WorldWideScience

Sample records for lithuanian mass media

  1. Media Literacy Education: Global Tendencies and Search of Lithuanian Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilija Duoblienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the influence of information technologies on education. Different viewpoints on information literacy education, which is often assimilated to media literacy education, are presented in the paper. The article investigates both advantages of media literacy, which involve its positive influence on education, and disadvantages, which encompass dishonest ideological purposes of media literacy that are hidden behind the notion of efficient teaching. This work defends the idea that media literacy education is inevitable in modern schooling and that it is step by step replacing traditional ways of learning. Several media education paradigms are discussed: protectionist, media arts education, media literacy education and critical media literacy education. Some of them teach how to utilize modern technologies and develop creativity, whereas others educate how to recognize ideologies and be publicly engaged. The paper evaluates media literacy in Lithuania by exploring the context of media education, i.e. by analyzing Wiki culture, didactic approach of media literacy, relationships among participants of learning process, and influence of information technologies on the development of educational techniques. Prominent questions about Lithuanian readiness for changes in schooling methods are asked. It is argued if the country has a clear and coherent media literacy education philosophy. Answers are found by investigating information literacy programs and media literacy projects in Lithuanian secondary schools. The article arrives to a conclusion that in Lithuania media literacy education is only at the early stage of development, but its progress is quite rapid and omits several stages which were underwent in Western countries. Nevertheless, the work determines that Lithuania lacks new and brave mindset which should be spread together with critical pedagogy and critical media literacy (i.e. transforming education.

  2. Mediatization of Lithuanian politics on social networking sites and its compatibility with social media logic

    OpenAIRE

    Povilaitytė, Živilė

    2014-01-01

    Given the novelty of political campaigning on social networking sites in Lithuania and the critique, it has received from social media experts, the object of the master thesis encompasses mediatization of Lithuanian politics on Facebook, when social media logic becomes adapted in political campaigning and integrated into the political agenda. Accordingly, the MA thesis developed its aim to define in what ways mediatization of Lithuanian politics manifests on Facebook and if public-relatio...

  3. Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶全荣

    2006-01-01

    @@ Every day,we are all influenced by the mass media.Although some critics of the media claim that these means of communication are used mainly to control our thinking and get us to buy products that we don't need,the media also contribute to keeping people informed.In other words,while dangers do exist,the benefits of the media far outweigh(超过)the disadvantages.Most of the messages brought to viewers,listeners,and readers are designed either to inform or to entertain,and neither of these goals can be considered dangerous or harmful.

  4. Relationships of the Trade Unions with the Media: The Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Krašenkienė

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The various practices of different countries show that, in order to achieve trade unions’ goals, working relationships with the media are very important, especially in terms of influencing public (stakeholder opinion, as well as instilling confidence in trade unions. This paper presents some examples and empirical research results that prove the significance of such relationships. The situation in Lithuania is analyzed based on qualitative research results. The results reveal that Lithuanian trade unions do not have effective tools at their disposal for the promotion of their activity. Moreover, their notion of their relationships with the media is limited to a narrow understanding such as “the article or broadcast in media”. Due to this and other reasons, the promotion of employers’ concessions is weak. Different situations can be noticed by analyzing the independent trade unions which use other practices and systems.

  5. THE NEW APPROACH TO THE WEIGHT MANAGEMENT: INTERRELATEDNESS OF INTUITIVE EATING, ADLERIAN LIFESTYLE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG LITHUANIAN FEMALE COMPUTER USERS

    OpenAIRE

    Justina Gaubė

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – to evaluate the importance of Intuitive Eating for healthy Body Mass Index (BMI) in Lithuanian female computer users sample and explore the Adlerian personality attributes that might be related to the Intuitive Eating. Design/methodology/approach – The study consisted of 724 Lithuanian woman with normal or increased BMI who completed online instruments that included the Lithuanian version of the Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Success - Adult form (BASIS-A) Inventory, Lit...

  6. Media, Minds, and Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This booklet describes the language arts course "Media, Minds, and Masses," written for the Dade County, Fla., public schools. Topics for the course include the workings of contemporary radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and movies; the present status and power of media; the history and development of media; and the influences of…

  7. Mass Media and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alan

    Designed to serve as a basic text for general liberal arts courses in mass communication, this book presents essays, largely from recent magazine articles, written from the layman (although there are a few more overtly scholarly articles). It begins with an examination of the media industries in the United States, treating them as complex…

  8. Children and the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Shirley

    1970-01-01

    Resume of testimony given at hearings at the White House Conference on Children, September, 1970. Topics considered were the influence of the mass media on children and ways to improve media products. (NH)

  9. [Eating disorders and mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroutsi, A; Gonidakis, F

    2011-01-01

    During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders.

  10. The Mass Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Laursen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the EU institutions’ external communication and how it relates to the European public sphere(s). We argue that one of the preconditions for establishing a well-functioning European public sphere is that the EU institutions’ decision-making and political debates around...... policies and issues are organised in such a way that the European citizens 1) are informed of the actions of European political leaders and top executives in ways that appeal to a wide range of publics, and 2) are encouraged to discuss and enter in a dialogue about these issues in appropriate communicative...... spaces. We postulate that citizens’ levels of awareness and knowledge of EU matters depend on the EU institutions’ ability to reach European citizens directly or indirectly through a wide range of channels, including the mass media. Citizens’ participation in political debates, however, requires more...

  11. Mass Media and Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  12. THE NEW APPROACH TO THE WEIGHT MANAGEMENT: INTERRELATEDNESS OF INTUITIVE EATING, ADLERIAN LIFESTYLE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG LITHUANIAN FEMALE COMPUTER USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Gaubė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to evaluate the importance of Intuitive Eating for healthy Body Mass Index (BMI in Lithuanian female computer users sample and explore the Adlerian personality attributes that might be related to the Intuitive Eating. Design/methodology/approach – The study consisted of 724 Lithuanian woman with normal or increased BMI who completed online instruments that included the Lithuanian version of the Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Success - Adult form (BASIS-A Inventory, Lithuanian version of Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2 and questions that assessed height, weight, and behavioral variables such as healthy eating and weight controlling activities. Findings – The results indicated the significant negative relation between Intuitive Eating and BMI. Almost all the subscales of Intuitive eating were positively related to healthy eating and negatively to weight controlling behaviour. Eating for physical rather than emotional reasons and Reliance on the Hunger and Satiety feelings were found as more significant in the prognostic model of BMI than healthy eating. Some of the Adlerian personality attributes including Belonging/Social Interest, Going Along, Striving for perfection and Softness were positively related to Intuitive Eating. However two personality attributes including Being Cautious and Harshness had an inverse relation with Intuitive Eating scale. Research limitations/implications – Although the online data collection procedures are supported in the scientific literature, the same study with pen and pencil data collection in groups would increase the possibility to generalize the findings. Men should be included in the research sample too in order to explore the gender differences in relation to Intuitive Eating in Lithuania sample. Moreover the longitudinal study would be of benefit for the possibility to predict the weight change in relation to various behaviours. Practical implications – Intuitive Eating seems to

  13. Teaching English through Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Tafani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal experience. It is a brief description of some practical examples and some tips for novice teachers. Further more, this article tends to deal with some of the key issues of using media in the classroom. Here are included some of the findings of my research work on a post-doctorate Fulbright Program in 2001. The following issues are open for discussion: the importance of Media in general and in education in particular; Media are persuasive and pervasive, newspapers, magazines, radio, television and internet in the classroom, etc.

  14. Teaching English through Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafani, Vilma

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal…

  15. Coping With the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    This textbook, one of "The Language of Man" series, has five sections, each including several articles. Introductory articles detail the role of the mass media in our lives; other sections deal with television, movies, newspapers, and the ideas of Marshall McLuhan. The focus of concern is less with aesthetics and more with the social…

  16. Bias in the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Robert

    Non-language elements of bias in mass media--such as images, sounds, tones of voices, inflection, and facial expressions--are invariably integrated with the choice of language. Further, they have an emotional impact that is often greater than that of language. It is essential that the teacher of English deal with this non-language bias since it is…

  17. Mass Media: The Invisible Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessing, Robert J.; White, William P.

    This anthology for students of media consists of essays and articles grouped under four topics: media forms, media content, media environments, and "the last word." Media forms deals with the nature of these kinds of media: electronic, print, film, music, and comics, graffiti, and clothing. Media content contains articles on the news, advertising,…

  18. Building brands without mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimsthaler, E; Aaker, D A

    1997-01-01

    Costs, market fragmentation, and new media channels that let customers bypass advertisements seem to be in league against the old ways of marketing. Relying on mass media campaigns to build strong brands may be a thing of the past. Several companies in Europe, making a virtue of necessity, have come up with alternative brand-building approaches and are blazing a trail in the post-mass-media age. In England, Nestlé's Buitoni brand grew through programs that taught the English how to cook Italian food. The Body Shop garnered loyalty with its support of environmental and social causes. Cadbury funded a theme park tied to its history in the chocolate business. Häagen-Dazs opened posh ice-cream parlors and got itself featured by name on the menus of fine restaurants. Hugo Boss and Swatch backed athletic or cultural events that became associated with their brands. The various campaigns shared characteristics that could serve as guidelines for any company hoping to build a successful brand: senior managers were closely involved with brand-building efforts; the companies recognized the importance of clarifying their core brand identity; and they made sure that all their efforts to gain visibility were tied to that core identity. Studying the methods of companies outside one's own industry and country can be instructive for managers. Pilot testing and the use of a single and continuous measure of brand equity also help managers get the most out of novel approaches in their ever more competitive world.

  19. The mass media and disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    Past investigations by myself and others on the role of the mass media in disasters indicate that news people typically find themselves in situations of uncertainty, ambiguity, and conflicting information; the communication and transportation services that these people use in covering a story become inoperative. However, the media are expected to make sense of the disaster situation almost immediately. the difficulties of doing so were reflected by the ABC Goodyear Blimp footage of the collapsed Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, California, broadcast nationally on the evening of October 17, 1989. The televised picture showed the disastrous results of the Loma Prieta earthquake, but for an hour or more the announcer could not correctly identify what was being shown. He did not seem to realize that the upper deck of the freeway had collapsed on the lower deck, crushing vechiles and people. 

  20. Mass Media Effect on Gender Identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓越

    2012-01-01

      Under the mass media effect, media both enable and constrain the audience to shape their gender identity. The purpose of this article is to review and consider the role media plays in the process of construction of contemporary gendered identities; especially the relationship among men, masculinity and media

  1. Reorganization of Lithuanian Airspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidotas Kondroška

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of the article is considering problems related to ensuring the required capacity of Lithuanian airspace and organising the provision of air traffic services in the most efficient way. The paper presents the results of analysis and experimental research on several scenarios of Lithuanian airspace models that are the most appropriate from the point of view of air traffic control. To allow for a realistic comparison between the scenarios and traffic samples, the current route network, a real traffic sample and the existing traffic dynamics have been used. Furthermore, all other related aspects such as flight level occupancy, flight time, aircraft type and traffic flows have been taken into consideration. The results of analysis will form a basis for ensuring the required capacity of Lithuanian airspace. Article in Lithuanian

  2. IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA ON ELECTORAL PARTICIPATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ion MOCANU; Reviewer: Vladimir BLAJCO

    2013-01-01

    In the article is reflected the trust of the population in different types of mass information sources, is analysed the activity of the mass media in the electoral period, is established the influence of mass media on the population and its capacity to mobilize the electoral participation

  3. Impact of mass media on electoral participation

    OpenAIRE

    Mocanu Ion

    2013-01-01

    In the article is reflected the trust of the population in different types of mass information sources, is analysed the activity of the mass media in the electoral period, is established the influence of mass media on the population and its capacity to mobilize the electoral participation

  4. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  5. Mass Media Criticism as Transformational Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    Most messages from the mass media operate on the collective unconscious of a culture. The ethical consequence of such identification through unawareness is the transfer of decision making from consumers to image makers. The mass media critic can serve as a mediator of the ethical problems created by such a mode of identification. As mediating…

  6. The Three Paradigms of Mass Media Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; And Others

    A study examined the mass media research literature to determine if there was a dominant paradigm in the field. The mass media research published in eight communication journals from 1965 to 1989 was content analyzed to identify paradigm, orientation (focus and theory), data (type, source, and sample), methodology (type and manipulation), and…

  7. Mass Media and the Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Linda; Gilbert, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the research on mass media effects on perceptions of crime danger, personal fear of crime, and reactions to crime risk. Discovers that mass media effects involve a number of variables and moderators. These include audience characteristics, degree and type of coverage, and location. (MJP)

  8. Can mass media interventions reduce child mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Roy; Murray, Joanna; Sarrassat, Sophie; Snell, Will; Meda, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Moctar; Deboise, Laurent; Cousens, Simon

    2015-07-04

    Many people recognise that mass media is important in promoting public health but there have been few attempts to measure how important. An ongoing trial in Burkina Faso (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01517230) is an attempt to bring together the very different worlds of mass media and epidemiology: to measure rigorously, using a cluster-randomised design, how many lives mass media can save in a low-income country, and at what cost. Application of the Lives Saved Tool predicts that saturation-based media campaigns could reduce child mortality by 10-20%, at a cost per disability-adjusted life-year that is as low as any existing health intervention. In this Viewpoint we explain the scientific reasoning behind the trial, while stressing the importance of the media methodology used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Women’s Voice in Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    IN May of 1996, Women’s Media Monitoring Network was set up in Beijing. The organization was established on the commemorative convention for the 10th anniversary of The Capital Female Journalists Association, aiming to open women’s eyes and discover their voice in mass media. Just one year after its establishment, the Network aroused extensive attention from

  10. MASS MEDIA HEALTH COMMUNICATION: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKPOBO ODORUME

    Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies, Volume 4, 2015. 1. MASS MEDIA ... campaigns, health education, and between doctor and patient. Hence, it will be right to assert ... their health literacy for sustainable health development. As a concept ...

  11. Religious communication and hegemony of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious communication is the complex object of scientific research that involves existential component and the inextricable link with relevant historical trends. Mass culture and the information society put pressure on modern religious communication. Media is actively integrating into the system of religious communication. Hegemony of mass communication is realized through the media and religious communicative system becomes the part of this hegemony. Peculiarities of religious communication processes are conditioned by consciousness of itself impact and the need to integrate into the media system.

  12. Lithuanian mammal fauna review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Balciauskas

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data on Lithuania mammal fauna are presented. From 78 mammal species recorded in Lithuania, 7 were seen only in the 17-18th centuries, two species are extinct. Recent Lithuanian mammal fauna contains 68 species. Five of them are observed occasionally. 63 mammal species are permant inhabitants, 18 included in the Red Data Book, mostly bats and dormice. 8 mammal species were introduced or reintroduced. Population tendencies of game animals are also considered.

  13. Basic Books in the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Eleanor

    References to information on the background, structure, function, contents, and effects of mass communications are provided in this annotated booklist. Material is included on theory, popular culture, the Black press, communications technology, the underground press and film, and mass media violence and the entries are arranged according to the…

  14. Misrepresentation of health risks by mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomlitz, Larisa J; Brezis, Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Mass media are a leading source of health information for general public. We wished to examine the relationship between the intensity of media coverage for selected health topics and their actual risk to public health. Mass media reports in the United States on emerging and chronic health hazards (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bioterrorism, West Nile Fever, AIDS, smoking and physical inactivity) were counted for the year 2003, using LexisNexis database. The number of media reports for each health risk was correlated with the corresponding death rate as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The number of media reports inversely correlated with the actual number of deaths for the health risks evaluated. SARS and bioterrorism killed less than a dozen people in 2003, but together generated over 100 000 media reports, far more than those covering smoking and physical inactivity, which killed nearly a million Americans. Emerging health hazards are over-reported in mass media by comparison to common threats to public health. Since premature mortality in industrialized societies is most often due to well-known risks such as smoking and physical inactivity, their under-representation on public agendas may cause suboptimal prioritization of public health resources.

  15. Cold fusion, mass media and actual science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orefice, A. (Milan Univ. (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    The peculiar affair of cold nuclear fusion, a recent and exemplary pattern of today's scientific and public habits, is considered. An overview is proposed on the contemporary approach to science and technology, both of the mass media and research worlds. It shows how mass media with its power of suggestion and ability to raise financial resources can lead many researchers into unpredictable - if not irresponsible behaviour. Yet, an eccess of empiricism may often induce researchers to rely rather on serendipity than on deeper meditation.

  16. Synthesizing a working definition of "mass" media

    OpenAIRE

    W. James Potter

    2013-01-01

    Media scholars as well as the public frequently use the terms “mass communication” and “mass media”, but the meaning of these terms is often ambiguous. While it is assumed that everyone knows what these terms mean, the few scholars who attempt to define these terms struggle to capture the essence of their meaning without including elements that are faulty, and this task is becoming even more difficult in the new media environment. We are left with the troubling question: What are the “mass” m...

  17. Mass Media and Socialization: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Verna, Mary Ellen

    Given the growing interest in the area of socialization and mass media, this bibliography of articles and books is intended to simplify reference to the literature and to stimulate research. Three primary sources are used: "Psychological Abstracts (1950-1972),""Sociological Abstracts (1953-1972)," and the "Cumulative Book…

  18. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  19. Social Studies: Media, Minds, and Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This secondary course of study teaches the student to investigate and analyze the impact of mass communication on contemporary society. Media affects the individual and society politically, socially, and economically. Knowledge and understanding of the operation, impact, history and development of radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and…

  20. Mass Media and Political Power in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotykh A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of merging the political, economic and media power in Italy and the role of the Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi are discussed. “La Repubblica” and “L’Unita” publications are investigated (2009–2010 and compared via the famous European media as “The Financial Times”, “The Times”, “The Independent”, ”Le Monde”, “La Liberation”, “Le Nouvel Obstrvateur”, “El Pais” and “Der Spigel”. In particular the author pays the attention to polemics devoted to the information freedom protection. The existence of media empires in modern mass media hinders one of the main functions of the press, namely the spreading of objective and full information on all sides of the society life directed by plurality in informational and analytical material. At the same moment in time the mass media influence on the fates of the leading political figures, Silvio Berlusconi in particular. A topical problem of complex relations of modern press and different political, social and power structures is analyzed on the Italian example.

  1. Mass Media Orientation and External Communication Strategies: Exploring Organisational Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonneberger, A.; Jacobs, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between mass media orientations of communication professionals in organisations and their external communication strategies. We assume that mass media orientations within an organisation may affect an organisation’s external communication strategies of bridging and

  2. Mass media and challenges of sustainable development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass media and challenges of sustainable development in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Being an integral part of the social system, the mass media is a major stakeholder in the realization of sustainable ...

  3. Role of Mass Media in Agricultural Productivity in Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of Mass Media in Agricultural Productivity in Adamawa State, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Specifically, it focused on the extent to which mass media have been used to communicate agricultural ...

  4. Mass Media Fellowships bridge Science and Journalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaitis-del Rio, Cristina

    This past autumn, I had the chance to learn first-hand how journalists work as an AGU/American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (AAAS) Mass Media Fellow.I took 10 weeks “off” from being a graduate student in ecology at the University of Colorado to work as a science reporter for WOSU-AM, a National Public Radio station in Columbus, Ohio.

  5. Information Feedback and Mass Media Effects in Cultural Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Cosenza, Mario G.; Klemm, Konstantin; Eguíluz, Víctor M; San Miguel, Maxi

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of different forms of information feedback associated with mass media on an agent-agent based model of the dynamics of cultural dissemination. In addition to some processes previously considered, we also examine a model of local mass media influence in cultural dynamics. Two mechanisms of information feedback are investigated: (i) direct mass media influence, where local or global mass media act as an additional element in the network of interactions of each agent, and (i...

  6. Trust to mass-media: micro- and macrolevel

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kavyerina

    2014-01-01

    Trust is the basic element of civil society.For the last decades Ukrainian social institutions, including mass media, suffering of the crisis of trust. Public informing, socialization, formation of public opinion are the main functions of mass media. Mass media takes part in a lot of social processes and spheres of society. Accuracy of the information, compliance with standards,objectivity and trust of the audience are very important because of the influence of the mass media. The paper d...

  7. Information feedback and mass media effects in cultural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Mario G. Cosenza; Klemm, Konstantin; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of different forms of information feedback associated with mass media on an agent-agent based model of the dynamics of cultural dissemination. In addition to some processes previously considered, we also examine a model of local mass media influence in cultural dynamics. Two mechanisms of information feedback are investigated: (i) direct mass media influence, where local or global mass media act as an additional element in the network of interactions of each agent, and (i...

  8. The Impacts of Mass Media on Contemporary British Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳华

    2010-01-01

    Currently the mass media possess a great deal of influences in society and politics. The mass media have a powerful influence on politics. This paper will mainly analyze the impacts of mass media on three aspects of political life and behaviors in Britain.

  9. Effects of Globalization on Mass Media in the World

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Kheeshadeh

    2012-01-01

    In this article we will discuss about globalization its history and mass media and its history then effects of mass media on all over the world. Specifically we will discuss the impact of globalization on three countries like Bangladesh, India, and Southafrica. The entire positive and the negative impacts of Globalization on media will be discussed here. Kinds of mass media and rate of the freedom of press will also be discussed. Some points of democracy are also being discussed under the glo...

  10. MASS MEDIA''S MANIPULATIVE POTENTIAL IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSHCHINA L.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the invention of telegraph, radio and television which enable contacts with a large audience, the social impact of communication via the mass media has been a subject of intense research by political and social scientists. Thus the paper discusses the nature of manipulation in political discourse and its ambivalent role in the modern society. The solution of the research tasks is carried out on the basis of the complex methodological base which defines the general orientation and the principles of research, as well as its scientific results, including the general philosophical methodological concept of dialectic materialism in accordance with the principles of unity of form and content, cause and effect, general communication of the phenomena. In conclusion, it summarizes that mentioned above phenomenon is both serious and dangerous, being capable to influence people’s consciousness, depriving them of their critical thinking, and even dooming them to the passivity of life.

  11. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  12. The Kenyan indigenous languages and the mass media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vernacular mass media and the Kenyan indigenous languages. .... The Task Force on Press Laws (1993 and 1996), constituted to look into media ownership, licensing ..... This should, however, not be seen as advocating for state control of the.

  13. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  14. Mass Media and Political Issue Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; Strand, Paul J.

    1983-01-01

    Based on one intensive survey of media behavior and a series of other national surveys, the study shows that holding issue positions and perceptions of major party candidates' issue positions are functions of media exposure to public affairs media. (Author)

  15. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  16. Mass media in Peru promotes "responsible parenthood".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, J; Pareja, R

    1985-01-01

    This article describes a media campaign being carried out in Peru under the auspices of the Ministry of Health. The overall theme of the campaign is Responsible Parenthood, specifically in the areas of family planing, oral rehydration, and immunization. The mass media campaign was based on the results of extensive audience research data that identified knowledge and beliefs in these areas. The research identified 2 target audiences for family planning messages: those who want no more children and those who are using traditional contraceptive methods. In addition to quantitative audience surveys, focus group discussions were held. These groups revealed important information about contraceptive habits, male attitudes toward family planning, and the folk vocabulary used for family planning activities. They further suggested that the quality of services given in health centers affects future use of that service and that the most credible source of information about family planning is considered to be a mature female doctor, herself a mother. Pretesting of television spots for the campaign was valuable for identifying unacceptable or ineffective images. It was also learned that radio and telvision spots cannot be the same; rather, they require unique content.

  17. “Creative Industries” Strategies in Soviet Lithuania: Packages of Mass Consumption Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Jaškūnienė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the Soviet mechanism of including the creative potentials into formation of economical and ideological policy strategies. Research aims to examine, how mass media and culture theories of Walter Benjamin, Frankfurt school and British Culture studies reflect the situation of mass culture in Soviet system. Case study is based on Lithuanian package design of 1960–1970s.

  18. Presentation to Special Senate Committee on Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Metis Society, Winnipeg (Manitoba).

    A joint presentation was made to the Special Senate Committee on Mass Media by 3 Indian organizations in an attempt to bring into focus the needs of the poor or rural Indian villagers for greater involvement in use of and control of the media. Observations included the negative stereotyping of the Indian by the media, lack of Indian staff on media…

  19. Mass Media Forces in Our society. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Francis H.; Voelker, Ludmila A.

    The primary purpose of this book is to help the public become more aware and critical in their selection and appraisal of the media. Part 1 consists of a single essay by Theodore Peterson that gives a historical perspective on the development of the mass media in the United States. Part 2 deals with the print and electronic media: magazines, photo…

  20. Interaction with Mass Media: The Importance of Rhythm and Tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Stresses that understanding the impact of interaction with mass media requires conceptualizing media as an institutionalized social form. A critical feature of this process is the grammatical character of media interaction in the form of rhythm and tempo, because these rhythms and tempos become established in everyday routine. (SKC)

  1. Patterns of Mass Media Exposure among Seventh Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James R.

    In a study to identify types of mass media consumers, a Q-type factor analysis was run on respondent exposure to 90 categories of content within seven mass media (television, radio, recordings, motion pictures, newspapers, magazines, and books). The respondents were 116 seventh graders in Waterloo, Iowa, who were asked to keep daily diaries of…

  2. New Ideas and Fertility Limitation: The Role of Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Axinn, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the mass media as a social change that shapes individual behavior primarily via ideational mechanisms. We construct a theoretical framework drawing on social demography and social psychology to explain how mass media may affect behavior via attitudinal change. Empirical analyses of 1,091 couples in the Chitwan Valley…

  3. New Ideas and Fertility Limitation: The Role of Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Axinn, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the mass media as a social change that shapes individual behavior primarily via ideational mechanisms. We construct a theoretical framework drawing on social demography and social psychology to explain how mass media may affect behavior via attitudinal change. Empirical analyses of 1,091 couples in the Chitwan Valley…

  4. Genetics and biotechnologies in Italian mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Silvio

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available S everal researchers operating in the sociological field have recently theorised that genetics and biotechnologies are at the core of the public perception of science. The present study aims at verifying empirically whether or not this is mirrored in Italian mass media, as well as at analysing the topics most frequently present in Italian newspapers and the economic and editorial reasons behind the results of editorial choices. Besides, it provides statistics about the major Italian newspapers published in the last third of 2002. This period has been chosen because some important news was published in December: it consequently offered the chance to carry out a long-term analysis as well as a study of the most important differences - in content and editorial lay-out - between scientific articles which are published in the appropriate sections inside the newspaper and those which make the front page. Ours are going to be purely quantitative considerations; but, from the point of view of the content, the data are sufficient to identify various narrative currents. These currents could be the object of further research on the frames used to contextualize the news and the reasons (anthropological, socio-cultural and editorial for the way they are used by editorial staffs.

  5. THE IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Katarzyna Grzegorzewska

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21th century from the standpoint of man is regarded as a time of domestication of new media technologies. During that era audiovisual media have displayed the traditional media. Written word has lost is place to television, video games, and in the Internet, whichare having a major impact on people of all ages including young children. The word “illusion” originates from the Latin word “illusio” which means to pretend, to elude. The media world has become independent in terms of the real word and started tolive according to its own rules. We have started to function in two separate realities: actual reality, and virtual media reality. For some people it is very hard to distinguish two types of realities, not to mention kids, which usually perceive media reality as entirely real, actual domain.

  6. Mediating Migration: New Roles for (Mass) Media

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnick, Kira

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to expand the scope of studying media in relation to migration and diversity by addressing new forms of media deployment in the interest of regulating migration flows to the European Union and the United States. Beyond constructing representations of minorities and migration processes that impact interethnic relations and politics in countries of immigration, it is argued that media technologies and representations have new roles to play when it comes to targeting potential ...

  7. The Mass Media Influence on the Impact of Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin BABA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is a distinct examination of the issues regarding health policy, social representations and mass media. The analysis of the mass media influence on the impact of health policy leads to a portrayal of the related programs and the way they are received by citizens through mass media. Owing to the mass media quality to be an indicator of democracy it is very important to study its role in setting people daily agenda considering how it is able to maintain and create trends merely through recurrent messages. The issues frequently conveyed by media industry influences citizens’ interest with regard to community, producing effects on public policy. We must bear in mind that the more persistent in media they are, the more relevant for community this issues will be. The authors of the study put forward a method through which diverse programmes can be analysed. A comparative analysis of mass media and citizens’ social representations and its findings provide information about the influence between them. According to agenda setting theory and many international studies on health policy the authors conclude that mass media institution highly influence the impact of the health policy in health. Moreover, it is important to mention that the impact refers to all the stages of a policy-making: beginning with the problem identification and ending with the evaluation of the implementation process.

  8. The Media Mural Project: Empowering Youth in New Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsen, Jess

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the pedagogy, practice and outcomes of a digital art program developed to enable high school and middle school students to become active participants in new forms of grassroots public media. Students and their teachers become producers and controllers of art-based videos and associated digital dialogue which is distributed…

  9. Mass media relevance in combating insecurity in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Nwabueze, C.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the critical role of the mass media in combating the upsurge of crime which has led to a state of insecurity in the country, especially in the North, South Eastern and South Southern parts of the country. This discourse adopts the qualitative approach in appraising the correlation between the mass media and the insecurity in Nigeria with emphasis on practical measures relevant in this direction. The recommends that journalists should be trained regularly on terrorism and conflict reporting to always keep them abreast of modern techniques that could be used in ensuring effective use of the mass media in combating insecurity in Nigeria.

  10. Mass Media Influence on Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančević, Bosiljka

    2012-01-01

    A main purpose of the thesis is to demonstrate and explain to what extend do media influence foreign policy of a state. Foreign policy is always under internal and external influences and media are considered to be one of those external influences that shape it. Agenda setting theory forms the theoretical frame for this thesis because it takes into consideration not just direct media-government relations but the public as well that inside of this relation serves as some sort of mediator. Besi...

  11. Lessons learned from public health mass media campaigns: marketing health in a crowded media world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Whitney; Viswanath, K

    2004-01-01

    Every year, new public health mass media campaigns are launched attempting to change health behavior and improve health outcomes. These campaigns enter a crowded media environment filled with messages from competing sources. Public health practitioners have to capture not only the attention of the public amid such competition, but also motivate them to change health behaviors that are often entrenched or to initiate habits that may be new or difficult. In what ways are public health mass media campaigns now attempting to succeed in a world crowded with media messages from a myriad of sources? What are the conditions that are necessary for a media campaign to successfully alter health behaviors and alter outcomes in the long term? To what extent can the successes and failures of previous campaigns be useful in teaching important lessons to those planning campaigns in the future? In this chapter we attempt to answer these questions, drawing from recent literature on public health mass media campaigns.

  12. Media Casebook; An Introductory Reader in American Mass Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Peter M., Ed.; And Others

    Each selection in this anthology offers a single example of a major problem or characteristic of the American mass media. The anthology has four sections: development, responsibility, media, and coverage. Development in journalism is shown by comparing accounts of Presidential conventions over a 125-year period. Articles about responsibility deal…

  13. The Rest of the Elephant: Perspectives on the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, John D.; Porter, William E.

    This book presents an analytical introduction to the study of the mass media. Aspects of media that have received little attention--audiences, economics, working processes and ethics--are treated in the four sections of the book. Section one covers symbiosis between the medium and the audience. Section two discusses the way in which business and…

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  15. The Mass Media of Entertainment and Human Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, Roderic; Steele, Gary

    Urgently needed for human survival is a means of influencing large numbers of people to put into rapid action measures which could neutralize such menances as pollution, overpopulation, and violence. Though the cumulative effect of the mass media is not fully established, media entertainment may be the most influential institution in our society.…

  16. The Mass Media of Entertainment and Human Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, Roderic; Steele, Gary

    Urgently needed for human survival is a means of influencing large numbers of people to put into rapid action measures which could neutralize such menances as pollution, overpopulation, and violence. Though the cumulative effect of the mass media is not fully established, media entertainment may be the most influential institution in our society.…

  17. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  18. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  19. The Media Environment: Mass Communications in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Robert H.; Steinberg, Charles S.

    The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with an informational frame of reference that will permit the formation of critical judgments concerning America's mass media institutions. The book covers the broad spectrum of the communications media in terms of their impact on American society. Such topics are discussed as social aspects of…

  20. A media maniac's guide to removable mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, Linda S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses at a high level, the many individual technologies available today in the removable storage arena including removable magnetic tapes, magnetic floppies, optical disks and optical tape. Tape recorders represented below discuss logitudinal, serpantine, logitudinal serpantine,and helical scan technologies. The magnetic floppies discussed will be used for personal electronic in-box applications.Optical disks still fill the role for dense long-term storage. The media capacities quoted are for native data. In some cases, 2 KB ASC2 pages or 50 KB document images will be referenced.

  1. Print mass media: territory of survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Akhmadulin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the survival of the print media in the information market in the conditions of intense competition with online journalism and the whole information flow on the Internet. Despite the predictions of the impending death of print periodicals, more than half of the world adult population read a daily newspaper. At the same time, the trends taking place in the media market, confirm the reduction of print media segment in favor of the Internet. According to TNS-Russia data, only in 2013 the Internet audience has grown by 6 %. At the same time the circulation of print media in the US fell by 15 % in 2008- 2014, in Western Europe – by a quarter. In Russia, subscription circulation periodicals in the second half of 2014 fell by 20.2 %, and on the basis of subscription for the first half of 2015, the national average – 22 % (data of Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Russian Post”. Finding ways to stabilize the fall of the print media, many US publishing houses see the transition from advertcentric business model to consumcentric model. It is necessary to use the specifics and advantages of newspapers and magazines (comfort, media planning logic, analytic, continuity and consistency of the content of individual and hypertext editions, and others to maintain the intellectual elite. Print media targeting to an elite audience (willing to pay for exclusiveness allows publishers to offset the rising cost of issuing paperbased, and consumers (subscribers will give a sense of communion to a certain social community, receiving verified and thorough information. In this case, the subscription to a newspaper or magazine (no retail outlet and online will be fashionable factor of association of elite communities and acquire new qualitative features in the development of civil society.

  2. Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006...

  3. Social percolation and the influence of mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proykova, Ana; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2002-09-01

    In the marketing model of Solomon and Weisbuch, people buy a product only if their neighbours tell them of its quality, and if this quality is higher than their own quality expectations. Now we introduce additional information from the mass media, which is analogous to the ghost field in percolation theory. The mass media shift the percolative phase transition observed in the model, and decrease the time after which the stationary state is reached.

  4. Physical activity interventions using mass media, print media, and information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, B H; Owen, N; Forsyth, L H; Cavill, N A; Fridinger, F

    1998-11-01

    Media-based physical activity interventions include a variety of print, graphic, audiovisual, and broadcast media programs intended to influence behavior change. New information technology allows print to be delivered in personalized, interactive formats that may enhance efficacy. Media-based interventions have been shaped by conceptual models from health education, Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, and Social Marketing frameworks. We reviewed 28 studies of media-based interventions of which seven were mass media campaigns at the state or national level and the remaining 21 were delivered through health care, the workplace, or in the community. Recall of mass-media messages generally was high, but mass-media campaigns had very little impact on physical activity behavior. Interventions using print and/or telephone were effective in changing behavior in the short term. Studies in which there were more contacts and interventions tailored to the target audience were most effective. A key issue for research on media-based physical activity interventions is reaching socially disadvantaged groups for whom access, particularly to new forms of communication technology, may be limited. There is a clear need for controlled trials comparing different forms and intensities of media-based physical activity interventions. Controlled studies of personalized print, interactive computer-mediated programs, and web-based formats for program delivery also are needed. The integration of media-based methods into public and private sector service delivery has much potential for innovation.

  5. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  6. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  7. THE LIBRARY OF THE LITHUANIAN CULTURAL INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann, Arthur

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lithuanian Cultural Institute (Lietuviu Kulturos Institutas, LKI in Lampertheim-Hüttenfeld is an institution of the Lithuanian Community in Germany. It was founded 1981 in order to foster,conserve und study the Lithuanian cultural heritage in Germany. In the first years the institute has developed an archive and a library for Lithuanian literature. The library is based on extensive andvaluable collections of books donated by scholars in exile. Since 1991, an agreement assures the delivery of important new book releases by the National Library of Lithuania. Today the libraryconsists appoximately 10.000 titles. It includes an excellent selection of exile literature and literature of Lithuania since 1970. The library contains the largest collection of Lithuanian booksin Europe outside of Lithuania. The collection is databased in the Heidelberg library system HEIDI (http://www.uni-eidelberg.de/helios/kataloge/heidi/html. Since 1997, the library has been registered in the library system of southwestern Germany Südwestverbund (http://pollux.bsz-bw-de and is connected to the Karslruher Virtuellen Katalog (http://www.ubka-uni-arlsruhe.de/kvk.html, making it accessible online throughout the world. All titles can be ordered directly or via interlibrary loan. Since the library is staffed by volunteers, the hours of operation are irregular. The library of LKI is sonsidered as a supplement of other libraries in Germany which contain little or non Lithuanian literature. In addition, the library serves as important resource of information for the Lithuanian Cultural Institute and its conferences.

  8. Mass Media vs. Public and National Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Adamski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The media have become an integral part of social life. They have an enormous impact on it. However, they occasionally may be harmful or even―more or less consciously―their actions may lead to various distortions of the public and national safety. Under what circumstances would be such a situation possible to occur? How to prevent it? This article contains answers to those questions.

  9. Mass Society/Culture/Media: An Eclectic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.

    Instructors of courses in mass society, culture, and communication start out facing three types of difficulties: the historical orientation of learning, the parochialism of various disciplines, and negative intellectually elitist attitudes toward mass culture/media. Added to these problems is the fact that many instructors have little or no…

  10. Mass media image of selected instruments of economic develepment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruliš Ladislav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, two instruments of economic development – investment incentives and cluster initiatives – were compared according to the frequency of their occurrence in selected mass media sources in the Czech Republic in the periods 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. Secondly, the mass media image of these two instruments of economic development was evaluated with respect to the frames deductively constructed from literature review. The findings pointed out a higher occurrence of the mass media articles/news dealing with investment incentives. These articles/news were, additionally, more controversial and covered a wider spectrum of frames. Politicians were a relatively more frequent type of actors who created the media message from the articles/news. On the contrary, the mass media articles/news concerning cluster initiatives typically created the frame of positive effects of clusters. The messages were told either by economic experts or by public authority representatives who were closely connected with cluster initiatives. Spatial origin of these messages was rather limited. The definitional vagueness, intangible and uncontroversial nature of cluster initiatives restrained their media appeal.

  11. Social Functions of Mass Media in Developing Citizen Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Moradi; Habib Honari; Salah Naghshbandi; Nahid Jabari; Parvaneh Kholouse

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of present research was to investigate the current and ideal state of social functions of mass media in developing citizen sports. It was applied, descriptive-comparative research. Data collection was done through field study. Population composed of 600 media experts and sport experts. There were 80 subjects as sample selected by convenience sampling. Instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire. Fourteen university professors expertized in physical education and communication s...

  12. Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the main linguistic indications of Lithuanian preschoolers’ narratives. The analysis is based on experimental data of 24 typically developing monolingual Lithuanian children (6–7 years of age) from middle-class families, attending a state kindergarten in Kaunas (Lithuania). During the experiment, the children were asked to tell a story according to the Cat Story (Hickmann 1993) picture sequence. The stories were recorded, transcribed and annotated for an automatic analysi...

  13. Violence and mass media: are laws and regulations effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In Germany, there are several laws and legal and administrative regulations restricting presentation and propagation of violence in mass media. They have proven to be partly effective. Whilst control and supervision of public media is feasible, the containment of what is distributed over the internet proves to be very difficult. It is well recognized that laws and regulations can be only one part of protection for children and youngsters; school, kindergarten and above all the parents must be educated and held responsible for creating media competence in children and adolescents.

  14. [Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006. Annual cross-sectional study of advertisements in 41 widely difused written mass media (average readers: 10,1 millions). Media admitting alcohol publicity were 29% in the whole. (2,9 millions of readers on average, 29% of total readers). Alcohol advertising constituted the 3,8% of global publicity and the 8,6% of the publicity in media admitting alcohol publicity. In this period only 4% of the media (2,4% of total readers) inserted antidrug campaigns. In brief, three out of 10 total readers and one out of 12 people older than 15 years suffered the impact of tobacco advertising. Young people were included in 33% of alcohol advertisements and 3 out of 6 of youth-oriented magazines permitted a such publicity. Alcohol publicity remains high in written mass media in Spain. By contrast few people received informative antidrug campaigns. Advertising was preferentially directed to young people.

  15. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  16. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former.

  17. Mass Transfer and Porous Media (MTPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotenberg, B.; Marry, V.; Malikova, N.; Vuilleumier, R.; Giffaut, E.; Turq, P.; Robinet, J.C.; Diaz, N.; Sardini, P.; Goutelard, F.; Menut, D.; Parneix, J.C.; Sammartino, S.; Pret, D.; Coelho, D.; Jougnot, D.; Revil, A.; Boulin, P.F.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Daian, J.F.; Talandier, J.; Berne, P.; Cochepin, B.; Trotignon, L.; Bildstein, O.; Steefel, C.; Lagneau, V.; Van der Lee, J.; Birchall, D.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J.; Sellin, P.; Bildstein, O.; Piault, E.; Trotignon, L.; Montarnal, P.; Deville, E.; Genty, A.; Le Potier, C.; Imbert, C.; Semete, P.; Desgree, P.; Fevrier, B.; Courtois, A.; Touze, G.; Sboui, A.; Roberts, J.E.; Jaffre, J.; Glaus, M.A.; Rosse, R.; Van Loon, L.R.; Matray, J.M.; Parneix, J.C.; Tinseau, E.; Pret, D.; Mayor, J.C.; Ohkubo, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Yamaguchi, M.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Patelli, A.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Leskinen, A.; Rigato, V.; Samper, J.; Dewonck, S.; Zheng, L.; Yang, Q.; Naves, A.; Dai, Z.; Samper, J.; Wolfsberg, A.; Levitt, D.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.; Schampera, B.; Dultz, S.; Riebe, B.; Samper, J.; Yang, Q.; Genty, A.; Perraud, D.; Poller, A.; Mayer, G.; Croise, J.; Marschall, P.; Krooss, B.; Matray, J.M.; Tanaka, T.; Vogel, P.; Lavanchy, J.M.; Enssle, C.P.; Cruchaudet, M.; Dewonck, S.; Descostes, M.; Blin, V.; Radwan, J.; Poinssot, C.; Mibus, J.; Sachs, S.; Devol-Brown, I.; Motellier, S.; Tinseau, E.; Thoby, D.; Marsal, F.; DeWindt, L.; Tinseau, E.; Pellegrini, D.; Bauer, A.; Fiehn, B.; Marquardt, Ch.; Romer, J.; Gortzen, A.; Kienzler, B

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 48 articles (posters) dealing with: interlayer / micro-pore exchange of water and ions in clays: a molecular dynamics study; the multi-scale characterisation of mineral and textural spatial heterogeneities in Callovo-Oxfordian argilite and its consequence on solute species diffusion modelling; the diffusion of ions in unsaturated clay rocks: Theory and application to the Callovo- Oxfordian argillite; the porous media characterization with respect to gas transfer in Callovo Oxfordian argillite; the predictions on a 2-D cementation experiment in porous medium: intercomparison on the Comedie project; the large-scale gas injection test (LASGIT) at the Aespoe hard rock laboratory in Sweden; simulating the geochemical coupling between vitrified waste, canister and near-field on the alliances platform; toward radionuclide transport calculations on whole radioactive waste disposal with CAST3M platform; the experimental study of the water permeability of a partially saturated argillite; a mixed hexahedral finite elements for Darcy flow calculation in clay porous media; the diffusive properties of stainless steel filter discs before and after use in diffusion experiments with compacted clays; the structural organization of porosity in the Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory under saturated and unsaturated conditions; the evaluation of pore structure in compacted saturated Bentonite using NMR relaxometry; diffusion coefficients measurement in consolidated clays: a combination of micro-scale profiling and solid pore structure analyses; the numerical interpretation of in-situ DIR diffusion experiments on the Callovo- Oxfordian clay at the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL the identification of relative conductivity models for water flow and solute transport in unsaturated compacted Bentonite; diffusion experiments in Callovo- Oxfordian clay from the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL, France: experimental setup and data analyses; the transport in organo

  18. Traditional Forms of Communication and the Mass Media in India. Communication and Society, 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Madhu

    Oral folklore and folk drama are emphasized in this report, which focuses on the use of folk media to convey developmental messages through mass media agencies. Discussion covers the relationship between folk and mass media, experiments in India to integrate the two media, problems encountered in the integration process, and folk media's potential…

  19. Mass Communication as Political Rhetoric: A Critique of Representation and Commodity Theories of Mass Media Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary rhetorical theory and research can use important insights into the nature of mass media language that representation and commodity theories cannot incorporate. Suggests that, by recognizing the rhetorical aspects of media language, scholars can legitimize the research and the dialogue that are required for the…

  20. The research in the interaction of the mass media social image and the peculiarities of personal media behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhina M. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the correlation of an individual’s personal ideas about mass media with the organization of social behavior in media environment are represented in this article. The types of an individual’s relation to mass media as well as the types of media consumers in accordance with their dominating motivational orientation: emotionally-centered, communication-centered, information-centered, sense-centered – are revealed in the study. The research of mass media as an object of social images can demonstrate new approaches to the study of psychological regularity of an individual’s media behavior.

  1. Ideology and the Mass Media: The Question of Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Golding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note The text entitled Ideology and the Mass Media: The Question of Determination is a translation of a book chapter by two crucial British political economists of communication that was originally published in 1978, in Ideology and cultural production. The authors address the question to what degree the fact that media are capitalist enterprises influences their operation. They criticize the lack of a political-economic perspective in contemporary research on the ideological role of the media, and argue that this perspective, focusing among other things on issues of ownership, control of the production process and the wider national and international economic context, is crucial to a thorough understanding of how mass media work. The text was written at a time when political economy of communication had already established itself as a relevant approach (although it went by different names, the authors for example use the term “sociology” and it was commonly accepted that the media mostly function according to the laws of capitalist markets. Yet, as the authors point out, the implications of this fact for the understanding of the inner workings of mass media was not quite clear. Scholarly research of media was caught in the crossfire of two opposing approaches, both reaching a dead end: on the one side, vulgar interpretations of a direct influence of the base on the superstructure, on the other, approaches that treated questions of ideology in isolation from their nature as capitalist enterprises (critical cultural studies. These questions are not confined to the field of communication studies since they were dealt with by almost all critical authors that focused their attention on the issues of ideology and social reproduction. The text by Golding and Murdock remains relevant today because the issues that they raise have been largely forgotten without reaching a satisfactory conclusion.

  2. The Role of Mass Media in Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Donald J.; Quesada, Gustavo M.

    This paper reviews the research that has been done on mass media effects in health communication: breakthroughs in treatment, rising costs of medical care, innovations in the organization of health care, governmental involvement, the rise in malpractice litigation, and so on. The conceptual framework employed proposes a continuum of audience…

  3. Mass Media: A Cornucopia of Ideas for Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, John A.

    The collection of readings deals with some important developments affecting the use of the mass media in adult education. These include cablecasting as a means of urging citizens to become involved in community problems, films as spurs to social action, and television programs that employ the soap opera format for educational ends. Also presented…

  4. Political Socialization and Mass Media Use: A Reverse Causality Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Alexis S.

    A reverse causality model treating mass media use for public affairs information as a result rather than as a cause of political behavior was tested utilizing surveys of 190 Mexican-American, 176 black, and 225 white adults. The criterion variable used in each sample was frequency of television and newspaper use for public affairs information. The…

  5. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  6. The Mass Media: Aspen Institute Guide to Communication Industry Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Christopher H.; Haight, Timothy R.

    Intended to provide a single reference source for the most significant statistics describing communication industry trends in the United States since 1900, this book is a collection and assessment of the currently available quantitative descriptive information on mass media industries. The core of the book is its more than 300 tables of data on…

  7. Mass-media publicity campaign on driving while intoxicated.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    Mass media publicity campaigns against driving while intoxicated have been conducted in the netherlands for a number of years. A new, more aggressive approach was introduced in 1984 with the slogan "alcohol ..... all too easily a crime". Goals of this campaign were (1) internationalization of the le

  8. Effect of mass media on the adoption of fish curing

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavan Nair, A.K.; Kaul, P.N.; Balasubramaniam, S

    1985-01-01

    A study of two factors with two-way classification shows that the main effect of newspaper subscription on the adoption of improved practices in fish curing is significant. The effect of radio ownership appears to be masked by newspaper subscription. The interaction between the two factors was not significant. The study confirms the importance of mass media in adoption.

  9. A Tale of Two Industries: Mass Media and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartowski, Andrzej S.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that the commercialization of higher education leads to governance; governance leads to the flow of money; and governance plus money lead to quality. Suggests that it is time to rethink the missions of mass media and higher education in contemporary society and to revise the idea that the right to education is of less importance than the…

  10. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  11. The Role of Audiovisual Mass Media News in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of audio/visual mass media news in language learning. In this regard, the two important issues regarding the selection and preparation of TV news for language learning are the content of the news and the linguistic difficulty. Content is described as whether the news is specialized or universal. Universal…

  12. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  13. Children's Reactions to Dreams Conveyed in Mass Media Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    Explores children's ability to understand formal features of television and film by investigating their reactions to a televised dream. Indicates that children are able to recognize dreams in mass media programing and that prior knowledge of an upcoming dream can influence children's interpretations of and emotional reactions to dreamed events in…

  14. The New Mass Media and the Shaping of Amazigh Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasude, Amar

    This paper describes the Imazighen of North Africa, known in the West as Berbers; threats to their language and culture from schooling and the dominant Arabo-Islamic culture; and recent effects of mass media. As the indigenous people of North Africa, the Imazighen have been invaded frequently during the last 3000 years, but only the Arabs…

  15. The Mass Media and Modern Society. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, William L.; And Others

    The focus throughout this second edition is on the 1970's and the impact of mass communication on contemporary society. Analyzing the ways in which communication affects and is, in turn, affected by society, the book examines the social, economic, and intellectual environments in which the media operate. Two intellectual factors which have had the…

  16. Lithuanian energy security : annual review 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The publication “Lithuanian Energy Security. Annual Review 2013– 2014” presents the problems of Lithuanian energy security, energy security research methods and methodology the application of which enables the determination of Lithuanian energy security level. The research is of interdisciplinary character – energy security problems integrate the aspects of energy, economics, politics and sociology. The dynamics of Lithuanian energy security level is covered and compared with the dynamics of ...

  17. The power of mass media in the German civil society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia‑Georgiana Zalupca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass media is playing a significant role in influencing people’s mind and determining the vote’s preference of each single individual. Nowadays, mass media has become an essential part in setting up the public’s agenda. We are living in a social media era that is being governed by Facebook and Twitter. Facebook had played a key role in Germany’s society in the last year, since September 2015, by helping to increase public awareness or to collect opinions and information, and also to influence the attitude of the people towards electing the Eurosceptic political party, Alternative for Germany (AfD. The results of the regional elections in Germany from March 2016 had been strongly influenced by the party’s intense activities on Facebook. It may be said that the electoral campaign of AfD had completely taken place on Facebook, a social media channel where people and the party itself dare to speak up their mind without being afraid that their opinion could be censorship. This article is about to describe the role that the social media channel, Facebook, had had in choosing AfD as main winner of the German regional elections.

  18. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J

    2017-06-02

    Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking

  19. Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main linguistic indications of Lithuanian preschoolers’ narratives. The analysis is based on experimental data of 24 typically developing monolingual Lithuanian children (6–7 years of age from middle-class families, attending a state kindergarten in Kaunas (Lithuania. During the experiment, the children were asked to tell a story according to the Cat Story (Hickmann 1993 picture sequence. The stories were recorded, transcribed and annotated for an automatic analysis using CHILDES software. During the analysis, the syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, and general productivity (MLUw and type/token ratio of the narratives were investigated. The results indicated the main microstructural tendencies of Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa8.02

  20. Evoliution of Castle Palaces in Lithuanian Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Genytė

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article author examines the problem of architecture history associated with the evolution of castle palaces in the current territory of Lithuania in the Lithuanian Renaissance period. The article is based on research papers thematically close to the publication, other literature and archive documents. After prehistory review of castle palaces at a theoretical level and clarifying the conditions for their occurrence, significant development trends of castle palaces during the Renaissance period in current Lithuania territory is revealed. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Italian, Flemish and Flanders Renaissance reached Lithuania and merged with the local tradition; in the light of the Lithuanian Renaissance castle palaces reached their prosperity period in Lithuania. Castle palaces were distinguished by the diversity of their structural and architectural forms, relatively meaningful connection between function and artistic expression and a sustainable link with the components of environment.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Mass Media and Cultural Memory: Idealization of Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Siljanovska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical approach in defining the means for mass communication expressed in functionalist theory, especially in John Riley’s model, determines mass media as a social subsystem which is functionally connected with other systems in society that arises from their mutual conditionality and their causative and consequential connection with politics, economy, education, socialization and culture. The functions of articulating opinion by themselves problematize the creation of creative-thinking public because the imposition of topics, representation of individuals, values and norms of a culture, a space, a time is mediated by the ideological and functional mechanism of an organized structuring and transfer of messages simultaneously to as big an audience as possible. The vastness of the audience simply cannot by itself be understood as democratization of the culture in its broadest sense or simply because it is not a high, elite culture intended solely for a certain number of users.  It is that exact media reality, which almost always and exclusively is created through the selection of facts and values in relation to the audience and the factor of time, which simultaneously problematizes individual and collective memory. In the era of postmodernism and globalization of societies, media shaped content, in different mass media, especially on TV and the Internet, stimulate cultural development and pluralism of ideas in intercultural communication. However at the same time the setting of the stage for a media product, imposed by market logic of supply and demand erases the borders of difference, restructures the modalities of cultural identifiers and relativizes the dimensions of cultural identity through the unification of values transformed in surpassed or modern collective memories and concepts, such as – Balkanization, Americanization, Europeanization, civil society.

  2. La Evolución de los Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Osorio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es argumentar que la evolución de los mass media se ha entendido generalmente como evolución de las máquinas, es decir, de cambios en el hardware tendientes a criterios como más píxeles (en los televisores, menos peso (en los teléfonos móviles o más capacidad de almacenamiento (de los correos electrónicos. Sin embargo, el artículo trata de explorar si ello es todo lo que puede decirse de la evolución de los mass media. Para lo anterior se asume la existencia de una diversidad de definiciones del concepto de evolución en ámbitos tan diversos como las ciencias sociales, la filosofía e incluso la biología.

  3. RESEARCHING THE MASS MEDIA ROLE IN PROMOTING AND SELLING TOURISTS' PACKAGES IN ROMANIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreea Marin Pantelescu; Maria Ioncica

    2012-01-01

    .... We want to investigate the tourists opinion regarding the importance of mass media in selling and promoting tourists' packages, the tourist considerations in the quality of the mass media tools...

  4. How does the mass media report and interpret radiation data? The results of media content analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN, Institute for Environment Health and Safety (Belgium); Cantone, M.C. [University of Milano, Faculty of Medicine (Italy); Tomkiv, Y. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Norway); Prezelj, I. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences (Slovenia); Gallego, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Melekhova, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In communication with the general population, experts often provide quantitative information related to ionizing radiation, expressed with different units of radioactivity. However, quantitative information about radiation risks may be meaningful only to people who have the ability to comprehend basic numerical concepts and possess knowledge related to radiation. Thus, the media, as a bridge between experts and the general population, has to 'translate' quantitative information into a qualitative one. How successful and accurate are the mass media in this transformation of scientific results into publicly understandable information? Our research investigates media reporting on the concept of ionizing radiation in a case of nuclear emergencies. The presentation is focused on summarizing the 'lessons learned' from the use of radiation data in media reporting about the Fukushima nuclear accident. The in-depth media content analysis was conducted in twelve quality newspapers in Belgium, Slovenia, Italy, Spain, Norway and Russia using the same scientific methodology and analyzing the same time period. Preliminary results identified miss concepts of radiation data by media and even within emergency responders and decision makers. The research is a result of FP7 project Innovative integrated tools and platforms for radiological emergency preparedness and post-accident response in Europe - PREPARE and upgraded with a Russian experience. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. TEXT OF THE MODERN MASS MEDIA: THE LINGUISTIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Abramov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with function of language system in contemporary Russian mass-media texts. Specific feature of development of mass-media language is the extension of vocabulary. The specific of modern period of mass-media language is that the extra-linguistic factors are dominating now. This process is realized through introducing new foreign borrowings and formation of neologisms. Majority of this new vocabulary are euphemisms and so-called “fashionable words” which are the special sort of the new units of dictionary, often used in commerce, propaganda, professional activity. From the point of view of speakers these words designate something possessing prestige or subject of value, they not only reflect the features of mental picture of the world of this speakers but also set a language fashion and construct the wanted picture of the world. They serve for language manipulation of public consciousness in modern discourse. The presence of such lexical units signals that a sender and addressee of text conform to the requirements of time, possess prestige, and absence of such words-markers is examined as an index of "backwardness" and ignorance of the author.

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING MASS MEDIA FP PROGRAMS ON CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. Amirul; Kabir, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the significant role of mass media and factors affecting it have been investigated. . Mass media has played an important role in the success of Bangladesh family planning programs. Different mass media are employed to disseminate FP-MCH messages. Evaluation of the impact of mass media exposures on FP-MCH programs would provide new directions and strategy for its effectiveness. In this study a total of 3100 currently married women from all over Bangladesh were interviewed. The ai...

  7. Evaluation of a Canadian back pain mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Russell, Anthony S; Ferrari, Robert; Battié, Michele C; Schopflocher, Donald; Hu, Richard; Waddell, Gordon; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2010-04-15

    Quasi-experimental before-and-after design with control group. We evaluated a back pain mass media campaign's impact on population back pain beliefs, work disability, and health utilization outcomes. Building on previous campaigns in Australia and Scotland, a back pain mass media campaign (Don't Take it Lying Down) was implemented in Alberta, Canada. A variety of media formats were used with radio ads predominating because of budget constraints. Changes in back pain beliefs were studied using telephone surveys of random samples from intervention and control provinces before campaign onset and afterward. The Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) was used along with specific questions about the importance of staying active. For evaluating behaviors, we extracted data from governmental and workers' compensation databases between January 1999 and July 2008. Outcomes included indicators of number of visits to health care providers, use of diagnostic imaging, and compensation claim incidence and duration. Analysis included time series analysis and ANOVA testing of the interaction between province and time. Belief surveys were conducted with a total of 8566 subjects over the 4-year period. Changes on BBQ scores were not statistically significant, however, the proportion of subjects agreeing with the statement, "If you have back pain you should try to stay active" increased in Alberta from 56% to 63% (P = 0.008) with no change in the control group (consistently approximately 60%). No meaningful or statistically significant effects were seen on the behavioral outcomes. A Canadian media campaign appears to have had a small impact on public beliefs specifically related to campaign messaging to stay active, but no impact was observed on health utilization or work disability outcomes. Results are likely because of the modest level of awareness achieved by the campaign and future campaigns will likely require more extensive media coverage.

  8. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment. Confirms that mass media channels influence social-level risk judgments. Finds that personal-level risk was influenced to some degree by mass media channels and that interpersonal channels and self-efficacy account for some variance on social-level…

  9. Teachers Must Not Pass along Popular "Myths" Regarding the Supposed Omnipotence of the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2006-01-01

    High school teachers must not use that time devoted to the study of the mass media to "beat up" on the press or to "frighten" students with stories which exaggerate the power of the mass media industries. At the same time the potential enormous impact of the contemporary mass media must not be ignored. This means that teachers must not overstate…

  10. Factorial Analysis of Mass Media Influence on Academic Sports Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benar Noshin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Main objective of this research was factorial analysis of mass media influence on academic sports development. Material: Methodology of the research was descriptive- correlation. Population of the research was composed of all referees, coaches and athletes participating in students' sports Olympiad of Iran Payam e Noor Universities in year 2014. Statistical sample of research was chosen randomly and consisted of 176 persons. Data gathering tool was a researcher made questionnaire; its superficial and content validity was approved by academic professors and media experts; also the stability of research tool was reported to be at an acceptable level. SPSS 23 software was used to analyze research data and also AMOS 24 software was used to analyze structure validity. Results: Findings showed there is a significant difference between current situation and desirable situation in all research dimensions. Also, factorial analysis of all research variables showed improvement of coaches' technical performance (0.86, improvement of referees' technical performance (0.85, and promotion of academic sport managers' awareness (0.83 respectively are mostly influenced by mass media. Conclusion : It should be kept in mind that academic sports development is one of the factors of the entire country sports development. Hence, it is crucial to attend to different dimensions of student sport's aspects such as human, financial, planning and etc., especially in championship area to be able to further macro objectives of country's sports development. Considering current conditions, mass media should have a new perspective on academic sports in order to be able to attend to their responsibilities to further the excellence of country's sports.

  11. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits.

  12. Figures of criminal offences that are committed through mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirvete Uka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology created endless possibilities for the information and communication between people in the world. This made possible that within few seconds information could be elaborated. In the meantime that freedom of speech and opinion are protected with all international conventions and laws, this freedom and together with it also the possibilities and actual standards endanger to put in service of the persons which in one form or another, damage the general interest. The study seeks to explain cases, forms and methods of how the presence in media can be misused. Based in the Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo there are the range of criminal offenses which can be committed through mass communication in general and sometimes also through more serious media, written or electronic. The major number of them has to do with such acts that help terrorism, encourage race and religious hatred and in different forms, the use of children for pornography, risking in this manner the greater values of humanism anywhere in the world. The fact of abolition of special dispositions for criminal offenses that are committed through media does not mean that the danger from committing these acts does not exist. It is based in the fact that criminal responsibility lays directly on the crime committer and not on the director or publisher of certain media, in the meantime the last ones should be careful not to be in the service of crime instigators by giving space to publication.

  13. Physical activity in the mass media: an audience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M F

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception study was conducted involving in-depth interviews with 46 adults in New South Wales, Australia. The sample was stratified by gender, age group, area of residence and body mass index. Most respondents could only recall media coverage of physical activity with prompting. Television was the primary channel of exposure, with reality television the dominant source, followed by news programs and sports coverage. The messages most readily recalled were the health risks of inactivity, especially obesity, and the necessity of keeping active. Physical activity was regarded as a matter of personal volition, or for children, parental responsibility. Respondents believed that the media had given physical activity inadequate attention, focused too heavily on risks and not provided practical advice. In Australia, there is a need to counter the framing of physical activity by reality television, and engage the media to generate understanding of the socioecological determinants of inactivity. Physical activity campaigns should deliver positive and practical messages.

  14. Inferring Social Influence of Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qianyi; Zhang, Jiawei; Yu, Philip S; Emery, Sherry; Xie, Junyuan

    2017-07-01

    Anti-tobacco mass media campaigns are designed to influence tobacco users. It has been proved that campaigns will produce users' changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, and also produce meaningful behavior change of audience. Anti-smoking television advertising is the most important part in the campaign. Meanwhile, nowadays, successful online social networks are creating new media environment, however, little is known about the relation between social conversations and anti-tobacco campaigns. This paper aims to infer social influence of these campaigns, and the problem is formally referred to as the Social Influence inference of anti-Tobacco mass mEdia campaigns (Site) problem. To address the Site problem, a novel influence inference framework, TV advertising social influence estimation (Asie), is proposed based on our analysis of two real anti-tobacco campaigns. Asie divides audience attitudes toward TV ads into three distinct stages: 1) cognitive; 2) affective; and 3) conative. Audience online reactions at each of these three stages are depicted by Asie with specific probabilistic models based on the synergistic influences from both online social friends and offline TV ads. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Asie.

  15. PROBLEMS OF MODERN RUSSIAN IN A MIRROR OF MASS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Олегович Беляков

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of culture of speech in terms of modern mass media: printing mass media, television and radio programs, Internet. The issues of influence of the information quality on development of communication culture and perception of information are discussed. In addition the aspects of adequate formation of information messages by the organization are considered. Influence of non-official sources of information in the Internet – social networks, forums etc. - are analyzed. This problem is up-to-date because media space is practically out of control in terms of adequate formation  of language culture, the process of change of speakers takes place because of which Soviet culture of conveying information is practically lost and new culture of conveying information has not formed yet. In the same time this problem is insufficiently covered by professional and scientific circles, and the result of it is further deterioration of the situation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-6

  16. MALAY POP: MASS MEDIA HEGEMONY IN INDONESIA POPULAR MUSIC

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    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the domination of Malay pop music through textual analysis of songs,observation of musical programs, and interviews with important figures. The research data wereobtained by library research and analyzed through a critical theory approach to gain anunderstanding of the text and its effects. The article concludes that Malay pop contains a stronguniformity which may be termed a phenomenon in the context of the culture industry, while also beingdominant because of its legitimacy created by the media. The nature of Malay pop is also veryprofitable for those participating in it, therefore the spirit of capitalism was also quite dominant in thiscontext. There is also resistance from the indie music movement, and its attempts to fight regressivequalities of music that are legitimized in the mainstream mass media.

  17. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF MASS-MEDIA AND THE CHANGES GENERATED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRAIAN ALEXANDRU NASTASE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to describe the economic implications of mass-media in correlation with the recent socio-economic changes generated by the economic crisis. We take into consideration the dual market on which mass-media evolves: the mass-media products market, and the advertising market, keeping in mind that the behavior of a mass-media institution on one market, can have direct implication on the other market. We analyze the relation between mass-media and the public (audience, the cost for creating mass-media products, the ways in which mass-media reduces costs and the ways of increasing their profits. As mass-media must always adapt to the social changes and to the public, we take our analysis further and we describe how the recent economic changes influenced the mass-media consumption trends and mass-media profits on all the main communication channels: TV, radio, outdoor, internet, newspapers/magazines. This analysis is performed at both a global and a local level, for Romania. In the end we predict how other key changes may affect the economic model approach of the mass-media institutions on short and middle terms.

  18. Mass media and behavior change: hand in hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, Johns Hopkins University's Population communication Services has conducted evaluations of mass media campaigns in developing countries which communications personnel have designed to change health and sex behavior. The mass media campaigns involved relaying health and family planning information via radio, television, and pamphlets. The evaluations showed that these campaigns were an effective technique to promote behavior change, e.g. they have boosted demand for contraceptives, condom sales, clinic visits, and inquiries to hotlines. A 6-part television drama incorporating health and family planning into its storyline stimulated behavior change in Pakistan in 1991. 36% of people surveyed after the drama series said they would limit the number of children they would have. 44% planned to improve communication with their spouse. An amusing television promotion in Brazil which ran for 6 months in the late 1980s prompted 58% of new clinic patients in 1 town to seek a vasectomy. 1 clinic experienced an 81% increase in vasectomies. A 6-month campaign to promote condom use in Colombia in 1988-89 resulted in a 75% rise in condom sales. In the mid 1980, a 6-9 month mass media popular music campaign (2 songs and videos disseminated via television, radio, and print materials) in Mexico and Latin America strove to encourage youth to be responsible for their sexual behavior. During the campaign, an adult counseling center received an 800% increase in letters (50-450 letters/month). 4 radio and 5 television spots promoting health and family planning in Kwara State, Nigeria in 1984-87 increased family planning acceptors 500% from 258 to 1526 in the 7 existing clinics. Other successful campaigns took place in the Philippines, Zimbabwe, Indonesia, Turkey, Bolivia and Honduras.

  19. Mass media entertainment for AIDS communication in Zaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convisser, J

    1992-01-01

    Health communicators use entertainment and mass media to prevent HIV transmission. Population Services International operates an AIDS Mass Media Project as an adjunct to its Condom Social Marketing Project. It collaborates with the Government of Zaire's National AIDS Program. Its 1st target is urban youth because most AIDS cases in Zaire were infected as teenagers, urban youth have access to television (TV), and they take part in high risk sexual behavior. The project uses various AIDS songs to reach this group. A 6-month posttest shows that the 1st song was so effective that 65% heard it and that 93% of them recalled the major AIDS messages and 85% said that they changed their behavior. The project distributes a video of the 1990 World AIDS Day concert. Research in Zaire and other African countries shows that the threat AIDS poses to children's health strongly motivates parents' behavior. Thus the 2nd target is the 20-30 year old group--young and prospective parents. The project boasts a 4-part TV series about a groom who does not reveal his AIDS status to his young bride until after their wedding night. 2 scenes stress the benefits of condoms. After its 1st airing, 66% of the 20-30 year old group in Kinshasa watched all 4 parts of the series. Of these, about 75% said they would change their behavior. Most people in Zaire change behavior by using condoms. Indeed, during the mass media campaign, condom sales grew 1000% which saved almost 7200 lives. The project also features comic strips informing working men and women and teenagers about AIDS and distributes an inexpensive notebook listening AIDS facts and myths for school children. The project uses regional radio stations to broadcast 28 AIDS feature programs, 22 radio spots, 8 AIDS radio dramas, and 2 songs to high priority rural areas. These AIDS radio efforts have indeed influenced AIDS knowledge and attitudes.

  20. Specifics of Communication in Lithuanian Voting Campaigns, 2012-2016

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    Mažylis Liudas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the numbers of unaffiliated voters and the internet users caused politicians’ interest in these audiences and the start of their activities in these communication channels by establishing more personalized relationships with voters. This paper aims to analyze the communication of main parties and their candidates in social media channel “Facebook” and in popular Lithuanian internet news media portals, such as delfi.lt, lrytas.lt and others before the Parliamentary elections in 2012 and the forthcoming 2016 Parliamentary elections. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects of campaign coverage in the media portals and Facebook are analysed. The paper addresses the following questions: How important are factors such as new party emergence, parallel referendum campaign, and activity of using social media for the final result of elections? How active were the politicians in the Facebook? What content dominated their profiles? How much personalized were their messages? What strategies were used for communication? Did the politicians aim at mobilizing or at persuasion the voters? Involvement of citizens, voters’ turnout and political results are linked with campaign arguments and the value normative environment. We conclude by providing the discussion on the noticed tendencies and possible improvements in the communication of candidates for the future.

  1. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  2. Culture of Scientific Information in Mass Media on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa 'Isa al-Yasiry

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at evaluating the quality of scientific information culture that introduce it the Arabic mass media in the internet and how it covering the reality of Arabic scientific information by using analysis content method for these websites then we most be know how these websites treating with information culture considering information systems has input, output and mutual relations between the elements of this system that include the following three components: 1- External relations that connecting between the culture and the reality. 2- Internal elements for this system. 3- Infrastructures for this system that represented in the cultural policy, informational , information resources and human resources

  3. Mass Media and «the Сolor Revolutions»

    OpenAIRE

    - Zhao Yonghua

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the importance and influence of media on the progress of «color revolutions» based on patterns of media and political reforms in the state, industrial development of mass media and media strategy of the Western States (as an example the U.S.) in relation to Commonwealth countries.

  4. Heat and mass transfer in unsaturated porous media. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, S.W.; Malstaff, G.

    1982-02-01

    A preliminary study of heat and water transport in unsaturated porous media is reported. The project provides background information regarding the feasibility of seasonal thermal energy storage in unconfined aquifers. A parametric analysis of the factors of importance, and an annotated bibliography of research findings pertinent to unconfined aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) are presented. This analysis shows that heat and mass transfer of water vapor assume dominant importance in unsaturated porous media at elevated temperature. Although water vapor fluxes are seldom as large as saturated medium liquid water fluxes, they are important under unsaturated conditions. The major heat transport mechanism for unsaturated porous media at temperatures from 50 to 90/sup 0/C is latent heat flux. The mechanism is nonexistent under saturated conditions but may well control design of unconfined aquifer storage systems. The parametric analysis treats detailed physical phenomena which occur in the flow systems study and demonstrates the temperature and moisture dependence of the transport coefficients of importance. The question of design of an unconfined ATES site is also addressed by considering the effects of aquifer temperature, depth to water table, porous medium flow properties, and surface boundary conditions. Recommendations are made for continuation of this project in its second phase. Both scientific and engineering goals are considered and alternatives are presented.

  5. American Multinational Media and the Expansion of American Mass Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜

    2011-01-01

    With the development of globalization and gradual intensification of mutual dependence of the world,"hard power" which indudes economic and military strength is no longer the primary consideration for many countries.They tend to pay more attention to the attractiveness of their "soft power",which includes values,life style,ideology and so forth.Just as Joseph S.Ny,the famous professor of Harvard who puts forward the concept of soft power,says,"only by widespread communication and diffusion can a country reinforces its soft power".This is mass media's function.Since the 1990s,tens of thousands cultural products brought in from America are exported to foreign countries,including popular music,films,TV programs,magazines,books and so forth.By making advantage of its monopoly position in media circle,the United States pursues cultural hegemonism and expands its popttlar culture all over the world.This thesis takes a general view of the great advantages of America multi-national media groups and how they push forward the American popular culture all over the world.

  6. Heat and mass transfer in unsaturated porous media. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, S.W.; Malstaff, G.

    1982-02-01

    A preliminary study of heat and water transport in unsaturated porous media is reported. The project provides background information regarding the feasibility of seasonal thermal energy storage in unconfined aquifers. A parametric analysis of the factors of importance, and an annotated bibliography of research findings pertinent to unconfined aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) are presented. This analysis shows that heat and mass transfer of water vapor assume dominant importance in unsaturated porous media at elevated temperature. Although water vapor fluxes are seldom as large as saturated medium liquid water fluxes, they are important under unsaturated conditions. The major heat transport mechanism for unsaturated porous media at temperatures from 50 to 90/sup 0/C is latent heat flux. The mechanism is nonexistent under saturated conditions but may well control design of unconfined aquifer storage systems. The parametric analysis treats detailed physical phenomena which occur in the flow systems study and demonstrates the temperature and moisture dependence of the transport coefficients of importance. The question of design of an unconfined ATES site is also addressed by considering the effects of aquifer temperature, depth to water table, porous medium flow properties, and surface boundary conditions. Recommendations are made for continuation of this project in its second phase. Both scientific and engineering goals are considered and alternatives are presented.

  7. The Need for Interdisciplinary Research of the Arab Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ayish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews mainstream models of mass communication research in the Arab world and proposes an interdisciplinary perspective that addresses communication within a broader theoretical and analytical framework. Scholarly works on 20th century Arab mass communication can be placed in six subject categories: propaganda, development communication, historical accounts, international news flow, technical and professional works, and general theoretical works (Ayish, 1998. Recent significant technological, political, and social developments have redefined not only perspectives about the Arab world’s transitions, but also about how mass communications contribute to this change. The paper subsequently examines three research areas of particular relevance to scholarship of media usage within, and of the Arab world. The first is concerned with the political economy of flow, a global apparatus of systems of movement of people, ideas and cultural products, financial instruments, and goods. The second area is concerned with the study of the rapidly increasing mobility of subjects that is a phenomenon of the political economic apparatus of flow and that has changed the context within which the Arab mass media are both disseminated and consumed. Lastly, the paper discusses the relevance of this work to the changing nature of the production of identity. Here the authors describe identity as a contingent phenomenon that is determined by a host of political, economic, social, cultural, and other factors that delineate the production of one’s sense of self, while arguing that the articulation of the political economic apparatus of flow has rearticulated the relationships amongst the factors that identity draws upon and is demarcated by.

  8. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

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    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  9. "Sunrise" and "Sunset" of Lithuanian Agencies

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    Vitalis NAKROŠIS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the transformative approach, the NPM and post-NPM models this article explains the proliferation, autonomy, control and innovative behavior of Lithuanian agencies and other public sector organizations in the 1990-2010 period. While the expansion of governmental functions during Lithuania’s transition to democracy and its accession to the EU brought agencification in 1990-2004, the adoption of government-wide organizational reforms during the economic crisis marked the start of de-agencification in 2009- 2010. The degree of autonomy and control of the Lithuanian public sector organizations is largely explained by their legal basis and political salience of their tasks. Finally, in line with the post-NPM model, structural capacities and participation in networks have a strong impact on innovative behavior of these organizations.

  10. Lithuanian Publisher’s Needs for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey on the training and professional development needs of Lithuanian publishers was designed and conducted. The pilot research showed that publishers in Lithuania have an interest in professional training. According to the results, the need for training among the employees of Lithuanian publishing houses depends on the previous training experience: the more training courses the employee had before, the greater need for training he/she expresses. 82% of publishing house employees from four different fields agreed and strongly agreed on the need for training. Very few employees would like to pay for training by themselves. The identified need for training appears to reflect the nature of the problems encountered in the publishing field in Lithuania: Copyright, Law & Rights is the most wanted training topic among managing directors. The list of preferred topics for training can be used as the grounds for creating a supply of publishing training courses.

  11. An evaluation of the role of the mass media in conflict management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the role of the mass media in conflict management: The Niger ... ups and downs to the public within the ambit of social responsibility theory of the ... packaging and presentation to media product consumers without blemish.

  12. The Major Obstacles of Correct Pronunciation: for Lithuanians Learning Spanish and for Spanish Learning Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Alešiūnaitė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When a person starts learning a new foreign language and tries to speak to a native speaker, it is a common situation when he/she is asked to repeat (sometimes more than once because the listener does not understand the speaker‘s pronunciation. As a consequence, the speaker’s confidence in his/her language competence is shaken as well as motivation for the use of this foreign language. This situation shows the importance of correct pronunciation which is one of the significant components of successful foreign language learning. Recently, the learning of Spanish and Lithuanian as foreign languages has become increasingly popular in Kaunas. From 2009 a quarter of LUHS foreign students are Spanish students, and Spanish is the first most chosen from 26 of those taught as a second foreign language at VMU. During the analysis of Spanish and Lithuanian phonetic similarities and differences, the main purpose is to discuss, compare and identify the major obstacles in pronunciation for Lithuanians learning Spanish and for Spanish students learning Lithuanian. The experimental mirror principle reveals the main obstacles to correct pronunciation which indicate the cases where Spanish students make pronunciation mistakes in the Lithuanian language, and, respectively, those cases are the same where the pronunciation obstacles for Lithuanians speaking Spanish arise. Learning of phonetics is one of the most important parts of communicative competence – that is why it is recommended to pay attention to the orthoepy in foreign languages and begin to develop pronunciation from the very first levels of language learning, because the positive results appear in the long run and after much practice.

  13. Do mass media affect Medicare beneficiaries' use of diabetes services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Charles P; McCombs, Marc

    2005-07-01

    Appropriate secondary preventive care for people with diabetes can reduce complications and premature death, yet many people with diabetes do not get these services. Mass media may influence individual health behavior. In 1999, the West Virginia Medical Institute (WVMI) began a long-term radio and television campaign to educate West Virginia Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes about the importance of foot exams, eye exams, HbA1c testing, and influenza and pneumonia immunizations using messages with an "Ask your doctor about..." formula. To assess campaign efficacy, WVMI commissioned a telephone survey of 1500 randomly selected beneficiaries likely to have diabetes in two groups of counties with differing exposure to the messages. The survey asked whether the beneficiary had heard the messages and responded to them, by message topic. Nearly everyone (90%) in both survey groups said they had seen or heard the diabetes ads. However, high-exposure group members were about 1.2 times more likely to recall hearing most messages than low-exposure group members, and were 1.2 to 1.8 times more likely to say that they did what the messages suggested. Media campaigns with preventive health messages targeted to Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes can reach them and may induce appropriate responses.

  14. Simple, inexpensive media for mass production of three entomophthoralean fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Luis G; Alves, Sérgio B; Batista Filho, Antonio; Roberts, Donald W

    2005-03-01

    The entomophthoralean fungi Batkoa sp., Furia sp. and Neozygites floridana have been suggested for biocontrol of insect pests: the first two for control of spittlebug pests of pasture and sugarcane, and the third for mites of agricultural importance. To develop these agents as biopesticides and bioacaricides, it is important to have available culture media that maximize production at low cost. The research reported here evaluates, in different combinations and concentrations, the effect of four complex sources of nitrogen on production of mycelium or hyphal bodies in liquid media of all three species. Yeast extract allowed the highest production of Batkoa sp., with a concentration of 0.5% being the most suitable for vegetative (mycelial) growth. The combination of 0.33% each of yeast extract + beef extract + skim milk allowed the highest production of Furia sp. Mycelium. The combination of yeast extract + skim milk (0.5% of each) allowed the second highest production of Furia sp., and was the most suitable for mass production due to the lower cost. The combination of 1 %each of yeast extract + peptone + skim milk was the most suitable for production of N. floridana hyphal bodies.

  15. Induced Monoculture in Axelrod Model with Clever Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H.; Del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Vázquez, G. J.

    A new model is proposed, in the context of Axelrod's model for the study of cultural dissemination, to include an external vector field (VF) which describes the effects of mass media on social systems. The VF acts over the whole system and it is characterized by two parameters: a nonnull overlap with each agent in the society and a confidence value of its information. Beyond a threshold value of the confidence, there is induced monocultural globalization of the system lined up with the VF. Below this value, the multicultural states are unstable and certain homogenization of the system is obtained in opposite line up according to that we have called negative publicity effect. Three regimes of behavior for the spread process of the VF information as a function of time are reported.

  16. New AGU Mass Media Fellow Initiated College Science Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Marissa Weiss, this year's AGU Mass Media Fellow, feels so strongly about communicating science that she and a fellow graduate student started a course on the subject. Three years ago, she and the other student in the biogeochemistry and environmental biocomplexity program at Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., developed—with the aid of mentors—a semester­long science communication class. The course has since become a regular offering at Cornell, where Weiss defended her dissertation in ecology this past August. A soil ecologist, Weiss showed in her thesis research that nitrogen pollution can cause slowing of soil decomposition because of a declining abundance of microbes that break the soil down.

  17. Hypostases of THEM category in mass media communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanysheva Zulfira Zakievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the reflection of the US/THEM category in mass media communication in conditions of sharp confrontation of ideological opponents. It is aimed at revealing the potential of lingvocultural signs to be used as units of generating desirable senses in leading English periodical issues. The alien culture is shown to possess three basic hypostases with xenocultural axiological semantic space taking the lead. The article proves that intercultural massmedia communication is marked by reciprocal influence of semantic spaces and subjective evaluation of information. Xenoprecedent phenomena are viewed as supporting clamps in the process of semantic transformations of national and cultural signs designed to exert a manipulative effect on the target reader.

  18. Creative industries: Economic exploitation of the media of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodijević Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern technological age has created the preconditions for the establishment of a new production system that offers new opportunities, but also imposes new creative forms that must comply with the rules of the system: effective and higher production accompanied by adequate consumption. Creative industries and media practice have reached enormous proportions-production, and their aim is not only to influence the masses, but also to exploit them economically. This has almost imperceptibly started a new economic revolution. In a culture that has been created with a special trade sector wide scale, equipped with channels for the distribution, commercial and propaganda means, in short, all the elements of a typical economic activity. Creative industries are considered, as a matter of course, not the creative function, but the function of its profitability; the pursuit of profit plays a decisive role.

  19. Perceptions about the mass media among the students from Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanescu, Razvan; Dumitriu, Ramona; Costel NISTOR

    2011-01-01

    The last decades revealed the importance of mass media in a society. Regarding the Republic of Moldova the role of mass media is influenced by some particularities of the economic, politic and social activities. Moldova is among the poorest states from Europe and its political situation is still unstable. On the markets of mass media from Moldova there are in competition different categories of participants: domestics and foreigners, public and private entities. This paper presents the result...

  20. Researching the Mass Media Role in Promoting and Selling Tourists` Packages in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Marin Pantelescu; Maria Ioncica

    2012-01-01

    The main propose of this study concentrates on researching the role of mass media in promoting and selling tourists’ packages in Romania. We want to investigate the tourists opinion regarding the importance of mass media in selling and promoting tourists’ packages, the tourist considerations in the quality of the mass media tools (TV, radio, internet, written press like newspapers, magazines, brochures and catalogues) for selling and promoting tourists’ packages, and if the tourists consider ...

  1. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile.

  2. NEW COMMUNICATION MEANS AND THE ECONOMIC CHALLENGES BROUGHT IN MASS-MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BURTIC; BADULESCU Alina

    2014-01-01

    Analogic technology, the old ways of production, distribution, consume and economic fundaments of the mass-media industry are left behind by the new demands and requirements of the creative economy in the digitalization context of the mass-media system. In fact, not only mass-media goes through this transformation, but the whole society. The implications of the digital era are far long to be over and they will affect all mass-media segments: written press, audiovisual, on-line press and socia...

  3. The Information Aspect of Extremism and Terrorism and the Destructive Trends in the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Nekrasova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of destructive trends in modern Russian mass media as well as to the information component in the activities of extremist and terrorist organizations. The destructive trends in the mass media manifest themselves in the escalation of animosity, aggression, creation of the cult of violence and xenophobia moods. Terrorist organizations use the mass media for their own purposes: they create the atmosphere of fear and tension in society, recruit new followers, mainly among the youth, which is a serious problem. It is important to use the positive potential of the mass media to counteract extremism and terrorism.

  4. Lithuanian Students' Choice of University: A Consumer Value Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkute, Darija

    2017-01-01

    Increasing competition within the Lithuanian educational market has paved the way for an analysis of the complex choice processes enrollees undergo in selecting a higher education institution. This research examines the concept of consumer value and its interpretation in the Lithuanian higher education setting. Based on data collected from 445…

  5. Social perception of droughts in the mass media (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T. Leon; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    In the Mediterranean environment, drought is one of the extreme phenomena that has most direct consequences and complexity. It also has a direct social impact through the mass media, whose analysis, typology and characterization should be a priority in strategies to plan and mitigate effects. The appearance of droughts is slow, their occurrence is often not recognized until human activity and the environment have already been significantly affected, and drought effects persist for a long time after the drought has ended. The spatial distribution of droughts is highly complex, and significant variation in drought conditions is common between different locations. This makes it difficult to identify similar regions, especially in areas of climate transition, where the atmospheric influences are complex. This is the situation in the Iberian Peninsula (particularly the south of the peninsula), which straddles both temperate and sub-tropical climates and in which precipitation is highly variable and spatial variability is substantial. In this study we analyzed rainfall anomalies (Standardized Precipitation Index) over the last 50 years at 4 representative meteorological stations in southern Spain, two on the coast (Málaga and Algarrobo) and two at the headwaters of river basins regulated by dams (Antequera and Periana). The aims of the study were to: i) analyze the types of drought, and their frequency and intensity; and ii) establish the dynamics and evolution of the social perception of droughts in the context of global change, brought about by the communications media. The results showed the SPI was a useful tool for identifying dry anomalies that may feature in our field of study of meteorological and hydrological drought, depending on its duration. Meteorological drought impact on the eco-geomorphological system is common and has had a particular development since the 80's. Hydrological droughts are those that have had the greatest effect on water reserves

  6. The Influence of the Mass Media on the Life Plans of Rural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillaste, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    Rural students, who live in the villages of Russia, are more resolved than ever to leave their native land. Their decision is influenced by the mass media, which plays a large role in determining their views and the way they relate to the world. In this article, the author examines the influence of the mass media on the life of rural students…

  7. Mass media negative impact on the development and education of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Zarema Shhahytova; Anastasia Sitkova

    2014-01-01

    Globalization and modernization have both positive and negative sides. With the development of information technologies, new problems appear such as mass media influence on person, perception and education of preschool age children. The authors discuss the problem of mass media influence on preschool children education.

  8. Evaluative Criteria for High School Textbooks in Journalism and Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    The purpose of this study was to develop criteria for high school textbooks in journalism and mass media. The study discusses the procedure used in evaluating textbooks; the role of textbooks in journalism and mass media courses; a general background of these courses; a review of objectives concerning the student journalist, the teenage writer,…

  9. Revisiting the Principle of Relative Constancy: Consumer Mass Media Expenditures in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupagne, Michel; Green, R. Jeffery

    1996-01-01

    Proposes two new econometric models for testing the principle of relative constancy (PRC). Reports on regression and cointegration analyses conducted with Belgian mass media expenditure data from 1953-91. Suggests that alternative mass media expenditure models should be developed because PRC lacks of economic foundation and sound empirical…

  10. The Influence of the Mass Media on Young People as a Problem of Russian Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapesotskii, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of the mass media on the moral state of Russian society discerns negative consequences of that influence, and sees the mass media (particularly television) as involved in the cultural degradation of the population. It argues in favor of state, social, and pedagogical controls to facilitate a more positive role of the…

  11. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  12. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  13. The Influence of the Mass Media on the Life Plans of Rural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillaste, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    Rural students, who live in the villages of Russia, are more resolved than ever to leave their native land. Their decision is influenced by the mass media, which plays a large role in determining their views and the way they relate to the world. In this article, the author examines the influence of the mass media on the life of rural students…

  14. The Influence of the Mass Media on Young People as a Problem of Russian Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapesotskii, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of the mass media on the moral state of Russian society discerns negative consequences of that influence, and sees the mass media (particularly television) as involved in the cultural degradation of the population. It argues in favor of state, social, and pedagogical controls to facilitate a more positive role of the…

  15. A Comparative Study of Chinese Family Values and American Family Values Influenced by Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小诗

    2014-01-01

    Different context of mass media between countries can be reflected on the view of family values. In this paper, the au-thor is taking family values as an example to explore the differences between China and America.It is come to a conclusion that mass media have a big influence on family values in both countries.The comparison of different family values also give an inspira-tion to the development of media industry in China.

  16. The Double Manipulations of Mass Media on Psychological World and Sense Instinct of People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高虹

    2012-01-01

      Don DeLillo is one of the post-modernist novelists with most important position in America. His work White Noise is the most classic art of post-modernist literature in America,which hit great commercial successes and deserved universal atten⁃tion in the field of criticism immediately after its publication. This paper is trying to analyze the functions of mass media in White Noise, discuss the double dominations of mass media on psychological world and sense instinct through analyze the effects of mass media on psychology, action and values of modern people, and then pay attention to the role of mass media in post-modernist so⁃ciety. Then all of these may provide some implications to work and life of modern people who depend on mass media overly.

  17. Mass Media Fellow Westley spends summer publishing in Newsweek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, Harvey

    If you are a subscriber to Newsweek, you probably remember these stories from the past few months: “Vaccine Revolution,” “Aliens Invade America!,” “A Gymnast's Long Fall,” “Is AIDS Forever?,” and a cover story, “Science Finds God.” They all had something in common, aside from their science focus: at the end of each article was the credit line, “With Marian Westley.” In addition, a story titled “A Long, Wacky Summer,” on recent weather patterns, carried Marian Westley's byline. Who, you may have wondered, is this Marian Westley, who reports with equal aplomb on matters as diverse as epidemiology, meteorology, the predations of nonnative plant species, and the interface between scientists and theologians? Actually, Westley is a graduate student in biological oceanography at the University of Hawaii and a member of AGU. She spent the summer of 1998 as the AAAS/AGU Mass Media Fellow at Newsweek in New York.

  18. The mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Brown, Jane D; Kenneavy, Kristin

    2006-03-01

    This study compared influences from the mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers. A sample of 1011 Black and White adolescents from 14 middle schools in the Southeastern United States completed linked mail surveys about their media use and in-home Audio-CASI interviews about their sexual intentions and behaviors. Analysis of the sexual content in 264 media vehicles used by respondents was also conducted. Exposure to sexual content across media, and perceived support from the media for teen sexual behavior, were the main media influence measures. Media explained 13% of the variance in intentions to initiate sexual intercourse in the near future, and 8-10% of the variance in light and heavy sexual behaviors, which was comparable to other contexts. Media influences also demonstrated significant associations with intentions and behaviors after all other factors were considered. All contextual factors, including media, explained 54% of the variance in sexual intentions and 21-33% of the variance in sexual behaviors. Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in sexual intercourse and more sexual activity. Mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual socialization, and media influences should be considered in research and interventions with early adolescents to reduce sexual activity.

  19. Country Report: Citizenship Education: Lithuanian Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zaleskene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Some theoretical concepts of globalisation and citizenship are discussed in the article as well as changing role of citizenship education in transforming Lithuanian Society. The author points out that many problems in contemporary Lithuanian society arise from the fact that the relationship between individuals and the state is changing fundamentally. The state should broaden “positive” choices and support an individual by ensuring principles of equality in basic human rights and access to opportunities. On the other hand, an individual has to take the responsibility for his/her own life becoming a decisive factor in choosing personal life style and in building up civic community. In this respect, it is expected that Citizenship Education would lay an important role in educating competence and attitudes towards own responsibilities, in educating mental and practical skills for positive civic participation. Current status and new approaches of citizenship education in Lithuania are presented in the light of international developments. The article concludes that changing role of citizenship education has significant implications for professional development of teachers and for the national teacher training system as a whole.

  20. A short analysis of quality and performance in the radio segment of Romanian mass-media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burtic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available More than one hundred years ago, once the radio appeared, mass media started to be more pronounced. Mass-media market diversified its offer, and the quality and creativity of economical agents determined a reassert on the competition and performance scale. For our research in mass media field, we distinguish two vital aspects of economic quality and performance: audience and financial results. In this section we will try to follow the evolution of the main players from the Romanian audio-visual market on the radio segment, taking into account these two variables: audience and financial results. Quality and performance in mass-media are two elements desired on one side by massmedia producers: the owners and employees from this field, and on the other side, by mass-media customers: audience and publicity buyers. We analyse the aspects of quality and performance in Romanian media industry in o period of rapid change. The changes are on multiple levels, and the most accentuated regards the consumer’s behaviour, market environment, technological changes and legal regulations. The changes in the consumer behaviour are determined by their perceptiveness towards the digital world. Quality and performance in mass-media are two desired elements, on one side by the mass-media producers: owners and employees in the field, and on the other side by massmedia customers: audience and publicity buyers.

  1. [Tobacco advertising and printed mass media in Spain: a fatal attraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Julio; Alvarez, María L

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco advertising is a powerful factor in encouraging smoking initiation. We analyzed tobacco advertising in written mass media in Spain between 2002 and 2005. We performed an annual cross-sectional study of advertisements in the 41 most widely disseminated written mass media (nearly 10 million readers). In the period studied, 37% of the media included tobacco advertising (an average of 4.35 million readers). Only 4% of the media included anti-drug campaigns (an average of 0.27 million readers). Tobacco advertising increased from 2.0 to 4.7% (overall) and from 4.3 to 8.0% (in media allowing tobacco advertising). Four out of every 10 readers and one out of eight Spaniards aged 15 years or older were exposed to tobacco advertising. Fifty-six percent of advertisements included young people. Tobacco advertising remains prominent in written mass media in Spain and was mainly directed at young people.

  2. Sport Mass Media Influence on Promoting Sports in Order to Improve Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdy Ahmed Shawqi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass media could be one of the tools used to promote a physically active lifestyle. It is a direct and potentially effective tool for reaching public with means, knowledge and information and helping them to understand the importance of a physically active lifestyle. The main purpose of the study was to discover the influence of mass media in promoting sports activities in order to improve health in Sultanate of Oman, and attempt to determine the effect of the mass media in promoting sports activities to improve health. The study sample consisted of 470 participants divide to five age groups (15-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40, and over 40 years, respectively. The study used a mass mediasurvey to answer the main questions of the study. The results showed a weakness of mass media to encourage sports culture and exercise within different segments of society in order to improve health. Furthermore, it was a good signal that highlights the importance of mass media in promoting exercise in sport in order to improve health. In addition, the results of the study provide professionals in sports an adequate informationas to what mass media should be done to promote sports in order to improve health of the people of Oman. It recommend that mass media should embrace national projects to promote and encourage sport for health.

  3. Researching the Mass Media Role in Promoting and Selling Tourists` Packages in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marin Pantelescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main propose of this study concentrates on researching the role of mass media in promoting and selling tourists’ packages in Romania. We want to investigate the tourists opinion regarding the importance of mass media in selling and promoting tourists’ packages, the tourist considerations in the quality of the mass media tools (TV, radio, internet, written press like newspapers, magazines, brochures and catalogues for selling and promoting tourists’ packages, and if the tourists consider reliable the advertisements broadcasted by media regarding offered holidays. A quantitative marketing research using a pre tested questionnaire will provide the answers to these research questions. The expected results will help the actors in the tourism field to a better understanding of the mass media role in selling and promoting tourists’ packages and will also enrich the knowledge in the powerful of the communications in the tourism domain.

  4. The Dynamics of Lithuanian-Polish Strategic Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukšto Andžej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at identifying relations between the events which influence Lithuanian-Polish strategic cooperation, defining principal aspects of cooperation dynamics, and analysing recent challenges in relations between Lithuania and Poland. For the purpose of analysis the following objectives have been set: 1 to analyse the development of strategic partnership and political dialogue in bilateral relations; 2 to evaluate the importance of security, defence policy, and economic projects in cooperation between the states; 3 to assess the aspect of ethnic minorities in the context of bilateral relations. The authors of the paper seek to review the principal internal and external factors which affect bilateral cooperation between Lithuania and Poland. The following methods of analysis are used in the paper: public statements made by officials, document analysis and discourse formed by the media. The key areas of analysis are the development of political dialogue, strategic cooperation, security and defence policy, economic and energy cooperation, and questions of ethnic minorities in bilateral relations. Presently in the field there is a lack of thorough investigation of similarities and differences of strategic cooperation between Lithuania and Poland.

  5. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  6. Mass Media and the School: Descartes or McLuhan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Pierre

    1980-01-01

    Compares the world of learning with the world of the media, with emphasis on the areas of common interest. Discusses areas of potential cooperation, including local audiovisual centers, adaptation of new media to educational content, computer technology, telematics, and accumulation of audiovisual stock on topics pertinent to education. (DB)

  7. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  8. Mass Media and the Debate about Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Many factors contribute to the difficulties the media have in dealing with science, engineering, and technology. These difficulties were pointed up in the media coverage of the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant, which reflected confusion and lack of understanding and which combined with other factors (including the movie…

  9. [How much can we trust health related information provided by mass media in Argentina?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izcovich, Ariel; Criniti, Juan Martín; Popoff, Federico; González Malla, Carlos; Catalano, Hugo N

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the certainty and accuracy of the healthcare information provided by the mass media in Argentina, a group of senior medical students, blind to the study objectives, identified healthcare related statements transmitted through mass media. These findings were challenged against the recommendations of a group of physicians trained in evidence-based decision making (EBDM). We compared the strength and direction of the mass media recommendations with those of experts on EBDM. Eighty one recommendations/questions were identified and answered by the experts on EBDM, 15 with high, 18 with moderate, 30 with low and 18 with very low quality of evidence. Only 53% (CI95% 42-64%) of the mass media recommendations agreed with the expert recommendation in direction (for or against) and 28% (CI95% 18-39%) were classified as inappropriate (significant discrepancies both in direction and strength). Subgroup analysis revealed that 71% (CI95% 56-86%) of there commendations made by professionals in mass media agreed with experts in direction and 17% (IC95% 6-33%) were classified as inappropriate, OR = 0.35 (CI95% 0.1-1.1) compared to recommendations in mass media by non-professionals. We conclude that the healthcare information provided by mass media in Argentina is unreliable; this fact can probably have a negative impact in the health system performance and physician-patient relationship.

  10. LITHUANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES AND PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidija EIČAITĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and analyze Lithuanian consumers’ attitudes and purchasing behaviour towards domestic livestock products. In order to get necessary information, Lithuanian residents were interviewed. A multi-stage stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents. This study draws on a survey of 1009 respondents. The analysis of collected data was performed using the methods of mathematical statistics. The results suggest that the vast majority of Lithuanian consumers regularly buy domestic livestock products. Among this group of respondents, the top reasons for purchasing are freshness, good taste and favourable prices. Only a small share of Lithuanian consumers rarely or never buys domestic livestock products. Among this group of respondents, the top reasons for not purchasing are unfavourable prices, short shelf-life and insufficient range of products. Domestic livestock products buyers tend to be older, higher educated and have higher level of income than non-buyers.

  11. NEW COMMUNICATION MEANS AND THE ECONOMIC CHALLENGES BROUGHT IN MASS-MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BURTIC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogic technology, the old ways of production, distribution, consume and economic fundaments of the mass-media industry are left behind by the new demands and requirements of the creative economy in the digitalization context of the mass-media system. In fact, not only mass-media goes through this transformation, but the whole society. The implications of the digital era are far long to be over and they will affect all mass-media segments: written press, audiovisual, on-line press and social media. The economic aspects, as well as the technical ones, editorial, distribution and final consumers aspects, all will be different from what we experienced in media industry until digitalization. The question is, are we ready to enter into a new economy: the digital economy? Are we ready to enter into a new culture: the digital culture? We entered in the smart world, but do we understand what is happening? The editorial teams that experience a fundamental change of thinking, will be able to overcome this times challenges? These are some of the questions that bothered us along this research. We tried to block in the logic of the system with the new varieties and variables determined by the digital era in order to understand it. We tried to discover the elements whereby mass-media industry and economy can profit more of the digitalization advantages. We tried to find economic solutions for the negative consequences produced in the process of media industry digitalization to be attenuated.

  12. Sport Mass Media Influence on Promoting Sports in Order to Improve Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Majdy Ahmed Shawqi; Homoud M. Al Anazi; Ali Alshamli

    2012-01-01

    Mass media could be one of the tools used to promote a physically active lifestyle. It is a direct and potentially effective tool for reaching public with means, knowledge and information and helping them to understand the importance of a physically active lifestyle. The main purpose of the study was to discover the influence of mass media in promoting sports activities in order to improve health in Sultanate of Oman, and attempt to determine the effect of the mass media in promoting sports a...

  13. Historical Concept of the Representativeness of Lithuanian City Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Tiškus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the historical development of the town squares from antiquity to the present day: patterns, location in the city plan structure, functions and the change in its architectural environmental. It examines the spatial structure of Lithuanian historic cities, shape of squares, dimensions and architectural environment. Finally, the change in functions and artistic expression of Lithuanian squares is discussed as well as attributes that determine representativeness.

  14. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  15. Evidence of probable tuberculosis in Lithuanian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piombino-Mascali, D; Jankauskas, R; Tamošiūnas, A; Valančius, R; Gill-Frerking, H; Spigelman, M; Panzer, S

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis has affected Europe for millennia and continues to be a burden upon modern society. It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of this condition. Despite the introduction of control strategies, the disease continues to be one of the most common causes of death globally. Within the framework of the Lithuanian Mummy Project, seven spontaneously mummified human bodies from a church crypt in Vilnius, dating from the 18th and 19th century, were CT-scanned to assess the presence of tuberculosis or other lung diseases. We encountered pulmonary lesions suggestive of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, one case might have been affected by extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. This report replicates the image findings from previous studies on ancient mummies that provided evidence of tuberculosis in soft tissues, thus helping reconstruct the history of this disease over time.

  16. Management changes in the Lithuanian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaclovas Miskinis; Rimantas Deksnys [Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). Lithuanian Energy Institute

    2003-07-01

    Lithuania was invited at the end of 2002 to become a member of the European Union and to join NATO. The country, being in transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy, is experiencing fundamental transformations. Lithuania has inherited an energy sector with a comparatively good technical infrastructure but inappropriate for a small independent state. In order to transform the management in the energy sector, it was necessary to perform a lot of significant changes. Positive changes are based on the implementation of experience in other Central and Eastern European countries and many studies prepared by national specialists in cooperation with foreign experts. This paper describes the main alterations in management of the Lithuanian economy and energy sectors and recent changes in the power sector. The paper aims to analyse the country's progress in transition to a free market economy and necessary improvements in the near future. (author)

  17. Changes in self-reported energy balance behaviours and body mass index during a mass media campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Dommelen, P. van; Empelen, P. van; Crone, M.R.; Werkman, A.M.; Kesteren, N.M.C. van

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prevention of (serious) overweight can be achieved by means of small behaviour changes in physical activity and/or diet. Objective: To evaluate a mass media campaign promoting energy balance behaviours in a Dutch population. Effects were examined for body mass index (BMI) and five energy

  18. The performativity of "media logic" in the mass mediation of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesner, Ursula

    2012-08-01

    Studies of the use of research-based expertise in the mass media often demonstrate how experts are used to confirm journalists' angles on particular stories or how research-based knowledge claims are twisted. Both among practitioners and science communication scholars, such practices are often explained with reference to a pervasive "media logic." "Media logic" is constructed as governing choices and interactions of researchers and journalists. This article critically examines the extensive use of the term "media logic" to explain choices, changes or content in media production, and presents Actor-Network-Theory as an approach that invites us to ask what takes place in practice without resorting to such generalizing explanatory devices. The article argues that a quick jump to "media logic" as an explanation may imply that we forget its contingency and ignore what actually takes place in journalists' and researchers' negotiations about texts and facts in the mass mediation of science.

  19. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  20. An Appraisal of Mass Media Role in Consolidating Democracy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Ogoshi, John Dogara. Department of ... people. Despite Nigerian media great performance in promoting democracy, they are faced with challenges which ..... More often journalists demand “brown envelopes” after undertaken an assignment.

  1. Using mass media within health-promoting practice: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, D

    2000-10-01

    For some time health professionals have recognized the growing importance of utilizing mass media strategies as part of their health-promoting practice. The ever-evolving climate of technology and increasing reliance on mass communications has further reinforced the position of mass media initiatives. The enormous potential for mass media resources to reach certain audiences and influence their health-related behaviours has become particularly well established. Despite these facts, however, it is argued that the nursing profession has been less than pro-active in acknowledging, accommodating and adopting such practices. Consequently, the incorporation of health-related mass media initiatives into nursing's health-promotional role remains an elusive exercise. The maintenance of such a position, it is claimed, is potentially damaging for the profession as a whole. In light of this state of affairs, this paper seeks to review the literature surrounding the nature and processes of mass media strategies, their relevance to health promotion and nursing, how they are currently utilized and how they can be incorporated further into nursing practice. In conclusion, it is argued that nursing should seek to become a more active user of mass communication/media technology--especially in relation to its health-promotional practices.

  2. The Mass Media, Public Opinion, and Public Policy Analysis: Linkage Explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, James C.

    The purpose of this book is to explore the effects of public opinion on governmental policy making, with a special focus on the role of the mass media in this process. Specific areas covered include political campaigning, the President and the press, blacks and the media, and cable television. Topics of discussion in the ten chapters are: linkage…

  3. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  4. Educational Leadership in the Era of Mass Media: State, Consequences and Repercussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Tali; Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the relationships between school head teachers and mass media on various aspects of their role: emotional-personal, behavioural-managerial and perception. It also examines the sociocultural experience in which these head teacher-media interactions take place, that is, the adjustment of the school system,…

  5. The role of mass media in disease outbreak reporting in the United ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of mass media in disease outbreak reporting in the United Republic of ... with accurate epidemiological reports if correct information is to reach the public. The role of media in outbreak reporting is herein discussed in relation to the ...

  6. Analysis on the Role of Mass Media in the Development of Tibet Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trinle Digye

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I will briefly analyze the role of mass media in the development of Tibet tourism. Through some exam⁃ples and some theoretical analysis we will mainly discuss the problems and the prospects of Tibet tourism media. I sincerely hope this thesis will provide some good suggestions and views to the developing of Tibet tourism.

  7. 154 The Role of the Mass Media in the Nigerian Electoral Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    the central role of the media in political and social affairs as a natural outcome of its ... in assigning this responsibility as a primary concern of the mass media on the .... to for instance, inform the Nigerian public on how “vested interests have ...

  8. Russian and Brazil media systems at the modern stage of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippova Viktoria Alexandrovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main characteristics of modern mass communication and media systems in Russia and Brazil. The so-called first-level media - are of elite character, aimed at the ruling classes. They are strengthening their position in the global space and almost are blurring geographical and cultural boundaries. Media audience of the second level is national, they usually focus on the middle and lower segment of the audience, if to divide it by income, education and culture. Informatization and digitalization of media lead to the formation of hybrid media systems, where there is a growing role of new media, in particular, social networks and Twitter. It is important to emphasize that the nature of the social, spiritual and cultural changes caused by informatization, depends not only on information technology, but also on the social conditions of the socioeconomic system where the implemented processes of mass communication are realized. The paper discusses the factors that determine the possibility of functioning of media systems at the present stage: the willingness of the reader to consume information and pay for it by the example of Russia and Brazil, describes the processes of globalization, information technology and digitalization of society and the media. It is presented media preferences and trust in the media in Russia and Brazil in the XXI century, as well as the main indicators of the advertising market in these countries.

  9. Nonequilibrium transition induced by mass media in a model for social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Avella, J C; Cosenza, M G; Tucci, K

    2005-12-01

    We study the effect of mass media, modeled as an applied external field, on a social system based on Axelrod's model for the dissemination of culture. The numerical simulations show that the system undergoes a nonequilibrium phase transition between an ordered phase (homogeneous culture) specified by the mass media and a disordered (culturally fragmented) one. The critical boundary separating these phases is calculated on the parameter space of the system, given by the intensity of the mass media influence and the number of options per cultural attribute. Counterintuitively, mass media can induce cultural diversity when its intensity is above some threshold value. The nature of the phase transition changes from continuous to discontinuous at some critical value of the number of options.

  10. FEFLOW finite element modeling of flow, mass and heat transport in porous and fractured media

    CERN Document Server

    Diersch, Hans-Jörg G

    2013-01-01

    Placing advanced theoretical and numerical methods in the hands of modeling practitioners and scientists, this book explores the FEFLOW system for solving flow, mass and heat transport processes in porous and fractured media. Offers applications and exercises.

  11. Furnishing Music: An Analysis of Mass Media in Terms of Music Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, David

    1975-01-01

    Author presented for consideration the position that the importance of mass media music (FM, AM, juke box, TV, film, etc.) might not be so much in its music as in the musical systems represented by that music. (Author/RK)

  12. The Controversy over "Mass Media Violence" and the Study of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grixti, Joe

    1985-01-01

    How the large number of empirical tests and arguments that have been conducted to prove that mass media violence directly influences behavior have failed to discredit contrary arguments is discussed. (Author/RM)

  13. Socioanthropological factures of violence in sports activities: Influence of mass-media on the youth

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Bojan

    2009-01-01

    Mass-media have powerful influence on characteristics and development of contemporary societies. Modern societies are characterized by different varieties of violence as un-human social and anthropological behavior patterns of different societies and as shapes of social pathology. Media are the most significant mediator between sport and men of modern societies particularly of young people. Violence, as on expression of aggressive behavior, is not just a consequence of global society and mass...

  14. Some Peculiarities in the Language Palette of the Ukrainian Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Topcii

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Language of modern mass media expresses all the active processes occurring in society and in the language. The given article deals with such tendencies as discourse polycodeness, crossing codes and foreign elements assimilation which are closely connected with democratization and liberalization. Typical features of modern mass media are displacement of semantical filling in lexical units, neosemantization, the elements interaction of literary and non-literary styles as liberalization of literary language norms and vocabulary metaphorization.

  15. Interoperability Guidelines for Lithuanian E-Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Kurilovas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the paper aims to analyse e-learning content and repositories along with the problems of learning organisation interoperability. The main objective of the paper is to analyse scientific research results and the newest international experience in the area and to provide interoperability guidelines and recommendations for the implementation of appropriate Lithuanian state programmes. The learning content and repositories recommendations are designed for the implementation of the Lithuanian education portal project as well as Lithuanian Virtual University (LVU programme’s information services’ (LABT / eLABa and e-learning services’ (LieDM sub-programmes. The whole education institution recommendations are designed for the maintenance and development of LVU programme’s management services’ (LieMSIS system.Design/methodology/approach – methods used for the general analysis of proposed interoperability guidelines (reccomendations were bibliographic research and comparative analysis of Lithuanian and foreign scientific works published in periodicals and large-scale EU-funded interoperability projects deliverables. System analysis and comparative analysis methods were used in order to formulate and analyse systems’ interoperability guidelines and recommendations. The author employed the experimental research method while working in the appropriate EU-funded interoperability projects to form the guidelines (recommendations. In order to summarize the results, the evaluative research method was used.Findings – the international guidelines and recommendations presented in the paper could be suitable for implementation while developing Lithuanian state education information systems such as the Lithuanian education portal, the Lithuanian academic libraries’ (eLABa system, the Lithuanian distance learning system (LieDM, and the Lithuanian universities’ management system (LieMSIS.Research limitations/implications – the paper

  16. The mass media and the cancer patient--some views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, I

    1984-01-01

    A study by the National Cancer Institute indicates extensive newspaper coverage of the subject of cancer. Some of the media presentations on cancer are highly emotional in nature, such as the PBS special, "Joan Robinson: One Woman's Story." Other more optimistic stories may have a negative impact on patients facing more advanced stages of the disease. Yet the media appear to be gradually stripping the mystery from cancer and preparing patients to deal with their treatment and physicians more intelligently and more assertively. Breast and lung cancers are the two sites that get the most attention from the press. Unfortunately, colon and rectum cancers rank quite low in press attention. The American Cancer Society (ACS) has studied public attitudes toward these cancers and is preparing programs to reach the public about them. This paper will deal with these topics and make some observations on the impact of media coverage on cancer patients.

  17. Does Health Information in Mass Media Help or Hurt Patients? Investigation of Potential Negative Influence of Mass Media Health Information on Patients' Beliefs and Medication Regimen Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Heewon; Huh, Jisu

    2017-03-01

    As an important public health issue, patient medication non-adherence has drawn much attention, but research on the impact of mass media as an information source on patient medication adherence has been scant. Given that mass media often provide confusing and contradicting information regarding health/medical issues, this study examined the potential negative influence of exposure to health information in mass media on patients' beliefs about their illnesses and medications, and medication adherence, in comparison with the effects of exposure to another primary medication information source, physicians. Survey data obtained from patients on blood thinner regimens revealed that the frequency of exposure to health information in mass media was negatively related to accuracy of patients' beliefs about their medication benefits and patient medication adherence. On the other hand, frequency of visits with physicians was positively associated with patients' beliefs about their medication benefits but had no significant relation to medication regimen adherence. The implications of the study findings are discussed, and methodological limitations and suggestion for future research are presented.

  18. Exploring the Effect of Mass Media on Perceptions of Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylaska-Davies, Paula

    2015-09-01

    This qualitative study explored women's perceptions of mass media and infant feeding. Mass media is a universal means of communication with potential to impact social norms. Data obtained from interviews with women (n = 20) were compared with text and visual representation from Internet sites (n = 12) on parenting and infant feeding. Themes from interviews reflected information represented on Internet sites. Participants offered suggestions for future media messages, such as public service announcements of breastfeeding. Participants emphasized that public opinion needs to be altered, and breastfeeding in public would then be viewed as the norm.

  19. INTRODUCTION: Theoretical Models as Mass Media Practice: Perspectives from the West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    at Reuters Institute in May 2007, from which this collection of papers has been selected. As with the other workshops during the conference, the majority of our panellists were themselves once media practitioners. It is my opinion that this background and inside knowledge of the field in itself can provide......What is journalism? How does it exist and why? How does journalism define itself and in what ways can we make use of looking theoretically at the practice of it? These were the central themes of our workshop; Theoretical Models as Mass Media Practice held at the ‘Minding the Gap’ conference...... an exceptional framework for understanding the workings of mass media while helping the press reflect over these workings too. In a time of change for the journalistic profession, when media convergence is growing; the media is marked by deregulation and fewer journalists are being asked to do more...

  20. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study's objective was to explore national news media's reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles.

  1. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  2. Broadcasting Birth Control: mass media and family planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parry, M.

    2013-01-01

    This book explores the use of media by American birth control movement since the early twentieth century, as they built support for fertility control and the availability of contraception. Though these public efforts in advertising and education were undertaken initially by leading advocates,

  3. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  4. Broadcasting Birth Control: mass media and family planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parry, M.

    2013-01-01

    This book explores the use of media by American birth control movement since the early twentieth century, as they built support for fertility control and the availability of contraception. Though these public efforts in advertising and education were undertaken initially by leading advocates, includ

  5. Mass Media: A Student's Guide to Reference Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiser, Joni

    Intended to assist students in locating information and literature for the sociological study of the media, this guide concentrates largely on radio, television, newspaper, and magazine reference sources. The first section of the guide lists reference works, including handbooks; English, French, and bilingual dictionaries and encyclopedias;…

  6. Media Construction of Gender: Framing Analysis of Rape Cases in the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the printed media which tends to dramatize and blow up the reporting of rape cases has in fact discredited the rape victim, resulting in gender bias. This is due to the fact that media present the news content concerning on the victim and the perpetrator in imbalanced reporting, in that the victims are scrutinized from diverse facets. This paper analyze the coverage of printed media in rape cases by means of framing analysis. The result shows that printed media coverage generally goes beyond the rape case itself as the victim’s identity and images of the incident are also revealed. The using of visual image (victim’s image is probably aimed to present an overview on the fact or the truth from the media viewpoint. This presentation, however, obscures the differences between factual and fictional reality and this might lead to different interpretation on the readers’ side. Furthermore, inappropriate reporting might become the society’s reference concerning on the modus operandi, in that the society learn or imitate the aspects they once did not know of. Visual image will create a second rape by the media toward the victim, in addition to the stereotyping developed in public, which often brings out psychological impact to the victim and the family. This is called the third rape.

  7. Integration of Economics and Information Terminology into the Lithuanian and International Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvyra Tadauskienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the integration of economics and information terminology into the Lithuanian inter-national market. The occurrence of the terminology was predetermined by the historical conditions, i. e., the expansion of international economical links with foreign countries. Economics and information terminology gets integrated when translating international words into Lithuanian with the help of adequate Lithuanian substitutes or borrowings. As long as the borrowing has not completely taken root, its Lithuanian equivalent is considered to be more preferable.

  8. Seasonal Trends in Lithuanian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaneta Simanavičienė

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article is to disentangle different calendar effects which leave efficiency holes in Lithuanian market. This paper presents and tests if commonly described seasonal patterns exist in Lithuanian stock market. Analysis of three different sections: period-of-the-year; week-of-the-month and day-of-the-week, suggests that calendar effects do exist in this market. The multitude of explanations for the seasonal effect leaves the reader confused about its primary cause(s: is it tax-loss selling, window dressing, information, bid-ask bounce, or a combination of these causes? The confusion arises, in part, because evidence has generally been presented in support of a particular hypothesis though the same evidence may be consistent with another hypothesis. Methodology/methods are logical and systemic analysis of research literature based on the comparative and generalization methods as well as statistical methods. Scientific aim of the article is the lack of arguments questioning if market prices operating system is fully effective. Novelty of the paper is to the answer to the question what seasonal anomalies are also present in the stock market of new open economy countries. Findings show that using this modified strategy investor could achieve 20.7% compounded annual growth rate versus 7.8% achieved using simply holding stocks throughout. The hypothesis asserts that returns generally will be greater following the “January effect”. There is limited amount of data for constructing robust seasonal strategies so we modified Buy and Hold strategy with simple rules of using best and worst months to show how they influence OMXV index performance. In the conclusions, empirical results using stock index returns for 2000 - 2010 support the hypothesis in Lithuaian stock market. Abnormal activity of OMXV index’s performance is found in the end of summer and throughout autumn. August is best performer of the year while October is

  9. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  10. Women and mass media: a critical and analytical study of the portrayal of Sudanese women in printed media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, A E; Osama, S

    1995-06-01

    This study examines how Sudanese women are portrayed in the mass media. Data are obtained from a content analysis of historical records of Sudanese daily newspapers and women's magazines and from surveys among female editors in print media. The following types of newspapers are reviewed: independent newspapers; papers for the Al-Umma Party, a communist party, a Bathist party, a Muslim Nationalist Islamic Front Party, and a National Union Democratic Party; and a current military government paper. Women's magazines are published by women. Articles focus on women as the main newsmakers, women's life issues, female authors, a female focus but a male author, and famous Sudanese women. 16 content themes are identified. Women were not extensively featured or photographed in either newspapers or magazines. The Al-Umma Party paper and Al-Sudan Al-Hadith paper (an independent paper) were the only two newspapers with at least 10 photos of women. Women were pictured as professionals, educated persons, and leaders. There were 17 female editors. These editors preferred an image of women as leaders, followed by productive workers. Only 11.76% believed that women's dual roles as producers and reproducers should be portrayed. Female editors did not want a special women's page. 52.94% (the largest percentage) preferred targeting women with substantial leadership abilities. 17.65% desired the portrayal of women as workers and housewives. 58.82% did not think that the mass media image changed behavior or attitudes, because most Sudanese women are illiterate. Women's issues in both newspapers and women's magazines were devoted to women's work, achievements, and needs. The authors recommend removal of obstacles to women's equal participation in the mass media and press and research on the effect of media images on women's self-perception and behavior.

  11. Relationship between Lithuanian Sovereign Credit Risk and Equity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Abazoriūtė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyse relationship between Lithuanian sovereign credit risk and equity market. The aim of the paper is to find the impact of the sovereign credit risk, which is expressed in the terms of Credit Default Swaps (CDS, on the movements of stocks prices of Lithuania. We use VAR (vector autoregression model in order to find the relationship between Lithuanian CDS spread and OMX Vilnius index. We use impulse reaction method to investigate the impact of CDS spreads on the OMX Vilnius index. After analysis of equity index OMX Vilnius and Lithuanian CDS price relationship it was found out that there exists an opposite relationship between these two variables. When the CDS prices are rising, the equity prices decrease and vice versa. The main finding is that Lithuanian capital market returns reacts immediately to the changes of credit risk of Lithuania which is set by the global capital market and expressed by the CDS prices and Lithuanian capital market is under the great foreign pressure.

  12. Sustainable Development of Lithuanian Seacoast Recreational Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Abromas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recreational architecture is a branch of architectural activity whose main object is formation of recreational spaces (territories, buildings, complexes and equipment. The goal of recreational architecture is to create optimal (comfortable, lovely and realizable environment for all recreation types and forms. This goal is realized by projects which are based on scientific research and recommendations. This activity needs more than casual work and living environment. It needs special space and equipment: territory, water area, buildings, and rooms. Everything can be called recreational environment. Recreational environment can be of various dimensional scales: enormous seaside or lake areas intended for recreation, resorts, recreational institution complexes and many single buildings, beaches, forest parks, pools. Recreational environment is possible not only out of town but in town as well. Beginning of recreational architecture is observed in antique cultures, but as a separate specific architectural activity branch it rapidly began to spread in last century first half and in Lithuania – in the last four decades. In this work, analysis of evaluating recreational architecture is made seeking to reveal recreational architecture evaluating criteria and their use .Article in Lithuanian

  13. Lithuanian export competitiveness before economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Kalendiene

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research paper discusses the concept of competitiveness of economy and analyzes export as an indicator of it. The analysis is started by the historical review of export development. Statistical data show that three Baltic countries have been following different path of export growth since Russian crisis. Different export market orientation and manufacturing sector's longer reorientation process provide an explanation. Furthermore, the historical analysis shows that export growth relation with foreign demand growth and GDP growth is not as strong as it might be expected. In order to estimate possible long-run GDP growth prospects, the structural analysis of trade is performed. The conclusions of the latter revealed high dependence of trade on conjuncture in foreign markets and supported the need of further price and non-price competitiveness analysis. Surprisingly, the results of the former indicate that price indicators do little to explain export development. Conversely, the results of the latter, based on CMSA methodology, show that market orientation of Lithuanian exports adds the most to its competitiveness; meanwhile the product orientation is generally unfavorable. Finally, the relation between FDI structure by countries and trade flows of processed industrial supplies is analyzed. Although data analysis does not reject the existence of such hypothesis, a more detail analysis should be conducted in the future.

  14. Understanding adolescent girls’ vulnerability to the impact of the mass media on body image and restrained eating behaviour: the role of media type, body perfect internalisation and materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Beth Teresa

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong body of psychological research implicating the mass media in the aetiology of adolescent girls’ negative body image and eating behaviours. The present thesis aims to extend this research by examining potential factors – namely, media type, body perfect internalisation and materialism – that make girls more vulnerable to the negative impact of the mass media.\\ud \\ud An initial meta-analysis (Chapter 3) collated the findings of existing research examining the impact of ‘body p...

  15. Mass Shootings: The Role of the Media in Promoting Generalized Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, James N; Ivy, Jonathan W

    2017-03-01

    Mass shootings are a particular problem in the United States, with one mass shooting occurring approximately every 12.5 days. Recently a "contagion" effect has been suggested wherein the occurrence of one mass shooting increases the likelihood of another mass shooting occurring in the near future. Although contagion is a convenient metaphor used to describe the temporal spread of a behavior, it does not explain how the behavior spreads. Generalized imitation is proposed as a better model to explain how one person's behavior can influence another person to engage in similar behavior. Here we provide an overview of generalized imitation and discuss how the way in which the media report a mass shooting can increase the likelihood of another shooting event. Also, we propose media reporting guidelines to minimize imitation and further decrease the likelihood of a mass shooting.

  16. The Relationship Between Sexual Content on Mass Media and Social Media: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbosch, L.; van Oosten, J.M.F.; Peter, J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether exposure to sexual reality television content and Internet pornography (IP) is related to sexual self-presentation on social media. Based on a two-wave panel survey among 1,765 adolescents aged 13–17 years, we found that watching sexual reality

  17. Associations between Chinese/Asian versus Western mass media influences and body image disturbances of young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Jiang, Chengcheng; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated associations of experiences with mass media imported from Western nations such as the United States versus mass media from China and other Asian countries with eating and body image disturbances of young Chinese women. Participating women (N=456) completed self-report measures of disordered eating, specific sources of appearance dissatisfaction (fatness, facial features, stature), and Western versus Chinese/Asian mass media influences. The sample was significantly more likely to report perceived pressure from, comparisons with, and preferences for physical appearance depictions in Chinese/Asian mass media than Western media. Chinese/Asian media influences also combined for more unique variance in prediction models for all disturbances except stature concerns. While experiences with Western media were related to disturbances as well, the overall impact of Chinese/Asian media influences was more prominent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On Quality Intensification Expression Means in German And Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Račienė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of German Adjectives’ derivational means, which intensify the meaning of quality, and which are compared with functional equivalents in Lithuanian. The intensification of quality is treated as the functional semantic category, implemented in various language levels. This semantics may be expressed morphologically, by lexical and syntactic means, as well as by stress and intonation. The German language has many first components of compound adjectives, representing the intensification of quality, such as: stock-, blitz-, hoch-, brand-, grund-, etc. The rendering function of this semantics is typical of German adjectives prefixes erz-, ur- as well as prefixes of foreign origin super-, ultra-, extra-, mega-, hyper-, top-. In the Lithuanian language, the intensifying meaning of quality is realized by syntactic com-pounds, while on the morphological level it can be conveyed by diminutive suffixes. The paper presents the comparison of German and Lithuanian quality intensification expression means in order to highlight typological similarities and differences.

  19. Lithuanian Education System Problems: Senior Class Students' Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lamanauskas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Various changes are taking place in Lithuanian comprehensive schools in recent years. Not all of them can be considered positive and making the system’s work effective. The changes taking place encourage natural interest in them. It is necessary not only to fix the current state, but to search for the ways how to optimize the changes taking place and to control them. Education is a complex, manifold phenomenon, the researches of which are complicated and complex as well. In this article Lithuanian comprehensive school senior class pupils’ position on current education questions is analysed: preparation and teaching/learning process evaluation, the identification of advantages and disadvantages of education system and other. It is revealed how Lithuanian comprehensive school pupils value current education system, teacher provided knowledge quality and ability to prepare students for further studies at universities and other higher schools.

  20. Liquidity Risk and its Management in Lithuanian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bareikaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the main part of financial sector in each economy and strength of banking system becomes vital for ensuringfavourable economic stability and growth. Recent failure of two commercial banks in Lithuania showed that managershaven’t evaluated liquidity risk or haven’t dealt with it properly. The tasks of the paper are to investigate Lithuanian banksposition towards liquidity risk, analyse what kind of management tools banks use for ensuring favourable position towardsliquidity and to explore the liquidity influence to profitability in Lithuanian banking sector. The article examines liquidity andits management processes in Lithuanian banking sector. Description of liquidity importance is presented. Liquidity risk and itsmeasurement as well as the ways of managing the above mentioned risk is analysed in the article. In order to analyse the relationshipbetween liquidity risk and profitability of banks, analysis of scientific literature, research synthesis and generalizationshave been made.

  1. Pecularities of French Pronoun on Usage in Lithuanian Scientific Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Dubikaltytė-Raugalienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientists studying personal identifiers in French scientific discourse incorporate the personal indefinite pronoun “on” into the paradigm. The semantics of the pronoun depends on the genre of scientific discourse. The pronoun “on” can acquire four meanings denoting or including the author. The current paper, based on two databases of native French and Lithuanian authors’ articles, aims at comparing the tendencies of the pronoun “on” usage and its functions in scientific discourse. The analyses has shown that the Lithuanian authors use the personal pronoun almost twice less frequently to mark an author or authors’ denotative or inclusive meaning. In the articles of Lithuanian authors, the pronoun “on” performs fewer pragmatic functions than in scientific discourse of French authors.

  2. Mass media and heterogeneous bounds of confidence in continuous opinion dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pineda, M

    2014-01-01

    This work focus on the effects of an external mass media on continuous opinion dynamics with heterogeneous bounds of confidence. We modified the original Deffuant et al. and Hegselmann and Krause models to incorporate both, an external mass media and a heterogeneous distribution of confidence levels. We analysed two cases, one where only two bounds of confidence are taken into account, and other were each individual of the system has her/his own characteristic level of confidence. We found that, in the absence of mass media, diversity of bounds of confidence can improve the capacity of the systems to reach consensus. We show that the persuasion capacity of the external message is optimal for intermediate levels of heterogeneity. Our simulations also show the existence, for certain parameter values, of a counter-intuitive effect in which the persuasion capacity of the mass media decreases if the mass media intensity is too large. We discuss similarities and differences between the two heterogeneous versions of...

  3. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles. PMID:28119907

  4. Mass Media and Rural Out-Migration in the Context of Social Change: Evidence from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Martin

    2013-06-01

    This work examines the influence of mass media on rural out-migration using historical and contemporary data from a setting experiencing massive social and economic development in the last half-century. Data come from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, an ongoing study of an agrarian region in rural Nepal. Media are hypothesized to affect migration by inducing attitudinal and behavioral changes similar to those of other determinants of migration. As their influence differs from other determinants in important ways, media represent a unique form of influence that should be taken into account. I find that movie and television exposure are significant determinants of out-migration in historical contexts, although television exposure was important in more contemporary contexts. Differences in these effects probably indicate the timing of the spread of each type of media and changing preferences among media consumers.

  5. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the s...

  6. Teaching Lithuanian as a second/foreign language: Current practicies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiluté Ramoniené

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the restitution of the independence of Lithuania in 1990, one of the key questions of the national language policy in Lithuania was the development and enforcement of a successful language education model. Newly emerging needs have encouraged re- form in learning Lithuanian as a second language at all levels. This paper provides a broad overview of teaching, learning and assessment of Lithuanian as a second/foreign language – an important educational element of the language policy in Lithuania. It focuses on general principles and main problems as well as real practices and changes in 1990–2005.

  7. Characterization of individual particles in gaseous media by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction is given to a system for particle analysis by mass spectrometry (PAMS) which employs particle-beam techniques to measure mass spectra on a continuous real-time basis. The system is applied to particles of both organic and inorganic compounds, and the measurements give the chemical characteristics of particles in mixtures and indicate source apportionment. The PAMS system can be used for process control and studying heterogeneous/catalytic reactions in particles, and can be fitted to study the real-time attributes of PAMS.

  8. Contaminant Mass Transfer During Boiling in Fractured Geologic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    make the dough , i.e. C0, and DCA and bromide mass recovery during heating, normalized to the inside mass, measured by extraction of clay dough ...gradually to the powder. The mixture was manually kneaded into a uniform dough - like material that was divided into three parts. Each part was placed...process took about 15- 20 min to mix and knead the dough , another 15-20 min to pack the dough into the container and seal it. The sample weight was

  9. Setting the agenda: Different strategies of a Mass Media in a model of cultural dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sebastián; Balenzuela, Pablo; Dorso, Claudio O.

    2016-09-01

    Day by day, people exchange opinions about news with relatives, friends, and coworkers. In most cases, they get informed about a given issue by reading newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching TV, i.e., through a Mass Media (MM). However, the importance of a given new can be stimulated by the Media by assigning newspaper's pages or time in TV programs. In this sense, we say that the Media has the power to "set the agenda", i.e., it decides which new is important and which is not. On the other hand, the Media can know people's concerns through, for instance, websites or blogs where they express their opinions, and then it can use this information in order to be more appealing to an increasing number of people. In this work, we study different scenarios in an agent-based model of cultural dissemination, in which a given Mass Media has a specific purpose: To set a particular topic of discussion and impose its point of view to as many social agents as it can. We model this by making the Media has a fixed feature, representing its point of view in the topic of discussion, while it tries to attract new consumers, by taking advantage of feedback mechanisms, represented by adaptive features. We explore different strategies that the Media can adopt in order to increase the affinity with potential consumers and then the probability to be successful in imposing this particular topic.

  10. Effects of Mass Media and Cultural Drift in a Nonequilibrium Model for Social Influence

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzitello, K I; Dossetti, V; Candia, Juli\\'an; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of an extension of Axelrod's nonequilibrium model for social influence, we study the interplay and competition between the cultural drift, represented as random perturbations, and mass media, introduced by means of an external homogeneous field. Unlike previous studies [J. C. Gonz\\'alez-Avella {\\it et al}, Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 72}, 065102(R) (2005)], the mass media coupling proposed here is capable of affecting the cultural traits of any individual in the society, including those who do not share any features with the external message. A noise-driven transition is found: for large noise rates, both the ordered (culturally polarized) phase and the disordered (culturally fragmented) phase are observed, while, for lower noise rates, the ordered phase prevails. In the former case, the external field is found to induce cultural ordering, a behavior opposite to that reported in previous studies using a different prescription for the mass media interaction. We compare the predictions of this model to sta...

  11. The challenges of educating the public about astrobiology via the mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret

    Scientific information in astrobiology is being generated at a pace that traditional textbooks cannot easily match. For the most part, students, teachers and the general public will continue to learn piecemeal about the latest advances in the field through headlines and mass media coverage centered around discoveries and new interpretations as they occur. Yet journalists and reporters are themselves unschooled in this emerging interdisciplinary field. While it is important to continue developing astrobiological curricular materials for future use by students in formal settings, it is equally important to find novel ways for educating the mass media in the interim. Current planning in anticipation of a Mars sample return mission has focused on a variety of ways to enlist the mass media in an educational as well as informational role.

  12. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F;

    2015-01-01

    Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...

  13. Importance of the Mass Media Education: Western Cultural Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littunen, Yrjo

    1978-01-01

    Discusses features in the Western cultural background which may be relevant to changes in international opinion. Notes problems of freedom of information and cultural processes caused by mass communication among nations, including the high violence content of United States television programs compared with those of Canada and Europe. (MF)

  14. Ethics and the Press: Readings in Mass Media Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, John C., Ed.; Barney, Ralph D., Ed.

    This collection of 35 articles addresses the topic of the ethical considerations and implications involved in reporting the news. Included in this book are such articles as: "Ethics and Journalism" by John Merrill, "Quality in Mass Communications" by Wilbur Schramm, "The American Press: Some Truths About Truths" by Edward Jay Epstein, "The New…

  15. The Role of Mass Media in Iranian Youth’s Premarital Sexual Relationships: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youth’s sexual behaviors have various consequences such as unwanted pregnancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections. Little information is available about the impact of mass media in the development of premarital sexual relationships. This study aimed to explore the role of mass media on premarital sexual relationships among Iranian youth. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with 26 single boys and girls aged 18-24 years who were living in Isfahan, Iran and have already been started their sexual relationships. Also, 12 other participants who were involved in such an experience were recruited in this study. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and the observation of youth’s sexual interactions in different fields. Conventional content analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: Three main categories were developed: “foreigner media as the role model”, “the ease of access to sexual contents and materials” and “the ease of interactions and relationships with the opposite sex”. Conclusion: The prominent role of mass media in the formation of premarital sexual relationships was described in this study. This issue needs to be taken into consideration by policy makers for taking necessary actions for reducing the impact of mass media on the youth’s engagement in premarital sexual relationships

  16. Social media as an instrument for organizing mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have recently become very popular and turned to be an effective instrument for achieving political goals. However, the social networks’ impact is rather ambivalent: on the one hand, social media form specific political actors and support self-organization and civil movements; on the other hand, social media reinforce destructive and aggressive manifestations with the pronounced criminal purposes, e.g. social media ability to disseminate information among large groups is used to organize mass riots. The article analyzes one of the recent and significant events largely provoked by the social networks - mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011 that were originally a reaction to the murder of M. Diggan by a police officer who tried to arrest him as a suspect in drug trafficking and possession of weapons. The way events developed into mass riots was the result of discussions in social media and use of social networks to coordinate joint actions of mass riots participants. The article provides a detailed description of the events and authorities’ actions to overcome the crisis and prevent such riots in the future, thus making some conclusions about the nature of social media impact on the politics.

  17. The mass murderer history: modern classifications, sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics, suicidal dimensions, and media contagion of mass murders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxemery, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Multicide and other mass killings are sufficiently dramatic to excite great interest from clinicians, criminologists and behavioral scientists. This paper revisits the history of the mass murderer, an entity that has progressively distinguished itself from the serial killer. The functional difference between mass and serial homicide is quite obvious, particularly in setting, time, victim status and modus operandi. Classification of these acts requires a number of parameters. The causes of mass murders are multiple and complex: although they rarely seem to be related to psychotic mental pathologies, they are always an expression of suffering that manifests itself in a psychological crisis that is both homicidal and suicidal. Several research teams have studied the sociodemographic and etiopathogenic characteristics of mass murderers and, in particular, the perpetrators of school killings. In addition to prevalent personality traits, these actions often jointly include suicides and homicides, which are brought together in the same psychic crisis. In keeping with the theory of little identity support, previous crimes influenced some mass murderers. Suicides and mass-murders are likely to be imitated. The media appears to play a crucial role in preventing the occurrence of imitation or copycat tragedies. The WHO recommendation regarding how to transcribe suicide and by extension, homicide, in the media is necessary.

  18. Postmodern Spanish Literature between the end of the dictatorship and the rise of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Candón Ríos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the assimilation of postmodern practices into Spanish culture, specifically in the field of literature. Spain remained internationally isolated during the first phase of the Franco dictatorship, which prevented new cultural movements arising in Europe and America from becoming established in Spain. It was not until the economic boom of the 60s that the mass media was imposed as a cultural regulator, commercializing all artistic production and spawning new trends in cultural consumption. The new mass media served as a cultural bridge between Spain and the rest of the world, enabling the Spanish population to become part of a new globalized world.

  19. Mass transfer in porous media with heterogeneous chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza S.M.A.G.Ulson de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the modeling of the mass transfer process in packed-bed reactors is presented and takes into account dispersion in the main fluid phase, internal diffusion of the reactant in the pores of the catalyst, and surface reaction inside the catalyst. The method of volume averaging is applied to obtain the governing equation for use on a small scale. The local mass equilibrium is assumed for obtaining the one-equation model for use on a large scale. The closure problems are developed subject to the length-scale constraints and the model of a spatially periodic porous medium. The expressions for effective diffusivity, hydrodynamic dispersion, total dispersion and the Darcy's law permeability tensors are presented. Solution of the set of final equations permits the variations of velocity and concentration of the chemical species along the packed-bed reactors to be obtained.

  20. Tobacco use and mass media utilization in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achia, Thomas N O

    2015-01-01

    Media utilization has been identified as an important determinant of tobacco use. We examined the association between self-reported tobacco use and frequency of mass media utilization by women and men in nine low-to middle-income sub-Saharan African countries. Data for the study came from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Liberia, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe over the period 2006-2011. Each survey population was a cross-sectional sample of women aged 15-49 years and men aged 15-59 years, with information on tobacco use and media access being obtained by face-to-face interviews. An index of media utilization was constructed based on responses to questions on the frequency of reading newspapers, frequency of watching television and frequency of listening to the radio. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as potentially confounding covariates. Logistic regression models with country and cluster specific random effects were estimated for the pooled data. The risk of cigarette smoking increased with greater utilization to mass media. The use of smokeless tobacco and tobacco use in general declined with greater utilization to mass media. The risk of tobacco use was 5% lower in women with high media utilization compared to those with low media utilization [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.82-1.00]. Men with a high media utilization were 21% less likely to use tobacco compared to those with low media utilization [AOR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.73-0.85]. In the male sample, tobacco use also declined with the increased frequency of reading newspapers (or magazines), listening to radio and watching television. Mass media campaigns, conducted in the context of comprehensive tobacco control programmes, can reduce the prevalence of tobacco smoking in sub-Saharan Africa. The reach, intensity, duration and type of messages are important aspects of the campaigns but need to also

  1. Tobacco use and mass media utilization in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas N O Achia

    Full Text Available Media utilization has been identified as an important determinant of tobacco use. We examined the association between self-reported tobacco use and frequency of mass media utilization by women and men in nine low-to middle-income sub-Saharan African countries.Data for the study came from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Liberia, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe over the period 2006-2011. Each survey population was a cross-sectional sample of women aged 15-49 years and men aged 15-59 years, with information on tobacco use and media access being obtained by face-to-face interviews. An index of media utilization was constructed based on responses to questions on the frequency of reading newspapers, frequency of watching television and frequency of listening to the radio. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as potentially confounding covariates. Logistic regression models with country and cluster specific random effects were estimated for the pooled data.The risk of cigarette smoking increased with greater utilization to mass media. The use of smokeless tobacco and tobacco use in general declined with greater utilization to mass media. The risk of tobacco use was 5% lower in women with high media utilization compared to those with low media utilization [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI:0.82-1.00]. Men with a high media utilization were 21% less likely to use tobacco compared to those with low media utilization [AOR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.73-0.85]. In the male sample, tobacco use also declined with the increased frequency of reading newspapers (or magazines, listening to radio and watching television.Mass media campaigns, conducted in the context of comprehensive tobacco control programmes, can reduce the prevalence of tobacco smoking in sub-Saharan Africa. The reach, intensity, duration and type of messages are important aspects of the campaigns but

  2. Comparison of Fitness Levels between Croatian and Lithuanian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Novak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine and compare the level of individual anthropological characteristics of children in Croatia and Lithuania. The study examined height, weight, BMI and flexibility, explosive power and muscle endurance. The study included a total of 11,258 participants from two different countries. Of the total sample, 8,289 participants were from Croatia between ages 11 and 14 (mean age 12,5±1.5, of which 4,032 were male and 4,157 were female students. The other 2,969 participants were from Lithuania, also in the age range of 11-14 years (mean age 12,4±1.6, of which 1,504 participants were male and 1,456 females. During the 2009-10 school year, reserachers conducted measurements on students at different schools across Croatia. The same battery of tests was conducted in Lithuania during the same year. The results showed that the Croatian students have a higher body-mass, have higher BMI values and score better on tests of flexibility. Lithuanian students achieved better results in the repetitive strength test. Boys are taller, heavier and had higher BMI values as well as achieved better results in tests of explosive power and muscle endurance, while girls were more flexibile. Boys from Lithuania scored highest in all tests except in flexibility compared to boys in Croatia. Girls from Lithuania are thinner, have lower BMI and achieve better results in repetitive test of strength than girls in Croatia. Age was shown as a significant factor in the increase in all tested variables.

  3. Education and mass media: an example of workshop teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fabbri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The educational strategy of the workshop provides a learning experience in the form of research, active experimentation with knowledge building strategies by individuals or groups working in autonomy using their own existing knowledge and creativity in problem solving activities, thus “learning by doing”. It consists of actively deconstructing and constructing, destroying and recreating in a new form, setting objectives and discussing in groups, undergoing experimental testing and evaluating the results. In essence, the function of the teacher is that of a councillor who provides “soft” support through scaffolding and takes care to provide the necessary space for children in the process of shared knowledge-building. Starting out with a number of reflections regarding the workshop described in this article, we move on to analyse the educational value of television and its positive and negative potential. The starting point is the provocative representation of the deconstruction of a media message by way of an analysis of its different narrative and graphic phases paying particular attention to meaning and the means used to convey it in filmic language.

  4. Mass media in system of predictors for suicidal behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Vihristyuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of international sources that attempt to identify the effect of mass media information messages concerning suicide on the public. We concern the possibility of imitative suicides after media coverage of suicide incidents (“Werter syndrome”, providing data on suicides increase following media reports on this topic. We discuss the data obtained by surveys conducted among Internet users of pro-suicidal web sites. On the example of recent international research, we note that despite the contradicting research results, the mass media impact on suicidal adolescents and young adults is possible, especially among young people most affected by external influences. The analysis of causes, motives and methods of suicide among adolescents and young people, as described by media, showed that among the causes dominate family and peers conflicts, among the motives – “protest"”, “revenge” (48% and “call” (16.6%. Pre-suicidal period in 75% of patients was characterized as affective and stressful. The article emphasizes that simplification of media reports and their focusing on one of the suicide risk factors (family, school, or Internet cannot see the whole picture of suicidal behavior as a set of internal and external factors and their interaction.

  5. Setting the Agenda: Different strategies of a Mass Media in a model of cultural dissemination

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Sebastián; Dorso, Claudio O

    2015-01-01

    Day by day, people exchange opinions about a given new with relatives, friends, and coworkers. In most cases, they get informed about a given issue by reading newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching TV, i.e., through a Mass Media (MM). However, the importance of a given new can be stimulated by the Media by assigning newspaper's pages or time in TV programs. In this sense, we say that the Media has the power to "set the agenda", i.e., it decides which new is important and which is not. On the other hand, the Media can know people's concerns through, for instance, websites or blogs where they express their opinions, and then it can use this information in order to be more appealing to an increasing number of people. In this work, we study different scenarios in an agent-based model of cultural dissemination, in which a given Mass Media has a specific purpose: To set a particular topic of discussion and impose its point of view to as many social agents as it can. We model this by making the Media has a ...

  6. Impact of increasing social media use on sitting time and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Stephanie; Wellens, Pauline; Schoeppe, Stephanie; de Vries, Hein; Rebar, Amanda L; Short, Camille E; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-10-28

    Issue addressed: Sedentary behaviours, in particular sitting, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and poorer mental health status. In Australia, 70% of adults sit for more than 8h per day. The use of social media applications (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) is on the rise; however, no studies have explored the association of social media use with sitting time and body mass index (BMI).Methods: Cross-sectional self-report data on demographics, BMI and sitting time were collected from 1140 participants in the 2013 Queensland Social Survey. Generalised linear models were used to estimate associations of a social media score calculated from social media use, perceived importance of social media, and number of social media contacts with sitting time and BMI.Results: Participants with a high social media score had significantly greater sitting times while using a computer in leisure time and significantly greater total sitting time on non-workdays. However, no associations were found between social media score and sitting to view TV, use motorised transport, work or participate in other leisure activities; or total workday, total sitting time or BMI.Conclusions: These results indicate that social media use is associated with increased sitting time while using a computer, and total sitting time on non-workdays.So what?: The rise in social media use may have a negative impact on health by contributing to computer sitting and total sitting time on non-workdays. Future longitudinal research with a representative sample and objective sitting measures is needed to confirm findings.

  7. Improving the Evaluation Model for the Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupiene, Jurate

    2010-01-01

    The Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads (LitIO) is a problem solving programming contest for students in secondary education. The work of the student to be evaluated is an algorithm designed by the student and implemented as a working program. The current evaluation process involves both automated (for correctness and performance of programs with the…

  8. Genetic Loci Associated with Allergic Sensitization in Lithuanians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Šaulienė

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is a common and complex disease. It is associated with environmental as well as genetic factors. Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS reported altogether 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with AR or allergic sensitization (AS in Europeans and North Americans. Two follow up studies in Swedish and Chinese replicated 15 associations. In these studies individuals were selected based on the self-reported AR, or AR/AS diagnosed using blood IgE test or skin prick test (SPT, which were performed often without restriction to specific allergens. Here we performed third replication study in Lithuanians. We used SPT and carefully selected set of allergens prevalent in Lithuania, as well as Illumina Core Exome chip for SNP detection. We genotyped 270 SPT-positive individuals (137 Betulaceae -, 174 Poaceae-, 199 Artemisia-, 70 Helianthus-, 22 Alternaria-, 22 Cladosporium-, 140 mites-, 95 cat- and 97 dog dander-sensitive cases and 162 SPT-negative controls. We found altogether 13 known SNPs associated with AS (p ≤0.05. Three SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to several allergens, and 10 SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to a certain allergen. For the first time, SNP rs7775228:C was associated with patient sensitivity to dog allergens (F_A=0,269, F_U=0.180, P=0.008. Thus, careful assessment of AS allowed us to detect known genetic variants associated with AS/AR in relatively small cohort of Lithuanians.

  9. Genetic Loci Associated with Allergic Sensitization in Lithuanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šaulienė, Ingrida; Greičiuvienė, Jūratė; Šukienė, Laura; Juškevičiūtė, Neringa; Benner, Christian; Zinkevičienė, Auksė; Ripatti, Samuli; Donner, Kati; Kainov, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common and complex disease. It is associated with environmental as well as genetic factors. Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported altogether 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AR or allergic sensitization (AS) in Europeans and North Americans. Two follow up studies in Swedish and Chinese replicated 15 associations. In these studies individuals were selected based on the self-reported AR, or AR/AS diagnosed using blood IgE test or skin prick test (SPT), which were performed often without restriction to specific allergens. Here we performed third replication study in Lithuanians. We used SPT and carefully selected set of allergens prevalent in Lithuania, as well as Illumina Core Exome chip for SNP detection. We genotyped 270 SPT-positive individuals (137 Betulaceae -, 174 Poaceae-, 199 Artemisia-, 70 Helianthus-, 22 Alternaria-, 22 Cladosporium-, 140 mites-, 95 cat- and 97 dog dander-sensitive cases) and 162 SPT-negative controls. We found altogether 13 known SNPs associated with AS (p ≤0.05). Three SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to several allergens, and 10 SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to a certain allergen. For the first time, SNP rs7775228:C was associated with patient sensitivity to dog allergens (F_A=0,269, F_U=0.180, P=0.008). Thus, careful assessment of AS allowed us to detect known genetic variants associated with AS/AR in relatively small cohort of Lithuanians.

  10. Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)

  11. Reach of mass media among tobacco users in India: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooban, T; Madan Kumar, P D; Ranganathan, K

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco use is a health hazard and its use is attributed to a lack of knowledge regarding the ill effects of tobacco. To identify the exposure of different mass media among a representative cohort population in the Indian subcontinent and compare the reach of the different mass media among tobacco users and nonusers using the "reach of HIV information" as a model. Secondary Data Analysis of Indian National Family Health Survey-3. Any tobacco use, gender, source of HIV information. Use of mass media. Of the study group, 27% of males and 54.4% of females never read newspaper or magazine; 29.3% of males and 52.6% of females never heard radio; 12.4% of males and 25% of females never see television; and 79.3% of males and 93.46% of females did not see a movie at least once a month. The most common source of information of HIV was television among males (71.8%) and females (81%), whereas the least common source was leaders among males (0.8%) and females (0.2%). Television is the single largest media used by both genders and was a major source of HIV information dissemination. A well-designed tobacco control program similar to HIV awareness program will help to curb tobacco use. The reach of different media among Indian tobacco users is presented and HIV model of information dissemination may prove to be effective in tobacco control.

  12. [Illustration of military medicine on the pages of mass printed media during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-12-01

    The article analyses some of illustrations dedicated to the military medical topics on the pages of some Russian magazines and newspapers (magazine "Ogonek" newspaper "Petrograd's paper" and its annexes), its place among the images of the war, formed in the mass consciousness by periodical subjects. It is concluded that with the beginning of the First World War medical illustrations were finally approved as a recognizable symbol of the war. Mass printed media played a significant role in its entrenchment.

  13. A Twophase Multirate-Mass Transfer Model for Flow and Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentz, M.; Tecklenburg, J.; Neuweiler, I.; Carrera, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present an upscaled non-local model for two-phase flow and transport in highly heterogeneous porous media. The media under consideration are characterized by sharp contrasts in the hydraulic properties typical for fractured porous media, for example. A two-scale expansion gives an upscaled flow and transport formulation that models multiratemass transfer between mobile (fracture) and immobile (matrix) medium portions. The evolution of saturation due to viscous dominated flow in the mobile domain and mass exchange with the immobile zones through capillary countercurrent flow. The medium heterogeneity is mapped onto the mass transfer parameters, which are encoded in a memory functionthat describes the non-local flux between mobile and immobile zones. The upscaled model is parameterized by the medium heterogeneity and the distribution of hydraulic parameters. Breakthrough of the displaced fluidshows characteristic heavy tails due to fluid retention in immobile zones.

  14. Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In her presidential address, N. J. Kaslow (see record 2015-33530-002) argued that psychologists have a responsibility to translate psychological science to the public and identifies various platforms for doing so. In this comment on her article, I advocate that psychology as a field immediately heed her call in the area of psychological science highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings. I point out the psychological science documenting media contagion for suicide and mass shootings, the World Health Organization's (2008) guidelines for media in reporting suicide deaths to prevent that contagion, and discuss ways-based on Dr. Kaslow's suggestions-that psychologists can disseminate psychological science to prevent similar tragedies in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy; Lloyd, Gareth P; Viswanath, K; Smith, Tenbroeck; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Vernon, Sally W; Turner, Gina; Hesse, Bradford W; Crammer, Corinne; von Wagner, Christian; Backinger, Cathy L

    2009-01-01

    People often seek and receive cancer information from mass media (including television, radio, print media, and the Internet), and marketing strategies often inform cancer information needs assessment, message development, and channel selection. In this article, we present the discussion of a 2-hour working group convened for a cancer communications workshop held at the 2008 Society of Behavioral Medicine meeting in San Diego, CA. During the session, an interdisciplinary group of investigators discussed the current state of the science for mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention. We discussed current research, new research areas, methodologies and theories needed to move the field forward, and critical areas and disciplines for future research.

  16. Critical Security Studies in the 21st Century: Any Directions for Lithuanian Security Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakniūnaitė Dovilė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on recent developments and discussions in the field of security studies and aims to suggest new guidelines for the research of Lithuanian security policy. First it covers the main subjects of contemporary security discourse; next it provides evaluation and review of the critical tradition in security studies that frames presuppositions and is the means for analyzing specific security issues as well as that which fosters reflexive thinking about security. The third part deals with three topics of security research (analysis of security through the concepts of risk, exceptionality and media which have become talking-points in recent years and which have provided innovative insights in security studies.

  17. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  18. The Role of Mass Media in the Development of Private Sector Participation in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Mahmoodi sahebi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the role of the mass media in the development of private sector participation in Mazandaran Province sports was studied. For this purpose, a sample of 130 individuals consisting of sports experts and managers and media executives participated in the survey. In the poll process, a researcher-made questionnaire was utilized after its content validity was confirmed by a number of experts in sports management and its construct validity was approved by the exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor with the LISREL software. Its reliability was determined to be 0.91 by Cronbach's alpha. The results indicated that the mass media’s roles of awareness and information, education, publicity, and culture-making in the development of private sector participation in Mazandaran Province sports are efficient while its role of social partnership has no impact on the development of the mentioned sector on the same ground. The major roles of the mass media in the development of private sector participation in sports in order of priority include culture-making, advertisement, public information, education and social partnership. There were significant differences between the participants’ views about the mass media’s role in the development of private sector participation in sports. Consequently, the media managers were found to be more willing to involve the private sector in sports.

  19. Americans' Views of Fathers' Competency as Parents through a Mass Media Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Portrayals of fathers in the mass media influence parents' views of the importance of fathers to the well-being of children and of fathers' competence as parents. Awareness of how these portrayals influence parents is crucial to the effectiveness of professionals as they seek to improve child well-being through their work with parents,…

  20. Exploring the Influence of the Mass Media on Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2012-01-01

    The new Australian Curriculum ignites debate about science content appropriate for primary school children. Abstract genetics concepts such as genes and DNA are still being avoided in primary school, yet research has shown that, by age 10, many students have heard of DNA and/or genes. Scientific concepts appear in the mass media, but primary…

  1. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  2. DYNAMICS OF METAPHORIC MODELLING OF THE CONCEPT OF TERRORISM IN AMERICAN MASS MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykova, O.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of the research in modern linguistics is defined by the importance of studying the problem of the dynamic nature of the concept content, the need to define the connection type between the concept and discourse as well as to reveal the dependence of the concept content and verbalization means from the type of discourse. The subject of the research is dynamic properties of the verbalization of a socially marked concept in American mass media discourse. The aim is to define the dynamics of structuring and explicating the knowledge about terrorism in mass media discourse. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: to determine the corpus of linguistic units which serve as verbalizers of the concept of terrorism in American mass media discourse; to define the dynamics of the verbal representation of the concept of terrorism in American mass media discourse as exemplified by metaphoric modelling. The practical applicability of the research consists in the possibility of using its main points and results in such academic courses as general linguistics, stylistics, cultural linguistics, special courses in cognitive linguistics, theory of conceptual metaphor, discourse study and in lexicographic practice.

  3. The Electric Humanities; Patterns for Teaching Mass Media and Popular Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Don; Warren, Brent

    For generations teachers have tried to teach the approved "classics" of our culture. Today, with the mass media claiming so much of students' time and interest, this approach is more than ever doomed to failure. A better plan is to focus on popular culture: comic books, popular fiction (westerns, horror tales, and science fiction), movies, and…

  4. Population-Based Evaluation of the "Livelighter" Healthy Weight and Lifestyle Mass Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) "LiveLighter" (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ("why" change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier…

  5. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on Germ

  6. Mass Media as a Remedy for Poverty of the Stimulus in the Foreign Language Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Tarighat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is intended to determine how extensive exposure to target language mass media can affect foreign language learning and the poverty of the stimulus problem in the foreign language context. For this purpose, an EFL learner was studied for the period of one month and was asked to have extensive exposure to English language mass media only. The case was also asked to record her experience in a journal on a daily basis. The results indicated tangible improvement in her English speaking, listening, pronunciation and vocabulary but hardly any improvement on her English writing. A more profound impact was reported on the subject’s four-year-old son who was not initially the focus of this study. The results suggest that considering the authentic, lengthy language input it provides, foreign language mass media can compensate for the problem of poverty of the stimulus in foreign language learning. It is concluded that formal language instruction and exposure to foreign language mass media outside the class can complement one another and promote foreign language learning on the whole. It is also evident that the impact of extensive language input varies with the age of the language learner, with young learners bearing more influence than adult learners as the effects of the critical period hypothesis.

  7. Americans' Views of Fathers' Competency as Parents through a Mass Media Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Portrayals of fathers in the mass media influence parents' views of the importance of fathers to the well-being of children and of fathers' competence as parents. Awareness of how these portrayals influence parents is crucial to the effectiveness of professionals as they seek to improve child well-being through their work with parents,…

  8. A Mass Media Profile of Agricultural Scientists at Texas A&M University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedrick, William E.

    The way in which agricultural scientists of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station research staff pereive aspects of the uses and importance of the mass media in communicating their research work was surveyed. The profile developed from the 65 responses to the survey shows that agricultural scientists place only moderate importance on mass…

  9. The Performativity of “Media Logic” in the Mass Mediation of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the use of research-based expertise in the mass media often demonstrate how experts are used to confirm journalists’ angles on particular stories or how research-based knowledge claims are twisted. Both among practitioners and science communication scholars, such practices are often ex...

  10. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  11. Exploring the Influence of the Mass Media on Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2012-01-01

    The new Australian Curriculum ignites debate about science content appropriate for primary school children. Abstract genetics concepts such as genes and DNA are still being avoided in primary school, yet research has shown that, by age 10, many students have heard of DNA and/or genes. Scientific concepts appear in the mass media, but primary…

  12. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi

    2015-01-01

    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  13. Language Policy-Making in Multilingual Education: Mass Media and the Framing of Medium of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, James W.

    2015-01-01

    In some settings, medium of instruction (MOI) policies in multilingual education break out into public debates in mass media involving politicians, business leaders, government officials, parents, and school children. These public discussions of MOI often index struggles over the distribution of political power and economic resources, and issues…

  14. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  15. Population-Based Evaluation of the "Livelighter" Healthy Weight and Lifestyle Mass Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) "LiveLighter" (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ("why" change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier…

  16. The Role of Mass Media in the Delivery of Adult Education for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Mass Media in the Delivery of Adult Education for National ... Investment in the education of adults which will eventually lead to skills development, ... as in “print versus video” to “the industry that provides news and entertainment”.

  17. Visible Minorities in Mass Media Advertising. Minorites Perceptibles dans la Publicite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaisi, Lateef; And Others

    A study was conducted in Canada to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the presence of minority group members in mass media advertising. Television commercials, store catalogues, newspapers, and magazines were surveyed during a two week period in 1977. Additional surveys were conducted with advertising agencies and firms, the Association of…

  18. Sex, Pornography, and the Mass Media: How Should Social Studies Teachers Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Many people fear that the current explosion in mass media technology is negatively affecting individuals and society via-a-vis considerations related to the accessibility of pornographic materials. The way this accessibility affects young people is of particular concern. In this article, the author addresses these concerns from the legal and…

  19. Language Policy-Making in Multilingual Education: Mass Media and the Framing of Medium of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, James W.

    2015-01-01

    In some settings, medium of instruction (MOI) policies in multilingual education break out into public debates in mass media involving politicians, business leaders, government officials, parents, and school children. These public discussions of MOI often index struggles over the distribution of political power and economic resources, and issues…

  20. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the US mass media, science and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Talamini, E.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on Germ

  1. Mass Media and Society: A Content Analysis of the "Window-To-The-Field" Course Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Donald R.

    A content analysis was performed on 3,134 questions from 62 examinations given in the mass communications and society courses in colleges throughout the United States. The questions were analyzed and categorized on the basis of three general groups: geographical reference, media reference, and topic reference. The findings revealed the following:…

  2. Mass media sosial prosesl?r? T?sir vasit?si kimi

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasisaedabad, M.

    2011-01-01

    Communication, making a basis of development of a society, during the various public periods differently influenced public consciousness. As a result of the accelerated development of information-communication technologies the role and influence of the communications on social processes has increased. At the same time opinions of scientists on a role and influence of mass-media the most different.

  3. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  4. Visible Minorities in Mass Media Advertising. Minorites Perceptibles dans la Publicite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaisi, Lateef; And Others

    A study was conducted in Canada to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the presence of minority group members in mass media advertising. Television commercials, store catalogues, newspapers, and magazines were surveyed during a two week period in 1977. Additional surveys were conducted with advertising agencies and firms, the Association of…

  5. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  6. Mass Media Public Policy Implications of the Political Economy of Rawls and Nozick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard P.

    The political economic ideas of philosophers John Rawls and Robert Nozick are compared in this paper, and their implications for mass media public policy are explored. The paper first examines the position of each philosopher, noting the major principles set forth in their works, historical antecedents for their ideas, and possible applications to…

  7. Diffusive counter dispersion of mass in bubbly media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldobin, Denis S; Brilliantov, Nikolai V

    2011-11-01

    We consider a liquid bearing gas bubbles in a porous medium. When gas bubbles are immovably trapped in a porous matrix by surface-tension forces, the dominant mechanism of transfer of gas mass becomes the diffusion of gas molecules through the liquid. Essentially, the gas solution is in local thermodynamic equilibrium with vapor phase all over the system, i.e., the solute concentration equals the solubility. When temperature and/or pressure gradients are applied, diffusion fluxes appear and these fluxes are faithfully determined by the temperature and pressure fields, not by the local solute concentration, which is enslaved by the former. We derive the equations governing such systems, accounting for thermodiffusion and gravitational segregation effects, which are shown not to be neglected for geological systems-marine sediments, terrestrial aquifers, etc. The results are applied for the treatment of non-high-pressure systems and real geological systems bearing methane or carbon dioxide, where we find a potential possibility of the formation of gaseous horizons deep below a porous medium surface. The reported effects are of particular importance for natural methane hydrate deposits and the problem of burial of industrial production of carbon dioxide in deep aquifers.

  8. Agenda setting in mass media: Consequences at the Marín-Nacif-Cacho media scandal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. José Antonio Meyer Rodríguez; joseantonio.meyer@gmail.com

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines one of the most important media scandals in the recent of Mexico, where the public agenda discussed the human rights violation at the journalist Lydia Cacho by the government of Puebla to favour a businessman signed of protect an international network of child pornography. Despite the political pressure of parties, some media and different social groups, the National Court of Justice evidenced the inappropriate legal instruments to blame those responsible people and allow impunity. The study is based on agenda setting theory and other related, which provide methodologies needed to understand the construction and incidence of topics in public opinion and its implications in the political culture of citizens.Esta investigación analiza uno de los escándalos mediáticos más importantes de los últimos años en México, en el cual la agenda pública se orientó hacia la discusión de una presunta violación de los derechos humanos de la periodista Lydia Cacho por el Gobierno del Estado de Puebla para favorecer a un empresario señalado como protector de una red internacional de pornografía infantil. Pese a la presión de partidos políticos, algunos medios de comunicación y distintos grupos sociales, la Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación evidenció la carencia de instrumentos jurídicos para culpar a los responsables y evitar una evidente acción de impunidad. El estudio se fundamenta en la teoría del establecimiento de agendas (agenda setting y otras relacionadas, las cuales brindan las metodologías necesarias para comprender la construcción e incidencia de temas de interés en la opinión pública y sus implicaciones en la cultura política ciudadana.

  9. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muusses, Linda D; van Weert, Julia C M; van Dulmen, Sandra; Jansen, Jesse

    2012-09-01

    Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving chemotherapy for the first time use and which factors (background characteristics, psychological factors, information needs and source reliability) explain the use of different mass-media information sources. Three hundred forty-five patients receiving chemotherapy in ten hospitals in the Netherlands completed a questionnaire. Use of 16 sources (mass-media and interpersonal) was measured with a five-point Likert scale. Regression analyses were conducted to test whether use of the three most frequently used mass-media sources could be explained by socio-demographic, medical and psychological factors, unfulfilled information needs and perceived reliability of the source. Treatment guide, brochures and Internet were the most frequently used mass-media sources. Medical specialists, nurses, and family and/or friends were the most common interpersonal sources. Using the treatment guide was found to be associated with treatment goal, unfulfilled information needs and source reliability. Using brochures was associated with cancer-related stress responses, coping style and source reliability. Using Internet was associated with age, education, coping style and source reliability. This study developed a model to explain the use of mass-media information sources by patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. The use of different information sources is associated with different factors, indicating that each source offers specific opportunities to tailor information to the patient's needs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. An examination of the relation of gender, mass media influence, and loneliness to disordered eating among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A; Pritchard, M E

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found that mass media influence and loneliness relate to disordered eating behaviors in women, but little is known about this relation in men. The present study examined the relations among disordered eating patterns, gender, mass media influence, and loneliness in male and female college students. Results of a stepwise regression revealed that disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (as measured by the Eating Attitudes Test-26) were predicted by mass media influence, gender, and loneliness, respectively. In the present study both male and female college students appear susceptible to developing disordered eating patterns. Clinicians may wish to address unrealistic comparisons to media and client interpersonal skills when designing treatment plans.

  11. Promoting responsible drinking? A mass media campaign affects implicit but not explicit alcohol-related cognitions and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glock, S.; Klapproth, F.; Müller, B.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rigorous tests are not usually applied to determine whether mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are useful, that is whether they lead to responsible drinking or not. In two experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a mass media campaign that runs in Germany sinc

  12. 47 CFR 1.1153 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. 1.1153 Section 1.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. Radio (47 CFR, Part 73) Fee...

  13. Promoting responsible drinking? A mass media campaign affects implicit but not explicit alcohol-related cognitions and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glock, S.; Klapproth, F.; Müller, B.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rigorous tests are not usually applied to determine whether mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are useful, that is whether they lead to responsible drinking or not. In two experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a mass media campaign that runs in Germany

  14. The Role of Local Mass Media in the Publicity of Public Policy in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Permatasari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the role of local mass media in the publicity process of a public policy. Media is considered to hold the power to construct an agenda concerning on particular issues or incidents so that they gain public’s attention. Media highlights the issues by providing space and time so that public is continuously exposed and eventually aware of the particular issue, and people deem it as important and build their belief on it. The method employed in this research is phenomenological qualitative. The apparoach is characterized by its actual setting, in that the researcher is the key instrument, and the data is descriptive in nature. This means that this reasearch aims to obtain data description that describe the composition and characteristics of the unit being studied. The result shows that Public Policy on gender mainstreaming as stated in Presidential Instruction No. 9/2000 on Gender Mainstreaming - requiring at least 5 media taken as sample of this research – is considered not newsworthy so that the frequency of the issue reporting in mass media is very rare, or even, never exists.

  15. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

  16. Changing social norms: a mass media campaign for youth ages 12-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eileen; Kiss, Susan Mide; Lokanc-Diluzio, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    To create a mass media campaign that endeavours to a) denormalize tobacco use among youth aged 12-18, b) empower youth to stay tobacco product free, and c) increase awareness of the dangers of tobacco use, while using positive messaging. Target age group was youth between the ages of 12 and 18 years. The mass media campaign was developed, implemented, and evaluated within the city of Calgary. The mass media campaign consisted of posters for schools and other venues frequented by youth (e.g., community centres, libraries, fitness centres, restaurants, movie theatres), posters for transit (e.g., bus shelters, LRT shelters, back of bus) print advertisements, television/radio public service announcements, an interactive community website for youth, a media launch event, promotional items, and organizational efforts to cross-promote the campaign. The creative concept was based on intercept interviews, focus group testing, and other research conducted by the campaign's creative team and youth volunteers in order to identify the key elements of this campaign. A total of 149 students completed both a baseline and follow-up survey to evaluate the marketing activities of the campaign. A total of 27 youth participated in prototype testing to compare this positive-messaging campaign with negative-toned tobacco reduction campaigns. Six stakeholders/partners participated in stakeholder interviews to assess their thoughts and learnings regarding the campaign process. The evaluation respondents viewed the campaign positively and showed strong recall of the messaging.

  17. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Background The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Methods Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Results Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, “I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it” suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02–0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. Conclusions This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health

  18. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Nishiuchi

    Full Text Available The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs.Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500, conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status. To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model.Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23. Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action.This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further

  19. Mass media barriers to social marketing interventions: the example of sun protection in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Gillian Ann; Eagle, Lynne; Verne, Julia

    2011-03-01

    The role of the mass media in communicating health-related information to the wider population is the focus of this paper. Using the example of sun protection within the UK, we highlight some of the major challenges to raising awareness of steadily increasing melanoma rates and of effective sun protection strategies. The implications of potential barriers to official sun protection messages via conflicting messages in the media are discussed in terms of editorial on sun protection and in the way in which television programme content portrays the issues. Implications for public policy and future research conclude the paper.

  20. Opinion dynamics: Kinetic modelling with mass media, application to the Scottish independence referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, Laurent; Salvarani, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    We consider a kinetic model describing some mechanisms of opinion formation in the framework of referendums, where the individuals, who can interact between themselves and modify their opinion by means of spontaneous self-thinking, are moreover under the influence of mass media. We study, at the numerical level, both the transient and the asymptotic regimes. In particular, we point out that a plurality of media, with different orientations, is a key ingredient to allow pluralism and prevent consensus. The forecasts of the model are compared to some surveys related to the Scottish independence referendum of 2014.

  1. The Mythic Element of Mass Media and Its Relation to Plato’s Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Berry

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares some influential critiques of mass media and the mythic element they diagnose within it. Each theory is compared to the myth of the cave, described by Plato in his Republic, which suggests that whatever the format of our sociocultural communications systems, they falsely maintain a paradigm we assume equates with some kind of abiding truth or reality. This relatively ‘illusory’ quality must be qualified, however, by the transformative power and potential of mass media both as a paradigm and as a vehicle of cultural change. This tension is discussed in regards to Marshall McLuhan’s thesis that The Medium is the Message, the Frankfurt School analysis performed by Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer in the ‘Culture Industry’ chapter of their Dialectic of Enlightenment, and in Karl Marx’s theory of the commodity fetish as revised by Jean Baudrillard (in For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign and Slavoj Žižek (in The Sublime Object of Ideology. Close readings of these influential critical analyses of the cultural and symbolic elements in the proliferation of mass media and communications industries today reveal an age-old tension between ignorance and knowledge, illusion and truth that is far from settled. My conclusion considers the degree of agency we, as consumers of mass media in the early twenty-first century, might enjoy in terms of its dominant message. It assumes that a Marxist critique of the media and communications industries remains relevant in the twenty-first century.

  2. Lithuanian Consumer`s Willingness to Pay and Feed-in Prices for Renewable Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess the willingness to pay (WTP for renewable electricity of Lithuanian households and to compare WTP of Lithuanian consumers with support provided for renewable by Lithuanian government in terms of Feed-in prices. The paper reviews the situation of renewable electricity generation and consumption in Lithuania and presents the results of empirical study aiming at assessment of Lithuanian household’s willingness to pay for electricity produced from renewables. The results of study indicated that the WTP of Lithuanian households is significantly lower than subsides for renewable electricity provided in the form of Feed-in prices in Lithuania. Therefore feed-in prices need to be revising taking into account WTP of Lithuanian consumers

  3. Evaluation of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Stankūnas, Mindaugas; Sauliūnė, Skirmantė; Smith, Tony; Mark Avery, -; Šumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective. Lithuanian and international public health experts emphasize the importance of leadership in public health. The aim of this study was to explore the self-assessed level of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions. Material and Methods. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of executives of Lithuanian public health institutions in 2010. The total number of returned questionnaires was 55 (response rate, 58.5%). Respondent...

  4. Advective-diffusive mass transfer in fractured porous media with variable rock matrix block size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Haddad, Amin; Hassanzadeh, Hassan; Abedi, Jalal

    2012-05-15

    Traditional dual porosity models do not take into account the effect of matrix block size distribution on the mass transfer between matrix and fracture. In this study, we introduce the matrix block size distributions into an advective-diffusive solute transport model of a divergent radial system to evaluate the mass transfer shape factor, which is considered as a first-order exchange coefficient between the fracture and matrix. The results obtained lead to a better understanding of the advective-diffusive mass transport in fractured porous media by identifying two early and late time periods of mass transfer. Results show that fractured rock matrix block size distribution has a great impact on mass transfer during early time period. In addition, two dimensionless shape factors are obtained for the late time, which depend on the injection flow rate and the distance of the rock matrix from the injection point.

  5. The decline of natural sciences in the culture of mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    This study sets out to determine if the interest in and study of natural sciences is declining in western countries as scientists currently contend. Part one demonstrates how survey results reveal a decline of interest in scientific news in the EU. Part two explores the decline of interest further through examining data such as the number of students interested in scientific subjects and scientific careers. I explore the hypothesis that the lack of interest in scientific subjects is influenced by the culture of the mass media, and the manner in which the media covers scientific items. I examine a range of media outlets, from reality TV shows and TV series, to movies and the press. Many aspects of this paper have been discussed in depth in my book published in 2008: La razón estrangulada (Reason Strangled: the Crisis of Science in Contemporary Society).

  6. The Development of the Standard Lithuanian Language: Ecolinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Buivydienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of standard languages is closely linked with the standardization policy and prevailing ideology. The language ideology comprises its value, experience and convictions related to language usage and its dis - course being influenced at institutional, local and global levels. Recently, in the last decades, foreign linguists have linked the theories of the development of standard lan- guages and their ideologies with an ecolinguistic approach towards language standardization phenomena. The article is based on Einar Haugen ’s theory about the development of standard languages and ecolinguistic statements and presents the stages of developing the standard language as well as the factors having an influ - ence on them. In conclusion, a strong political and social impact has been made on the development of the standard Lithuanian language. The stages of the progress of the standard Lithuanian language have rapidly changed each other, some have been held very close to one another and some still have been taken part.

  7. FPGA-Based Implementation of Lithuanian Isolated Word Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomyslav Sledevič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the FPGA-based implementation of Lithuanian isolated word recognition algorithm. FPGA is selected for parallel process implementation using VHDL to ensure fast signal processing at low rate clock signal. Cepstrum analysis was applied to features extraction in voice. The dynamic time warping algorithm was used to compare the vectors of cepstrum coefficients. A library of 100 words features was created and stored in the internal FPGA BRAM memory. Experimental testing with speaker dependent records demonstrated the recognition rate of 94%. The recognition rate of 58% was achieved for speaker-independent records. Calculation of cepstrum coefficients lasted for 8.52 ms at 50 MHz clock, while 100 DTWs took 66.56 ms at 25 MHz clock.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Будниченко, Лариса

    2014-01-01

    Международная журналистика-2015: формирование информационного пространства партнерства от Владивостока до Лиссабона и медиа : материалы Четвертой Междунар. науч.-практ. конф., 19 февр. 2015 г., Минск / под общ. ред. Т. Н. Дасаевой ; сост. Б. Л. Залесский. – Минск : Изд. центр БГУ, 2015. - С. 16-26....

  9. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating.

  10. Emoticon of the language personality in the texts of modern mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korostova Svetlana Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the emotiveness as functional-semantic category, actualized in the texts of modern mass media. Evaluation and emotiveness appear as components of mass information discourse, manipulating the collective consciousness. To identify the meanings and setting values in the world’s picture of language personality is impossible without studying its emoticon. Emoticon of the language personality is investigated taking into account the impact on the generated text of various stylistic and thematic fields. Formation of emotional concepts in human consciousness occurs in the process of media texts perception. Newspaper text is considered in the article as a special kind of communication, discourse, where evaluation lexemes can be distinguished that differ in the degree of emotiveness expression: lexemes of the self-estimated value of having a low degree of emotiveness, and units with high emotive-estimated potential, which is updated in the context of communicative events. Comparative analysis of the Russian television news that represent the emotion-communicative event, showed significant differences in the emoticon language personality, reflecting the concept of different channels. Media supports “emotional regime”, they are closely related to the axiological system of society, which is reflected in cognitive information components of language media.

  11. Utilization of Mass Media and Effects for Developing Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Ozbas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Women's health, family and society resulting from psycho-social factors, women's individual health status, fertility behavior, such as the quality of health services are affected by many factors. Factors that affect health because they are many and various, to develop health strategies and actions are also many and varied. Therefore, the development of health issue, not only the health sector, many sectors of the business. One of the most important of these sectors is the media. Women how to mass media can reach, when they choose what is, and these preferences in women's health in developing discuss how the effective use of women in this study visual media to reach out difficulties they were experiencing. Especially in rural areas, it is observed more pronounced. Women in the use of the media gather useful information, they apply this knowledge in the development of their health and it was concluded that the media would be effective. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 541-546

  12. Mass media, online social network, and organ donation: old mistakes and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, A; Uslu, A; Şimşek, C

    2015-05-01

    Contrary to TV programs projecting awareness about organ donation in society, concrete evidence exists about adverse influence of negative broadcasts on organ donation rates. We sought to determine the effect of mass media on public opinion toward organ donation and the efficacy of public campaigns and novel social media attempts on donation rates. We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature and national campaign results. Hoaxes about brain death and organ transplantation adversely affect organ donation rates in both Western and Eastern societies. Scientifically controversial and exaggerated press conferences and institutional advertisements create mistrust in doctors, thus reducing organ donation. The overall effect of public education campaigns in promoting organ donation is a temporary 5% gain. Increments in organ donation rates is expected with novel applications of social media (Facebook effect). Communication, based on mutual trust, must be established between medicine and the media. Continuing education programs with regard to public awareness on organ donation should be conducted over social media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A model for cross-cultural reciprocal interactions through mass media

    CERN Document Server

    González-Avella, J C; Miguel, M San

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the problem of cross-cultural interactions through mass media in a model where two populations of social agents, each with its own internal dynamics, get information about each other through reciprocal global interactions. As the agent dynamics, we employ Axelrod's model for social influence. The global interaction fields correspond to the statistical mode of the states of the agents and represent mass media messages on the cultural trend originating in each population. Several phases are found in the collective behavior of either population depending on parameter values: two homogeneous phases, one having the state of the global field acting on that population, and the other consisting of a state different from that reached by the applied global field; and a disordered phase. In addition, the system displays nontrivial effects: (i) the emergence of a largest minority group of appreciable size sharing a state different from that of the applied global field; (ii) the appearance of localized orde...

  14. Effects of mass media action on the Axelrod model with social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H; Moreno, Y

    2010-07-01

    The use of dyadic interaction between agents, in combination with homophily (the principle that "likes attract") in the Axelrod model for the study of cultural dissemination, has two important problems: the prediction of monoculture in large societies and an extremely narrow window of noise levels in which diversity with local convergence is obtained. Recently, the inclusion of social influence has proven to overcome them [A. Flache and M. W. Macy, e-print arXiv:0808.2710]. Here, we extend the Axelrod model with social influence interaction for the study of mass media effects through the inclusion of a superagent which acts over the whole system and has non-null overlap with each agent of the society. The dependence with different parameters as the initial social diversity, size effects, mass media strength, and noise is outlined. Our results might be relevant in several socioeconomic contexts and for the study of the emergence of collective behavior in complex social systems.

  15. Long-term evaluation of a Canadian back pain mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Arnela; Bostick, Geoffrey P; Schopflocher, Donald; Russell, Anthony S; Ferrari, Robert; Battié, Michele C; Hu, Richard; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Gross, Douglas P

    2017-08-03

    This paper evaluates the long-term impact of a Canadian mass media campaign on general public beliefs about staying active when experiencing low back pain (LBP). Changes in beliefs about staying active during an episode of LBP were studied using telephone and web-based surveys. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate changes in beliefs over time and the effect of exposure to campaign messaging. The percentage of survey respondents agreeing that they should stay active through LBP increased annually from 58.9 to ~72.0%. Respondents reporting exposure to campaign messaging were statistically significantly more likely to agree with staying active than respondents who did not report exposure to campaign messaging (adjusted OR, 95% CI = 1.96, 1.73-2.21). The mass media campaign had continued impact on public LBP beliefs over the course of 7 years. Improvements over time were associated with exposure to campaign messaging.

  16. Single Thai women's interpersonal communication and mass media reception on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Y; Schunck, M

    1997-04-01

    This research examines young unmarried women's ways of talking about AIDS, AIDS prevention, and its relationship to mass media AIDS messages in Thailand. Data were derived from a survey conducted in four districts of Kanchanaburi province. Three hundred ninety-seven unmarried women were extracted from the approximately 1,800 original subjects for this analysis. Respondents were asked about the subjects and extent of their conversations about AIDS, the choice of discussion partners, considerations of social appropriateness in talking about the disease, as well as their risk perception. Important findings were that (a) women tend to talk about AIDS primarily with friends and siblings, (b) their reception level of mass media messages is related to the number of topics discussed and frequency of talks by the subjects, and (c) socioeconomic status and age are related to the variety and frequency of talking about AIDS. Implications for AIDS education are discussed.

  17. Decision dynamics in complex networks subject to mass media and social contact transmission mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Lucatero, Carlos Rodríguez; Jaquez, Roberto Bernal; Schaum, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of decisions in complex networks is studied within a Markov process framework using numerical simulations combined with mathematical insight into the process mechanisms. A mathematical discrete-time model is derived based on a set of basic assumptions on the convincing mechanisms associated to two opinions. The model is analyzed with respect to multiplicity of critical points, illustrating in this way the main behavior to be expected in the network. Particular interest is focussed on the effect of social network and exogenous mass media-based influences on the decision behavior. A set of numerical simulation results is provided illustrating how these mechanisms impact the final decision results. The analysis reveals (i) the presence of fixed-point multiplicity (with a maximum of four different fixed points), multistability, and sensitivity with respect to process parameters, and (ii) that mass media have a strong impact on the decision behavior.

  18. A comparison of the Lithuanian and Russian Biotechnology sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vincentas Giedraitis; Alina Alekseyko

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare the development of the Lithuanian and Russian biotechnology sectors. In case of Lithuania we tried to uncover what are the circumstances surrounding the favorable development of the biotechnology sectors in Lithuania. In case of Russian Federation we looked at encouraging as well as discouraging circumstances surrounding this segment of economy. Drawing upon Schumpeter’s ideas of innovation and Porter’s business cluster theory, we argue that Lithuania is “...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of a smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Yan, Hongjin; Wang, Shuo; Negi, Nalin Singh; Kotov, Alexey; Mullin, Sandra; Goodchild, Mark

    2017-08-10

    Tobacco control mass media campaigns are cost-effective in reducing tobacco consumption in high-income countries, but similar evidence from low-income countries is limited. An evaluation of a 2009 smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India provided an opportunity to test its cost-effectiveness. Campaign evaluation data from a nationally representative household survey of 2898 smokeless tobacco users were compared with campaign costs in a standard cost-effectiveness methodology. Costs and effects of the Surgeon campaign were compared with the status quo to calculate the cost per campaign-attributable benefit, including quit attempts, permanent quits and tobacco-related deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses at varied CIs and tobacco-related mortality risk were conducted. The Surgeon campaign was found to be highly cost-effective. It successfully generated 17 259 148 additional quit attempts, 431 479 permanent quits and 120 814 deaths averted. The cost per benefit was US$0.06 per quit attempt, US$2.6 per permanent quit and US$9.2 per death averted. The campaign continued to be cost-effective in sensitivity analyses. This study suggests that tobacco control mass media campaigns can be cost-effective and economically justified in low-income and middle-income countries. It holds significant policy implications, calling for sustained investment in evidence-based mass media campaigns as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. The Use of Stereotypes in Mass Media Advertising: Blacks in Magazine, Newspaper and Television Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, James D.; Bennett, Rex

    A brief review of the literature on the use of black stereotypes in mass media advertising, and the results of a current study in this area are presented. Data were gathered by analysis of 1,536 ads in six general interest magazines and 4,371 ads in the New York Times over a one month period, and 368 television commercials on three networks over a…

  1. Food expert and mass media: food crises (BBE 2001- tranquillity food (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Navas López

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the anthropological approach to analyse such important concepts in public health as the perception of food security. We analyse to expert-mass media. First, quantify and reflect on the news appeared in national and regional newspapers in Spain in two different periods:the BSE crisis(2000-2002 and “food tranquillity”(2007. Secondly, we analysed the perception of food expert through a qualitative methodology.

  2. The Effect of Contraceptive Knowledge on Fertility: The Roles of Mass Media and Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Kai-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of contraceptive knowledge on fertility during the period when Taiwan’s family planning programs were in effect. This study contributes to previous studies by directly measuring individual’s contraceptive knowledge and fertility, as well as applying an instrumental variable approach to gauge the effect of contraceptive knowledge on fertility. The results indicate that mass media and social networks play important roles in disseminating contraceptive knowledge. T...

  3. Borders amidst power, State and mass media, from a critical theory standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortiz Marín

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the power, from the glance of the Critical Theory that it allows to understand the woven complex that links the relations of power to most of the human activities. This paper also approaches to the State as a regulating element of the different forces from institutional character, that they operate in its interior like structures of power and the function as that the massive mass media in the complexity of the modern societies act.

  4. Mass media tests: socio-cultural aspect (based on advertising texts)

    OpenAIRE

    MOSHCHEVA SVETLANA

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the social and cultural aspects of mass media texts. The ways and the principles of this research are defined. The study concludes that the social nature of advertising communication enables it to reflect all the nuances of life of society and to form an expedient paradigm of human relations in the context of various social and cultural phenomena of reality.

  5. Weaves and Colours of Lithuanian Folk Skirts Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė KUMPIKAITĖ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article weaves and colours of Lithuanian folk skirts fabrics are analysed. The investigation objects are the skirts from funds of three Lithuanian Museums: 258 skirts from National M. K. Čiurlionis Museum of Art, 85 skirts from Lithuanian Open Air Museum and 16 skirts from A. and A. Tamošaitis gallery “Židinys”. Distribution of skirts fabrics according to weaves was estimated, and it shows, that fabrics of plain weave are most widespread (53 %, combined and twill weaves are less popular (19 % and 18 %, respectively. The weaves of fabrics are determined during investigation and plans of weave were made proposing recommendations for manufacturing of similar fabrics. Also distribution of colours and number of colours in the fabrics were analysed. The biggest number of colours is in fabrics of simple weaves (plain and twill, and the most characteristic are green, red, black and blue colours. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5240

  6. Improving the Evaluation Model for the Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė SKŪPIENĖ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads (LitIO is a problem solving programming contest for students in secondary education. The work of the student to be evaluated is an algorithm designed by the student and implemented as a working program. The current evaluation process involves both automated (for correctness and performance of programs with the given input data and manual (for programming style, written motivation of an algorithm grading. However, it is based on tradition and has not been scientifically discussed and motivated. To create an improved and motivated evaluation model, we put together a questionnaire and asked a group of foreign and Lithuanian experts having experience in various informatics contests to respond. We identified two basic directions in the suggested evaluation models and made a choice based on the goals of LitIO. While designing the model in the paper, we reflected on the suggestions and opinions of the experts as much as possible, even if they were not included into the proposed model. The paper presents the final outcome of this work, the proposed evaluation model for the Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads.

  7. Fan Letters to the Cultural Industries: Border Literature about Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the Mexican and U.S. cultural industries in cities outside of the border region and the intermittent outsourcing of Hollywood movies to production facilities in Baja, California, have had a marked impact on the literary practice of "fronterizo" 'border' intellectuals. This essay discusses the theme of the cinema in three narratives by authors from the U.S.-Mexico border region: "Hotel Frontera" ("Border Hotel", by Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz, "Canícula," by Norma Elia Cantú, and "The Magic of Blood," by Dagoberto Gilb. These narratives provide ethnographic information about the reception of nationally distributed mass media in the border region; at the same time they produce a contestatory discourse that challenges the manner in which the border and its populations have been portrayed and employed in the U.S. and Mexican film industries. The study of film culture must take into consideration patterns of consumption as well as production, and literature about mass media is one arena through which it is possible to focus on both of these processes simultaneously. Fronteriza/o writing about cinema reveals a desire to inhabit popular cinematic genres such as film noir and the western while at the same time retaining a critical stance towards them. This ambivalence is understood as a localist response to the marginalization of fronteriza/o cultural production in a bi-national context, rather than as general suspicion toward visual mass media on the part of "traditional" literary intellectuals.

  8. Use of mass-media and active involvement in a national dental health campaign in Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a Dental Health Mass-Media Campaign directed at 5-7-yr-old children and their mothers. It aimed at increasing knowledge and awareness of dental health by making use of three different components: inserts in women's magazines; television commercial; material ...... that future national health education campaigns combine the mass-media approach to increase health awareness with active involvement activities to stimulate behavioural changes.......This paper describes the evaluation of a Dental Health Mass-Media Campaign directed at 5-7-yr-old children and their mothers. It aimed at increasing knowledge and awareness of dental health by making use of three different components: inserts in women's magazines; television commercial; material......, distinguished from the other two components by demanding an active involvement of the participants, had the largest impact. The television commercial, merely demanding a passive involvement of the participants, was less well remembered, and the magazine insert had the lowest recollection. It is suggested...

  9. Is mass media beneficial or not for the information of the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mosoia, C.

    2005-11-01

    The International Year of Physics reminds us, among other things, of the way in which Einstein became famous. In spite of all his remarkable scientific results, without the contribution of the press he would not have become so well known in the entire world as he was and continues to be after a century. And he is not the unique example of celebrity due to mass media (see Carl Sagan or Stephen Hawking). In 1969 the first man stepped on the Moon. It was maybe the first cosmic event, which became famous due to a live TV broadcast. Others followed, if we are to mention only the total solar eclipse of 1999 or Venus's transit of last year. Consequently, mass media can make a scientist famous, can also make an event understood and admired and can attract hundreds or maybe millions of people to science. The same mass media can also destroy a personality or an event. We shall give only two examples: the distrust of many people concerning the same Moon landing or the manipulation of millions of people by means of astrology. All this urges us to make a very thorough analysis of the way in which scientific information is communicated to the general public: well done, it can be beneficial; otherwise it may drive the new generations away from research, the understanding of the phenomena, the neglect of the environment and finally from the neglect and the destruction of our own planet.

  10. Mass Media and HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the sources of HIV prevention information for female sex workers in Beijing and assess the associations between levels of mass media exposure of HIV/AIDS prevention information and HIV/AIDS knowledge as well as condom use-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 359 female sex workers in Beijing, China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were employed. Female sex workers sampled in Beijing were more likely to obtain HIV/AIDS prevention information from television and street posters than radio and the Internet. However, a higher level of exposure to and a lasting impression on online information were significantly associated with a higher level of condom use self-efficacy and more consistent condom use among the participants. Exposure to HIV/AIDS prevention information delivered by radio, street posters, and the Internet was found to be associated with sexual communication about HIV or condom use with sexual partners. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of various mass media outlets in delivering HIV/AIDS prevention information among female sex workers in China. Future studies are needed to systematically examine the effectiveness of mass media-based prevention education on HIV/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors among female sex workers and other populations in China.

  11. Gender, mass media and social change: a case study of TV commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Jain, N

    1998-01-01

    Informing, entertaining, and persuading, mass media, especially television, is a powerful factor in the functioning of and change in any society. Mass media can be studied in its various roles as an agent of social change, a reflector of dominant values, and as a reinforcer of dominant values. Results from a 1997 spot survey of 150 television commercials presented on Doordarshan over a 4-week period support the role of the mass media in India as a reflector and reinforcer of dominant cultural values. By indirectly projecting the social norms on how women are expected to behave, television commercials have reproduced patriarchal values in India which are reinforced through the glamorization and naturalization of women's domestic roles, by glorifying the role of mother, by portraying women in public life in soft roles and subordinate jobs, and popularizing the image of women as sex objects and objects of beauty. Changes should be made in the way television in India portrays women to reflect their changing roles and positions in society.

  12. Implementation of mass media community health education: the Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, M; Bahnson, J; Sharp, P; Beal, P; Smith, M; Michielutte, R

    1991-09-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project (FCP) is a community-based health education project funded by the National Cancer Institute. The target population includes around 25 000 black women age 18 and older who reside in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The overall goal of the program is to prevent mortality from cervical cancer by promoting Pap smears and return for follow-up care when needed. Based on the principles of social marketing, a plan to reach the target population with mass media educational messages through electronic and print channels was developed. Guided by marketing objectives, the target population was divided into relatively discrete segments. The segments included church attenders, patients in waiting rooms of public and selected health providers, female students at local colleges, shoppers, viewers of radio and television, newspaper readers, and business owners and managers. Introduction of the program was based on strategies developed for reaching the target population in each segment with television, radio and print mass media messages. Qualitative assessment of the mass media developed by the program indicated that all forms of communication helped to increase awareness of the program.

  13. Mass Communication and Mass Media: A Concept of Game Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tafazzoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available From the historical point of view, the formation and evolution of media in the form that we know today, and according to the age of several thousands of years of human's social life on the soil planet, has changed to reality later. This has happened while the media has evolved in a larger scale with an incredible speed. In those far periods of time the wide propagation and distribution of information to the lots of contacts was not possible because of technical limitations. But people were trying to communicate in a limited form with each other and with their contacts by using other methods. This communication didn't go beyond the human's voice. Through experience they have learnt that if they make a horn with their hands and speak loudly in it from its narrow part, attracts the contact that is further than the usual sound board. But with society's being more complicated, giving information in the shortest time became very important. Various methods of transferring information were formed according to the technology and facilities. In middle ages the bellmen, the singers and the badger storytellers had the duty of information exchange by poems and proverbs, or news and information were written on the animal skin or clay or stone tablets for the distribution and propagation of news. But bringing news and information with primary tools for the contacts were along with some barriers, because their duplication was a hard, time consuming and costly task. Scholars and rulers had found that when the political and governmental information and news reaching time is shorter, consequently its effects on the contacts and their reaction toward the received data would be more.

  14. Development of a correlation for aqueous-vapor phase mass transfer in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, Andrew; Imhoff, Paul T.; Miller, Cass T.

    1995-03-01

    In many situations vapor-phase extraction procedures (e.g., soil venting, air sparging, and bioventing) may be suitable methods for remediating porous media contaminated by volatile organic compounds. This has led to increased study of operative processes in these systems, including aqueous-vapor phase mass transfer. Past work has shown the importance of the flow regime on this process, but a quantitative estimate of mass-transfer coefficients is lacking, especially for systems not confounded by uncertainties involving interfacial area between the phases. An experimental investigation was conducted to isolate the resistance to aqueous-vapor phase mass transfer at the phase boundary, using an ideal porous medium system. Mass-transfer coefficients were measured for toluene for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. An empirical model was fit to the data in dimensionless form. The mass-transfer model was coupled with an available interfacial area model, yielding a dimensionless expression for the mass-transfer rate coefficient. This expression was used to compare results from this work to three other experimental studies reported in the literature. These comparisons showed that for experiments where infiltrating water flowed uniformly within the porous medium, the predicted mass-transfer coefficients were within a factor of 5 of the measured coefficients. Mass transfer was significantly slower than the rate predicted, using the results from this work, in experiments where infiltrating water flowed nonuniformly.

  15. Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and high blood pressure in Lithuanian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyte, Sandrita; Kuciene, Renata; Medzioniene, Jurate; Dulskiene, Virginija; Lesauskaite, Vaiva

    2017-09-13

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the influence of environmental factors on HBP in the population of Lithuanian children, although the role of genetic factors in hypertension has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of AGTR1, AGT, and ACE genotypes in the Lithuanian child population and to determine whether these genotypes have an impact on HBP in childhood. This cross-sectional study enrolled 709 participants aged 12-15 years. The subjects were genotyped for AGT (M235 T, rs699), AGTR1 (A1166C, rs5186), and ACE (rs4340) gene polymorphisms using real-time and conventional polymerase chain reactions. Blood pressure and anthropometric parameters were measured. The prevalence of HBP was 38.6% and was more frequently detected in boys than in girls (47.9% vs. 29.5%; p AGTR1 genotypes or alleles between boys and girls were observed, except for ACE genotypes. The mean SBP value was higher in HBP subjects with ACE ID genotype compared to those with ACE II homozygotes (p = 0.04). No significant differences in BP between different AGT and AGTR1 genotype groups were found. Boys who carried the ACE ID + DD genotypes had higher odds of having HBP than carriers of the ACE II genotype did (controlling for the body mass index (BMI): ORMH = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.11-3.02, p = 0.024; and controlling for waist circumference (WC): ORMH = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.07-2.92, p = 0.035). These associations were not significant among girls. The same trend was observed in the multivariate analysis - after adjustment for BMI and WC, only boys with ACE ID genotype and ACE ID + DD genotypes had statistically significantly increased odds of HBP (aOR = 2.05; 95% CI, 1.19-3.53 (p = 0.01) and aOR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.04 (p = 0.022), respectively). The evaluated polymorphisms of the AGT and AGTR1 genes did not contribute to the presence of HBP in the present study and may be seen as predisposing factors, while ACE ID genotypes were associated

  16. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  17. When media matter for politics: partisan moderators of mass media’s agenda-setting influence on parliament in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors moderate the agenda-setting influence of the mass media on the Belgian parliament during the period 1993—2000. Based on elaborate codings of the media, parliamentary questions and interpellations, party manifestos, government agreements and ministerial

  18. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  19. When media matter for politics: partisan moderators of mass media’s agenda-setting influence on parliament in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors moderate the agenda-setting influence of the mass media on the Belgian parliament during the period 1993—2000. Based on elaborate codings of the media, parliamentary questions and interpellations, party manifestos, government agreements and ministerial mee

  20. [Messages about physical activity and nutrition offered by Quebec mass media?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Lise; Lagaé, Marie Claude; Caron-Bouchard, Monique

    2009-01-01

    As social elements of our environment, mass media are regarded as determinants of individual and population beliefs, social norms and habits. Since it is recognized that they influence population health, this study aims to obtain a better portrait of Quebec media content regarding physical activity and nutrition messages on a public health level. First, we analyzed the content of fictional television shows (n = 1 3) and advertisements broadcast during those shows (n = 68). Second, we reviewed the content of La Presse newspaper and of French television Société Radio-Canada from 1986 to 2005 with regard to physical activity and nutrition messages. Our results indicate a difference between how men and women are portrayed on French television, with women more often being shown as underweight and men as at or above healthy body weight. The results also show that during the 20-year period of the reviewed content, there were fewer messages about physical activity than about nutrition. To be successful in their goal of improving population health, mass media should address both subjects together in their messages.

  1. Attitude of Lithuanian residents to confidentiality of adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-01-01

    To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents.......To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents....

  2. Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Kmite, Liuda Jr

    2011-01-01

    In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.

  3. Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Kmite, Liuda Jr

    2011-01-01

    In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.

  4. Locally-calibrated light transmission visualization methods to quantify nonaqueous phase liquid mass in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaguo; Chen, Xiaosong; Jawitz, James W.

    2008-11-01

    Five locally-calibrated light transmission visualization (LTV) methods were tested to quantify nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass and mass reduction in porous media. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was released into a two-dimensional laboratory flow chamber packed with water-saturated sand which was then flushed with a surfactant solution (2% Tween 80) until all of the PCE had been dissolved. In all the LTV methods employed here, the water phase was dyed, rather than the more common approach of dyeing the NAPL phase, such that the light adsorption characteristics of NAPL did not change as dissolution progressed. Also, none of the methods used here required the use of external calibration chambers. The five visualization approaches evaluated included three methods developed from previously published models, a binary method, and a novel multiple wavelength method that has the advantage of not requiring any assumptions about the intra-pore interface structure between the various phases (sand/water/NAPL). The new multiple wavelength method is also expected to be applicable to any translucent porous media containing two immiscible fluids (e.g., water-air, water-NAPL). Results from the sand-water-PCE system evaluated here showed that the model that assumes wetting media of uniform pore size (Model C of Niemet and Selker, 2001) and the multiple wavelength model with no interface structure assumptions were able to accurately quantify PCE mass reduction during surfactant flushing. The average mass recoveries from these two imaging methods were greater than 95% for domain-average NAPL saturations of approximately 2.6 × 10 - 2 , and were approximately 90% during seven cycles of surfactant flushing that sequentially reduced the average NAPL saturation to 7.5 × 10 - 4 .

  5. Human Errors May Explain Prejudice of Mass Media against People with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen J Salerian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the publications about the Sandy Hook massacre allegedly committed by an autistic man with history of Asperger’s disorder. We systematically reviewed the news about the Sandy Hook massacre. Despite the publicly available scientific evidence consistent with the inaccuracy of the alleged massacre the news media have continued to portray Adam Lanza as the mass murderer of 26 children and 3 adults. The evidence seems to support the need not only to further investigate the alleged Sandy Hook massacre but also to study the mass media’s failure to report the evidence based news about autistic spectrum disorders and the alleged Sandy Hook massacre. Physicians and public health officials should become familiar with mass delusions which promote prejudice against people with psychiatric disorders.

  6. Cytokine responses in relation to age, gender, body mass index, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and otitis media among inuit in greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....

  7. Associations between tobacco control mass media campaign expenditure and smoking prevalence and quitting in England: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie

    2017-06-30

    It has been established that mass media campaigns can increase smoking cessation rates, but there is little direct evidence estimating associations between government expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns and smoking cessation. This study assessed the association over 8 years between mass media expenditure in England and quit attempts, smoking cessation and smoking prevalence. Autoregressive integrated moving average modelling with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) was applied to monthly estimates from the Smoking Toolkit Study between June 2008 and February 2016. We assessed the association between the trends in mass media expenditure and (1) quit attempts in the last two months, (2) quit success among those who attempted to quit and (3) smoking prevalence. Analyses were adjusted for trends in weekly spending on tobacco by smokers, tobacco control policies and the use of established aids to cessation. Monthly spending on mass media campaigns ranged from nothing to £2.4 million, with a mean of £465 054. An increase in mass media expenditure of 10% of the monthly average was associated with a 0.51% increase (of the average) in success rates of quit attempts (95% CI 0.10% to 0.91%, p=0.014). No clear association was detected between changes in mass media expenditure and changes in quit attempt prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -2.05% to 2.00%, p=0.979) or smoking prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -0.09% to 0.03%, p=0.299). Between 2008 and 2016, higher monthly expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns in England was associated with higher quit success rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Differences in adult L2 grammars of Lithuanian: The case of gender agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mačiukaité

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results obtained from an empirical investigation into the acquisition of gender agreement in Lithuanian as a second language (L2. A total of 59 L2 learners of Lithuanian and 10 Lithuanian native speakers, as controls, took part in this study. The participants came from diverse rst language (L1 backgrounds (i.e., Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Latvian, and English. The data were collected using a written translation task. The results of the study showed some statistically significant differences between English speaking learners of Lithuanian and non-native English speaking learners of Lithuanian. The findings support the Full Transfer Full Access hypothesis (Schwartz, Sprouse 1994, 1996 which argues for the interaction of L1 transfer and Universal Grammar in the development of adult L2 grammars.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa4.06

  9. Effects of mass media on opinion spreading in the Sznajd sociophysics model

    CERN Document Server

    Crokidakis, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    In this work we consider the influence of mass media in the dynamics of the two-dimensional Sznajd model. This influence acts as an external field, and it is introduced in the model by means of a probability $p$ of the agents to follow the media opinion. We performed Monte Carlo simulations on square lattices with different sizes, and our numerical results suggest a change on the critical behavior of the model, with the absence of the usual phase transition for $p>\\sim 0.18$. Another effect of the probability $p$ is to decrease the average relaxation times $\\tau$, that are log-normally distributed, as in the standard model. In addition, the $\\tau$ values depend on the lattice size $L$ in a power-law form, $\\tau\\sim L^{\\alpha}$, where the power-law exponent depends on the probability $p$.

  10. The Communication of Local Public Authorities with Mass-Media. Effects and Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena RANTA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The communication processes public administration is involved in (as part of communication relations should always accompany administrative action in its efforts to achieve its mission and objectives, namely the public needs. The framework of the deployment of local authorities’ communication activities has several features, one of them being the definition and description of communication methods (with the public, but also with the media in the legislation. Sometimes, even though defined by law, communication methods are not used by public administration, thus public authorities minimize the fact that those who receive information from the administration represent at the same time sources of information for the administration. Mass media has a very important role in public communication. Depending on how the message is received, the effects of communication will be different. They consist in the emergence of actions, attitudes, behaviors or mentalities that manifest among the public, being partially measurable and having a longterm (positive or negative impact on the receptors

  11. The role of media literacy in shaping adolescents' understanding of and responses to sexual portrayals in mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkleton, Bruce E; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes; Cohen, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    This study was a theory-based, pretest-posttest quasi-experiment conducted in the field (N = 922) to determine whether and how a media literacy curriculum addressing sexual portrayals in the media would influence adolescents' decision-making processes regarding sex. Results of the evaluation, based on the Message Interpretation Process Model, indicated that participants who received media literacy training better understood that media influence teens' decision making about sex and were more likely to report that sexual depictions in the media are inaccurate and glamorized. In addition, participants who received media literacy lessons were more likely than were control group participants to believe that other teens practice abstinence and reported a greater ability to resist peer pressure. An interaction effect existed between gender and condition on attitudes toward abstinence, suggesting that the lessons helped girls and boys in somewhat different ways. Overall, the results indicated that media literacy strengthened key aspects of participants' logic-oriented decision-making process.

  12. The relationship between audience mentality and attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignowska, Izabella; Borowiec, Agnieszka; Slonska, Zofia

    2016-09-01

    Health promoters who use the mass media to encourage people to change their health behaviours usually underestimate the importance of audience's mental predispositions, which may determine their susceptibility to such influences. This paper presents research findings that show how some elements of an audience's mentality are related to their attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media (HLPMM). The research project, undertaken between 2007 and 2009, comprised: a qualitative study using in-depth interviews (N=30); a self-administered survey on a purposive sample (N=237) and a computer-assisted personal interview or interviewing (CAPI) survey on a representative sample of Polish adult population (N=934). The findings from the first two studies were used to construct a scale to investigate the attitude towards HLPMM. This scale was applied in a nation wide survey and, as a result, four dimensions of the attitude were identified: (1) appraisal of the idea of HLPMM; (2) appraisal of HLPMM practice; (3) propensity to receive media messages promoting healthy lifestyle and (4) propensity to avoid such messages. Moreover, the survey results confirmed the hypotheses whereby a higher degree of individualism, a higher degree of authoritarianism, a weaker demanding orientation and generalised trust are related to a more positive attitude towards HLPMM. The aforementioned relationships indicate that producers of media messages promoting a healthy lifestyle need to take account of their audience's mentality, since knowledge of mental predispositions of the target audience may help them make the message more suitable for specific recipients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann simulation for flow, mass transfer, and adsorption in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Chen, Zhenqian; Liu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, to predict the dynamics behaviors of flow and mass transfer with adsorption phenomena in porous media at the representative elementary volume (REV) scale, a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for the convection-diffusion equation is developed to solve the transfer problem with an unsteady source term in porous media. Utilizing the Chapman-Enskog analysis, the modified MRT-LB model can recover the macroscopic governing equations at the REV scale. The coupled MRT-LB model for momentum and mass transfer is validated by comparing with the finite-difference method and the analytical solution. Moreover, using the MRT-LB method coupled with the linear driving force model, the fluid transfer and adsorption behaviors of the carbon dioxide in a porous fixed bed are explored. The breakthrough curve of adsorption from MRT-LB simulation is compared with the experimental data and the finite-element solution, and the transient concentration distributions of the carbon dioxide along the porous fixed bed are elaborated upon in detail. In addition, the MRT-LB simulation results show that the appearance time of the breakthrough point in the breakthrough curve is advanced as the mass transfer resistance in the linear driving force model increases; however, the saturation point is prolonged inversely.

  14. Multivariate causal attribution and cost-effectiveness of a national mass media campaign in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, D Lawrence; Do, Mai Phuong

    2006-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is based on a simple formula. A dollar estimate of the total cost to conduct a program is divided by the number of people estimated to have been affected by it in terms of some intended outcome. The direct, total costs of most communication campaigns are usually available. Estimating the amount of effect that can be attributed to the communication alone, however is problematical in full-coverage, mass media campaigns where the randomized control group design is not feasible. Single-equation, multiple regression analysis controls for confounding variables but does not adequately address the issue of causal attribution. In this article, multivariate causal attribution (MCA) methods are applied to data from a sample survey of 1,516 married women in the Philippines to obtain a valid measure of the number of new adopters of modern contraceptives that can be causally attributed to a national mass media campaign and to calculate its cost-effectiveness. The MCA analysis uses structural equation modeling to test the causal pathways and to test for endogeneity, biprobit analysis to test for direct effects of the campaign and endogeneity, and propensity score matching to create a statistically equivalent, matched control group that approximates the results that would have been obtained from a randomized control group design. The MCA results support the conclusion that the observed, 6.4 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive use can be attributed to the national mass media campaign and to its indirect effects on attitudes toward contraceptives. This net increase represented 348,695 new adopters in the population of married women at a cost of U.S. $1.57 per new adopter.

  15. The Financing and Personnel of the Lithuanian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskas Vytautas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, at the beginning of the crisis in Ukraine and Russia‘s aggression against this neighboring country, Lithuania became concerned about the strengthening of its military capabilities, augmenting the National Defense System (NDS budget by almost 50% in two years. This may be considered unprecedented, if seen against the background of the presidential elections and those to the European Parliament, the fiscal discipline, the introduction of euro, as well as Russia‘s economic sanctions, the political decision in the course of 2014 on increasing the defense assignation by 130 million litas and in 2015 the increase by planned additional 356 million litas. This article analyzes two closely related problems of the Lithuanian NDS capabilities. First of all, changes in the NDS financing are explored in the context of permanent agreements of Lithuanian political parties concerning the allocation of 2% of the GDP for defense. This is followed by the discussion of the issues of military personnel staffing and training of the reserve as well as future challenges. This research contributes to the assessment of the critical NDS financing and staffing not only within academic circles but particularly among politicians and society in general. Additionally, it contributes to the awareness of the problems the army encountered in seeking to implement the objective set for it: to ensure the military security of the state. In the presence of the emerging threats in the region, this is of particularly great significance to the demilitarized and pacifist society of Lithuania. The article aims at identifying financing and personnel planning problems throughout a quarter of the century, ranging from the restoration of the Army of the Republic of Lithuania to 2014 inclusively. At the same time, the study encourages a discussion by the academic community on issues of the military security of the Lithuanian State and provides analyses as well as possible

  16. The Effect of Contraceptive Knowledge on Fertility: The Roles of Mass Media and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Wen

    2011-06-01

    This study examines the effect of contraceptive knowledge on fertility during the period when Taiwan's family planning programs were in effect. This study contributes to previous studies by directly measuring individual's contraceptive knowledge and fertility, as well as applying an instrumental variable approach to gauge the effect of contraceptive knowledge on fertility. The results indicate that mass media and social networks play important roles in disseminating contraceptive knowledge. This study finds that women transform their knowledge into behavior-that is, contraceptive knowledge reduces fertility, no matter which fertility metric is measured (life-time fertility or probability of giving birth).

  17. Lithuanian female physicists: Reality and plans for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia; Giriunienė, Ramutė; Ruželė, Živilė; Rutkunienė, Živilė

    2013-03-01

    Changes in the issue of women in physics in Lithuanian in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics are discussed on the basis of statistics as well as an exploratory study recently conducted among women physicists. The situation has changed slowly since 2008. However, the study shows that women physicists more clearly understand the inequities and the need for changes, including an active European Union mainstreaming policy targeted to ensure gender equality in the sciences, which gives hope for accelerating changes. Continued plans for improving women physicists' situation in Lithuania are discussed.

  18. Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Roszko

    2015-11-01

    To analyse both the languages there is used the method of theoretical contrastive studies, which the most important features are: (1 orienting the studies from the content grounds to the formal grounds, (2 using a semantic interlanguage as tertium comparationis. First of all, the content of hypothetical modality and its definition and paraphrase is given here. Next, the gradational character of this category is discussed. There are distinguished six groups of lexemes expressing the corresponding degrees of hypothetical modality — from a shadow of uncertainty (minimal degree of probability to an almost complete certainty (maximum degree of probability. The experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus is widely applied in the studies.

  19. Assessment of the Knowledge Acquisition Process in Lithuanian Insurance Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Raudeliūnienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the development of favourable globalization conditions, the demand for and importance of knowledge in the insurance sector are rapidly growing, which is characterized by the variety of insurance services and offered products as well as by a permanent change in efforts to efficiently meet the needs of society. Therefore, knowledge is becoming a unique factor that leads to the increased exclusivity of the organization in this particular sector when the recently acquired knowledge helps the employees of the company with efficiently performing work activities and creating for consumer advantages that can be hardly imitated by other insurance organizations. However, the process of knowledge acquisition will be worthless without efficient instruments for assessing the procedures leading to obtaining the necessary knowledge on demand and time. Every insurance organization in Lithuania tries to acquire the necessary knowledge on time in the most convenient way; however, researchers and business representatives feel a lack of tools for assessing and improving the knowledge acquisition process. According to scientific literature, a lack of complexity evaluating the knowledge acquisition process creates a precondition for developing instruments for the assessment of this process. The object of research is the evaluation of the knowledge acquisition process in the organizations of Lithuanian insurance sector. The goal of the article is to offer an integrated instrument of the knowledge acquisition process for the organization working in Lithuanian insurance sector. To achieve this goal, the following tasks have been implemented: the analysis of the theoretical aspects of the factors and methods of the knowledge acquisition process; the establishment of the factors specific to organizations in Lithuanian insurance sector for the purposes of assessing the knowledge acquisition process; the identification of the problematic areas of the knowledge

  20. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour.

  1. Mass Media Impact on Learning. 1978 Summary Report of the Annual Lake Okoboji Educational Media Leadership Conference (24th, Milford, Iowa, August 14-19, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Audiovisual Center.

    This summary report of the annual conference includes statements of participant concerns prepared for the planning committee, the keynote address on the impact of mass media on education by Nicholas Johnson with responses by Minaruth Galey and Jon Dunn, and reports from the groups which studied the seven subtopics identified in general sessions:…

  2. Transparency and accountability in mass media campaigns about organ donation: a response to Morgan and Feeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    We respond to Morgan and Feeley's critique on our article "Mass Media in Organ Donation: Managing Conflicting Messages and Interests." We noted that Morgan and Feeley agree with the position that the primary aims of media campaigns are: "to educate the general public about organ donation process" and "help individuals make informed decisions" about organ donation. For those reasons, the educational messages in media campaigns should not be restricted to "information from pilot work or focus groups" but should include evidence-based facts resulting from a comprehensive literature research. We consider the controversial aspects about organ donation to be relevant, if not necessary, educational materials that must be disclosed in media campaigns to comply with the legal and moral requirements of informed consent. With that perspective in mind, we address the validity of Morgan and Feeley's claim that media campaigns have no need for informing the public about the controversial nature of death determination in organ donation. Scientific evidence has proven that the criteria for death determination are inconsistent with the Uniform Determination of Death Act and therefore potentially harmful to donors. The decision by campaign designers to use the statutory definition of death without disclosing the current controversies surrounding that definition does not contribute to improved informed decision making. We argue that if Morgan and Feeley accept the important role of media campaigns to enhance informed decision making, then critical controversies should be disclosed. In support of that premise, we will outline: (1) the wide-spread scientific challenges to brain death as a concept of death; (2) the influence of the donor registry and team-huddling on the medical care of potential donors; (3) the use of authorization rather than informed consent for donor registration; (4) the contemporary religious controversy; and (5) the effects of training desk clerks as organ

  3. 大众传媒中的霸权理论%On the Theory of Hegemony in Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季乃礼

    2012-01-01

    霸权理论认为大众传媒是为现有政权服务的,极力维护现有的社会秩序。霸权理论论述最为精到的是法兰克福学派学说,该学派认为大众传媒无论从内容还是形式上都导致了人们的批判能力的丧失,大众传媒操纵了民众,而政党通过操纵大众传媒影响公众。霸权理论提出后遭到了许多学者的批评,他们认为大众传媒是中立的,甚至有时是批判现有政权的。%According to the theory of hegemony,mass media serves some special interest groups,and maintains the status of current social system.Discussing it excellent in detail is Frankfort School,some scholars of this school think both content and formation of mass media resulting in the losses of people′s critical capability,and by this way,mass media has controlled the mass,and parties has influenced the public from controlling the mass media.The theory of hegemony is criticized by many scholars who think mass media are neutral,even sometimes critical in the current regime.

  4. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  5. The association between exposure to mass media and body dissatisfaction among Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodriguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2011-01-01

    Correlational research has found associations between magazine and television exposure and body dissatisfaction. However, this relation is not direct, and various psychological variables may moderate and/or mediate this relation, such as awareness and internalization of the thin ideals, comparing oneself with ideal body image or self-esteem, as well as the patient's body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to assess the association between magazine and television exposure and body dissatisfaction among Spanish adolescents by gender. A second aim was to determine the predictors of body dissatisfaction by gender. A cross-sectional national survey of 1,165 Spanish secondary students aged 14 to 16 years was conducted. Frequency exposure and type of TV program/magazine as well as other psychological variables, such as thin-ideal internalization and self-esteem, were associated with high levels of body dissatisfaction (BD) based on a cutoff point of 16 or above on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) by gender. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine associations between body dissatisfaction, mass media topic exposure, BMI, and psychological variables. Mass media exposure to a specific kind of content, rather than to total exposure frequency, was more associated with body dissatisfaction in females versus males. In males, five factors accounted for 35% of the total variance of body dissatisfaction and were associated with lower TV and magazine exposure to fitness topics and lower self-esteem and with greater BMI, disordered eating behaviors, and awareness of the thin ideal. For females, high body dissatisfaction was associated with greater internalization of the thin ideal, disordered eating behaviors, BMI, and lower self-esteem (54% of total variance explained). There does not seem to be a clear association between media exposure and body dissatisfaction. Further research is necessary to enhance our understanding of how the media's role affects

  6. The use of the dusty-gas model for the description of mass transport with chemical reaction in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Damme, R.M.J. van; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, mass transport accompanied by chemical reactions in porous media is studied according to the Fick model and the dusty-gas model. For mass transport accompanied by a chemical reaction in catalyst structures showing a plane, line, or point of symmetry, the approximate analytical

  7. GLOBALIZATION AND MASS-MEDIA IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

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    Burtic Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a reality that we cannot deny or run away from. The economic, political or social issues, even if they have a starting point, spread very quickly, covering large areas in a very short time. Modern communication systems enable crisis transfer. They also bring us information about the actions that have been taken in order to overcome those critical circumstances. Does recession have positive aspects, too? If it has, what are these positive aspects and how can they be used to produce highest benefits? We will try to describe the concepts we maintain by means of some notorious works written by authors with a vast experience, some of them being Noble Prize winners. The idea that we propose is to bring hope out of this situation generated by crisis and globalization. The economic crisis has created a huge opportunity to the mass-media system: it brings the required information to citizens from different nations. Taking this into account, mass-media has played and still plays an important part in making the people involved find solutions and communicate whenever the decision makers are trying to hide facts. With the help of innovation and transformation, let’s look for solutions to develop our abilities, relationships, products, markets and results. We should never forget that the greatest and most impressive changes are often born in times of crisis.

  8. Role of Creative Competitions and Mass Media in the Astronomy Education of School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshkina, E. Yu.

    2006-08-01

    There are a many informational sources nowadays. For wide audiences it is, first of all, mass media - magazines, newspapers, television, broadcast and books. Web-technology provides a huge volume of information. The increasing flow of information about science, sometimes with questionable content, however, has its obstacles - it is difficult to restrict misconceptions and transfer receiving information to real knowledge. This problem is actual and very important, first of all, for school students. The experience in getting and analyzing information during astrophysics lessons in the Astronautic Club is considered. Statistical data about volume, kind, and quality of astronomy news, along with other scientific information in Russian mass media, are presented. Experience in transformation of receiving information to the knowledge is discussed. The role of a special form of education - creative competitions - in this process is analyzed. Results of the International Creative Competition, named after Giordano Bruno, are presented. The main goal of the competition was to raise interest in astronomy, space exploration, and related questions. Thirty-six papers from Bulgaria, United Kingdom, Russia, Byelorussia, Latvia, and Kazakhstan were submitted for the competition. On the decision of the jury, it was awarded three degrees for school students, one degree for adult amateurs of astronomy, and four special nominations. The bilingual volume (in Russian and English) with the best papersis being prepared for publishing.

  9. Factors behind change in knowledge after a mass media campaign targeting periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, C; Söderfeldt, B; Andersson, P; Halling, A; Renvert, S

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in knowledge before and after a mass media campaign, in relation to social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. The study was based on a questionnaire in a cohort design, sent out to 900 randomly sampled people aged 50-75 in Sweden. The response rate to the questionnaire before and after the campaign was 70% and 65% respectively. Sixty-four percent answered both questionnaires. Two questions addressed knowledge, while 10 questions aimed to measure social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. Data were analysed for bivariate relations as to change in knowledge and social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. Data were also analysed in multiple regression analysis with knowledge before, knowledge after and knowledge differences as dependent variables. The results showed that there were a number of independent variables with influence on the dependent variables. Of the social attributes, secondary education gave almost 10% (P important factors for knowledge about periodontitis were education, care utilization and perceived importance of oral health. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that mass media might increase knowledge about periodontitis as a health promotion strategy.

  10. A simple methodology for piloting and evaluating mass media interventions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Rachele; Hanbury, Andria

    2010-03-01

    To develop effective mass media health campaigns it is important to explore the behaviour-change techniques that make campaigns more or less effective. This exploratory study observed the behaviour-change techniques employed in two current healthy eating television programmes, and mapped these techniques onto key theoretical frameworks. Interviews were then conducted with six participants who watched the programmes, to identify which techniques were perceived to be more and less effective and to identify any disjunctures between the behaviour-change techniques used in the programmes and factors perceived by the participants to be particularly influential upon their healthy eating. The two programmes were found to use similar behaviour-change techniques, with a heavy reliance on providing general health motivation. Interviews revealed that participants perceived several specific barriers to eating healthily, felt the need for more specific guidance and emphasised the importance of identifying with the role models used in the programmes. Recommendations for future mass media health campaigns include the need to educate individuals about how to overcome specific barriers that they might face when trying to eat a healthy diet and to include a wider range of role models to encourage the audience to identify with the programme participants.

  11. The reporting of cervical cancer in the mass media: a study of UK newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Seale, C

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects those in lower socio-economic groups. Mass media, including newspapers, are an important source of information about disease and how to prevent it. An analysis of UK national newspaper content between 2000 and 2009 is reported, assessing the extent to which information is provided about early signs and symptoms, risk factors and ways of preventing cervical cancer. The messages in newspapers targeted at readers in lower socio-economic groups are compared with the messages in other newspapers, and the impact of reporting the illness and death of the reality TV star, Jade Goody, on the level of medical information contained in articles is assessed. Tabloid or 'popular' newspapers are found to provide more information about early signs and symptoms, and no less information about risk factors, when compared with broadsheets or 'serious' papers. This is due to their greater use of personal stories of people with cervical cancer. The Jade Goody story was associated with an increase in information about early signs and symptoms, and about screening, but not (with the exception of the role played by social deprivation) about risk factors. Suggestions about how to approach public education via an entertainment format in mass media are made.

  12. NONPRESCRIPTION DRUG PROMOTION IN MASS-MEDIA PRINT PUBLICATION IN INDONESIA

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    FITA RAHMAWATI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to identify whether nonprescription drug promotion in mass-media print publications in Indonesia complied with the regulations of “Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan No. 386/Men.Kes/SK/IV/1994” on drug promotion and WHO Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, as well as to identify the type of information given to consumers. The study was conducted by random sampling of 110 advertisements from mass-media print publications from the year 2000 until 2004. The results of the study showed that only 1.8% of nonprescription drug advertisements complied with the regulations. The type of information advertised to consumers was the active ingredient(s (80.9%, major indications for use (98.2%, major precautions (9.1%, contra-indications (5.4%, side effects (20.9%, the name of the product or the brand name (100%, name of manufacturer or distributor (93.6%, address of manufacturer/distributor (45.5%, dosage (80.9%, and registration number (82.7%. Our findings showed that 27.3% advertisements did not list the active ingredient(s completely or used no International Nonproprietary Name (INN, and 44.5% advertisements contained claims of product effectiveness that were unsupported by clinical or other scientific evidence.

  13. Evolution of the Digital Society Reveals Balance between Viral and Mass Media Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-07-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) enable researchers to study the social universe at a previously unattainable scale. The worldwide impact and the necessity to sustain the rapid growth of OSNs emphasize the importance of unraveling the laws governing their evolution. Empirical results show that, unlike many real-world growing networked systems, OSNs follow an intricate path that includes a dynamical percolation transition. In light of these results, we present a quantitative two-parameter model that reproduces the entire topological evolution of a quasi-isolated OSN with unprecedented precision from the birth of the network. This allows us to precisely gauge the fundamental macroscopic and microscopic mechanisms involved. Our findings suggest that the coupling between the real preexisting underlying social structure, a viral spreading mechanism, and mass media influence govern the evolution of OSNs. The empirical validation of our model, on a macroscopic scale, reveals that virality is 4-5 times stronger than mass media influence and, on a microscopic scale, individuals have a higher subscription probability if invited by weaker social contacts, in agreement with the "strength of weak ties" paradigm.

  14. Effects of Mass Media action on the Axelrod Model with Social Influence

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Arezky H

    2010-01-01

    The use of {\\it dyadic interaction} between agents, in combination with {\\it homophily} (the principle that ``likes attract'') in the Axelrod model for the study of cultural dissemination has two important problems: the prediction of monoculture in large societies and an extremely narrow window of noise levels in which diversity with local convergence is obtained. Recently, the inclusion of {\\it social influence} has proven to overcome them (A. Flache and M. W. Macey, arXiv:0808.2710). Here we extend the Axelrod model with social influence interaction for the study of Mass Media effects through the inclusion of a super-agent which acts over the whole system and has nonnull overlap with each agent of the society. The dependence with different parameters as the initial social diversity, size effects, Mass Media strength and noise is outlined. Our results might be relevant in several socio-economic contexts and for the study of the emergence of collective behavior in complex social systems.

  15. The social image of drinking - mass media campaigns may inadvertently increase binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina

    2016-11-23

    Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.

  16. Lessons Learned from H1N1 Epidemic: The Role of Mass Media in Informing Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Jaleh; Hosseini, Sayed Hamed; Ashoorkhani, Mahnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Preparedness and response at the time of pandemic range from writing programs to conducting procedures as well as informing the target population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of general practitioners in Tehran, at the time of H1N1 pandemic. It also aimed to identify the main sources used for gathering information at each alert level. Two telephone surveys were conducted with a 4 month interval, at the beginning of H1N1 pandemic alert level 5 and 6, on 90 and 100 general practitioners, respectively. The knowledge of these physicians on the symptoms of H1N1 flu, the transmission methods, the preventative measures, and existing treatments along with the sources used for gathering information were assessed. While mass media was the main source of gathering information in the H1N1 pandemic alert level 5, more professional sources were used at the H1N1 pandemic alert level 6. Despite the acceptable improvement noted in the knowledge of the physicians during the two phases of the study, their understanding of the disease was believed to be less than the expected level based on H1N1 pandemic alert level. The routine use of mass media as one of the main sources of information gathering at the two stages of the study points out its importance in providing physicians with the required information at the time of H1N1 pandemic. Using adequate, up-to-date, but non-specialized media can fill the gap in information gathering, required for fighting pandemic.

  17. The political (independence of the media in Lithuania

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    Deimantas Jastramskis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis presented in this paper shows that significant part of the Lithuanian media subjects (especially in the municipalities are controlled by politicians and some – by authority institutions. Another form of political influence on the media subjects is finances allocated by the State, municipal institutions and political parties to the media organizations in order to publicize their activities (or publish advertising – which often provide guaranties of more favorable news media content for the allocators of financial resources. There are only individual economically capable and independent media organizations (national and local that administer the media which provide relatively comprehensive and unbiased political picture. The claim of the article is that the level of political parallelism of the Lithuanian media system tends to be high.

  18. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

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    Asekun-Olarinmoye OS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olusesan S Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 Esther O Asekun-Olarinmoye,2 Wasiu O Adebimpe,2 Akin G Omisore21Department of Mass Communication, Babcock Business School, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaIntroduction: The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern.Objectives: To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria.Materials and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16.Results: Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%. Most (64.0% respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332, electronic mail (89.0%, n=356, and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298. Most of the respondents (73.5% opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths' sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%, 37 (16.4%, 31 (13.7%, and 10 (4.4% practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0% always used condoms

  19. Attitudes of Lithuanian secondary school children toward addictive behaviors, their promoting and preventive factors with regard to the age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskauskas, Darius; Gudaitytė, Rima; Kiudulaitė, Inga; Adomaitienė, Virginija

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of Lithuanian secondary school children toward addictive behaviors, their promoting and preventive factors with regard to the age. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study sample consisted of all 5th-, 9th-, and 12th-grade schoolchildren of 6 secondary schools in Kaunas and Šakiai (N=856). Schoolchildren were surveyed with a questionnaire consisting of the questions about their attitudes and experience regarding addictive behaviors and factors promoting and preventing such behaviors. RESULTS. Smoking (82.8%), use of illegal drugs (81.0%), and consumption of strong alcoholic beverages (80.6%) were most often indicated as addictive behaviors. Consumption of light alcoholic beverages and computer gaming were least often indicated as addictive behaviors: by 67.2% and 57.1% of respondents, respectively. Less than one-third (32.7%) of respondents answered that they had one or more of potentially addictive behaviors: computer gaming (27.8%), consumption of light alcoholic beverages (24.6%), smoking (16.3%), and consumption of strong alcoholic beverages (12.1%). The most significant difference was observed between the answers of schoolchildren of 5th and 9th grades. Friends (38.4%), TV (37.9%), and Internet (24.6%) were most often mentioned as influencing a wish to try and abstain from addictive behaviors. Fear for one's health (74.4%) and possible impediment for the life (71.4%) were the most frequently mentioned reasons for abstaining from addictive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. Involvement in potentially addictive behaviors and acknowledgement of their risks were found to increase with the age of schoolchildren, most significantly from 5th to 9th grades. Consumption of light alcoholic beverages was the second most prevalent behavior among respondents, highly noticed in advertising, but least often acknowledged as addictive behavior. TV and Internet were most often mentioned by respondents as mass media influencing their wish to try

  20. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

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    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  1. Equivalence of Lease and Tenancy Terminology in English and Lithuanian

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    Rackevičienė Sigita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prompted by globalization and the importance of international communication in the legal sphere, legal language acquires an increasing importance. Contract law draws special attention in the EU and worldwide, and raises a demand for harmonization of the legal terminology of different languages and legal systems. Contracts in Anglo- Saxon and Lithuanian law have similar basic elements; however, they also contain significant differences which are determined by the regulations of the legal systems in which contracts are formed. The terminology used in the contracts also presents important peculiarities. The article focuses on the terminology of lease and tenancy agreements and provides results of the contrastive semantic analysis, the aim of which is to establish the degree of equivalence of the collected English terms and their Lithuanian counterparts. All investigated English terms have synonyms, which makes the task even more complex, as most of such synonyms have certain semantic differences and may be used interchangeably only in certain contexts. The findings of the research are believed to be valuable to legal translators, as well as compilers of legal dictionaries and databases.

  2. Implementation of CLIL in Lithuanian Secondary Schools: a Case Study

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    Vilma Bijeikienė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the existing research into the implementation of CLIL in Lithuania, it can be claimed that this wellestablished and globally applied teaching and learning methodology has already had some due appreciation in Lithuanian secondary schools. Nevertheless, there still exist numerous obstacles to the broader and more intensive application of CLIL which is strongly lagging behind in comparison to many other countries in Europe and world-wide. The present study aims at exploring the rich experience in CLIL implementation accumulated by Šiauliai Didždvario gymnasium and examining their multifaceted CLIL module which could be an important source of knowledge and practical know-how for other Lithuanian secondary education institutions planning to start implementing CLIL. The research follows a synthesis of qualitative and quantitative methodology including interviews with CLIL teachers, students and school administration. The study results in a SWOT analysis of implementing CLIL in Lithuania on the basis of CLIL practices at Šiauliai Didždvario gymnasium and sets forth some guidelines for its further advancement.

  3. Women’s Perception, Familial and Mass Media Influence upon Ratus Vaginal Douche Usage in Bali, 2013

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    Widyastuti .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: The ratus vaginal douching technique is a treatment by evaporation in the genital area,that compound is called “ratus”. There are a number of controversies surrounding the ratus technique, especiallyregarding the benefits and detrimental aspects. This study applies a behaviour model Green (2007 with a focus onthree factors: the determinant, supporting and stimulant. This study was aimed to understand the relationshipperception, socio economic, familial, and mass media upon ratus vaginal douching usage.Methods: This study used a quantitative approach with an analytic observational cross-sectional design. Study usedrandom sampling of 63 samples that taken from 3 different Spas.Results: The respondents were 44 (69.8% who performed the ratus vaginal douching and 19 (30.2% who had notperformed. Results indicated that the variables of perception, knowledge, familial, and the mass media showed asignificant correlation with the value of (p<0.05. The result of multivariate analysis came from mass media that had thegreatest influence with OR=8.47 (95%CI: 1.21-59.42.Conclusion: Mass media had the greatest influence on the use of the ratus vaginal douching in Bali Province.Keywords: ratus vaginal douching usage, women`s perception, familial, mass media

  4. Promoting responsible drinking? A mass media campaign affects implicit but not explicit alcohol-related cognitions and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Sabine; Klapproth, Florian; Müller, Barbara C N

    2015-09-01

    Rigorous tests are not usually applied to determine whether mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are useful, that is whether they lead to responsible drinking or not. In two experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a mass media campaign that runs in Germany since 2009. This campaign used posters, which emphasized negative alcohol-related outcome expectancies and challenged the positive expectancies. Based on models of alcohol use, we investigated the influence of the campaign on alcohol-related outcome expectancies, implicit and explicit attitudes, and drinking intentions. In Experiment 1, we investigated alcohol-related outcome expectancies via ratings and response latencies among 81 young adult light drinkers. Employing an affective priming task, Experiment 2 was designed to assess implicit attitudes before and after mass media campaign exposure among 83 young adult light drinkers. In both experiments, the effects of the posters were investigated before and after poster exposure as well as compared to a control group. Experiment 1 revealed that the campaign affected only the implicit associations of young adult drinkers, whereas explicit outcome expectancies remained unaffected. Experiment 2 showed that implicit attitudes towards alcohol were turned into more negative ones, but explicit attitudes as well as drinking intentions were not influenced. The mass media campaign was deemed effective even though its influence occurred on an implicit level. This research highlights the need for experimental investigations of mass media campaigns. Reasons that the findings were obtained on an implicit but not on an explicit level are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Non solo quotidiani in classe: considerazioni sull’italiano dei mass media.

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    Silvia Morgana

    2009-12-01

    -size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The article suggests that school, the place of linguistic education, should teach pupils to reflect on the ‘norma implicita’ of the media, to which young people are exposed every day outside school.  The development of critical faculties to apply to the vehicled language of the media can take as its starting point the experience of reading newspapers in class at upper secondary school, something that now involves over 44 000 teachers and almost one million eight hundred thousand students. Observation of innovative features different to the standard Italian described in the grammar books, reflections on the variety and spread of oral registers in writing, the identification of “transversal” elements involving different textual areas, may provide valid tools for practical application in teaching.   But the entire system of mass media nowadays aims at becoming complementary, at cross reference between one medium and another with constant shifts: TV and the worldwide web to newspapers, strip cartoons to the cinema,   the cinema to strip cartoons, strip cartoons to advertising.  It would thus seem to be important for our teaching to introduce the ability to reflect on the language of the other media that enter the daily experience of young people, such as strip cartoons.   

  6. AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship Program: Building Communication Skills in Young Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, S.

    2006-12-01

    The AAAS Mass Media Science &Engineering Fellowship program has succeeded in training scientists to become more effective communicators for more than 30 years. The program places advanced science, engineering and mathematics students at media sites to work as science reporters for ten weeks each summer. AAAS places between 15 to 20 students a year at newspapers, magazines and radio stations. Our goal is to create better science communicators who understand their role in fostering the public's understanding of science. Fellows leave the program with a greater awareness of how to communicate complex issues by making the connection as to why people should be interested in certain developments, and more specifically, how they will impact their communities. 2004 AGU Fellow Rei Ueyama put her lessons learned to good use during her Fellowship at the Sacramento Bee. "In a regional paper like The Bee, a (story) also had to have a local touch. I needed to show why people in Sacramento (or California) should bother to read the story. One example is the story I wrote about seeding the ocean with iron particles to fight global warming. Since ocean fertilization is a global issue, I had to clearly specify the reason why The Bee and not The New York Times was running the story. The local angle I chose was to point out that the core group of scientists involved in this study was from Monterey Bay, Calif." Many alumni tell us the program has been an integral force in shaping the course of their career. Similarly, sites often report that having a scientist on staff is an invaluable resource that allows them to cover additional science stories as well as report some technical stories in more depth. The American Geophysical Union has sponsored a Mass Media Fellow since 1997. Sponsorship allows affiliate program partners to establish connections with young professionals in their field. They are then also able to take advantage of the communication skills resident in their alumni base

  7. How the mass media report social statistics: a case study concerning research on end-of-life decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive

    2010-09-01

    The issue of whether it is right to be concerned about the accuracy with which mass media report social scientific research is explored through a detailed case study of media reporting of two surveys of UK doctors' end-of-life decision-making. Data include press releases, emails and field notes taken during periods of media interest supplemented by a collection of print and broadcast media reports. The case study contributes to existing knowledge about the ways in which mass media establish, exaggerate and otherwise distort the meaning of statistical findings. Journalists ignored findings that did not fit into existing media interest in the 'assisted dying' story and were subject to pressure from interest groups concerned to promote their own interpretations and viewpoints. Rogue statistics mutated as they were set loose from their original research report context and were 'laundered' as they passed from one media report to another. Yet media accounts of the research, fuelling an already heated public debate about ethical issues in end-of-life care, arguably acted as a conduit for introducing new considerations into this debate, such as the role played by sedation at the end of life, the extent to which euthanasia is practiced outside the law, and the extent of medical opposition to the legalisation of assisted dying. The expectation that accuracy and comprehensiveness should be the sole criteria for judging journalists' reports is, finally, considered to be unrealistic and it is argued that social scientists need to understand and adapted to the conditions under which mass media reporting operates if they are to succeed in introducing the findings of social research into public debates.

  8. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2012-06-01

    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work `blamed' the mass media for these misunderstandings. This study aimed to determine whether that blame had any foundation by examining the media habits and conceptions about genes and DNA of Australian children. With little prior research considering the influence of entertainment mass media on children's academically relevant knowledge, this was an exploratory study with a mixed modes design. Data were collected by detailed media questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with 62 children aged 10-12 years, and subjected to content and thematic analysis. Specific mass media examples children reported using were examined for genetics content. Results indicate 5 h/day of media use, mostly television including crime shows, and that children perceived television to be their main source of information about genetics. Most children (89 %) knew DNA, 60 % knew genes, and more was known about uses of DNA outside the body such as crime solving or resolving family relationships than about its biological nature and function. Half believed DNA is only in blood and body parts used for forensics. These concepts paralleled the themes emerging from the media examples. The results indicate that the mass media is a pervasive teacher of children, and that fundamental concepts could be introduced earlier in schools to establish scientific concepts before misconceptions arise.

  9. Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane Appleyard; Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes the published literature on using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use, with particular focus on effects within population subgroups and the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO conducted in March of 2014 yielded 397 studies with 34 suitable for inclusion. Included were quantitative studies that evaluate an antitobacco media campaign intended to influence youth cognitions or behavior or explore the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics among youth. An automated search and assessment of suitability for inclusion was done. Study outcomes were compared and synthesized. Antitobacco media campaigns can be effective across racial/ethnic populations, although the size of the campaign effect may differ by race/ethnicity. Evidence is insufficient to determine whether campaign outcomes differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and population density. Youth are more likely to recall and think about advertising that includes personal testimonials; a surprising narrative; and intense images, sound, and editing. Evidence in support of using a health consequences message theme is mixed; an industry manipulation theme may be effective in combination with a health consequences message. Research is insufficient to determine whether advertising with a secondhand smoke or social norms theme influences youth tobacco use. Our recommendation is to develop antitobacco campaigns designed to reach all at-risk youth, which can be effective across racial/ethnic populations. Research priorities include assessing campaign influence among lower SES and rural youth, disentangling the effects of message characteristics, and assessing the degree to which this body of evidence may have changed as a result of changes in youth culture and communication technology.

  10. Osveshhenie sovremennyh rossijskih innovacij v SMI Danii [The image of modern Russian innovations in the Danish mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko Arkady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to identify the attitude of the Danish mass media to modern Russian innovations. The research is timely because of the Russian interest in the experience of Denmark — one of the "innovation leaders" of the EU. The author analyses a number of publications on Russia in the Danish mass media. The positive image of Russian innovations in Danish periodicals is analysed against the background of historical stereotypes. The article also describes the Danish national innovation system. The image of Russian innovations in the Danish mass media is positive; however, the articles dedicated to Russian innovations constitute a small part of reports on developments in Russia. The article also contributes to social surveys carried out in Denmark through introducing new data. The research results can be used by politicians, scholars and social activists interested in the relations with Denmark.

  11. Mass print media depictions of cancer and heart disease: community versus individualistic perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne; van Amerom, Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on a critical discourse content analysis of 40 stories from the 20 highest circulating English-language mass magazines available in Canada and published in Canada or the USA in 2001. It examines the presence or absence of the social determinants perspective in the portrayal of the two most significant causes of morbidity and mortality in these countries: cancer and heart disease. The media analysis documents an absence of reflection of the social determinants viewpoint on these, the most important causes of disease and death. Thus, magazine stories ignore the role of such considerations as income, education level, ethnicity, visible minority or, Aboriginal status, early life experiences, employment and working conditions, food accessibility and quality, housing, social services, social exclusion, or unemployment and employment security in explaining health. Instead, the magazine articles underscore an individualistic approach to disease that assumes that health care is accessible and available to all, and that these diseases are preventable and treatable through individual lifestyle choices in combination with the measures prescribed through conventional medicine. Although cancer and heart disease are framed by a medical discourse, articles tended to emphasise the independence, freedom and power of the individual within the medical care system. The research documents a continuation of the dominance of conventional medicine buttressed by individualism in media stories. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. Some of the practical consequences for policy-makers and professionals are noted.

  12. Network nativi e ruolo dei Mass Media nello sviluppo delle nuove identità

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    Noemi Pierdica

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L’antropologia ha iniziato ad interessarsi e ad analizzare seriamente i mass media soltanto negli anni ’80, esplorando in particolare le funzioni dei media indigeni i quali, sfidando l’egemonia occidentale dei mezzi di comunicazione di massa, aprivano la strada agli studi sulle diverse rappresentazioni mediatiche dell’identità.Negli anni ’80, infatti, alcune comunità indigene hanno iniziato ad organizzare dei network in modo tale da poter “fronteggiare” certe politiche di governo locale e riappropriarsi della propria cultura tradizionale. Le dinamiche di cambiamento sociale in corso negli ultimi decenni hanno portato ad un maggiore controllo dei soggetti nativi sulle proprie rappresentazioni mediatiche. La relativa facilità d’uso e l’accessibilità economica degli strumenti di produzione e manipolazione dell’immagine, mostrano che quei soggetti che fino a poco tempo fa erano in mano alle rappresentazioni degli altri (di norma occidentali, ora sono pronti ad auto-rappresentarsi utilizzando i diversi supporti tecnologici a loro disposizione come strumenti di propaganda politica e culturale. Paradossalmente, le popolazioni più coinvolte in questo processo di strategie mediatiche sono quelle più distanti culturalmente e tecnologicamente dall’Occidente: Aborigeni australiani, Inuit canadesi, Indiani dell’Amazzonia.

  13. Soil sustainability study in Lithuanian alien forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čiuldiene, Dovile; Skridlaite, Grazina; Žalūdiene, Gaile; Askelsson, Cecilia; Armolaitis, Kestutis

    2016-04-01

    Tree species are shifting their natural ranges in response to climate changes (Saltré et al., 2013). Northern red oak has originated from North America, but was planted in Europe already in twentieth century. At present, it is considered as invasive species in Poland and at invasive stage in the Lithuanian forests (Riepsas and Straigyte, 2008). European larch naturally grows in Central Europe, but its range has been extended by planting it as far as the Nordic countries. According to a pollen study in peat soils, European larch naturally grew in Lithuania in the sixteenth century and was reintroduced 200 years ago (Jankauskas, 1954). Therefore, the global warming could accelerate the expansion of European larch and Northern red oak into Lithuanian forests. An urgent need appeared to evaluate an impact of those warmth-tolerant species on soil mineral chemistry and quality. New results on the determination of mineral weathering rates in alien forest stands using a PROFILE soil chemistry model were obtained during a doctoral study at the Institute of Forestry. Soil minerals were studied by a Scanning Electron Microscopy at the Institute of Geology and Geography. The results provided a lot of new information on soil weathering rates in Lithuania. The 47 and 157-year-old European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), 45 and 55-year-old Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantations and adjacent perennial grasslands were chosen for this study. The soils were classified as Luvisols and were developed from glaciofluvial deposits. The PROFILE model requires data of climate conditions (mean annual temperature and precipitation), chemical parameters of atmospheric deposition, forest plantation dendrometric and chemical (wood, foliage litter fall) characteristics, soil physical characteristics and mineral composition. A cation weathering rate (sum of Ca+Mg+ K) is 30% higher in a soil under the Northern red oak than in adjacent perennial grassland. Meanwhile, cation weathering rates

  14. VERBALIZATION OF INFORMATIONAL MODEL «CHINA’S DOMINATION» IN THE U.S. MASS-MEDIA

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    Olga Nikolayevna Sorokina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of informational model verbalization titled «China’s Domination», which is formed by the USA mass media. The applicability of this theme is proved by importance of national cognitive activity research (informational model construction through the reference to semiotically ordered set of texts. This study is timely as the mechanisms of informational models representation in mass media are poorly known. Thus, the author offers the term «informational model», considering it as an organized in a special way mass media language which foregrounds mental representations set by authors. The primary goal of this study is a research of informational model foregrounding, viz. informational model verbalization titled «China’s Domination» represented by the U.S. mass-media.  In order to solve this problem the author uses a number of research methods which supplement each other: content-analysis, definitional analysis, method of the contextual analysis, discursive and cognitive analysis of the U.S. mass media, interpretative analysis. The empiric base of this research is the content analysis of five national printing editions of the USA: «The New York Times», «The Washington Post», «The Wall Street Journal», «Time», «Newsweek».Detection of leading psycholinguistic means which form the information model «China’s Domination» in mass-media of the USA becomes the result of the conducted research. Amongst the leading linguistic means the author point out such as:  communicative strategy (polarization, defamation, reliability, allegory, and also the marked lexical units (synonyms, epithets, emotive lexicon, metaphors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-58

  15. The Implementation Effort Islamic Law Norms in Activities for Overcoming Pornography and Pornoaction on Mass Media

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    Ramlani Lina Sinaulan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effort Islamic Law norms in activities for overcoming pornography and porno-action on mass media. By using normative legal research, the result found that the concept of Islamic law, behave based on sharia, shows the importance of shaping the personality traits of Islam (syakhsiyya Islāmiyya and based on the devotion and faith. Because of the relation to the formulation of the rule of law against pornography behavior, it can not be designed, prepared and formulated based on social values. Based on the facts of society, as a result of the moral decadence that led to a permissive attitude towards their cultural infiltration, the social values in assessing the behavior may become more permissive toward behavior. However, the use of religious norms which have universal properties will not change, and even capable of elastic with the times.

  16. What to post on Twitter - Framing a discourse through mass media criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Figueiredo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of influent profiles on Twitter and how their credibility is forged are similar to newsmaking and to agenda-setting. Since some of the most popular users on that social network are not directly related to traditional mass media, it would be pertinent the adoption of the journalistic discourse on what is supposed to be published or not on their personal pages. From taking a part in one discourse, and the exposed timeline coherence of a profile, those social actors would become influent since their published content shows credibility, establishing, consequently, a reliable relationship and extended reach to their tweets. That is because of establishment of periodicity and connection through facts posted on their personal pages.

  17. Young geologist trades neptunium for newspapers as 2012 AGU Mass Media Fellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary Catherine

    2012-05-01

    Though the lure of rocks, minerals, and radioactive elements took her away from her original studies, one geology Ph.D. candidate is returning to her journalism roots this summer as AGU's 2012 Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellow. Jessica Morrison is one of 12 young scientists nationwide who are trading in their lab coats for reporters' notebooks in mid-June as part of the program coordinated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which helps young scientists cultivate communication skills to help disseminate scientific information to general audiences. Morrison is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences at the University of Notre Dame. She spends her days in a laboratory investigating the geochemistry of actinides, the radioactive elements in the "no man's land" of the periodic table—the section that often gets left off or moved to the bottom. These are elements like uranium, neptunium, and plutonium.

  18. The mass media destabilizes the cultural homogenous regime in Axelrod's model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Lucas R; Fontanari, Jose F [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-970 Sao Carlos SP (Brazil)

    2010-02-05

    An important feature of Axelrod's model for culture dissemination or social influence is the emergence of many multicultural absorbing states, despite the fact that the local rules that specify the agents interactions are explicitly designed to decrease the cultural differences between agents. Here we re-examine the problem of introducing an external, global interaction-the mass media-in the rules of Axelrod's model: in addition to their nearest neighbors, each agent has a certain probability p to interact with a virtual neighbor whose cultural features are fixed from the outset. Most surprisingly, this apparently homogenizing effect actually increases the cultural diversity of the population. We show that, contrary to previous claims in the literature, even a vanishingly small value of p is sufficient to destabilize the homogeneous regime for very large lattice sizes.

  19. Impact of mass media exposure and innovation proneness on cocoon production

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    Mir M A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 farmers were selected from the four sericulturally important districts viz., Kupwara, Baramulla, Budgam and Pulwama of Kashmir valley (India to study the impact of mass media exposure and changing proneness on the cocoon marketing and cocoon production. Results of study indicated that 58.67 per cent of the respondents had low exposure to mass media, while 34 per cent of them had medium level exposure and only 7.33 per cent enjoyed high level exposure. Change proneness status of stakeholders revealed that overall 50 per cent of respondents belonged to medium category of change proneness; this was followed by low category (42% and high category (8% respectively. With respect to marketing, 67.67 percent of the studied farmers complained about delayed marketing and only 26 per cent of them were satisfied with present marketing operations. Although 51 per cent of the farmers expressed that markets were established in the vicinity of district headquarters, yet 49 per cent were not satisfied with the location of market. Furthermore 90.67 per cent of beneficiaries expressed their displeasure over the competitiveness of marketing and as a result of poor marketing, while 77.67 percent of the rearers expressed that they were not getting remunerative prices for the final produce. On cocoon production side, majority of respondents (72% fall into low category whereas 22.33 and 5.67 percent of them were reported in medium and high category of cocoon production respectively. The cocoon productivity figures also revealed that 30.33 percent of respondents of study area harvested 6-31 kg of green cocoons/ounce of silkworm seed, while 61% percent harvested 31.56 kg/ounce whereas only 8.67 per cent of them harvested 56-81 kg of cocoons/ounce of seed

  20. Towards a Discourse for Criticism in Language Teaching: Analysis of Sociocultural Representations in Mass Media

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    Vargas Torres Margarita Rosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article states that in order to exercise citizenship with responsibility, language teachers need to popularize a discourse for criticism in which students and teachers transcend tacit knowledge and common sense due to meta-cognition and argumentation and reach systematic knowledge and procedures posed by experts in the different disciplines. As illustrated inside, the source and objective of analysis by means of which this discourse can be contextualized in language teaching is the language of mass media and all the sociocultural and signifying practices that it invokes. We conclude that through the analysis of mass media it is possible to educate students with the basic knowledge and skills necessary to interact critically in the world. El artículo plantea que, con el propósito de ejercer su ciudadanía, los maestros de lenguas deben popularizar un discurso para la crítica en el cual los estudiantes y los profesores trasciendan el conocimiento tácito y el sentido común mediante la argumentación y la metacognición, y alcancen conocimiento y procedimientos sistemáticos planteados por expertos en las diferentes disciplinas. Como se ilustra en el texto, la fuente y objeto de análisis mediante el cual se contextualiza este discurso en la enseñanza de la lengua es el lenguaje de los medios de comunicación y las prácticas socioculturales y de significación que este provoca. Concluimos que a través del análisis de los medios es posible educar a los estudiantes con conocimientos y habilidades básicas necesarias para interactuar en el mundo.

  1. [Read between the lines--mass media and the making of public opinion--medicine and the media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, W

    2005-02-01

    There has been a continuous change of civilization and communication in our society since the mid-nineties of the last century. Even medicine has to accept new fields of activity and bring up to date its response in the cooperation with the media. Both, medicine in general and gynaecology in particular will have to get used to a close relationship between public relation and professional skills. That is to say, communication, criteria and system, must undergo permanent reconsideration and development. Excellent knowledge of communication both in theory and practice together with the know-how of handling media and journalists are therefore required. The author of the following dissertation will make an effort to explain and to cover the wide range of public relation spreading between newspaper reports and interviews. Doctors whatever and wherever their job is but gynaecologists in particular must realize that co-operation with the media will be a challenge and a duty in the years ahead.

  2. IN SEARCH OF ITS OWN IDENTITY: MASS-MEDIA IN POST-COMMUNISM

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    Lucian CHIŞU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research focuses on the mass-media system as it evolved in the first post-communist decade. Right after December 1989, hundreds of newspapers, magazines and other kinds of publications appeared in Romania. Likewise, the number of publishing houses grew exponentially, from a few scores to thousands of titles. During the following years, the first private radio stations started broadcasting and, shortly after them, commercial televisions surpassed the national television in terms of rating. The journalistic career was embraced by thousands of people activating in all sectors of the media, who did not always have specialist studies in the field. As a natural consequence, the first faculties of journalism appeared and grew in number around the country. During this time, the professional elites emerged, yet the criteria of selection were disarmingly diverse, mostly targeting vocation and rather than, marginally, education. Our research aims to address this paradoxical situation and, on the other hand, to offer, in a broader picture, the characteristics of the landscape, the environment and characters that occupied the foreground of the journalistic stage. Regarding the elites, the emphasis lies on the sheer struggle for primacy, alongside with stunning discrepancies between some people`s biography (educational background and their aims, which offers notable elements worth discussing. However, in view of public opinion, the journalistic elites have succeeded in raising the professional (journalistic status to a social position regarded as superior to most public occupations, thus switching the roles they used to have during the communist dictatorship. The relationship between the writer and the journalist is also substantially adjusted by favouring the latter, after decades when, during the communist period, writers seemed to be more sensitive to the contemporary problems than journalists. The research also seeks to establish the

  3. Morphological modifications in Lithuanian child-directed speech

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    Laura Kamandulyte

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Child-directed speech (CDS is very important for the language development of a child. When talking to children adults modify their language by simplifying it and adapting it to the language acquisition stage of the child. Words and constructions that are used in CDS are aqcuired earlier by the child.This paper analyses the morphological modifications of Lithuanian CDS.The analysis proves that the most frequent morphological modifications of CDS include: 1 the higher frequency of verb tokens over noun tokens, 2 the low frequency of indefinite pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and adjectives, and 3 the high frequency of diminutives and interjections.Prevalence of the denominative parts of speech has been influenced by the cognitive function; the abundance of verbs is conditioned by short utterances. The high frequency of diminutives is related to pragmatic function, intimacy, and emotions.

  4. Lithuanian on-line periodicals on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sarlauskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Deals with Lithuanian full-text electronic periodicals distributed through the World Wide Web. An electronic periodical is usually defined as a regular publication on some particular topic distributed in digital form, chiefly through the Web, but also by electronic mail or digital disk. The author has surveyed 106 publications. Thirty-four are distributed only on the Web, and 72 have printed versions. The number of analysed publications is not very big, but four years of electronic publishing and the variety of periodicals enables us to establish the causes of this phenomenon, the main features of development, and some perspectives. Electronic periodicals were analysed according to their type, purpose, contents, publisher, regularity, language, starting date and place of publication, and other features.

  5. Preparedness of Lithuanian general practitioners to provide mental healthcare services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Sauliune, Skirmante; Jarusevicius, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large unmet need for mental healthcare in Lithuania is partially attributable to a lack of primary care providers with skills in this area. The aim of this study was to assess general practitioners' (GPs) experience in mental healthcare and their perceptions about how to increase...... their involvement in the field. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a 41-item questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 797 Lithuanian GPs in order to investigate current practices in their provision of mental healthcare as well as their suggestions for the improvement of mental healthcare services...... specialists with whom 32% of the respondents discuss the management of their patients with a mental disorder. Collaboration with psychologists and social workers was almost threefold lower (11.6% and 12.5%). Capacity-building of GPs was found to be among the most promising initiatives to improve mental health...

  6. The Complexity of Embedded Frame in Mass Media Text — A Case Study of an Entertainment Commentary%The Complexity of Embedded Frame in Mass Media Text—A Case Study of an Entertainment Commentary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志红

    2016-01-01

    Taking Goffman's frame theory as a basis, this article analyzes an entertainment commentary and investigates how people's different experience of the organization of the daily life may affect their linguistic presentation. It finds commentaries appearing in the mass media cannot just be taken as a combination of the verbal signs following a set of rules, while, instead it is a reflection of the writers'experience of the media itself, the event and participants commented, and the potential audience in-volved in a particular frame. It is through the transformation and retransformation that the author of this commentary reveals to us her basic concern about the reality in her eyes. Although texts involved in the mass media are usually taken as a one-way com-munication, they can be taken as the speaker's presentation of self in their social interaction with the potential audience.

  7. Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

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    Batorshina Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substantially to the understanding of

  8. Professional burnout and its correlates in Lithuanian neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranckeviciene, Aiste; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Bunevicius, Adomas

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prevalence and severity of professional burnout in a sample of Lithuanian neurosurgeons and to analyze its personal, interpersonal, and organizational correlates. Thirty-one out of 79 (response rate 39 %) Lithuanian neurosurgeons participated in the study. Professional burnout was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. Participants also answered questions about professional stressors, sources of professional dissatisfaction, life-style factors, sickness absenteeism/presenteeism, and professional practice. The majority of neurosurgeons were between 41 and 60 years of age (48 %), were married (97 %), had children (84 %). Most neurosurgeons had 20 or more years of professional experience (54.9 %), worked from 41 to 60 h per week (58 %), and performed up to 150 surgeries per year (77.4 %). Eight (26 %) neurosurgeons reported a high level of emotional exhaustion, five (16 %) reported high level of cynicism, and eight (26 %) reported low professional efficacy. Correlation analyses revealed that higher number of surgeries per year, more hours devoted to clinical work, opportunities for professional development, intellectual challenges at work, appreciation by the patients and prestige of the profession were related to lower level of burnout. Greater general workload, unpredictability of the work schedule, lack of necessary technical equipment, dissatisfaction with colleagues, and uncertainty about the future were related to a higher level of burnout. Burnout was reported by one-quarter of neurosurgeons who chose to participate in the study. Personal, interpersonal, and organizational factors arising while fulfilling professional duties were important correlates of neurosurgeons' burnout. Due to the moderate response rate, our results should be interpreted with caution. Larger studies evaluating burnout among European neurosurgeons are needed.

  9. CONSTRUCTING SERVICE DISCOURSES IN LITHUANIAN FAMILY SOCIAL WORK

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    Roberta Motiečienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, family social work is constructed through the analysis of social service discourses from the social workers’ perspective. Recent research shows how social workers are dealing with complex and fluid issues, as well as the societal uncertainty in their work with families (e.g., Spratt, 2009; Menéndez et al., 2015. Based on earlier studies, it is vital to analyse family social work in different contextual settings. Societal, political and organisational contexts affect the preconditions of social work, but social work also needs to operate within structures (e.g., Pohjola et al., 2014. This paper provides insights into the Lithuanian family social work. The focus is on what kinds of features construct Socialinis darbas su šeima Roberta Motiečienė, Merja Laitinen 12 family social work by analysing social workers’ discourses. This analysis continues the research of Eidukevičiūtė (2013, who analysed family social work practices in transitional Lithuanian society. This researcher aimed to deepen the knowledge about child protection services in Lithuania, the father’s role in child care and the mother’s performance in it. According to Eidukevičiūtė (2013, social workers are still struggling in the field of family social work. This study continues the research tradition in the field of family social work, paying attention to the different contextual settings where family social work is conducted. The Lithuanian government has stated that family policy is a key component of its mandate where (Social Report, 2014. The Council of Social Work plays a very important role in providing guidance on how to implement the government’s policy in the field of family social work. The European Commission Council (2015 provides recommendations for the implementation of the 2015 National Reform Programme, which should concentrate on the people (30% of the total population who are at risk of poverty. The council recommends working on

  10. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  11. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  12. Framing and sources: a study of mass media coverage of climate change in Peru during the V ALCUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Studies about mass media framing have found divergent levels of influence on public opinion; moreover, the evidence suggests that issue attributes can contribute to this difference. In the case of climate change, studies have focused exclusively on developed countries, suggesting that media influence perceptions about the issue. This study presents one of the first studies of media coverage in a developing country. It examines newspapers' reporting in Peru during the Fifth Latin America, Caribbean and European Union Summit in May 2008. The study focuses on the frames and the sources to provide an initial exploratory assessment of the coverage. The results show that the media relied mostly on government sources, giving limited access to dissenting voices such as environmentalists. Additionally, a prominence of "solutions" and "effects" frames was found, while "policy" and "science" frames were limited. The results could serve as a reference point for more comprehensive studies.

  13. How the Mass Media Use Numbers to Tell a Story: The Case of the Crack Scare of 1986

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    Jerome L. Himmelstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholars, notably Joel Best and Milo Schield, have emphasized the importance of incorporating social construction into the study of quantitative literacy. Studying social construction involves examining how numbers are produced, how they travel into the mass media, and how the media use them to depict a social problem or discuss an issue. This article presents a case study in the last of these. It asks in particular how important numbers really are in media constructions of a social problem. It focuses on the “Crack Scare” of 1986 in the United States and a classic study in social construction, Orcutt and Turner’s “Shocking Numbers and Graphic Accounts.” Drawing upon a sample of articles from the New York Times and Newsweek, it argues that the way the media told stories about the Crack Scare actually sidelined numbers, rather than emphasizing them. Numbers are not always as important as some claim them to be.

  14. Mass media and sexual health behaviour of college students in Nigeria: a study of Lagos State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onipede, Wusu

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of mass media on the sexual health behaviour of single college students in Nigeria. Simple random sampling procedure was adopted. A total of 300 pre-coded questionnaires were administered in study population. Data analysis reveals that the respondents are more frequently exposed to the internet (75%), TV (77%) and radio (75%). More frequent exposure to print, home video and internet media are significantly related to rising level of sexual activities among female respondents. Frequent exposure to radio (over 3 times) and internet (4 times) are more likely to influence condom use positively among male respondents. Among their female counterparts, more frequent internet utilization (almost twice) is more likely to raise the level of condom use. Thus, an international accord on the content of the mass media, especially on their moral implications for the younger generation is imperative.

  15. Impact of Mass-media information on suicidal behavior of adolescents and youths (review of foreign sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihristuk O.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews a number of foreign sources disclosing the influence of information in public media about suicides on population in general and on young people in particular. It discusses the possibility of imitative suicides after publications in press (syndrome of Werther and the increase of suicides after TV special reports. The reviewed articles analyze the data obtained in Internet survey of the visitors of prosuicidal web-sites. Alongside with other findings in foreign sources they register the impact of mass-media reports about suicides on young people subjected to external influences. The World Health Organization recommends a more balanced approach to news coverage of suicidal accidents by mass-media.

  16. The Social Capital of Blacks and Whites: Differing Effects of the Mass Media in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Thorson, Esther

    2006-01-01

    This study relied on telephone survey interviews of adults in two U.S. metropolitan areas to examine whether the relationship between mass media use and social capital varies according to ethnicity. A multigroup approach taken with structural equation modeling validates a four-factor model of social capital for Blacks and Whites and then, with the…

  17. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  18. Effect of Name Change of Schizophrenia on Mass Media Between 1985 and 2013 in Japan : A Text Data Mining Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Koike, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Ojio, Yasutaka; Ohta, Kazusa; Ando, Shuntaro

    2015-01-01

    UTokyo Research掲載「統合失調症の病名変更が新聞報道に与えた影響」 URI: http://www.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ja/utokyo-research/research-news/effect-of-name-change-of-schizophrenia-on-mass-media.html

  19. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  20. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to

  1. A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M

    2006-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have long been a tool for promoting public health. How effective are such campaigns in changing health-related attitudes and behaviors, however, and how has the literature in this area progressed over the past decade? The purpose of the current article is threefold. First, I discuss the importance of health mass media campaigns and raise the question of whether they are capable of effectively impacting public health. Second, I review the literature and discuss what we have learned about the effectiveness of campaigns over the past 10 years. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for the health campaign literature over the next 10 years. The overriding conclusion is the following: The literature is beginning to amass evidence that targeted, well-executed health mass media campaigns can have small-to-moderate effects not only on health knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, but on behaviors as well, which can translate into major public health impact given the wide reach of mass media. Such impact can only be achieved, however, if principles of effective campaign design are carefully followed.

  2. The Social Capital of Blacks and Whites: Differing Effects of the Mass Media in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Thorson, Esther

    2006-01-01

    This study relied on telephone survey interviews of adults in two U.S. metropolitan areas to examine whether the relationship between mass media use and social capital varies according to ethnicity. A multigroup approach taken with structural equation modeling validates a four-factor model of social capital for Blacks and Whites and then, with the…

  3. The Perceptions of Primary School Teachers and Teacher Candidates towards the Use of Mass Media in Teaching Turkish Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ruhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the perceptions of primary school teachers and teacher candidates of the use of mass media in teaching Turkish in primary education. The data for this descriptive study is collected via semi-structured interviews--one of the qualitative data analysis methods and the collected data is analyzed by employing…

  4. Local Appropriation of Global Communication Forms: A Micro Case Study of Teacher and Learners' Uses of Mass Media Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Blending Theory (CBT) (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002), a cognitive theory of human processes of innovation, can be productively used alongside critical literacy approaches, for the analysis of how teachers and learners draw selectively, transformatively and purposively from aspects of the mass media. While numerous studies have pointed…

  5. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  6. Exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling has additive effects on exclusive breastfeeding and its psychosocial determinants among Vietnamese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Alayon, Silvia; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Frongillo, Edward A; Menon, Purnima

    2016-10-01

    The pathways through which behavior change interventions impact breastfeeding practices have not been well studied. This study aimed to examine: (1) the effects of exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and hypothesized psychosocial determinants (i.e. knowledge, intention, beliefs, social norms, and self-efficacy); and (2) the pathways through which exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling are associated with EBF. We used survey data from mothers with children interpersonal counseling only, both or neither was 51%, 5%, 19% and 25%, respectively. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal counseling had additive effects on EBF as well as on related psychosocial factors, compared with no exposure. For example, EBF prevalence was 26.1 percentage points (pp) higher in the group that received interpersonal counseling only, 3.9 pp higher in the mass media group and 31.8 pp higher in the group that received both interventions. As hypothesized, more than 90% of the total effect of the two interventions on EBF was explained by the psychosocial factors measured. Our findings suggest that combining different behavior change interventions leads to greater changes in psychosocial factors, which in turn positively affects breastfeeding behaviors.

  7. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  8. Litigation, Mass Media, and the Campaign to Criminalize the Firearms Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Haltom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the co-authors’ researches on mass media coverage of crusades against manufacturers and marketers of tobacco products in the United States to media coverage of similar crusades against manufacturers and marketers of firearms in the United States. The major contention of the article is that firearms-reformers have used civil suits and allied publicity outside courts to depict firearms producers and retailers as criminals. A major tactic that has unified reformers’ efforts inside and outside courts is deployment of crimtorts, civil litigation for torts that includes elements of criminal prosecution. Crimtorts and publicity through entertainment media enabled opponents of firearms companies to lose case after case yet to damage the reputations or brands of firearms makers and marketers. The firearms interests fended off crusaders in civil action after civil action yet became portrayed as outright criminals owing mostly to crimtorts. Este artículo amplia las investigaciones de los autores sobre la cobertura mediática de las cruzadas contra productores y vendedores de tabaco en los Estados Unidos hacia la cobertura mediática de cruzadas similares contra productores y vendedores de armas de fuego en Estados Unidos. El argumento principal del artículo sostiene que los que buscan la reforma de la legislación sobre armas de fuego han utilizado las demandas civiles y la publicidad externa a los tribunales para representar a los productores y vendedores de armas de fuego como criminales. Una táctica principal que ha unido los esfuerzos de los reformistas dentro y fuera de los tribunales es el uso de crimtorts, juicios civiles para acciones por responsabilidad civil extracontractual que incluyen elementos de procesos criminales. A pesar de perder caso tras caso, los crimtorts y la publicidad en los medios de entretenimiento permitió a los oponentes a las compañías armamentísticas perjudicar la reputación o las marcas de

  9. The Contemporary Mass Media Education in Russia: In Search for New Theoretical Conceptions and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Media education in Russia in general has still not moved from the theoretical conceptions and local experiments to the wide practical implementation. It is necessary to consolidate pedagogical institutions of higher education, universities, faculties of journalism, experimenters in media education and also the media community, coordination of the…

  10. Targeted mass media interventions promoting healthy behaviours to reduce risk of non-communicable diseases in adult, ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdøl, Annhild; Lidal, Ingeborg B; Straumann, Gyri H; Vist, Gunn E

    2017-02-17

    Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SweMed+, and ISI Web of Science until August 2016. We also searched for grey literature in OpenGrey, Grey Literature Report, Eldis, and two relevant websites until October 2016. The searches were not restricted by language. We searched for individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time series studies (ITS). Relevant interventions promoted healthier behaviours related to physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption; were disseminated via mass media channels; and targeted ethnic minority groups. The population of interest comprised adults (≥ 18 years) from ethnic minority groups in the focal countries. Primary outcomes included indicators of behavioural change, self-reported behavioural change and knowledge and attitudes towards change. Secondary outcomes were the use of health promotion services and costs related to the project. Two authors independently reviewed the references to identify studies for inclusion. We extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in all included studies. We did not pool the results due to heterogeneity in comparisons made, outcomes, and study designs. We describe the results narratively and present them in 'Summary of findings

  11. Understanding the Impact of Using Mass Media as a Pedagogical Tool for Nutrition Education of Healthcare Workers in the Community College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker Jeffrey, Penny Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition-related messages inundate mass media advertisements in the United States but it is unclear as to how those messages affect a person's food selection behavior and awareness of nutrient and non-nutrient message content. This dissertation is a culmination of research examining the use of mass media (television and print) as a pedagogical…

  12. The Secondary School and the Mass Media Symposium (Grenoble, France, June 29 - July 3, 1981). CDCC Project No. 1 "Preparation for Life."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corset, Pierre

    Part of a major project of the Council for Cultural Cooperation, the project described was specifically designed to identify the aims of, the main approaches to, and problems encountered when teaching secondary school students how to use mass media, and to make proposals on how mass media education can be effectively delivered. Following a brief…

  13. Association between mass media and body weight concern among Jordanian adolescents’ residents of Amman: the role of gender and obesity." Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Abumweis, Suhad S; Allehdan, Sabika; Agraib, Lana; Ghazzawi, Hadeel A.; Mannai, Mariam A.; Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2016-01-01

    Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight co...

  14. Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning [From mass media to media system - code discussions in systems theoretical media research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Systemteoretisk medieforskning rejser spørgsmålet om, hvorvidt massemedierne udgør en samlet institution, eller om medierne, i kraft af deres indbyrdes forskelle, skal betragtes uafhængigt af hinanden. Ved at indskrive medierne i en generel samfundsteori fremstiller systemteorien medierne som et autonomt funktionssystem. Denne bestræbelse kommer tydeligst til udtryk i identifikationen af en fælles kode for massemediernes system. Med udgangspunkt i Niklas Luhmanns medieteori foretager nærværende artikel en kritisk gennemgang af den systemteoretiske medieforsknings kodediskussion. Første del præsenterer kort systemteoriens kodebegreb og Luhmanns bestemmelse af mediesystemet som organiseret omkring koden information. Den midterste del gennemgår en række alternative forslag til denne kodedefinition, hvilket illustrerer omfanget, men også nogle af begrænsningerne, ved systemteoretisk medieforskning. Sidste del foretager en kritisk diskussion af systemteoriens kodeproblematik og viser, hvordan en ensidig kodefokusering står i vejen for en fortsat udforskning af vilkårene for mediesystemets udvikling og autonomi.Systems theoretical media research raises the question whether the mass media constitute a unified institution, or whether the media, due to their internal differences, should be considered individually and independent of each other. By inscribing the media in a general social theory, systems theory conceptualises the media as an autonomous functional system. This intention is most clearly illustrated by the efforts to identify a shared code for the entire media system. Based on the media theory of Niklas Luhmann, this paper offers a critical presentation of the code discussion within systems theoretical media research. The first part of the paper briefly introduces the systems theoretical notion of a code as well as Luhmann’s definition of the media system as organised and regulated by the code of information. The second part

  15. Acceleration of Gas Flow Simulations in Dual-Continuum Porous Media Based on the Mass-Conservation POD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2017-09-12

    Reduced-order modeling approaches for gas flow in dual-porosity dual-permeability porous media are studied based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method combined with Galerkin projection. The typical modeling approach for non-porous-medium liquid flow problems is not appropriate for this compressible gas flow in a dual-continuum porous media. The reason is that non-zero mass transfer for the dual-continuum system can be generated artificially via the typical POD projection, violating the mass-conservation nature and causing the failure of the POD modeling. A new POD modeling approach is proposed considering the mass conservation of the whole matrix fracture system. Computation can be accelerated as much as 720 times with high precision (reconstruction errors as slow as 7.69 × 10−4%~3.87% for the matrix and 8.27 × 10−4%~2.84% for the fracture).

  16. Measuring the level of public understanding of total solar eclipse from the mass media: Palembang as sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati, F. G.; Ekawanti, N.; Luthfiandari; Premadi, P. W.

    2016-11-01

    The Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) on the 9th March 2016 received a huge attention from the mass media. Some of them intensively write articles about it even months before the TSE day. As we know media plays strategic role not only in raising public awareness but also interest. The aim of this project is to study the relation between the number of accesses to the media information and how well public learned the information delivered by the media. We prepared questionnaire consisting of seven semi-multiple choices on how public got information about TSE. We gave them choices of what they had heard to measure their basic understanding of TSE. Furthermore we add two “wrong” choices in the last questions to identify less serious respondents. We analyze 60 respondents of Palembang who visited Ampera bridge area. Our result shows no correlation between the number of information access and the level of understanding about TSE. We also found that local media did not provide the scientific content of TSE as well as the national media.

  17. Parental monitoring of children's media consumption: the long-term influences on body mass index in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberio, Stacey S; Kerr, David C R; Capaldi, Deborah M; Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Nowicka, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    Although children's media consumption has been one of the most robust risk factors for childhood obesity, effects of specific parenting influences, such as parental media monitoring, have not been effectively investigated. To examine the potential influences of maternal and paternal monitoring of child media exposure and children's general activities on body mass index (BMI) in middle childhood. A longitudinal study, taken from a subsample of the Three Generational Study, a predominantly white, Pacific Northwest community sample (overall participation rate, 89.6%), included assessments performed from June 1998 to September 2012. Analyses included 112 mothers, 103 fathers, and their 213 children (55.4% girls) at age 5, 7, and/or 9 years. Participation rates ranged from 66.7% to 72.0% of all eligible Three Generational Study children across the 3 assessments. Parents reported on their general monitoring of their children (whereabouts and activities), specific monitoring of child media exposure, children's participation in sports and recreational activities, children's media time (hours per week), annual income, and educational level. Parental BMI was recorded. Predictions to level and change in child BMI z scores were tested. Linear mixed-effects modeling indicated that more maternal, but not paternal, monitoring of child media exposure predicted lower child BMI z scores at age 7 years (95% CI, -0.39 to -0.07) and less steeply increasing child BMI z scores from 5 to 9 years (95% CI, -0.11 to -0.01). These effects held when more general parental monitoring, and parent BMI, annual income, and educational level were controlled for. The significant negative effect of maternal media monitoring on children's BMI z scores at age 7 years was marginally accounted for by the effect of child media time. The maternal media monitoring effect on children's BMI z score slopes remained significant after adjustment for children's media time and sports and recreational activity. These

  18. Determinants of exposure to mass media family planning messages among indigenous people in Bangladesh: a study on the Garo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Rakibul; Islam, M Amirul; Banowary, Banya

    2009-03-01

    This paper evaluates exposure to mass media family planning (FP) messages among the Garo, an indigenous community in Bangladesh. A sample of 223 currently married Garo women were selected purposively from two districts where most of the Garo population live. The analysis demonstrated that television was the most significant form of mass media to disseminate FP messages among the recipients - more so than radio and newspapers. About 80.6% of the respondents had heard of FP messages through television, while for the radio and newspapers the percentages were 55.3% and 22.7% respectively. The contraceptive prevalence rate is much higher (79.5%) in the study area than the national level (55.8%). A linear logistic regression model was employed to identify the confluence of different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on mass media FP messages. Regarding exposure to FP messages, four independent variables out of six had significant effects on the exposure to FP messages through any one of the types of media, i.e. radio, television and newspapers. These independent variables were age, level of education, occupation and number of children.

  19. The art of unhappiness: Elfriede Jelineks The Pianist between tradition and mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis S. Krausz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Ziel dieses Artikels ist die Kontextualisierung von Elfriede Jelineks Roman Die Klavierspielerin innerhalb einer kritischen Tradition der österreichischen Literatur des 20. Jahrhunderts, zu welcher fast alle bedeutenden Autoren dieses Landes in den 20er. und 30er. Jahren irgendwie gehören. Nach 1945 gelang es dem österreichischen literarischen Establishment eine harmonistishce Ideologie durchzusetzen, die alle gesellschaftliche Gegensätze durch eine eskapistische Tendenz und eine Rückkehr zu Elemente der habsburgische Ideologie ersetzten. Die Protest-Literatur der 1980er. kann als Reaktion gegen diese sogenannte Österreich Ideologie verstanden werden. Die Klavierspielerin scheint auf einem Konflikt strukturiert zu sein und dieser Konflikt zeichnet sich als Opposition zwischen einer festen Beziehung zur österreichischen Vergangenheit, ins besondere zur vergangenen Musiktradition einerseits, und dem ständigen Einfluss der globalisierten Mass-media andererseits. Erika Kohut, ihre Mutter und Walter Klemmer, die Protagonisten des Romans, können daher als Sinnbilder verschiedener Weltanschauungen gedeutet werden, die zwischen den Trümmern der Ideologie der verschollenen Doppelmonarchie und der Integration in der globalisierten Welt schwanken. Dadurch können sie auch als bedeutende Symbole der österreichischen Gesellschaft unserer Zeit verstanden werden

  20. Accounting for Sitting and Moving: An Analysis of Sedentary Behavior in Mass Media Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily; Biddle, Stuart; Esliger, Dale W; Piggin, Joe; Sherar, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Mass media campaigns are an important tool for promoting health-related physical activity. The relevance of sedentary behavior to public health has propelled it to feature prominently in health campaigns across the world. This study explored the use of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns within the context of current debates surrounding the association between sedentary behavior and health, and messaging strategies to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A web-based search of major campaigns in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia was performed to identify the main campaign from each country. A directed content analysis was then conducted to analyze the inclusion of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns and to elucidate key themes. Important areas for future research were illustrated. Four key themes from the campaigns emerged: clinging to sedentary behavior guidelines, advocating reducing sedentary behavior as a first step on the activity continuum and the importance of light activity, confusing the promotion of MVPA, and the demonization of sedentary behavior. Strategies for managing sedentary behavior as an additional complicating factor in health promotion are urgently required. Lessons learned from previous health communication campaigns should stimulate research to inform future messaging strategies.

  1. A multiscale theoretical model for diffusive mass transfer in cellular biological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellos, George E; Alexiou, Terpsichori S; Payatakes, Alkiviades C

    2007-11-01

    An integrated methodology is developed for the theoretical analysis of solute transport and reaction in cellular biological media, such as tissues, microbial flocs, and biofilms. First, the method of local spatial averaging with a weight function is used to establish the equation which describes solute conservation at the cellular biological medium scale, starting with a continuum-based formulation of solute transport at finer spatial scales. Second, an effective-medium model is developed for the self-consistent calculation of the local diffusion coefficient in the cellular biological medium, including the effects of the structural heterogeneity of the extra-cellular space and the reversible adsorption to extra-cellular polymers. The final expression for the local effective diffusion coefficient is: D(Abeta)=lambda(beta)D(Aupsilon), where D(Aupsilon) is the diffusion coefficient in water, and lambda(beta) is a function of the composition and fundamental geometric and physicochemical system properties, including the size of solute molecules, the size of extra-cellular polymer fibers, and the mass permeability of the cell membrane. Furthermore, the analysis sheds some light on the function of the extra-cellular hydrogel as a diffusive barrier to solute molecules approaching the cell membrane, and its implications on the transport of chemotherapeutic agents within a cellular biological medium. Finally, the model predicts the qualitative trend as well as the quantitative variability of a large number of published experimental data on the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in cell-entrapping gels, microbial flocs, biofilms, and mammalian tissues.

  2. Mass media, 'monsters' and mental health clients: the need for increased lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R; Hannigan, B

    2001-08-01

    A review of the limited empirical and theoretical literature indicates that current mass media representations of mental health service users appear to emphasize violence, dangerousness and criminality. This is despite the empirical evidence that indicates a decline over the last 40 years in the number of homicides carried out by people identified as suffering from mental health problems. Such inappropriate representations do much to increase stigma, ostracism, harassment and victimization of these individuals by the public. Furthermore, it can be argued that there is another repercussion of these representations and that is the subsequent government position/policy and the resulting legislation concerning care of people with mental health problems. Consequently, this paper argues that there is a clear need for psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses to become more mindful of the wider, socio-political environment in which their practice occurs, particularly if psycho-social approaches to practice are adopted in their fullest sense, and as a result increase their political lobby. Such increased lobbying should occur on behalf of, and in collaboration with, service users, and accordingly the authors describe a range of activities under the broad headings of pro-active and reactive lobbying. Furthermore, it is incumbent upon P/MH nurse educationalists to prepare aspirant P/MH nurses for this lobbying role and equip them with the skills necessary to do so.

  3. Role of mass media on knowledge generation and countering misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiva Raj Mishra; Samaj Adhikari; Vishnu Khanal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of mass media on knowledge generation and counter the misconceptions about tuberculosis (TB) transmission in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in the largest referral hospital in Nepal. The quota sampling technique was used to recruit 283 subjects into the sample. Results: A total of 235 (83.0%) respondents correctly replied that TB transmits through air by coughing or sneezing. A total of 29 (10.2%) respondents had correct knowledge about TB transmission without having misconceptions. Similarly, regarding the misconceptions about TB transmission, 157 (55.5%) replied that TB transmits through utensils, 163 (57.6%) respondents replied that TB transmits through sharing clothes/bed sheets/towel, 62 (21.9%) respondents replied that TB transmits through touching a person with TB, 142 (50.2%) respondents replied that TB transmits through food, 88 (31.1%) respondents replied that TB transmits through sexual contact. Respondents who read newspaper (ajusted odd ratio=3.004, cofidence interval=1.208-7.471) and listen to the radio daily (ajusted odd ratio=4.610, cofidence interval=1.738-12.234) were more likely to have correct knowledge on transmission of TB. Conclusions: National TB Control Program in Nepal should give priority in disseminating TB related message through newspapers, magazines and radio programs.

  4. Effect of a mass media campaign on ambulance use for chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Ziad; Cameron, Peter A; Akram, Muhammad; Patsamanis, Harry; Bray, Janet E; Meredith, Ian T; Smith, Karen

    2017-01-16

    To evaluate the impact of comprehensive public awareness campaigns by the National Heart Foundation of Australia on emergency medical service (EMS) use by people with chest pain. A retrospective analysis of 253428 emergency ambulance attendances for non-traumatic chest pain in Melbourne, January 2008 - December 2013. Time series analyses, adjusted for underlying trend and seasonal effects, assessed the impact of mass media campaigns on EMS use. Monthly ambulance attendances. The median number of monthly ambulance attendances for chest pain was 3609 (IQR, 3011-3891), but was higher in campaign months than in non-campaign months (3880 v 3234, Pambulance use for chest pain, and a 15.4% increase (95% CI, 10.1-20.9%; Pambulance increased by 10.0% (95% CI, 6.1-14.2%; P<0.001) during campaign months, the number of patients not transported to hospital also increased, by 13.9% (95% CI, 8.3-19.8%; P<0.001). A public awareness campaign about responding to prodromal acute myocardial infarction symptoms was associated with an increase in EMS use by people with chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndromes. Campaign activity may also lead to increased EMS use in low risk populations.

  5. Association of school social networks' influence and mass media factors with cigarette smoking among asthmatic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-03-01

    Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students' cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  6. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba.

  7. Lithuanian health care in transitional state: ethical problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žekas Romualdas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the economic and political reforms in post-communist countries, significant changes have also occurred in public morality. One of the tasks of the Lithuanian health policy is to create mechanisms for strengthening the significance of ethical considerations in the decision-making processes concerning health care of individuals and groups of individuals, as well as considering the positions of physicians and the health care system itself in a general way. Thus, health care ethics could be analyzed at two levels: the micro level (the ethics of doctor-patient relationships and the macro level (the ethics of health policy-making, which can be realized by applying the principles of equal access, reasonable quality, affordable care and shared responsibilities. To date, the first level remains dominant, but the need arises for our attention to refocus now from the micro level to the patterns of managing and delivering care, managing the health care resources, and conducting business practices. Discussion In attempting to increase the efficiency of health services in Lithuania, a common strategy has been in place for the last fifteen years. Decentralization and privatization have been implemented as part of its policy to achieve greater efficiency. Although decentralization in theory is supposed to improve efficiency, in practice the reform of decentralization has still to be completely implemented in Lithuania. Debates on health policy in Lithuania also include the issue of private versus public health care. Although the approach of private health care is changing in a positive way, it is obvious that reduced access to health services is the most vulnerable aspect. In the Lithuanian Health Program adopted in July 1998, the target of equity was stressed, stating that by 2010, differences in health and health care between various socio-economic groups should be reduced by 25%. Summary The restructuring of health care system

  8. Lithuanian health care in transitional state: ethical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakusovaite, Irayda; Darulis, Zilvinas; Zekas, Romualdas

    2005-11-09

    Throughout the economic and political reforms in post-communist countries, significant changes have also occurred in public morality. One of the tasks of the Lithuanian health policy is to create mechanisms for strengthening the significance of ethical considerations in the decision-making processes concerning health care of individuals and groups of individuals, as well as considering the positions of physicians and the health care system itself in a general way. Thus, health care ethics could be analyzed at two levels: the micro level (the ethics of doctor-patient relationships) and the macro level (the ethics of health policy-making, which can be realized by applying the principles of equal access, reasonable quality, affordable care and shared responsibilities). To date, the first level remains dominant, but the need arises for our attention to refocus now from the micro level to the patterns of managing and delivering care, managing the health care resources, and conducting business practices. In attempting to increase the efficiency of health services in Lithuania, a common strategy has been in place for the last fifteen years. Decentralization and privatization have been implemented as part of its policy to achieve greater efficiency. Although decentralization in theory is supposed to improve efficiency, in practice the reform of decentralization has still to be completely implemented in Lithuania. Debates on health policy in Lithuania also include the issue of private versus public health care. Although the approach of private health care is changing in a positive way, it is obvious that reduced access to health services is the most vulnerable aspect. In the Lithuanian Health Program adopted in July 1998, the target of equity was stressed, stating that by 2010, differences in health and health care between various socio-economic groups should be reduced by 25%. The restructuring of health care system in Lithuania should be based on a balance between

  9. The Relationship between Media Use and Body Mass Index among Secondary Students in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Chang, Ching Thon; Rosalia, Saimon; Charles, Lai Dekun; Yii, Sze Lin; Tiong, Pik Hoong; Yeap, Kim Pey

    2011-07-01

    Overweight and obesity rates among adolescents have increased substantially over the years. This study aimed to determine the body mass index (BMI) of students and parents and the relationship among media use, BMI, socio-demographic profiles, and snacking behaviour during television watching of secondary school students in Kuching South City. In accordance with the two-stage sampling method, a total of 316 adolescents aged 13-17 years from 7 secondary schools participated. Data were collected using questionnaire and anthropometric measurement. Independent t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-square test were performed. The mean BMI was 20.56 kg/m(2) (SD 4.33) for boys and 20.15 kg/m(2) (SD 3.91) for girls. No significant difference in terms of z score for BMI-for-age or socio-demographic factors was found. The mean duration of time devoted to media use was 4.69 hours (SD 2.93) on weekdays and 5.69 hours (SD 2.87) on weekends. Boys were found to spend more hours on media use than did the girls (t = 4.293, P media use, whereas those with self-employed fathers devoted the most time to media use. Respondents with mothers who were employed spent more time on media use than did respondents whose mothers were housewives (F = 4.067, P media time or snacking habits. This finding indicated that media time has no effect on body weight, because respondents were found to have normal weight and to consume less unhealthy food.

  10. Evaluation of filter media for particle number, surface area and mass penetrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zuo, Zhili; Japuntich, Daniel A; Pui, David Y H

    2012-07-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a standard for respirator certification under 42 CFR Part 84, using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester with photometers. A recent study showed that photometric detection methods may not be sensitive for measuring engineered nanoparticles. Present NIOSH standards for penetration measurement are mass-based; however, the threshold limit value/permissible exposure limit for an engineered nanoparticle worker exposure is not yet clear. There is lack of standardized filter test development for engineered nanoparticles, and development of a simple nanoparticle filter test is indicated. To better understand the filter performance against engineered nanoparticles and correlations among different tests, initial penetration levels of one fiberglass and two electret filter media were measured using a series of polydisperse and monodisperse aerosol test methods at two different laboratories (University of Minnesota Particle Technology Laboratory and 3M Company). Monodisperse aerosol penetrations were measured by a TSI 8160 using NaCl particles from 20 to 300 nm. Particle penetration curves and overall penetrations were measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM), and TSI 8130 at two face velocities and three layer thicknesses. Results showed that reproducible, comparable filtration data were achieved between two laboratories, with proper control of test conditions and calibration procedures. For particle penetration curves, the experimental results of monodisperse testing agreed well with polydisperse SMPS measurements. The most penetrating particle sizes (MPPSs) of electret and fiberglass filter media were ~50 and 160 nm, respectively. For overall penetrations, the CPC and NSAM results of polydisperse aerosols were close to the penetration at the corresponding median particle sizes. For each filter type, power

  11. Contemporary mass media and the communication of anthropogenic climate change in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Poberezhskaya, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the media coverage of anthropogenic climate change in the Russian Federation. It achieves this aim by testing Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky's Propaganda Model (1988) which argues that media coverage predominately stays within the boundaries defined by the 'elite's' interests. Through media analysis as well as elite interviews, this project has found that in the Russian case, regardless of the newspapers' ownership structure or dependence on advertising, there is li...

  12. The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  13. Applying the Communicative Methodic in Learning Lithuanian as a Second Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Buivydienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the strengths of European countries is their multilingual nature. That was stressed by the European Council during different international projects. Every citizen of Europe should be given the opportunity to learn languages life long, as languages open new perspectives in the modern world. Besides, learning languages brings tolerance and understanding to people from different cultures. The article presents the idea, based on the experience of foreign language teaching, that communicative method in learning languages should be applied also to Lithuanian as a foreign language teaching. According to international SOCRATES exchange programme, every year a lot of students and teachers from abroad come to Lithuanian Higher Schools (VGTU included. They should also be provided with opportunities to gain the best language learning, cultural and educational experience. Most of the students that came to VGTU pointed out Lithuanian language learning being one of the subjects to be chosen. That leads to organizing interesting and useful short-lasting Lithuanian language courses. The survey carried in VGTU and the analysis of the materials gathered leads to the conclusion that the communicative approach in language teaching is the best to cater the needs and interests of the learners to master the survival Lithuanian.

  14. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Dubakiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558 established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers.

  15. Mass media and Christian evangelisation in the digital age: Towards sustaining ‘mission’ in the Catholic Archdiocese of Jos

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    Godfrey Naanlang Danaan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Christianity has heralded a phase of religion that thrives on mission – the mandate to ‘evangelize’ or reach out to people who do not know Jesus Christ, his divinity and work of salvation. By the twentieth century when the global community began to grapple with the realities of modernity – part of which was a corresponding rise of immorality and loss of religious identity, even among traditionally Christian societies – the strategy of ‘mission’ changed to accommodate new ways of transmitting the word of God that would pierce the hearts of humans. In this information regime which offers the print, broadcast and social media platforms the impact of these on the new evangelisation is visible. The Pentecostal churches which are offshoots of the Catholic and Protestant churches have swiftly embraced this mass communication – aided technique for achieving mission thereby attracting unprecedented followership. The Catholic Church - although it imposes a strong, virile and seemingly unshaken image – is losing a huge number of its estimated one billion population, and if its media culture on mission does not change it would be a drawback. Drawing on the growing body of work which compares Catholic approach with Pentecostal mission strategy, the paper examines this distinction, and analyses the approach to the use of the media as a strategy of ‘mission’ in the Catholic Archdiocese of Jos – where Catholicism started in Northern Nigeria. Based on the analysis of mass media use in the Archdiocese, this paper argues that its communication strategy is, undoubtedly, driving the new evangelisation but needs to expand its media infrastructure for optimum results. The paper suggests that ‘mission’ can be strengthened through a robust and media-centred strategy.

  16. Increasing help-seeking and referrals for individuals at risk for suicide by decreasing stigma: the role of mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Reidenberg, Daniel J; Till, Benedikt; Gould, Madelyn S

    2014-09-01

    Increasing help-seeking and referrals for at-risk individuals by decreasing stigma has been defined as Aspirational Goal 10 in the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's 2014 prioritized research agenda. This article reviews the research evidence on the impact of mass media awareness campaigns on reducing stigma and increasing help-seeking. The review will focus on both beneficial and iatrogenic effects of suicide preventive interventions using media campaigns to target the broad public. A further focus is on collaboration between public health professionals and news media in order to reduce the risk of copycat behavior and enhance help-seeking behavior. Examples of multilevel approaches that include both mass media interventions and individual-level approaches to reduce stigma and increase referrals are provided as well. Multilevel suicide prevention programs that combine various approaches seem to provide the most promising results, but much more needs to be learned about the best possible composition of these programs. Major research and practice challenges include the identification of optimal ways to reach vulnerable populations who likely do not benefit from current awareness strategies. Caution is needed in all efforts that aim to reduce the stigma of suicidal ideation, mental illness, and mental health treatment in order to avoid iatrogenic effects. The article concludes with specific suggestions for research questions to help move this line of suicide research and practice forward.

  17. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  18. Experimental Corpus of the Lithuanian Local Dialect of Punsk in Poland. Examples of the Lexical and Semantic Annotation

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    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Corpus of the Lithuanian Local Dialect of Punsk in Poland. Examples of the Lexical and Semantic Annotation In the article the author describes the experimental corpus of the Lithuanian local dialect of Puńsk in Poland (ECorp-of-Punsk. It is the first corpus of this type for the Lithuanian local dialect. The corpus consists of three subcorpora. The first one (referred to as fundamental contains utterances given by Lithuanians in the local dialect, the second one – utterances given by Lithuanians in Polish, the third one – aligned Polish-dialectal texts.  The texts recorded in the years 1986–2012 have been included in the Ecorp-of-Punsk resources.

  19. The Role of Mass Media in Elections: What Can We Learn from 1988?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semetko, Holli A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the media's role and impact in U.S. presidential and congressional election processes in relation to 1988 and poses several research questions. Discusses the invisible primary, the primary-caucus season, the convention phase, the general election campaign, and the role of the media in House and Senate campaigns. (GEA)

  20. 论大众传媒的教育功能%On the Educational Functions of Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳

    2012-01-01

    In the transmission of information,the mass media have become "educators" historically,and play a huge education function. But the mass media as "educators" show particularity in education subject, education content, education method. Therefore, we must take the feasible strategy to strengthen the positive education function and inhibit its negative influence.%大众传媒在传送信息的同时,历史地成为"教育者",发挥着巨大的教育功能。但大众传媒作为"教育者"在教育主体、教育内容、教育方法等方面显现出特殊性。为此,必须采取切实可行的策略才有望强化其正向教育功能而抑制其负面影响。

  1. The evaluation of a mass media campaign aimed at weight gain prevention among young Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Birgitte; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate a 3-year nationwide mass media campaign aimed at preventing weight gain. The campaign was aimed primarily at raising awareness of the importance of weight-gain prevention and bringing these issues to the attention of the Dutch public. Eleven serial, independent, cross-sectional, population-based telephone surveys were used to assess campaign awareness and impact (N ranged between 483 and 493 for each of the 11 surveys). The surveys were conducted before and after six campaign waves. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to test for trends over time and for differences among the surveys for campaign awareness, message recall, perceived body weight status, overweight-related risk perceptions, attitudes, perceived social support, self-efficacy expectations, and motivations for preventing weight gain. Campaign awareness ranged from 61% after the 1st campaign wave to 88.4% after the final wave. The campaign's television broadcasting activities were an important source of campaign awareness, from both the campaign's television commercials and television-based free publicity. Message recall ranged from 41.9% to 68.1%. Small positive differences were found in attitudes, perceived social support, and intentions for preventing weight gain. Additionally, the results suggest mixed effects on self-efficacy expectations and a negative effect on risk perception. The campaign resulted in high campaign awareness, especially as a result of television commercials and free publicity on television. The results suggest that the campaign was able to create more positive attitudes and motivation but lower risk perceptions and efficacy for preventing weight gain.

  2. Mass transfer model of nanoparticle-facilitated contaminant transport in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Wan Lutfi Wan; Diamessis, Peter J; Lion, Leonard W

    2010-02-01

    A one-dimensional model has been evaluated for transport of hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, facilitated by synthetic amphiphilic polyurethane (APU) nanoparticles in porous media. APU particles synthesized from poly(ethylene glycol)-modified urethane acrylate (PMUA) precursor chains have been shown to enhance the desorption rate and mobility of phenanthrene (PHEN) in soil. A reversible process governed by attachment and detachment rates was considered to describe the PMUA binding in soil in addition to PMUA transport through advection and dispersion. Ultimately, an irreversible second-order PMUA attachment rate in which the fractional soil saturation capacity with PMUA was a rate control was found to be adequate to describe the retention of PMUA particles. A gamma-distributed site model (GS) was used to describe the spectrum of physical/chemical constraints for PHEN transfer from solid to aqueous phases. Instantaneous equilibrium was assumed for PMUA-PHEN interactions. The coupled model for PMUA and PHEN behavior successfully described the enhanced elution profile of PHEN by PMUA. Sensitivity analysis was performed to analyze the significance of model parameters on model predictions. The adjustable parameter alpha in the gamma-distribution shapes the contaminant desorption distribution profile as well as elution and breakthrough curves. Model simulations show the use of PMUA can be also expected to improve the release rate of PHEN in soils with higher organic carbon content. The percentage removal of PHEN mass over time is shown to be influenced by the concentration of PMUA added and this information can be used to optimize cost and time require to accomplish a desired remediation goal.

  3. MODEL FOR REVELATION OF UNFRIENDLY INFORMATION IMPACTS IN MASS-MEDIA WHICH ARE DIRECTED ON CHANGE OF PUBLIC OPINION

    OpenAIRE

    Victor BOCHARNIKOV; Sergey SVESHNIKOV; Voznyak, Stepan; Yuzefovich, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    In this article we proposes the mathematical model for revelation of deliberate unfriendly information impacts which are fulfilled by means of specially prepared information messages (news, reviews and others) in mass-media. The model calculates the quantitative measure for fact determination of purposeful information impact and evaluation of potential damage to interests of state (party, corporation) from impact fulfilment. The model use the following data: intensity and direction of informa...

  4. Mass media health communication campaigns combined with health-related product distribution: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Elder, Randy W; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L; Eroglu, Dogan; Baur, Cynthia; Lyon-Daniel, Katherine; Fridinger, Fred; Sokler, Lynn A; Green, Lawrence W; Miller, Therese; Dearing, James W; Evans, William D; Snyder, Leslie B; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, K; Beistle, Diane M; Chervin, Doryn D; Bernhardt, Jay M; Rimer, Barbara K

    2014-09-01

    Health communication campaigns including mass media and health-related product distribution have been used to reduce mortality and morbidity through behavior change. The intervention is defined as having two core components reflecting two social marketing principles: (1) promoting behavior change through multiple communication channels, one being mass media, and (2) distributing a free or reduced-price product that facilitates adoption and maintenance of healthy behavior change, sustains cessation of harmful behaviors, or protects against behavior-related disease or injury. Using methods previously developed for the Community Guide, a systematic review (search period, January 1980-December 2009) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of health communication campaigns that use multiple channels, including mass media, and distribute health-related products. The primary outcome of interest was use of distributed health-related products. Twenty-two studies that met Community Guide quality criteria were analyzed in 2010. Most studies showed favorable behavior change effects on health-related product use (a median increase of 8.4 percentage points). By product category, median increases in desired behaviors ranged from 4.0 percentage points for condom promotion and distribution campaigns to 10.0 percentage points for smoking-cessation campaigns. Health communication campaigns that combine mass media and other communication channels with distribution of free or reduced-price health-related products are effective in improving healthy behaviors. This intervention is expected to be applicable across U.S. demographic groups, with appropriate population targeting. The ability to draw more specific conclusions about other important social marketing practices is constrained by limited reporting of intervention components and characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Association between mass media and body weight concern among Jordanian adolescents' residents of Amman: the role of gender and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Allehdan, Sabika; Agraib, Lana; Ghazzawi, Hadeel A; Al-Mannai, Mariam A; Musaiger, AbdulRahman O

    2016-11-01

    Body image in the mass media promotes an unrealistic picture of body shape that leads to body dissatisfaction among adolescentsQuery. Therefore, the study presented in this paper aimed to assess the association between mass media and adolescents' weight concerns and perceptions of body weight and shape. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on school adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years during the academic year 2013-2014. Multistage stratified sampling method was used. The number of participants in the study was 795 students: 400 boys and 395 girls. All participants have a common behavior in rarely reading magazines, but they spend more than 2 h in watching television or less than 3 h using the internet. However, most of obese/non-obese adolescents, boys or girls, have shown high influence (p obese students read more magazines on dieting to lose weight, other mass media did not show the same results on weight concerns and body shape among Jordanian adolescents.

  6. Results of a national mass media campaign in India to warn against the dangers of smokeless tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Turk, Tahir; Prasad, C V S; Saradhi, Ranjana; Kaur, Jagdish; Gupta, Shefali; Mullin, Sandra; Ram, Faujdar; Gupta, Prakash C; Wakefield, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco consumption in India is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. In order to educate smokeless tobacco users about the health harms of smokeless tobacco and to denormalise tobacco usage and encourage quitting, a national television and radio mass media campaign targeted at smokeless tobacco users was aired for 6 weeks during November and December 2009. The campaign was evaluated with a nationally representative household survey of smokeless tobacco users (n = 2898). The effect of campaign awareness was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The campaign affected smokeless tobacco users as intended: 63% of smokeless-only users and 72% of dual users (ie, those who consumed both smoking and smokeless forms) recalled the campaign advertisement, primarily through television delivery. The vast majority (over 70%) of those aware of the campaign said that it made them stop and think, was relevant to their lives and provided new information. 75% of smokeless-only users and 77% of dual users said that it made them feel concerned about their habit. Campaign awareness was associated with better knowledge, more negative attitudes towards smokeless tobacco and greater cessation-oriented intentions and behaviours among smokeless tobacco users. Social marketing campaigns that utilise mass media are feasible and efficacious interventions for tobacco control in India. Implications for future mass media tobacco control programming in India are discussed.

  7. Increasing evidence for the efficacy of tobacco control mass media communication programming in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Sandra; Prasad, Vinayak; Kaur, Jagdish; Turk, Tahir

    2011-08-01

    Antitobacco mass media campaigns have had good success at changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to smoking in high-income countries provided they are sustained. Mass media campaigns should be a critical component of tobacco control programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Mounting evidence shows that graphic campaigns and those that evoke negative emotions run over long periods of time have achieved the most influence. These types of campaigns are now being implemented in low- and middle-income countries. The authors provide 3 case studies of first-ever graphic warning mass media campaigns in China, India, and Russia, 3 priority high-burden countries in the global Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. In each of these countries, message testing of core messages provided confidence in messages, and evaluations demonstrated message uptake. The authors argue that given the initial success of these campaigns, governments in low- and middle-income countries should consider resourcing and sustaining these interventions as key components of their tobacco control strategies and programs.

  8. Disadvantaged Parents' Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Amos, Amanda

    2016-09-09

    Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 "Right Outside" mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding), motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS)) and opportunities to act (barriers) was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  9. Impact of heat and mass transfer during the transport of nitrogen in coal porous media on coal mine fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of "gravity settling" in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.

  10. AIDS-related information exposure in the mass media and discussion within social networks among married women in Bombay, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, N

    1999-08-01

    Married women are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection in India and health education remains the most feasible preventive tool in their context. In a survey conducted among 350 married women in Bombay, it was found that a majority had acquired information about AIDS from the mass media, especially television. Although 87% of women who knew of AIDS had been exposed to AIDS-related information in the mass media in the past four weeks, only 57% had discussed it within their social networks. Those with more exposure to AIDS information in the mass media were significantly more likely to discuss AIDS within social networks. The women were most likely to discuss AIDS with their husbands as a general social issue, followed by friends and family members and least likely to talk to husbands about AIDS as a personal issue relating to their sexual relationship. Increased frequency and duration of AIDS messages on television will have a positive influence on AIDS knowledge in this group.

  11. Disadvantaged Parents’ Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neneh Rowa-Dewar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 “Right Outside” mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding, motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS and opportunities to act (barriers was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  12. Lithuanian and Russian child-directed speech: Why do we ask young children so many questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria V. Kazakovskaya; Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to identify and compare the variety and distribution of interrogatives in Lithuanian and Russian child-directed speech (CDS) from the perspective of the functional and structural characteristics of questions addressed to young children. The analysis was based on the longitudinal data of two monolingual typically developing children, a Lithuanian girl (2;0–2;8) and a Russian boy (2;0–2;8). The transcribed corpus of conversations between the children and thei...

  13. Information disclosure in corporate social responsibility reports. The case of Lithuanian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviesa Leitoniene

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility (CSR is closely scrutinized in studies of both Lithuanian and foreign scholars, the problem is the quality of social information disclosed in social re-sponsibility reports. The objective of this article is to analyse the quality of disclosed information in CRS reports of Lithuanian companies. The characteristics of quality of information were comparability, relia-bility, objectivity and sustainability. The research demonstrated that in Lithuania, CSR reports provide unreliable information, which is only partly comparable and objective, however, relatively sustainable.

  14. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  15. Research of connection between mass audience and new media. Approaches to new model of mass communication measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sibiriakova Olena Oleksandrivna

    2015-01-01

    In this research the author examines changes to approaches of observation of mass communication. As a result of systemization of key theoretical models of communication, the author comes to conclusion of evolution of ideas about the process of mass communication measurement from linear to multisided and multiple.

  16. Forecast of biogas generation in Lithuanian regional land fills

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    Brigita Šalčiūnaitė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of generated waste in Lithuania ranges from 35,000 tons to 261,865 tons per year. 35% of this quantity is biodegradable waste – i.e. about 27,830 tons/year. 75% of municipal waste in Lithuania is disposed in landfills. Such management of municipal waste is dangerous because of environmental pollution with the biogas and leachate, increased global greenhouse effect, and so on. From 1 ton of landfill waste it is possible to get about 10 m3 of landfill gas, after using it 13 kWh and 50 kWh of thermal energy could be made. There was presented in this article the estimated amount of biogas produced by Lithuanian regional landfills each separately and all co-production of biogas from landfills potential Lithuania, using the software LandGEM. Total volume of gas liberated in landfills ranges from 7.8 × 106 to 5.8 × 107 m3/year of methane and carbon dioxide in an amount ranging from 3.9 × 106 to 2.9 × 107 m3/year. Minimum quantities of biogas generated in Tauragės regional landfill – 7.8 × 106 m3/year, and the highest – Kaunas regional landfill – 5.8 × 107 m3/year. From the generated biogass it would be possible to yield 2,145 × 108 kWh of electricity and 8.25 × 108 kWh of thermal energy.

  17. Work Values of Lithuanian University Students: Internal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentas Lamanauskas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual’s work values define his/her career purposefulness. Individual’s chosen work values allow foreseeing what activity context and career model is important for him/her, seeking to successfully realize oneself in professional activity. Planning his/her professional career an individual is searching for the activity sphere, which could conform not only to his/her personal features, but also to his/her value orientations. Work values important for the individual allow realizing if they form conditions for planning modern career (successfully solve constantly changing activity problems and to correspond to always new raised requirements for a person in the organisation or in labour market, the realisation of which in today’s constantly changing labour market and social context becomes more and more problematic. Empiric research was carried out seeking to discover the work (activity value structure. The research instrument was created by the authors of the research. Two hundred sixty five first-year students from three Lithuanian universities participated in the research. These are the main higher education institutions, preparing teachers in Lithuania. The obtained results show that work value structure of the first year students studying in social and humanitarian science programmes can be expressed by 6 main factors: responsible activity values, active work values, harmony values, reward values, activity style values, and social status values. Also, the main differences were ascertained between female and male work value structure. Responsible activity values, active work values and harmony values were much more important for female than male students.

  18. The Relationship between Media Use and Body Mass Index among Secondary Students in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Chang, Ching Thon; Rosalia, Saimon; Charles, Lai Dekun; Yii, Sze Lin; Tiong, Pik Hoong; Yeap, Kim Pey

    2011-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity rates among adolescents have increased substantially over the years. This study aimed to determine the body mass index (BMI) of students and parents and the relationship among media use, BMI, socio-demographic profiles, and snacking behaviour during television watching of secondary school students in Kuching South City. Methods: In accordance with the two-stage sampling method, a total of 316 adolescents aged 13–17 years from 7 secondary schools participated. Data were collected using questionnaire and anthropometric measurement. Independent t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann–Whitney U test, and chi-square test were performed. Results: The mean BMI was 20.56 kg/m2 (SD 4.33) for boys and 20.15 kg/m2 (SD 3.91) for girls. No significant difference in terms of z score for BMI-for-age or socio-demographic factors was found. The mean duration of time devoted to media use was 4.69 hours (SD 2.93) on weekdays and 5.69 hours (SD 2.87) on weekends. Boys were found to spend more hours on media use than did the girls (t = 4.293, P consume more cereal compared with soft drinks and junk foods. Respondents whose fathers worked in the private sector devoted the fewest hours to media use, whereas those with self-employed fathers devoted the most time to media use. Respondents with mothers who were employed spent more time on media use than did respondents whose mothers were housewives (F = 4.067, P consume less unhealthy food. PMID:22135599

  19. Mass media coverage of HPV vaccination in Romania: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penţa, Marcela A; Băban, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    Romania has the highest cervical cancer burden in Europe. Despite the implementation of two human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes, the uptake remained extremely low and the programmes were discontinued. Given that media are a common source of information for the public and may influence vaccination decisions, this article sought to explore the content and quality of HPV vaccine media coverage in Romania. We conducted a content analysis of 271 media reports (from newspapers, magazines, videos and informational websites) published online between November 2007 and January 2012. Overall, results indicated that 31.4% of the materials were neutral, 28% were negative or extremely negative, 17% were mixed, while 23.6% were positive towards the vaccine. The most dominant vaccine-related concerns were side effects and insufficient testing. Elementary information about the vaccine and HPV was constantly left out and sometimes inaccuracies were found. Negatively disposed reports were more likely to contain incorrect data about vaccine efficacy and less likely to provide comprehensive information about the vaccine and HPV-related diseases. Some dimensions of media coverage varied across time and media outlets. The present findings suggest that educational interventions are greatly needed as a response to suboptimal and incomplete media coverage of HPV vaccination.

  20. Exploring the linkage between exposure to mass media and HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Boateng, Godfred O; Kuuire, Vincent Z; Boamah, Sheila; Kwon, Eugena

    2016-01-01

    Although HIV testing is critical to the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, utilization rate of HIV testing services among married women and men remains low in Ghana. Mass media, as a tool to increase overall HIV testing turnouts, has been considered one of the important strategies in promoting and enhancing behavioural changes related to HIV/AIDS prevention. Using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the current study examines the relationship between levels of exposure to print media, radio, and television and the uptake of HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana. Results show that HIV testing is more prevalent among married women than their male counterparts. We also find that higher levels of exposure to radio is associated with HIV testing among women, while higher levels of exposure to print media and television are associated with HIV testing among men. Implications of these findings are discussed for Ghana's HIV/AIDS strategic framework, which aims to expanding efforts at dealing with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Specifically, it is important for health educators and programme planners to deliver HIV-related messages through television, radio, and print media to increase the uptake of HIV testing particularly among married women and men in Ghana.