence result from changes in litter production or in decomposition rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Trap , Jean; Bureau , Fabrice; Brêthes , Alain; Jabiol , Bernard; Ponge , Jean-François; Chauvat , Matthieu; Decaëns , Thibaud; Aubert , Michaël

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The development of temperate deciduous and conifers forests stands usually results in accumulation of forest floor organic matter and a shift from mull to moder humus forms. It has been suggested that an increase in nutrient uptake by trees during their rapid growth phase leads to topsoil acidification, decrease in earthworm density and thereby a decrease in litter turnover. The focus of this paper was to examine if the mull-moder shift with forest ageing results from ...

  3. Poultry litter power station in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Poultry litter has presented a waste disposal problem to the poultry industry in many parts of the United Kingdom. The plant at Eye is a small to medium scale power station, fired using poultry litter. The 12.7 MW of electricity generated is supplied, through the local utility, to the National Grid. The spent litter that constitutes the fuel is made up of excrement and animal bedding (usually 90% excrement and 10% straw or wood shavings). It comes from large climate-controlled buildings (broiler houses) where birds, reared for meat production, are allowed to roam freely. (UK)

  4. Effect of different types of litter material for rearing broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, B K; Sundaram, R N

    2000-07-01

    1. Coir dust was evaluated as broiler litter in comparison with sawdust and rice husk using 135 commercial broilers. Forty-five broiler chicks were reared to 42 d on a 50 mm layer of each of these litters. 2. Birds reared on coir dust showed no difference in food consumption, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency production number and survivability in comparison to those reared on saw dust and rice husk. 3. It was concluded that coir dust is suitable as broiler litter when cheaply available.

  5. Ambient temperature affects postnatal litter size reduction in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrnberger, Sarah A; Monclús, Raquel; Rödel, Heiko G; Valencak, Teresa G

    2016-01-01

    To better understand how different ambient temperatures during lactation affect survival of young, we studied patterns of losses of pups in golden hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus ) at different ambient temperatures in the laboratory, mimicking temperature conditions in natural habitats. Golden hamsters produce large litters of more than 10 young but are also known to wean fewer pups at the end of lactation than they give birth to. We wanted to know whether temperature affects litter size reductions and whether the underlying causes of pup loss were related to maternal food (gross energy) intake and reproductive performance, such as litter growth. For that, we exposed lactating females to three different ambient temperatures and investigated associations with losses of offspring between birth and weaning. Overall, around one third of pups per litter disappeared, obviously consumed by the mother. Such litter size reductions were greatest at 30 °C, in particular during the intermediate postnatal period around peak lactation. Furthermore, litter size reductions were generally higher in larger litters. Maternal gross energy intake was highest at 5 °C suggesting that mothers were not limited by milk production and might have been able to raise a higher number of pups until weaning. This was further supported by the fact that the daily increases in litter mass as well as in the individual pup body masses, a proxy of mother's lactational performance, were lower at higher ambient temperatures. We suggest that ambient temperatures around the thermoneutral zone and beyond are preventing golden hamster females from producing milk at sufficient rates. Around two thirds of the pups per litter disappeared at high temperature conditions, and their early growth rates were significantly lower than at lower ambient temperatures. It is possible that these losses are due to an intrinsic physiological limitation (imposed by heat dissipation) compromising maternal energy intake and

  6. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....

  7. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2015-02-01

    characterizes the uniqueness of moss litter types, their horizons and fermentation layers. These results confirm the feasibility of using morphogenetic structure of litter for the purposes of classification, reflecting the rate of substances turnover, parcel structure and production potential of forest peat soils. The obtained materials are important for the prediction of the transformation of Kuznetsk Alatau forest wetland depressions in connection with global and local climate fluctuations.

  8. Species-specific effects of live roots and shoot litter on soil decomposer abundances do not forecast plant litter-nitrogen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saj, Stéphane; Mikola, Juha; Ekelund, Flemming

    2009-08-01

    Plant species produce litter of varying quality and differ in the quality and quantity of compounds they release from live roots, which both can induce different decomposer growth in the soil. To test whether differences in decomposer growth can forecast the amount of N species acquire from plant litter, as suggested by theory, we grew individuals of three grassland plants-Holcus lanatus, Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus-in soils into which (15)N-labelled litter of either Holcus, Plantago or Lotus was added. We measured the effects of live roots and litter of each species on soil microbes and their protozoan and nematode feeders, and to link decomposer growth and plant nutrient uptake, we measured the amount of N taken up by plants from the added litter. We hypothesised that those species that induce the highest growth of microbes, and especially that of microbial feeders, will also take up the highest amount of N from the litter. We found, however, that although numbers of bacterial-feeding Protozoa and nematodes were on average lower after addition of Holcus than Plantago or Lotus litter, N uptake was higher from Holcus litter. Further, although the effects on Protozoa and bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes did not differ between the live plants, litter-N uptake differed, with Holcus being the most efficient compared to Plantago and Lotus. Hence, although microbes and their feeders unquestionably control N mineralization in the soil, and their growth differs among plant species, these differences cannot predict differences in litter-N uptake among plant species. A likely reason is that for nutrient uptake, other species-specific plant traits, such as litter chemistry, root proliferation ability and competitiveness for soil N, override in significance the species-specific ability of plants to induce decomposer growth.

  9. The importance of biotic factors in predicting global change effects on decomposition of temperate forest leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouifed, Soraya; Handa, I Tanya; David, Jean-François; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO(2) and temperature are predicted to alter litter decomposition via changes in litter chemistry and environmental conditions. The extent to which these predictions are influenced by biotic factors such as litter species composition or decomposer activity, and in particular how these different factors interact, is not well understood. In a 5-week laboratory experiment we compared the decomposition of leaf litter from four temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Carpinus betulus and Tilia platyphyllos) in response to four interacting factors: elevated CO(2)-induced changes in litter quality, a 3 degrees C warmer environment during decomposition, changes in litter species composition, and presence/absence of a litter-feeding millipede (Glomeris marginata). Elevated CO(2) and temperature had much weaker effects on decomposition than litter species composition and the presence of Glomeris. Mass loss of elevated CO(2)-grown leaf litter was reduced in Fagus and increased in Fagus/Tilia mixtures, but was not affected in any other leaf litter treatment. Warming increased litter mass loss in Carpinus and Tilia, but not in the other two litter species and in none of the mixtures. The CO(2)- and temperature-related differences in decomposition disappeared completely when Glomeris was present. Overall, fauna activity stimulated litter mass loss, but to different degrees depending on litter species composition, with a particularly strong effect on Fagus/Tilia mixtures (+58%). Higher fauna-driven mass loss was not followed by higher C mineralization over the relatively short experimental period. Apart from a strong interaction between litter species composition and fauna, the tested factors had little or no interactive effects on decomposition. We conclude that if global change were to result in substantial shifts in plant community composition and macrofauna abundance in forest ecosystems, these interacting biotic factors could have

  10. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Byrd, J Allen; Esquivel, Jesus F; Beier, Ross C; Yeater, Kathleen

    2016-05-15

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of animals are housed, risks accumulating nutrients and pollutants. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of pollutants within poultry litter and the underlying soil within a production facility; and to explore the impact of spent litter deposition into the environment. The study follows a production facility for the first 2.5 years of production. It monitors the effects of successive flocks and management practices on 15 physiochemical parameters: Ca, Cu, electrical conductivity, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, moisture, Na, NO3(-)/N, organic matter, P, pH, S, and Zn. Litter samples were collected in-house, after clean-outs and during stockpiling. The soil before house placement, after the clean-outs and following litter stockpiling was monitored. Management practices markedly altered the physiochemical profiles of the litter in-house. A canonical discriminant analysis was used to describe the relationship between the parameters and sampling times. The litter profiles grouped into five clusters corresponding to time and management practices. The soil in-house exhibited mean increases in all physiochemical parameters (2-297 fold) except Fe, Mg, %M, and pH. The spent litter was followed after deposition onto a field for use as fertilizer. After 20 weeks, the soil beneath the litter exhibited increases in EC, Cu, K, Na, NO3(-)/N, %OM, P, S and Zn; while %M decreased. Understanding the impacts of industrialized poultry farms on the environment is vital as the cumulative ecological impact of this land usage could be substantial if not properly managed to reduce the risk of potential pollutant infiltration into the environment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of 15N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huysen, Tiff L.; Harmon, Mark E.; Perakis, Steven S.; Chen, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using 15N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7–20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  12. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of (15)N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huysen, Tiff L; Harmon, Mark E; Perakis, Steven S; Chen, Hua

    2013-12-01

    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using (15)N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7-20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  13. Changes in water chemistry and primary productivity of a reactor cooling reservoir (Par Pond)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    Water chemistry and primary productivity of a reactor cooling reservoir have been studied for 8 years. Initially the primary productivity increased sixfold, and the dissolved solids doubled. The dissolved-solids increase appears to have been caused by additions of makeup water from the Savannah River and by evaporative concentration during the cooling process. As the dissolved-solids concentrations and the conductivity of makeup water leveled off, the primary productivity stabilized. Major cation and anion concentrations generally followed total dissolved solids through the increase and plateau; however, silica concentrations declined steadily during the initial period of increased plankton productivity. Standing crops of net seston and centrifuge seston did not increase during this initial period. The collective data show the effects of thermal input to a cooling reservoir, illustrate the need for limnological studies before reactor siting, and suggest the possibility of using makeup-water additions to power reactor cooling basins as a reservoir management tool

  14. Solvent-resistant nanofiltration for product purification and catalyst recovery in click chemistry reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Odena, Angels; Vandezande, Pieter; Fournier, David; Van Camp, Wim; Du Prez, Filip E; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2010-01-18

    The quickly developing field of "click" chemistry would undoubtedly benefit from the availability of an easy and efficient technology for product purification to reduce the potential health risks associated with the presence of copper in the final product. Therefore, solvent-resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membranes have been developed to selectively separate "clicked" polymers from the copper catalyst and solvent. By using these solvent-stable cross-linked polyimide membranes in diafiltration, up to 98 % of the initially present copper could be removed through the membrane together with the DMF solvent, the polymer product being almost completely retained. This paper also presents the first SRNF application in which the catalyst permeates through the membrane and the reaction product is retained.

  15. Green Chemistry Technology and Product Development. Final Report for Intermediary Biochemicals, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeikus, J. Gregory [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics

    2010-08-28

    The DOE funds in this award were applied to developing systems to cost effectively produce intermediate (1 dollar$-$1,000 dollars per kg) and fine ($1,000 per kg) chemicals from renewable feedstocks using environmentally responsible processes via collaboration with academic research laboratories to provide targeted technology and early product development. Specifically, development of a thermostable alkaline phosphatase overexpression system to provide supplies and reagents for improved biological test kits, creation of a microbial strain for the efficient production of aspartate from glucose (replacing oil-derived fumarate in aspartate production), and early development research for an electrochemical bioreactor for the conversion of glucose to mannitol were targeted by this research. Also, establishing this positive academic/industrial collaboration with Michigan State University Laboratories and fostering greater inter-laboratory collaboration would also support the strategy of efficiently transitioning academic green chemistry research into the commercial sector and open an avenue to low cost early product development coupled with scientific training.

  16. Fission product chemistry in severe nuclear reactor accidents, specialists' meeting at JRC-Ispra, 15-17 January 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    A specialists' meeting was held at JRC-Ispra from 15 to 17 January 1990 to review the current understanding of fission-product chemistry during severe accidents in light water reactors. Discussions focussed on the important chemical phenomena that could occur across the wide range of conditions of a damaged nuclear plant. Recommendations for future chemistry work were made covering the following areas: (a) fuel degradation and fission-product release, (b) transport and attenuation processes in the reactor coolant system, (c) containment chemistry (iodine behaviour and core-concrete interactions). (author)

  17. Amending triple superphosphate with chicken litter biochar improves phosphorus availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Asap

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of H2PO42- and HPO4- with Al and Fe in acid soils to form a precipitate reduces P availability. Chicken litter biochar has been used to improve soil P availability for maize production but with limited information on optimum rates of biochar and Triple Superphosphate (TSP to increase P availability. This study determined the optimum amount of chicken litter biochar and TSP that could increase P availability. Different rates of chicken litter biochar and TSP were evaluated in an incubation study for 30, 60, and 90 days. Selected soil chemical properties before and after incubation were determined using standard procedures. Soil pH, total P, available P, and water soluble P increased in treatments with 75% and 50% biochar. Total acidity, exchangeable Al3+, and Fe2+ were significantly reduced by the chicken litter biochar. The chicken litter biochar also increased soil CEC and exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg and Na. The use of 75% and 50% of 5 t ha-1 biochar with 25% TSP of the existing recommendation can be used to increase P availability whilst minimizing soil Al and Fe content. This rates can be used to optimize chicken litter biochar and TSP use in acid soils for crop production especially maize and short term vegetables.

  18. The Influence of Phosphor and Binder Chemistry on the Aging Characteristics of Remote Phosphor Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Yaga, Robert; Lamvik, Michael; Mills, Karmann; Fletcher, B.

    2017-06-30

    The influence of phosphor and binder layer chemistries on the lumen maintenance and color stability of remote phosphor disks were examined using wet high-temperature operational lifetime testing (WHTOL). As part of the experimental matrix, two different correlated color temperature (CCT) values, 2700 K and 5000 K, were studied and each had a different binder chemistry. The 2700 K samples used a urethane binder whereas the 5000 K samples used an acrylate binder. Experimental conditions were chosen to enable study of the binder and phosphor chemistries and to minimize photo-oxidation of the polycarbonate substrate. Under the more severe WHTOL conditions of 85°C and 85% relative humidity (RH), absorption in the binder layer significantly reduced luminous flux and produced a blue color shift. The milder WHTOL conditions of 75°C and 75% RH, resulted in chemical changes in the binder layer that may alter its index of refraction. As a result, lumen maintenance remained high, but a slight yellow shift was found. The aging of remote phosphor products provides insights into the impact of materials on the performance of phosphors in an LED lighting system.

  19. Analysis Science Process Skills Content in Chemistry Textbooks Grade XI at Solubility and Solubility Product Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Antrakusuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the analysis of science process skills in textbooks of chemistry grade XI in SMA N 1 Teras, Boyolali. This research used the descriptive method. The instruments were developed based on 10 indicators of science process skills (observing, classifying, finding a conclusion, predicting, raising the question, hypothesizing, planning an experiment, manipulating materials, and equipment, Applying, and communicating. We analyzed 3 different chemistry textbooks that often used by teachers in teaching. The material analyzed in the book was solubility and solubility product concept in terms of concept explanation and student activity. The results of this research showed different science process skill criteria in 3 different chemistry textbooks. Book A appeared 50% of all aspects of science process skills, in Book B appeared 80% of all aspects of science process skills, and in Book C there was 40% of all aspects of the science process skills. The most common indicator in all books was observing (33.3%, followed by prediction (19.05%, classifying (11.90%, Applying (11.90% , planning experiments (9.52%, manipulating materials and equipment (7.14%, finding conclusion (4.76%, communicating (2.38%. Asking the question and hypothesizing did not appear in textbooks.

  20. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  1. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  2. Litter drives ecosystem and plant community changes in cattail invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Emily C; Goldberg, Deborah E

    2009-03-01

    Invaded systems are commonly associated with a change in ecosystem processes and a decline in native species diversity; however, many different causal pathways linking invasion, ecosystem change, and native species decline could produce this pattern. The initial driver of environmental change may be anthropogenic, or it may be the invader itself; and the mechanism behind native species decline may be the human-induced environmental change, competition from the invader, or invader-induced environmental change (non-trophic effects). We examined applicability of each of these alternate pathways in Great Lakes coastal marshes invaded by hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). In a survey including transects in three marshes, we found that T. x glauca was associated with locally high soil nutrients, low light, and large amounts of litter, and that native diversity was highest in areas of shallow litter depth. We tested whether live T. x glauca plants or their litter induced changes in the environment and in diversity with a live plant and litter transplant experiment. After one year, Typha litter increased soil NH4+ and N mineralization twofold, lowered light levels, and decreased the abundance and diversity of native plants, while live Typha plants had no effect on the environment or on native plants. This suggests that T. x glauca, through its litter production, can cause the changes in ecosystem processes that we commonly attribute to anthropogenic nutrient loading and that T. x glauca does not displace native species through competition for resources, but rather affects them non-trophically through its litter. Moreover, because T. x glauca plants were taller when grown with their own litter, we suggest that this invader may produce positive feedbacks and change the environment in ways that benefit itself and may promote its own invasion.

  3. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  4. Fission product chemistry and aerosol behaviour in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.

    1985-09-01

    Three key accident sequences are considered covering a representative range of different environments of pressure, flow, temperature history and degree of zircaloy oxidation, and their principle thermal hydraulic and physical characteristics affecting chemistry behaviour are identified. Inventories, chemical forms and timing of fission product release are summarized together with the major sources of structural materials and their release characteristics. Chemistry of each main fission product species is reviewed from available experimental and/or theoretical data. Studies modelling primary circuit fission product behaviour are reviewed. Requirements for further study are assessed. (UK)

  5. Litter Decomposition Rate of Karst Ecosystem at Gunung Cibodas, Ciampea Bogor Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethyo Vieni Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to know the productivity of litter and litter decomposition rate in karst ecosystem. This study was conducted on three altitude of 200 meter above sea level (masl, 250 masl and 300 masl in karst ecosystem at Gunung Cibodas, Ciampea, Bogor. Litter productivity measurement performed using litter-trap method and litter-bag method was used to know the rate of decomposition. Litter productivity measurement results showed that the highest total of litter productivity measurement results was on altitude of 200 masl (90.452 tons/ha/year and the lowest was on altitude of 300 masl (25.440 tons/ha/year. The litter productivity of leaves (81.425 ton/ha/year showed the highest result than twigs (16.839 ton/ha/year, as well as flowers and fruits (27.839 ton/ha/year. The rate of decomposition was influenced by rainfall. The decomposition rate and the decrease of litter dry weight on altitude of 250 masl was faster than on the altitude of 200 masl and 300 masl. The dry weight was positively correlated to the rate of decomposition. The lower of dry weight would affect the rate of decomposition become slower. The average of litter C/N ratio were ranged from 28.024%--28.716% and categorized as moderate (>25. The finding indicate that the rate of decomposition in karst ecosystem at Gunung Cibodas was slow and based on C/N ratio of litter showed the mineralization process was also slow.

  6. Stoichiometric controls of nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in decomposing beech leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Wanek, Wolfgang; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Leitner, Sonja; Hofhansl, Florian; Blöchl, Andreas; Hämmerle, Ieda; Frank, Alexander H; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Keiblinger, Katharina M; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Resource stoichiometry (C:N:P) is an important determinant of litter decomposition. However, the effect of elemental stoichiometry on the gross rates of microbial N and P cycling processes during litter decomposition is unknown. In a mesocosm experiment, beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) litter with natural differences in elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P) was incubated under constant environmental conditions. After three and six months, we measured various aspects of nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. We found that gross protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification), and nitrification rates were negatively related to litter C:N. Rates of P mineralization were negatively correlated with litter C:P. The negative correlations with litter C:N were stronger for inorganic N cycling processes than for gross protein depolymerization, indicating that the effect of resource stoichiometry on intracellular processes was stronger than on processes catalyzed by extracellular enzymes. Consistent with this, extracellular protein depolymerization was mainly limited by substrate availability and less so by the amount of protease. Strong positive correlations between the interconnected N and P pools and the respective production and consumption processes pointed to feed-forward control of microbial litter N and P cycling. A negative relationship between litter C:N and phosphatase activity (and between litter C:P and protease activity) demonstrated that microbes tended to allocate carbon and nutrients in ample supply into the production of extracellular enzymes to mine for the nutrient that is more limiting. Overall, the study demonstrated a strong effect of litter stoichiometry (C:N:P) on gross processes of microbial N and P cycling in decomposing litter; mineralization of N and P were tightly coupled to assist in maintaining cellular homeostasis of litter microbial communities.

  7. Results and progress of fundamental research on fission product chemistry. Progress report in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka, Masahiko; Miwa, Shuhei; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Di Lemma, Fidelma Giulia; Suzuki, Chikashi; Miyahara, Naoya; Kobata, Masaaki; Okane, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Eriko

    2016-12-01

    A fundamental research program on fission product (FP) chemistry has been conducted since 2012 in order to establish a FP chemistry database in LWR under severe accidents and to improve FP chemical models based on the database. Research outputs are reflected as fundamental knowledge to both the R and D of decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) and enhancement of LWR safety. Four research items have thus been established considering the specific issues of 1F and the priority in the source term research area, as follows: effects of boron (B) release kinetics and thermal-hydraulic conditions on FP behavior, cesium (Cs) chemisorption and reactions with structural materials, enlargement of a thermodynamic and thermophysical properties database for FP compounds and development of experimental and analytical techniques for the reproduction of FP behavior and for direct measurement methods of chemical form of FP compounds. In this report, the research results and progress for the year 2015 are described. The main accomplishment was the installation of a reproductive test facility for FP release and transport behavior. Moreover, basic knowledge about the Cs chemisorption behavior was also obtained. In addition to the four research items, a further research item is being considered for deeper interpretation of FP behavior by the analysis of samples outside of the 1F units. (author)

  8. Marine natural product peptides with therapeutic potential: Chemistry, biosynthesis, and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogineni, Vedanjali; Hamann, Mark T

    2018-01-01

    The oceans are a uniquely rich source of bioactive metabolites, of which sponges have been shown to be among the most prolific producers of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites with valuable therapeutic potential. Much attention has been focused on marine bioactive peptides due to their novel chemistry and diverse biological properties. As summarized in this review, marine peptides are known to exhibit various biological activities such as antiviral, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, anti-coagulant, anti-hypertensive, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, antiobesity, and calcium-binding activities. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of peptides isolated from sponges, bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, ascidians, and other marine sources. The role of marine invertebrate microbiomes in natural products biosynthesis is discussed in this review along with the biosynthesis of modified peptides from different marine sources. The status of peptides in various phases of clinical trials is presented, as well as the development of modified peptides including optimization of PK and bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chasing molecules: poisonous products, human health, and the promise of green chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grossman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In Chasing Molecules, investigative journalist Elizabeth Grossman opens the door on a new world of chemistry-green chemistry - and the scientists who are unearthing the field's potential to transform...

  10. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  11. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS

  12. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  13. A simple approach to recycle broiler litter as animal feed | Makinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broiler litter (BL) is a major waste from poultry production that constitutes serious disposal and environmental pollution problems globally despite its potential as animal feed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure for converting broiler litter into animal feed using wheat offal (WO) and cattle ...

  14. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori D. Bothwell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical montane wet forests where the warming trend may be amplified compared to tropical wet forests at lower elevations. We quantified leaf litter decomposition rates along a highly constrained 5.2 °C mean annual temperature (MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. Dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil moisture, and disturbance history are all nearly constant across this gradient, allowing us to isolate the effect of rising MAT on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release. Leaf litter decomposition rates were a positive linear function of MAT, causing the residence time of leaf litter on the forest floor to decline by ∼31 days for each 1 °C increase in MAT. Our estimate of the Q10 temperature coefficient for leaf litter decomposition was 2.17, within the commonly reported range for heterotrophic organic matter decomposition (1.5–2.5 across a broad range of ecosystems. The percentage of leaf litter nitrogen (N remaining after six months declined linearly with increasing MAT from ∼88% of initial N at the coolest site to ∼74% at the warmest site. The lack of net N immobilization during all three litter collection periods at all MAT plots indicates that N was not limiting to leaf litter decomposition, regardless of temperature. These results suggest that leaf litter decay in tropical montane wet forests may be more sensitive to rising MAT than in tropical lowland wet forests, and that increased rates of N release from decomposing litter could delay or prevent progressive N limitation to net primary productivity with climate warming.

  15. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676

  16. Nutrient dynamics and tree growth of silvopastoral systems: impact of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, Michael A; Gaston, Lewis A; Clason, Terry R; Farrish, Kenneth W; Oswald, Brian P; Evans, Hayden A

    2008-01-01

    Fertilizing pastures with poultry litter has led to an increased incidence of nutrient-saturated soils, particularly on highly fertilized, well drained soils. Applying litter to silvopastures, in which loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) production are integrated, may be an ecologically desirable alternative for upland soils of the southeastern USA. Integrating subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) into silvopastures may enhance nutrient retention potential. This study evaluated soil nutrient dynamics, loblolly pine nutrient composition, and loblolly pine growth of an annually fertilized silvopasture on a well drained soil in response to fertilizer type, litter application rate, and subterranean clover. Three fertilizer treatments were applied annually for 4 yr: (i) 5 Mg litter ha(-1) (5LIT), (ii) 10 Mg litter ha(-1) (10LIT), and (iii) an inorganic N, P, K pasture blend (INO). Litter stimulated loblolly pine growth, and neither litter treatment produced soil test P concentrations above runoff potential threshold ranges. However, both litter treatments led to accumulation of several nutrients (notably P) in upper soil horizons relative to INO and unfertilized control treatments. The 10LIT treatment may have increased N and P leaching potential. Subterranean clover kept more P sequestered in the upper soil horizon and conferred some growth benefits to loblolly pine. Thus, although these silvopasture systems had a relatively high capacity for nutrient use and retention at this site, litter should be applied less frequently than in this study to reduce environmental risks.

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the HIRA Gene Affect Litter Size in Small Tail Han Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of appropriate levels of fecundity is critical for efficient sheep production. Opportunities to increase sheep litter size include identifying single gene mutations with major effects on ovulation rate and litter size. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS data of 89 Chinese domestic sheep from nine different geographical locations and ten Australian sheep were analyzed to detect new polymorphisms affecting litter size. Comparative genomic analysis of sheep with contrasting litter size detected a novel set of candidate genes. Two SNPs, g.71874104G>A and g.71833755T>C, were genotyped in 760 Small Tail Han sheep and analyzed for association with litter size. The two SNPs were significantly associated with litter size, being in strong linkage disequilibrium in the region 71.80–71.87 Mb. This haplotype block contains one gene that may affect litter size, Histone Cell Cycle Regulator (HIRA. HIRA mRNA levels in sheep with different lambing ability were significantly higher in ovaries of Small Tail Han sheep (high fecundity than in Sunite sheep (low fecundity. Moreover, the expression levels of HIRA in eight tissues of uniparous Small Tail Han sheep were significantly higher than in multiparous Small Tail Han sheep (p < 0.05. HIRA SNPs significantly affect litter size in sheep and are useful as genetic markers for litter size.

  18. Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

    2012-11-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted.

  19. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents and rate of litter decomposition were investigated in Leucaena leucocephala plantation in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Litter bag technique was used to study the pattern and rate of litter decomposition and nutrient release of Leucaena leucocephala. Fifty grams of oven-dried ...

  20. Quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guannan; Guo, Mingxin

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a source material for generating activated carbon is a value-added and environmentally beneficial approach to recycling organic waste. In this study, the overall quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon was systematically evaluated based on its various physical and chemical properties. Granular activated carbon generated from pelletized poultry litter following a typical steam-activation procedure possessed numerous micropores in the matrix. The product exhibited a mean particle diameter of 2.59 mm, an apparent density of 0.45 g cm(-3), a ball-pan hardness of 91.0, an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1), and a BET surface area of 403 m(2) g(-1). It contained high ash, nitrogen, phosphorus contents and the trace elements Cu, Zn, and As. Most of the nutrients and toxic elements were solidified and solution-unextractable. In general, poultry litter-based activated carbon demonstrated overall quality comparable to that of low-grade commercial activated carbon derived from coconut shell and bituminous coal. It is promising to use poultry litter as a feedstock to manufacture activated carbon for wastewater treatment.

  1. Role of arthropod communities in bioenergy crop litter decomposition†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Miresmailli, Saber; Nabity, Paul; Lawrance, Allen; Yanahan, Alan; Mitchell, Corey A; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; David, Mark B; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-10-01

    The extensive land use conversion expected to occur to meet demands for bioenergy feedstock production will likely have widespread impacts on agroecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Although arthropod detritivores are known to contribute to litter decomposition and thus energy flow and nutrient cycling in many plant communities, their importance in bioenergy feedstock communities has not yet been assessed. We undertook an experimental study quantifying rates of litter mass loss and nutrient cycling in the presence and absence of these organisms in three bioenergy feedstock crops-miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and a planted prairie community. Overall arthropod abundance and litter decomposition rates were similar in all three communities. Despite effective reduction of arthropods in experimental plots via insecticide application, litter decomposition rates, inorganic nitrogen leaching, and carbon-nitrogen ratios did not differ significantly between control (with arthropods) and treatment (without arthropods) plots in any of the three community types. Our findings suggest that changes in arthropod faunal composition associated with widespread adoption of bioenergy feedstock crops may not be associated with profoundly altered arthropod-mediated litter decomposition and nutrient release. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Lost fishing gear and litter at Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rui P.; Raposo, Isabel P.; Sobral, Paula; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Cunha, Marina R.

    2015-06-01

    Studies concerning marine litter have received great attention over the last several years by the scientific community mainly due to their ecological and economic impacts in marine ecosystems, from coastal waters to the deep ocean seafloor. The distribution, type and abundance of marine litter in Ormonde and Gettysburg, the two seamounts of Gorringe Bank, were analyzed from photo and video imagery obtained during ROV-based surveys carried out at 60-3015 m depths during the E/V Nautilus cruise NA017. Located approximately 125 nm southwest of Portugal, Gorringe Bank lays at the crossroad between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and is therefore characterized by an intense maritime traffic and fishing activities. The high frequency of lost or discarded fishing gear, such as cables, longlines and nets, observed on Gorringe Bank suggests an origin mostly from fishing activities, with a clear turnover in the type of litter (mostly metal, glass and to a much lesser extent, plastic) with increasing depth. Litter was more abundant at the summit of Gorringe Bank (ca. 4 items·km- 1), decreasing to less than 1 item·km- 1 at the flanks and to ca. 2 items·km- 1 at greater depths. Nevertheless, litter abundance appeared to be lower than in continental margin areas. The results presented herein are a contribution to support further actions for the conservation of vulnerable habitats on Gorringe Bank so that they can continue contributing to fishery productivity in the surrounding region.

  3. Trends in Ph.D. Productivity and Diversity in Top-50 U.S. Chemistry Departments: An Institutional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Sandra L.; Weston, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The education of doctoral chemists contributes to the chemical research enterprise and thus to innovation as an engine of the economy. This quantitative analysis describes trends in the production and diversity of chemistry Ph.D. degrees in the top-50 U.S. Ph.D.-granting departments in the past two decades. Time series data for individual…

  4. This Mechanistic Step Is ''Productive'': Organic Chemistry Students' Backward-Oriented Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, I.; Weinrich, M. L.; Sevian, H.; Graulich, N.

    2018-01-01

    If an organic chemistry student explains that she represents a mechanistic step because ''it's a productive part of the mechanism,'' what meaning could the professor teaching the class attribute to this statement, what is actually communicated, and what does it mean for the student? The professor might think that the explanation is based on…

  5. A test of the hierarchical model of litter decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradford, Mark A.; Veen, G. F.; Bonis, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls...... regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of decomposition at regional to global scales is climate (temperature...

  6. The harmful chemistry behind "krokodil": Street-like synthesis and product analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Emanuele Amorim; Soares, José Xavier; Afonso, Carlos Manuel; Grund, Jean-Paul C; Agonia, Ana Sofia; Cravo, Sara Manuela; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2015-12-01

    "Krokodil" is the street name for a drug, which has been attracting media and researchers attention due to its increasing spread and extreme toxicity. "Krokodil" is a homemade injectable mixture being used as a cheap substitute for heroin. Its use begun in Russia and Ukraine, but it is being spread throughout other countries. The starting materials for "krokodil" synthesis are tablets containing codeine, caustic soda, gasoline, hydrochloric acid, iodine from disinfectants and red phosphorus from matchboxes, all of which are easily available in a retail market or drugstores. The resulting product is a light brown liquid that is injected without previous purification. Herein, we aimed to understand the chemistry behind "krokodil" synthesis by mimicking the steps followed by people who use this drug. The successful synthesis was assessed by the presence of desomorphine and other two morphinans. An analytical gas chromatography-electron impact/mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS) methodology for quantification of desomorphine and codeine was also developed and validated. The methodologies presented herein provide a representative synthesis of "krokodil" street samples and the application of an effective analytical methodology for desomorphine quantification, which was the major morphinan found. Further studies are required in order to find other hypothetical by-products in "krokodil" since these may help to explain signs and symptoms presented by abusers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production and transport chemistry of atomic fluorine in remote plasma source and cylindrical reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangoli, S P; Johnson, A D; Fridman, A A; Pearce, R V; Gutsol, A F; Dolgopolsky, A

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, NF 3 -based plasmas are being used in semiconductor manufacturing to clean chemical vapour deposition (CVD) chambers. With advantages such as faster clean times, substantially lower emissions of gases having high global warming potentials, and reduced chamber damage, NF 3 plasmas are now favoured over fluorocarbon-based processes. Typically, a remote plasma source (RPS) is used to dissociate the NF 3 gas and produce atomic fluorine that etches the CVD residues from the chamber surfaces. However, it is important to efficiently transport F atoms from the plasma source into the process chamber. The current work is aimed at understanding and improving the key processes involved in the production and transport of atomic fluorine atoms. A zero-dimensional model of NF 3 dissociation and F production chemistry in the RPS is developed based on various known and derived plasma parameters. Additionally, a model describing the transport of atomic fluorine is proposed that includes both physical (diffusion, adsorption and desorption) and chemical processes (surface and three-body volume recombination). The kinetic model provides an understanding of the impact of chamber geometry, gas flow rates, pressure and temperature on fluorine recombination. The plasma-kinetic model is validated by comparing model predictions (percentage F atom density) with experimental results (etch rates)

  8. Optimization of methane production in anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different percentages of total solid and volatile solid using a developed response surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter (PL) can be good feedstock for biogas production using anaerobic digestion. In this study, methane production from batch co-digestion of PL and wheat straw (WS) was investigated for two factors, i.e., total solid (2%, 5%, and 10%) and volatile solid (0, 25, and 50% of WS), constituting a 3 × 3 experimental design. The results showed that the maximum specific methane volume [197 mL (g VS)(‑1)] was achieved at 50% VS from WS at 5% TS level. It was estimated that the inhibitory threshold of free ammonia was about 289 mg L(--1), beyond which reduction of methanogenic activity by at least 54% was observed. The specific methane volume and COD removal can be expressed using two response surface models (R(2) = 0.9570 and 0.9704, respectively). Analysis of variance of the experimental results indicated that the C/N ratio was the most significant factor influencing the specific methane volume and COD removal in the co-digestion of these two materials.

  9. Growth and mycorrhizal community structure of Pinus sylvestris seedlings following the addition of forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucina, Algis; Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Skridaila, Audrius; Riepsas, Edvardas; Iwanski, Michal

    2007-08-01

    We report the effects of pine and oak litter on species composition and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing 2-year-old Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings grown in a bare-root nursery in Lithuania. A layer of pine or oak litter was placed on the surface of the nursery bed soil to mimic natural litter cover. Oak litter amendment appeared to be most favorable for seedling survival, with a 73% survival rate, in contrast to the untreated mineral bed soil (44%). The concentrations of total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were higher in oak growth medium than in pine growth medium. Relative to the control (pH 6.1), the pH was lower in pine growth medium (5.8) and higher in oak growth medium (6.3). There were also twofold and threefold increases in the C content of growth medium with the addition of pine and oak litter, respectively. Among seven mycorrhizal morphotypes, eight different mycorrhizal taxa were identified: Suillus luteus, Suillus variegatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, a Tuber sp., a Tomentella sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Amphinema byssoides, and one unidentified ectomycorrhizal symbiont. Forest litter addition affected the relative abundance of mycorrhizal symbionts more than their overall representation. This was more pronounced for pine litter than for oak litter, with 40% and 25% increases in the abundance of suilloid mycorrhizae, respectively. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that changes in the supply of organic matter through litter manipulation may have far-reaching effects on the chemistry of soil, thus influencing the growth and survival of Scots pine seedlings and their mycorrhizal communities.

  10. SOA Formation Potential of Emissions from Soil and Leaf Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Vanderschelden, G. S.; Wen, M.; Cobos, D. R.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from natural sources exceed all anthropogenic sources combined. VOCs participate in oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere and impact the concentrations of ozone and particulate material. The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is particularly complex and is frequently underestimated using state-of-the-art modeling techniques. We present findings that suggest emissions of important SOA precursors from soil and leaf litter are higher than current inventories would suggest, particularly under conditions typical of Fall and Spring. Soil and leaf litter samples were collected at Big Meadow Creek from the University of Idaho Experimental Forest. The dominant tree species in this area of the forest are ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch. Samples were transported to the laboratory and housed within a 0.9 cubic meter Teflon dynamic chamber where VOC emissions were continuously monitored with a GC-FID-MS and PTR-MS. Aerosol was generated from soil and leaf litter emissions by pumping the emissions into a 7 cubic meter Teflon aerosol growth chamber where they were oxidized with ozone in the absence of light. The evolution of particle microphysical and chemical characteristics was monitored over the following eight hours. Particle size distribution and chemical composition were measured with a SMPS and HR-ToF-AMS respectively. Monoterpenes dominated the emission profile with emission rates up to 283 micrograms carbon per meter squared per hour. The dominant monoterpenes emitted were beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, and delta-3-carene in descending order. The composition of the SOA produced was similar to biogenic SOA formed from oxidation of ponderosa pine emissions and alpha-pinene. Measured soil/litter monoterpene emission rates were compared with modeled canopy emissions. Results suggest that during fall and spring when tree emissions are lower, monoterpene emissions within forests may be

  11. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical vs temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ard& #243; n; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to measure leaf chemistry. We used standardized analytical techniques to measure chemistry and breakdown rate of leaves from common riparian tree species at 2 sites, 1...

  12. MIGRATION '03: 9th International Conference on Chemistry and Migration Behavior of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Geon Young; Hahn, Pil Soo; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Kim, Seung

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this report are overview of the chemistry and migration behavior of actinide for the HLW disposal safety assessment and to summarise the present status of actinide science and future developments. Actinides in HLW are very toxic and long-life time radionuclides. Therefore, the understanding of their characteristics and reaction behaviors in the deep subsurface environment is necessary for improving the reliability of HLW disposal safety assessment. This report presents an overview of the recent developments in the fundamental chemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems, their interactions and migration in the geosphere, and the processes involved in modeling their geochemical behavior for the high level radioactive waste management. In addition, the thesis presented in MIGRATION '03 conference were described briefly. Actinide science in relation to the HLW disposal management can be classified into three main subjects; aquatic chemistry of actinides and fission products, migration behavior of radionuclides and geochemical and transport modeling. The radionuclides leached from waste forms are intruded into human environment along the groundwater flowing in the fracture around the waster disposal facility. To analyze and predict such radionuclide migration phenomena, the data that were obtained from well defined condition are required. Data obtained from studies on the chemical behaviors of actinide elements and fission products in the groundwater are essential in the safety assessment of HLW management. This report is intended to suggest the direction of R and D in actinide chemistry for the national program of HLW management in future

  13. MIGRATION '03: 9th International Conference on Chemistry and Migration Behavior of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Young; Hahn, Pil Soo; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Kim, Seung

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of this report are overview of the chemistry and migration behavior of actinide for the HLW disposal safety assessment and to summarise the present status of actinide science and future developments. Actinides in HLW are very toxic and long-life time radionuclides. Therefore, the understanding of their characteristics and reaction behaviors in the deep subsurface environment is necessary for improving the reliability of HLW disposal safety assessment. This report presents an overview of the recent developments in the fundamental chemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems, their interactions and migration in the geosphere, and the processes involved in modeling their geochemical behavior for the high level radioactive waste management. In addition, the thesis presented in MIGRATION '03 conference were described briefly. Actinide science in relation to the HLW disposal management can be classified into three main subjects; aquatic chemistry of actinides and fission products, migration behavior of radionuclides and geochemical and transport modeling. The radionuclides leached from waste forms are intruded into human environment along the groundwater flowing in the fracture around the waster disposal facility. To analyze and predict such radionuclide migration phenomena, the data that were obtained from well defined condition are required. Data obtained from studies on the chemical behaviors of actinide elements and fission products in the groundwater are essential in the safety assessment of HLW management. This report is intended to suggest the direction of R and D in actinide chemistry for the national program of HLW management in future.

  14. Dilution and separation of solids and liquids of broiler litter for supply of digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, Airon Magno; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The solid separation techniques indicate that it can promote a support in anaerobic biological process. This trial was realized in FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, in Rural Engineering Department. For this trial two tests were developed, using broiler litter water diluted and separated in a 3mm mesh screen: the treatments consisted in (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (2kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (4kg) water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (6kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (8kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (10kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (12kg) water and (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (14kg) of water. Total solids (TS), solid and liquid fraction and biogas production were estimated. There were no significant differences related to solid fraction retained in screen. As the broiler litter became more diluted, a raise in the liquid fractions quantities was observed, ranging from 20.9 to 89.4% of the total diluted waste. Biogas production potentials ranged from 0.2364 to 0.4666 m{sup 3} of biogas by 100kg of liquid fraction. Organic carbon numbers ranged from 0.21 to 0.47kg by 100kg of liquid fraction and 5.36 to 6.18kg by 100kg of solid fraction. The highest values obtained for this element in liquid fractions dilutions were 2:1 and 6:1 with 0.46 and 0.47kg by 100kg respectively. The separation of liquid and solid fraction of broiler litter was viable in the smaller dilutions, because those guarantee a reduction in the anaerobic digester implementation costs and dilution water economy. Solid fraction has potential for composting, mainly in a great scale production. (author)

  15. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical versus temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ardon; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to...

  16. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H

    2013-08-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesised litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~ 37%). [corrected]. However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. For the love of learning science: Connecting learning orientation and career productivity in physics and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Tai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this paper: performance orientation or motivation to demonstrate one’s ability or performance to others, and learning orientation or motivation through the desire to learn about a topic. The data were obtained as part of Project Crossover, a mixed-methods study which focused on studying the transition from graduate student to scientist in the physical sciences and included a survey of members of two national professional physical science organizations. Using regression analysis on data from 2353 physicists and chemists, results indicate that physicists and chemists who reported a learning orientation as their motivation for going to graduate school were more productive, in terms of total career primary and/or first-author publications and grant funding, than those reporting a performance orientation. Furthermore, given equal salary, learning-oriented individuals produced more primary and/or first-author publications than their nonlearning oriented counterparts.

  18. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  19. Investigation and comprehensive evaluation of the litter pollution on the Heishijiao beach in Dalian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengdi; Zhao, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Yan; Sui, Chuanguo

    2018-02-01

    From November 2015 to August 2016, this paper conducted an investigation into the classification of the litter on the Heishijiao beach in Dalian, and made a comprehensive evaluation of the litter pollution on the beach in different seasons. According to the results, the litter on the Heishijiao beach in Dalian mainly come from human’s offshore activities and other wastes, and spring is the season which witnesses the largest quantity of litter resulting from the activities. Most of the fragmental wastes are glass, plastic and paper, while there is a little metal, rubber and wooden products. On the Heishijiao beach, most of the fragmental litter are small, followed by medium and large ones; outsized wastes are rare. The quantitative density of litter is highest in winter (9.0items/m2), with the average quantitative density of 4.6 items/m2; the qualitative density of litter is highest in spring (8 g/m2), with the average qualitative density of 6.0 g/m2. The results of the comprehensive evaluation show that the litter pollution on the Heishijiao beach stays between “Average” and “Unsatisfactory”.

  20. Plant litter functional diversity effects on litter mass loss depend on the macro-detritivore community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoine, Guillaume; Thakur, Madhav P; Friese, Julia; Nock, Charles; Hönig, Lydia; Haase, Josephine; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms driving litter diversity effects on decomposition is needed to predict how biodiversity losses affect this crucial ecosystem process. In a microcosm study, we investigated the effects of litter functional diversity and two major groups of soil macro-detritivores on the mass loss of tree leaf litter mixtures. Furthermore, we tested the effects of litter trait community means and dissimilarity on litter mass loss for seven traits relevant to decomposition. We expected macro-detritivore effects on litter mass loss to be most pronounced in litter mixtures of high functional diversity. We used 24 leaf mixtures differing in functional diversity, which were composed of litter from four species from a pool of 16 common European tree species. Earthworms, isopods, or a combination of both were added to each litter combination for two months. Litter mass loss was significantly higher in the presence of earthworms than in that of isopods, whereas no synergistic effects of macro-detritivore mixtures were found. The effect of functional diversity of the litter material was highest in the presence of both macro-detritivore groups, supporting the notion that litter diversity effects are most pronounced in the presence of different detritivore species. Species-specific litter mass loss was explained by nutrient content, secondary compound concentration, and structural components. Moreover, dissimilarity in N concentrations increased litter mass loss, probably because detritivores having access to nutritionally diverse food sources. Furthermore, strong competition between the two macro-detritivores for soil surface litter resulted in a decrease of survival of both macro-detritivores. These results show that the effects of litter functional diversity on decomposition are contingent upon the macro-detritivore community and composition. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of litter trait diversity effects and their interaction with

  1. Impact of Poultry Litter Cake, Cleanout, and Bedding following Chemical Amendments on Soil C and N Mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Dexter B.; Smith, Katy E.; Torbert, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Poultry litter is a great alternative N source for crop production. However, recent poultry litter management changes, and increased chemical amendment use may impact its N availability. Thus, research was initiated to evaluate the effect that broiler cake and total cleanout litter amended with chemical additives have on C and N mineralization. A 35-day incubation study was carried out on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults) soil common to t...

  2. Photodegradation of Leaf Litter in Water-Limited Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, R. M.; Powers, H.; McDowell, N.; Rahn, T.

    2008-12-01

    The longstanding view of terrestrial decomposition holds that heterotrophic respiration drives release of CO2, but recent studies, such as Austin and Vivanco (2006) have shown that in water-limited environments, photochemical decomposition of leaf litter may be equally or more effective than microbial decomposition. Although initial studies have concluded that photochemical degradation can be important in some environments, it has been difficult to quantify and the oxidative mechanisms involved remain unknown. Thus, the objectives of our study were to (1) quantify the CO2 emitted during photochemical degradation of leaf litter and (2) use the stable isotopic signatures of evolved CO2 to elucidate pathways of production. Emitted CO2 and its isotopic signature were measured using a tunable diode laser (TDL) to assess the pool of photochemically-labile plant matter (δ13C-CO2) in a given sample and to assess the source of the oxygen (δ18O-CO2). We quantified the photochemical release of CO2 and its isotopic signature from dried leaf litter of 10 tree and grass species prevalent in major biotic zones of New Mexico. The cumulative CO2 released upon exposure of 0.1-0.3 g of dried leaf litter to three hours of simulated sunlight ranged from 8-25 mg CO2-C g-1 dried litter, corresponding to 1-2% mass loss. Generally, the δ13C-CO2 was more depleted (4-7 ± 2 per mil) than the average δ13C of the respective leaf litter sample. The δ18O-CO2 evolved is approximately equal to δ18O of atmospheric O2, suggesting that the oxidation mechanism involves direct reaction with atmospheric O2.

  3. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  4. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  5. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  6. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Litter Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Above-ground litter productivity was measured in a 18 ha plot adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para,...

  7. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Litter Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Above-ground litter productivity was measured in a 18 ha plot adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National...

  8. Marine litter prediction by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balas, Can Elmar; Ergin, Aysen; Williams, Allan T.; Koc, Levent

    2004-01-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques of neural network and fuzzy systems were applied as alternative methods to determine beach litter grading, based on litter surveys of the Antalya coastline (the Turkish Riviera). Litter measurements were categorized and assessed by artificial intelligence techniques, which lead to a new litter categorization system. The constructed neural network satisfactorily predicted the grading of the Antalya beaches and litter categories based on the number of litter items in the general litter category. It has been concluded that, neural networks could be used for high-speed predictions of litter items and beach grading, when the characteristics of the main litter category was determined by field studies. This can save on field effort when fast and reliable estimations of litter categories are required for management or research studies of beaches--especially those concerned with health and safety, and it has economic implications. The main advantages in using fuzzy systems are that they consider linguistic adjectival definitions, e.g. many/few, etc. As a result, additional information inherent in linguistic comments/refinements and judgments made during field studies can be incorporated in grading systems

  9. Marine litter prediction by artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balas, Can Elmar; Ergin, Aysen; Williams, Allan T.; Koc, Levent

    2004-03-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques of neural network and fuzzy systems were applied as alternative methods to determine beach litter grading, based on litter surveys of the Antalya coastline (the Turkish Riviera). Litter measurements were categorized and assessed by artificial intelligence techniques, which lead to a new litter categorization system. The constructed neural network satisfactorily predicted the grading of the Antalya beaches and litter categories based on the number of litter items in the general litter category. It has been concluded that, neural networks could be used for high-speed predictions of litter items and beach grading, when the characteristics of the main litter category was determined by field studies. This can save on field effort when fast and reliable estimations of litter categories are required for management or research studies of beaches--especially those concerned with health and safety, and it has economic implications. The main advantages in using fuzzy systems are that they consider linguistic adjectival definitions, e.g. many/few, etc. As a result, additional information inherent in linguistic comments/refinements and judgments made during field studies can be incorporated in grading systems.

  10. Effect of litter treatment on growth performance, intestinal development, and selected cecum microbiota in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilaneh Taherparvar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of bedding materials (sand, wood shavings, and paper and of two chemical amendments (lime and bentonite could interfere with litter quality (moisture, pH, and total bacterial counts, thereby influencing also the growth performance and the development of intestinal traits and cecum microbiota of chickens. Two hundred and seventy male Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned into nine treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Broiler productive parameters, relative weight of different intestinal segments, content of cecal total bacterial counts (total aerobic bacteria, Lactobacilli, and coliforms, as well as litter moisture, pH, and total aerobic bacteria and coliforms counts, were assessed. Litter material, per se, did not significantly affect the productivity parameters at the end of the experimental period (42 days with the exception of protein efficiency. A significant trend was found among treatments with regard to weight gain and feed intake, with lower performance in birds on sand beddings. Litter pH was relatively homogenous between bedding types and amendments, but the moisture was significantly lower when sand was used. Litter type did not influence the relative weight of the different intestinal segments; however, the type of amendment affected the relative jejunum weight, which was increased in bentonite-treated litter. The use of lime and bentonite treatments may be helpful to decrease the differences in litter moisture associated with particular bedding materials. The tested amendments do not interfere with the productive performance of birds.

  11. An Overview on the South Korean Scientific Production in the Field of Chemistry (1993–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Magnone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to take stock of the South Korean publication activity on the field of chemistry by analyzing systematically all chemistry-related scholarly communications collected in the Web of Science (WOS database published by at least one Korean author or Korean institute- or university-affiliated author from 1993 to 2012. The studied parameters included the growth in number of the communications, as well as the language-, document-, category-, source-, organization-, and collaboration-wise distribution of the South Korean communications. A total of 5660 communications on chemistry were found to be published by South Korean researchers during the aforementioned period of time, and South Korea was the 15th country (1.77% in the world in terms of informational communication activity in chemistry.

  12. Association between litterers' profile and littering behavior: A chi-square approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmui, Mas'udah; Zaki, Suhanom Mohd; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Mokhtar, Noorsuraya Mohd; Harith, Siti Suhaila

    2017-05-01

    Littering is not a novelty, yet a prolonged issue. The solutions have been discussed for a long time; however this issue still remains unresolved. Littering is commonly associated with littering behavior and awareness. The littering behavior is normally influenced by the litter profile such as gender, family income, education level and age. Jengka Street market, which is located in Pahang, is popularly known as a trade market. It offers diversities of wet and dry goods and is awaited by local residents and tourists. This study analyzes association between litterers' profile and littering behavior. Littering behavior is measured based on factors of trash bin facilities, awareness campaign and public littering behavior. 114 respondents were involved in this study with 62 (54.39%) are female aged more than 18 years old and majority of these female respondents are diploma holders. In addition, 78.95% of the respondents have family income below than RM3,000.00 per month. Based on the data analysis, it was found that first-time visitors littered higher than frequent visitors, lack of providing trash bin facilities contributes to positive littering behavior and there is a significant association between litterers' age and littering behavior by using chi-square approach.

  13. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part IV. Evaluation of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S; Rajalakshmi, D; Chand, N

    1987-01-01

    Capsicum fruits are popular worldwide and are used in the cuisines of both the developing and the developed countries. With its different varieties, forms, and uses, the spice capsicum contributes to the entire gamut of sensory experience--color as finely ground paprika powder or extract in sausages, goulash, cheese, and snacks; both pungency and color as the many varieties of chillies used in Mexican, African, Indian, and southeast Asian cuisines; color, aroma, and mild pungency as the fresh green chillies used in many of the growing countries; and appearance, color, aroma, and texture as fresh fruit in salads and as a pickled and canned product. In three earlier parts in this series, the varieties, cultivation, and primary processing; the processed products, world production, and trade; and the chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli have been reviewed. In this part, the evaluation of quality through instrumental determination of the causal components and the sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency are discussed. Several methods for quantitative determination of the stimuli and the sensory evaluation of the responses to the stimuli are reviewed. The problems of sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency, the dominant attributes for validation of the instrumentally determined values for carotenoids, volatiles, or particular fractions, and total and individual capsaicinoids are specifically discussed. Summarized details of selected instrumental methods for evaluating the stimuli, which are either validated by correlation to sensorily perceived responses or to adopted standards, are given along with representative data obtained for discussing the adequacy and reliability of the methods. Pungency as a specific gustatory perception and the many methods proposed to evaluate this quality are discussed. A recommended objective procedure for obtaining reproducible values is discussed, and a method for relating different panel results is shown

  14. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  15. Application of computational chemistry methods to obtain thermodynamic data for hydrogen production from liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Sousa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate thermodynamic data, such as standard enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy changes of reaction and, consequently, chemical equilibrium constants, for a reaction system describing the hydrogen production from Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG. The acquisition of those properties was made using computational chemistry methods and the results were compared with experimental data reported in the literature. The reaction system of steam reforming of LPG was reported as a set of seven independent reactions involving the chemical species n-C4H10, C3H8, C2H6, C2H4, CH4, CO2, CO, H2O, H2 and solid carbon. Six computational approaches were used: Density Functional Theory (DFT employing Becke's three parameter hybrid exchange functional, and the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (B3LYP using the 6-31G++(d,p basis set and the composite methods CBS-QB3, Gaussian-1 (G1, Gaussian-2 (G2, Gaussian-3 (G3 and Gaussian-4 (G4. Mole fractions of the system components were also determined between 873.15 and 1173.15 K, at 1 atm and a feed with a stoichiometric amount of water. Results showed that the hybrid functional B3LYP/6-31G++(d,p, G3 and G4 theories were the most appropriated methods to predict the properties of interest. Gaussian-3 and Gaussian-4 theories are expected to be good thermodynamic data predictors and the known efficient prediction of vibrational frequencies by B3LYP is probably the source of the good agreement found in this study. This last methodology is of special interest since it presents low computational cost, which is important when more complex molecular systems are considered.

  16. Decomposition of oak leaf litter and millipede faecal pellets in soil under temperate mixed oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajovský, Karel; Šimek, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Šantrůčková, Hana; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The millipedes Glomeris hexasticha (Diplopoda, Glomerida) were maintained under laboratory conditions and fed on oak leaf litter collected from a mixed oak forest (Abieto-Quercetum) in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Every fourth day litter was changed and produced faecal pellets were separated and afterwards analysed. Content of organic carbon and C:N ratio lowered in faecal pellets as compared with consumed litter. Changes in content of chemical elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na) were recognised as those characteristic for the first stage of degradation of plant material. Samples of faecal pellets and oak leaf litter were then exposed in mesh bags between the F and H layers of forest soil for up to one year, subsequently harvested and analysed. A higher rate of decomposition of exposed litter than that of faecal pellets was found during the first two weeks. After 1-year exposure, the weight of litter was reduced to 51%, while that of pellets to 58% only, although the observed activity of present biotic components (algae, protozoans, nematodes; CO2 production, nitrogenase activity) in faecal pellets was higher as compared with litter. Different micro-morphological changes were observed in exposed litter and in pellets although these materials originated from the same initial sources. Comparing to intact leaf litter, another structural and functional processes occurred in pellets due to the fragmentation of plant material by millipedes. Both laboratory and field experiments showed that the millipede faecal pellets are not only a focal point of biodegradation activity in upper soil layers, but also confirmed that millipede feces undergo a slower decomposition than original leaf litter.

  17. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and N-Fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermue, E.; Buurman, P.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO 2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter samples. Litter of P. euramerica was clearly different from that of P. nigra and P. alba. The latter two had higher contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and cutin/cutan, while the former had higher contents of phenols and benzofurans/pyrans. The difference between replications was at least as large as the effect of treatments, so that no systematic chemical changes were attributable to CO 2 effect or N-fertilization effect. The chemistry of SOM under the various species and treatments did not show significant changes either. The low number of available replicates that is two was clearly insufficient to overcome the effect of spatial variation on litter chemistry and detect small differences in molecular litter chemistry.

  18. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and N-Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Vermue

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter samples. Litter of P. euramerica was clearly different from that of P. nigra and P. alba. The latter two had higher contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and cutin/cutan, while the former had higher contents of phenols and benzofurans/pyrans. The difference between replications was at least as large as the effect of treatments, so that no systematic chemical changes were attributable to CO2 effect or N-fertilization effect. The chemistry of SOM under the various species and treatments did not show significant changes either. The low number of available replicates that is two was clearly insufficient to overcome the effect of spatial variation on litter chemistry and detect small differences in molecular litter chemistry.

  19. Determination of carbon and nitrogen in litter fall of mangrove ecosystem in peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemati, Z.; Hossain, M.

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves in Peninsular Malaysia are typical of tropical forest setting. Nevertheless, the state of the mangrove forests has led to various classifications; natural and degraded mangroves. The study aimed to utilize litter fall (production and standing crop) potential as a means of evaluating the degree of productivity of the mangrove types across seasons, in addition to determining the abundance of carbon and nitrogen in the Peninsular mangrove forest. Leaf litter accounted for more than 70% of the total litter production in both natural and degraded mangroves, and the peak month for such production was December; 82.7% and 82.2%, for Sungai Haji Dorani and Kuala Selangor Nature Park, respectively. The degraded mangrove recorded higher concentration of total N (6.16 mg/g) than the natural mangrove forest (5.60 mg/g) at significant level. However, the organic carbon (CO) content across the litter parts varied with the three seasons. The CO of leaf litter was at the peak during the dry season, however, analysis on the branch and fruit revealed that during the intermediate and wet seasons CO level could be higher than the concentration observed at dry season. Though, the study concluded that both mangrove types in Peninsular Malaysia showed high similarity in the degree of litter production, yet the identified differences suggest that counter measures need to be adopted in order to protect mangroves from degradation and possible productivity loss. (author)

  20. Regional contingencies in the relationship between aboveground Bbomass and litter in the world’s grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Halloran, Lydia R.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W. Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kendi F.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex.

  1. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Cartwright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000 were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05. The majority (74.1% of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7% reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66 and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32. Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94. Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic

  2. Litter aeration and spread of Salmonella in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Sara González; Garcia, Arantxa Villagra; García, Santiago Vega; Orenga, Clara Marín

    2013-08-01

    Litter quality in the poultry sector is one of the main parameters of health, productivity, and animal welfare. Therefore, innovative management methods have been developed to improve the quality of litter. One of them is litter aeration (LA) by tumbling. However, there is little information related to the effect of this technique on the spreading of pathogens of public health importance such as Salmonella. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the epidemiology of Salmonella in poultry farms, when serial LA were implemented during the rearing cycle of broilers. For this purpose, an experimental broiler farm with 3 identical rooms was used in the study. Two rooms were assigned to the LA treatment, and the other one served as the control room. Environmental samples were taken in poultry houses after LA in 4 consecutive weeks at the end of the cycle. All samples collected were analyzed according to the standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 6579:2002, Annex D). The results of this study showed that in the control and treated rooms, the percentage of positive samples for Salmonella decreased in the first 3 LA sessions (LA 1, LA 2, and LA 3). However, in the last LA session of rearing (LA 4), the percentage of positive samples increased from 8.2 to 33.2% in the control room instead the treated rooms where the positive samples decreased (P = 0.017). Thus, the aeration of the litter as litter management technique in poultry broiler production does not increase the shedding or the spread of Salmonella throughout broiler houses. In addition, it could be an effective technique to reduce the infective pressure of this bacterium in several areas of the farm or in certain moments of the rearing period with more risk of multiplication and spreading of Salmonella.

  3. Interaction of initial litter quality and thinning intensity on litter decomposition rate, nitrogen accumulation and release in a pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao Chen; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Weiwei Wang; Guolei Li; Yong. Liu

    2014-01-01

    Thinning alters litter quality and microclimate under forests. Both of these two changes after thinning induce alterations of litter decomposition rates and nutrient cycling. However, a possible interaction between these two changes remains unclear. We placed two types of litter (LN, low N concentration litter; HN, high N concentration litter) in a Chinese pine (Pinus...

  4. Integrating biocompatible chemistry and manipulating cofactor partitioning in metabolically engineeredLactococcus lactisfor fermentative production of (3S)-acetoin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatible chemistry (BC), i.e. non-enzymatic chemical reactions compatible with living organisms, is increasingly used in conjunction with metabolically engineered microorganisms for producing compounds that do not usually occur naturally. Here we report production of one such compound, (3S......)-acetoin, a valuable precursor for chiral synthesis, using a metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis strain growing under respiratory conditions with ferric iron serving as a BC component. The strain used has all competing product pathways inactivated, and an appropriate cofactor balance is achieved by fine...

  5. Field and lab conditions alter microbial enzyme and biomass dynamics driving decomposition of the same leaf litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary L Rinkes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in climate and edaphic factors influence field decomposition rates and preclude a complete understanding of how microbial communities respond to plant litter quality. In contrast, laboratory microcosms isolate the intrinsic effects of litter chemistry and microbial community from extrinsic effects of environmental variation. Used together, these paired approaches provide mechanistic insights to decomposition processes. In order to elucidate the microbial mechanisms underlying how environmental conditions alter the trajectory of decay, we characterized microbial biomass, respiration, enzyme activities, and nutrient dynamics during early (< 10% mass loss, mid- (10-40% mass loss, and late (> 40% mass loss decay in parallel field and laboratory litter bag incubations for deciduous tree litters with varying recalcitrance (dogwood < maple < maple-oak mixture < oak. In the field, mass loss was minimal (< 10% over the first 50 days (January-February, even for labile litter types, despite above-freezing soil temperatures and adequate moisture during these winter months. In contrast, microcosms displayed high C mineralization rates in the first week. During mid-decay, the labile dogwood and maple litters in the field had higher mass loss per unit enzyme activity than the lab, possibly due to leaching of soluble compounds. Microbial biomass to litter mass (B:C ratios peaked in the field during late decay, but B:C ratios declined between mid- and late decay in the lab. Thus, microbial biomass did not have a consistent relationship with litter quality between studies. Higher oxidative enzyme activities in oak litters in the field, and higher nitrogen (N accumulation in the lab microcosms occurred in late decay. We speculate that elevated N suppressed fungal activity and/or biomass in microcosms. Our results suggest that differences in microbial biomass and enzyme dynamics alter the decay trajectory of the same leaf litter under field and lab

  6. Field and lab conditions alter microbial enzyme and biomass dynamics driving decomposition of the same leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkes, Zachary L; Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Moorhead, Daryl L; Grandy, A Stuart; Weintraub, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in climate and edaphic factors influence field decomposition rates and preclude a complete understanding of how microbial communities respond to plant litter quality. In contrast, laboratory microcosms isolate the intrinsic effects of litter chemistry and microbial community from extrinsic effects of environmental variation. Used together, these paired approaches provide mechanistic insights to decomposition processes. In order to elucidate the microbial mechanisms underlying how environmental conditions alter the trajectory of decay, we characterized microbial biomass, respiration, enzyme activities, and nutrient dynamics during early (40% mass loss) decay in parallel field and laboratory litter bag incubations for deciduous tree litters with varying recalcitrance (dogwood litter types, despite above-freezing soil temperatures and adequate moisture during these winter months. In contrast, microcosms displayed high C mineralization rates in the first week. During mid-decay, the labile dogwood and maple litters in the field had higher mass loss per unit enzyme activity than the lab, possibly due to leaching of soluble compounds. Microbial biomass to litter mass (B:C) ratios peaked in the field during late decay, but B:C ratios declined between mid- and late decay in the lab. Thus, microbial biomass did not have a consistent relationship with litter quality between studies. Higher oxidative enzyme activities in oak litters in the field, and higher nitrogen (N) accumulation in the lab microcosms occurred in late decay. We speculate that elevated N suppressed fungal activity and/or biomass in microcosms. Our results suggest that differences in microbial biomass and enzyme dynamics alter the decay trajectory of the same leaf litter under field and lab conditions.

  7. Relocation of carbon from decomposition of {sup 14}C-labelled needle and fine root litter in peat soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domish, T; Laine, J; Laiho, R [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Finer, L [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Karsisto, M [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    Drainage of peatlands promotes a shift of biomass and production from the ground vegetation to the trees. Thus, the above-ground (e.g. needles) and below-ground (roots) litter production of trees increases. Fine roots in particular are an important factor in the carbon and nutrient cycle in forest ecosystems. A major part of the annual net primary production of trees may be allocated below ground, the relative proportion being smaller on fertile sites than on less fertile ones. For modelling the carbon balance of drained peatlands, it is important to know the fate of carbon from newly introduced and decomposing litter. Newly added and fertilised tree litter material may be decomposed at a rate different than litter from the ground vegetation. The objectives of this study are to study the pathways of decomposing litter carbon in peat soil and to evaluate the use of the litterbag method in a controlled environment. (9 refs.)

  8. Relocation of carbon from decomposition of {sup 14}C-labelled needle and fine root litter in peat soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domish, T.; Laine, J.; Laiho, R. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Karsisto, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Drainage of peatlands promotes a shift of biomass and production from the ground vegetation to the trees. Thus, the above-ground (e.g. needles) and below-ground (roots) litter production of trees increases. Fine roots in particular are an important factor in the carbon and nutrient cycle in forest ecosystems. A major part of the annual net primary production of trees may be allocated below ground, the relative proportion being smaller on fertile sites than on less fertile ones. For modelling the carbon balance of drained peatlands, it is important to know the fate of carbon from newly introduced and decomposing litter. Newly added and fertilised tree litter material may be decomposed at a rate different than litter from the ground vegetation. The objectives of this study are to study the pathways of decomposing litter carbon in peat soil and to evaluate the use of the litterbag method in a controlled environment. (9 refs.)

  9. Combining metabolic engineering and biocompatible chemistry for high-yield production of homo-diacetyl and homo-(S,S)-2,3-butanediol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Brock-Nannestad, Theis

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatible chemistry is gaining increasing attention because of its potential within biotechnology for expanding the repertoire of biological transformations carried out by enzymes. Here we demonstrate how biocompatible chemistry can be used for synthesizing valuable compounds as well as for l...... of 82%. The diacetyl and S-BDO production rates and yields obtained are the highest ever reported, demonstrating the promising combination of metabolic engineering and biocompatible chemistry as well as the great potential of L. lactis as a new production platform.......Biocompatible chemistry is gaining increasing attention because of its potential within biotechnology for expanding the repertoire of biological transformations carried out by enzymes. Here we demonstrate how biocompatible chemistry can be used for synthesizing valuable compounds as well...

  10. Evaluation of litter material and ventilation systems in poultry production: III. litter reuse, darkling beetle populations and intestinal parasites Avaliação de materiais de cama e sistemas de ventilação na criação de aves: III. reutilização, população de cascudinho e parasitos intestinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Nascimento Abreu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the quality of rice husks or soybean straw as litter substrate and the effect of litter reuse for four consecutive flocks of broiler chickens on populations of darkling beetle and intestinal parasite and as organic fertilizer. The experiment was carried out in four 12 m × 10 m poultry houses, internally divided in 4 boxes/poultry house with 200 birds/pen for four consecutive flocks, each flock with a duration of 42 days and with a 15-day downtime between flocks. The evaluated treatments were two ventilation systems (stationary or oscillating fans and two litter materials (soybean straw or rice husks. Darkling beetle population was followed by collecting the insects in traps, three traps per box, and endoparasite litter contamination was determined by eggs/oocyst counts per gram of litter. Levels of dry matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, organic carbon and pH were evaluated by physical/chemical analyses of samples of the litters in each flock. Overall, litters of broilers used by three flocks meet the minimal legal requirements to be marketed as simple organic fertilizer, regardless to the material used as substrate. Soybean straw presented higher darkling beetle counts in stationary ventilation system as well as in oscillating ventilation system. The probability of rice husks litter present contamination by Eimeria spp oocysts is 18.78 times higher in rice husks than in soybean straw litter when both are submitted to oscillating ventilation, and 1.32 higher when stationary ventilation is used. Litter temperature does not influence significantly levels of contamination by oocysts.Foram avaliados a qualidade da casca de arroz e palhada de soja como substrato de cama e o efeito da reutilização da cama por quatro lotes de frangos de corte sobre a população de cascudinhos e parasitos intestinais e como adubo orgânico. O experimento foi realizado em quatro aviários de 12 m × 10

  11. Long-Term Spartina alterniflora biomass, productivity, porewater chemistry and marsh elevation in North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, SC: 1984-2011.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The salt marsh in the North Inlet estuary was sampled approximately monthly for estimates of biomass, productivity, porewater chemistry, and salt marsh elevation....

  12. Elevated UV-B radiation increased the decomposition of Cinnamomum camphora and Cyclobalanopsis glauca leaf litter in subtropical China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xinzhang Z.; Zhang, Huiling L.; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shuquan Q. [Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry Univ., Lin' an (China). The Nurturing Station for the State Key Lab. of Subtropical Silviculture; Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry Univ., Lin' an (China). Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Carbon Cycling and Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems; Chang, Scott X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Peng, Changhui H. [Quebec Univ., Montreal (Canada). Inst. of Environment Sciences

    2012-03-15

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the earth's surface has been increasing due to ozone depletion and can profoundly influence litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. The role of UV-B radiation in litter decomposition in humid environments is poorly understood; we thus investigated the effect of UV-B radiation on litter decomposition and nitrogen (N) release in a humid subtropical ecosystem in China. We conducted a field-based experiment using the litterbag method to study litter decomposition and N release under ambient and elevated (31% above ambient) UV-B radiation, using the leaf litter of two common tree species, Cinnamomum camphora and Cyclobalanopsis glauca, native to subtropical China. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly increased the decomposition rate of C. camphora and C. glauca leaf litter by 16.7% and 27.8%, respectively, and increased the N release from the decomposing litter of C. glauca but not C. camphora. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly accelerated the decomposition of litter of two native tree species and the N release from the decomposition litter of C. glauca in humid subtropical China, which has implications for soil carbon flux and forest productivity. (orig.)

  13. Water chemistry in 179 randomly selected Swedish headwater streams related to forest production, clear-felling and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Fröberg, Mats; Yu, Jun; Nisell, Jakob; Ranneby, Bo

    2014-12-01

    From a policy perspective, it is important to understand forestry effects on surface waters from a landscape perspective. The EU Water Framework Directive demands remedial actions if not achieving good ecological status. In Sweden, 44 % of the surface water bodies have moderate ecological status or worse. Many of these drain catchments with a mosaic of managed forests. It is important for the forestry sector and water authorities to be able to identify where, in the forested landscape, special precautions are necessary. The aim of this study was to quantify the relations between forestry parameters and headwater stream concentrations of nutrients, organic matter and acid-base chemistry. The results are put into the context of regional climate, sulphur and nitrogen deposition, as well as marine influences. Water chemistry was measured in 179 randomly selected headwater streams from two regions in southwest and central Sweden, corresponding to 10 % of the Swedish land area. Forest status was determined from satellite images and Swedish National Forest Inventory data using the probabilistic classifier method, which was used to model stream water chemistry with Bayesian model averaging. The results indicate that concentrations of e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter are related to factors associated with forest production but that it is not forestry per se that causes the excess losses. Instead, factors simultaneously affecting forest production and stream water chemistry, such as climate, extensive soil pools and nitrogen deposition, are the most likely candidates The relationships with clear-felled and wetland areas are likely to be direct effects.

  14. For the Love of Learning Science: Connecting Learning Orientation and Career Productivity in Physics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John

    2010-01-01

    An individual's motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this…

  15. Fertilization with broiler litter in the production of organic corn in integrated crop-livestockAdubação com cama de aviário na produção de milho orgânico em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal de Moraes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect on corn crop in crop-livestock integration system of fertilization with chicken litter in the pasture (winter and in the corn (summer, as alternative to organic production. The winter treatments consisted in the doses of 0 and 5 Mg ha-1 of chicken litter, with or without grazing of ovines and the summer treatments in the doses of 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1 of chicken litter in the corn. From the results obtained, it was checked that the grazing did not affect the grain yield of corn in summer. The use of chicken litter in winter presented significant effect on mass of one thousand grains of corn, evidencing residual effect of fertilization however, it was not sufficient to provide significant difference in corn yield. There was positive linear effect to number of grains per row and quadratic to corn yield by increase of chicken litter levels in summer. In areas without grazing the maximum corn yield would be obtained with application of 9 Mg ha-1 of chicken litter in summer, whereas this same yield would be obtained with 7 Mg ha-1 in grazed areas, representing an economy of 2 Mg ha-1 of chicken litter corresponding to 45 kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Thus, it was found technical viability by use of chicken litter in corn production in crop-livestock integration system. O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito sobre a cultura do milho em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária da adubação com cama de aviário na pastagem (inverno e no milho (verão, como alternativa para a produção orgânica. Os tratamentos de inverno consistiram nas doses de 0 e 5 Mg ha-1 de cama de aviário com e sem pastejo de ovinos e os tratamentos de verão nas doses de 0, 1, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1 de cama de aviário no milho. A partir dos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que o pastejo não afetou a produtividade de milho no verão. O uso de cama de aviário no inverno apresentou efeito

  16. Produção de serapilheira em sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil Litter production in multistrata agroforestry system in Rondônia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luíz de Oliveira Corrêa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produção de serapilheira em diferentes coberturas frutíferas e florestais componentes de um sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado localizado no município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, RO, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram: mangueira (Mangifera indica L., fruta-pão (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, abacateiro (Persea americana Mill., cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. sombreado com gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. e as espécies florestais, a bandarra (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke e a teca (Tectona grandis L.f.. Como referência foi utilizada uma área de vegetação natural (capoeira, de 8 anos de idade. A deposição anual de serapilheira entre o período de outubro de 2002 e setembro de 2003 foi de 13,38 t ha-1 para a vegetação natural, 4,02 t ha-1 para bandarra, 3,43 t ha-1 para gliricídia, 2,86 t ha-1para abacateiro, 2,54 t ha-1 para fruta-pão, 1,40 t ha-1 para o cupuaçuzeiro, 1,16 t ha-1 para o cacaueiro, 1,12 t ha-1 para mangueira e 1,07 t ha-1 para a teca. A vegetação natural, a bandarra e o cacaueiro apresentaram uma maior deposição no período seco (verão, enquanto que a fruta-pão, cupuaçuzeiro, mangueira, teca, gliricídia e abacateiro as maiores deposições foram no período chuvoso (inverno. Por outro lado a serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo foi de 14,61 t ha-1 na mangueira, 12,8 t ha-1 na bandarra, 12,73 t ha-1 na vegetação natural, 12,04 t ha-1, no abacateiro, 9,87 t ha-1 no cacaueiro/gliricídia, 9,88 t ha-1 no cupuaçuzeiro, 9,05 t ha-1 na fruta-pão e 7,39 t ha-1 na teca.One study was made to evaluate litter production in different fruitful coverings and forest components of a multistrata agroforestry system located in Ouro Preto do Oeste district (RO, Brazil. The studied species were: mango tree (Mangifera indica L., breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuassu tree (Theobroma

  17. Early stage litter decomposition across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ika Djukic; Sebastian Kepfer-Rojas; Inger Kappel Schmidt; Klaus Steenberg Larsen; Claus Beier; Björn Berg; Kris Verheyen; Adriano Caliman; Alain Paquette; Alba Gutiérrez-Girón; Alberto Humber; Alejandro Valdecantos; Alessandro Petraglia; Heather Alexander; Algirdas Augustaitis; Amélie Saillard; Ana Carolina Ruiz Fernández; Ana I. Sousa; Ana I. Lillebø; Anderson da Rocha Gripp; André-Jean Francez; Andrea Fischer; Andreas Bohner; Andrey Malyshev; Andrijana Andrić; Andy Smith; Angela Stanisci; Anikó Seres; Anja Schmidt; Anna Avila; Anne Probst; Annie Ouin; Anzar A. Khuroo; Arne Verstraeten; Arely N. Palabral-Aguilera; Artur Stefanski; Aurora Gaxiola; Bart Muys; Bernard Bosman; Bernd Ahrends; Bill Parker; Birgit Sattler; Bo Yang; Bohdan Juráni; Brigitta Erschbamer; Carmen Eugenia Rodriguez Ortiz; Casper T. Christiansen; E. Carol Adair; Céline Meredieu; Cendrine Mony; Charles A. Nock; Chi-Ling Chen; Chiao-Ping Wang; Christel Baum; Christian Rixen; Christine Delire; Christophe Piscart; Christopher Andrews; Corinna Rebmann; Cristina Branquinho; Dana Polyanskaya; David Fuentes Delgado; Dirk Wundram; Diyaa Radeideh; Eduardo Ordóñez-Regil; Edward Crawford; Elena Preda; Elena Tropina; Elli Groner; Eric Lucot; Erzsébet Hornung; Esperança Gacia; Esther Lévesque; Evanilde Benedito; Evgeny A. Davydov; Evy Ampoorter; Fabio Padilha Bolzan; Felipe Varela; Ferdinand Kristöfel; Fernando T. Maestre; Florence Maunoury-Danger; Florian Hofhansl; Florian Kitz; Flurin Sutter; Francisco Cuesta; Francisco de Almeida Lobo; Franco Leandro de Souza; Frank Berninger; Franz Zehetner; Georg Wohlfahrt; George Vourlitis; Geovana Carreño-Rocabado; Gina Arena; Gisele Daiane Pinha; Grizelle González; Guylaine Canut; Hanna Lee; Hans Verbeeck; Harald Auge; Harald Pauli; Hassan Bismarck Nacro; Héctor A. Bahamonde; Heike Feldhaar; Heinke Jäger; Helena C. Serrano; Hélène Verheyden; Helge Bruelheide; Henning Meesenburg; Hermann Jungkunst; Hervé Jactel; Hideaki Shibata; Hiroko Kurokawa; Hugo López Rosas; Hugo L. Rojas Villalobos; Ian Yesilonis; Inara Melece; Inge Van Halder; Inmaculada García Quirós; Isaac Makelele; Issaka Senou; István Fekete; Ivan Mihal; Ivika Ostonen; Jana Borovská; Javier Roales; Jawad Shoqeir; Jean-Christophe Lata; Jean-Paul Theurillat; Jean-Luc Probst; Jess Zimmerman; Jeyanny Vijayanathan; Jianwu Tang; Jill Thompson; Jiří Doležal; Joan-Albert Sanchez-Cabeza; Joël Merlet; Joh Henschel; Johan Neirynck; Johannes Knops; John Loehr; Jonathan von Oppen; Jónína Sigríður Þorláksdóttir; Jörg Löffler; José-Gilberto Cardoso-Mohedano; José-Luis Benito-Alonso; Jose Marcelo Torezan; Joseph C. Morina; Juan J. Jiménez; Juan Dario Quinde; Juha Alatalo; Julia Seeber; Jutta Stadler; Kaie Kriiska; Kalifa Coulibaly; Karibu Fukuzawa; Katalin Szlavecz; Katarína Gerhátová; Kate Lajtha; Kathrin Käppeler; Katie A. Jennings; Katja Tielbörger; Kazuhiko Hoshizaki; Ken Green; Lambiénou Yé; Laryssa Helena Ribeiro Pazianoto; Laura Dienstbach; Laura Williams; Laura Yahdjian; Laurel M. Brigham; Liesbeth van den Brink; Lindsey Rustad; al. et

    2018-01-01

    Through litter decomposition enormous amounts of carbon is emitted to the atmosphere. Numerous large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process in order to understand the controls on the terrestrial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. However, previous studies were mostly based on site-specific litter and methodologies...

  18. Collecting marine litter during regular fish surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der M.T.; Hal, van R.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of the marine litter monitoring on the IBTS survey of 2014 and the BTS survey of 2013. Since 2013 marine litter is collected during the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) and Dutch Beam Trawl Survey (BTS) following a protocol developed by ICES. The composition

  19. Faster N Release, but Not C Loss, From Leaf Litter of Invasives Compared to Native Species in Mediterranean Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Incerti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant invasions can have relevant impacts on biogeochemical cycles, whose extent, in Mediterranean ecosystems, have not yet been systematically assessed comparing litter carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics between invasive plants and native communities. We carried out a 1-year litterbag experiment in 4 different plant communities (grassland, sand dune, riparian and mixed forests on 8 invasives and 24 autochthonous plant species, used as control. Plant litter was characterized for mass loss, N release, proximate lignin and litter chemistry by 13C CPMAS NMR. Native and invasive species showed significant differences in litter chemical traits, with invaders generally showing higher N concentration and lower lignin/N ratio. Mass loss data revealed no consistent differences between native and invasive species, although some woody and vine invaders showed exceptionally high decomposition rate. In contrast, N release rate from litter was faster for invasive plants compared to native species. N concentration, lignin content and relative abundance of methoxyl and N-alkyl C region from 13C CPMAS NMR spectra were the parameters that better explained mass loss and N mineralization rates. Our findings demonstrate that during litter decomposition invasive species litter has no different decomposition rates but greater N release rate compared to natives. Accordingly, invasives are expected to affect N cycle in Mediterranean plant communities, possibly promoting a shift of plant assemblages.

  20. Proceedings of the 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society; 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    These 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society and 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry present several subjects of different interests for the participants, including sections about inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; environmental chemistry; technological chemistry; electrochemistry; physical chemistry; photochemistry; chemical education; natural products; analytical chemistry and biological chemistry. (C.G.C.)

  1. Milk and dairy product analyses at the Dairy Chemistry Division in Mauritius: an overview

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    S. A. Neeliah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Mauritius has continuously supported the dairy sector. In a 2011 speech, the Acting President pointed out that the implementation of schemes under the Food Security Fund strategic plan yielded satisfactory results such as an increase in milk production by 55%. One institution which has played a key role in boosting the sector is the Dairy Chemistry Division (DCD. DCD forms part of the Agricultural Services which fall under the aegis of the Ministry of Agro-Industry and Food Security (MOAFS. It has been at the forefront of milk test­ing, constantly innovating with respect to analytical methods and instrumentation use. It has thus evolved from a laboratory that had the responsibility of monitoring the quality of milk in Government dairies and, later on, of locally-produced fresh raw milk under the Pilot Milk Scheme, to an institution providing analytical, advisory and technical services in various fields of food science and technology. From 1999 to 2014, more than 116,000 samples have been tested. The fat and microbial con­tents, and percentage adulteration with water varied depending on the client. The laboratory was accredited in 2012 by Mauritas, the local accreditation body, for certain microbiological param­eters. The aim of this paper was to describe the evolution in DCD activities with a focus on milk testing. The paper is based on a review of DCD past annual reports and relevant technical documents pertaining to the local milk sector. Food testing started in the 1920s in the Agricultural Services of MOAFS. The main activities were the analysis of morning and evening milk samples from Government dairies for fat, solids non-fat and lactose. The milk was assessed as being of fairly good chemical quality. Table I provides a summary of results of analyses of milk collected from Government dairies. DCD was created in 1973 in line with the Government policy to support the dairy sector. Apart from testing activities DCD has

  2. Dual role of lignin in plant litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Amy T; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2010-03-09

    Plant litter decomposition is a critical step in the formation of soil organic matter, the mineralization of organic nutrients, and the carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems. Biotic decomposition in mesic ecosystems is generally negatively correlated with the concentration of lignin, a group of complex aromatic polymers present in plant cell walls that is recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation and serves as a structural barrier impeding microbial access to labile carbon compounds. Although photochemical mineralization of carbon has recently been shown to be important in semiarid ecosystems, litter chemistry controls on photodegradative losses are not understood. We evaluated the importance of litter chemistry on photodegradation of grass litter and cellulose substrates with varying levels of lignin [cellulose-lignin (CL) substrates] under field conditions. Using wavelength-specific light attenuation filters, we found that light-driven mass loss was promoted by both UV and visible radiation. The spectral dependence of photodegradation correlated with the absorption spectrum of lignin but not of cellulose. Field incubations demonstrated that increasing lignin concentration reduced biotic decomposition, as expected, but linearly increased photodegradation. In addition, lignin content in CL substrates consistently decreased in photodegradative incubations. We conclude that lignin has a dual role affecting litter decomposition, depending on the dominant driver (biotic or abiotic) controlling carbon turnover. Under photodegradative conditions, lignin is preferentially degraded because it acts as an effective light-absorbing compound over a wide range of wavelengths. This mechanistic understanding of the role of lignin in plant litter decomposition will allow for more accurate predictions of carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. Characterisation of the surface topography, tomography and chemistry of fretting corrosion product found on retrieved polished femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M; Ward, M; Farrar, R; Freeman, R; Brummitt, K; Nolan, J; Neville, A

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the characterisation of the surface topography, tomography and chemistry of fretting corrosion product found on retrieved polished femoral stems. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FI-IR) were utilised in order to assess the surface morphology of retrieved Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacements and surface chemistry of the films found on the surface. Gross slip, plastic deformation and directionality of the surface were extensively seen on the proximal surfaces of the retrievals. A more corrosive phenomenon was observed in the distal regions of the stem, demonstrating a seemingly intergranular attack. Tribochemical reactions were seen to occur within the stem-cement interfaces with tribofilms being observed on the femoral stem and counterpart PMMA bone cement. XPS, TEM-EDX and FT-IR analyses demonstrated that the films present in the stem surfaces were a complex mixture of chromium oxide and amorphous organic material. A comparison between current experimental and clinical literature has been conducted and findings from this study demonstrate that the formation and chemistry of films are drastically influenced by the type of wear or degradation mechanism. Films formed in the stem-cement interface are thought to further influence the biological environment outside the stem-cement interface due to the formation of Cr and O rich films within the interface whilst Co is free to migrate away. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Reused Litter and Chemical Amendment on Broiler Chicken Performance and Litter Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemical amendments and reused litter on broiler performances, immune response and skin quality. Five hundred and seventy six (576 day old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 3x2 factorial design experiment. Three amendments treatment included control (no chemical addition, alunminum sulfate and zeolite; two types of litter were new and reused one. There were 4 replicates and 24 broiler chickens in each pen. The feed and water were available ad libitum during 42 days of experiment. The type of bedding had no significant effect on broilers performances (weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and mortality. Chemical amendments improved broilers performances during 0-35 days of production period but by the end of experiment there was no differences between treatment groups. Neither bedding type nor chemical amendments influenced skin erosion criteria responses. The immune response of broilers was not affected by either type of bedding or chemical amendments. It could be concluded that although beddings to be reused, it should be treated so as to overcome any defect of reused bedding.

  5. Nitrogen and carbon reallocation in fungal mycelia during decomposition of boreal forest litter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna B Boberg

    Full Text Available Boreal forests are characterized by spatially heterogeneous soils with low N availability. The decomposition of coniferous litter in these systems is primarily performed by basidiomycete fungi, which often form large mycelia with a well-developed capacity to reallocate resources spatially- an advantageous trait in heterogeneous environments. In axenic microcosm systems we tested whether fungi increase their biomass production by reallocating N between Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine needles at different stages of decomposition. We estimated fungal biomass production by analysing the accumulation of the fungal cell wall compound chitin. Monospecific systems were compared with systems with interspecific interactions. We found that the fungi reallocated assimilated N and mycelial growth away from well-degraded litter towards fresh litter components. This redistribution was accompanied by reduced decomposition of older litter. Interconnection of substrates increased over-all fungal C use efficiency (i.e. the allocation of assimilated C to biomass rather than respiration, presumably by enabling fungal translocation of growth-limiting N to litter with higher C quality. Fungal connection between different substrates also restricted N-mineralization and production of dissolved organic N, suggesting that litter saprotrophs in boreal forest ecosystems primarily act to redistribute rather than release N. This spatial integration of different resource qualities was hindered by interspecific interactions, in which litters of contrasting quality were colonised by two different basidiomycete species. The experiments provide a detailed picture of how resource reallocation in two decomposer fungi leads to a more efficient utilisation of spatially separated resources under N-limitation. From an ecosystem point of view, such economic fungal behaviour could potentially contribute to organic matter accumulation in the litter layers of boreal forests.

  6. Nitrogen and carbon reallocation in fungal mycelia during decomposition of boreal forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Johanna B; Finlay, Roger D; Stenlid, Jan; Ekblad, Alf; Lindahl, Björn D

    2014-01-01

    Boreal forests are characterized by spatially heterogeneous soils with low N availability. The decomposition of coniferous litter in these systems is primarily performed by basidiomycete fungi, which often form large mycelia with a well-developed capacity to reallocate resources spatially- an advantageous trait in heterogeneous environments. In axenic microcosm systems we tested whether fungi increase their biomass production by reallocating N between Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) needles at different stages of decomposition. We estimated fungal biomass production by analysing the accumulation of the fungal cell wall compound chitin. Monospecific systems were compared with systems with interspecific interactions. We found that the fungi reallocated assimilated N and mycelial growth away from well-degraded litter towards fresh litter components. This redistribution was accompanied by reduced decomposition of older litter. Interconnection of substrates increased over-all fungal C use efficiency (i.e. the allocation of assimilated C to biomass rather than respiration), presumably by enabling fungal translocation of growth-limiting N to litter with higher C quality. Fungal connection between different substrates also restricted N-mineralization and production of dissolved organic N, suggesting that litter saprotrophs in boreal forest ecosystems primarily act to redistribute rather than release N. This spatial integration of different resource qualities was hindered by interspecific interactions, in which litters of contrasting quality were colonised by two different basidiomycete species. The experiments provide a detailed picture of how resource reallocation in two decomposer fungi leads to a more efficient utilisation of spatially separated resources under N-limitation. From an ecosystem point of view, such economic fungal behaviour could potentially contribute to organic matter accumulation in the litter layers of boreal forests.

  7. Brine chemistry and control of adverse chemical reactions with natural gas production. Annual report, July 1990-June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, J.E.; Kan, A.T.; Cao, X.; Hunter, M.; Tomson, M.B.

    1991-08-01

    A significant quantity of brine is produced along with nearly all gas production. In addition to disposal, three specific chemistry problems occur: (1) scale formation; (2) carbon dioxide corrosion; (3) solids or turbidity production. Additionally, there are numerous specific analytical chemistry issues which require attention. Several research oriented small test squeezes were performed in the Delee Well. Results of these test squeezes were used to better design a full-sized squeeze at the O'Daniels No. 2 Well in the Alta Loma East field, near Galveston, Texas. Sulfate scale formation is common in offshore gas production, because of the high sulfate content in sea water. Preliminary work has been completed on sulfate scale prediction for the common scales of calcium, strontium and barium. These predictive algorithms have been developed for field use and are based upon readily measured brine parameters. Corresponding laboratory work on sulfate inhibition has been started using a newly developed high temperature and pressure flow through apparatus. Flow through core tests have been conducted to determine the important mechanisms of inhibition retention and release in the field. These results are summarized along with their major implications to squeeze design. Also, a new method has been developed and a patent application filed for low level phosphonate inhibition analysis in produced brines.

  8. The influence of feedstock and production temperature on biochar carbon chemistry: A solid-state 13C NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBeath, Anna V.; Smernik, Ronald J.; Krull, Evelyn S.; Lehmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the carbon chemistry of twenty-six biochars produced from eleven different feedstocks at production temperatures ranging from 350 °C to 600 °C. Carbon-13 NMR spectra were acquired using both cross-polarisation (CP) and direct polarisation (DP) techniques. Overall, the corresponding CP and DP spectra were similar, although aromaticity was slightly higher and observability much higher when DP was used. The relative size and purity of the aromatic ring structures (i.e. aromatic condensation) were also gauged using the ring current technique. Both aromaticity and aromatic condensation increased with increasing production temperature, regardless of the feedstock source. However, there were clear differences in these two measures for biochars produced at the same temperature but from different feedstocks. Based on a relationship previously established in a long-term incubation study between aromatic condensation and the mean residence time (MRT) of biochar, the MRT of the biochars was estimated to range from 1400 years. This study demonstrates how the combination of feedstock composition and production temperature influences the composition of aromatic domains in biochars, which in turn is likely to be related to their recalcitrance and ultimately their carbon sequestration value. -- Highlights: • Sensitive NMR techniques were used to gauge differences in biochar carbon chemistry. • Varying pyrolysis conditions influences biochars recalcitrant properties. • The MRT of contrasting biochars varies considerably from 1400 years

  9. Thesis and Dissertations Analysis on Chemistry Teaching in Brazil: Focus on the Scientific Production of Postgraduate Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Andretta Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The production and dissemination of scientific knowledge on chemistry education has received a great deal of attention from researchers both national and internationally. In this study, 152 master dissertations and two doctoral theses on this topic defended in Graduate Programs in Science and Mathematics Education in Brazil (CAPES - area 46, between 2000 and 2008, were analyzed. The documents were investigated thoroughly based on the following descriptors: year of defense; academic degree; geographic region, institution, and graduate program; level of education and thematic focus. The results strongly indicate the consolidation of the Chemistry Education Research area in the country showing an increased production within the period analyzed. The production of USP (32.30% predominated followed by PUC/RS (9.70%, UnB (8.40%, and UFRPE (8.40%, but there were also master dissertations from all regions in the country. On the other hand, in the majority of the regions, especially North and Northeast, there are few active researchers in this area, which suggests the need for the creation of new research teams. The levels of education focused were high school (74.68% and higher education (22.08%, whereas the topics Content-Method (27.27% Teachers Features (14.93%, and Teacher Education (14.29% were the most investigated. Surprisingly, the topics Popularization of Science and Special Education, related to issues currently discussed in important educational debates, were scarcely addressed.

  10. Carbon Stable Isotope Values in Plankton and Mussels Reflect Changes in Carbonate Chemistry Associated with Nutrient Enhanced Net Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn Oczkowski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are inherently complex and potentially adaptive as they respond to changes in nutrient loads and climate. We documented the role that carbon stable isotope (δ13C measurements could play in understanding that adaptation with a series of three Ecostat (i.e., continuous culture experiments. We quantified linkages among δ13C, nutrients, carbonate chemistry, primary, and secondary production in temperate estuarine waters. Experimental culture vessels (9.1 L containing 33% whole and 67% filtered (0.2 μm seawater were amended with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N and phosphorous (P in low (3 vessels; 5 μM N, 0.3 μM P, moderate (3 vessels; 25 μM N, 1.6 μM P, and high amounts (3 vessels; 50 μM N, 3.1 μM P. The parameters necessary to calculate carbonate chemistry, chlorophyll-a concentrations, and particulate δ13C values were measured throughout the 14 day experiments. Outflow lines from the experimental vessels fed 250 ml containers seeded with juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis. Mussel subsamples were harvested on days 0, 7, and 14 and their tissues were analyzed for δ13C values. We consistently observed that particulate δ13C values were positively correlated with chlorophyll-a, carbonate chemistry, and to changes in the ratio of bicarbonate to dissolved carbon dioxide (HCO3-:CO2. While the relative proportion of HCO3- to CO2 increased over the 14 days, concentrations of each declined, reflecting the drawdown of carbon associated with enhanced production. Plankton δ13C values, like chlorophyll-a concentrations, increased over the course of each experiment, with the greatest increases in the moderate and high treatments. Trends in δ13C over time were also observed in the mussel tissues. Despite ecological variability and different plankton abundances the experiments consistently demonstrated how δ13C values in primary producers and consumers reflected nutrient availability, via its impact on carbonate chemistry. We

  11. Study on hydrological functions of litter layers in North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, and runoff have received considerable attention during the study of water balance and hydrological processes in forested ecosystems. Past research has either neglected or underestimated the role of hydrological functions of litter layers, although some studies have considered the impact of various characteristics of rainfall and litter on litter interception. Based on both simulated rainfall and litter conditions in North China, the effect of litter mass, rainfall intensity and litter type on the maximum water storage capacity of litter (S and litter interception storage capacity (C were investigated under five simulated rainfall intensities and four litter masses for two litter types. The results indicated: 1 the S values increased linearly with litter mass, and the S values of broadleaf litter were on average 2.65 times larger than the S values of needle leaf litter; 2 rainfall intensity rather than litter mass determined the maximum interception storage capacity (Cmax ; Cmax increased linearly with increasing rainfall intensity; by contrast, the minimum interception storage capacity (Cmin showed a linear relationship with litter mass, but a poor correlation with rainfall intensity; 3 litter type impacted Cmax and Cmin ; the values of Cmax and Cmin for broadleaf litter were larger than those of needle leaf litter, which indicated that broadleaf litter could intercepte and store more water than needle leaf litter; 4 a gap existed between Cmax and Cmin , indicating that litter played a significant role by allowing rainwater to infiltrate or to produce runoff rather than intercepting it and allowing it to evaporate after the rainfall event; 5 Cmin was always less than S at the same litter mass, which should be considered in future interception predictions. Vegetation and precipitation characteristics played important roles in hydrological characteristics.

  12. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŠOCH

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.

  13. Influence of tropical leaf litter on nitrogen mineralization and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo, MD.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study concerns the relationships among leaf litter decomposition, substrate quality, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB community composition and nitrogen (N availability. Decomposition of organic matter affects the biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C and N. Since the composition of the soil microbial community can alter the physiological capacity of the community, it is timely to study the litter quality effect on N dynamic in ecosystems. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of leaf litter decomposition on N mineralization. The specific objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of the litter biochemistry of five plants species (Faidherbia albida A.Chev., Azadirachta indica A.Juss., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Andropogon gayanus Kunth and Eragrostis tremula Hochst. ex Steud. on N mineralization in a tropical ferrous soil (Lixisol, nitrification, and genetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of amplified fragments of genes coding for 16S rRNA was used to study the development of bacterial communities during decomposition of leaf litter in soils. Method. Community structure of AOB was determined at two time periods: day 0 and day 140. Ten strains were tested and each of these strains produced a single band. Thus, DGGE DNA band patterns were used to estimate bacterial diversity. Plant secondary compounds such as polyphenols are purported to influence nutrient cycling by affecting organic matter degradation, mineralization rates, N availability and humus formation. In a laboratory study, we investigated the influence of six phenolic acids (ferulic, gallic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric and p-HBA acids commonly found in the plant residues on N mineralization and NH4+ and NO3- production in soils. Results. The results showed that litter type did affect soil nitrification. Faidherbia albida litter was associated with

  14. SEASONAL AND TOPOGRAPHYCAL VARIATION OF THE LITTER NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF A ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela A. Tristão Borém

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to study the effects of forest degradation on the supplyand contents of nutrients in the litter of two toposequences. The study area is located in a fragment ofthe Atlantic Forest, in Silva Jardim, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (42°31'W and 22°31'S. The twotoposequences are under low and high degrees of human intervention. They were divided in lower,middle and upper slope, and the vegetation sampled with plots of 600m2. The litter was collected forquantitative and qualitative characterisation using a wood frame of 0,25m2 randomly distributedwithin the sample plots. Litter collection was carried out in two distinct dates in order to capture seasonalpatterns. The average litter production did not differ significantly between the toposequences.The total litter production was higher at the end of the dry season, and lower at the end of the rainyseason, indicating the seasonal pattern of the forest. The chemical analyses showed that the nutrientscontents varied widely between the toposequences. The lower and middle slope of the toposequenceunder high degree of human intervention presented the highest nutrient contents in the litter.

  15. Marine litter on deep Arctic seafloor continues to increase and spreads to the North at the HAUSGARTEN observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekman, Mine B.; Krumpen, Thomas; Bergmann, Melanie

    2017-02-01

    The increased global production of plastics has been mirrored by greater accumulations of plastic litter in marine environments worldwide. Global plastic litter estimates based on field observations account only for 1% of the total volumes of plastic assumed to enter the marine ecosystem from land, raising again the question 'Where is all the plastic? '. Scant information exists on temporal trends on litter transport and litter accumulation on the deep seafloor. Here, we present the results of photographic time-series surveys indicating a strong increase in marine litter over the period of 2002-2014 at two stations of the HAUSGARTEN observatory in the Arctic (2500 m depth). Plastic accounted for the highest proportion (47%) of litter recorded at HAUSGARTEN for the whole study period. When the most southern station was considered separately, the proportion of plastic items was even higher (65%). Increasing quantities of small plastics raise concerns about fragmentation and future microplastic contamination. Analysis of litter types and sizes indicate temporal and spatial differences in the transport pathways to the deep sea for different categories of litter. Litter densities were positively correlated with the counts of ship entering harbour at Longyearbyen, the number of active fishing vessels and extent of summer sea ice. Sea ice may act as a transport vehicle for entrained litter, being released during periods of melting. The receding sea ice coverage associated with global change has opened hitherto largely inaccessible environments to humans and the impacts of tourism, industrial activities including shipping and fisheries, all of which are potential sources of marine litter.

  16. Tenacity of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in different types of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A; Stallknecht, D; Ritz, C; García, M

    2012-08-01

    To determine the risk of infection associated with exposure to low-pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus-contaminated poultry litter, the tenacity of low pathogenic A/Ck/CA/431/00(H6N2), A/Mallard/MN/355779/00(H5N2), and A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04(H3N2) was evaluated. Viral stocks were incubated with poultry litter from commercial flocks at 25°C. Three types of poultry litter, wood shavings, shavings plus gypsum, and shavings plus peanut hulls, from commercial broiler flocks were used. The 3 low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses retained infectivity for one day in wood shavings and shavings plus peanut hulls litter types, whereas in wood shavings plus gypsum, litter viruses remained infective for up to 3 d. In contrast to the survivability in litter, all the viruses maintained infectivity in water for 4 d at titers of log(10)4.5. The infectivity of A/Ck/CA/431/00(H6N2) shed by experimentally infected layers, broilers, and turkeys was retained for one day, independently of the type of litter. In commercial production where a high density of birds are housed, the viral load shed by an infected flock will be significantly higher than the viral load shed 3 d postinfection obtained under the experimental conditions used in this study. Therefore proper management and disposal of poultry by products, such as windrow composting of litter and the composting of carcasses during an AI outbreak should be implemented.

  17. Skin interface pressure on the NATO litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Elizabeth J; Schmelz, Joseph O; Mazer, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    The NATO litter serves as a transport device and hospital bed during all types of operations. Little is known about the skin interface pressure on this litter. The purpose of this study was to determine whether various types of padding on the litter and body position affect the peak skin interface pressure and the total body area exposed to interface pressures above 30 mm Hg at different body areas. Thirty-two subjects participated. A repeated measures design was used. The surface effect was statistically significant for all peak pressure and surface area analyses (repeated-measures analysis of variance, p patients if feasible. Preventive measures (turning, elevating the heels) are still required.

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation using poultry litter management techniques in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainali, Brijesh; Emran, Saad Been; Silveira, Semida

    2017-01-01

    Poultry activities have expanded significantly in Bangladesh in recent years. The litter generated from rural poultry farms is often dumped in low ground neighboring areas resulting in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as water and air pollution. This study estimates the GHG emissions of a typical rural layer poultry farm in Bangladesh, and identifies the GHG emissions reduction potential when poultry litter management techniques are used to produce biogas, generating electricity and bio-fertilizer. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been used for a systematic evaluation of GHG-emissions considering the local supply chain in a typical rural layer poultry farm. The analysis shows that the GHG-emissions at the poultry farm amount to 1735 KgCO_2_e_q/10000 eggs produced if the litter is untreated. With the installation of an anaerobic digester, the emission intensity could be reduced by 65% if the gas is used to replace LPG for cooking purposes. If 100% digested slurry is utilized as bio-fertilizer, the emissions intensity could be further reduced by 17 times compared to the case without slurry utilization. These results justify the consideration of national programs to improve conditions in poultry farms in Bangladesh. - Highlights: • This study estimates GHG-emissions reduction potential of utilizing poultry litter for energy production in a rural farm. • Energy/mass flow and GHG balances are evaluated considering the local supply chain. • On-farm activities significantly affect GHG emissions among others across the supply chain. • Biogas production and use of slurry as bio-fertilizer significantly reduces the emission intensity. • Results from LCA and sensitivity analysis have been discussed to identify key influential parameters.

  19. Trends in summer chemistry linked to productivity in lakes recovering from acid deposition in the Adirondack region of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Sutherland, J.W.; Eichler, L.W.; Harrison, J.P.; Boylen, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program (AEAP) to evaluate and monitor the status of biological communities in lakes in the Adirondack region of New York that have been adversely affected by acid deposition. This program includes chemical analysis of 30 lakes, sampled two to three times each summer. Results of trends analysis for lake chemistry and chlorophyll a (chlor a) are presented for 1994 to 2003, and a general comparison is made with recent results of the Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) Program, which included chemical analysis of all but two of these lakes (plus an additional 24 lakes) monthly, year-round for 1992-2004. Increases in pH were found in 25 of the 30 AEAP lakes (P level of P level of P level of P level of P level of P chemistry were similar to those of the ALTM Program, although decreases in SO 42- concentrations were more evident in the year-round ALTM record. Overall, the results suggest (a) a degree of chemical recovery from acidification during the summer, (b) an increase in phytoplankton productivity, and (c) a decreasing trend in NO 3- concentrations resulting from the increased productivity. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  20. An Approach to Litter Generation and Littering Practices in a Mexico City Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia E. Muñoz-Cadena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban litter is generated by human societies everywhere. Some litter is recyclable waste. In this study, the acronym RMSW is used to refer to recyclable municipal solid waste generated in streets. Public attitude towards RMSW generation, generators’ perceptions, and quantification of RMSW in streets were examined in a Mexico City neighborhood, where litter presence causes major environmental problems affecting the population year after year. Interviews with neighborhood residents and item counts were carried out from 2010 to 2011. In all, 58% of interviewees reported generating RMSW at variable frequencies while 42% said they did not generate this kind of waste. Laziness, lack of vigilance by municipal authorities, no litter bins in streets, and imitation were the main causes identified by interviewees as reasons for littering. Potential litter generators may be of any age, educational level or income. Interviewees’ perception of RMSW generation was compared with item counts in the neighborhood studied.

  1. R&D of Novel Materials for Animal Litters Using High Carbon Fly Ash Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett J. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kadota, Rod [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This research program performed by Ceramatec may significantly increase the beneficial utilization of fly ash, and improve the overall performance of high quality animal litter products. Ceramatec has developed a novel high surface area material, which is capable of ammonia adsorption. High surface area zeolites when combined with agglomerated fly ash can significantly reduce the use of naturally mined materials (i.e. clay bentonite) for animal litter manufacture. This not only preserves natural resources and the natural environment, but it also will reduce CO2 emissions, via the reduced need for heavy mining equipment. This novel animal litter is made with over 85% of recycled materials, thus preventing their disposition to landfills. The novel litter material is similar to traditional clay-like litters, and it is clumpable and has superior odor control properties.

  2. Chemistry and liquid chromatography methods for the analyses of primary oxidation products of triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, A

    2015-05-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are one of the major components of the cells in higher biological systems, which can act as an energy reservoir in the living cells. The unsaturated fatty acid moiety is the key site of oxidation and formation of oxidation compounds. The TAG free radical generates several primary oxidation compounds. These include hydroperoxides, hydroxides, epidioxides, hydroperoxy epidioxides, hydroxyl epidioxides, and epoxides. The presence of these oxidized TAGs in the cell increases the chances of several detrimental processes. For this purpose, several liquid chromatography (LC) methods were reported in their analyses. This review is therefore focused on the chemistry, oxidation, extraction, and the LC methods reported in the analyses of oxidized TAGs. The studies on thin-layer chromatography were mostly focused on the total oxidized TAGs separation and employ hexane as major solvent. High-performance LC (HPLC) methods were discussed in details along with their merits and demerits. It was found that most of the HPLC methods employed isocratic elution with methanol and acetonitrile as major solvents with an ultraviolet detector. The coupling of HPLC with mass spectrometry (MS) highly increases the efficiency of analysis as well as enables reliable structural elucidation. The use of MS was found to be helpful in studying the oxidation chemistry of TAGs and needs to be extended to the complex biological systems.

  3. Chemistry of actinides and fission products in the nuclear-fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This colloquium was held under the auspices of the French and Russian Academies of Sciences, from 21 to 23 May 2003, at the 'Ecole nationale superieure de chimie de Paris' (ENSCP), under the cooperative framework agreed between the two Academies. Fifteen specialists from each country were brought together to present their results concerning research in their respective fields (industrial considerations, fundamental chemistry, the environment, new conditioning systems, hydro- and pyro-chemical separation techniques), situating the results in the general context of the two countries'common strategy for closing the nuclear fuel cycle and for the management of radioactive waste. The colloquium brought together 26 oral presentations, and three round table discussions (theoretical chemistry and modelling, the frontiers of research on the nuclear cycle, elemental characterisation). The speakers chosen represented a large section of the organisations involved in the research on these topics, from each country. This thematic issue of the Comptes Rendus Chimie presents some new insights into these topics and some original results. The colloquium was supported financially par the DRI of the French Academy des sciences, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA, Cogema, EDF, and ENSCP. (authors)

  4. Litter quality mediated nitrogen effect on plant litter decomposition regardless of soil fauna presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Chao, Lin; Yang, Qingpeng; Wang, Qingkui; Fang, Yunting; Wang, Silong

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen addition has been shown to affect plant litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. The way that nitrogen deposition impacts the relationship between plant litter decomposition and altered soil nitrogen availability is unclear, however. This study examined 18 co-occurring litter types in a subtropical forest in China in terms of their decomposition (1 yr of exposure in the field) with nitrogen addition treatment (0, 0.4, 1.6, and 4.0 mol·N·m -2 ·yr -1 ) and soil fauna exclusion (litter bags with 0.1 and 2 cm mesh size). Results showed that the plant litter decomposition rate is significantly reduced because of nitrogen addition; the strength of the nitrogen addition effect is closely related to the nitrogen addition levels. Plant litters with diverse quality responded to nitrogen addition differently. When soil fauna was present, the nitrogen addition effect on medium-quality or high-quality plant litter decomposition rate was -26% ± 5% and -29% ± 4%, respectively; these values are significantly higher than that of low-quality plant litter decomposition. The pattern is similar when soil fauna is absent. In general, the plant litter decomposition rate is decreased by soil fauna exclusion; an average inhibition of -17% ± 1.5% was exhibited across nitrogen addition treatment and litter quality groups. However, this effect is weakly related to nitrogen addition treatment and plant litter quality. We conclude that the variations in plant litter quality, nitrogen deposition, and soil fauna are important factors of decomposition and nutrient cycling in a subtropical forest ecosystem. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Retention of dead standing plant biomass (marcescence) increases subsequent litter decomposition in the soil organic layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angst, Šárka; Cajthaml, T.; Angst, Gerrit; Šimáčková, H.; Brus, Jiří; Frouz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 418, 1-2 (2017), s. 571-579 ISSN 0032-079X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : photodegradation * C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy * litter decomposition * pyrolysis GC-MS * Calamagrostis epigeios * photo-facilitation Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Soil science; Polymer science (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2016

  6. Can't See the Wood for the Litter: Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Bonigk, Isabel; Benkowitz, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated elementary school children's (n = 171) litter behavior during guided forest tours following two different treatments. Four classes received a verbal appeal not to litter in the forest, while another four classes received both a verbal appeal and a demonstration of the desired litter behavior (picking up litter, putting it…

  7. Pulse frequency and soil-litter mixing alter the control of cumulative precipitation over litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, François-Xavier; Kurupas, Kelsey L; Throop, Heather L

    2017-09-01

    Macroclimate has traditionally been considered the predominant driver of litter decomposition. However, in drylands, cumulative monthly or annual precipitation typically fails to predict decomposition. In these systems, the windows of opportunity for decomposer activity may rather depend on the precipitation frequency and local factors affecting litter desiccation, such as soil-litter mixing. We used a full-factorial microcosm experiment to disentangle the relative importance of cumulative precipitation, pulse frequency, and soil-litter mixing on litter decomposition. Decomposition, measured as litter carbon loss, saturated with increasing cumulative precipitation when pulses were large and infrequent, suggesting that litter moisture no longer increased and/or microbial activity was no longer limited by water availability above a certain pulse size. More frequent precipitation pulses led to increased decomposition at high levels of cumulative precipitation. Soil-litter mixing consistently increased decomposition, with greatest relative increase (+194%) under the driest conditions. Collectively, our results highlight the need to consider precipitation at finer temporal scale and incorporate soil-litter mixing as key driver of decomposition in drylands. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Pengaruh Berbagai Jenis Bahan Litter terhadap Kualitas Litter Broiler Fase Finisher di Closed House

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwi Metasari; Dian Septinova; Veronica Wanniatie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to 1) determine the effect of the use of rice husk, wood shavings,rice straw as litter material on litter quality for broiler during the finisher phase in closed house, 2)determine the best type of litter material on litter quality for broiler during the finisher phase in closedhouse. The duration of the research was 26 days. The research was started from 15 April to 10 May2014 in the closed house owned by PT. Rama Jaya Lampung Krawang Sari Village, the District o...

  9. Performance, carcass yield and litter quality of broilers raised on litters treated with micro-organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz,Dayane Prado da; Otutumi,Luciana Kazue; Piau Júnior,Ranulfo; Cervantes,Rodrigo Panucci; Mezalira,Taniara Suelen; Gerônimo,Edson

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-o...

  10. PERFORMANCE, CARCASS YIELD AND LITTER QUALITY OF BROILERS RAISED ON LITTERS TREATED WITH MICRO-ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Prado da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-organisms and weekly spraying of water; Treatment 3 – Litter treated by weekly spraying of micro-organisms; Treatment 4 – Litter treated with the same mixture of meals from treatment two and weekly spraying of micro-organisms. Performance was evaluated by the feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion, viability and carcass, breast and leg yield. From litter samples, pH, dry matter, ashes and nitrogen were evaluated. No differences were found among the treatments. In the conditions the animals were raised, it can be concluded that the treatment on the litter does not affect performance, carcass yield and quality of the litter for broilers.

  11. Arst on patsiendi poolel / Galina Litter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litter, Galina, 1956-

    2006-01-01

    Naistearst Galina Litter seadusest, mis lubab alaealistel ilma vanema nõusolekuta aborti teha. Vastus artiklile : Varro Vooglaid. Vanemate vastutus - kas reaalne või paljasõnaline? // Õpetajate Leht (2006) 13. okt., lk. 1, 7

  12. Effects of litter manipulation on litter decomposition in a successional gradients of tropical forests in southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Global changes such as increasing CO2, rising temperature, and land-use change are likely to drive shifts in litter inputs to forest floors, but the effects of such changes on litter decomposition remain largely unknown. We initiated a litter manipulation experiment to test the response of litter...... decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8...

  13. Identification and quantification of aflatoxins and aflatoxicol from poultry feed and their recovery in poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, G; Carvajal, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Avila-González, E; Chilpa-Galván, N; Castillo-Urueta, P; Flores, C M

    2010-05-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites and are known mycotoxins pathological to animals and humans. Poultry litter is frequently used as a food supplement for ruminants, and when poultry feed contains AF, the litter becomes contaminated as well, thus having an effect on livestock health. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)) from poultry feed and their recovery, together with their metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and aflatoxicol) in litter. An experiment with 25 Hy-Line W-36 hens, in their second production stage, 121 wk old, was carried out. Hens were distributed in 3 groups placed in individual cages and 1 ration of 250 g of feed was given to each hen daily. Nine hens of the control group were fed with clean feed, without AFB(1); the other 2 experimental groups, with 8 hens each, were fed with 2 AFB(1) concentrations: 30 and 500 microg.kg(-1). The feed was replaced and weighed daily throughout a 7-d period to register the amount of feed consumed by the hens. Litter from each hen was collected, weighed, and dried individually. The chemical analysis of 40 g of each one of the 200 feed and 200 litter samples was chemically extracted and concentrated with immunoaffinity columns for total AF. To quantify AF, calibration curves for each AF were done by HPLC. Feed samples of the 3 groups presented significant difference with AFB(2) and AFG(2), whereas in litter samples, there were significant differences for AFG(2) in the 500 microg.kg(-1) group. Poultry litter had traces of AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and AFL with no significant differences among treatments. Aflatoxin B(1) prevalence in litter samples can cause damages in livestock because this mycotoxin reduces the digestibility of ruminant feed up to 67%.

  14. Litter Fall and Its Decomposition in Sapium sebiferum Roxb.: An Invasive Tree Species in Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Jaryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that high litter fall and its rapid decomposition are key traits of invasive species, litter fall and its decay in Sapium sebiferum Roxb. were studied in Palampur. For this, litter traps of dimension 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 were placed in under-canopy and canopy gap of the species. Litter fall was monitored monthly and segregated into different components. For litter decay studies, litter bags of dimension 25 × 20 cm2 with a mesh size 2 mm were used and the same were analyzed on a fortnightly basis. Litter fall in both under-canopy and canopy gap was highest in November (1.16 Mg ha−1 y−1 in under-canopy and 0.38 Mg ha−1 y−1 in canopy gap and lowest during March. Litter production in under-canopy and canopy gap was 4.04 Mg ha−1 y−1 and 1.87 Mg ha−1 y−1, respectively. These values are comparable to sal forest (1.7 t C ha−1 y−1, chir pine-mixed forest (2.1 t C ha−1 y−1, and mixed oak-conifer forest (2.8 t C ha−1 y−1 of the Western Himalaya. The decay rate, 0.46% day−1 in under-canopy and 0.48% day−1 in canopy gap, was also fast. Owing to this the species may be able to modify the habitats to its advantage, as has been reported elsewhere.

  15. Can visible light impact litter decomposition under pollution of ZnO nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuyan; Liu, Lina; Qv, Mingxiang; Lv, Yanna; Yin, Yifei; Zhou, Yinfei; Cui, Minghui; Zhu, Yanfeng; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2017-11-01

    ZnO nanoparticles is one of the most used materials in a wide range including antibacterial coating, electronic device, and personal care products. With the development of nanotechnology, ecotoxicology of ZnO nanoparticles has been received increasing attention. To assess the phototoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystem, microcosm experiments were conducted on Populus nigra L. leaf litter decomposition under combined effect of ZnO nanoparticles and visible light radiation. Litter decomposition rate, pH value, extracellular enzyme activity, as well as the relative contributions of fungal community to litter decomposition were studied. Results showed that long-term exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and visible light led to a significant decrease in litter decomposition rate (0.26 m -1 vs 0.45 m -1 ), and visible light would increase the inhibitory effect (0.24 m -1 ), which caused significant decrease in pH value of litter cultures, fungal sporulation rate, as well as most extracellular enzyme activities. The phototoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles also showed impacts on fungal community composition, especially on the genus of Varicosporium, whose abundance was significantly and positively related to decomposition rate. In conclusion, our study provides the evidence for negatively effects of ZnO NPs photocatalysis on ecological process of litter decomposition and highlights the contribution of visible light radiation to nanoparticles toxicity in freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine Natural Product Bis-indole Alkaloid Caulerpin: Chemistry and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunagariya, Jignesh; Bhadja, Poonam; Zhong, Shenghui; Vekariya, Rohit; Xu, Shihai

    2017-09-27

    Marine bis-indole alkaloids comprise a large and increasingly growing class of secondary metabolites, and continue to deliver a great variety of structural templates. The alkaloids derived from marine resources play a crucial role in medicinal chemistry and as chemical agents. In particular, bis-indole alkaloid caulerpin isolated from marine green algae Caulerpa and a red algae Chondria armata at various places around the world, and tested against several therapeutic areas such as anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-larvicidal, anti-herpes, anti-tubercular, anti-microbial and immunostimulating activity as well as means of other chemical agents. Herein, we summarized discovery of caulerpin, and its potential medicinal and chemical applications in chronological order with various aspects. Additionally, synthesis of caulerpin, its functional analogues, and structural isomer have also been reviewed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Produção de serapilheira e ciclagem de nutrientes na cultura do cajueiro anão precoce Litter production and nutrient cycles in the young dwarf cashew culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Soares

    2008-02-01

    decomposição das folhas.This study aimed to (a to evaluate the biomass production from the crown of the young dwarf cashew, clone CCP 76, at 2, 3, 8 and 9 years of culture implantation, (b to determine the rate of leaf decomposition and (c to quantify nutrient contribution potentially available in the biomass to be recycled into the soil. The research was conducted at the Experimental Field of Curu, in Paraipaba - CE, from December, 2003 to January, 2005. The treatments consisted of orchards with trees of 2, 3, 8 and 9 years of plantation, distributed in a completely randomized design with eight replications. Litter was collected using 1 m² collectors with 1 mm² mesh place 40 cm above the soil surface. After sampling, the material was sorted out into portions of leaves, branches, inflorescence, peduncle and nut, oven dried and weighed. In the leaf portion, the compositions of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were determined. Leaves ready to fall were collected from each plant to determine their decomposition rate and 12 g of this material was stove dried, and placed in 20 cm x 20 cm nylon bags and 2 mm mesh which were distributed on the soil surface and collected after 112, 233 and 369 days. In each collection, the material was oven dried and the remaining nutrient biomass (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn was determined. The 8- and 9- year- old plants deposited greater quantities of litter during the experimental period and showed greater potential for nutrient recycling. During the experimental period it was generally observed that the decomposition process was fast in the first four months, remaining slow until the end of the observation period. Most of the nutrients in the cashew tree were released in the first four months of leaf composition.

  18. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  19. VOC emission into the atmosphere by trees and leaf litter in Polish forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidorov, V.; Smolewska, M.; Tyszkiewicz, Z.

    2009-04-01

    It is generally recognized at present that the vegetation of continents is the principal source of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOC) of the atmosphere. The upper limit of the evaluation of global phytogenic VOC is 1100-1500 Tg/yr (Isidorov, 1990; Guenther et al., 1995). Although these global evaluations showing the place of phytogenic emission among of other VOC sources are important, evaluations for individual countries are also very important. This poster represents the results of the estimation of VOC emission from Polish forests. Calculations took into account the composition and age of forests. According to our estimation, the total VOC emission by the arboreal vegetation differs from 190 to 750 kt/yr, depending of weather conditions in different years. There are only few studies conducted on decaying plant material as a source of atmospheric VOCs, but still they are able to give evidence of the importance of this source. For Polish forests, the litter mass is estimated to be (16-19)106 t/yr. These organic materials undergo decomposition by mesofauna and microorganisms. In these processes volatile organic compounds (VOC) stored in the litter and secondary metabolites of litter-destroying fungi are emitted into the atmosphere. The scale of the phenomenon makes leaf litter an important VOC source in the atmosphere. The filling of numerous gaps in researches of VOC emissions from decomposing leaf litter demands carrying out of long term field experiments in various climatic conditions. In this communication we report also the results of 3.5-year experiment on qualitative and quantitative GC-MS investigations of VOC emitted into the gas phase from leaves litter of some species of deciduous and coniferous trees of Polish forests. Apart from terpenes and their oxygenated derivatives, which are usual in plant tissues, leaf litter intensively emits vast amounts of lower alcohols and carbonyl compounds. We suppose that these volatile substances are products

  20. Economic analysis of the hydrogen production by means of the thermo-chemistry process iodine-sulfur with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solorzano S, C.; Francois L, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    In this work an economic study was realized about a centralized plant of hydrogen production that works by means of a thermo-chemistry cycle of sulfur-iodine and uses heat coming from a nuclear power plant of IV generation, with base in the software -Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Programme- obtained through the IAEA. The sustainable technology that is glimpsed next for the generation of hydrogen is to great scale and based on processes of high temperature coupled to nuclear power plants, being the most important the cycle S-I and the electrolysis to high temperature, for what objective references are presented that can serve as base for the taking of decisions for its introduction in Mexico. After detailing the economic models that uses the software for the calculation of the even cost of hydrogen production and the characteristics, so much of the nuclear plant constituted by fourth generation reactors, as of the plant of hydrogen production, is proposed a -base- case, obtaining a preliminary even cost of hydrogen production with this process; subsequently different cases are studied starting from which are carried out sensibility analysis in several parameters that could rebound in this cost, taking into account that these reactors are still in design and planning stages. (Author)

  1. The Chemistry of Self-Heating Food Products: An Activity for Classroom Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel; Llorens-Molina, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Two commercial self-heating food products have been used to apply chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, enthalpies of reactions and solutions, and heat transfer in a classroom activity. These products are the self-heating beverages sold in Europe and the Meals, Ready to Eat or MREs used primarily by the military in the United States. The main…

  2. The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural Production in Modern Lignocellulose-Feedstock Biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcotullio, G.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation deals with biorefinery technology development, i.e. with the development of sustainable industrial methods aimed at the production of chemicals, fuels, heat and power from lignocellulosic biomass. This work is particularly focused on the production of furfural from

  3. Temperatures below leaf litter during winter prescribed burns: implications for litter-roosting bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Virginia L. McDaniel

    2015-01-01

    Some bat species, including eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), roost for short periods beneath leaf litter on the forest floor during winter in the south-eastern USA, a region subjected to frequent fire. The variability in fuel consumption, the heterogeneous nature of burns, and the effects of litter and duff moisture on forest-floor...

  4. Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Dune Grassland: Neutral Effect of Water Supply and Inhibitory Effect of Nitrogen Addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Li

    Full Text Available The decomposition of plant material in arid ecosystems is considered to be substantially controlled by water and N availability. The responses of litter decomposition to external N and water, however, remain controversial, and the interactive effects of supplementary N and water also have been largely unexamined.A 3.5-year field experiment with supplementary nitrogen and water was conducted to assess the effects of N and water addition on mass loss and nitrogen release in leaves and fine roots of three dominant plant species (i.e., Artemisia halondendron, Setaria viridis, and Phragmites australis with contrasting substrate chemistry (e.g. N concentration, lignin content in this study in a desertified dune grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments included N addition, water addition, combination of N and water, and an untreated control. The decomposition rate in both leaves and roots was related to the initial litter N and lignin concentrations of the three species. However, litter quality did not explain the slower mass loss in roots than in leaves in the present study, and thus warrant further research. Nitrogen addition, either alone or in combination with water, significantly inhibited dry mass loss and N release in the leaves and roots of the three species, whereas water input had little effect on the decomposition of leaf litter and fine roots, suggesting that there was no interactive effect of supplementary N and water on litter decomposition in this system. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that the inhibitory effects of external N on dry mass loss and nitrogen release are relatively strong in high-lignin litter compared with low-lignin litter.These findings suggest that increasing precipitation hardly facilitates ecosystem carbon turnover but atmospheric N deposition can enhance carbon sequestration and nitrogen retention in desertified dune grasslands of northern China. Additionally, litter quality of plant species

  5. Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Dune Grassland: Neutral Effect of Water Supply and Inhibitory Effect of Nitrogen Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulin; Ning, Zhiying; Cui, Duo; Mao, Wei; Bi, Jingdong; Zhao, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    The decomposition of plant material in arid ecosystems is considered to be substantially controlled by water and N availability. The responses of litter decomposition to external N and water, however, remain controversial, and the interactive effects of supplementary N and water also have been largely unexamined. A 3.5-year field experiment with supplementary nitrogen and water was conducted to assess the effects of N and water addition on mass loss and nitrogen release in leaves and fine roots of three dominant plant species (i.e., Artemisia halondendron, Setaria viridis, and Phragmites australis) with contrasting substrate chemistry (e.g. N concentration, lignin content in this study) in a desertified dune grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments included N addition, water addition, combination of N and water, and an untreated control. The decomposition rate in both leaves and roots was related to the initial litter N and lignin concentrations of the three species. However, litter quality did not explain the slower mass loss in roots than in leaves in the present study, and thus warrant further research. Nitrogen addition, either alone or in combination with water, significantly inhibited dry mass loss and N release in the leaves and roots of the three species, whereas water input had little effect on the decomposition of leaf litter and fine roots, suggesting that there was no interactive effect of supplementary N and water on litter decomposition in this system. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that the inhibitory effects of external N on dry mass loss and nitrogen release are relatively strong in high-lignin litter compared with low-lignin litter. These findings suggest that increasing precipitation hardly facilitates ecosystem carbon turnover but atmospheric N deposition can enhance carbon sequestration and nitrogen retention in desertified dune grasslands of northern China. Additionally, litter quality of plant species should be considered

  6. Assessment of frequent litter amendment application on ammonia emission from broilers operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Lin, Chongyang; Collier, Stephen; Brown, William; White-Hansen, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Litter amendments have been used to control the ammonia (NH3) emission from the broiler litter during the brooding period. One of the commercially available litter amendments, sodium bisulfate, was frequently applied on the litter with two different rates on weekly basis in a laboratory setup and with a single rate on biweekly basis under field conditions. Repeated application ofsodium bisulfate led to significant reduction in NH3 emissions from broilers. The magnitude of NH3 emission reduction increases with the application rate of sodium bisulfate. The reduction rates of cumulative emissions with 366 g/wk-m2 (75 lb/wk-1000 ft) rate (from 14% to 64.5%) were higher than the reduction rate of 183 g/wk-m2 (37.5 lb/wk-1000 ft2) rate (from 0% to 55%) from 28 to 61 days of age. The cumulative NH3 emission was reduced by 51.7% with 244 g/2 wk-m2 (50 lb/2 wk-1000 ft2) rate over a three-flockperiod (8-wk average grow-out per flock) under field production conditions. Sodium bisulfate application showed no significant difference on body weight and feed conversion efficiency. However, footpad quality was significantly improved by sodium bisulfate application. Litter pH and ammonia nitrogen level of the litter were decreased by sodium bisulfate application with both rates. Organic and total nitrogen contents in the litter were higher, whereas less nitrogen was emitted as NH3. The laboratory-scale findings of emission reduction by the additives should be considered to be preliminary if the additives are to be applied under commercial production settings. This work demonstrated that frequent litter amendment application can be used to reduce NH3 emissions from broiler houses, with no adverse effect on the animal production performances. The NH3 reduction rates could vary with different application frequencies and rates. Using litter amendment during broiler grow-out to lower NH3 emissions should be applicable to boiler production systems. The results of this study also

  7. The Effect of using Quail Litter Biochar on Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Production Efecto del uso de Biocarbón de Lecho de Codorniz en la Producción de Soya (Glycine max L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawadchai Suppadit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochars can be used as soil amendments for improving soil properties and crop yield. The objective of this research was to study the plant growth, yield, yield components, and seed quality, including nutrients and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg, in the soybean plant (Glycine max L. Merr. and soil. The experiment was conducted from September 2010 to January 2011 in a greenhouse located in the Dan Khun Thot District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The research comprised six treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. Quail litter biochar (QLB at rates of 0, 24.6, 49.2, 73.8, 98.4 and 123 g per pot mixture were provided to soybean cv. Chiang Mai 60. The results showed that QLB could be used as a soil fertility improvement and amendment for soybean production with an optimum rate of 98.4 g per pot mixture, which gave the best performance in terms of the number of nodes, height, DM accumulation, total yield, and seed quality. After the experiment, the nutrient contents in the soil increased as the QLB content increased, but the heavy metal residues in the leaves and seeds did not change. However, QLB at levels higher than 98.4 g per pot mixture is not advisable because QLB is alkaline in nature, which may affect soil pH.El biocarbón puede usarse como enmienda para mejorar las propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento del cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue el estudio del crecimiento de la planta, rendimiento y sus características, así como la calidad de semilla, incluyéndose el estudio de nutrientes y metales pesados (Pb, Cd y Hg en la planta de soya (Glycine max L. Merr. y el suelo. La experimentación se realizó en condiciones de invernadero en el distrito de Dan Khun Thot, provincia de Nakhon Ratchasima, Tailandia, entre septiembre del 2010 y enero del 2011. La investigación constó de seis tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones en un diseño completamente al azar. Se administró biocarbón de lecho de

  8. The Effects of Research & Development Funding on Scientific Productivity: Academic Chemistry, 1990-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L Rosenbloom

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between Research & Development (R&D funding and the production of knowledge by academic chemists. Using articles published, either raw counts or adjusted for quality, we find a strong, positive causal effect of funding on knowledge production. This effect is similar across subsets of universities, suggesting a relatively efficient allocation of R&D funds. Finally, we document a rapid acceleration in the rate at which chemical knowledge was produced in the late 1990s and early 2000s relative to the financial and human resources devoted to its production.

  9. The Effect of Litter Position on Ultraviolet Photodegradation of Standing Dead Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; King, J. Y.

    2012-12-01

    In dryland ecosystems, models incorporating only biotic mechanisms usually underestimate the decay rate of plant litter. Photodegradation, an abiotic process through which solar radiation breaks down organic matter, has recently been proposed as an important pathway of litter decomposition in dryland ecosystems, accounting for as much as 25 to 60% of mass loss. However, it remains unclear what factors control the relative importance of photodegradation and biotic decomposition. It is hypothesized that this balance is affected by the location of litter within the litter layer (or thatch): in upper layers of thatch, photodegradation is significant because litter is exposed to sunlight; in lower layers where litter is strongly shaded, photodegradation is negligible compared to biotic decomposition. In August 2011, a field experiment was initiated at the University of California's Sedgwick Reserve, Santa Ynez, CA, in order to understand how ultraviolet (UV) radiation and litter position within the thatch affect litter decomposition. Two levels of UV radiation (280-400 nm) are achieved by screens: "UV-Pass" (transmitting > 81% of UV radiation) and "UV-Block" (transmitting plant litter was 19% higher in UV-Pass than in UV-Block treatments, but there was no difference at the top of the thatch. Because lignin is recalcitrant to biotic decomposition, a greater proportion of lignin could remain in litter where biotic decomposition was faster. Therefore, the pattern of lignin concentration supports the interpretation that greater biotic decomposition occurred under the UV-Pass treatment. Regardless of UV manipulation, litter mass loss was 25% faster at the top of the thatch than at the bottom. Litter at the top of the thatch also had 6% higher cellulose concentration and 13% lower lignin concentration than at the bottom of the thatch after 9 months of field exposure. Photodegradation (by UV and visible light) likely contributed more to decomposition at the top of the thatch

  10. Some in-reactor loop experiments on corrosion product transport and water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Allison, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the transport of activated corrosion products in the heat transport circuit of pressurized water-cooled nuclear reactors using an in-reactor loop showed that the concentration of particulate and dissolved corrosion products in the high-temperature water depends on such chemical parameters as pH and dissolved hydrogen concentration. Transients in these parameters, as well as in temperature, generally increase the concentration of suspended corrosion products. The maximum concentration of particles observed is much reduced when high-flow, high-temperature filtration is used. Filtration also reduces the steady-state concentration of particles. Dissolved corrosion products are mainly responsible for activity accumulation on surfaces. The data obtained from this study were used to estimate the rate constants for some of the transfer processes involved in the contamination of the primary heat transport circuit in water-cooled nuclear power reactors

  11. Corrosion product balances for the Ringhals PWR plants based on extensive fuel crud and water chemistry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.; Wikmark, G.; Bengtsson, B.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion product balance in a PWR plant is of great importance for the fuel performance as well as for the radiation field buildup. This balance is of special concern in connection to steam generator replacement (SGR) and power uprate projects. The Ringhals PWRs are all of Westinghouse design. Two of the plants have performed Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) to I-690 SG tubes and such a replacement is being planned in the third and last unit in 2011. Two of the units are in different phases of power uprate projects. The plants are all on 10-14-months cycles operating with medium to high fuel duty. Water chemistry is controlled by a pH300 in the range ∼7.2 to 7.4 from beginning of cycle to end of cycle (BOC-EOC) in the units with new SGs while kept at a coordinated pH of 7.2 in the one still using I-600. The maximum Li content has recently been increased to about 4.5 to 5 ppm in all units. In order to be able to improve the assessment of corrosion product balances in the plants, comprehensive fuel crud measurements were performed in 2007. Improved integrated reactor water sampling techniques have also been introduced in order to make accurate mass balances possible. The corrosion products covered in the study are the main constituents, Ni, Fe and Cr in the primary circuit Inconel and stainless steel, together with Co. The activated corrosion products, Co-58, Co-60, Cr-51, Fe-59 and Mn-54, are all mainly produced through neutron irradiation of the covered corrosion products. The main results of the corrosion product balances are presented. Observed differences between the plants, indicating significant impact of pH control and SG tube materials, are presented and discussed. The importance of accurate sampling techniques is especially addressed in this paper. (author)

  12. Enabling continuous-flow chemistry in microstructured devices for pharmaceutical and fine-chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockmann, Norbert; Gottsponer, Michael; Zimmermann, Bertin; Roberge, Dominique M

    2008-01-01

    Microstructured devices offer unique transport capabilities for rapid mixing, enhanced heat and mass transfer and can handle small amounts of dangerous or unstable materials. The integration of reaction kinetics into fluid dynamics and transport phenomena is essential for successful application from process design in laboratory to chemical production. Strategies to implement production campaigns up to tons of pharmaceutical chemicals are discussed, based on Lonza projects.

  13. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  14. MENINGKATKAN PRODUKSI AYAM PEDAGING MELALUI PENGATURAN PROPORSI SEKAM, PASIR DAN KAPUR SEBAGAI LITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan  untuk mengetahui  proporsi yang tepat antara sekam, pasir dan kapur  sebagai litter terhadap produksi ayam pedaging. Hasil penelitian diharapkan dapat digunakan sebagai informasi dan pertimbangan bagi peternak ayam pedaging dalam penggunaan proporsi sekam, pasir dan kapur yang tepat sebagi litter untuk meningkatkan produksi ayam pedaging. Materi yang digunakan adalah 72 ekor ayam pedaging jantan strain Lohman umur 3 minggu, dengan bobot badan 424,74 ± 42,46 g Metode penelitian adalah percobaan dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan empat perlakuan dan enam ulangan. Perlakuan yang diberikan adalah perbedaan proporsi antara sekam, pasir dan kapur sebagai litter, yaitu P0 = litter dari 100 % sekam , P1 =  50 % sekam, 33 % pasir, 17 % kapur. Perlakuan P2 = 33 % sekam, 50 % pasir, 17 % kapur dan P3 = 41,5 % sekam, 41,5 % pasir dan 17 % kapur. Variabel yang diamati meliputi konsumsi pakan, pertambahan bobot badan dan konversi pakan. Data  dianalisis dengan sidik ragam, dan jika terdapat perbedaan yang nyata atau sangat nyata dikanjutkan dengan Uji Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan proporsi sekam, pasir dan kapur dalam litter memberikan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 terhadap konsumsi pakan dan pertambahan bobot badan, tetapi tidak memberikan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata terhadap konversi pakan. Kesimpulan, penggunaan litter yang terdiri dari 50 % sekam, 33 % pasir dan  17 % kapur dapat meningkatkan konsumsi pakan dan pertambahan bobot badan pada ayam pedaging dan tidak menurunkan konversi pakan. Saran pada pemeliharaan ayam pedaging untuk meningkatkan konsumsi pakan dan pertambahan bobot badan  sebaiknya digunalkan litter yang terdiri dari 50 % sekam, 33 % pasir dan  17 % kapur   Kata kunci : Ayam pedaging, konsumsi pakan, pertambahan bobot badan, konversi Pakan,  dan litter.     INCREASED  OF  BROILER PRODUCTION PASSED ARRANGEMENT OF PROPORTION  RICE HULL, SAND

  15. Microbial plant litter decomposition in aquatic and terrestrial boreal systems along a natural fertility gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, A. Margarida P. M.; Kritzberg, Emma S.; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Plant litter decomposition is a global ecosystem process, with a crucial role in carbon and nutrient cycling. The majority of litter processing occurs in terrestrial systems, but an important fraction also takes place in inland waters. Among environmental factors, pH impacts the litter decomposition through its selective influence on microbial decomposers. Fungal communities are less affected by pH than bacteria, possibly owing to a wider pH tolerance by this group. On the other hand, bacterial pH optima are constrained to a narrower range of pH values. The microbial decomposition of litter is universally nutrient limited; but few comparisons exist between terrestrial and aquatic systems. We investigated the microbial colonisation and decomposition of plant litter along a fertility gradient, which varied in both pH and N availability in both soil and adjacent water. To do this we installed litterbags with birch (Betula pendula) in streams and corresponding soils in adjacent riparian areas in a boreal system, in Krycklan, Sweden. During the four months covering the ice-free growth season we monitored the successional dynamics of fungal (acetate incorporation into ergosterol) and bacterial growth (thymidine incorporation), microbial respiration in leaf litter, and quantitative and qualitative changes in litter over time. We observed that bacterial growth rates were initially higher in litter decomposing in streams than those in soils, but differences between terrestrial and aquatic bacterial production converged towards the end of the experiment. In litter bags installed in soils, bacterial growth was lower at sites with more acidic pH and lower N availability, while aquatic bacteria were relatively unaffected by the fertility level. Fungal growth rates were two-fold higher for litter decomposing in streams than in soils. In aquatic systems, fungal growth was initially lower in low fertility sites, but differences gradually disappeared over the time course. Fungal

  16. ECONOMIC RETURNS FROM REDUCING POULTRY LITTER PHOSPHORUS WITH MICROBIAL PHYTASE

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Darrell J.; Zhu, Minkang; Kornegay, Ervin T.

    1997-01-01

    Requiring that crop applications of manure be based on phosphorus content (P-standard) could increase poultry litter disposal costs. Microbial phytase reduces litter P content and could reduce litter disposal costs under a P-standard. For a representative Virginia turkey farm, phytase costs $2,500 and could increase value of litter used for fertilizer on the turkey farm by $390 and reduce supplemental P feed costs by $1,431. Based on assumed litter demand and supply, estimated litter export p...

  17. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  18. Characterization and chemistry of fission products released from LWR fuel under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, K.S.; Collins, J.L.; Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Wichner, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Segments from commercial LWR fuel rods have been tested at temperatures between 1400 and 2000 0 C in a flowing steam-helium atmosphere to simulate severe accident conditions. The primary goals of the tests were to determine the rate of fission product release and to characterize the chemical behavior. This paper is concerned primarily with the identification and chemical behavior of the released fission products with emphasis on antimony, cesium, iodine, and silver. The iodine appeared to behave primarily as cesium iodide and the antimony and silver as elements, while cesium behavior was much more complex. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE PRODUCTION OF BEVERAGES: THE TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY FROM THE PRODUCTION OF AGUARDENTE DE CAGAITA (EUGENIA DYSENTERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversity in the types of vegetation, Brazil is the second largest biome Cerrado, occupying 25% of the country, surpassed only by the Amazon. In Minas Gerais, the Brazilian state has about 10.3% of its area the Cerrado vegetation, covering mainly areas of the Upper and Middle Jequitinhonha. The flora of the cerrado has several fruit species with high potential for agricultural use, which are traditionally used by local people, and the fruits have high levels of sugars, proteins and minerals. Among the great diversity of plants and fruits present in the cerrado is the Eugenia dysenterica, popularly known as cagaita. The fruit is globular yellow color when ripe, slightly acid and can reach up to 4 cm long and up to 5 cm diameter. The work here exposed was led initially to a survey of state schools that have high school in the city of Sete Lagoas-MG. After this survey was chosen for the project development a nearby school of the Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei (UFSJ-CSL for viability of the project and in which direction proved to be very available. 3rd year high school classes were chosen, totaling 55 students, selecting the students who had greater knowledge of the concepts studied and shown interest. Various activities with students have been developed, one of which is the application of a questionnaire in the first meeting, which enabled us to identify where the problems thereof. a booklet with texts followed fixation exercises and illustrative images on each topic worked in class and the students images developing the proposed project activities was developed. This study aimed to use a fruit of the Cerrado, cagaita to perform fermentation and subsequent distillation, to promote ownership of the concepts of chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology in high school students. Through the questionnaire at the end of the project, it was possible to assess the relevance of their work and the impact on the training of students. The study

  20. Role of Reactive Mn Complexes in a Litter Decomposition Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, P. S.; Keiluweit, M.; Bougoure, J.; Kleber, M.; Summering, J. A.; Maynard, J. J.; Johnson, M.; Pett-Ridge, J.

    2012-12-01

    The search for controls on litter decomposition rates and pathways has yet to return definitive characteristics that are both statistically robust and can be understood as part of a mechanistic or numerical model. Herein we focus on Mn, an element present in all litter that is likely an active chemical agent of decomposition. Berg and co-workers (2010) found a strong correlation between Mn concentration in litter and the magnitude of litter degradation in boreal forests, suggesting that litter decomposition proceeds more efficiently in the presence of Mn. Although there is much circumstantial evidence for the potential role of Mn in lignin decomposition, few reports exist on mechanistic details of this process. For the current work, we are guided by the hypothesis that the dependence of decomposition on Mn is due to Mn (III)-oxalate complexes act as a 'pretreatment' for structurally intact ligno-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) in fresh plant cell walls (e.g. in litter, root and wood). Manganese (III)-ligand complexes such as Mn (III)-oxalate are known to be potent oxidizers of many different organic and inorganic compounds. In the litter system, the unique property of these complexes may be that they are much smaller than exo-enzymes and therefore more easily able to penetrate LCC complexes in plant cell walls. By acting as 'diffusible oxidizers' and reacting with the organic matrix of the cell wall, these compounds can increase the porosity of fresh litter thereby facilitating access of more specific lignin- and cellulose decomposing enzymes. This possibility was investigated by reacting cell walls of single Zinnia elegans tracheary elements with Mn (III)-oxalate complexes in a continuous flow reactor. The uniformity of these individual plant cells allowed us to examine Mn (III)-induced changes in cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure on the micro-scale using fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as IR and X-ray spectromicroscopy. This presentation will

  1. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... composition R TGAI, MP TGAI, EP 1, 2 880.1200 Description of starting materials, production and formulation process R TGAI, MP TGAI, EP 2, 3 880.1400 Discussion of formation of impurities R TGAI and MP TGAI and EP... TGAI TGAI 8 830.6313 Stability to normal and elevated temperatures, metals and metal ions R TGAI TGAI 8...

  2. Enantiomeric Mixtures in Natural Product Chemistry: Separation and Absolute Configuration Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N L Batista, Andrea; M Dos Santos, Fernando; Batista, João M; Cass, Quezia B

    2018-02-23

    Chiral natural product molecules are generally assumed to be biosynthesized in an enantiomerically pure or enriched fashion. Nevertheless, a significant amount of racemates or enantiomerically enriched mixtures has been reported from natural sources. This number is estimated to be even larger since the enantiomeric purity of secondary metabolites is rarely checked in the natural product isolation pipeline. This latter fact may have drastic effects on the evaluation of the biological activity of chiral natural products. A second bottleneck is the determination of their absolute configurations. Despite the widespread use of optical rotation and electronic circular dichroism, most of the stereochemical assignments are based on empirical correlations with similar compounds reported in the literature. As an alternative, the combination of vibrational circular dichroism and quantum chemical calculations has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool for both conformational and configurational analysis of natural products, even for those lacking UV-Vis chromophores. In this review, we aim to provide the reader with a critical overview of the occurrence of enantiomeric mixtures of secondary metabolites in nature as well the best practices for their detection, enantioselective separation using liquid chromatography, and determination of absolute configuration by means of vibrational circular dichroism and density functional theory calculations.

  3. Products of Ozone-Initiated Chemistry in a Simulated Aircraft Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Wyon, David P.

    2005-01-01

    We used proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to examine the products formed when ozone reacted with the materials in a simulated aircraft cabin, including a loaded high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in the return air system. Four conditions were examined: cabin (baseline...

  4. Colistin in pig production: Chemistry, Mechanism of antibacterial action, Microbial resistance emergence, and One Health Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rhouma

    2016-11-01

    cooperation between physicians, veterinarians, and other scientific health and environmental professionals. This review is an update on the chemistry of colistin, its applications and antibacterial mechanism of action, and on Enterobacteriaceae resistance to colistin in pigs. We also detail and discuss the One Health approach and propose guidelines for colistin resistance management.

  5. Colistin in Pig Production: Chemistry, Mechanism of Antibacterial Action, Microbial Resistance Emergence, and One Health Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Letellier, Ann

    2016-01-01

    , veterinarians, and other scientific health and environmental professionals. This review is an update on the chemistry of colistin, its applications and antibacterial mechanism of action, and on Enterobacteriaceae resistance to colistin in pigs. We also detail and discuss the One Health approach and propose guidelines for colistin resistance management.

  6. Colistin in Pig Production: Chemistry, Mechanism of Antibacterial Action, Microbial Resistance Emergence, and One Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Letellier, Ann

    2016-01-01

    , veterinarians, and other scientific health and environmental professionals. This review is an update on the chemistry of colistin, its applications and antibacterial mechanism of action, and on Enterobacteriaceae resistance to colistin in pigs. We also detail and discuss the One Health approach and propose guidelines for colistin resistance management. PMID:27891118

  7. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  8. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  9. Litter quality and its response to water level drawdown in boreal peatlands at plant species and community level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, Petra; Anttila, Jani; Spetz, Peter; Kitunen, Veikko; Tapanila, Tarja; Laiho, Raija

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that changes in the species composition and structure of plant communities induced by global change will have much more impact on plant-mediated carbon cycling than any phenotypic responses. These impacts are largely mediated by shifts in litter quality. There are few documentations of these changes so far, due to the relatively long time scale required for their direct observation. Here, we examine the changes in litter inputs induced by persistent water-level drawdown in boreal peatland sites. Peatlands contain a major proportion of the terrestrial carbon pool, and it is thus important to be able to predict their behaviour and role in the global C cycle under different global change factors. We studied the effects of short-term (ca. 4 years) and long-term (ca. 40 years) persistent water level (WL) drawdown on the quantity and chemical quality of above-ground plant litter inputs at three sites: bog, oligotrophic fen and mesotrophic fen. The parameters used to characterize litter quality included various extractable substances, cellulose, holocellulose, composition of hemicellulose (neutral sugars, uronic acids), lignin, CuO oxidation phenolic products, and concentrations of C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium, manganese and calcium. Four different groups of litter were clearly distinct based on their chemical quality: foliar litters, graminoids, mosses and woody litters. The pristine conditions were characterized by Sphagnum moss and graminoid litter. Following short-term WL drawdown, changes in the quality and quantity of litter inputs were small. Following long-term WL drawdown, total litter inputs dramatically increased, due to increased tree litter inputs, and the litter type composition greatly changed. These changes resulted in annual inputs of 1901-2010 kg•ha-1 C, 22-24 kg•ha-1 N, 1.5-2.2 kg•ha-1 P, 967-1235 kg•ha-1 lignin and lignin-like compounds and 254-300 kg•ha-1 water solubles after long-term WL

  10. The global stoichiometry of litter nitrogen mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Jackson, Robert B; Trofymow, John A; Porporato, Amilcare

    2008-08-01

    Plant residue decomposition and the nutrient release to the soil play a major role in global carbon and nutrient cycling. Although decomposition rates vary strongly with climate, nitrogen immobilization into litter and its release in mineral forms are mainly controlled by the initial chemical composition of the residues. We used a data set of approximately 2800 observations to show that these global nitrogen-release patterns can be explained by fundamental stoichiometric relationships of decomposer activity. We show how litter quality controls the transition from nitrogen accumulation into the litter to release and alters decomposers' respiration patterns. Our results suggest that decomposers lower their carbon-use efficiency to exploit residues with low initial nitrogen concentration, a strategy used broadly by bacteria and consumers across trophic levels.

  11. Marine litter on the floor of deep submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: The role of hydrodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Xavier; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Rayo, Xavier; Rivera, Jesus; Amblas, David

    2015-05-01

    Marine litter represents a widespread type of pollution in the World's Oceans. This study is based on direct observation of the seafloor by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives and reports litter abundance, type and distribution in three large submarine canyons of the NW Mediterranean Sea, namely Cap de Creus, La Fonera and Blanes canyons. Our ultimate objective is establishing the links between active hydrodynamic processes and litter distribution, thus going beyond previous, essentially descriptive studies. Litter was monitored using the Liropus 2000 ROV. Litter items were identified in 24 of the 26 dives carried out in the study area, at depths ranging from 140 to 1731 m. Relative abundance of litter objects by type, size and apparent weight, and distribution of litter in relation to depth and canyon environments (i.e. floor and flanks) were analysed. Plastics are the dominant litter component (72%), followed by lost fishing gear, disregarding their composition (17%), and metal objects (8%). Most of the observed litter seems to be land-sourced. It reaches the ocean through wind transport, river discharge and after direct dumping along the coastline. While coastal towns and industrial areas represent a permanent source of litter, tourism and associated activities relevantly increase litter production during summer months ready to be transported to the deep sea by extreme events. After being lost, fishing gear such as nets and long-lines has the potential of being harmful for marine life (e.g. by ghost fishing), at least for some time, but also provides shelter and a substrate on which some species like cold-water corals are capable to settle and grow. La Fonera and Cap de Creus canyons show the highest mean concentrations of litter ever seen on the deep-sea floor, with 15,057 and 8090 items km-2, respectively, and for a single dive litter observed reached 167,540 items km-2. While most of the largest concentrations were found on the canyon floors at

  12. Control of climate and litter quality on leaf litter decomposition in different climatic zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Climate and initial litter quality are the major factors influencing decomposition rates on large scales. We established a comprehensive database of terrestrial leaf litter decomposition, including 785 datasets, to examine the relationship between climate and litter quality and evaluate the factors controlling decomposition on a global scale, the arid and semi-arid (AS) zone, the humid middle and humid low (HL) latitude zones. Initial litter nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration only increased with mean annual temperature (MAT) in the AS zone and decreased with mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the HL zone. Compared with nutrient content, MAT imposed less effect on initial litter lignin content than MAP. MAT were the most important decomposition driving factors on a global scale as well as in different climatic zones. MAP only significantly affected decomposition constants in AS zone. Although litter quality parameters also showed significant influence on decomposition, their importance was less than the climatic factors. Besides, different litter quality parameters exerted significant influence on decomposition in different climatic zones. Our results emphasized that climate consistently exerted important effects on decomposition constants across different climatic zones.

  13. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2017-08-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60-70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. LITTER DEVOLUTION AND DECOMPOSITION IN CERRADÃO AND MATA MESOFÍTICA AREAS IN ECOLOGICAL STATION OF PIRAPITINGA – MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Guimarães Giácomo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987549This study aimed to quantify the litter and nutrients amount and to estimate the decomposition rate in areas of mesophytic forest and ‘Cerradão’ in the Ecological Station of Pirapitinga. To evaluate litter and nutrients devolution 10 conic litter traps were randomly distributed in an area 0.1 ha in each area of study, with monthly evaluations. The litter decomposition in the areas of study was evaluated by using litter bags. The total production of litter was 2.50 and 2.92 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for mesophytic forest and ‘Cerradão’ areas, respectively. The nutrients devolution importance order was nitrogen> potassium> phosphorus. The mesophytic forest showed more homogeneous distribution of litter fall over the year and higher values of total annual litter and nutrients, the highest values were observed at the dry season. The half-life decomposition of leaf litter was equivalent between areas, about 161 days in the mesophytic forest area and 173 in ‘Cerradão’ area.

  15. Mineralogy and crystal chemistry of iron in the Timan bauxite and products of their technological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O.; Silaev, V.; Lutoev, V.; Vakhrushev, A.

    2016-04-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical features of two series of samples of typical bauxites from two deposits of Middle Timan mining area (Vezhayu-Vorykva and Svetlinskoe) were studied. The phase composition of ferrous bauxites generally is boehmite, hematite, ultradisperse low-ordered goethite and berthierine. In a boehmite and kaolinite structural impurity of iron to 10%, and in the iron oxidehydroxides aluminum impurity is revealed. On iron content bauxites are subdivided into three mineral types for which quantitative data on valence states of ions of iron and proportions of their distribution last on nonequivalent structural positions in hematite, goethite and berthierine are obtained. Noble metals (Ag, Au, Ir, Rh, Pd) concentrating in bauxites are revealed for the first time. Obtained data can lead to decrease of power consumption during aluminum production and high quality ceramics, to provide production of valuable iron oxide, and also to minimize the ecological harm from accumulation of bauxite wastes.

  16. Hot cell chemistry for isotope production at Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.W.; Bentley, G.E.; Ott, M.A.; DeBusk, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    A family of standardized glass and plastic ware has been developed for the unit processes of dissolution, volume reduction, ion exchange, extraction, gasification, filtration, centrifugation, and liquid transfer in the hot cells. Computerized data handling and gamma pulse analysis have been applied to quality control and process development in hot cell procedures for production of isotopes for research in physics and medicine. The above has greatly reduced the time needed to set up for and produce a new isotope

  17. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....7100 Viscosity CR MP EP 12 830.7200 Melting point/melting range CR TGAI TGAI 8, 13 830.7220 Boiling point/boiling range CR TGAI TGAI 8, 14 830.7300 Density/relative density/bulk density R TGAI and MP TGAI.... (2) Definitions in § 158.300 apply to data requirements in this section. (b) Use patterns. Product...

  18. Preliminary investigation of the transport of small plastic litter along a vegetated riverbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Valyrakis, Manousos

    2017-04-01

    Plastics are widely used in consumer products, due to its low cost, low weight and high durability compared to other types of materials. Contamination of marine ecosystems due to plastics (including microplastics) is a challenge that has received a lot of attention due to the significant risks it poses for the environment and human health. Plastics find their way to the ocean from land via the river system. Studying and obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the fate of plastic litter is therefore important in proactively devising methods to reduce their quantity or produce designs to trap plastic pollutants and prevent them from entering the ocean through estuaries. In this context, it is a common observation of hydraulic practitioners and field geomorphologists, that plastic litter can be trapped within riparian vegetation patches along streams or canals, which can be washed away in periods of high flows. To this goal this study aims to use a series of purpose specific physical experiments to examine the mechanisms of dispersion of plastic litter along the water surface of a channel with simulated riparian vegetation. The set of experiments are conducted in a recirculating flume with rigid riverbank and riparian vegetation modeled by a large number of acrylic rods, placed on the top of the riverbank section. Six different sizes of pieces of Styrofoam are used to simulate plastic litter. These are released from different locations upstream and in the vicinity of the riparian vegetation for various configurations (linear, staggered and random) of characteristic solid density. The trajectory of the plastic litter is recorded with a camera offering a top view of the arrangement. From the analysis of this a variety of results are obtained including transport metrics (including transport velocity and time to trapping) and litter-trapping location. The relation between the size of the litter, the vegetation configuration and the traveling

  19. Mistletoes and epiphytic lichens contribute to litter input in Nothofagus antarctica forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Rosina; Pastur, Guillermo Martínez; Lencinas, María Vanessa; Peri, Pablo Luis

    2015-10-01

    Litter input is one of the key components that define nutrient cycling in forests and the majority of studies only consider the tree components of litterfall. However, epiphytic species can play a crucial role in litter input throughout the growing season. This work evaluates changes in litter production by mistletoe (Misodendrum sp.) and epiphytic lichen (Usnea sp.), related to crown cover in mature unmanaged, second-growth and managed (thinned for silvopastoral use) forests in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). We used plastic traps to collect litterfall biomass from trees, lichens and mistletoes on a monthly basis over three consecutive years. Tree litter was considerable during autumn (March to May), which is typical of Nothofagus deciduous species in the Southern hemisphere. In contrast, peak litterfall from mistletoes and lichens occurred during spring and summer seasons. Tree litter (1954-3398 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was correlated with crown cover gradient being highest in second-growth forests and lowest in thinned sites. While litter input from mistletoes did not vary among forest types (307-333 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1), lichen litter (11-40 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was higher in unmanaged and thinned mature forests despite differences in tree crown cover. Contrary to what we expected, the management practices investigated here did not affect the biomass of canopy communities compared to unmanaged mature forests. Mistletoes and lichens significantly increased the spatial (forest type) and temporal complexity (extended period of falling) of litterfall in Nothofagus antarctica forests. This study provides a starting point to understand the ecological relevance of canopy communities in the Patagonian forests of southern Argentina.

  20. Preliminary economic analysis of poultry litter gasification option with a simple transportation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Atul C; English, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Several environmental issues are related to the disposal of poultry litter. In an effort to provide a more environmentally friendly alternative than landfill disposal or spreading as a soil amendment, work has been carried out previously at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). This past UTSI work was concentrated on developing a catalytic steam gasification concept to produce energy from poultry litter. In the past UTSI studies, preliminary design and economics for a stationary, centralized gasification plant capable of processing approximately 100 ton/day of poultry litter were developed. However, in this preliminary design the economic impact of transporting litter to a centralized gasification plant location was not addressed. To determine the preliminary impact of transporting the poultry litter on the overall economics of this energy conversion plant design, a simple transportation model was developed. This model was used in conjunction with the earlier plant design prepared at UTSI to determine the economic feasibility of a centralized, stationary poultry litter gasification plant. To do so, major variables such as traveling distance, plant feed rate (or capacity), fluctuations in the sales price of the product gas (that means value of the energy), population density of poultry farms, impact of tipping fees, and cost of litter were varied. The study showed that for plant with a capacity of 1000 ton/day to be able to withstand several changes in economic conditions and sustain itself, the poultry farm density would need to be approximately 0.3 houses/mi2. Smaller plants would need either a higher energy price or some kind of subsidy to be economically feasible.

  1. Use of Diels-Alder Chemistry for Thermoreversible Cross-Linking of Rubbers : The Next Step toward Recycling of Rubber Products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polgar, L. M.; van Duin, M.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2015-01-01

    A proof of principle for the use of Diels-Alder chemistry as a thermoreversible cross-linking tool for rubber products is demonstrated. A commercial ethylene-propylene rubber grafted with maleic anhydride has been thermoreversibly cross-linked in two steps. The pending anhydride rings were first

  2. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  3. The partitioning of litter carbon during litter decomposition under different rainfall patterns: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Langley, J. A.; Pitz, S.; Chang, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying litter C into different C fluxes during litter decomposition is necessary to understand carbon cycling under changing climatic conditions. Rainfall patterns are predicted to change in the future, and their effects on the fate of litter carbon are poorly understood. Soils from deciduous forests in Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) in Maryland, USA were collected to reconstruct soil columns in the lab. 13C labeled tulip poplar leaf litter was used to trace carbon during litter decomposition. Top 1% and the mean of 15-minute historical precipitation data from nearby weather stations were considered as extreme and control rainfall intensity, respectively. Both intensity and frequency of rainfall were manipulated, while the total amount was kept constant. A pulse of CO2 efflux was detected right after each rainfall event in the soil columns with leaf litter. After the first event, CO2 efflux of the control rainfall treatment soils increased to threefold of the CO2 efflux before rain event and that of the extreme treatment soils increased to fivefold. However, in soils without leaf litter, CO2 efflux was suppressed right after rainfall events. After each rainfall event, the leaf litter contribution to CO2 efflux first showed an increase, decreased sharply in the following two days, and then stayed relatively constant. In soil columns with leaf litter, the order of cumulative CO2 efflux was control > extreme > intermediate. The order of cumulative CO2 efflux in the bare soil treatment was extreme > intermediate > control. The order of volume of leachate from different treatments was extreme > intermediate > control. Our initial results suggest that more intense rainfall events result in larger pulses of CO2, which is rarely measured in the field. Additionally, soils with and without leaf litter respond differently to precipitation events. This is important to consider in temperate regions where leaf litter cover changes throughout the year

  4. Dissipation of 17β-estradiol in composted poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakk, Heldur; Sikora, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    The excreted estrogen rate of all livestock in the United States is estimated at 134 kg d. The influence of manure treatment on the fate of estrogens is critical in deciding the recycling of over 300 million dry tons of livestock produced annually. The effects of two common manure management practices, heated composting and ambient temperature decomposition, on the fate of 17β-estradiol in poultry litter were determined. A mixture of poultry litter, wood chips, and straw was amended with [C]17β-estradiol and allowed to undergo decomposition with a laboratory-scale heated composter (HC) or room temperature incubation (RTI) for 24 d. Radiolabel in the finished products was fractionated into water-extractable, acetone-extractable, nonextractable, and mineralized fractions. Total 17β-estradiol radioactive residues in the HC and RTI ( = 2) treatments were not different ( > 0.05), except that statistically less 17β-estradiol was mineralized to CO during HC than RTI (1.1 vs. 10.0% for HC and RTI, respectively). Estrone was the major degradation product in extracts of HC and RTI treatments as determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. The nonextractable residues indicated no quantitative differences among the humins between the treatments. An estimated 3% of the fortified estrogenicity remained after HC treatment, and 15% of the fortified estrogenicity remained after RTI treatment. If reduction of water-removable, biologically active 17β-estradiol is the treatment goal, then HC treatment would be slightly preferred over ambient temperature degradation. However, unmanaged, ambient temperature litter piles are less costly and time consuming for food animal producers and result in greater mineralization and similar immobilization of estradiol. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Paula; Hobson, Liane

    2016-04-27

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Analytical chemistry equipment for radioactive products; Installation de chimie analytique pour produits radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, M; Guillon, A; Laurent, H; Sauvagnac, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The report deals with a shielded enclosure, hermetic, for analytical examination and handling of radioactive products. Remote handling for the following is provided: pipette absorption - weighing - centrifuging - desiccation - volumetric - pH measurement - potentiometric - colorimetric - polarographic. The above list is not restrictive: the enclosure is designed for the rapid installation of other equipment. Powerfully ventilated and screened to 400 m-curies long life fission product levels by 5 cm of lead, the enclosure is fully safe to the stated level. (author) [French] La presente communication decrit une enceinte etanche et blindee permettant un travail et un controle analytique sur des produits radioactifs. Les techniques suivantes sont adaptees pour une manipulation a distance: pipettage, pesees, centrifugation, dessiccation, volumetrie, mesure de pH, potentiometrie, colorimetrie, polarographie. Cette liste n'est pas limitative. La conception de l'installation permet la mise en place rapide d'autres appareils. Protegee par 5 cm de plomb et fortement ventilee, elle donne toute securite de manipulation jusqu'a un niveau d'activite 400 mcuries en produits de fission a vie longue. (auteur)

  7. Addressing Facts and Gaps in the Phenolics Chemistry of Winery By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson F. L. Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics display a noticeable structural diversity, encompassing distinct compounds ranging from simple molecules to oligomers, as well as polymers usually designated as tannins. Since these compounds contribute critically to the organoleptic properties of wines, their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance for winery industry operators. Besides, the occurrence of these compounds has been also extensively described in winery residues, which have been pointed as a valuable source of bioactive phytochemicals presenting potential for the development of new added value products that could fit the current market demands. Therefore, the cumulative knowledge generated during the last decades has allowed the identification of the most promising compounds displaying interesting biological functions, as well as the chemical features responsible for the observed bioactivities. In this regard, the present review explores the scope of the existing knowledge, concerning the compounds found in these winery by-products, as well as the chemical features presumably responsible for the biological functions already identified. Moreover, the present work will hopefully pave the way for further actions to develop new powerful applications to these materials, thus, contributing to more sustainable valorization procedures and the development of newly obtained compounds with enhanced biological properties.

  8. Addressing Facts and Gaps in the Phenolics Chemistry of Winery By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nelson F L; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl

    2017-02-14

    Grape and wine phenolics display a noticeable structural diversity, encompassing distinct compounds ranging from simple molecules to oligomers, as well as polymers usually designated as tannins. Since these compounds contribute critically to the organoleptic properties of wines, their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance for winery industry operators. Besides, the occurrence of these compounds has been also extensively described in winery residues, which have been pointed as a valuable source of bioactive phytochemicals presenting potential for the development of new added value products that could fit the current market demands. Therefore, the cumulative knowledge generated during the last decades has allowed the identification of the most promising compounds displaying interesting biological functions, as well as the chemical features responsible for the observed bioactivities. In this regard, the present review explores the scope of the existing knowledge, concerning the compounds found in these winery by-products, as well as the chemical features presumably responsible for the biological functions already identified. Moreover, the present work will hopefully pave the way for further actions to develop new powerful applications to these materials, thus, contributing to more sustainable valorization procedures and the development of newly obtained compounds with enhanced biological properties.

  9. The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal: Advances in chemistry and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne M. Spickett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE is one of the most studied products of phospholipid peroxidation, owing to its reactivity and cytotoxicity. It can be formed by several radical-dependent oxidative routes involving the formation of hydroperoxides, alkoxyl radicals, epoxides, and fatty acyl cross-linking reactions. Cleavage of the oxidized fatty acyl chain results in formation of HNE from the methyl end, and 9-oxo-nonanoic acid from the carboxylate or esterified end of the chain, although many other products are also possible. HNE can be metabolized in tissues by a variety of pathways, leading to detoxification and excretion. HNE-adducts to proteins have been detected in inflammatory situations such as atherosclerotic lesions using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, which have also been applied in ELISAs and western blotting. However, in order to identify the proteins modified and the exact sites and nature of the modifications, mass spectrometry approaches are required. Combinations of enrichment strategies with targetted mass spectrometry routines such as neutral loss scanning are now facilitating detection of HNE-modified proteins in complex biological samples. This is important for characterizing the interactions of HNE with redox sensitive cell signalling proteins and understanding how it may modulate their activities either physiologically or in disease.

  10. Bioactive Structure of Membrane Lipids and Natural Products Elucidated by a Chemistry-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Michio; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Matsumori, Nobuaki

    2015-08-01

    Determining the bioactive structure of membrane lipids is a new concept, which aims to examine the functions of lipids with respect to their three-dimensional structures. As lipids are dynamic by nature, their "structure" does not refer solely to a static picture but also to the local and global motions of the lipid molecules. We consider that interactions with lipids, which are completely defined by their structures, are controlled by the chemical, functional, and conformational matching between lipids and between lipid and protein. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the bioactive structures of membrane lipids bound to proteins and related molecules, including some of our recent results. By examining recent works on lipid-raft-related molecules, lipid-protein interactions, and membrane-active natural products, we discuss current perspectives on membrane structural biology. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of rabbits ... There was a non-significant effect of season on litter site at birth, kits alive at birth and ... to rabbit reproduction as it influenced negatively more litter parameters than ...

  12. ( Rosa damascena Mill.) dreg: an alternative litter material in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to determine the effects of using dried rose dreg (DRD) as an alternative litter material for broiler performance and microbiological characteristics of litter. A total of 225 day-old broiler chicks was raised on pine wood shavings (PS), DRD and PS+DRD until 42 days. The effects of litter ...

  13. Microbial functional diversity associated with plant litter decomposition along a climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Chen; Steinberger, Yosef

    2012-08-01

    Predicted changes in climate associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions can cause increases in global mean temperature and changes in precipitation regimes. These changes may affect key soil processes, e.g., microbial CO(2) evolution and biomass, mineralization rates, primary productivity, biodiversity, and litter decomposition, which play an important role in carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Our study examined the changes in litter microbial communities and decomposition along a climatic gradient, ranging from arid desert to humid Mediterranean regions in Israel. Wheat straw litter bags were placed in arid, semi-arid, Mediterranean, and humid Mediterranean sites. Samples were collected seasonally over a 2-year period in order to evaluate mass loss, litter moisture, C/N ratio, bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs), microbial CO(2) evolution and biomass, microbial functional diversity, and catabolic profile. Decomposition rate was the highest during the first year of the study at the Mediterranean and arid sites. Community-level physiological profile and microbial biomass were the highest in summer, while bacterial CFUs were the highest in winter. Microbial functional diversity was found to be highest at the humid Mediterranean site, whereas substrate utilization increased at the arid site. Our results support the assumption that climatic factors control litter degradation and regulate microbial activity.

  14. Implementation of picoSpin Benchtop NMR Instruments into Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories through Spectral Analysis of Fischer Esterification Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearty, Kasey L.; Sharp, Joseph T.; Meehan, Emma K.; Wallace, Doyle R.; Jackson, Douglas M.; Morrison, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    [Superscript 1]H NMR analysis is an important analytical technique presented in introductory organic chemistry courses. NMR instrument access is limited for undergraduate organic chemistry students due to the size of the instrument, price of NMR solvents, and the maintenance level required for instrument upkeep. The University of Georgia Chemistry…

  15. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  16. Movies in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  17. Fission-product chemistry in severe reactor accidents: Review of relevant integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.; Hueber, C.

    1992-01-01

    The attenuation of the radioactive fission-product emission from a severe reactor accident will depend on a combination of chemical, physical and thermal-hydraulic effects. Chemical species stabilised under the prevailing conditions will determine the extent of aerosol formation and any subsequent interaction, so defining the magnitude and physical forms of the eventual release into the environment. While several important integral tests have taken place in recent years, these experiments have tended to focus on the generation of mass-balance and aerosol-related data to test and validate materials-transport codes rather than study the impact of important chemical phenomena. This emphasis on thermal hydraulics, fuel behaviour and aerosol properties has occurred in many test (e.g. PBF, DEMONA, Marviken-V, LACE and ACE). Nevertheless, the generation and reaction of the chemical species in all of these programmes determined the transport properties of the resulting vapours and aerosols. Chemical effects have been studied in measurements somewhat subsidiary to the main aims of the tests. This work has been reviewed in detail with respect to Marviken-V, LACE, ACE and Falcon. Specific issues remain to be addressed, and these are discussed in terms of the proposed Phebus-FB programme. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  18. HS-SPME analysis of volatile organic compounds of coniferous needle litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidorov, V. A.; Vinogorova, V. T.; Rafałowski, K.

    The composition of volatile emission of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and spruce ( Picea exelsa) litter was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and samples were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. The list of identified compounds includes over 60 organic substances of different classes. It was established that volatile emission contain not only components of essential oils of pine and spruce needles but also a large number of organic compounds which are probably secondary metabolites of litter-decomposing fungi. They include lower carbonyl compounds and alcohols as well as products of terpene dehydration and oxidation. These data show that the processes of litter decomposition are an important source of reactive organic compounds under canopy of coniferous forests.

  19. Evaluation of Methane from Sisal Leaf Residue and Palash Leaf Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisutha, S.; Baredar, P.; Deshpande, D. M.; Suresh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate methane production from sisal leaf residue and palash leaf litter mixed with different bulky materials such as vegetable market waste, hostel kitchen waste and digested biogas slurry in a laboratory scale anaerobic reactor. The mixture was prepared with 1:1 proportion. Maximum methane content of 320 ml/day was observed in the case of sisal leaf residue mixed with vegetable market waste as the feed. Methane content was minimum (47 ml/day), when palash leaf litter was used as feed. This was due to the increased content of lignin and polyphenol in the feedstock which were of complex structure and did not get degraded directly by microorganisms. Sisal leaf residue mixtures also showed highest content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as compared to palash leaf litter mixtures. It was observed that VFA concentration in the digester first increased, reached maximum (when pH was minimum) and then decreased.

  20. Economic instruments and marine litter control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, F.H.; Papyrakis, E.; Boteler, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of the literature on the economic instruments that can reduce marine litter. We assess their cost of implementation, level of effectiveness as well as indirect environmental and socio-economic effects (externalities) that may arise as a result of

  1. Climate history shapes contemporary leaf litter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Strickland; Ashley D. Keiser; Mark A. Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is mediated by multiple variables, of which climate is expected to be a dominant factor at global scales. However, like other organisms, traits of decomposers and their communities are shaped not just by the contemporary climate but also their climate history. Whether or not this affects decomposition rates is underexplored. Here we source...

  2. The global stoichiometry of litter nitrogen mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano Manzoni; Robert B. Jackson; John A. Trofymow; Amilcare Porporato

    2008-01-01

    Plant residue decomposition and the nutrient release to the soil play a major role in global carbon and nutrient cycling. Although decomposition rates vary strongly with climate, nitrogen immobilization into litter and its release in mineral forms are mainly controlled by the initial chemical composition of the residues. We used a data set of ~2800 observations to show...

  3. Solutions for global marine litter pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhr, Ansje; Savelli, Heidi; Beunen, Raoul; Kalz, Marco; Ragas, Ad; Van Belleghem, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s the amount of plastics in the marine environment has increased dramatically. Worldwide there is a growing concern about the risks and possible adverse effects of (micro)plastics. This paper reflects on the sources and effects of marine litter and the effects of policies and other

  4. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  5. Litter decomposition in southern Appalachian black locust and pine-hardwood stands: litter quality and nitrogen dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. White; Bruce L. Haines

    1988-01-01

    The chemical quality of litter, through its interaction with macroclimate and the litter biota, largely regulates the rate of organic matter (OM) and nitrogen (N) turnover in the forest floor (Cromack 1973; Fogel and Cromack 1977; Meentemeyer 1978; Aber and Melillo 1982; Melillo et al. 1982). Litter quality is thought to be related to the N require-ment and...

  6. The fate of nitrogen mineralized from leaf litter — Initial evidence from 15N-labeled litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn B. Piatek

    2011-01-01

    Decomposition of leaf litter includes microbial immobilization of nitrogen (N), followed by N mineralization. The fate of N mineralized from leaf litter is unknown. I hypothesized that N mineralized from leaf litter will be re-immobilized into other forms of organic matter, including downed wood. This mechanism may retain N in some forests. To test this hypothesis, oak...

  7. Sustainability, Innovation, and Green Chemistry in the Production and Valorization of Phenolic Extracts from Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Romani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a circular economy process based on environmentally and economically sustainable procedures which was applied to the sector of olive oil processing on an industrial scale. Olea europaea L. tissues and by-products represent a renewable and low-cost source of polyphenols, in particular hydroxytyrosol (HTyr, a naturally occurring compound well known for its biological properties. Specifically, green leaves (GL, dried leaves (DL, and pitted olive pulp were treated with water in a pneumatic extractor to obtain the corresponding polyphenolic extracts. Three standardized fractions, named Soft Extract Olea GL, Soft Extract Olea DL, and Soft Extract Olea HTyr resulted after the following two steps: a separation process carried out by membrane technology, and a concentration step performed under reduced pressure and low temperature. The polyphenolic fractions showed antiradical activity and have potential industrial applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, feed, and agronomic fields. Novel functionalized extracts containing hydroxytyrosol methyl carbonate (HTyr-MC were obtained from Soft Extract Olea HTyr through an innovative approach based on green chemistry procedures, which appear to be a promising tool to increase the applications of the polyphenolic extracts.

  8. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  9. Role of litter turnover in soil quality in tropical degraded lands of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan D; Osorio, Nelson W

    2014-01-01

    Land degradation is the result of soil mismanagement that reduces soil productivity and environmental services. An alternative to improve degraded soils through reactivation of biogeochemical nutrient cycles (via litter production and decomposition) is the establishment of active restoration models using new forestry plantations, agroforestry, and silvopastoral systems. On the other hand, passive models of restoration consist of promoting natural successional processes with native plants. The objective in this review is to discuss the role of litter production and decomposition as a key strategy to reactivate biogeochemical nutrient cycles and thus improve soil quality in degraded land of the tropics. For this purpose the results of different projects of land restoration in Colombia are presented based on the dynamics of litter production, nutrient content, and decomposition. The results indicate that in only 6-13 years it is possible to detect soil properties improvements due to litter fall and decomposition. Despite that, low soil nutrient availability, particularly of N and P, seems to be major constraint to reclamation of these fragile ecosystems.

  10. Transfer of arsenic from poultry feed to poultry litter: A mass balance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay K; Le, X Chris; Kachanosky, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Siddique, Tariq

    2018-07-15

    Roxarsone (rox), an arsenic (As) containing organic compound, is a common feed additive used in poultry production. To determine if As present in rox is excreted into the poultry litter without any retention in chicken meat for safe human consumption, the transference of As from the feed to poultry excreta was assessed using two commercial chicken strains fed with and without dietary rox. The results revealed that both the strains had similar behaviour in growth (chicken weight; 2.17-2.25kg), feed consumption (282-300kgpen -1 initially containing 102 chicken) and poultry litter production (73-81kgpen -1 ) during the growth phase of 35days. Our mass balance calculations showed that chickens ingested 2669-2730mg As with the feed and excreted out 2362-2896mg As in poultry litter during the growth period of 28days when As containing feed was used, yielding As recovery between 86 and 108%. Though our complementary studies show that residual arsenic species in rox-fed chicken meat may have relevance to human exposure, insignificant retention of total As in the chicken meat substantiates our mass balance results. The results are important in evaluating the fate of feed additive used in poultry production and its potential environmental implications if As containing poultry litter is applied to soil for crop production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon respiration and nitrogen dynamics in Corsican pine litter amended with aluminium and tannins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraal, P.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Kaal, J.; Tietema, A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the carbon (C) mineralisation and nitrogen (N) dynamics in litter from a Corsican pine forest in response to individual and combined additions of aluminium (M), condensed tannin (extracted from fresh Corsican pine needles) and hydrolysable tannin (commercial tannic acid). Production

  12. Inhibition of forage seed germination by leaf litter extracts of overstory hardwoods used in silvopastoral systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvopastoral management strategies seek to expand spatial and temporal boundaries of forage production and promote ecosystem integrity through a combination of tree thinning and understory pastures. We determined the effects of water extracts of leaf litter from yellow poplar, Liriodendron tulipife...

  13. Low-to-moderate nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations accelerate microbially driven litter breakdown rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kominoski; Amy D. Rosemond; Jonathan P. Benstead; Vladislav Gulis; John C. Maerz; David Manning

    2015-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) processing is an important driver of aquatic ecosystem productivity that is sensitive to nutrient enrichment and drives ecosystem carbon (C) loss. Although studies of single concentrations of nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) have shown effects at relatively low concentrations, responses of litter breakdown rates along gradients of low-to-...

  14. Nutritive value of ensiled pig excreta, poultry litter or urea with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of maize stover silage diets containing pig excreta (PE), poultry litter (PL) or urea as nitrogen (N) sources, and sugarcane molasses (MOL) or bakery by-products (BBP) as energy sources. The study was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with six ruminal ...

  15. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine

  16. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  17. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...... was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next.......024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after birth. Additionally, the separation-induced calling in dams decreased with increasing litter size (P = 0.022). Thus in addition to litter age, the size of the litter is important for the maternal...

  18. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  20. Changes in soil carbon and nutrients following 6 years of litter removal and addition in a tropical semi-evergreen rain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. J. Tanner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO2 and temperature may increase forest productivity, including litterfall, but the consequences for soil organic matter remain poorly understood. To address this, we measured soil carbon and nutrient concentrations at nine depths to 2 m after 6 years of continuous litter removal and litter addition in a semi-evergreen rain forest in Panama. Soils in litter addition plots, compared to litter removal plots, had higher pH and contained greater concentrations of KCl-extractable nitrate (both to 30 cm; Mehlich-III extractable phosphorus and total carbon (both to 20 cm; total nitrogen (to 15 cm; Mehlich-III calcium (to 10 cm; and Mehlich-III magnesium and lower bulk density (both to 5 cm. In contrast, litter manipulation did not affect ammonium, manganese, potassium or zinc, and soils deeper than 30 cm did not differ for any nutrient. Comparison with previous analyses in the experiment indicates that the effect of litter manipulation on nutrient concentrations and the depth to which the effects are significant are increasing with time. To allow for changes in bulk density in calculation of changes in carbon stocks, we standardized total carbon and nitrogen on the basis of a constant mineral mass. For 200 kg m−2 of mineral soil (approximately the upper 20 cm of the profile about 0.5 kg C m−2 was “missing” from the litter removal plots, with a similar amount accumulated in the litter addition plots. There was an additional 0.4 kg C m−2 extra in the litter standing crop of the litter addition plots compared to the control. This increase in carbon in surface soil and the litter standing crop can be interpreted as a potential partial mitigation of the effects of increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere.

  1. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield, time for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, Camilla Nielsen; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, Christian Fink

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  2. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  3. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60–70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. - Highlights: • Column experiments examined fate of trace elements derived from poultry litter leachate in soils from Delaware, USA. • Influent solutions included poultry litter leachate and simulated solution without DOC. • Results showed increased mobility of litter-derived As, Cu, Zn and P in solution in the presence of DOC. • Mass balance showed all of Cu mass remained in solution but most (60–70%) of the Zn, As and P mass was associated with soil. • Study results show that DOC

  4. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  5. Study of interdisciplinarity in chemistry research based on the production of Puerto Rican scientists 1992-2001. Interdisciplinarity, Bibliometric indicators, Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Sanz-Casado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the role played by interdisciplinarity in the generation of knowledge is a very fertile line of research in which synergies among different fields of science can be identified and their impact on research efficiency ascertained. A number of methods may be used to explore interdisciplinarity, from the sociological approach to those requiring the application of bibliometric indicators. In this paper, a bibliometric analysis of the research conducted by scientists with the Chemistry Department at the University of Puerto Rico was run on the basis of the subject matter of citing and cited papers, in order to ascertain how interdisciplinarity affects certain aspects of research, such as collaboration or visibility. The data used for this paper were taken from the Science Citation Index database, which lists the most significant contributions made by these scientists, along with the respective bibliographic references. The study revealed the existence of scientific areas that are highly dependent on the knowledge generated in the specific area itself. A positive, albeit weak, correlation was also observed between research interdisciplinarity and collaboration between researchers and institutions. Interdisciplinarity was not found to have any effect, however, on the visibility of research papers or to be correlated with international collaboration.

  6. The biomass production and nutrient content of roselle leaves grown with poultry litter and Organosuper®=Produção de biomassa e teor de nutrientes em folhas de rosela cultivada com cama-de-frango e Organosuper®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Trento Luciano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of poultry litter and Organosuper® with three modes of application on the biomass production and nutrient content of the leaves of roselle plants. The treatments in each crop cycle were in a factorial arrangement, 2 x 3 + 1, composed of a control and combinations of the two organic fertilizers (poultry litter (10 ton. ha-1 and Organosuper® (10 ton. ha-1 and the three application modes (surface, incorporated and surface + incorporated, in a randomized block design with four replicates. In the surface + incorporated mode, the organic fertilizers were applied as 5 ton. ha-1 surface and 5 ton. ha-1 incorporated. The highest productions of fresh and dry weight and number of calyxes were obtained for poultry litter in surface (10,776, 1,239 and 3,980,602 kg ha-1, respectively and Organosuper® incorporated (11,372, 1,308 and 4,405,075 kg ha-1, respectively in the agricultural year 2009/2010. The increases in the fresh and dry weights of the calyxes, leaves, stems and roots, number of calyxes, leaf area and fibers in the agricultural year 2008/2009 in the poultry litter treatments. Nutrients concentrations in the dry weight of the roselle leaves were not affected by the organic fertilizer type or by the mode of application.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cama-de-frango e do Organosuper® sob três modos de aplicação na produção de biomassa e nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas de plantas de rosela. Os tratamentos em cada ciclo de cultivo foram arranjados como fatorial 2 x 3 + 1, sendo constituídos pelas combinações de dois compostos orgânicos cama-de-frango (10 t ha-1 e Organosuper® (10 t ha-1 e três modos de aplicação (cobertura, incorporada e cobertura + incorporada mais a testemunha, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As maiores produções de massas frescas e secas de cálices e o número de cálices foram obtidos para

  7. Locomotor problems in broilers reared on new and re-used litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibiara Correia Lima Almeida Paz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted to assess locomotor problems in broilers. Males and females broilers were used from two commercial strains reared on two different litter materials, new and re-used. In the first experiment (E1 rice husks and wood shavings were used as new litter, and in the second experiment (E2 the same litter was re-used. A batch of one-day-old chicks (2968 was reared randomly distributed in experimental pens, in a 2x2x2 factorial scheme (two genetic strains, two sexes and two litter materials. The same fodder and water were available to all birds ad libitum. Broilers locomotion problems were evaluated using the characteristics of gait score, incidence of valgus and varus, foot-pad lesions, degeneration, femoral, tibial dyschondroplasia, spondylolisthesis and breast calluses. The number of birds with high gait score was less than 30% in the two experiments. Males presented higher gait score (GS (28.46% GS 1 and 2 compared to females, 20.98%; greater incidence of angular deformities (26.62% with valgus compared to 14.71% of the female; and femoral degenerative joint lesions (70.83% in average, compared to 55.16% of the female, and the correlation between these traits varied from 0.18 to 0.87 (P<0.05. There was an increase of foot-pad lesions in re-used litter leading to poor welfare. The use of rice husks in deep litter for broiler production might be a viable alternative of wood shavings.

  8. Development of a custom OMI NO2 data product for evaluating biases in a regional chemistry transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Lam, Y. F.; Cheung, H. M.; Hartl, A.; Fung, J. C. H.; Chan, P. W.; Wenig, M. O.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present the custom Hong Kong NO2 retrieval (HKOMI) for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite which was used to evaluate a high-resolution chemistry transport model (CTM) (3 km x 3 km spatial resolution). The atmospheric chemistry transport was modelled in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China by the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system from October 2006 to January 2007. In the HKOMI NO2 retrieval, tropospheric air mass factors (AMFs) were recalculated using high-resolution ancillary parameters of surface reflectance, a priori NO2 and aerosol profiles, of which the latter two were taken from the CMAQ simulation. We tested the influence of the ancillary parameters on the data product using four different aerosol parametrizations. Ground-level measurements by the PRD Regional Air Quality Monitoring (RAQM) network were used as additional independent measurements. The HKOMI retrieval increases estimated tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) by (+31 ± 38)%, when compared to NASA's standard product (OMNO2-SP), and improves the normalized mean bias (NMB) between satellite and ground observations by 26 percentage points from -41 to -15%. The individual influences of the parameters are (+11.4 ± 13.4)% for NO2 profiles, (+11.0 ± 20.9)% for surface reflectance and (+6.0 ± 8.4)% for the best aerosol parametrization. The correlation coefficient r is low between ground and satellite observations (r = 0.35). The low r and the remaining NMB can be explained by the low model performance and the expected differences when comparing point measurements with area-averaged satellite observations. The correlation between CMAQ and the RAQM network is low (r ~ 0.3) and the model underestimates the NO2 concentrations in the northwestern model domain (Foshan and Guangzhou). We compared the CMAQ NO2 time series of the two main plumes with our best OMI NO2 data set (HKOMI-4). The model

  9. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  10. How does litter cover, litter diversity and fauna affect sediment discharge and runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebes, Philipp; Seitz, Steffen; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Litter cover plays a major role in soil erosion processes. It is known that litter cover reduces erosivity of raindrops, decreases sediment discharge and lowers runoff volume compared to bare ground. However, in the context of biodiversity, the composition of litter cover, its effect on sediment discharge and runoff volume and their influence on soil erosion have not yet been analyzed in detail. Focusing on initial soil erosion (splash), our experimental design is designated to get a better understanding of these mechanisms. The experiments were carried out within the DFG research unit "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning (BEF)-China" in subtropical China. The "New Integrated Litter Experiment (NILEx)" used as platform combining different subprojects of BEF-China dealing with "decomposition and nutrient cycling", "mechanisms of soil erosion" and "functional effects of herbivores, predators and saproxylics" in one experiment. In NILEx, 96 40cm x 40cm runoff plots on two hill slopes inside a castanea molissima forest plantation have been installed and filled with seven different types of litter cover. 16 one-species plots, 24 two-species plots, 4 four-species plots and 4 bare ground plots have been set up, each replicated once. We prepared 48 Plots with traps (Renner solution) for soil macrofauna (diplopods and collembola), so half of the plots were kept free from fauna while the other half was accessible for fauna. Rainfall was generated artificially by using a rainfall simulator with a continuous and stable intensity of 60 mm/h. Our experiments included two runs of 20 minutes duration each, both conducted at two different time steps (summer 2012 and autumn 2012). Runoff volume and sediment discharge were measured every 5 minutes during one rainfall run. Litter coverage and litter mass were recorded at the beginning (summer 2012) and at the end of the experiment (autumn 2012). Our results show that sediment discharge as well as runoff volume decreases

  11. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  12. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  13. Impact of Poultry Litter Cake, Cleanout, and Bedding following Chemical Amendments on Soil C and N Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter B. Watts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter is a great alternative N source for crop production. However, recent poultry litter management changes, and increased chemical amendment use may impact its N availability. Thus, research was initiated to evaluate the effect that broiler cake and total cleanout litter amended with chemical additives have on C and N mineralization. A 35-day incubation study was carried out on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults soil common to the USA Appalachian Plateau region. Three poultry litter components (broiler cake, total cleanout, and bedding material from a broiler house were evaluated and compared to a soil control. Chemical amendments lime (CaCO3, gypsum (CaSO4, aluminum sulfate (AlSO4, and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 were added to the poultry litter components to determine their impact on C and N mineralization. Litter component additions increased soil C mineralization in the order of broiler cake > total cleanout > bedding > soil control. Although a greater concentration of organic C was observed in the bedding, broiler cake mineralized the most C, which can be attributed to differences in the C : N ratio between treatments. Chemical amendment in addition to the manured soil also impacted C mineralization, with AlSO4 generally decreasing mineralization. Nitrogen mineralization was also significantly affected by poultry litter component applications. Broiler cake addition increased N availability followed by total cleanout compared to soil control, while the bedding resulted in net N immobilization. Chemical amendments impacted N mineralization primarily in the broiler cake amended soil where all chemical amendments decreased mineralization compared to the no chemical amendment treatment. This short-term study (35-day incubation indicates that N availability to crops may be different depending on the poultry litter component used for fertilization and chemical amendment use which could

  14. Combining metabolic engineering and biocompatible chemistry for high-yield production of homo-diacetyl and homo-(S,S)-2,3-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianming; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Brock-Nannestad, Theis; Chen, Jun; Lee, Sang Yup; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2016-07-01

    Biocompatible chemistry is gaining increasing attention because of its potential within biotechnology for expanding the repertoire of biological transformations carried out by enzymes. Here we demonstrate how biocompatible chemistry can be used for synthesizing valuable compounds as well as for linking metabolic pathways to achieve redox balance and rescued growth. By comprehensive rerouting of metabolism, activation of respiration, and finally metal ion catalysis, we successfully managed to convert the homolactic bacterium Lactococcus lactis into a homo-diacetyl producer with high titer (95mM or 8.2g/L) and high yield (87% of the theoretical maximum). Subsequently, the pathway was extended to (S,S)-2,3-butanediol (S-BDO) through efficiently linking two metabolic pathways via chemical catalysis. This resulted in efficient homo-S-BDO production with a titer of 74mM (6.7g/L) S-BDO and a yield of 82%. The diacetyl and S-BDO production rates and yields obtained are the highest ever reported, demonstrating the promising combination of metabolic engineering and biocompatible chemistry as well as the great potential of L. lactis as a new production platform. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next......The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is, however, known about dam stress...... and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...

  16. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha"−"1 y"−"1. Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g"−"1 was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m"−"2 yr"−"1. This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. - Highlights: • Based on published data we estimated the litterfall in the Amazonian rainforest. • All the published data on Hg concentration in leaves and litter from the region and some unpublished data are presented. • We calculated the litter mercury deposition. • We estimated the contribution of dry, wet and litter Hg deposition in the Amazonian rainforest. • We also discussed the impact of Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle. - The Amazonian rainforest is responsible for removing at least 268 Mg Hg y"−"1, 8% of the total atmospheric mercury deposition to land.

  17. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  18. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  19. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  20. Laboratory and field evaluation of broiler litter nitrogen mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, K R; Adeli, A; McGowen, S L; Tewolde, H; Brink, G E

    2008-05-01

    Two studies were conducted for this research. First, a laboratory incubation to quantify broiler litter N mineralization with the following treatments: two soil moisture regimes, constant at 60% water fill pore space (WFPS) and fluctuating (60-30% WFPS), three soil types, Brooksville silty clay loam, Ruston sandy loam from Mississippi, and Catlin silt loam from Illinois. Second, a field incubation study to quantify broiler litter N mineralization using similar soils and litter application rates as the laboratory incubation. Broiler litter was applied at an equivalent rate of 350 kg total N ha(-1) for both studies except for control treatments. Subsamples were taken at different timing for both experiments for NO3-N and NH4-N determinations. In the laboratory experiment, soil moisture regimes had no significant impact on litter-derived inorganic N. Total litter-derived inorganic N across all treatments increased from 23 mg kg(-1) at time 0, to 159 mg kg(-1) at 93 d after litter application. Significant differences were observed among the soil types. Net litter-derived inorganic N was greater for Brooksville followed by Ruston and Catlin soils. For both studies and all soils, NH4-N content decreased while NO3-N content increased indicating a rapid nitrification of the mineralized litter N. Litter mineralization in the field study followed the same trend as the laboratory study but resulted in much lower net inorganic N, presumably due to environmental conditions such as precipitation and temperature, which may have resulted in more denitrification and immobilization of mineralized litter N. Litter-derived inorganic N from the field study was greater for Ruston than Brooksville. Due to no impact by soil moisture regimes, additional studies are warranted in order to develop predictive relationships to quantify broiler litter N availability.

  1. Effects of Litter and Nutrient Additions on Soil Carbon Cycling in a Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, D. F.; Halterman, S.; Turner, B. L.; Tanner, E.; Wright, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) dynamics present one of the largest sources of uncertainty in global C cycle models, with tropical forest soils containing some of the largest terrestrial C stocks. Drastic changes in soil C storage and loss are likely to occur if global change alters plant net primary production (NPP) and/or nutrient availability in these ecosystems. We assessed the effects of litter removal and addition, as well as fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and/or potassium (K), on soil C stocks in a tropical seasonal forest in Panama after ten and sixteen years, respectively. We used a density fractionation scheme to assess manipulation effects on rapidly and slowly cycling pools of C. Soil samples were collected in the wet and dry seasons from 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths in 15- 45x45 m plots with litter removal, 2x litter addition, and control (n=5), and from 32- 40x40 m fertilization plots with factorial additions of N, P, and K. We hypothesized that litter addition would increase all soil C fractions, but that the magnitude of the effect on rapidly-cycling C would be dampened by a fertilization effect. Results for the dry season show that the "free light" C fraction, or rapidly cycling soil C pool, was significantly different among the three litter treatments, comprising 5.1 ± 0.9 % of total soil mass in the litter addition plots, 2.7 ± 0.3 % in control plots, and 1.0 ± 0.1 % in litter removal plots at the 0-5cm depth (means ± one standard error, p < 0.05). Bulk soil C results are similar to observed changes in the rapidly cycling C pool for the litter addition and removal. Fertilization treatments on average diminished this C pool size relative to control plots, although there was substantial variability among fertilization treatments. In particular, addition of N and P together did not significantly alter rapidly cycling C pool sizes (4.1 ± 1.2 % of total soil mass) relative to controls (3.5 ± 0.4 %), whereas addition of P alone resulted in

  2. Effect of water chemistry on corrosion of stainless steel and deposition of corrosion products in high temperature pressurised water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Jonathan; Cooper, Christopher; Ponton, Clive; Connolly, Brian; Banks, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    In any water-cooled nuclear reactor, the corrosion of the structural materials in contact with the coolant and the deposition of the resulting oxidised species has long been an operational concern within the power generation industry. Corrosion of the structural materials at all points in the reactor leads to low concentrations of oxidised metal species in the coolant water. The oxidised metal species can subsequently be deposited out as CRUD deposits at various points around the reactor's primary and secondary loops. The deposition of soluble oxidised material at any location in the reactor cooling system is undesirable due to several effects; deposits have a porous structure, capable of incorporating radiologically active material (forming out of core radiation fields) and concentrating aggressively corrosive chemicals, which exacerbate environmental degradation of structural and fuel-cladding materials. Deposits on heat transfer surfaces also limit efficiency of the system as a whole. The work in this programme is an attempt to determine and understand the fundamental corrosion and deposition behaviour under controlled, simulated reactor conditions. The rates of corrosion of structural materials within pressurised water reactors are heavily dependent on the condition of the exposed surface. The effect of mechanical grinding and of electropolishing on the corrosion rate and structure of the resultant oxide film formed on grade 316L stainless steel exposed to high purity water, modified to pH 9.5 and 10.5 at temperatures between 200 and 300 deg. C and pressures of up to 100 bar will be investigated. The corrosion of stainless steel in water via electrochemical oxidation leads to the formation of surface iron, nickel and chromium based spinels. Low concentrations of these spinels can be found dissolved in the coolant water. The solubility of magnetite, stainless steels' major corrosion product, in high purity water will be studied at pH 9.5 to 10.5 at

  3. Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal de Alcantara Notaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm from areas each subject to one of the following four treatments: agroforestry system (AS, native forest (NF, biodynamic system (BS and coffee control (CT.The coffee plantation had been abandoned for nearly 15 years and, although there had been no management or harvesting, still contained productive coffee plants. The accumulation of litter and mean nutrient content of the litter, the soil nutrient content, microbial biomass carbon, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, basal respiration, microbial quotient, metabolic quotient and microbial populations (total bacteria, fluorescent bacteria group, total fungi and Trichoderma spp. were all analyzed. The systems thatwere exposed to human intervention (A and BS differed in their chemical attributes and contained higher levels of nutrients when compared to NF and CT. BS for coffee production at high altitude can be used as a sustainable alternative in the high altitude zones of the semi-arid region in Brazil, which is an area that is highly susceptible to environmental degradation.

  4. Analysis of litter size and average litter weight in pigs using a recursive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel; Thompson, Robin

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of litter size and average piglet weight at birth in Landrace and Yorkshire using a standard two-trait mixed model (SMM) and a recursive mixed model (RMM) is presented. The RMM establishes a one-way link from litter size to average piglet weight. It is shown that there is a one......-to-one correspondence between the parameters of SMM and RMM and that they generate equivalent likelihoods. As parameterized in this work, the RMM tests for the presence of a recursive relationship between additive genetic values, permanent environmental effects, and specific environmental effects of litter size......, on average piglet weight. The equivalent standard mixed model tests whether or not the covariance matrices of the random effects have a diagonal structure. In Landrace, posterior predictive model checking supports a model without any form of recursion or, alternatively, a SMM with diagonal covariance...

  5. Isotopic Discrimination During Leaf Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngao, J.; Rubino, M.

    2006-12-01

    Methods involving stable isotopes have been successfully applied since decades in various research fields. Tracing 13C natural abundance in ecosystem compartments greatly enhanced the understanding of the C fluxes in the plant-soil-atmosphere C exchanges when compartments present different C isotopic signatures (i.e. atmospheric CO2 vs photosynthetic leaves, C3 vs C4; etc.). However, the assumption that no isotopic discrimination occurs during respiration is commonly made in numbers of C isotope-based ecological studies. Furthermore, verifications of such assumption are sparse and not enough reliable. The aim of our study is to assess the potential isotopic discrimination that may occur during litter decomposition. Leaf litter from an Arbutus unedo (L.) stand (Tolfa, Italy) was incubated in 1L jars, under constant laboratory conditions (i.e. 25 ° C and 135% WC). During the entire incubation period, gravimetric mass loss, litter respiration rates and the isotopic composition of respired CO2 are monitored at regular intervals. Data from 7 months of incubation will be presented and discussed. After two months, the litter mass loss averaged 16% of initial dry mass. During the same time-period, the respiration rate decreased significantly by 58% of the initial respiration rate. Isotopic compositions of respired CO2 ranged between -27.95‰ and - 25.69‰. Mean values did not differ significantly among the sampling days, in spite of an apparent enrichment in 13C of respired CO2 with time. The significance of these isotopic enrichment will be determined at a longer time scale. They may reveal both/either a direct microbial discrimination during respiration processes and/or a use of different litter compounds as C source along time. Further chemical and compound-specific isotopic analysis of dry matter will be performed in order to clarify these hypotheses. This work is part of the "ALICE" project, funded by the European Union's Marie Curie Fellowship Actions that aims to

  6. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI: A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verslycke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener” products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green” in the absence of a universally accepted definition. We recently developed the Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI which is ultimately intended to be a globally implementable tool that comprehensively scores and ranks hazards to human health, safety, and the environment for products used in oil and gas operations. CSI scores are assigned to products designed for the same use (e.g., surfactants, catalysts on the basis of product composition as well as intrinsic hazard properties and data availability for each product component. As such, products with a lower CSI score within a product use group are considered to have a lower intrinsic hazard compared to other products within the same use group. The CSI provides a powerful tool to evaluate relative product hazards; to review and assess product portfolios; and to aid in the formulation of products.

  7. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  8. Using an innovative combination of quality-by-design and green analytical chemistry approaches for the development of a stability indicating UHPLC method in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, Christine; Ferey, Ludivine; Vedrines, Elodie; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-11-10

    An innovative combination of green chemistry and quality by design (QbD) approach is presented through the development of an UHPLC method for the analysis of the main degradation products of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. QbD strategy was integrated to the field of green analytical chemistry to improve method understanding while assuring quality and minimizing environmental impacts, and analyst exposure. This analytical method was thoroughly evaluated by applying risk assessment and multivariate analysis tools. After a scouting phase aimed at selecting a suitable stationary phase and an organic solvent in accordance with green chemistry principles, quality risk assessment tools were applied to determine the critical process parameters (CPPs). The effects of the CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e., resolutions, efficiencies, and solvent consumption were further evaluated by means of a screening design. A response surface methodology was then carried out to model CQAs as function of the selected CPPs and the optimal separation conditions were determined through a desirability analysis. Resulting contour plots enabled to establish the design space (DS) (method operable design region) where all CQAs fulfilled the requirements. An experimental validation of the DS proved that quality within the DS was guaranteed; therefore no more robustness study was required before the validation. Finally, this UHPLC method was validated using the concept of total error and was used to analyze a pharmaceutical drug product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Approaches to understanding the semi-stable phase of litter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, C. M.; Trofymow, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The slowing or even apparent cessation of litter decomposition with time has been widely observed, but causes remain poorly understood. We examine the question in part through data from CIDET (the Canadian Intersite Decomposition Experiment) for 10 foliar litters at one site with MAT 6.7 degrees C. The initial rapid C loss in the first year for some litters is followed by a second phase (1-7y) with decay rates from 0.21-0.79/y, influenced by initial litter chemistry especially the ratio AUR/N (acid-unhydrolyzable residue, negative). By contrast, 10-23% of the initial litter C mass entered the semi-stable decay phase (>7 y) with modeled decay rates of 0.0021-0.0035/y. The slowing and convergence of k values was similar to trends in chemical composition. From 7-12 y, concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, P, Mn and Zn generally declined and became more similar among litters, and total N converged around 20 mg/g. Non-polar and water-soluble extractables and acid solubles continued to decrease slowly and AUR to increase. Solid-state C-13 NMR showed continuing slight declines in O- and di-O-alkyl C and increases in alkyl, methoxyl, aryl and carboxyl C. CIDET and other studies now clearly show that lignin is not selectively preserved, and that AUR is not a measure of foliar lignin as it includes components from condensed tannins and long-chain alkyl C. Interaction with soil minerals strongly enhances soil C stabilization, but what slows decomposition so much in organic horizons? The role of inherent "chemical recalcitrance" or possible formation of new covalent bonds is hotly debated in soil science, but increasingly complex or random molecular structures no doubt present greater challenges to enzymes. A relevant observation from soils and geochemistry is that decomposition results in a decline in individual compounds that can be identified from chemical analysis and a corresponding increase in the "molecularly uncharacterizable component" (MUC). Long-term declines in Ca, Mg, K

  10. Nonculturability Might Underestimate the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Issmat I; Helmy, Yosra A; Kathayat, Dipak; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario A; Kumar, Anand; Deblais, Loic; Huang, Huang-Chi; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the contribution of litter to the occurrence of Campylobacter on three broiler farms, which were known to have low (LO) and high (HI-A and HI-B) Campylobacter prevalence. For this purpose, we collected litter samples (n = 288) during and after two rearing cycles from each farm. We evaluated the occurrence of Campylobacter (using selective enrichment and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [q-PCR] analysis) in the litter samples as well as the litter's pH and moisture content. Ceca from each flock (n = 144) were harvested at slaughter age and used to quantify Campylobacter colony-forming units (CFUs). Campylobacter was only retrieved from 7 litter samples that were collected from HI-A and HI-B during the growing period, but no Campylobacter was isolated from LO farms. The q-PCR analysis detected Campylobacter in pooled litter samples from all three farms. However, in litter collected during the same rotation, Campylobacter levels were significantly higher (p litter samples in comparison to those in LO. Cecal samples from HI-A and HI-B yielded relatively high numbers of Campylobacter CFUs, which were undetectable in LO samples. Litter's pH and moisture did not affect the overall occurrence of Campylobacter in litter and ceca on any of the farms. Our data suggest that Campylobacter was generally more abundant in litter that was collected from farms with highly colonized flocks. Therefore, better approaches for assessing the occurrence of Campylobacter in litter might be warranted in order to reduce the dissemination of these pathogens on and off poultry farms.

  11. Marine litter in the Nordic Seas: Distribution composition and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål

    2017-12-15

    Litter has been found in all marine environments and is accumulating in seabirds and mammals in the Nordic Seas. These ecosystems are under pressure from climatic change and fisheries while the human population is small. The marine landscapes in the area range from shallow fishing banks to deep-sea canyons. We present density, distribution and composition of litter from the first large-scale mapping of sea bed litter in arctic and subarctic waters. Litter was registered from 1778 video transects, of which 27% contained litter. The background density of litter in the Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea is 202 and 279 items/km 2 respectively, and highest densities were found close to coast and in canyons. Most of the litter originated from the fishing industry and plastic was the second most common litter. Background levels were comparable to European records and areas with most littering had higher densities than in Europe. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Competence of Litter Ants for Rapid Biodiversity Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Saumya E. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Biodiversity Assessment approaches associated with focusing taxa have overcome many of the problems related to large scale surveys. This study examined the suitability of litter ants as a focusing taxon by checking whether diversity and species assemblages of litter ants reflect the overall picture of arthropod diversity and assemblages in leaf litter in two vegetation types: secondary forest and pine plantation in Upper Hanthana forest reserve, Sri Lanka. In each vegetation type, arthropods were sampled using three sampling methods (Winkler extraction, hand collection, and pitfall traps along three 100 m line transects. From the two sites, 1887 litter ants (34 species and 3488 litter arthropods (52 species were collected. Species assemblages composition of both ants and other arthropods differed significantly between the two sites (ANOSIM, p=0.001 with both groups generating distinct clusters for the two sites (SIMPROF, p=0.001. But there was no significant correlation (p>0.05 between abundance and richness of litter ants and those of other arthropods in both vegetation types. The overall finding suggests that the litter ants do not reflect the holistic picture of arthropod diversity and assemblages in leaf litter, but the quality of the habitat for the survival of all litter arthropods.

  13. Ecology of subtropical, shallow water environments: chemistry of copper and chlorine introduced into marine systems during energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    During the last three contract years, we have been involved in the study of the chemistry of the copper binding compounds occurring in coastal seawater. Initially our efforts were oriented towards the study of the complexing capacity of waters collected at various locations in the Miami, Florida area. Our study then shifted towards the concentration and the elucidation of these chelators

  14. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion's leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  15. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion’s leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  16. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  17. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  18. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Birgit; Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004-2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students.

  19. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D.; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M.; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004–2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students. PMID:29698502

  20. Effects of prescribed burning and litter type on litter decomposition and nutrient release in mixed-grass prairie in Eastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire can affect litter decomposition and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Here, we examined the effect of summer fire and three litter types on litter decomposition and litter C and N dynamics in a northern mixed-grass prairie over a 24 month period starting ca. 14 months after fire. Over all...

  1. Tropical herbivorous phasmids, but not litter snails, alter decomposition rates by modifying litter bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelse M. Prather; Gary E. Belovsky; Sharon A. Cantrell; Grizelle González

    2018-01-01

    Consumers can alter decomposition rates through both feces and selective feeding in many ecosystems, but these combined effects have seldom been examined in tropical ecosystems. Members of the detrital food web (litter-feeders or microbivores) should presumably have greater effects on decomposition than herbivores, members of the green food web. Using litterbag...

  2. Fenbendazole treatment and litter size in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Nancy A; Bieszczak, Jeremiah R; Verhulst, Steven; Disney, Kimberly E; Montgomery, Kyle E; Toth, Linda A

    2006-11-01

    Fenbendazole is commonly used in laboratory animal medicine as an anthelmintic for elimination of pinworms. It is generally regarded as a safe drug with minimal side effects. In our facility, 2 breeding colonies of rats were treated with fenbendazole to eliminate pinworms. Analysis of the breeding records revealed that feeding Sprague-Dawley rats a diet containing fenbendazole on a continuous basis for 7 consecutive weeks was associated with a significant reduction in litter size. Although the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown, the finding prompts caution when using fenbendazole to treat valuable breeding colonies or strains that are poor breeders.

  3. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  4. Radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on radiation chemistry of heavy elements that includes the following topics: radiation chemistry of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (spectrophotometric analysis and gamma radiolysis of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in nitric acid solution); EPR studies of intermediates formed in radiolytic reactions with aqueous medium; two-phase radiolysis and its effect on the distribution coefficient of plutonium; and radiation chemistry of nitric acid. (DHM)

  5. Fate of mercury in tree litter during decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Pokharel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We performed a controlled laboratory litter incubation study to assess changes in dry mass, carbon (C mass and concentration, mercury (Hg mass and concentration, and stoichiometric relations between elements during decomposition. Twenty-five surface litter samples each, collected from four forest stands, were placed in incubation jars open to the atmosphere, and were harvested sequentially at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Using a mass balance approach, we observed significant mass losses of Hg during decomposition (5 to 23 % of initial mass after 18 months, which we attribute to gaseous losses of Hg to the atmosphere through a gas-permeable filter covering incubation jars. Percentage mass losses of Hg generally were less than observed dry mass and C mass losses (48 to 63 % Hg loss per unit dry mass loss, although one litter type showed similar losses. A field control study using the same litter types exposed at the original collection locations for one year showed that field litter samples were enriched in Hg concentrations by 8 to 64 % compared to samples incubated for the same time period in the laboratory, indicating strong additional sorption of Hg in the field likely from atmospheric deposition. Solubility of Hg, assessed by exposure of litter to water upon harvest, was very low (<0.22 ng Hg g−1 dry mass and decreased with increasing stage of decomposition for all litter types. Our results indicate potentially large gaseous emissions, or re-emissions, of Hg originally associated with plant litter upon decomposition. Results also suggest that Hg accumulation in litter and surface layers in the field is driven mainly by additional sorption of Hg, with minor contributions from "internal" accumulation due to preferential loss of C over Hg. Litter types showed highly species-specific differences in Hg levels during decomposition suggesting that emissions, retention, and sorption of Hg are dependent on litter type.

  6. Radiocesium leaching from contaminated litter in forest streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Naito, Risa S.; Negishi, Junjiro N.; Sasaki, Michiko; Toda, Hiroto; Nunokawa, Masanori; Murase, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    In Japanese forests suffering from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, litter fall provides a large amount of radiocesium from forests to streams. Submerged litter is processed to become a vital food resource for various stream organisms through initial leaching and subsequent decomposition. Although leaching from litter can detach radiocesium similarly to potassium, radiocesium leaching and its migration are poorly understood. We examined both radiocesium and potassium leaching to the water column and radiocesium allocation to minerals (glass beads, silica sand, and vermiculite) in the laboratory using soaked litter with and without minerals on a water column. The mineral types did not affect radiocesium leaching from litter, but soaking in water for 1, 7, and 30 days decreased the radiocesium concentration in litter by ×0.71, ×0.66, and ×0.56, respectively. Meanwhile, the 1-, 7-, and 30-day experiments decreased potassium concentration in litter by ×0.17, ×0.11, and ×0.09, respectively. Leached radiocesium remained in a dissolved form when there was no mineral phases present in the water, whereas there was sorption onto the minerals when they were present. In particular, vermiculite adsorbed radiocesium by two to three orders of magnitude more effectively than the other minerals. Because radiocesium forms (such as that dissolved or adsorbed to organic matter or minerals) can further mobilize to ecosystems, our findings will increase our understanding regarding the dynamics of radiocesium in stream ecosystems. - Highlights: • Radiocesium in contaminated litter was leached when soaked in water. • Radiocesium in litter leached slowly compared to potassium. • Minerals adsorbed dissolved radiocesium that was leached from litter. • Vermiculite effectively adsorbed radiocesium leached from litter

  7. Litter processing and population food intake of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in a high intertidal forest in northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaus, Inga; Wolff, Matthias; Diele, Karen

    2006-03-01

    This study provides the first quantification of the population food intake of the litter-consuming mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae, L. 1763) in a New World mangrove forest. Diet, feeding periodicity, gastric evacuation rates and size-dependent consumption were determined for this intensively exploited semi-terrestrial crab in different types of mangrove forest. Unlike many other crabs Ucides cordatus is a continuous feeder, as shown by gastrointestinal contents over a day's cycle. Starvation experiments revealed that most gastric evacuation occurs during the first 12 h after feeding, following an exponential decay function. Evacuation rates (0.35 h -1 and 0.31 h -1) for small (carapace width CW 2.5-3.5 cm) and large (CW 6.5-7.5 cm) crabs, respectively, and the mean daily gastrointestinal contents were used to calculate the daily food intake (DFI) of U. cordatus for both sexes and different size classes. DFI was strongly correlated to body size and ranged from 19.8 to 6.0% of body dry weight in small and large crabs, respectively. The daily energy intake of U. cordatus (37.6 kJ for a 65 g wet weight specimen) was high when compared to other leaf-eating crabs. Litter fall and propagule production were calculated as 16.38 t ha -1 y -1, corresponding to a daily mean of 4.49 g m -2 in a high intertidal Rhizophora mangle forest stand. The estimated population food intake of Ucides cordatus (4.1 g dw m -2 d -1) corresponds to 81.3% of this production. This high litter removal rate, a low litter quantity in burrows and high consumption rates during field experiments suggest that the local crab population is food-limited in many parts of the study area. The very efficient coupling of forest litter production and crab litter consumption is possible due to the high crab density and the low inundation frequency of the mangrove forests, allowing for prolonged foraging periods. By processing the major part of the litter, U. cordatus helps to retain nutrients and energy

  8. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  9. Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, J; López, M J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Valverde, M; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    New alternatives are necessary if the environmental impact linked to intensive poultry production is to be reduced, and different litter handling methods should be explored. Among these, acidifying amendments added to poultry litters has been suggested as a management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effect involved in multiple flock cycles. There have been several studies on the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) and its benefits, but almost no data are available under farm conditions in Europe. An experiment with Ross 308 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effect of alum on litter composition, the solubility of some mineral elements and NH3 emission during a single flock-rearing period in commercial houses located in southeast Spain. Broilers were placed on clean wood shavings in four commercial houses, containing 20 000 broilers each. Before filling, alum was applied at a rate of 0.25 kg/m2 to the wood shavings of two poultry houses, whereas the remaining two were used as control. Litter from each poultry house was sampled every 3 to 5 days. Ammonia emissions from the poultry houses were monitored from 37 to 42 days of age. In comparison with the control group, alum treatment significantly reduced the pH level of the litter (P litter showed, on average, a higher electrical conductivity than the control litter (5.52 v. 3.63 dS/m). The dry matter (DM) and total N and P contents did not show differences between the treatments (P > 0.05). Regarding the NH4 +-N content, alum-treated litter showed a higher value than the untreated litter, with an average difference of 0.16 ± 0.07% (on a DM basis). On average, alum-treated litter had lower water-soluble P, Zn and Cu contents than the untreated litter. Alum noticeably reduced the in-house ammonia concentration (P litter, with a corresponding positive effect on the building environment and poultry health. For these reasons, litter amendment with alum could be recommended as a

  10. The teaching of chemistry in the landscaping of the three pedagogical moments: an analysis of scientific productions

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Rita Machado Ferreira Crestani; Aline Locatelli; Vitória Freitas Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Bibliographical researches help in the study and understanding of several subjects in a certain area of knowledge. Research in the field of Chemistry Teaching has been increasing significantly in recent years and has gained space for debate in several graduate programs in Brazil as well as in events in the area. Retrieving and analyzing these research is important for reflection on teaching and the expansion of discussions and actions that promote improvement in the quality of the same. In th...

  11. Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, John E; Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

    2011-05-01

    Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative.

  12. Leaf litter and roots as sources of mineral soil organic matter in temperate deciduous forest with and without earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, T.; Yavitt, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    We labeled sugar maple trees with 13C to quantify the separate contributions of decaying leaf litter and root turnover/rhizosphere C flux to mineral soil organic matter (SOM). Labeled leaf litter was applied to forest plots with and without earthworms and recovery of the label in SOM was quantified over three years. In parallel, label recovery was quantified in soils from the labeling chambers where all label was supplied by belowground C flux. In the absence of earthworms about half of the label added as leaf litter remained in the surface organic horizons after three years, with about 3% recovered in mineral SOM. The label was most enriched on silt + clay surfaces, representing precipitation of DOC derived from litter. Earthworms mixed nearly all the leaf litter into mineral soil within one year, and after two years the label was most enriched in particulate organic matter held within soil aggregates produced by worms. After three years 15-20% of the added label was recovered in mineral SOM. In the labeling chambers over 75% of belowground C allocation (BCA) was used in root and rhizosphere respiration in the first year after labeling. We recovered only 3.8% of estimated BCA in SOM after 3 years; however, expressed as a proportion of fine root production plus rhizosphere C flux, this value is 15.4%, comparable to that for leaf litter in the presence of earthworms. In conclusion, both roots and leaf litter contribute significantly to the formation of stabilized mineral SOM in temperate deciduous forests, and this process is profoundly altered by the invasion of lumbricid earthworms.

  13. Exploring climatic controls on blanket bog litter decomposition across an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael; Ritson, Jonathan P.; Clark, Joanna M.; Verhoef, Anne; Brazier, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological and ecological functioning of blanket bogs is strongly coupled, involving multiple ecohydrological feedbacks which can affect carbon cycling. Cool and wet conditions inhibit decomposition, and favour the growth of Sphagnum mosses which produce highly recalcitrant litter. A small but persistent imbalance between production and decomposition has led to blanket bogs in the UK accumulating large amounts of carbon. Additionally, healthy bogs provide a suite of other ecosystems services including water regulation and drinking water provision. However, there is concern that climate change could increase rates of litter decomposition and disrupt this carbon sink. Furthermore, it has been argued that the response of these ecosystems in the warmer south west and west of the UK may provide an early analogue for later changes in the more extensive northern peatlands. In order to investigate the effects of climate change on blanket bog litter decomposition, we set-up a litter bag experiment across an altitudinal gradient spanning 200 m of elevation (including a transition from moorland to healthy blanket bog) on Dartmoor, an area of hitherto unstudied, climatically marginal blanket bog in the south west of the UK. At seven sites, water table depth and soil and surface temperature were recorded continuously. Litter bags filled with the litter of three vegetation species dominant on Dartmoor were incubated just below the bog surface and retrieved over a period of 12 months. We found significant differences in the rate of decomposition between species. At all sites, decomposition progressed in the order Calluna vulgaris (dwarf shrub) > Molinia caerulea (graminoid) > Sphagnum (bryophyte). However, while soil temperature did decrease along the altitudinal gradient, being warmer in the lower altitudes, a hypothesised accompanying decrease in decomposition rates did not occur. This could be explained by greater N deposition at the higher elevation sites (estimated

  14. Effect of fractionation and pyrolysis on fuel properties of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kaushlendra; Risse, L Mark; Das, K C; Worley, John; Thompson, Sidney

    2010-07-01

    Raw poultry litter has certain drawbacks for energy production such as high ash and moisture content, a corrosive nature, and low heating values. A combined solution to utilization of raw poultry litter may involve fractionation and pyrolysis. Fractionation divides poultry litter into a fine, nutrient-rich fraction and a coarse, carbon-dense fraction. Pyrolysis of the coarse fraction would remove the corrosive volatiles as bio-oil, leaving clean char. This paper presents the effect of fractionation and pyrolysis process parameters on the calorific value of char and on the characterization of bio-oil. Poultry litter samples collected from three commercial poultry farms were divided into 10 treatments that included 2 controls (raw poultry litter and its coarse fraction having particle size greater than 0.85 mm) and 8 other treatments that were combinations of three factors: type (raw poultry litter or its coarse fraction), heating rate (30 or 10 degrees C/min), and pyrolysis temperature (300 or 500 degrees C). After the screening process, the poultry litter samples were dried and pyrolyzed in a batch reactor under nitrogen atmosphere and char and condensate yields were recorded. The condensate was separated into three fractions on the basis of their density: heavy, medium, and light phase. Calorific value and proximate and nutrient analysis were performed for char, condensate, and feedstock. Results show that the char with the highest calorific value (17.39 +/- 1.37 MJ/kg) was made from the coarse fraction at 300 degrees C, which captured 68.71 +/- 9.37% of the feedstock energy. The char produced at 300 degrees C had 42 +/- 11 mg/kg arsenic content but no mercury. Almost all of the Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and P remained in the char. The pyrolysis process reduced ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4-N) in char by 99.14 +/- 0.47% and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) by 95.79 +/- 5.45% at 500 degrees C.

  15. The teaching of chemistry in the landscaping of the three pedagogical moments: an analysis of scientific productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rita Machado Ferreira Crestani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bibliographical researches help in the study and understanding of several subjects in a certain area of knowledge. Research in the field of Chemistry Teaching has been increasing significantly in recent years and has gained space for debate in several graduate programs in Brazil as well as in events in the area. Retrieving and analyzing these research is important for reflection on teaching and the expansion of discussions and actions that promote improvement in the quality of the same. In this article, a “state of the Art” research is presented on the use of the methodology of Three Pedagogical Moments (3MP in Teaching Chemistry. In order to do so, Bardin content analysis was carried out in dissertations and scientific papers that presented such an approach in the period from 2010 to 2016. In total, 57 papers were found and analyzed, which were divided into six categories of analysis, namely: Science-Technology-Society (STS, Teaching Practices, Problem-based Experimentation, Curricular Reorganization, Contextualization and Teacher Training. In the discussion about each of the categories, it is presented which papers were analyzed as well as it was chosen to briefly describe some works that presented more prominence in the Teaching of Chemistry. The analysis of the works, their reading and re-reading allowed to broaden the knowledge regarding the 3MP, as well as to broaden the perspective from the perspective of work with this approach.

  16. Effects of two litter amendments on air NH3 levels in broiler closed-houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atapattu, N. S. B. M; Lakmal, L. G. E.; Perera, P. W. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective High NH3 emissions from poultry houses are reported to have negative impacts on health, welfare and safety of birds and humans, and on the environment. Objective of the present study was to determine the effects of two litter amendments on the NH3 levels in broiler closed houses under hot-humid conditions. Methods Giving a completely randomize design, nine closed houses, each housed 32,500 birds on paddy husk litter, were randomly allocated into two treatment (Mizuho; a bacterial culture mix and Rydall OE; an enzymatic biocatalyst) and control groups. NH3 levels were determined thrice a day (0600, 1200, and 1800 h), at three heights from the litter surface (30, 90, and 150 cm), at 20 predetermined locations of a house, from day 1 to 41. Results Rydall significantly reduced the NH3 level compared to control and Mizuho. NH3 levels at 30 cm were significantly higher than that of 90 and 150 cm. The NH3 levels at 30 cm height were higher than 25 ppm level from day 9, 11, and 13 in Mizuho, control, and Rydall groups, respectively to day 41. NH3 levels at 150 cm height were higher than maximum threshold limit of 50 ppm for human exposure from day 12, 14, and 15 in Mizuho, control, and Rydall groups, respectively to day 33. Being significantly different among each other, the NH3 level was highest and lowest at 0600 and 1800 h. Litter amendments had no significant effects on growth performance. Rydall significantly increased the litter N content on day 24. Conclusion It was concluded that the NH3 levels of closed house broiler production facilities under tropical condition are so high that both birds and workers are exposed to above recommended levels during many days of the growing period. Compared to microbial culture, the enzymatic biocatalyst was found to be more effective in reducing NH3 level. PMID:28423888

  17. Chemistry of Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    Since the late 1970's the coordination chemistry of technetium has been developed remarkably. The background of the development is obviously related to the use of technetium radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis in nuclear medicine. Much attention has also been denoted to the chemical behavior of environmental 99 Tc released from reprocessing plants. This review covers the several aspects of technetium chemistry, including production of radioisotopes, analytical chemistry and coordination chemistry. In the analytical chemistry, separation of technetium, emphasizing chromatography and solvent extraction, is described together with spectrophotometric determination of technetium. In the coordination chemistry of technetium, a characteristic feature of the chemistry of Tc(V) complexes is referred from the view point of the formation of a wide variety of highly stable complexes containing the Tc=O or Tc≡N bond. Kinetic studies of the preparation of Tc(III) complexes using hexakis (thiourea) technetium(III) ion as a starting material are summarized, together with the base hydrolysis reactions of Tc(III), Tc(IV) and Tc(V) complexes. (author)

  18. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum ...

  19. Are litter decomposition and fire linked through plant species traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Grootemaat, Saskia; Verheijen, Lieneke M; Cornwell, William K; van Bodegom, Peter M; van der Wal, René; Aerts, Rien

    2017-11-01

    Contents 653 I. 654 II. 657 III. 659 IV. 661 V. 662 VI. 663 VII. 665 665 References 665 SUMMARY: Biological decomposition and wildfire are connected carbon release pathways for dead plant material: slower litter decomposition leads to fuel accumulation. Are decomposition and surface fires also connected through plant community composition, via the species' traits? Our central concept involves two axes of trait variation related to decomposition and fire. The 'plant economics spectrum' (PES) links biochemistry traits to the litter decomposability of different fine organs. The 'size and shape spectrum' (SSS) includes litter particle size and shape and their consequent effect on fuel bed structure, ventilation and flammability. Our literature synthesis revealed that PES-driven decomposability is largely decoupled from predominantly SSS-driven surface litter flammability across species; this finding needs empirical testing in various environmental settings. Under certain conditions, carbon release will be dominated by decomposition, while under other conditions litter fuel will accumulate and fire may dominate carbon release. Ecosystem-level feedbacks between decomposition and fire, for example via litter amounts, litter decomposition stage, community-level biotic interactions and altered environment, will influence the trait-driven effects on decomposition and fire. Yet, our conceptual framework, explicitly comparing the effects of two plant trait spectra on litter decomposition vs fire, provides a promising new research direction for better understanding and predicting Earth surface carbon dynamics. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Analysis of litter mesofauna of Poltava region forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of research of litter mesofauna of 48 forest biogeocenoses the regularities of invertebrate communities formation on the species and families levels are determined. The degree of similarity of test plots are analysed by taxonomic structure of the communities. The factors of the litter invertebrate communities formation in forest ecosystems of the Poltava region are revealed.

  1. THE FATE OF TANNINS IN CORSICAN PINE LITTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, K.G.J.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tannins are ubiquitous in higher plants and therefore also in litter and soils where they affect many biogeochemical processes. Despite this well recognized role, the fate of tannins in litter and mineral soils is hardly known as often only trace amounts, if any, of tannins are measured. In this

  2. Marine litter monitoring by northern fulmars: progress report 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Meijboom, A.

    2003-01-01

    An earlier pilot study on litter contents in stomachs of Fulmars indicated that this seabird can be used as a suitable indicator for levels of marine litter pollution on the North Sea off the Dutch coast. This progress report updates the existing dataset with data on Fulmar stomach contents in the

  3. Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Velcheva, Maya; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Marinova, Veselka

    2017-04-01

    MARLEN - Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools is a project under the Programme BG02.03: Increased capacity for assessing and predicting environmental status in marine and inland waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Burgas municipality and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. Initial assessment of ecological state of Bulgarian marine waters showed lack of data for some descriptors of MSFD. The main goal of MARLEN is to build up tools for assessment of marine environment by implementing new technologies and best practices for addressing three main areas of interest with lack of marine data in particular: a) Marine litter detection and classification in coastal areas; b) Regular near real time surface water eutrophication monitoring on large aquatory; c) Underwater noise monitoring. Developed tools are an important source of real time, near real time and delay mode marine data for Bulgarian Black Sea waters. The partnership within the project increased capacity for environmental assessments and training of personnel and enhances collaboration between scientific institutes, regional and local authorities. Project results supported implementation of MSFD in Bulgarian marine waters for the benefit of coastal population, marine industry, tourism, marine research and marine spatial planning.

  4. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  5. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  6. The influence of selected litter and herd factors on treatments for lameness in suckling piglets from 35 Danish herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.

    1996-01-01

    was: high-risk litters are (1) large litters, (2) litters with previous diseases or deaths, (3) litters where the nursing sow had been treated, or (4) litters from high-parity sows. Litters from large conventional herds or from herds with a high stocking density were expected to have a high risk...

  7. Fate of mercury in tree litter during decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, A. K.; Obrist, D.

    2011-09-01

    We performed a controlled laboratory litter incubation study to assess changes in dry mass, carbon (C) mass and concentration, mercury (Hg) mass and concentration, and stoichiometric relations between elements during decomposition. Twenty-five surface litter samples each, collected from four forest stands, were placed in incubation jars open to the atmosphere, and were harvested sequentially at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Using a mass balance approach, we observed significant mass losses of Hg during decomposition (5 to 23 % of initial mass after 18 months), which we attribute to gaseous losses of Hg to the atmosphere through a gas-permeable filter covering incubation jars. Percentage mass losses of Hg generally were less than observed dry mass and C mass losses (48 to 63 % Hg loss per unit dry mass loss), although one litter type showed similar losses. A field control study using the same litter types exposed at the original collection locations for one year showed that field litter samples were enriched in Hg concentrations by 8 to 64 % compared to samples incubated for the same time period in the laboratory, indicating strong additional sorption of Hg in the field likely from atmospheric deposition. Solubility of Hg, assessed by exposure of litter to water upon harvest, was very low (associated with plant litter upon decomposition. Results also suggest that Hg accumulation in litter and surface layers in the field is driven mainly by additional sorption of Hg, with minor contributions from "internal" accumulation due to preferential loss of C over Hg. Litter types showed highly species-specific differences in Hg levels during decomposition suggesting that emissions, retention, and sorption of Hg are dependent on litter type.

  8. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Cook, Kimberly L; Warren, Jason G; Eiteman, Mark A; Sistani, Karamat

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are commonly used to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses; however, little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologically. The goal of this laboratory incubation was to compare the microbiological and physiochemical effects of dry acid amendments (Al+Clear, Poultry Litter Treatment, Poultry Guard) on poultry litter to an untreated control litter and to specifically correlate uric acid and urea contents of these litters to the microbes responsible for their mineralization. Although all three acidifiers eventually produced similar effects within the litter, there was at least a 2-wk delay in the microbiological responses using Poultry Litter Treatment. Acidification of the poultry litter resulted in >3 log increases in total fungal concentrations, with both uricolytic (uric acid degrading) and ureolytic (urea degrading) fungi increasing by >2 logs within the first 2 to 4 wk of the incubation. Conversely, total, uricolytic, and ureolytic bacterial populations all significantly declined during this same time period. While uric acid and urea mineralization occurred within the first 2 wk in the untreated control litter, acidification resulted in delayed mineralization events for both uric acid and urea (2 and 4 wk delay, respectively) once fungal cell concentrations exceeded a threshold level. Therefore, fungi, and especially uricolytic fungi, appear to have a vital role in the mineralization of organic N in low-pH, high-N environments, and the activity of these fungi should be considered in best management practices to reduce ammonia volatilization from acidified poultry litter.

  9. An evaluation of the presence of pathogens on broilers raised on poultry litter treatment-treated litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M J; Cherry, T E

    2000-09-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the presence of salmonella, campylobacter, and generic Escherichia coli on broilers raised on Poultry Litter Treatment (PLT)-enhanced litter in comparison with those raised on untreated litter. Two Company A farms included three houses on each farm as the treated group and three houses per farm as controls. Two complete growouts were evaluated on each farm. The Company B study included 10 farms with two paired houses per farm, one house as the treated group and one house as the control. One growout was evaluated per farm. The pathogen sampling consisted of litter sampling and whole bird rinses on the farm and in the processing plant. Litter pH, ammonia concentration, total litter bacteria, temperatures, and humidity were also recorded. The study with Company A resulted in lower mean levels of pH, ammonia concentration, total litter bacteria, litter E. coli, and bird rinse counts for salmonella and E. coli in houses treated with PLT. The results for Company B closely resembled those for Company A, but also included campylobacter data, which showed no difference between treated and control groups. The data indicate that PLT may be a beneficial component for on-farm pathogen reduction.

  10. Iodine chemistry at severe accidents. A review and evaluation of the state-of-the-art in the field. APRI 5 report. Part I: Iodine chemistry at hypothetical severe accidents. A review of the state-of-the-art 2003. Part II: A comparison of our knowledge on iodine chemistry and fission products with the current models used in MAAP 4.0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, Jan-Olov

    2005-01-01

    The current report tries to summarize and analyze the state-of-the-art on Iodine chemistry relevant to the conditions expected during severe accidents in nuclear power plants. This has made it necessary to compare a considerable amount of data, new as well as old, in order to try to find the reasons behind some changes in the expected chemical behaviour of Iodine. In a few cases this has been far from simple. Many numerical values are given in this report. However, me numbers given should not be used in a non-critical way because they are often deduced from measurements whose interpretation depends on various kinds of systematic differences and assumptions with regard to technique, 'known' constants, and models applied. The most important observation today is that one can no longer uncritically assume that iodine is only released and transported as cesium iodide. The considerable effect that control rod material (including other construction materials) can have on the way in which an accident develops and on its iodine chemistry is clearly seen from the results of the experiments performed within the PHEBUS FP project. The second part of the report evaluates new knowledge on Iodine chemistry and Iodine behaviour of importance in severe nuclear reactor accidents. Also some new information regarding the behaviour and chemistry of other fission products has been collected. In the light of this information, the current modelling of Iodine behaviour in the MAAP code version 4.0.5 has been investigated. No modelling errors have been found. However, some of the equations used to calculate the vapour pressure of the components in the AlC-alloy used in PWR control rods give questionable results. An error in the MAAP manual was found which should be corrected. Finally, some suggestions are given for future improvements in the modelling of severe accidents used in MAAP for both BWRs and PWRs

  11. Spotlight on medicinal chemistry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi

    2014-05-01

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry.

  12. Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research: Submissions ... and water quality (pollution studies), phyisco-chemical properties of naturally occurring products, colloid chemistry, nutritional chemistry and metallurgy. ... For example:

  13. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  14. Decomposition, nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization from beech leaf litter colonized with ectomycorrhizal or litter decomposing basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    COLPAERT, Jan; VAN TICHELEN, Katia

    1996-01-01

    The decomposition and the nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization of fresh beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaf litter are described. Leaves were buried for up to 6 months in plant containers in which Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were cultivated at a low rate of nutrient addition. The saprotrophic abilities of three ectomycorrhizal fungi, Thelephora terrestris Ehrh.: Fr., Suillus bovinus (L.: Fr.) O. Kuntze and Paxillus involutes (Batsch: Fr) Fr., were compared with the degradation ca...

  15. Effect of inorganic nutrients on relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to carbon flow from submerged decomposing leaf litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladislav Gulis; Keller Suberkropp

    2003-01-01

    The relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to carbon flow from submerged decaying plant litter at different levels of inorganic nutrients (N and P) were studied. We estimated leaf mass loss, fungal and bacterial biomass and production, and microbial respiration and constructed partial carbon budgets for red maple leaf disks precolonized in a stream and then...

  16. Interactions between large herbivores and litter removal by termites across a rainfall gradient in a South African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenwerf, Robert; Stevens, Nicola; Gosling, Cleo M.; Anderson, T. Michael; Olff, Han

    Litter-feeding termites influence key aspects of the structure and functioning of semi-arid ecosystems around the world by altering nutrient and material fluxes, affecting primary production, foodweb dynamics and modifying vegetation composition. Understanding these complex effects depends on

  17. Litter treatment with Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) produced an inconsistent reduction in horizontal transmission of Campylobacter in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacteriosis is a significant health problem worldwide and poultry products are considered as one of the main vehicles of transmission. Alum treatment of poultry litter was reported to decrease Campylobacter colonization frequency and population in the ceca in broilers. Little is known about h...

  18. Influence of various alternative bedding materials on pododermatitis in broilers raised in a built-up litter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broilers in the United States are frequently raised on built-up litter systems, primarily bedded with pine wood chips (shavings) or sawdust. There is continuing interest in alternative bedding materials as pine products are often in short supply and prices rise accordingly. Alternative bedding mat...

  19. Organic reactions for the electrochemical and photochemical production of chemical fuels from CO2--The reduction chemistry of carboxylic acids and derivatives as bent CO2 surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Oana R; Fenwick, Aidan Q

    2015-11-01

    The present review covers organic transformations involved in the reduction of CO2 to chemical fuels. In particular, we focus on reactions of CO2 with organic molecules to yield carboxylic acid derivatives as a first step in CO2 reduction reaction sequences. These biomimetic initial steps create opportunities for tandem electrochemical/chemical reductions. We draw parallels between long-standing knowledge of CO2 reactivity from organic chemistry, organocatalysis, surface science and electrocatalysis. We point out some possible non-faradaic chemical reactions that may contribute to product distributions in the production of solar fuels from CO2. These reactions may be accelerated by thermal effects such as resistive heating and illumination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Public perspective towards marine litter in West Aceh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, I.; Setyowati, M.; Riana, E.; Prartono, T.

    2018-03-01

    Marine litter or marine debris is a man-made solid material discarded, abandoned or lost in coastline or into the sea. To reduce the amount of marine litter in the ocean, raising public awareness is an important way. One of the contributing factors on marine litter is the lack of understanding within the community, but to identify how people notice the problem is required adequate research literature. The purpose of this study is to examine the awareness of West Aceh community on marine litter along western coastal area. The research objectives; 1) to evaluate societal perception towards marine litter; 2) to examine the urgent indicator of public awareness in West Aceh City. This study will employ a survey approach by distributing questionnaires to 383 respondents. It was found that respondents show low awareness on marine litter according to statistical data, but there are some rooms to manage in order to raise the level of public awareness. It concludes that sense of responsibility could be enhanced by involving public in any activities for preventing and eradicating marine litter. Education aspect is also important to increase public understanding about the threats of marine debris on environment, human health and economic income.

  1. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  2. Linking Global Patterns of Nitrogen Resorption with Nitrogen Mineralization During Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M.; Liu, L.; Jiang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle in terrestrial ecosystems is strongly influenced by resorption prior to litter fall and by mineralization after litter fall. Although both resorption and mineralization make N available to plants and are influenced by climate, their linkage in a changing environment remains largely unknown. Here, we show that, at the global scale, increasing N resorption efficiency has a negative effect on the N mineralization rate. With increasing temperature and precipitation, the increasing rate of the N cycle is closely related to the shift from the more conservative resorption pathway to an acquiring mineralization pathway. Furthermore, systems with faster N-cycle rates support plants with higher foliar N:P ratios and microbes with lower fungi:bacteria ratios. We highlight the importance of considering the geographic pattern and the dynamic interaction between N resorption and N mineralization, which should be incorporated into earth-system models to improve the simulation of nutrient constraints on ecosystem productivity.

  3. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  4. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  5. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  6. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  7. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from broiler houses with downtime windrowed litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emerging poultry manure management practice is in house windrowing to disinfect the litter. With this practice, growers windrow the litter in broiler houses between flocks, usually for 2 weeks. This results in high litter temperatures that can reduce pathogens in the litter. However, this practi...

  8. Litter mixture interactions at the level of plant functional types are additive.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorens, B.; Stroetenga, M.J.; Aerts, R.

    2010-01-01

    It is very difficult to estimate litter decomposition rates in natural ecosystems because litters of many species are mixed and idiosyncratic interactions occur among those litters. A way to tackle this problem is to investigate litter mixing effects not at the species level but at the level of

  9. Biodigestão anaeróbia dos resíduos da produção avícola: cama de frangos e carcaças Anaerobic digestion of waste from poultry production: poultry litter and carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biogás, bem como os potenciais de produção e a qualidade do biofertilizante obtido com a biodigestão anaeróbia dos resíduos cama de frangos e carcaças de aves pré-compostados. Para tanto, foram pré-compostados cama de frango e carcaças de aves mortas em uma composteira durante um período de 60 dias, período necessário para que ocorresse decomposição prévia das carcaças e assim fosse possível manipular o material para abastecer os biodigestores. Após este período, o material foi utilizado para abastecer os biodigestores batelada de campo com capacidade de 60 litros de material em fermentação. Para o processo de biodigestão anaeróbia, foram efetuadas análises dos teores de sólidos totais (ST, sólidos voláteis (SV, composição química do efluente, potenciais de produção, além do número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes no afluente e efluente. Os potenciais médios de produção de biogás foram: 0,073; 0,152 e 0,141m³.kg-1 de material, SV e ST adicionados, respectivamente. Foram observadas reduções acima de 99% no NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, sendo observado NMP de 3,7 x 10(5 g-1 no início e 7,45 x 10² g-1 no final.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production of biogas, and the production potential, and quality of biofertilizer obtained from the anaerobic digestion of waste poultry litter and poultry carcasses pre composted. For this were pre composted poultry litter and carcasses of dead birds in a composter for a period of 60 days, time needed to occur prior decomposition of the carcasses and so it can manipulate the material to supply the biodigestor. After this period the material was used to supply the batch field biodigestor with a capacity of 60 liters of material in fermentation. For the process of anaerobic digestion tests were performed in the levels of total solids (TS, volatile solids (VS

  10. The effect of dietary protein and phosphorus on ammonia concentration and litter composition in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, N S; Gates, R S; Taraba, J L; Cantor, A H; Pescatore, A J; Straw, M L; Ford, M J; Burnham, D J

    1998-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether broiler litter concentration of N and P and equilibrium NH3 gas concentration can be reduced by reducing dietary CP and P levels and supplementing with amino acids and phytase, respectively, without adversely affecting bird performance. Equilibrium NH3 gas concentration above the litter was measured. The experiment was divided into a starter period (1 to 21 d) and grower period (22 to 42 d), each having two different CP and P levels in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The CP treatments consisted of a control with a mean CP of 204 and 202 g/kg for starter and grower periods, respectively, and a low CP diet with means of 188 and 183 g/kg, respectively, but with similar amino acid levels as the control. The P treatments comprised starter and grower control diets containing means of 6.7 and 6.3 g/kg P, respectively, and low P treatment means of 5.8 and 5.4 g/kg P supplemented with 1.0 g/kg phytase. Reducing starter diet CP by 16 g/kg reduced weight gain by 3.5% and, hence, body weight at 21 d of age, but did not affect feed intake or feed efficiency. Reducing P did not affect feed intake and weight gain, but improved feed efficiency by 2.0%. Responses in feed intake and efficiency to CP depended on the level of dietary P. For the grower period there were no significant differences in feed intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency, nor in body weight at 42 d of age, after correcting for 21-d body weight, between CP and P treatments. There were significant (P litter N and P concentrations, but not equilibrium NH3 gas concentration, moisture content, or pH, for low CP and P diets. Mean equilibrium NH3 gas concentration was 63 ppm. Litter N concentration was reduced 16.3% with the low CP diets, and litter P by 23.2% in low P treatments. The results suggest that dietary manipulation shows merit for reducing litter N and P concentrations while maintaining acceptable production performance from broilers.

  11. Litterfall and litter decomposition in chestnut high forest stands in northern Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricio, M. S.; Nunes, L. F.; Pereira, E. L.

    2012-11-01

    This research aimed to: estimate the inputs of litterfall; model the decomposition process and assess the rates of litter decay and turnover; study the litter decomposition process and dynamics of nutrients in old chestnut high forests. This study aimed to fill a gap in the knowledge of chestnut decomposition process as this type of ecosystems have never been modeled and studied from this point of view in Portugal. The study sites are located in the mountains of Marao, Padrela and Bornes in a west-to-east transect, across northern Portugal, from a more-Atlantic-to-lessmaritime influence. This research was developed on old chestnut high forests for quality timber production submitted to a silviculture management close-to-nature. We collected litterfall using littertraps and studied decomposition of leaf and bur litter by the nylon net bag technique. Simple and double exponential models were used to describe the decomposition of chestnut litterfall incubated in situ during 559 days. The results of the decomposition are discussed in relation to the initial litter quality (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and the decomposition rates. Annually, the mature chestnut high-forest stands (density 360-1,260 tree ha1, age 55-73 years old) restore 4.9 Mg DM ha–1 of litter and 2.6 Mg ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 of carbon to the soil. The two-component litter decay model proved to be more biologically realistic, providing a decay rate for the fast initial stage (46-58 yr{sup -}1for the leaves and 38-42 yr{sup -}1for the burs) and a decay rate related to the recalcitrant pool (0.45-0.60 yr{sup -}1for the leaves and 0.22-0.36 yr{sup -}1for the burs). This study pointed to some decay patterns and release of bioelements by the litterfall which can be useful for calibrating existing models and indicators of sustainability to improve both silvicultural and environmental approaches for the management of chestnut forests. (Author) 45 refs.

  12. Utilization of Poultry Litter to Enhance Fungal Activity and Microbial Dynamics in the Presence of Pesticide Mixture: Implication on Pesticide Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. In this study, five treatments were ...

  13. The chemistry of glycerin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimsanov, B.Kh.; Karimov, M.B.; Khuseynov, K.

    1998-01-01

    This book dedicated to chemistry of polyatomic alcohols, in particular, to glycerin and its numerous derivatives. These compounds are very widespread in the natural objects and carry out several functions in alive organism. Big part of these matters are arrange in industry production of base organic synthesis

  14. Fundamental Chemistry of the Universal Extractant (UNEX) for the Simultaneous Separation of Fission Products and Transurancies from High-Level Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R. Scott

    2004-01-01

    Through collaborative research by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Khlopin Radium Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia) the concept of a Universal Extraction (UNEX) solvent for simultaneously removing radioactive strontium, cesium, lanthanides, and transuranics from acidic aqueous waste streams in a single unit operation was developed and validated. These development efforts focused on the application of the process, where extractants were simply evaluated for extraction efficiency. The objective of this project is to conduct research that combines classical chemical techniques with advanced instrumental methods to elucidate the mechanisms of simultaneous metal extraction and study further the coordination geometries of extracted metal ions. This project is developing a fundamental understanding of the complicated, synergistic extraction chemistry of the multi-component UNEX solvent system. The results will facilitate enhancements to the process chemistry--increasing the efficiency of the UNEX process, minimizing primary and secondary waste streams, and enhancing compatibility of the product streams with the final waste forms. The global objective is implementing the UNEX process at the industrial scale

  15. Effect of straw size and microbial amendment of litter on certain litter quality parameters, ammonia emission, and footpad dermatitis in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Đukić Stojčić, Mirjana; Bjedov, Siniša; Žikić, Dragan; Perić, Lidija; Milošević, Niko

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter amendment (microbiological product – Micropan complex) and straw size (unchopped and chopped straw) on pH, moisture level, ammonia emission, and footpad dermatitis in broilers. A total of 1200 1-day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to four treatments (2  ×  2 factorial arrangement), with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of 75 as-hatched birds per pen. The first factor consiste...

  16. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  17. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M

    2008-09-09

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  18. Street Littering in Nigerian Towns: towards a Framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    behaviour certainly affects everyone's quality of life, gives a visitor a bad first impression and .... sex, education level, occupation, effects of littering, etc.). Levels of .... creams, bananas, junk food, etc) along the streets than older people, as the.

  19. Effect of ponderosa pine needle litter on grass seedling survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt R. McConnell; Justin G. Smith

    1971-01-01

    Hard fescue survival rates were followed for 6 years on four different pine needle treatment plots. Needle litter had a significant effect on initial survival of fescue seedlings, but subsequent losses undoubtedly resulted from the interaction of many factors.

  20. Effect of leaf litter quantity and type on forest soil fauna and biological quality

    OpenAIRE

    Zhizhong Yuan; Yang Cui; Shaokui Yan

    2013-01-01

    It is important to assess forest litter management. Here we examined the effects of leaf litter addition on the soil faunal community in Huitong subtropical forest region in Hunan Province, China. The microcosm experiment involving leaf-litter manipulation using a block and nested experimental design, respectively, was established in May, 2011. In the block design, the effects of litter quantity and its control were examined, while in the nested design a comparison was made of litter quality ...

  1. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  2. Short communication: A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAURAV MISHRA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Mishra G, Giri K, Dutta A, Hazarika S and Borgohain P. 2015. A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 5-7. Plant litter or residues can be used as soil amendment to maintain the carbon stock and soil fertility. The amount and rate of mineralization depends on biochemical composition of plant litter. Alnus nepalensis (Alder is known for its symbiotic nitrogen fixation and capability to restore fertility of degraded lands. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 60 days under controlled conditions to validate the carbon and nutrients mineralization potential of alder litter. Soil fertility indicators, i.e. soil organic carbon (SOC, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K were analyzed using standard procedures. Significant differences were observed in the soil properties after addition of litter. Nutrient composition of alder litter was found superior by providing significantly higher organic matter and helped in better nutrient cycling. Therefore, alder based land use system may be replicated in other degraded lands or areas for productivity enhancement which is important for sustaining biodiversity and soil fertility.

  3. Evaluation of Aluminum Chloride As an Effective Short-Term Solution for Reducing Odor - Causing Volatile Fatty Acids in Duck Litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TH Chung

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3 on pH and volatile fatty acid levels in duck litter over the course of a three-week experimental period. Ninety one-day-old Pekin ducks (45 males and 45 females were distributed into three treatments with three replicates each (10 ducks per replicate using a completely randomized design. Two treatments were top-dressing duck litter with thin layers (1-2 cm of 50 g or 100 g of AlCl3 per kg of litter, respectively; the control group received no litter treatment. Although no significant differences in propionic acid levels (p>0.05 were observed in any of the treatments, overall pH values for the 50 g and 100 g AlCl3 treatments were both lower (p<0.05 than those of the control group. Additionally, the two AlCl3 treatments revealed a corresponding influence (p<0.05 on acetic acid levels during the last two weeks of the experimental period. These results indicate that aluminum chloride amendments (at a suggested rate of 100 g per kg of duck litter are potentially useful in lowering the pH of duck litter, thereby decreasing acetic acid production as an indicator of odor emissions.

  4. Production technology readiness assessment of surfactant in the research center for Chemistry-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief Ameir Rahman; Sulaswatty, Anny

    2017-11-01

    The common problem faced by the institution working on research, innovation and technology development is lack of quantitative measures to determine the technology readiness of research. No common communication language between R & D Institutions and industry about the level of preparedness of a research resulting a barrier to technology diffusion interaction. This lack of connection between R & D institutes with industry may lead to "sluggishness" occurs in innovating. For such circumstance, assessing technology readiness of research is very important. One of wide spread methods for the assessment is Technology Readiness Level (TRL, also known as Technometer), which is introduced by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). TRL is a general guide that provides an overview of maturity level of a technology. This study aims to identify and demonstrate the implementation of TRL to assess a number of surfactant researches in the Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. According to the assessment, it has been obtained the surfactant recommended for further development towards commercialization of R & D results, i.e. Glycerol Mono Stearate (GMS), which has reached the level of TRL 7.

  5. Revegetation of coal mine soil with forest litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.D.; Ludeke, K.L.; Thames, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    Forest litter, a good source of organic matter and seeds, was applied on undisturbed soil and on coal mine (spoils) in experiments conducted on the Black Mesa Coal Mine near Kayenta, Arizona over a 2-year period (1977-1978). Germination, seedling establishment, plant height and ground cover were evaluated for two seeding treatments (forest litter and no forest litter) and two soil moisture treatments (natural rainfall and natural rainfall plus irrigation). The forest litter was obtained at random from the Coconino National Forest, broadcast over the surface of the soil materials and incorporated into the surface 5 cm of each soil material. Germination, seedling establishment, plant height and ground cover on undisturbed soil and coal mine soil were higher when forest litter was applied than when it was not applied and when natural rainfall was supplemented with sprinkler irrigation than when rainfall was not supplemented with irrigation. Applications of forest litter and supplemental irrigation may ensure successful establishment of vegetation on areas disturbed by open-pit coal mining.

  6. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  7. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (defines scope of article as dealing with the chemistry of reactive species, (e.g. excess electrons, excited states, free radicals and inorganic ions in unusual valency states) as studied using radiation with radiation chemistry in its traditional sense and with biological and industrial applications); gases; water and simple inorganic systems; aqueous metallo-organic compounds and metalloproteins; small organic molecules in aqueous solution; microheterogeneous systems; non-aqueous liquids and solutions; solids; biological macromolecules; synthetic polymers. (U.K.)

  8. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  9. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Bing; Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N ...

  10. Evaluation of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, and litter characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Nusairat, B; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    Two 49 d floor pen studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn (CC) inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and litter characteristics. Experiment 1 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 genders (male or female) and 2 CC levels (0 or 50%). From 15 to 35 d, the addition of CC decreased feed intake (Pbroilers exhibited better live performance than females during the study as evidenced by greater feed intake (Plitter types (ground old litter or new wood shavings litter). The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake throughout the experiment without affecting final BW when only males were used and improved FCR after 25 d (Plitter improved FCR from 1 to 14 d (Plitter moisture (Plitter had only a marginal benefit on broiler live performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  12. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha(-1) y(-1). Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g(-1) was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m(-2) yr(-1). This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Benthic algae stimulate leaf litter decomposition in detritus-based headwater streams: a case of aquatic priming effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danger, Michael; Cornut, Julien; Chauvet, Eric; Chavez, Paola; Elger, Arnaud; Lecerf, Antoine

    2013-07-01

    In detritus-based ecosystems, autochthonous primary production contributes very little to the detritus pool. Yet primary producers may still influence the functioning of these ecosystems through complex interactions with decomposers and detritivores. Recent studies have suggested that, in aquatic systems, small amounts of labile carbon (C) (e.g., producer exudates), could increase the mineralization of more recalcitrant organic-matter pools (e.g., leaf litter). This process, called priming effect, should be exacerbated under low-nutrient conditions and may alter the nature of interactions among microbial groups, from competition under low-nutrient conditions to indirect mutualism under high-nutrient conditions. Theoretical models further predict that primary producers may be competitively excluded when allochthonous C sources enter an ecosystem. In this study, the effects of a benthic diatom on aquatic hyphomycetes, bacteria, and leaf litter decomposition were investigated under two nutrient levels in a factorial microcosm experiment simulating detritus-based, headwater stream ecosystems. Contrary to theoretical expectations, diatoms and decomposers were able to coexist under both nutrient conditions. Under low-nutrient conditions, diatoms increased leaf litter decomposition rate by 20% compared to treatments where they were absent. No effect was observed under high-nutrient conditions. The increase in leaf litter mineralization rate induced a positive feedback on diatom densities. We attribute these results to the priming effect of labile C exudates from primary producers. The presence of diatoms in combination with fungal decomposers also promoted decomposer diversity and, under low-nutrient conditions, led to a significant decrease in leaf litter C:P ratio that could improve secondary production. Results from our microcosm experiment suggest new mechanisms by which primary producers may influence organic matter dynamics even in ecosystems where autochthonous

  14. “Gold” Pressed Essential Oil: An Essay on the Volatile Fragment from Citrus Juice Industry By-Products Chemistry and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kapsaski-Kanelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Present essay explores the potentials of Citrus juice industry’s by-products as alternative bioactive natural products resources. Four crude Cold Pressed Essential Oils (CPEOs, derived from orange, lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin, were studied. All CPEOs were subjected to water distillation, in order to obtain the volatile fragment, which was further fractionated with respect to distillation period in two parts, concluding to eight samples. These samples along with the four original CPEOs were assessed in relation to their phytochemical content and their repellent and larvicidal properties against Asian Tiger Mosquito. The volatiles recovery rates ranged from 74% to 88% of the CPEO. Limonene presented a significant increase in all samples ranging from 8% to 52% of the respective CPEO’s content and peaked in mandarin’s 2nd volatile fragment which comprised 97% of the essential oil. The refinement process presented clear impacts on both bioassays: a significant increase in larvicidal potency was observed, annotated best by the improvement by 1100% and 1300% of the grapefruit volatile fractions; repellence testing provided only one significant result, the decrease of landings by 50% as a response to mandarin’s second volatile fraction. The applied methodology thus may be considered for the improvement of Citrus juice industry’s by-products chemistry and bioactivity.

  15. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Mao

    Full Text Available Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N mineralization and soil respiration, four single litter species and their mixtures consisting of all possible 2-, 3- and 4-species combinations were added to soils, respectively. In most instances, species mixing produced synergistic non-additive effects on soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, but antagonistic non-additive effects on net N mineralization. Species composition rather than species richness explained the non-additive effects of species mixing on soil microbial biomass N and net N mineralization, due to the interspecific differences in litter chemical composition. Both litter species composition and richness explained non-additive soil respiration responses to mixed-species litter, while litter chemical diversity and chemical composition did not. Our study indicated that litter mixtures promoted soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, and inhibited net N mineralization. Soil N related processes rather than soil respiration were partly explained by litter chemical composition and chemical diversity, highlighting the importance of functional diversity of litter on soil N cycling.

  16. Development of piglets raised in a new multi-litter housing system vs. conventional single-litter housing until 9 weeks of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwamerongen, van S.E.; Soede, N.M.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the development until 9 wk of age of piglets raised in either a multi-litter (ML) system or a conventional single-litter (SL) system. The ML system consisted of a multi-suckling system with 5 sows and their litters before weaning, followed by housing in a pen with enrichment in a

  17. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on litter quality, litter decomposability and nitrogen turnover rate of two oak species in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fayez Raiesi Gahrooee,

    1998-01-01

    Elevated CO2 may affect litter quality of plants, and subsequently C and N cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, but changes in litter quality associated with elevated CO2 are poorly known. Abscised leaf litter of two oak species (Quercus cerris L., and Q. pubescens Willd.) exposed to long-term

  18. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Bing; Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N mineralization and soil respiration, four single litter species and their mixtures consisting of all possible 2-, 3- and 4-species combinations were added to soils, respectively. In most instances, species mixing produced synergistic non-additive effects on soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, but antagonistic non-additive effects on net N mineralization. Species composition rather than species richness explained the non-additive effects of species mixing on soil microbial biomass N and net N mineralization, due to the interspecific differences in litter chemical composition. Both litter species composition and richness explained non-additive soil respiration responses to mixed-species litter, while litter chemical diversity and chemical composition did not. Our study indicated that litter mixtures promoted soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, and inhibited net N mineralization. Soil N related processes rather than soil respiration were partly explained by litter chemical composition and chemical diversity, highlighting the importance of functional diversity of litter on soil N cycling.

  19. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  20. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.