WorldWideScience

Sample records for lithium intercalation anodes

  1. Expanded graphite as an intercalation anode material for lithium systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makovička, J.; Sedlaříková, M.; Arenillas, A.; Velická, Jana; Vondrák, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9 (2009), s. 1467-1471 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB208130604; GA MŽP SN/3/171/05; GA ČR(CZ) GA104/06/1471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : graphite * anode * mild oxidation CO2 Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.821, year: 2009

  2. Effect of entropy change of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The entropy changes ({delta}S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as in complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO{sub 2} has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNi{sub x}Co{sub y}Mn{sub z}O{sub 2} and LiFePO{sub 4}, while lithium titanate based anodes have lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. The reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat generation rate across the 0-100% state of charge (SOC) range. In addition to screening for battery electrode materials with low reversible heat, the techniques described in this paper can be a useful engineering tool for battery thermal management in stationary and transportation applications. (author)

  3. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performances of new antimony-containing graphite compounds used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailly, A.; Willmann, P.; Billaud, D.

    2002-01-01

    Graphite intercalation intercalated with metal alloys able to alloy reversibly lithium constitute a large set of new anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries of significantly improved reversible capacities. Especially, graphite intercalated with cesium-antimony alloys can be used as materials for anodes in lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical insertion of lithium in such chemically modified precursors shows that lithium both intercalates in the empty van der Waals spaces of graphite and alloys reversibly with antimony. The total electrochemical reversible capacities, measured between 0 and 2 V vs Li + /Li, close to 700 mAh g -1 have been currently obtained

  5. Electron doping through lithium intercalation to interstitial channels in tetrahedrally bonded SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yuki [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Computational Materials, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Oshiyama, Atsushi [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-11-07

    We report on first-principles calculations that clarify the effect of lithium atom intercalation into zinc blende 3C-silicon carbide (3C-SiC) on electronic and structural properties. Lithium atoms inside 3C-SiC are found to donate electrons to 3C-SiC that is an indication of a new way of electron doping through the intercalation. The electrons doped into the conduction band interact with lithium cations and reduce the band spacing between the original valence and conduction bands. We have also found that a silicon monovacancy in 3C-SiC promotes the lithium intercalation, showing that the vacancy generation makes SiC as a possible anode material for lithium-ion battery.

  6. Materialographic preparation of lithium-carbon intercalation compounds; Materialographische Praeparation von Lithium-Kohlenstoff-Einlagerungsverbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druee, Martin; Seyring, Martin; Grasemann, Aaron [Jena Univ. (Germany). Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research; Rettenmayr, Markus [Center for Energy and Environmental Chemistry, Jena (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The materialographic investigation of anode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries is a significant step in the understanding and development of electrode materials, but made dramatically more difficult due to the high reactivity of the materials involved. In this work a method is presented which permits the metallographic preparation of the lithium-carbon intercalation compounds used as anode materials in today's rechargeable lithium ion batteries, and which allows the details of their microstructures to be contrasted. After classic, but absolutely water free, preparation in a protective gas atmosphere, the final stage of preparation is carried out using both ion beam polishing and manual polishing on a stationary polishing disc, whereby no significant differences of the quality of the microstructural images obtained is apparent.

  7. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Joon Jin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have displayed great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs due to their unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. The measured reversible lithium ion capacities of CNT-based anodes are considerably improved compared to the conventional graphite-based anodes. Additionally, the opened structure and enriched chirality of CNTs can help to improve the capacity and electrical transport in CNT-based LIBs. Therefore, the modification of CNTs and design of CNT structure provide strategies for improving the performance of CNT-based anodes. CNTs could also be assembled into free-standing electrodes without any binder or current collector, which will lead to increased specific energy density for the overall battery design. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of lithium ion intercalation and diffusion in CNTs, and the influence of different structures and morphologies on their performance as anode materials for LIBs.

  8. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong; Wu, Feng-Yu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Ming, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery

  9. Lithium ion intercalation into thin film anatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrata, I.; Froehlich, K.; Ballo, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to find the optimal parameters for thin film TiO 2 anatase grown by Atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as electrode in lithium ion batteries. Two parameters, the optimal film thickness and growth conditions are aimed for. Optimal film thickness for achieving optimum between capacity gained from volume and capacity gained by changing of the intercalation constant and optimal growth conditions for film conformity on structured substrates with high aspect ratio. Here we presents first results from this ongoing research and discuss future outlooks. (authors)

  10. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-12-29

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery. The prelithiation of lithium metal onto or into the anode reduces hazardous risk, is cost effective, and improves the overall capacity. The battery containing such an anode exhibits remarkably high specific capacity and a long cycle life with excellent reversibility.

  11. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agubra, Victor; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed. PMID:28809211

  12. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  13. Electrolyte additives for lithium metal anodes and rechargeable lithium metal batteries: progresses and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Rodriguez-Martínez, Lide M; Armand, Michel

    2018-02-14

    Lithium metal (Li°) - based rechargeable batteries (LMBs), such as Li° anode vs. intercalation and/or conversion type cathode batteries, lithium-sulphur (Li-S), and lithium-oxygen (O2)/air (Li-O2/air) are becoming increasingly important for electrifying the modern transportation system, enabling sustainable mobility in the near future. Though some rechargeable LMBs batteries (e.g., Li°/LiFePO4 batteries from Bolloré Bluecar®, Li-S batteries from OXIS Energy and Sion Power) are already commercially viable in niche applications, their large-scale deployment is still hampered due to the existence of a number of formidable challenges, including lithium dendrite growth, electrolyte instability towards high voltage intercalation type cathode, poor electronic and ionic conductivities of sulphur (S8) and O2, as well as their corresponding reduction products (e.g., Li2S and Li2O), dissolution and shuttling of polysulphide (PS) intermediates etc. This ultimately results in short cycle life, low coulombic/energy efficiency, poor safety, and a high self-discharge rate. Among other mitigating strategies, the use of electrolyte additives is considered as one of the most economical, and effective approach for circumventing these dilemmas. Set out to offer an in-depth insight into the rapidly growing research on the account of electrolyte additives for rechargeable LMBs, this review presents an overview of the various functional additives, that are being applied in Li-anode/intercalation cathode-based, Li-S and Li-O2 batteries. This review is believed to assess the status quo of the research and thereby arouse new thoughts and opportunities, opening new avenues for the practical realization of these appealing devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Preparation and capacitive properties of lithium manganese oxide intercalation compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Fang; Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-12-15

    Lithium manganese oxide intercalation compound (Li{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2}) supported on titanium nitride nanotube array (TiN NTA) was applied as cathode electrode material for lithium-ion supercapacitor application. Li{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2}/TiN NTA was fabricated through electrochemical deposition and simultaneous intercalation process using TiN NTA as a substrate, Mn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} as manganese source, and Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as lithium source. The morphology and microstructure of the Li{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2}/TiN NTA were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical performance of the Li{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2}/TiN NTA was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements. Li{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2}/TiN NTA exhibited higher capacitive performance in Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte solution rather than that in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte solution, which was due to the different intercalation effects of lithium-ion and sodium-ion. The specific capacitance was improved from 503.3 F g{sup −1} for MnO{sub 2}/TiN NTA to 595.0 F g{sup −1} for Li{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2}/TiN NTA at a current density of 2 A g{sup −1} in 1.0 M Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte solution, which was due to the intercalation of lithium-ion for Li{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2}. Li{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2}/TiN NTA also kept 90.4 % capacity retention after 1000 cycles, presenting a good cycling stability. An all-solid-state lithium-ion supercapacitor was fabricated and showed an energy density of 82.5 Wh kg{sup −1} and a power density of 10.0 kW kg{sup −1}.

  15. Classical molecular dynamics and quantum abs-initio studies on lithium-intercalation in interconnected hollow spherical nano-spheres of amorphous Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Malik, R.; Prakash, S.

    2016-01-01

    A high concentration of lithium, corresponding to charge capacity of ~4200 mAh/g, can be intercalated in silicon. Unfortunately, due to high intercalation strain leading to fracture and consequent poor cyclability, silicon cannot be used as anode in lithium ion batteries. But recently interconnec......A high concentration of lithium, corresponding to charge capacity of ~4200 mAh/g, can be intercalated in silicon. Unfortunately, due to high intercalation strain leading to fracture and consequent poor cyclability, silicon cannot be used as anode in lithium ion batteries. But recently...... interconnected hollow nano-spheres of amorphous silicon have been found to exhibit high cyclability. The absence of fracture upon lithiation and the high cyclability has been attributed to reduction in intercalation stress due to hollow spherical geometry of the silicon nano-particles. The present work argues...... that the hollow spherical geometry alone cannot ensure the absence of fracture. Using classical molecular dynamics and density functional theory based simulations; satisfactory explanation to the absence of fracture has been explored at the atomic scale....

  16. The prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries: a fundamental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congyan; Yu, Ming; Anderson, George; Dharmasena, Ruchira Ravinath; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2017-02-17

    To completely understand lithium adsorption, diffusion, and capacity on the surface of phosphorene and, therefore, the prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we carried out density-functional-theory calculations and studied the lithium adsorption energy landscape, the lithium diffusion mobility, the lithium intercalation, and the lithium capacity of phosphorene. We also carried out, for the very first time, experimental measurement of the lithium capacity of phosphorene. Our calculations show that the lithium diffusion mobility along the zigzag direction in the valley of phosphorene was about 7 to 11 orders of magnitude faster than that along the other directions, indicating its ultrafast and anisotropic diffusivity. The lithium intercalation in phosphorene was studied by considering various Li n P 16 configurations (n = 1-16) including single-side and double-side adsorptions. We found that phosphorene could accommodate up to a ratio of one Li per P atom (i.e. Li 16 P 16 ). In particular, we found that, even at a high Li concentration (e.g. x = 1 in Li x P), there was no lithium clustering, and the structure of phosphorene (when fractured) is reversible during lithium intercalation. The theoretical value of the lithium capacity for a monolayer phosphorene is predicted to be above 433 mAh g -1 , depending on whether Li atoms are adsorbed on the single side or the double side of phosphorene. Our experimental measurement of the lithium capacity for few-layer phosphorene networks shows a reversible stable value of ∼453 mAh g -1 even after 50 cycles. Our results clearly show that phosphorene, compared to graphene and other two-dimensional materials, has great promise as a novel anode material for high-performance LIBs.

  17. Composite anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Guzman, Rhet C.; Ng, K.Y. Simon; Salley, Steven O.

    2018-03-06

    A composite anode for a lithium-ion battery is manufactured from silicon nanoparticles having diameters mostly under 10 nm; providing an oxide layer on the silicon nanoparticles; dispersing the silicon nanoparticles in a polar liquid; providing a graphene oxide suspension; mixing the polar liquid containing the dispersed silicone nanoparticles with the graphene oxide suspension to obtain a composite mixture; probe-sonicating the mixture for a predetermined time; filtering the composite mixture to obtain a solid composite; drying the composite; and reducing the composite to obtain graphene and silicon.

  18. Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite used for lithium primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N. [Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2006-10-20

    Hybrid composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO) used for lithium primary batteries were chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the SVO surface in an acidic medium. The composite electrode exhibited higher discharge capacity and better rate capability as compared with the pristine SVO electrode. The improvement in electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was due to PPy which accommodates lithium ions and also enhances the SVO utilization. Chronoamperometric and ac-impedance measurements indicated that lithium intercalation proceeds under the mixed control by interfacial charge transfer and diffusion. The enhanced SVO utilization in the composite electrode results from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy. (author)

  19. Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite used for lithium primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    Hybrid composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO) used for lithium primary batteries were chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the SVO surface in an acidic medium. The composite electrode exhibited higher discharge capacity and better rate capability as compared with the pristine SVO electrode. The improvement in electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was due to PPy which accommodates lithium ions and also enhances the SVO utilization. Chronoamperometric and ac-impedance measurements indicated that lithium intercalation proceeds under the mixed control by interfacial charge transfer and diffusion. The enhanced SVO utilization in the composite electrode results from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy.

  20. Phosphate removal from water using lithium intercalated gibbsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Li; Cheng, Chia-Yi; Tzou, Yu-Min; Liaw, Ren-Bao; Chang, Ta-Wei; Chen, Jen-Hshuan

    2007-08-17

    In this study, lithium intercalated gibbsite (LIG) was investigated for its effectiveness at removing phosphate from water and the mechanisms involved. LIG was prepared through intercalating LiCl into gibbsite giving a structure of [LiAl2(OH)6]+ layers with interlayer Cl- and water. The results of batch adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms at various pHs exhibited an L-shape and could be fitted well using the Langmuir model. The Langmuir adsorption maximum was determined to be 3.0 mmol g(-1) at pH 4.5 and decreased with increasing pH. The adsorption of phosphate was mainly through the displacement of the interlayer Cl- ions in LIG. In conjunction with the anion exchange reaction, the formation of surface complexes or precipitates could also readily occur at lower pH. The adsorption decreased with increasing pH due to decreased H(2)PO(4)(-)/HPO4(2-) molar ratio in solution and positive charges on the edge faces of LIG. Anion exchange is a fast reaction and can be completed within minutes; on the contrary, surface complexation is a slow process and requires days to reach equilibrium. At lower pH, the amount of adsorbed phosphate decreased significantly as the ionic strength was increased from 0.01 to 0.1M. The adsorption at higher pH showed high selectivity toward divalent HPO4(2-) ions with an increase in ionic strength having no considerable effect on the phosphate adsorption. These results suggest that LIG may be an effective scavenger for removal of phosphate from water.

  1. Phosphate removal from water using lithium intercalated gibbsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-L.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Tzou, Y.-M.; Liaw, R.-B.; Chang, T.-W.; Chen, J.-H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, lithium intercalated gibbsite (LIG) was investigated for its effectiveness at removing phosphate from water and the mechanisms involved. LIG was prepared through intercalating LiCl into gibbsite giving a structure of [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ] + layers with interlayer Cl - and water. The results of batch adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms at various pHs exhibited an L-shape and could be fitted well using the Langmuir model. The Langmuir adsorption maximum was determined to be 3.0 mmol g -1 at pH 4.5 and decreased with increasing pH. The adsorption of phosphate was mainly through the displacement of the interlayer Cl - ions in LIG. In conjunction with the anion exchange reaction, the formation of surface complexes or precipitates could also readily occur at lower pH. The adsorption decreased with increasing pH due to decreased H 2 PO 4 - /HPO 4 2- molar ratio in solution and positive charges on the edge faces of LIG. Anion exchange is a fast reaction and can be completed within minutes; on the contrary, surface complexation is a slow process and requires days to reach equilibrium. At lower pH, the amount of adsorbed phosphate decreased significantly as the ionic strength was increased from 0.01 to 0.1 M. The adsorption at higher pH showed high selectivity toward divalent HPO 4 2- ions with an increase in ionic strength having no considerable effect on the phosphate adsorption. These results suggest that LIG may be an effective scavenger for removal of phosphate from water

  2. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  3. Microporous carbon derived from polyaniline base as anode material for lithium ion secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Enhui; Huang, Zhengzheng; Shen, Haijie; Tian, Yingying; Xiao, Chengyi; Yang, Jingjing; Mao, Zhaohui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nitrogen-containing microporous carbon was prepared from polyaniline base by K 2 CO 3 activation, and used as anode material for lithium ion secondary battery. → K 2 CO 3 activation promotes the formation of amorphous and microporous structure. → High nitrogen content, and large surface area with micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion, and thus improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon with large surface area was prepared from polyaniline base using K 2 CO 3 as an activating agent. The physicochemical properties of the carbon were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode material in lithium ion secondary battery were evaluated. The first discharge capacity of the microporous carbon was 1108 mAh g -1 , whose first charge capacity was 624 mAh g -1 , with a coulombic efficiency of 56.3%. After 20 cycling tests, the microporous carbon retains a reversible capacity of 603 mAh g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 . These results clearly demonstrated the potential role of microporous carbon as anode for high capacity lithium ion secondary battery.

  4. Adsorption of Phosphate Ion in Water with Lithium-Intercalated Gibbsite

    OpenAIRE

    Riwandi Sihombing; Yuni Krisyuningsih Krisnandi; Rahma Widya; Siti Zahrotul Luthfiyah; Rika Tri Yunarti

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance adsorption capacity of gibbsite (Al(OH)3 as an adsorbent for the adsorption of phosphate in water, gibbsite was modified through lithium-intercalation. The purification method of Tributh and Lagaly was applied prior to intercalation. The Li-Intercalation was prepared by the dispersion of gibbsite into LiCl solution for 24 hours. This intercalation formed an cationic clay with the structure of [LiAl2(OH)6]+ and exchangeable Cl- anions in the gibbsite interlayer. A phosphate...

  5. Influence of water contamination and conductive additives on the intercalation of lithium into graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joho, F; Rykart, B; Novak, P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Spahr, M E; Monnier, A [Timcal AG, Sins (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The irreversible charge loss in the first cycle of lithium intercalation into graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed as a function of water contamination of the electrolyte solution. Furthermore, the improvement of the electrode cycle life due to conductive additives to graphite is demonstrated. (author) 5 figs., 3 refs.

  6. Enhancing the efficiency of lithium intercalation in carbon nanotube bundles using surface functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shiyan; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Liping; Liang, Haojun

    2014-08-14

    The effect of surface functionalization on the ability and kinetics of lithium intercalation in carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles has been studied by comparing the dynamical behaviors of lithium (Li) ions in pristine and -NH2 functionalized CNTs via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. It was observed that lithium intercalation has been achieved quickly for both the pristine and surface functionalized CNT bundle. Our calculations demonstrated for the first time that CNT functionalization improved the efficiency of lithium intercalation significantly at both low and high Li ion density. Moreover, we found that keeping the nanotubes apart with an appropriate distance and charging the battery at a rational rate were beneficial to achieve a high rate of lithium intercalation. Besides, the calculated adsorption energy curves indicated that the potential wells in the system of -NH2 functionalized CNT were deeper than that of the pristine CNT bundle by 0.74 eV, and a third energy minimum with a value of 2.64 eV existed at the midpoint of the central axis of the nanotube. Thus, it would be more difficult to remove Li ions from the nanotube interior after surface functionalization. The barrier for lithium diffusion in the interior of the nanotube is greatly decreased because of the surface functional groups. Based on these results, we would suggest to "damage" the nanotube by introducing defects at its sidewall in order to improve not only the capacity of surface functionalized CNTs but also the efficiency of lithium intercalation and deintercalation processes. Our results presented here are helpful in understanding the mechanism of lithium intercalation into nanotube bundles, which may potentially be applied in the development of CNT based electrodes.

  7. An activated microporous carbon prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin for lithium ion battery anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yinhai; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Enhui; Wu, Yuhu; Xie, Hui; Wu, Zhilian; Tian, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microporous carbon was prepared by chemical activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. ► Activation leads to high surface area, well-developed micropores. ► Micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion. ► Large surface area promotes to improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon anode materials were prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin by ZnCl 2 and KOH activation. The physicochemical properties of the obtained carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and elemental analysis. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode materials in lithium ion secondary batteries were evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g −1 , the carbon without activation shows a first discharge capacity of 515 mAh g −1 . After activation, the capacity improved obviously. The first discharge capacity of the carbon prepared by ZnCl 2 and KOH activation was 1010 and 2085 mAh g −1 , respectively. The reversible capacity of the carbon prepared by KOH activation was still as high as 717 mAh g −1 after 20 cycles, which was much better than that activated by ZnCl 2 . These results demonstrated that it may be a promising candidate as an anode material for lithium ion secondary batteries.

  8. Graphitized biogas-derived carbon nanofibers as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, Nuria; Cameán, Ignacio; Ramos, Alberto; García, Ana B.

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical performance as potential anodes for lithium-ion batteries of graphitized biogas-derived carbon nanofibers (BCNFs) is investigated by galvanostatic cycling versus Li/Li + at different electrical current densities. These graphitic nanomaterials have been prepared by high temperature treatment of carbon nanofibers produced in the catalytic decomposition of biogas. At low current density, they deliver specific capacities comparable to that of oil-derived micrometric graphite, the capacity retention values being mostly in the range 70-80% and cycling efficiency ∼ 100%. A clear tendency of the anode capacity to increase alongside the BCNFs crystal thickness was observed. Besides the degree of graphitic tri-dimensional structural order, the presence of loops between the adjacent edges planes on the graphene layers, the mesopore volume and the active surface area of the graphitized BCNFs were found to influence on battery reversible capacity, capacity retention along cycling and irreversible capacity. Furthermore, provided that the development of the crystalline structure is comparable, the graphitized BCNFs studied show better electrochemical rate performance than micrometric graphite. Therefore, this result can be associated with the nanometric particle size as well as the larger surface area of the BCNFs which, respectively, reduces the diffusion time of the lithium ions for the intercalation/de-intercalation processes, i.e. faster charge-discharge rate, and increases the contact area at the anode active material/electrolyte interface which may improve the Li + ions access, i.e. charge transfer reaction.

  9. High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Gao; McIlwrath, Kevin; Zhang, Xiao Feng; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2008-01-01

    There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.

  10. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Chan, Candace K.; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    The impedance behavior of silicon nanowire electrodes has been investigated to understand the electrochemical process kinetics that influences the performance when used as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured

  11. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation

  12. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g −1 . • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g −1 and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g −1 at 0.1 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g −1 at 4 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability

  13. Classical molecular dynamics and quantum ab-initio studies on lithium-intercalation in interconnected hollow spherical nano-spheres of amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, A. [Atomic Scale Modelling and Materials, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Rios Campus, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Malik, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Prakash, S. [Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Sarkar, T.; Bharadwaj, M.D. [Center for Study of Science Technology and Policy, Bangalore 560094 (India); Aich, S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipto@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2016-04-25

    A high concentration of lithium, corresponding to charge capacity of ∼4200 mAh/g, can be intercalated in silicon. Unfortunately, due to high intercalation strain leading to fracture and consequent poor cyclability, silicon cannot be used as anode in lithium ion batteries. But recently interconnected hollow nano-spheres of amorphous silicon have been found to exhibit high cyclability. The absence of fracture upon lithiation and the high cyclability has been attributed to reduction in intercalation stress due to hollow spherical geometry of the silicon nano-particles. The present work argues that the hollow spherical geometry alone cannot ensure the absence of fracture. Using classical molecular dynamics and density functional theory based simulations; satisfactory explanation to the absence of fracture has been explored at the atomic scale. - Highlights: • Interconnected nanoshells of amorphous Si: best available lithium ion cell anode. • High cycle life not understood in the light of poor K{sub IC} of amorphous Si. • MD reveals: atomic density of interconnected structure is ∼16% less than bulk Si. • Leads to drastic reduction (DFT) in lithiation σ & metal like e{sup −} structure (high K{sub IC}). • Lowering of lithiation σ and increase in K{sub IC} result in high cycle life.

  14. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian; Hu, Liangbing; McDowell, Matthew T.; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out

  15. Anode Improvement in Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Lu, Shengguo; Fan, Ye; Lei, Weiwei; Huang, Shaoming; Chen, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Owing to their theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh kg -1 , lithium-sulfur batteries represent a promising future energy storage device to power electric vehicles. However, the practical applications of lithium-sulfur batteries suffer from poor cycle life and low Coulombic efficiency, which is attributed, in part, to the polysulfide shuttle and Li dendrite formation. Suppressing Li dendrite growth, blocking the unfavorable reaction between soluble polysulfides and Li, and improving the safety of Li-S batteries have become very important for the development of high-performance lithium sulfur batteries. A comprehensive review of various strategies is presented for enhancing the stability of the anode of lithium sulfur batteries, including inserting an interlayer, modifying the separator and electrolytes, employing artificial protection layers, and alternative anodes to replace the Li metal anode. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Bending-Tolerant Anodes for Lithium-Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aoxuan; Tang, Shan; Kong, Debin; Liu, Shan; Chiou, Kevin; Zhi, Linjie; Huang, Jiaxing; Xia, Yong-Yao; Luo, Jiayan

    2018-01-01

    Bendable energy-storage systems with high energy density are demanded for conformal electronics. Lithium-metal batteries including lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen cells have much higher theoretical energy density than lithium-ion batteries. Reckoned as the ideal anode, however, Li has many challenges when directly used, especially its tendency to form dendrite. Under bending conditions, the Li-dendrite growth can be further aggravated due to bending-induced local plastic deformation and Li-filaments pulverization. Here, the Li-metal anodes are made bending tolerant by integrating Li into bendable scaffolds such as reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films. In the composites, the bending stress is largely dissipated by the scaffolds. The scaffolds have increased available surface for homogeneous Li plating and minimize volume fluctuation of Li electrodes during cycling. Significantly improved cycling performance under bending conditions is achieved. With the bending-tolerant r-GO/Li-metal anode, bendable lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries with long cycling stability are realized. A bendable integrated solar cell-battery system charged by light with stable output and a series connected bendable battery pack with higher voltage is also demonstrated. It is anticipated that this bending-tolerant anode can be combined with further electrolytes and cathodes to develop new bendable energy systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life.

  18. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  19. Comparison of reduction products from graphite oxide and graphene oxide for anode applications in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yige; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Li, Jing; Zhu, Da-Ming; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-02-16

    Hydrazine-reduced graphite oxide and graphene oxide were synthesized to compare their performances as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries. Reduced graphite oxide inherits the layer structure of graphite, with an average spacing between neighboring layers (d-spacing) of 0.374 nm; this exceeds the d-spacing of graphite (0.335 nm). The larger d-spacing provides wider channels for transporting lithium ions and sodium ions in the material. We showed that reduced graphite oxide as an anode in lithium-ion batteries can reach a specific capacity of 917 mA h g -1 , which is about three times of 372 mA h g -1 , the value expected for the LiC 6 structures on the electrode. This increase is consistent with the wider d-spacing, which enhances lithium intercalation and de-intercalation on the electrodes. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries with reduced graphite oxide anodes show a noticeable improvement compared to those with reduced graphene oxide anodes. This improvement indicates that reduced graphite oxide, with larger interlayer spacing, has fewer defects and is thus more stable. In summary, we found that reduced graphite oxide may be a more favorable form of graphene for the fabrication of electrodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  20. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  1. Investigation of the electrochemically active surface area and lithium diffusion in graphite anodes by a novel OsO4 staining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffmann, Lukas; Birkenmaier, Claudia; Müller, Marcus; Bauer, Werner; Mitsch, Tim; Feinauer, Julian; Krämer, Yvonne; Scheiba, Frieder; Hintennach, Andreas; Schleid, Thomas; Schmidt, Volker; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    Negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries generally consist of graphite-based active materials. In order to realize batteries with a high current density and therefore accelerated charging processes, the intercalation of lithium and the diffusion processes of these carbonaceous materials must be understood. In this paper, we visualized the electrochemical active surface area for three different anode materials using a novel OsO4 staining method in combination with scanning electron microscopy techniques. The diffusion behavior of these three anode materials is investigated by potentiostatic intermittent titration technique measurements. From those we determine the diffusion coefficient with and without consideration of the electrochemical active surface area.

  2. Adsorption of Phosphate Ion in Water with Lithium-Intercalated Gibbsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riwandi Sihombing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance adsorption capacity of gibbsite (Al(OH3 as an adsorbent for the adsorption of phosphate in water, gibbsite was modified through lithium-intercalation. The purification method of Tributh and Lagaly was applied prior to intercalation. The Li-Intercalation was prepared by the dispersion of gibbsite into LiCl solution for 24 hours. This intercalation formed an cationic clay with the structure of [LiAl2(OH6]+ and exchangeable Cl- anions in the gibbsite interlayer. A phosphate adsorption test using Lithium-intercalated gibbsite (LIG resulted in optimum adsorption occurring at pH 4.5 with an adsorption capacity of 11.198 mg phosphate/g LIG which is equivalent with 1.04 wt% LIG. The adsorption capacity decreased with decreasing amounts of H2PO4-/HPO4- species in the solution. This study showed that LIG has potential as an adsorbent for phosphate in an aqueous solution with pH 4.5–9.5.

  3. First-Principles Investigations of the Working Mechanism of 2D h-BN as an Interfacial Layer for the Anode of Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Le; Xu, Ao; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-01-18

    An issue with the use of metallic lithium as an anode material for lithium-based batteries is dendrite growth, causing a periodic breaking and repair of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Adding 2D atomic crystals, such as h-BN, as an interfacial layer between the lithium metal anode and liquid electrolyte has been demonstrated to be effective to mitigate dendrite growth, thereby enhancing the Columbic efficiency of lithium metal batteries. But the underlying mechanism leading to the reduced dendrite growth remains unknown. In this work, with the aid of first-principle calculations, we find that the interaction between the h-BN and lithium metal layers is a weak van der Waals force, and two atomic layers of h-BN are thick enough to block the electron tunneling from lithium metal to electrolyte, thus prohibiting the decomposition of electrolyte. The interlayer spacing between the h-BN and lithium metal layers can provide larger adsorption energies toward lithium atoms than that provided by bare lithium or h-BN, making lithium atoms prefer to intercalate under the cover of h-BN during the plating process. The combined high stiffness of h-BN and the low diffusion energy barriers of lithium at the Li/h-BN interfaces induce a uniform distribution of lithium under h-BN, therefore effectively suppressing dendrite growth.

  4. Nb2O5 hollow nanospheres as anode material for enhanced performance in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Yoshio, Masaki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nb 2 O 5 hollow nanosphere constructed electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g −1 after 250 cycles and maintains structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. Highlights: ► Nb 2 O 5 hollow nanospheres synthesis was synthesized by soft-template. ► Nb 2 O 5 hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode material in Li-ion battery. ► Nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g −1 after 250 cycles. ► The electrode maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. ► Nanosized shell domain facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation. -- Abstract: Nb 2 O 5 hollow nanospheres of average diameter ca. ∼29 nm and hollow cavity size ca. 17 nm were synthesized using polymeric micelles with core–shell–corona architecture under mild conditions. The hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Thus obtained Nb 2 O 5 hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries for the first time. The nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g −1 after 250 cycles of charge/discharge at a rate of 0.5 C. More importantly, the hollow particles based electrodes maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability even after exposing to high current density 6.25 A g −1 . The enhanced electrochemical behavior is ascribed to hollow cavity coupled with nanosized Nb 2 O 5 shell domain that facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation kinetics.

  5. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  6. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  7. Effect of current pulses on Lithium intercalation batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, de P.E.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of (dis)charge pulses on lithium-ion batteries is evaluated using an electronic network model. Simulations give insight into the effect of the pulses on the internal processes such as diffusion, migration, electrochemical reactions, heat generation, etc. on time scales from microseconds

  8. Lithium intercalation into layered LiMnO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitins, G.; West, Keld

    1997-01-01

    Recently Armstrong and Bruce(1) reported a layered modification of lithium manganese oxide, LiMnO2, isostructural with LiCoO2. LiMnO2 obtained by ion exchange from alpha-NaMnO2 synthesized in air is characterized by x-ray diffraction and by electrochemical insertion and extraction of lithium...... in a series of voltage ranges between 1.5 and 4.5 V relative to a lithium electrode. During cycling voltage plateaus at 3.0 and 4.0 V vs. Li develop, indicating that the material is converted from its original layered structure to a spinel structure. This finding is confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Contrary...... to expectations based on thermodynamics, insertion of larger amounts of lithium leads to a more complete conversion. We suggest that a relatively high mobility of manganese leaves Li and Mn randomly distributed in the close-packed oxygen lattice after a deep discharge. This isotropic Mn distribution can...

  9. Development of new anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandi, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries have been introduced in the early 1990s by Sony Corporation. Ever since their introduction carbonaceous materials have received considerable attention for use as anodes because of their potential safety and reliability advantages. Natural graphite, cokes, carbon fibres, non-graphitizable carbon, and pyrolytic carbon have been used as sources for carbon materials. Recently metal alloys and metal oxides have been studied as alternatives to carbon as negative electrodes in lithium-ion cells. This paper reviews the performance of some of the carbonaceous materials used in lithium-ion batteries as well as some of the new metallic alloys of aluminum, silica, selenium, lead, bismuth, antimony and arsenic, as alternatives to carbon as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. It is concluded that while some of these materials are promising, practical applications will continue to be limited until after the volume expansion and the irreversibility problems are resolved. 50 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian

    2011-08-23

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out of them, either the cathode or the anode needs to be prelithiated. Here, we present a method for prelithiating a silicon nanowire (SiNW) anode by a facile self-discharge mechanism. Through a time dependence study, we found that 20 min of prelithiation loads ∼50% of the full capacity into the SiNWs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the nanostructure of SiNWs is maintained after prelithiation. We constructed a full battery using our prelithiated SiNW anode with a sulfur cathode. Our work provides a protocol for pairing lithium-free electrodes to make the next-generation high-energy LIB. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Metal-decored graphites as anode materials for use in lithium-ion accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, Bjoern Karl

    2015-01-01

    Graphitic materials are currently the most frequently used anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIB). This type of battery is considered to be the ideal application for energy storage in electromobility or in mobile devices that require a high power density. Although intercalated graphite has only about 8 % of the gravimetric energy density of lithium metal, these materials are preferred due to safety reasons. However, by chemical modification of the surface, the electrochemical performance of graphite can be enhanced. In the thesis presented at hand, a novel synthesis route for the preparation of homogenous metal depositions on graphite is shown. The reaction proceeds via a gas phase reaction by the thermal decomposition of metal carboxylates. The decomposition process was analyzed by thermogravimetry and gas phase analysis. In comparison to the unmodified graphite, copper-coated graphite shows in increased capacity and cycle stability when used as anode materials in LIBs. Special emphasis should be placed on an improved adhesion of the active material on the copper current collector. The proven catalytic activity of the metal depositions not only enables a use in battery devices but could also be innovating for catalytic processes such as chlorine-alkali electrolysis.

  12. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  13. Li+-Permeable Film on Lithium Anode for Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Bo; Liu, Yun-Xia; Song, Zhiping; Zhou, Yun-Hong; Zhan, Hui

    2017-11-08

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is an important candidate for next-generation energy storage. However, the reaction between polysulfide and lithium (Li) anode brings poor cycling stability, low Coulombic efficiency, and Li corrosion. Herein, we report a Li protection technology. Li metal was treated in crown ether containing electrolyte, and thus, treated Li was further used as the anode in Li-S cell. Due to the coordination between Li + and crown ether, a Li + -permeable film can be formed on Li, and the film is proved to be able to block the detrimental reaction between Li anode and polysulfide. By using the Li anode pretreated in 2 wt % B15C5-containing electrolyte, Li-S cell exhibits significantly improved cycling stability, such as∼900 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles, and high Coulombic efficiency of>93%. In addition, such effect is also notable when high S loading condition is applied.

  14. Spinal Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferg, E

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available , and layered LiCoO2. The electrochemical data demonstrated that Li+ ions will shuttle between two transition-metal host structures (anode and cathode) at a reasonably high voltage with a concomitant change in the oxidation state of the transition metal cations...

  15. The Incorporation of Lithium Alloying Metals into Carbon Matrices for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kevin A.

    An increased interest in renewable energies and alternative fuels has led to recognition of the necessity of wide scale adoption of the electric vehicle. Automotive manufacturers have striven to produce an electric vehicle that can match the range of their petroleum-fueled counterparts. However, the state-of-the-art lithium ion batteries used to power the current offerings still do not come close to the necessary energy density. The energy and power densities of the lithium ion batteries must be increased significantly if they are going to make electric vehicles a viable option. The chemistry of the lithium ion battery, based on lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and graphite anodes, is limited by the amount of lithium the cathode can provide and the anode will accept. While these materials have proven themselves in portable electronics over the past two decades, plausible higher energy alternatives do exist. The focus is of this study is on anode materials that could achieve a capacity of more than 3 times greater than that of graphite anodes. The lithium alloying anode materials investigated and reported herein include tin, arsenic, and gallium arsenide. These metals were synthesized with nanoscale dimensions, improving their electrochemical and mechanical properties. Each exhibits their own benefits and challenges, but all display opportunities for incorporation in lithium ion batteries. Tin is incorporated in multilayer graphene nanoshells by introducing small amounts of metal in the core and, separately, on the outside of these spheres. Electrolyte decomposition on the anode limits cycle life of the tin cores, however, tin vii oxides introduced outside of the multilayer graphene nanoshells have greatly improved long term battery performance. Arsenic is a lithium alloying metal that has largely been ignored by the research community to date. One of the first long term battery performance tests of arsenic is reported in this thesis. Anodes were made from nanoscale

  16. Lanthanum Nitrate As Electrolyte Additive To Stabilize the Surface Morphology of Lithium Anode for Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Guo-Ran; Gao, Xue-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as one of the most promising candidates beyond conventional lithium ion batteries. However, the instability of the metallic lithium anode during lithium electrochemical dissolution/deposition is still a major barrier for the practical application of Li-S battery. In this work, lanthanum nitrate, as electrolyte additive, is introduced into Li-S battery to stabilize the surface of lithium anode. By introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte, a composite passivation film of lanthanum/lithium sulfides can be formed on metallic lithium anode, which is beneficial to decrease the reducibility of metallic lithium and slow down the electrochemical dissolution/deposition reaction on lithium anode for stabilizing the surface morphology of metallic Li anode in lithium-sulfur battery. Meanwhile, the cycle stability of the fabricated Li-S cell is improved by introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte. Apparently, lanthanum nitrate is an effective additive for the protection of lithium anode and the cycling stability of Li-S battery.

  17. Electrochemical lithium and sodium intercalation into the tantalum-rich layered chalcogenides Ta2Se and Ta2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Two-layered tantalum chalcogenides are evaluated as alkali metal intercalation hosts in lithium and sodium electrochemical cells. The metal-rich pseudo-two-dimensional solid Ta 2 Se shows a poor intercalation behaviour. Lithium reacts with the selenide by deintercalating selenium from the blocks of Ta-related b.c.c. structure leading to a collapse of the structure and the formation of tantalum metal. Sodium is reversibly intercalated to a limited extent leading to complex structural changes in the selenide, as revealed by electron diffraction. The two-dimensional telluride Ta 2 Te 3 allows a topotactic intercalation of lithium below 1 F/mol, while a more extended reaction leads to sample amorphization. The better intercalation behaviour of this solid can be related with the one-atom thick metal layer and the van der Waals gap separating tellurium atoms of successive layers. Sodium can be reversibly intercalated into Ta 2 Te 3 in sodium cells which show a good cycling behaviour. Exposure of the intercalated solid to water vapour allows the preparation of hydrated products with a monolayer or a bilayer of water molecules solvating sodium in the interlayer space. (orig.)

  18. Alloying in an Intercalation Host: Metal Titanium Niobates as Anodes for Rechargeable Alkali-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman; Swain, Diptikanta; Araujo, Rafael B; Shi, Songxin; Ahuja, Rajeev; Row, Tayur N Guru; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J

    2018-02-02

    We discuss here a unique flexible non-carbonaceous layered host, namely, metal titanium niobates (M-Ti-niobate, M: Al 3+ , Pb 2+ , Sb 3+ , Ba 2+ , Mg 2+ ), which can synergistically store both lithium ions and sodium ions via a simultaneous intercalation and alloying mechanisms. M-Ti-niobate is formed by ion exchange of the K + ions, which are specifically located inside galleries between the layers formed by edge and corner sharing TiO 6 and NbO 6 octahedral units in the sol-gel synthesized potassium titanium niobate (KTiNbO 5 ). Drastic volume changes (approximately 300-400 %) typically associated with an alloying mechanism of storage are completely tackled chemically by the unique chemical composition and structure of the M-Ti-niobates. The free space between the adjustable Ti/Nb octahedral layers easily accommodates the volume changes. Due to the presence of an optimum amount of multivalent alloying metal ions (50-75 % of total K + ) in the M-Ti-niobate, an efficient alloying reaction takes place directly with ions and completely eliminates any form of mechanical degradation of the electroactive particles. The M-Ti-niobate can be cycled over a wide voltage range (as low as 0.01 V) and displays remarkably stable Li + and Na + ion cyclability (>2 Li + /Na + per formula unit) for widely varying current densities over few hundreds to thousands of successive cycles. The simultaneous intercalation and alloying storage mechanisms is also studied within the density functional theory (DFT) framework. DFT expectedly shows a very small variation in the volume of Al-titanium niobate following lithium alloying. Moreover, the theoretical investigations also conclusively support the occurrence of the alloying process of Li ions with the Al ions along with the intercalation process during discharge. The M-Ti-niobates studied here demonstrate a paradigm shift in chemical design of electrodes and will pave the way for the development of a multitude of improved electrodes

  19. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  20. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-07-02

    The impedance behavior of silicon nanowire electrodes has been investigated to understand the electrochemical process kinetics that influences the performance when used as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance spectroscopy in equilibrium conditions at different lithium compositions and during several cycles of charge and discharge in a half cell vs. metallic lithium. The impedance analysis shows the contribution of both surface resistance and solid state diffusion through the bulk of the nanowires. The surface process is dominated by a solid electrolyte layer (SEI) consisting of an inner, inorganic insoluble part and several organic compounds at the outer interface, as seen by XPS analysis. The surface resistivity, which seems to be correlated with the Coulombic efficiency of the electrode, grows at very high lithium contents due to an increase in the inorganic SEI thickness. We estimate the diffusion coefficient of about 2 × 10 -10 cm 2/s for lithium diffusion in silicon. A large increase in the electrode impedance was observed at very low lithium compositions, probably due to a different mechanism for lithium diffusion inside the wires. Restricting the discharge voltage to 0.7 V prevents this large impedance and improves the electrode lifetime. Cells cycled between 0.07 and 0.70 V vs. metallic lithium at a current density of 0.84 A/g (C/5) showed good Coulombic efficiency (about 99%) and maintained a capacity of about 2000 mAh/g after 80 cycles. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. Polymer-derived Ceramic SiCN-MoS2 Nanosheet Composite for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandavat, Romil; Singh, Gurpreet

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate synthesis of a novel SiCN-MoS2 nanosheet composite for use as Li-ion battery anode for high power applications. The nanosheet composite was prepared by thermal decomposition of polysilazane (SiCN precursor) on exfoliated MoS2 surfaces. The morphology and chemical structure was studied using a range of spectroscopy techniques that revealed a sidewall functionalization of exfoliated MoS2 by the polymeric precursor. The thermodynamic stability of SiCN-MoS2 nanosheets was also confirmed by thermo-gravimetric analysis (1000 degree C). Batteries assembled using MoS2-SiCN nanosheets as active anode material showed that lithium can be reversibly intercalated in the voltage range of 0-2.5 V with first cycle discharge capacity of 620 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.

  2. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  3. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  4. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  5. Light-Weight Free-Standing Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Films for Anodes of Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2010-07-27

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However, lithium insertion into and extraction from silicon are accompanied by a huge volume change, up to 300%, which induces a strong strain on silicon and causes pulverization and rapid capacity fading due to the loss of the electrical contact between part of silicon and current collector. Si nanostructures such as nanowires, which are chemically and electrically bonded to the current collector, can overcome the pulverization problem, however, the heavy metal current collectors in these systems are larger in weight than Si active material. Herein we report a novel anode structure free of heavy metal current collectors by integrating a flexible, conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) network into a Si anode. The composite film is free-standing and has a structure similar to the steel bar reinforced concrete, where the infiltrated CNT network functions as both mechanical support and electrical conductor and Si as a high capacity anode material for Li-ion battery. Such free-standing film has a low sheet resistance of ∼30 Ohm/sq. It shows a high specific charge storage capacity (∼2000 mAh/g) and a good cycling life, superior to pure sputtered-on silicon films with similar thicknesses. Scanning electron micrographs show that Si is still connected by the CNT network even when small breaking or cracks appear in the film after cycling. The film can also "ripple up" to release the strain of a large volume change during lithium intercalation. The conductive composite film can function as both anode active material and current collector. It offers ∼10 times improvement in specific capacity compared with widely used graphite/copper anode sheets. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Triethyl orthoformate as a new film-forming electrolytes solvent for lithium-ion batteries with graphite anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lishi; Huang Yudai; Jia Dianzeng

    2006-01-01

    Triethyl orthoformate (TEOF) as a new solvent used in propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes together with graphitic anodes in lithium-ion batteries has been investigated. It can be observed that TEOF was capable of suppressing the co-intercalation of PC solvated lithium-ions into the graphite layer during the first lithiation process and the irreversible discharge capacity of the first cycle is the smallest when using 1.0 M LiPF 6 in PC and TEOF at solvent ratio of 1:1 as the electrolytes. The CV, FTIR, EIS, SEM results show that the PC-based electrolytes containing the solvent TEOF can generate an effective solid electrolytes interphase (SEI) film during the first cycling process, and the film is probably mainly composed of ROCO 2 Li, ROLi, Li 2 CO 3 , etc. The formation of a stable passivating film on the graphite surface is believed to be the reason for the improved cell performance. All these results show that TEOF possesses a promising performance for use as an effective film-forming electrolytes solvent in lithium-ion batteries with graphitic anodes

  7. Electrochemical properties of Super P carbon black as an anode active material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanamuthu, RM.; Lee, Chang Woo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel attempt of Super P carbon black as an anode active material for lithium-ion batteries. → The first discharge capacity was approximately 1256 mAh g -1 and at the end of 20th cycling the capacity was 610 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C rate. → Coulombic efficiency of Super P carbon black electrode was maintained about 84% at the end of cycling. - Abstract: A new approach to investigate upon the electrochemical properties of Super P carbon black anode material is attempted and compared with conventional mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers (MPCFs) anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The prepared Super P carbon black electrodes are characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The assembled 2032-type coin cells are electrochemically characterized by ac impedance spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric methods. The electrochemical performance of charge and discharge was analyzed using a battery cycler at 0.1 C rate and cut-off potentials of 1.20 and 0.01 V vs. Li/Li + . The electrochemical test illustrates that the discharge capacity corresponding to Li intercalation into the Super P carbon black electrode is higher and coulombic efficiency is maintained approximately 84% at the end of the 20th cycling at room temperature.

  8. Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery Johanna K. Star 1 , Yi Ding 2 , and Paul A. Kohl ,1, * 1...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED 01-11-2011 to 01-11-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DENDRITE-FREE ELECTRODEPOSITION AND REOXIDATION OF LITHIUM-SODIUM...can short circuit the anode and cathode . Anode- cathode short circuits are especially dangerous when a flammable organic solvent is used as the

  9. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  10. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres as anode material for enhanced performance in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasidharan, Manickam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Gunawardhana, Nanda [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki, E-mail: yoshio@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Nakashima, Kenichi, E-mail: nakashik@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanosphere constructed electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles and maintains structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. Highlights: ► Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres synthesis was synthesized by soft-template. ► Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode material in Li-ion battery. ► Nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles. ► The electrode maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. ► Nanosized shell domain facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation. -- Abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres of average diameter ca. ∼29 nm and hollow cavity size ca. 17 nm were synthesized using polymeric micelles with core–shell–corona architecture under mild conditions. The hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Thus obtained Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries for the first time. The nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles of charge/discharge at a rate of 0.5 C. More importantly, the hollow particles based electrodes maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability even after exposing to high current density 6.25 A g{sup −1}. The enhanced electrochemical behavior is ascribed to hollow cavity coupled with nanosized Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} shell domain that facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation kinetics.

  11. Hydrogen Adsorption in Flame Synthesized and Lithium Intercalated Carbon Nanofibers--A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhand, Vivek; Prasad, J Sarada; Rao, Venkateswer M; Kalluri, Sujith; Jain, Pawan Kumar; Sreedhar, B

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have been synthesized under partial combustion conditions in a flame reactor using different mixtures of hydrocarbon gases in the presence and absence of precursors. The hydrogen (H2) adsorption studies have been carried out using a high pressure Sievert's apparatus maintained at a constant temperature (24 degrees C). The flame synthesized CNFs showed high degree of H2 adsorption capacities at 100 atm pressure. The highest H2 capacities recorded have been 4.1 wt% [for CNF produced by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-Air (E-17)], 3.7 wt% [for nano carbons produced by Methane-Acetylene-Air (EMAC-4)] and 5.04 wt% for [Lithium intercalated sample (Li-EMAC-4)] respectively.

  12. A Combined Thermodynamics & Computational Method to Assess Lithium Composition in Anode and Cathode of Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenyu; Jiang, Lianlian; Van Durmen, Pauline; Saadat, Somaye; Yazami, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    With aim to address the open question of accurate determination of lithium composition in anode and cathode at a defined state of charge (SOC) of lithium ion batteries (LIB), we developed a method combining electrochemical thermodynamic measurements (ETM) and computational data fitting protocol. It is a common knowledge that in a lithium ion battery the SOC of anode and cathode differ from the SOC of the full-cell. Differences are in large part due to irreversible lithium losses within cell and to electrode mass unbalance. This implies that the lithium composition range in anode and in cathode during full charge and discharge cycle in full-cell is different from the composition range achieved in lithium half-cells of anode and cathode over their respective full SOC ranges. To the authors knowledge there is no unequivocal and practical method to determine the actual lithium composition of electrodes in a LIB, hence their SOC. Yet, accurate lithium composition assessment is fundamental not only for understanding the physics of electrodes but also for optimizing cell performances, particularly energy density and cycle life.

  13. Layered lithium transition metal nitrides as novel anodes for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu; Horikawa, Kumi; Fujiyosi, Minako; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    We report the approach to overcome the deterrents of the hexagonal Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N as potential insertion anode for lithium ion batteries: the rapid capacity fading upon long cycles and the fully Li-rich state before cycling. Research reveals that the appropriate amount of Co substituted by Cu can greatly improve the cycling performance of Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N. It is attributed to the enhanced electrochemical stability and interfacial comparability. However, doped Cu leads to a slightly decreased capacity. High energy mechanical milling (HEMM) was found to effectively improve the reversible capacity associated with the electrochemical kinetics by modifying the active hosts' morphology characteristics. Moreover, the composite based on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) and Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N was developed under HEMM. The composite demonstrates a high first cycle efficiency at 100% and a large reversible capacity of ca. 450 mAh g -1 , as well as a stable cycling performance. This work may contribute to a development of the lithium transition metal nitrides as novel anodes for lithium ion batteries

  14. Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Han

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lithium titanium oxide (LTO anode is widely accepted as one of the best anodes for the future lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs, especially since its cycle life is very long. In this paper, three different commercial LTO cells from different manufacturers were studied in accelerated cycle life tests and their capacity fades were compared. The result indicates that under 55 °C, the LTO battery still shows a high capacity fade rate. The battery aging processes of all the commercial LTO cells clearly include two stages. Using the incremental capacity (IC analysis, it could be judged that in the first stage, the battery capacity decreases mainly due to the loss of anode material and the degradation rate is lower. In the second stage, the battery capacity decreases much faster, mainly due to the degradation of the cathode material. The result is important for the state of health (SOH estimation and remaining useful life (RUL prediction of battery management system (BMS for LTO batteries in EVs.

  15. Ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets as anode materials for lithium and sodium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuyong; Zou, Hailin; Xiang, Hongfa; Guo, Xin; Zhou, Tianpei; Wu, Yucheng; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Yu, Yan

    2016-06-13

    Two-dimensional Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanosheets are prepared via a surfactant assisted hydrothermal process. Polyether (P123) was added as the surfactant to modify the surface and control the microstructure of the hydrothermal products and thus affect the electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized LTO anode material. XRD results show that the addition of P123 can restrain the growth of Li2TiO3 during the hydrothermal process, thus affecting the morphology and enhancing the rate performance of the final products. With the addition of P123, the growth of LTO can be restrained and ultrathin LTO nanosheets can be obtained after high temperature sintering, which is beneficial for the charge transfer and Li+ ion diffusion. The rate performance of these two different LTO materials is very different because of their differences in phase composition and fine morphology. The P123-assisted nanostructured LTO sample (P-LTO) shows a much higher rate capability than the LTO sample without P123, with over 130 mAh g-1 capacity retained at the charge-discharge rate of 64C when used in a lithium battery. For intercalation of larger size Na+ ions, the P-LTO still exhibit a capacity of 115 mAh g-1 at a charge (de-sodiation process) rate of 10C and maintains 96% capacity after 400 cycles

  16. Coral-Inspired Nanoengineering Design for Long-Cycle and Flexible Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yangyong; Wang, Cheng; Xue, Yinghui; Zhang, Qin; Mendes, Rafael G; Chen, Linfeng; Zhang, Tao; Gemming, Thomas; Rümmeli, Mark H; Ai, Xinping; Fu, Lei

    2016-04-13

    Conversion reaction electrode materials (CREMs) have gained significant interest in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their high theoretical gravimetric capacity. However, traditional CREMs-based electrodes, with large strain arising from Li(+) intercalation/deintercalation causes pulverization or electrical breakdown and cracking of the active materials which leads to structural collapse, limiting performance. Therefore, in order to construct electrodes with a strong tolerance to the strain incurred during the conversion reaction process, we design a coral-like three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructure by using cross-linked nanoflakes interspersed with nanoparticles (NPs) standing vertically on graphene foam (GF). The coral-like 3D hierarchical heterostructures can efficiently disperse the strain from both internal and external forces as well as increase the specific surface area for enhanced electrochemical reactions. These features lead to long-cycle stability and excellent flexibility in LIBs. Fe3O4 NPs and CoO NFs are utilized as a model system to demonstrate our strategy. The as-prepared coral-like hierarchical electrode is studied as an anode in LIBs for the first time and is shown to deliver a high reversible specific gravimetric capacity of ∼1200 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 0.5 A g(-1) for 400 cycles. In addition, our batteries can even power a green light-emitting diode when bent to high degrees confirming the excellent flexibility of the material.

  17. Factors influencing charge capacity of vanadium pentoxide thin films during lithium ion intercalation/deintercalation cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamarguy, D.; Castle, J. E.; Ibris, N.; Salvi, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    The intercalation of vanadium pentoxide by lithium ions leads to a change in optical properties, a process that is of value in thin-film electrochromic devices. In this study, films of V 2 O 5 , deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass coupons by a sol-gel process, were challenged by increasing numbers of charge-discharge cycles ranging from 72 to 589 full cycles. The samples were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and then examined in the deintercalated state by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). XPS enabled measurement of the thickness and composition of the solid-electrolyte interface and provided evidence of the residual V 4+ concentration within the top few nanometers of the surface. The SIMS profile gave direct information on the thickness of the films and on the thickness loss caused by rinsing the samples after the electrochemical exposure. Determination, by SIMS, of the concentration of lithium ions has enabled a correction to be made for the amount of inactive material within the electrochemically active region of the film. The SIMS depth profiles for lithium in the four samples are similar, with a marked buildup of Li at the interface with the ITO. This interphase zone had a thickness of ∼27 nm and was electrochemically inactive, enabling a further correction to be made. Thus, by means of the XPS and the SIMS results the chemistry and thickness of the films could be fully characterized. The remaining inconsistency between capacity (between 35% and 100% of the anticipated charge) and number of cycles is ascribed to edge effects arising from the method used for production of the coupons

  18. Lithium intercalation in the LiLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} perovskite structure; Intercalation du lithium dans la structure perovskite LiLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnke, C.; Bohnke, O.; Fourquet, J.L. [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures

    1996-12-31

    ABO{sub 3} perovskite-type oxides having vacancies in the A-sites of their structure are interesting candidates for solid electrolytes when their A-sites are occupied by Li{sup +} ions having a high mobility. This is the case with the [Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}]TiO{sub 3} solid solution compound which has a 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} ionic conductivity at ambient temperature. Electrochemical intercalation in this material is possible thanks to the presence of Ti{sup 4+} but the small amount of vacancies (0.33 maximum) leads to a low intercalation rate. In order to solve this problem, the LiLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} material which has a greater amount of vacancies has been studied and the results relative to the electrochemical intercalation of lithium in this perovskite are presented. The thermodynamical and kinetics properties of the lithium intercalation reaction have been studied by intermittent galvano-static discharges and impedance spectroscopy in LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate medium. (J.S.) 7 refs.

  19. Lithium intercalation in the LiLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} perovskite structure; Intercalation du lithium dans la structure perovskite LiLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnke, C; Bohnke, O; Fourquet, J L [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures

    1997-12-31

    ABO{sub 3} perovskite-type oxides having vacancies in the A-sites of their structure are interesting candidates for solid electrolytes when their A-sites are occupied by Li{sup +} ions having a high mobility. This is the case with the [Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}]TiO{sub 3} solid solution compound which has a 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} ionic conductivity at ambient temperature. Electrochemical intercalation in this material is possible thanks to the presence of Ti{sup 4+} but the small amount of vacancies (0.33 maximum) leads to a low intercalation rate. In order to solve this problem, the LiLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} material which has a greater amount of vacancies has been studied and the results relative to the electrochemical intercalation of lithium in this perovskite are presented. The thermodynamical and kinetics properties of the lithium intercalation reaction have been studied by intermittent galvano-static discharges and impedance spectroscopy in LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate medium. (J.S.) 7 refs.

  20. Protection of Lithium (Li) Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylik, Yuriy [Sion Power Corporation, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Sion Power focused on metallic lithium anode protection, employing the Dual-Phase Electrolyte approach. The objective of this project was to develop a unique electrolyte providing two liquid phases having good Li+ conductivity, self-partitioning and immiscibility, serving separately the cathode and anode electrodes. This Dual-Phase Electrolyte was combined with thin film multi-layer, physical barrier membranes developed partially under a separate ARPA-E funded project. All these protective structures were stabilized by externally applied pressure. This strategy was used for Li-S cells. The development directly addressed cell safety, particularly higher thermal stability, while also allowing higher energies and cycle life. Safety tests showed that 100% of cells with Dual-Phase Electrolyte were intact and did not exhibit thermal runaway up to 178 °C and thus met the project objective of increasing the runaway temperature to >165°C. Cells also passed cycling at USABC Dynamic Stress Test conditions developed for Electric Vehicle applications and generated specific energy > 300 Wh/kg.

  1. Porous Sandwiched Graphene/Silicon Anodes for Lithium Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Liangming; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane within the confined galleries region of graphite oxide. • New porous sandwiched graphene/Si nanocomposites were prepared by magnesium thermal reduction. • The Si nanostructure was compactly sandwiched between two neighboring graphenes. • The Si/graphene anodes deliver large reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability. - Abstract: Porous sandwiched graphene/Si nanocomposites (PG-Si) are prepared by in situ hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane within the confined gallery region of graphite oxide, and then magnesium thermal reduction of the intra-gallery SiO 2 to Si nanocrystals. The Si nanostructures are in situ formed within the confined gallery region of graphite, and they are compactly sandwiched between two neighboring graphene sheets. This compactly sandwiched structure affords enhanced electron conductivity, and prevents Si nanoparticles from aggregation. Meanwhile, the free voids between neighboring Si nanocrystals alleviate the volume change of Si during cycling. As a consequence, the resulting PG-Si nanocomposites are high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries which show long cycle life (>500 cycles) and high specific charge capacity (1464 mAh g −1 at a current density of 200 mA/g, 920 mAh g −1 at a current density of 1.68A/g after 500 cycles). The Li + diffusion kinetics in PG-Si is also discussed.

  2. The electrochemical performance and mechanism of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for lithium and sodium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jinli; Liu, Li; Guo, Shengping; Hu, Hai; Yan, Zichao; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Zhifeng; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Wang, Xianyou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The as-prepared CoF 2 shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries. •The Li insertion/extraction mechanism of CoF 2 below 1.2 V was firstly proposed. •The electrochemical performance of CoF 2 as anode material in sodium ion batteries was firstly studied. -- Abstract: Cobalt (II) fluoride begins to enter into the horizons of people along with the research upsurge of metal fluorides. It is very significative and theoretically influential to make certain its electrochemical reaction mechanism. In this work, we discover a new and unrevealed reversible interfacial intercalation mechanism reacting below 1.2 V for cobalt (II) fluoride electrode material, which contributes a combined discharge capacity of about 400 mA h g −1 with the formation of SEI film at the initial discharge process. A highly reversible storage capacity of 120 mA h g −1 is observed when the cell is cycled over the voltage of 0.01-1.2 V at 0.2 C, and the low-potential voltage reaction process has a significant impact for the whole electrochemical process. Electrochemical analyses suggest that pure cobalt (II) fluoride shows better electrochemical performance when it is cycled at 3.2-0.01 V compared to the high range (1.0-4.5 V). So, we hold that cobalt (II) fluoride is more suitable to serve as anode material for lithium ion batteries. In addition, we also try to reveal the relevant performance and reaction mechanism, and realize the possibility of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for sodium ion batteries

  3. Interconnected Silicon Hollow Nanospheres for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan; McDowell, Matthew T.; Ryu, Ill; Wu, Hui; Liu, Nian; Hu, Liangbing; Nix, William D.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Silicon is a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, volume changes during cycling cause pulverization and capacity fade, and improving cycle life is a major

  4. Inorganic Glue Enabling High Performance of Silicon Particles as Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Choi, Jang Wook; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    overcome the pulverization problem, however these nano-engineered silicon anodes usually involve very expensive processes and have difficulty being applied in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this study, we report a novel method using amorphous silicon

  5. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Hannah Elise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  6. Performance of lithium alloy/lithium and calcium/lithium anodes in thionyl chloride cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keister, P.; Greenwood, J.M.; Holmes, C.F.; Mead, R.T.

    1985-08-01

    A laminar composite anode construction comprising an inner metal completely surrounded by Li foil was studied as a means of obtaining an end-of-life indicator in a thionyl chloride cell. Inner metals of Ca, 14-2.9 at.% Ca in Li alloys, and 6.7-2.1 at.% Mg in Li alloys were evaluated. Discharge characteristics of cells using these sandwich anodes as well as cells containing the inner anode material alone were determined. It was concluded that cells made with inner anode materials of Ca and Ca/Li alloys containing more than 7 at.% Ca showed promise as a means of obtaining a reliable end-of-life indication. (orig.).

  7. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  8. Prelithiation of silicon-carbon nanotube anodes for lithium ion batteries by stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Michael W; Ganter, Matthew J; Staub, Jason W; Ridgley, Richard D; Landi, Brian J

    2013-09-11

    Stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) has been applied during battery assembly to effectively prelithiate high capacity (1500-2500 mAh/g) silicon-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) anodes, eliminating the 20-40% first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Pressure-activation of SLMP is shown to enhance prelithiation and enable capacity matching between Si-CNT anodes and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes in full batteries with minimal added mass. The prelithiation approach enables high energy density NCA/Si-CNT batteries achieving >1000 cycles at 20% depth-of-discharge.

  9. Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yongchun; Guo, Cong; Zhu, Xiaobo; Liang, Jianwen; Qian, Yitai

    2014-01-01

    Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds (FeCl3 -GICs) with stage 1 and stage 2 structures were synthesized by reacting FeCl3 and expanded graphite (EG) in air in a stainless-steel autoclave. As rechargeable Li-ion batteries, these FeCl3 -GICs exhibit high capacity, excellent cycling stability, and superior rate capability, which could be attributed to their unique intercalation features. This work may enable new possibilities for the fabrication of Li-ion batteries. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanocoils and hollow graphite fibers as anodes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liyong; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui; Wang, Guizhen; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Peng; Wang, Xianglei; Liu, Lang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanocoils (CNCs) have been used as anode materials for preparation of lithium ion batteries. As pure carbon material without any chemical modification, the graphitized CNCs anode exhibited larger capacities with good Coulombic efficiency, a higher rate capability, and better reversibility than the hollow graphite fibers (HGFs) anode. The excellent performance of the CNCs was possibly ascribed to the special structure and the high degree of graphitization. As a result, the CNCs anode exhibited high reversible capacity of 385.5 mA h g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1, 104.7% reversible capacity retention after 105 cycles, and superior reversible capability of 177.4 mA h g"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1 after 100 cycles. This result indicated that CNCs could be an attractive choice as anode material for high-energy density and high-power lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Cyclic performance tests of Sn/MWCNT composite lithium ion battery anodes at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocoglu, U., E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Cevher, O.; Akbulut, H. [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus 54187 (Turkey)

    2016-04-21

    In this study tin-multi walled carbon nanotube (Sn-MWCNT) lithium ion battery anodes were produced and their electrochemical galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were conducted at various (25 °C, 35 °C, 50 °C) temperatures to determine the cyclic behaviors of anode at different temperatures. Anodes were produced via vacuum filtration and DC magnetron sputtering technique. Tin was sputtered onto buckypapers to form composite structure of anodes. SEM analysis was conducted to determine morphology of buckypapers and Sn-MWCNT composite anodes. Structural and phase analyses were conducted via X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy technique. CR2016 coin cells were assembled for electrochemical tests. Cyclic voltammetry test were carried out to determine the reversibility of reactions between anodes and reference electrode between 0.01-2.0 V potential window. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were performed to determine cycle performance of anodes at different temperatures.

  12. Polyethylene oxide film coating enhances lithium cycling efficiency of an anode-free lithium-metal battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assegie, Addisu Alemayehu; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Kuo, Li-Ming; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2018-03-29

    The practical implementation of an anode-free lithium-metal battery with promising high capacity is hampered by dendrite formation and low coulombic efficiency. Most notably, these challenges stem from non-uniform lithium plating and unstable SEI layer formation on the bare copper electrode. Herein, we revealed the homogeneous deposition of lithium and effective suppression of dendrite formation using a copper electrode coated with a polyethylene oxide (PEO) film in an electrolyte comprising 1 M LiTFSI, DME/DOL (1/1, v/v) and 2 wt% LiNO3. More importantly, the PEO film coating promoted the formation of a thin and robust SEI layer film by hosting lithium and regulating the inevitable reaction of lithium with the electrolyte. The modified electrode exhibited stable cycling of lithium with an average coulombic efficiency of ∼100% over 200 cycles and low voltage hysteresis (∼30 mV) at a current density of 0.5 mA cm-2. Moreover, we tested the anode-free battery experimentally by integrating it with an LiFePO4 cathode into a full-cell configuration (Cu@PEO/LiFePO4). The new cell demonstrated stable cycling with an average coulombic efficiency of 98.6% and capacity retention of 30% in the 200th cycle at a rate of 0.2C. These impressive enhancements in cycle life and capacity retention result from the synergy of the PEO film coating, high electrode-electrolyte interface compatibility, stable polar oligomer formation from the reduction of 1,3-dioxolane and the generation of SEI-stabilizing nitrite and nitride upon lithium nitrate reduction. Our result opens up a new route to realize anode-free batteries by modifying the copper anode with PEO to achieve ever more demanding yet safe interfacial chemistry and control of dendrite formation.

  13. Effect of pre-lithiation degrees of mesocarbon microbeads anode on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Shi, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chengyang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MCMB with different pre-lithiation capacity as negative electrode in LIC. • Pre-lithiation improves the electrochemical performance of LIC. • The optimal pre-lithiation capacity has been proposed. - Abstract: Lithium ion capacitors are assembled with pre-lithiated mesocarbon microbeads (LMCMB) anode and activated carbon (AC) cathode. The effect of pre-lithiation degrees on the crystal structure of MCMB electrode and the electrochemical capacitance behavior of LIC are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the charge-discharge test of three-electrode cell. The structure of graphite still maintained when the pre-lithiation capacity is less than 200 mAh g −1 , phase transition takes place with the increase of pre-lithiation capacity from 250 mAh g −1 to 350 mAh g −1 . Pre-lithiation degrees of MCMB anode greatly affect the charge-discharge process and behavior, which impact on the electrochemical performance of LIC. The LIC with pre-lithiation capacity of 300 mAh g −1 has the optimal electrochemical performance. The energy density of LIC300 is up to 92.3 Wh kg −1 , the power density as high as 5.5 kW kg −1 and the capacity retention is 97.0% after 1000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance benefits from the appropriate pre-lithiation capacity of negative electrode. The appropriate pre-lithiation ensures the working voltage of negative electrode in low and relative stable charge-discharge platform corresponding to the mutual phase transition from the second stage graphite intercalation compound (LiC 12 ) to the first stage graphite intercalation compound (LiC 6 ). The stable charge-discharge platform of negative electrode is conductive to the sufficient utilization of AC positive electrode

  14. Amorphous boron nanorod as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changjian; Lau, Miu Lun; Barkholtz, Heather M; Xu, Haiping; Parrish, Riley; Xu, Meiyue Olivia; Xu, Tao; Liu, Yuzi; Wang, Hao; Connell, Justin G; Smith, Kassiopeia A; Xiong, Hui

    2017-08-03

    We report an amorphous boron nanorod anode material for lithium-ion batteries prepared through smelting non-toxic boron oxide in liquid lithium. Boron in theory can provide capacity as high as 3099 mA h g -1 by alloying with Li to form B 4 Li 5 . However, experimental studies of the boron anode have been rarely reported for room temperature lithium-ion batteries. Among the reported studies the electrochemical activity and cycling performance of the bulk crystalline boron anode material are poor at room temperature. In this work, we utilized an amorphous nanostructured one-dimensional (1D) boron material aiming at improving the electrochemical reactivity between boron and lithium ions at room temperature. The amorphous boron nanorod anode exhibited, at room temperature, a reversible capacity of 170 mA h g -1 at a current rate of 10 mA g -1 between 0.01 and 2 V. The anode also demonstrated good rate capability and cycling stability. The lithium storage mechanism was investigated by both sweep voltammetry measurements and galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques (GITTs). The sweep voltammetric analysis suggested that the contributions from lithium ion diffusion into boron and the capacitive process to the overall lithium charge storage are 57% and 43%, respectively. The results from GITT indicated that the discharge capacity at higher potentials (>∼0.2 V vs. Li/Li + ) could be ascribed to a capacitive process and at lower potentials (ions and the amorphous boron nanorod. This work provides new insights into designing nanostructured boron materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. High-Capacity and Long-Cycle Life Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery with the FePO4 Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Shi-Ze; You, Ya; Feng, Zimin; Zhu, Wen; Gariépy, Vincent; Xia, Jiexiang; Commarieu, Basile; Darwiche, Ali; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-02-28

    Aqueous lithium-ion batteries are emerging as strong candidates for a great variety of energy storage applications because of their low cost, high-rate capability, and high safety. Exciting progress has been made in the search for anode materials with high capacity, low toxicity, and high conductivity; yet, most of the anode materials, because of their low equilibrium voltages, facilitate hydrogen evolution. Here, we show the application of olivine FePO 4 and amorphous FePO 4 ·2H 2 O as anode materials for aqueous lithium-ion batteries. Their capacities reached 163 and 82 mA h/g at a current rate of 0.2 C, respectively. The full cell with an amorphous FePO 4 ·2H 2 O anode maintained 92% capacity after 500 cycles at a current rate of 0.2 C. The acidic aqueous electrolyte in the full cells prevented cathodic oxygen evolution, while the higher equilibrium voltage of FePO 4 avoided hydrogen evolution as well, making them highly stable. A combination of in situ X-ray diffraction analyses and computational studies revealed that olivine FePO 4 still has the biphase reaction in the aqueous electrolyte and that the intercalation pathways in FePO 4 ·2H 2 O form a 2-D mesh. The low cost, high safety, and outstanding electrochemical performance make the full cells with olivine or amorphous hydrated FePO 4 anodes commercially viable configurations for aqueous lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Yang, Z. Gary

    2015-05-26

    Methods for making composite anodes, such as macroporous composite anodes, are disclosed. Embodiments of the methods may include forming a tape from a slurry including a substrate metal precursor, an anode active material, a pore-forming agent, a binder, and a solvent. A laminated structure may be prepared from the tape and sintered to produce a porous structure, such as a macroporous structure. The macroporous structure may be heated to reduce a substrate metal precursor and/or anode active material. Macroporous composite anodes formed by some embodiments of the disclosed methods comprise a porous metal and an anode active material, wherein the anode active material is both externally and internally incorporated throughout and on the surface of the macroporous structure.

  17. First-Principles Study of Lithium and Sodium Atoms Intercalation in Fluorinated Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengya Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure evolution of fluorinated graphite (CFx upon the Li/Na intercalation has been studied by first-principles calculations. The Li/Na adsorption on single CF layer and intercalated into bulk CF have been calculated. The better cycling performance of Na intercalation into the CF cathode, comparing to that of Li intercalation, is attributed to the different strength and characteristics of the Li-F and Na-F interactions. The interactions between Li and F are stronger and more localized than those between Na and F. The strong and localized Coulomb attraction between Li and F atoms breaks the C−F bonds and pulls the F atoms away, and graphene sheets are formed upon Li intercalation.

  18. Understanding the anisotropic strain effects on lithium diffusion in graphite anodes: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Junqian

    2018-06-01

    The lithium diffusion in graphite anode, which is the most widely used commercial electrode material today, affects the charge/discharge performance of lithium-ion batteries. In this study, the anisotropic strain effects on lithium diffusion in graphite anodes are systematically investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with van der Waals corrections. It is found that the effects of external applied strains along various directions of LixC6 (i.e., perpendicular or parallel to the basal planes of the graphite host) on lithium diffusivity are different. Along the direction perpendicular to the graphite planes, the tensile strain facilitates in-plane Li diffusion by reducing the energy barrier, and the compressive strain hinders in-plane Li diffusion by raising the energy barrier. In contrast, the in-plane biaxial tensile strain (parallel to the graphite planes) hinders in-plane Li diffusion, and the in-plane biaxial compressive strain facilitates in-plane Li diffusion. Furthermore, both in-plane and transverse shear strains slightly influence Li diffusion in graphite anodes. A discussion is presented to explain the anisotropic strain dependence of lithium diffusion. This research provides data for the continuum modelling of the electrodes in the lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Stable anodes for lithium ion batteries made of self-organized mesoporous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, Sascha J; Köntges, Marc; Brendel, Rolf; Bahnemann, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Alloy-forming compounds, such as electrodes for lithium ion batteries, stand out in terms of their theoretical specific charge capacity while still lacking in mechanical stability due to significant volume changes during operation. Herein, we examine the approach of combining low structural dimensions of the active material with built-in expansion volumes and assess their benefit for silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries. Consequently, self-organized mesoporous silicon is prepared as a suitable anode material for lithium ion batteries without any pre-structuring methods. The anodes are made by employing electrochemical etching methods in a scalable process and are characterized by ellipsometry. Thermally evaporated copper is utilized as the current collector. A sheet of freestanding silicon in contact with copper is used as an anode material with a thickness of 3 μm. After an initialization phase, electrochemical characterization reveals an anode stability of more than 160 cycles with a specific charge capacity of 730 mAh/g. The mechanical stability of the anode is examined by taking SEM measurements of the used electrode material. (paper)

  20. New anode material for lithium-ion cells produced by catalytic graphitization of glassy carbon at 1000 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowronski, J.M. [Poznan Univ. of Technology, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry; Central Lab. of Batteries and Cells, Poznan (Poland); Knofczynski, K. [Central Lab. of Batteries and Cells, Poznan (Poland)

    2006-10-15

    This study investigated the conversion of glassy carbon into graphite at relatively low temperature of 1000 degrees C under ambient pressure using iron powder as the catalyst. The composite product of reaction was a graphite and turbostratic carbon whose use was then examined in terms of application in lithium-ion cells. Glassy, hard carbon spheres of 10 to 15 {iota}m were prepared from phenolic resin in a nitrogen atmosphere and then subjected to heat treatment with an iron powder mixture. After cooling down to ambient temperature, the carbon/iron mixture was treated with diluted HCl solution to remove metallic additives. The modified carbon was then washed with distilled water until chloride ions disappeared in a filtrate. All samples were characterized using XRD analysis. Working electrodes for electrochemical measurements were made by mixing carbons with PVDF. Cyclic voltammograms recorded for unmodified and modified carbons were consistent with XRD measurements. SEM analysis revealed that the process of graphitization begins at the external regions of glassy carbon spheres where erosion occurs when the carbon reacts with iron particles. The surface destruction of carbon spheres progresses into the interior of the spheres, resulting in their collapse followed by the transformation into pallets resembling a stack of graphite sheets. It was noted that not all unorganized carbon was conversed to graphite. Rather, only 50 per cent of turbostratic carbon existed in the product of heat treatment. The product of graphitization appeared to be a promising material for the preparation of anodes for lithium-ion cells. The discharge capacity for carbon produced by catalytic treatment was found to be approximately 5 times higher, while the discharge/charge reversibility was 23 per cent higher than values obtained for untreated carbon. The study showed that the uptake of lithium ions by the original carbon depends on the insertion/deinsertion mechanism of hard carbon as well

  1. Hollow-Cuboid Li3VO4/C as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changkun; Liu, Chaofeng; Nan, Xihui; Song, Huanqiao; Liu, Yaguang; Zhang, Cuiping; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-13

    Li3VO4 has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries with a low, safe voltage and large capacity. However, its poor electronic conductivity hinders its practical application particularly at a high rate. This work reports that Li3VO4 coated with carbon was synthesized by a one-pot, two-step method with F127 ((PEO)100-(PPO)65-(PEO)100) as both template and carbon source, yielding a microcuboid structure. The resulting Li3VO4/C cuboid shows a stable capacity of 415 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 C and excellent capacity stability at high rates (e.g., 92% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 10 C = 4 A g(-1)). The lithiation/delithiation process of Li3VO4/C was studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed that Li3VO4/C underwent a reversible intercalation reaction during discharge/charge processes. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed largely to the unique microhollow structure. The voids inside hollow structure can not only provide more space to accommodate volume change during discharge/charge processes but also allow the lithium ions insertion and extraction from both outside and inside the hollow structure with a much larger surface area or more reaction sites and shorten the lithium ions diffusion distance, which leads to smaller overpotential and faster reaction kinetics. Carbon derived from F127 through pyrolysis coats Li3VO4 conformably and thus offers good electrical conduction. The results in this work provide convincing evidence that the significant potential of hollow-cuboid Li3VO4/C for high-power batteries.

  2. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao; Yin, Shengyu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Shiquan; Feng, Chuanqi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ramie fibers and corncobs are used as precursors to prepare the biomass carbons. • The ramie fiber carbon (RFC) took on morphology of 3D micro-rods. • The corncob carbon (CC) possessed a 2D nanosheets structure. • Both RFC and CC exhibited outstanding electrochemical performances in LIBs and SIBs systems. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg −1 after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0–0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li + ) window at current density of 100 mAg −1 , respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg −1 ) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg −1 with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yin, Shengyu [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Guo, Zaiping [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Shiquan [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Ramie fibers and corncobs are used as precursors to prepare the biomass carbons. • The ramie fiber carbon (RFC) took on morphology of 3D micro-rods. • The corncob carbon (CC) possessed a 2D nanosheets structure. • Both RFC and CC exhibited outstanding electrochemical performances in LIBs and SIBs systems. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg{sup −1} after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0–0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li{sup +}) window at current density of 100 mAg{sup −1}, respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg{sup −1}) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg{sup −1} with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Silicon nanowires used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo; Rufoloni, Alessandro; Rondino, Flaminia; Santoni, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires to be used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery cell are reported. The nanowires were synthesized by CVD and characterized by SEM. The nanostructured material was used as an electrode in a lithium cell and its electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at C/10 rate as a function of the cycle number and at various rates as a function of the charge current. The electrode was then coupled with a LiFePO 4 cathode to fabricate a lithium-ion battery cell and the cell performance evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles

  5. Coating for lithium anode, thionyl chloride active cathode electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanzarite, V.O.

    1983-01-04

    Electrochemical power cells having a cathode current collector, a combination liquid active cathode depolarizer electrolyte solvent and an anode that forms surface compounds when in intimate contact with the liquid cathode are enhanced by the addition of a passivation limiting film contiguous to said anode. The passivating film is a member of the cyanoacrilate family of organic compounds.

  6. Coating for lithium anode, thionyl chloride active cathode electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanzarite, V.O.

    1981-10-20

    Electrochemical power cells having a cathode current collector, a combination liquid active cathode depolarizer electrolyte solvent and an anode that forms surface compounds when in intimate contact with the liquid cathode are enhanced by the addition of a passivation limiting film contiguous to said anode. The passivating film is a member of the cyanoacrilate family of organic compounds.

  7. Polyaniline coated Fe3O4 hollow nanospheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Yanguo; Han, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) coated Fe3O4 hollow nanospheres (h-Fe3O4@ PANI) have been successfully synthesized and investigated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The structure and composition analyses have been performed by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy...

  8. Properties and Structure of the LiCl-films on Lithium Anodes in Liquid Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hennesø, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Lithium anodes passivated by LiCl layers in different types of liquid cathodes (catholytes) based on LiAlCl4 in SOCl2 or SO2 have been studied by means of impedance spectroscopy. The impedance spectra have been fitted with two equivalent circuits using a nonlinear least squares fit program...

  9. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  10. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quiroga-González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001% over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes.

  11. Nano-Sn embedded in expanded graphite as anode for lithium ion batteries with improved low temperature electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yong; Ben, Liubin; Zhan, Yuanjie; Huang, Xuejie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-Sn embedded in interlayers of expanded graphite is fabricated. • The graphene/nano-Sn/graphene stacked structure promotes cycling stability of Sn. • The Sn/EG shows improved low temperature electrochemical performance. • Chemical diffusion coefficients of the Sn/EG are obtained by GITT. • The Sn/EG exhibits faster Li-ion intercalation kinetics than graphite. - Abstract: Metallic tin (Sn) used as anode material for lithium ion batteries has long been proposed, but its low temperature electrochemical performance has been rarely concerned. Here, a Sn/C composite with nano-Sn embedded in expanded graphite (Sn/EG) is synthesized. The nano-Sn particles (∼30 nm) are uniformly distributed in the interlayers of expanded graphite forming a tightly stacked layered structure. The electrochemical performance of the Sn/EG, particularly at low temperature, is carefully investigated compared with graphite. At -20 °C, the Sn/EG shows capacities of 200 mAh g −1 at 0.1C and 130 mAh g −1 at 0.2C, which is much superior to graphite (<10 mAh g −1 ). EIS measurements suggest that the charge transfer impedance of the Sn/EG increases less rapidly than graphite with decreasing temperatures, which is responsible for the improved low temperature electrochemical performance. The Li-ion chemical diffusion coefficients of the Sn/EG obtained by GITT are an order of magnitude higher at room temperature than that at -20 °C. Furthermore, the Sn/EG exhibits faster Li-ion intercalation kinetics than graphite in the asymmetric charge/discharge measurements, which shows great promise for the application in electric vehicles charged at low temperature.

  12. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  13. Ab initio density functional theory investigation of Li-intercalated silicon carbide nanotube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, Rostam; Behzad, Somayeh; Chegel, Raad

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of ab initio density functional theory calculations on the energetic, and geometric and electronic structure of Li-intercalated (6,6) silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) bundles. Our results show that intercalation of lithium leads to the significant changes in the geometrical structure. The most prominent effect of Li intercalation on the electronic band structure is a shift of the Fermi energy which occurs as a result of charge transfer from lithium to the SiCNTs. All the Li-intercalated (6,6) SiCNT bundles are predicted to be metallic representing a substantial change in electronic properties relative to the undoped bundle, which is a wide band gap semiconductor. Both inside of the nanotube and the interstitial space are susceptible for intercalation. The present calculations suggest that the SiCNT bundle is a promising candidate for the anode material in battery applications.

  14. Ab initio density functional theory investigation of Li-intercalated silicon carbide nanotube bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, Rostam; Behzad, Somayeh; Chegel, Raad

    2009-06-01

    We present the results of ab initio density functional theory calculations on the energetic, and geometric and electronic structure of Li-intercalated ( 6,6) silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) bundles. Our results show that intercalation of lithium leads to the significant changes in the geometrical structure. The most prominent effect of Li intercalation on the electronic band structure is a shift of the Fermi energy which occurs as a result of charge transfer from lithium to the SiCNTs. All the Li-intercalated ( 6,6) SiCNT bundles are predicted to be metallic representing a substantial change in electronic properties relative to the undoped bundle, which is a wide band gap semiconductor. Both inside of the nanotube and the interstitial space are susceptible for intercalation. The present calculations suggest that the SiCNT bundle is a promising candidate for the anode material in battery applications.

  15. Ab initio density functional theory investigation of Li-intercalated silicon carbide nanotube bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradian, Rostam [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Science Research Laboratory, Department of Nano Science, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: moradian.rostam@gmail.com; Behzad, Somayeh; Chegel, Raad [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    We present the results of ab initio density functional theory calculations on the energetic, and geometric and electronic structure of Li-intercalated (6,6) silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) bundles. Our results show that intercalation of lithium leads to the significant changes in the geometrical structure. The most prominent effect of Li intercalation on the electronic band structure is a shift of the Fermi energy which occurs as a result of charge transfer from lithium to the SiCNTs. All the Li-intercalated (6,6) SiCNT bundles are predicted to be metallic representing a substantial change in electronic properties relative to the undoped bundle, which is a wide band gap semiconductor. Both inside of the nanotube and the interstitial space are susceptible for intercalation. The present calculations suggest that the SiCNT bundle is a promising candidate for the anode material in battery applications.

  16. High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA...

  17. A rechargeable solid-state proton battery with an intercalating cathode and an anode containing a hydrogen-storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, K.; Lakshmi, N.; Chandra, S. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1998-11-01

    Rechargeable proton batteries have been fabricated with the configuration Zn+ZnSO{sub 4} x 7H{sub 2}O//solid-state proton conductor//C+electrolyte+intercalating PbO{sub 2}+V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The solid-state proton conductor is phosphotungstic acid (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} x nH{sub 2}O) or a H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} x nH{sub 2}O+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 16H{sub 2}O composite. The maximum cell voltage is {proportional_to}1.8 V at full charge. The cell can run for more than 300 h at low current drain (2.5 {mu}A cm{sup -2}). Further, the cell can withstand 20 to 30 cycles. The addition of a metal hydride in the anode side enhances the rechargeability and the addition of a small amount of Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} x 16H{sub 2}O in the H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} x nH{sub 2}O electrolyte improves the performance of the battery. (orig.)

  18. A rechargeable solid-state proton battery with an intercalating cathode and an anode containing a hydrogen-storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kamlesh; Lakshmi, N.; Chandra, S.

    Rechargeable proton batteries have been fabricated with the configuration Zn+ZnSO 4·7H 2O//solid-state proton conductor//C+electrolyte+intercalating PbO 2+V 2O 5. The solid-state proton conductor is phosphotungstic acid (H 3PW 12O 40· nH 2O) or a H 3PW 12O 40· nH 2O+Al 2(SO 4) 3·16H 2O composite. The maximum cell voltage is ˜1.8 V at full charge. The cell can run for more than 300 h at low current drain (2.5 μA cm -2). Further, the cell can withstand 20 to 30 cycles. The addition of a metal hydride in the anode side enhances the rechargeability and the addition of a small amount of Al 2(SO 4) 3·16H 2O in the H 3PW 12O 40· nH 2O electrolyte improves the performance of the battery.

  19. Tailored lithium storage performance of graphene aerogel anodes with controlled surface defects for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Hui; Xiong, Dongbin; Li, Xifei; Sun, Yipeng; Yan, Bo; Li, Dejun; Lawes, Stephen; Cui, Yanhua; Sun, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The graphene aerogel (GA) with controllable surface defects was synthesized. • The graphene aerogel anodes showed high specific capacity and excellent cyclability. • Surface defects on the GA significantly function for lithium storage. • This study can extend the application of the graphene anodes for LIBs. - Abstract: Three dimensional self-assembled graphene aerogel (GA) anode materials with some surface defects have been successfully generated through a facile hydrothermal procedure using graphene oxide as precursor. The morphologies and textural properties of as-obtained GA were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman and other spectroscopy techniques. The surface defects and electrical conductivities of GA can be controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal reaction time. The results indicate that GA with a reaction time of 6 h exhibits extremely high reversible capacity (1430 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 100 mA g"−"1) and superior rate capability (587 mAh g"−"1 at 800 mA g"−"1) with excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 960 mAh g"−"1 at 100 mA g"−"1 after 100 cycles). It is demonstrated that the 3D porous network with increased defect density, as well as the considerable electrical conductivity, results in the excellent electrochemical performance of the as-made GA anodes in lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; La Mantia, Fabio; Deshazer, Heather; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect

  1. Effect of calcium on the electrochemical behavior of lithium anode in LiOH aqueous solution used for lithium–water battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ziyan; Chen Kanghua; Ni Erfu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of minor addition of calcium to lithium anode on the electrochemical behavior of lithium anode in 4 M LiOH at 30 °C temperature is investigated by hydrogen collection, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the hydrogen evolution rate is marginally reduced with increasing calcium content. Addition of calcium to lithium mainly inhibits the anodic process. Minor addition of calcium to lithium slightly reduced the discharge current of lithium anode. Minor addition of calcium to lithium anode marginally enhances the hydrogen inhibition of lithium by the formation of calcium hydride combined with LiOH and LiOH·H 2 O formed on the anode surface.

  2. Inorganic Glue Enabling High Performance of Silicon Particles as Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Silicon, as an alloy-type anode material, has recently attracted lots of attention because of its highest known Li+ storage capacity (4200 mAh/g). But lithium insertion into and extraction from silicon are accompanied by a huge volume change, up to 300, which induces a strong strain on silicon and causes pulverization and rapid capacity fading due to the loss of the electrical contact between part of silicon and current collector. Silicon nanostructures such as nanowires and nanotubes can overcome the pulverization problem, however these nano-engineered silicon anodes usually involve very expensive processes and have difficulty being applied in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this study, we report a novel method using amorphous silicon as inorganic glue replacing conventional polymer binder. This inorganic glue method can solve the loss of contact issue in conventional silicon particle anode and enables successful cycling of various sizes of silicon particles, both nano-particles and micron particles. With a limited capacity of 800 mAh/g, relatively large silicon micron-particles can be stably cycled over 200 cycles. The very cheap production of these silicon particle anodes makes our method promising and competitive in lithium ion battery industry. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  3. Electroless Formation of Hybrid Lithium Anodes for Fast Interfacial Ion Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Tu, Zhengyuan; Stalin, Sanjuna; Vu, Duylinh; Fawole, Kristen; Gunceler, Deniz; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Archer, Lynden A.

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes.

  4. Electroless Formation of Hybrid Lithium Anodes for Fast Interfacial Ion Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2017-08-17

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes.

  5. Electroless formation of hybrid lithium anodes for fast interfacial ion transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Stalin, Sanjuna; Vu, Duylinh; Fawole, Kristen; Archer, Lynden A. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Tu, Zhengyuan [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Gunceler, Deniz [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Sundararaman, Ravishankar [Material Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Boron oxide–tin oxide/graphene composite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Lina; Qin, Xue; Meng, Wei; Cao, Ning; Song, Zhonghai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • B_2O_3–SnO_2/G anode material is prepared by chemical heat solvent method for LIBs. • B_2O_3–SnO_2/G shows much improved cycling performance and rate capability. • B_2O_3 plays an important role in improving the performance. - Abstract: B_2O_3–SnO_2/graphene (B_2O_3–SnO_2/G) composite is fabricated via a chemical heat solvent method and utilized as anode material for lithium ion batteries. The added B_2O_3 dramatically improves the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries compared to the SnO_2/G composite. The B_2O_3–SnO_2/G composites as anode show an outstanding discharge capacity of 1404.9 mAh g"−"1 at 500 mA g"−"1 after 200 cycles and an excellent rate capacity, which apparently outperforms the previously reported SnO_2-based anode material. These improved electrochemical performance characteristics are due to the B_2O_3 played a buffering role, which are easily beneficial for accommodating the volume change during the lithium ions insertion/extraction processes. Furthermore, boron atoms can accept electrons for its electron-deficient nature and boron ions could release electrons, which lead to electrons' increased density and conductivity are increased. The results indicate that the B_2O_3–SnO_2/G composite is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  7. Boron oxide–tin oxide/graphene composite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Lina [Department of chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin, Xue, E-mail: qinxue@tju.edu.cn [Department of chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Meng, Wei; Cao, Ning; Song, Zhonghai [Department of chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G anode material is prepared by chemical heat solvent method for LIBs. • B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G shows much improved cycling performance and rate capability. • B{sub 2}O{sub 3} plays an important role in improving the performance. - Abstract: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/graphene (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G) composite is fabricated via a chemical heat solvent method and utilized as anode material for lithium ion batteries. The added B{sub 2}O{sub 3} dramatically improves the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries compared to the SnO{sub 2}/G composite. The B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G composites as anode show an outstanding discharge capacity of 1404.9 mAh g{sup −1} at 500 mA g{sup −1} after 200 cycles and an excellent rate capacity, which apparently outperforms the previously reported SnO{sub 2}-based anode material. These improved electrochemical performance characteristics are due to the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} played a buffering role, which are easily beneficial for accommodating the volume change during the lithium ions insertion/extraction processes. Furthermore, boron atoms can accept electrons for its electron-deficient nature and boron ions could release electrons, which lead to electrons' increased density and conductivity are increased. The results indicate that the B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G composite is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  8. Electrochemical Performance of Electrospun carbon nanofibers as free-standing and binder-free anodes for Sodium-Ion and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Juan; Shi, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Cheng-yang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun carbon nanofiber webs were prepared by pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile. • The webs as binder-free and current collector-free electrodes for SIBs and LIBs. • Different layer spacing and pore size for Li and Na lead different electrochemical behavior. • Electrochemical performances of the electrodes were high. - Abstract: A series of hard carbon nanofiber-based electrodes derived from electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers (PAN-CNFs) have been fabricated by stabilization in air at about 280 °C and then carbonization in N 2 at heat treatment temperatures (HTT) between 800 and 1500 °C. The electrochemical performances of the binder-free, current collector-free carbon nanofiber-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries are systematically investigated and compared. We demonstrate the presence of similar alkali metal insertion mechanisms in both cases, but just the differences of the layer spacing and pore size available for lithium and sodium ion lead the discharge capacity delivered at sloping region and plateau region to vary from the kinds of alkali elements. Although the anodes in sodium-ion batteries show poorer rate capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 275 mAh g −1 and similar cycling stability due to the conductive 3-D network, weakly ordered turbostratic structure and a large interlayer spacing between graphene sheets. The feature of high capacity and stable cycling performance makes PAN-CNFs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries

  9. Lithium intercalation in sputter deposited antimony-doped tin oxide thin films: Evidence from electrochemical and optical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, J., E-mail: jose.montero@angstrom.uu.se; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The A°ngström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Guillén, C.; Herrero, J. [Department of Energy, Ciemat, Avda. Complutense 40, Ed. 42, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-21

    Transparent conducting oxides are used as transparent electrical contacts in a variety of applications, including in electrochromic smart windows. In the present work, we performed a study of transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films by chronopotentiometry in a Li{sup +}-containing electrolyte. The open circuit potential vs. Li was used to investigate ATO band lineups, such as those of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, as well as the dependence of these lineups on the preparation conditions for ATO. Evidence was found for Li{sup +} intercalation when a current pulse was set in a way so as to drive ions from the electrolyte into the ATO lattice. Galvanostatic intermittent titration was then applied to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient within the ATO lattice. The electrochemical density of states of the conducting oxide was studied by means of the transient voltage recorded during the chronopotentiometry experiments. These measurements were possible because, as Li{sup +} intercalation took place, charge compensating electrons filled the lowest part of the conduction band in ATO. Furthermore, the charge insertion modified the optical properties of ATO according to the Drude model.

  10. Surface chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase on silicon nanowire lithium-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.; Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have the potential to perform as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with a much higher energy density than graphite. However, there has been little work in understanding the surface chemistry of the solid electrolyte

  11. Modification of SnO2 Anodes by Atomic Layer Deposition for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yesibolati, Nulati

    2013-01-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is considered one of the most promising anode materials for Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to its large theoretical capacity and natural abundance. However, its low electronic/ionic conductivities, large volume change during

  12. Luminescent monolayer MoS{sub 2} quantum dots produced by multi-exfoliation based on lithium intercalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Wen [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for NanoTechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan, Shiming [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for NanoTechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); College of Science, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Song, Xueyin; Zhang, Xing; He, Xueming [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for NanoTechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhong, Wei, E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for NanoTechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Du, Youwei [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for NanoTechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new preparation, multi-exfoliation method based on lithium (Li) intercalation, has been demonstrated for preparing monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) quantum dots (QDs). • The advantage of this approach is that it is capable of producing monolayer MoS{sub 2} QDs in a large number, regardless of whether the raw material is bulk or nanoparticles. • The PL intensity excited at 300 nm can be enhanced by five times after ultrasonicated heating treatment. - Abstract: An effective multi-exfoliation method based on lithium (Li) intercalation has been demonstrated for preparing monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) quantum dots (QDs). The cutting mechanism of MoS{sub 2} QDs may involve the complete breakup around the defects and edges during the reaction of Li{sub x}MoS{sub 2} with water and its following ultrasonication process. The multiply exfoliation make the MoS{sub 2} fragile and easier to break up. After the third exfoliation, a large number of monolayer MoS{sub 2} QDs is formed. The as-prepared MoS{sub 2} QDs show photoluminescence (PL) inactive due to the existence of 1T phase. After heating treatment, the PL intensity excited at 300 nm is enhanced by five times. The MoS{sub 2} QDs solution has an excitation-dependent luminescence emission which shifts to longer wavelengths when the excitation wavelength changes from 280 nm to 370 nm. The optical properties are explored based on the quantum confinement and edge effect.

  13. Effects of Capacity Ratios between Anode and Cathode on Electrochemical Properties for Lithium Polymer Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheon-Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min; Kim, Keon; Yi, Cheol-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The areal capacity ratio of negative to positive electrodes (N/P ratio) is the most important factor to design the lithium ion batteries with high performance in the consideration of balanced electrochemical reactions. In this study, the effect of N/P ratio (1.10, 1.20, and 1.30) on electrochemical properties has been investigated with a lithium polymer battery with PVdF-coated separator and 1.40 Ah of capacity. The N/P ratio is controlled by adjusting the anode thickness with a fixed anode density. The cell with an N/P ratio higher than 1.10 effectively suppresses the lithium plating at the 0.85C-rate charging at 25 °C and the cell with 1.20 of N/P ratio shows the enhanced cycle performance in comparison with other cells. Among the cells with differently designed N/P ratios, significant difference was not observed in the aging test with fully charged batteries at 25 and 45 °C. The effect of N/P ratio on electrochemical properties of lithium batteries can help to design the safe full cell without lithium plating

  14. Electrochemical characteristics of bundle-type silicon nanorods as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Si Hieu; Lim, Jong Choo; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A metal-assisted chemical etching technique was performed on Si thin films. ► The etching process resulted in the formation of bundle-type Si nanorods. ► The morphology of Si electrodes closely relate to electrochemical characteristics. - Abstract: In order to prepare bundle-type silicon nanorods, a silver-assisted chemical etching technique was used to modify a 1.6 μm silicon thin film, which was deposited on Cu foil by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The bundle-type silicon nanorods on Cu foil were employed as anodes for a lithium secondary battery, without further treatment. The electrochemical characteristics of the pristine silicon thin film anodes and the bundle-type silicon nanorod anodes are different from one another. The electrochemical performance of the bundle-type silicon nanorod anodes exceeded that of the pristine Si thin film anodes. The specific capacity of the bundle-type silicon nanorod anodes is much higher than 3000 mAh g −1 at the first charge (Li insertion) cycle. The coulombic efficiency of bundle-type silicon anodes was stable at more than 97%, and the charge capacity remained at 1420 mAh g −1 , even after 100 cycles of charging and discharging. The results from the differential voltage analysis showed a side reaction at around 0.44–0.5 V, and the specific potential of this side reaction decreased after each cycle. The apparent diffusion coefficients of the two anode types were in the range of 10 −13 –10 −16 cm 2 s −1 in the first cycle. In subsequent charge cycles, these values for the silicon thin film anodes and the silicon nanorod bundle anode were approximately 10 −12 –10 −14 and 10 −13 –10 −15 cm 2 s −1 , respectively.

  15. Evidence of ion intercalation mediated band structure modification and opto-ionic coupling in lithium niobite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Joshua C.; Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-01-01

    The theoretically suggested band structure of the novel p-type semiconductor lithium niobite (LiNbO2), the direct coupling of photons to ion motion, and optically induced band structure modifications are investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence. LiNbO2 has previously been used as a memristor material but is shown here to be useful as a sensor owing to the electrical, optical, and chemical ease of lithium removal and insertion. Despite the high concentration of vacancies present in lithium niobite due to the intentional removal of lithium atoms, strong photoluminescence spectra are observed even at room temperature that experimentally confirm the suggested band structure implying transitions from a flat conduction band to a degenerate valence band. Removal of small amounts of lithium significantly modifies the photoluminescence spectra including additional larger than stoichiometric-band gap features. Sufficient removal of lithium results in the elimination of the photoluminescence response supporting the predicted transition from a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor. In addition, non-thermal coupling between the incident laser and lithium ions is observed and results in modulation of the electrical impedance.

  16. Evidence of ion intercalation mediated band structure modification and opto-ionic coupling in lithium niobite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shank, Joshua C.; Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Doolittle, W. Alan, E-mail: alan.doolittle@ece.gatech.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    The theoretically suggested band structure of the novel p-type semiconductor lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}), the direct coupling of photons to ion motion, and optically induced band structure modifications are investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence. LiNbO{sub 2} has previously been used as a memristor material but is shown here to be useful as a sensor owing to the electrical, optical, and chemical ease of lithium removal and insertion. Despite the high concentration of vacancies present in lithium niobite due to the intentional removal of lithium atoms, strong photoluminescence spectra are observed even at room temperature that experimentally confirm the suggested band structure implying transitions from a flat conduction band to a degenerate valence band. Removal of small amounts of lithium significantly modifies the photoluminescence spectra including additional larger than stoichiometric-band gap features. Sufficient removal of lithium results in the elimination of the photoluminescence response supporting the predicted transition from a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor. In addition, non-thermal coupling between the incident laser and lithium ions is observed and results in modulation of the electrical impedance.

  17. Evidence of ion intercalation mediated band structure modification and opto-ionic coupling in lithium niobite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, Joshua C.; Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-01-01

    The theoretically suggested band structure of the novel p-type semiconductor lithium niobite (LiNbO 2 ), the direct coupling of photons to ion motion, and optically induced band structure modifications are investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence. LiNbO 2 has previously been used as a memristor material but is shown here to be useful as a sensor owing to the electrical, optical, and chemical ease of lithium removal and insertion. Despite the high concentration of vacancies present in lithium niobite due to the intentional removal of lithium atoms, strong photoluminescence spectra are observed even at room temperature that experimentally confirm the suggested band structure implying transitions from a flat conduction band to a degenerate valence band. Removal of small amounts of lithium significantly modifies the photoluminescence spectra including additional larger than stoichiometric-band gap features. Sufficient removal of lithium results in the elimination of the photoluminescence response supporting the predicted transition from a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor. In addition, non-thermal coupling between the incident laser and lithium ions is observed and results in modulation of the electrical impedance

  18. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaoxu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs.

  19. About the safety of lithium batteries with carbon anode; De la securite des accumulateurs au lithium a anode de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biensan, Ph.; Le Nay, F. [SAFT, Direction de la Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Simon, B. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Bodet, J.M. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The replacement of lithium metal from the negative electrode of lithium batteries by a material allowing the reversible insertion of lithium ions is an undeniable commercial success. Carbon electrodes, generally called Li{sub x}C{sub 6}, are the most common type and allow to increase the service life of the battery, its charging fastness and its safety. The safety of such batteries is well known in normal conditions of use, but it has to be known also in any abusive condition of use, whatever is the charging state. The mastery of the phenomena that can occur requires a good knowledge of the kinetics of the exothermal chemical reactions involved. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  20. About the safety of lithium batteries with carbon anode; De la securite des accumulateurs au lithium a anode de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biensan, Ph; Le Nay, F [SAFT, Direction de la Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Simon, B [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Bodet, J M [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1997-12-31

    The replacement of lithium metal from the negative electrode of lithium batteries by a material allowing the reversible insertion of lithium ions is an undeniable commercial success. Carbon electrodes, generally called Li{sub x}C{sub 6}, are the most common type and allow to increase the service life of the battery, its charging fastness and its safety. The safety of such batteries is well known in normal conditions of use, but it has to be known also in any abusive condition of use, whatever is the charging state. The mastery of the phenomena that can occur requires a good knowledge of the kinetics of the exothermal chemical reactions involved. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  1. Acetylene Black Induced Heterogeneous Growth of Macroporous CoV2O6 Nanosheet for High-Rate Pseudocapacitive Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Kangning; Luo, Yanzhu; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Yan, Mengyu; Ren, Wenhao; Zhou, Liang; Qu, Longbing; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-03-23

    Metal vanadates suffer from fast capacity fading in lithium-ion batteries especially at a high rate. Pseudocapacitance, which is associated with surface or near-surface redox reactions, can provide fast charge/discharge capacity free from diffusion-controlled intercalation processes and is able to address the above issue. In this work, we report the synthesis of macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets through a facile one-pot method via acetylene black induced heterogeneous growth. When applied as lithium-ion battery anode, the macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets show typical features of pseudocapacitive behavior: (1) currents that are mostly linearly dependent on sweep rate and (2) redox peaks whose potentials do not shift significantly with sweep rate. The macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets display a high reversible capacity of 702 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1), excellent cyclability with a capacity retention of 89% (against the second cycle) after 500 cycles at 500 mA g(-1), and high rate capability of 453 mAh g(-1) at 5000 mA g(-1). We believe that the introduction of pseudocapacitive properties in lithium battery is a promising direction for developing electrode materials with high-rate capability.

  2. Development of In Situ Infrared Spectroelectrochemical Techniques: Application to Lithium Intercalation Reactions in Electrode Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frech, Roger

    2007-01-01

    .... The transition between LiFePO4 and FePO4 could easily be followed in the in situ spectra. An industrially available coin cell was modified to facilitate routine in situ Raman measurements of lithium batteries...

  3. Anodic behavior of stainless-steel substrate in organic electrolyte solutions containing different lithium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Egashira, Minato; Morita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated anodic behavior of stainless-steel in organic electrolytes for advanced capacitor. • Anion of the electrolyte affected the anodic stability of the alloy. • Anodic passivation occurs in LiPF 6 solution but pitting or active dissolution proceeds in other electrolyte solutions. • Fluoride source in the solution contributes to forming a stable surface layer on the stainless steel. - Abstract: The anodic behavior of austenitic stainless-steel, SUS304, as a current collector of positive electrode in lithium-ion battery/capacitor has been investigated in organic electrolyte solutions based on a mixed alkyl carbonate solvent with different lithium salts. Stable passivation characteristics were observed for the stainless-steel in the LiPF 6 solution, but pitting corrosion or active dissolution proceeded in the solutions containing other anions, BF 4 - , (CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N - (TFSA - ) and ClO 4 - . The mass ratios of the dissolved metal species in the solutions of LiTFSA and LiClO 4 were equivalent to that of the alloy composition, which suggests that no preferential dissolution occurs during the anodic polarization in these electrolyte solutions. An HF component formed by decomposition of PF 6 - with the contaminate water will act as an F - source for the formation of a surface fluoride layer, that will contribute to the anodic stability of SUS304 in the LiPF 6 solution. The anodic corrosion in the LiTFSA solution was suppressed in part by mixing the PF 6 salt or adding HF in the electrolyte

  4. Copper Antimonide Nanowire Array Lithium Ion Anodes Stabilized by Electrolyte Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Everett D; Prieto, Amy L

    2016-11-09

    Nanowires of electrochemically active electrode materials for lithium ion batteries represent a unique system that allows for intensive investigations of surface phenomena. In particular, highly ordered nanowire arrays produced by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates can lead to new insights into a material's electrochemical performance by providing a high-surface-area electrode with negligible volume expansion induced pulverization. Here we show that for the Li-Cu x Sb ternary system, stabilizing the surface chemistry is the most critical factor for promoting long electrode life. The resulting solid electrolyte interphase is analyzed using a mix of electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and lithium ion battery half-cell testing to provide a better understanding of the importance of electrolyte composition on this multicomponent alloy anode material.

  5. Cobalt nanosheet arrays supported silicon film as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.H.; Wu, J.B.; Cao, Y.Q.; Zhang, P.; Lin, Y.; Guo, R.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt nanosheet arrays supported silicon film is prepared and used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The film is fabricated using chemical bath deposition, hydrogen reduction and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering techniques. The microstructure and morphology are characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In this composite film, the silicon layer is supported by interconnected aligned cobalt nanosheet arrays that act as the three-dimensional current collector and buffering network. The electrochemical performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The results show that the film prepared by sputtering for 1500 s exhibits high capacity, good rate capability and stable cycle ability. It is believed that the cobalt nanosheet arrays play important roles in the electrochemical performance of the silicon layer.

  6. Development of Large-Format Lithium-Ion Cells with Silicon Anode and Low Flammable Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Hernandez-Lugo, D. M.; Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Miller, T. B.; Lvovich, V. F.; Lytle, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing safe, high energy and high capacity lithium-ion cell designs and batteries for future missions under NASAs Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) project. Advanced cell components, such as high specific capacity silicon anodes and low-flammable electrolytes have been developed for improving the cell specific energy and enhancing safety. To advance the technology readiness level, we have developed large-format flight-type hermetically sealed battery cells by incorporating high capacity silicon anodes, commercially available lithium nickel, cobalt, aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes, and low-flammable electrolytes. In this report, we will present the performance results of these various battery cells. In addition, we will also discuss the post-test cell analysis results as well.

  7. MnO-carbon hybrid nanofiber composites as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian-Gan; Yang, Ying; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-01-01

    MnO-carbon hybrid nanofiber composites are fabricated by electrospinning polyimide/manganese acetylacetonate precursor and a subsequent carbonization process. The composition, phase structure and morphology of the composites are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicate that the composites exhibit good nanofibrous morphology with MnO nanoparticles uniformly encapsulated by carbon nanofibers. The hybrid nanofiber composites are used directly as freestanding anodes for lithium-ion batteries to evaluate their electrochemical properties. It is found that the optimized MnO-carbon nanofiber composite can deliver a high reversible capacity of 663 mAh g −1 , along with excellent cycling stability and good rate capability. The superior performance enables the composites to be promising candidates as an anode alternative for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

  8. Mechanochemical approaches to employ silicon as a lithium-ion battery anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoi, Norihiro; Bahena-Garrido, Sharon; Tanaka, Yasumitsu; Qiwu, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is essential as an active material in lithium-ion batteries because it provides both high-charge and optimal cycle characteristics. The authors attempted to realize a composite by a simple mechanochemical grinding approach of individual silicon (Si) particles and copper monoxide (CuO) particles to serve as an active material in the anode and optimize the charge-discharge characteristics of a lithium-ion battery. The composite with Si and CuO allowed for a homogenous dispersion with nano-scale Si grains, nano-scale copper-silicon alloy grains and silicon monoxide oxidized the oxide from CuO. The authors successfully achieved the synthesis of an active composite unites the structural features of an active material based on silicon composite as an anode in Li-ion battery with high capacity and cyclic reversible charge properties of 3256 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles

  9. Review of porous silicon preparation and its application for lithium-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, M; Fang, X; Rong, J; Zhou, C

    2013-01-01

    Silicon is of great interest for use as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high capacity. However, certain properties of silicon, such as a large volume expansion during the lithiation process and the low diffusion rate of lithium in silicon, result in fast capacity degradation in limited charge/discharge cycles, especially at high current rate. Therefore, the use of silicon in real battery applications is limited. The idea of using porous silicon, to a large extent, addresses the above-mentioned issues simultaneously. In this review, we discuss the merits of using porous silicon for anodes through both theoretical and experimental study. Recent progress in the preparation of porous silicon through the template-assisted approach and the non-template approach have been highlighted. The battery performance in terms of capacity and cyclability of each structure is evaluated. (topical review)

  10. Activated Flake Graphite Coated with Pyrolysis Carbon as Promising Anode for Lithium Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun; Zou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Yan; Song, Weixin; Hou, Hongshuai; Huang, Zhaodong; Liao, Hanxiao; Li, Simin; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    A facile route to improve the lithium-storage properties of flake graphite (FG) is proposed through coating pyrolysis carbon from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) assisted by KOH activation. The interplanar distance between the graphene sheets of activated PVDF/FG is enlarged, effectively suppressing the electrode deformation during lithium (de)-intercalation. More edge and porous structures of PVDF/FG arising from KOH activation on graphite flakes contribute to improved electron and ion transport, leading to great improvement in its rate and cycling performances. The initial specific capacity of the activated PVDF/FG is 476.6 mAh g −1 at 50 mA g −1 and when the current increases to 1000 mA g −1 , the value still retains 142.6 mAh g −1 .

  11. Enhanced cycling performance of a Li metal anode in a dimethylsulfoxide-based electrolyte using highly concentrated lithium salt for a lithium-oxygen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togasaki, Norihiro; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Stable charge-discharge cycling behavior for a lithium metal anode in a dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-based electrolyte is strongly desired of lithium-oxygen batteries, because the Li anode is rapidly exhausted as a result of side reactions during cycling in the DMSO solution. Herein, we report a novel electrolyte design for enhancing the cycling performance of Li anodes by using a highly concentrated DMSO-based electrolyte with a specific Li salt. Lithium nitrate (LiNO3), which forms an inorganic compound (Li2O) instead of a soluble product (Li2S) on a lithium surface, exhibits a >20% higher coulombic efficiency than lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, and lithium perchlorate, regardless of the loading current density. Moreover, the stable cycling of Li anodes in DMSO-based electrolytes depends critically on the salt concentration. The highly concentrated electrolyte 4.0 M LiNO3/DMSO displays enhanced and stable cycling performance comparable to that of carbonate-based electrolytes, which had not previously been achieved. We suppose this enhancement is due to the absence of free DMSO solvent in the electrolyte and the promotion of the desolvation of Li ions on the solid electrolyte interphase surface, both being consequences of the unique structure of the electrolyte.

  12. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Dept.; Gaines, Linda G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2014-09-30

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  13. Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2O3 @polyaniline for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Kyoung G; Chang, Sung-Jin; Han, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young Boo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kwon, Soonjo; Lee, Gaehang; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2013-11-20

    Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2 O3 @polyaniline are fabricated by template-free synthesis of iron oxides followed by a post in- and exterior construction. A combination of large surface area with porous structure, fast ion/electron transport, and mechanical integrity renders this material attractive as a lithium-ion anode, showing superior rate capability and cycling performance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Synthesis, characterisation and electrochemical intercalation kinetics of nanostructured aluminium-doped Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 cathode material for lithium ion battery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jafta, CJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available is lower than that of the LMNC, but LMNCA shows a better stability with cycling and a better discharge capacity. The EIS results showed some variation in surface film resistance (Rf) and lithium intercalation/de-intercalation resistance (Rct) as a function...

  15. A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nian; Lu, Zhenda; Zhao, Jie; McDowell, Matthew T.; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Zhao, Wenting; Cui, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Silicon is an attractive material for anodes in energy storage devices, because it has ten times the theoretical capacity of its state-of-the-art carbonaceous counterpart. Silicon anodes can be used both in traditional lithium-ion batteries and in more recent Li-O2 and Li-S batteries as a replacement for the dendrite-forming lithium metal anodes. The main challenges associated with silicon anodes are structural degradation and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the large volume change (~300%) during cycling, the occurrence of side reactions with the electrolyte, and the low volumetric capacity when the material size is reduced to a nanometre scale. Here, we propose a hierarchical structured silicon anode that tackles all three of these problems. Our design is inspired by the structure of a pomegranate, where single silicon nanoparticles are encapsulated by a conductive carbon layer that leaves enough room for expansion and contraction following lithiation and delithiation. An ensemble of these hybrid nanoparticles is then encapsulated by a thicker carbon layer in micrometre-size pouches to act as an electrolyte barrier. As a result of this hierarchical arrangement, the solid-electrolyte interphase remains stable and spatially confined, resulting in superior cyclability (97% capacity retention after 1,000 cycles). In addition, the microstructures lower the electrode-electrolyte contact area, resulting in high Coulombic efficiency (99.87%) and volumetric capacity (1,270 mAh cm-3), and the cycling remains stable even when the areal capacity is increased to the level of commercial lithium-ion batteries (3.7 mAh cm-2).

  16. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd, E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  17. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  18. Scalable 2D Mesoporous Silicon Nanosheets for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Xingyan; Cao, Chuanbao; Xia, Min; Luo, Yunjun

    2018-03-01

    Constructing unique mesoporous 2D Si nanostructures to shorten the lithium-ion diffusion pathway, facilitate interfacial charge transfer, and enlarge the electrode-electrolyte interface offers exciting opportunities in future high-performance lithium-ion batteries. However, simultaneous realization of 2D and mesoporous structures for Si material is quite difficult due to its non-van der Waals structure. Here, the coexistence of both mesoporous and 2D ultrathin nanosheets in the Si anodes and considerably high surface area (381.6 m 2 g -1 ) are successfully achieved by a scalable and cost-efficient method. After being encapsulated with the homogeneous carbon layer, the Si/C nanocomposite anodes achieve outstanding reversible capacity, high cycle stability, and excellent rate capability. In particular, the reversible capacity reaches 1072.2 mA h g -1 at 4 A g -1 even after 500 cycles. The obvious enhancements can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the unique 2D mesoporous nanostructure and carbon capsulation. Furthermore, full-cell evaluations indicate that the unique Si/C nanostructures have a great potential in the next-generation lithium-ion battery. These findings not only greatly improve the electrochemical performances of Si anode, but also shine some light on designing the unique nanomaterials for various energy devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Computational multiobjective topology optimization of silicon anode structures for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sarah L.; Ortiz, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study utilizes computational topology optimization methods for the systematic design of optimal multifunctional silicon anode structures for lithium-ion batteries. In order to develop next generation high performance lithium-ion batteries, key design challenges relating to the silicon anode structure must be addressed, namely the lithiation-induced mechanical degradation and the low intrinsic electrical conductivity of silicon. As such this work considers two design objectives, the first being minimum compliance under design dependent volume expansion, and the second maximum electrical conduction through the structure, both of which are subject to a constraint on material volume. Density-based topology optimization methods are employed in conjunction with regularization techniques, a continuation scheme, and mathematical programming methods. The objectives are first considered individually, during which the influence of the minimum structural feature size and prescribed volume fraction are investigated. The methodology is subsequently extended to a bi-objective formulation to simultaneously address both the structural and conduction design criteria. The weighted sum method is used to derive the Pareto fronts, which demonstrate a clear trade-off between the competing design objectives. A rigid frame structure was found to be an excellent compromise between the structural and conduction design criteria, providing both the required structural rigidity and direct conduction pathways. The developments and results presented in this work provide a foundation for the informed design and development of silicon anode structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  20. High rate capacity nanocomposite lanthanum oxide coated lithium zinc titanate anode for rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Haoqing; Zan, Lingxing; Zhu, Jiangtao; Ma, Yiheng; Zhao, Naiqin; Tang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium zinc titanate (Li_2ZnTi_3O_8) is an important titanium material of promising candidates for anode materials with superior electrochemical performance and thus has attracted extensive attention. Herein, high capacity, stable Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 nanocomposite for lithium-ion battery anode is prepared by a facile strategy. Compared to unmodified Li_2ZnTi_3O_8, the Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 electrode display a high specific capacity of 188.6 mAh g"−"1 and remain as high as 147.7 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles at 2.0 A g"−"1. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 76.3 mAh g"−"1 can be obtained after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g"−"1 and the retention is 42.7% for Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3, which is much higher than un-coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8. The superior lithium storage performances of the Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 can be ascribed to the stable layer of protection, small particle size and large surface area. Cyclic voltammograms result reveals that the La_2O_3 coating layer reduces the polarization and improves the electrochemical activity of anode. - Highlights: • Nano layer La_2O_3 coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8 particles have been prepared via a suspension mixing process followed by heat treatment. • Coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8 has enhanced high rate capability, cyclic stability and long lifespan performance. • Electrochemical properties were tested in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0–0.05 V (vs. Li/Li"+).

  1. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Shuhong; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cao, Ruiguo; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2018-01-01

    Lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) are regarded as the most promising power sources for electric vehicles. Besides the Li dendrite growth and low Li Coulombic efficiency, how to well match Li metal anode with a high loading (normally over 3.0 mAh cm-2) cathode is another key challenge to achieve the real high energy density battery. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of the Li metal capacity usage in each cycle, manipulated by varying the cathode areal loading, on the stability of Li metal anode and the cycling performance of LMBs using the LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode and an additive-containing dual-salt/carbonate-solvent electrolyte. It is demonstrated that the Li||NMC cells show decent long-term cycling performance even with NMC areal capacity loading up to ca. 4.0 mAh cm-2 and at a charge current density of 1.0 mA cm-2. The increase of the Li capacity usage in each cycle causes variation in the components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode and generates more ionic conductive species from this electrolyte. Further study reveals for the first time that the degradation of Li metal anode and the thickness of SEI layer on Li anode show linear relationship with the areal capacity of NMC cathode. Meanwhile, the expansion rate of consumed Li and the ratio of SEI thickness to NMC areal loading are kept almost the same value with increasing cathode loading, respectively. These fundamental findings provide new perspectives on the rational evaluation of Li metal anode stability for the development of rechargeable LMBs.

  2. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Shuhong; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing

    2017-01-01

    We report that lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) have recently attracted extensive interest in the energy-storage field after silence from the public view for several decades. However, many challenges still need to be overcome before their practical application, especially those that are related to the interfacial instability of Li metal anodes. Here, we reveal for the first time that the thickness of the degradation layer on the metallic Li anode surface shows a linear relationship with Li areal capacity utilization up to 4.0 mAh cm -2 in a practical LMB system. The increase in Li capacity utilization in each cycle causes variations in the morphology and composition of the degradation layer on the Li anode. Under high Li capacity utilization, the current density for charge (i.e., Li deposition) is identified to be a key factor controlling the corrosion of the Li metal anode. Lastly, these fundamental findings provide new perspectives for the development of rechargeable LMBs.

  3. Graphene-encapsulated cobalt sulfides nanocages with excellent anode performances for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jinxue; Li, Fenfen; Sun, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiao; Tang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Graphene wrapped CoS 2 nanocages are synthesized as anode materials. •Layer-by-layer assembled structures are beneficial for fast and stable Li storage. •Hollow features improve capacity, rate capability and cycling life. •The sample shows outstanding lithium storages, especially high-rate performance. -- Abstract: A layer-by-layer assembled composite of graphene nanosheets (GNSs) wrapped monodisperse cobalt sulfides (CoS 2 ) nanocages has been prepared via a solvothermal method. The flexible GNSs in the layered composite act as the effective matrix to encapsulate the monodisperse CoS 2 nanocages, buffer the volume changes and prevent the aggregation of the CoS 2 nanocages during electrochemical cycling. The loosely stacked GNSs, which are induced with the insertion of CoS 2 , are convenient for electrolyte wetting and serve as highway for the rapid electron and lithium transport. The monodisperse nanocages can supply additional space to tolerate the volume changes, shorten lithium diffusion path, and do not tend to aggregate. As a result, the specific sample can deliver a high capacity approaching 800 mA h g −1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g −1 and 697 mA h g −1 after 300 cycles at 500 mA g −1 , in addition to good capacity retention and excellent rate capability, making it a promising candidate as next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

  4. Phosphorus-doped silicon nanorod anodes for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-phosphorus-doped silicon anodes were fabricated on CuO nanorods for application in high power lithium-ion batteries. Since the conductivity of lithiated CuO is significantly better than that of CuO, after the first discharge, the voltage cut-off window was then set to the range covering only the discharge–charge range of Si. Thus, the CuO core was in situ lithiated and acts merely as the electronic conductor in the following cycles. The Si anode presented herein exhibited a capacity of 990 mAh/g at the rate of 9 A/g after 100 cycles. The anode also presented a stable rate performance even at a current density as high as 20 A/g.

  5. Metal oxides and lithium alloys as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available -generation anode materials for lithium–ion batteries with high prospect of replacing graphite. Most of these anode materials have higher specific capacities between the range of 600-1000 mA h g(sup-1) compared with 340 mA h g(sup-1) of graphite. These high...

  6. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  7. Towards Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Low Self-Discharge Rate: Ion Diffusion Modulation and Anode Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Tao; Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Chen-Zi; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-09-07

    The self-discharge of a lithium-sulfur cell decreases the shelf-life of the battery and is one of the bottlenecks that hinders its practical applications. New insights into both the internal chemical reactions in a lithium-sulfur system and effective routes to retard self-discharge for highly stable batteries are crucial for the design of lithium-sulfur cells. Herein, a lithium-sulfur cell with a carbon nanotube/sulfur cathode and lithium-metal anode in lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/1,3-dioxolane/dimethyl ether electrolyte was selected as the model system to investigate the self-discharge behavior. Both lithium anode passivation and polysulfide anion diffusion suppression strategies are applied to reduce self-discharge of the lithium-sulfur cell. When the lithium-metal anode is protected by a high density passivation layer induced by LiNO3 , a very low shuttle constant of 0.017 h(-1) is achieved. The diffusion of the polysulfides is retarded by an ion-selective separator, and the shuttle constants decreased. The cell with LiNO3 additive maintained a discharge capacity of 97 % (961 mAh g(-1) ) of the initial capacity after 120 days at open circuit, which was around three times higher than the routine cell (32 % of initial capacity, corresponding to 320 mAh g(-1) ). It is expected that lithium-sulfur batteries with ultralow self-discharge rates may be fabricated through a combination of anode passivation and polysulfide shuttle control, as well as optimization of the lithium-sulfur cell configuration. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Understanding the interactions of phosphonate-based flame-retarding additives with graphitic anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jinkui; Ma, Peng; Yang, Hanxi; Lu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP) and dimethyl methylphosphonate are tested as flame retardants for lithium ion batteries. •The DMMP shows a destructive reaction with graphitic anode while DEEP shows a self-reduction mechanism. •DEEP is reported for the first time as flame-retardant additive for lithium ion batteries and demonstrates a much better compatibility with graphitic anode. -- Abstract: The compatibility with graphitic anode has been one key problem in developing flame-retarding additives for lithium ion batteries. To understand the interactions between flame-retarding additives and graphitic anode, two phosphonate esters (dimethyl methylphosphonate DMMP and diethyl ethylphosphonate DEEP) are selected and characterized as flame retardant addtives. DEEP is reported as a flame-retarding additive for the first time. Their interactions with graphite anode are characterized via current-static charge–discharge, ex-situ XRD, FE-SEM and AC impedance. The results reveal that the two phosphonate esters demonstrate different reaction mechanisms with graphitic anode, which result in different anode compatibility. These findings may be useful for designing better flame-retarding additives for lithium ion batteries

  9. Porous graphene for high capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yusheng, E-mail: xxwysheng@163.com [College of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Qiaoli; Jia, Min; Yang, Dapeng [College of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Wang, Jianjun; Li, Meng [College of Science, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Sun, Qiang [School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Jia, Yu, E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous graphene sheet as Li storage media. • Excellent mobility both along in-plane and out-plane directions. • The interactions can be easily tuned by an applied strain. - Abstract: Based on density functional theory calculations, we studied the Li dispersed on porous graphene (PG) for its application as Li ion battery anode material. The hybridization of Li atoms and the carbon atoms enhanced the interaction between Li atoms and the PG. With holes of specific size, the PG can provide excellent mobility with moderate barriers of 0.37–0.39 eV. The highest Li storage composite can be LiC{sub 0.75}H{sub 0.38} which corresponds to a specific capacity of 2857.7 mA h/g. Both specific capacity and binding energy are significantly larger than the corresponding value of graphite, this makes PG a promising candidate for the anode material in battery applications. The interactions between the Li atoms and PG can be easily tuned by an applied strain. Under biaxial strain of 16%, the binding energy of Li to PG is increased by 17% compared to its unstrained state.

  10. Novel sodium intercalated (NH4)2V6O16 platelets: High performance cathode materials for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hailong; Wu, Xiaomin; Li, Huan; Wei, Mingdeng

    2014-02-01

    A simple and versatile method for preparation of novel sodium intercalated (NH4)2V6O16 is developed via a simple hydrothermal route. It is found that ammonium sodium vanadium bronze displays higher discharge capacity and better rate cyclic stability than ammonium vanadium bronze as lithium-ion battery cathode material because of smaller charge transfer resistance, which would favor superior discharge capacity and rate performance. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Piezo-Electrochemical Energy Harvesting with Lithium-Intercalating Carbon Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Eric; Lindbergh, Göran; Zenkert, Dan; Leijonmarck, Simon; Kjell, Maria Hellqvist

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical and electrochemical properties are coupled through a piezo-electrochemical effect in Li-intercalated carbon fibers. It is demonstrated that this piezo-electrochemical effect makes it possible to harvest electrical energy from mechanical work. Continuous polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers that can work both as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and structural reinforcement for composites materials are used in this study. Applying a tensile force to carbon fiber bundles used as Li-intercalating electrodes results in a response of the electrode potential of a few millivolts which allows, at low current densities, lithiation at higher electrode potential than delithiation. More electrical energy is thereby released from the cell at discharge than provided at charge, harvesting energy from the mechanical work of the applied force. The measured harvested specific electrical power is in the order of 1 μW/g for current densities in the order of 1 mA/g, but this has a potential of being increased significantly.

  12. Structure-Property of Metal Organic Frameworks Calcium Terephthalates Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Mou, Chengxu; Sun, Yang; Liu, Wei; Deng, Qijiu; Li, Jingze

    2015-01-01

    Graphical Abstract: Effects of hydration water in calcium terephthalates anodes on the structure, operational voltage and electrochemical performance are systematically studied. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Metal organic frameworks CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O and CaC 8 H 4 O 4 are applied as anodes for lithium ion batteries. •Appearance of hydration water leads different crystallography structures and electrochemical performance. •Anhydrous CaC 8 H 4 O 4 has a spacious ordered layer structure, a higher Ca-O chemical bonding interaction and a higher transparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient, delivering a higher capacity, better cycling performance and rate performance than CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O. -- Abstract: Metal organic frameworks have attracted considerable interest as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. In this paper, the metal organic frameworks hydrated calcium terephthalate (CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O) and anhydrous calcium terephthalate (CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ) as anodes for lithium ion batteries are comparatively studied. Crystallography and local chemical bond analysis are combined to interpret the structure-property of calcium terephthalates. Results show that the anhydrous CaC 8 H 4 O 4 has a spacious ordered layer structure and a higher Ca-O chemical bonding interaction, delivering a higher capacity, better cycling performance and rate performance than CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O

  13. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  14. Nanotemplated platinum fuel cell catalysts and copper-tin lithium battery anode materials for microenergy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan, J.F., E-mail: james.rohan@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Hasan, M.; Holubowitch, N. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > Anodic Aluminum oxide formation on Si substrate. > High density nanotemplated Pt catalyst on Si for integrated energy and electronics. > CuSn alloy deposition from a single, high efficiency methanesulfonate plating bath. > Nanotemplated CuSn Li anode electrodes with high capacity retention. - Abstract: Nanotemplated materials have significant potential for applications in energy conversion and storage devices due to their unique physical properties. Nanostructured materials provide additional electrode surface area beneficial for energy conversion or storage applications with short path lengths for electronic and ionic transport and thus the possibility of higher reaction rates. We report on the use of controlled growth of metal and alloy electrodeposited templated nanostructures for energy applications. Anodic aluminium oxide templates fabricated on Si for energy materials integration with electronic devices and their use for fuel cell and battery materials deposition is discussed. Nanostructured Pt anode catalysts for methanol fuel cells are shown. Templated CuSn alloy anodes that possess high capacity retention with cycling for lithium microbattery integration are also presented.

  15. Protected Lithium-Metal Anodes in Batteries: From Liquid to Solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunpeng; Fu, Kun; Zhang, Ying; Hitz, Emily; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-09-01

    High-energy lithium-metal batteries are among the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. With a high specific capacity and a low reduction potential, the Li-metal anode has attracted extensive interest for decades. Dendritic Li formation, uncontrolled interfacial reactions, and huge volume effect are major hurdles to the commercial application of Li-metal anodes. Recent studies have shown that the performance and safety of Li-metal anodes can be significantly improved via organic electrolyte modification, Li-metal interface protection, Li-electrode framework design, separator coating, and so on. Superior to the liquid electrolytes, solid-state electrolytes are considered able to inhibit problematic Li dendrites and build safe solid Li-metal batteries. Inspired by the bright prospects of solid Li-metal batteries, increasing efforts have been devoted to overcoming the obstacles of solid Li-metal batteries, such as low ionic conductivity of the electrolyte and Li-electrolyte interfacial problems. Here, the approaches to protect Li-metal anodes from liquid batteries to solid-state batteries are outlined and analyzed in detail. Perspectives regarding the strategies for developing Li-metal anodes are discussed to facilitate the practical application of Li-metal batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Zinc terephthalates ZnC_8H_4O_4 as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Zou, Jian; Chen, Shulin; Yang, Jingyi; Qing, Fangzhu; Gao, Peng; Li, Jingze

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Both of well-crystalline and amorphous zinc terephthalates ZnC_8H_4O_4 are synthesized and amorphous structure demonstrates a higher capacity and better cycling performance. - Highlights: • Crystalline and amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 are obtained. • Both crystalline and amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 have σ_e of 10"−"7 S m"−"1. • Lithium ion diffusion is the rate-determine process. • Amorphous has a high capacity and durable performance. • Amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 has a high apparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient. - Abstract: Organic materials offer the advantages of cost-effective, environmental benignity, and molecular structural diversity as applications of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. In fact, their lithium storage behaviors in terms of dynamics and kinetics intrinsically lie in ion migration in solids. Thus the solid forms including crystalline and amorphous states are crucial for the properties. In this study, a conventional carbonyl type organic material, namely zinc terephthalate (ZnC_8H_4O_4), is obtained in both well-crystalline and amorphous forms and applied as anodes for lithium ion batteries. ZnC_8H_4O_4 with amorphous structure shows higher lithium storage capacity and better capacity retention compared with that of crystalline one. It is ascribed that the amorphous phase provides a higher lithium ion diffusion coefficient than the crystalline one under the conditions of similar electronic conductivity.

  17. Graphene nanoribbon and nanostructured SnO2 composite anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Xiang, Changsheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Yan, Zheng; Natelson, Douglas; Tour, James M

    2013-07-23

    A composite made from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) is synthesized and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The conductive GNRs, prepared using sodium/potassium unzipping of multiwall carbon nanotubes, can boost the lithium storage performance of SnO2 NPs. The composite, as an anode material for LIBs, exhibits reversible capacities of over 1520 and 1130 mAh/g for the first discharge and charge, respectively, which is more than the theoretical capacity of SnO2. The reversible capacity retains ~825 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g with a Coulombic efficiency of 98% after 50 cycles. Further, the composite shows good power performance with a reversible capacity of ~580 mAh/g at the current density of 2 A/g. The high capacity, good power performance and retention can be attributed to uniformly distributed SnO2 NPs along the high-aspect-ratio GNRs. The GNRs act as conductive additives that buffer the volume changes of SnO2 during cycling. This work provides a starting point for exploring the composites made from GNRs and other transition metal oxides for lithium storage applications.

  18. Graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite as an anode for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycki Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays reduced graphene oxide (rGO is regarded as a highly interesting material which is appropriate for possible applications in electrochemistry, especially in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. Several methods were proposed for the preparation of rGO-based electrodes, resulting in high-capacity LIBs anodes. However, the mechanism of lithium storage in rGO and related materials is still not well understood. In this work we focused on the proposed mechanism of favorable bonding sites induced by additional functionalities attached to the graphene planes. This mechanism might increase the capacity of electrodes. In order to verify this hypothesis the composite of non-reduced graphene oxide (GO with multiwalled carbon nanotubes electrodes was fabricated. Electrochemical properties of GO composite anodes were studied in comparison with similarly prepared electrodes based on rGO. This allowed us to estimate the impact of functional groups on the reversible capacity changes. As a result, it was shown that oxygen containing functional groups of GO do not create, in noticeable way, additional active sites for the electrochemical reactions of lithium storage, contrary to what has been postulated previously.

  19. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Yoon, Steve [A123 Systems, Inc.; Denlinger, Matthew [A123 Systems, Inc.; Wood III, David L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  20. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeongwoon; Ihm, Jisoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Seungchul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV). As the incident energy decreases, the ratio of sp2 carbons increases, that of sp3 decreases, and the carbon films become more porous. The films prepared with very low incident energy contain lithium-ion conducting channels. Also, those films are electrically conductive to supplement the poor conductivity of silicon and can restore their structure after large deformation to accommodate the volume change during the operations. As a result of this study, we suggest that graphite-like porous carbon coating on silicon will extend the lifetime of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28347087

  1. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoon Hwang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV. As the incident energy decreases, the ratio of sp2 carbons increases, that of sp3 decreases, and the carbon films become more porous. The films prepared with very low incident energy contain lithium-ion conducting channels. Also, those films are electrically conductive to supplement the poor conductivity of silicon and can restore their structure after large deformation to accommodate the volume change during the operations. As a result of this study, we suggest that graphite-like porous carbon coating on silicon will extend the lifetime of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Manganese pyridinedicarboxylates: New anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with good cycling performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Hailong; Li, Zhiwei; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Manganese 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylate and 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate. • Firstly tested as anode materials. • High capacity and good cycle stability. - Abstract: It is significant to discover new environmental friendly, sustainable and renewable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Manganese dicarboxylate [Mn 2 (pdc) 2 (H 2 O) 3 ] n ⋅2nH 2 O (pdc = pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate) is firstly found to be a high-energy anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It shows a high discharge capacity of 573.7 mA h g −1 for the second cycle between a 0.05 and 3.0 V voltage limit at a discharge current density of 500 mA g −1 . The reversible capacity of 457.2 mA h g −1 is remained after 100 cycles with a capacity retention being 79.6%. In addition, it is found that Mn 2,5-pyridinedicarboxyle was also stable anode materials with high capacity

  3. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping, E-mail: zjuwuping@njnu.edu.cn; Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming, E-mail: zhouyiming@njnu.edu.cn; Lu, Tianhong

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO{sub 2} spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g{sup −1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g{sup −1}), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g{sup −1})

  4. Manganese pyridinedicarboxylates: New anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with good cycling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Hailong, E-mail: feilin09053@gmail.com [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 2 Xueyuan Road, University Town Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Zhiwei; Liu, Xin [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 2 Xueyuan Road, University Town Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Manganese 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylate and 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate. • Firstly tested as anode materials. • High capacity and good cycle stability. - Abstract: It is significant to discover new environmental friendly, sustainable and renewable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Manganese dicarboxylate [Mn{sub 2}(pdc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n}⋅2nH{sub 2}O (pdc = pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate) is firstly found to be a high-energy anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It shows a high discharge capacity of 573.7 mA h g{sup −1} for the second cycle between a 0.05 and 3.0 V voltage limit at a discharge current density of 500 mA g{sup −1}. The reversible capacity of 457.2 mA h g{sup −1} is remained after 100 cycles with a capacity retention being 79.6%. In addition, it is found that Mn 2,5-pyridinedicarboxyle was also stable anode materials with high capacity.

  5. Novel iron oxide nanotube arrays as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Fan, Huiqing; Chang, Ling; Shao, Haibo; Wang, Jianming; Zhang, Jianqing; Cao, Chu-nan

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructured iron oxides can be promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, improvement on the rate capability and/or electrochemical cycling stability of iron oxide anode materials remains a key challenge because of their poor electrical conductivities and large volume expansion during cycling. Herein, the vertically aligned arrays of one-dimensional (1D) iron oxide nanotubes with 5.8 wt% carbon have been fabricated by a novel surfactant-free self-corrosion process and subsequent thermal treatment. The as-fabricated nanotube array electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 932 mAh g-1 after 50 charge-discharge cycles at a current of 0.6 A g-1. The electrode still shows a reversible capacity of 610 mAh g-1 even at a very high rate (8.0 A g-1), demonstrating its prominent rate capability. Furthermore, the nanotube array electrode also exhibits the excellent electrochemical cycling stability with a reversible capacity of 880 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current of 4 A g-1. The nanotube array electrode with superior lithium storage performance reveals the promising potential as a high-performance anode for LIBs.

  6. Silicene Flowers: A Dual Stabilized Silicon Building Block for High-Performance Lithium Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghao; Qiu, Xiongying; Kong, Debin; Zhou, Lu; Li, Zihao; Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2017-07-25

    Nanostructuring is a transformative way to improve the structure stability of high capacity silicon for lithium batteries. Yet, the interface instability issue remains and even propagates in the existing nanostructured silicon building blocks. Here we demonstrate an intrinsically dual stabilized silicon building block, namely silicene flowers, to simultaneously address the structure and interface stability issues. These original Si building blocks as lithium battery anodes exhibit extraordinary combined performance including high gravimetric capacity (2000 mAh g -1 at 800 mA g -1 ), high volumetric capacity (1799 mAh cm -3 ), remarkable rate capability (950 mAh g -1 at 8 A g -1 ), and excellent cycling stability (1100 mA h g -1 at 2000 mA g -1 over 600 cycles). Paired with a conventional cathode, the fabricated full cells deliver extraordinarily high specific energy and energy density (543 Wh kg ca -1 and 1257 Wh L ca -1 , respectively) based on the cathode and anode, which are 152% and 239% of their commercial counterparts using graphite anodes. Coupled with a simple, cost-effective, scalable synthesis approach, this silicon building block offers a horizon for the development of high-performance batteries.

  7. Next Generation Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries: Thermodynamic Understanding and Abuse Performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    As we develop new materials to increase performance of lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, the impact of potential safety and reliability issues become increasingly important. In addition to electrochemical performance increases (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance behavior. Introduction of a next generation materials, such as silicon based anode, requires a full understanding of the abuse response and degradation mechanisms for these anodes. This work aims to understand the breakdown of these materials during abuse conditions in order to develop an inherently safe power source for our next generation electric vehicles. The effect of materials level changes (electrolytes, additives, silicon particle size, silicon loading, etc.) to cell level abuse response and runaway reactions will be determined using several techniques. Experimentation will start with base material evaluations in coin cells and overall runaway energy will be evaluated using techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The goal is to understand the effect of materials parameters on the runaway reactions, which can then be correlated to the response seen on larger cells (18650). Experiments conducted showed that there was significant response from these electrodes. Efforts to minimize risk during testing were taken by development of a smaller capacity cylindrical design in order to quantify materials decision and how they manifest during abuse response.

  8. CuO nanorods/graphene nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jun; Shan, Wanfei; Xia, Xinbei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO/GNS nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • CuO/GNSs as LIB anodes exhibit much higher cyclability and capacity than CuO nanostructures. • Such excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect between CuO and GNSs. -- Abstract: CuO/graphene nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their application as anodes of lithium-ion batteries has been investigated. CuO nanorods are uniformly coating on the surface of graphene nanosheets. CuO/graphene nanocomposites exhibit high cyclability and capacity. After 50 cycles, the capacity can maintain at 692.5 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C rate (10 h per half cycle). Such a high performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and CuO nanorods. The present results indicate that CuO/graphene nanocomposites have potential applications in the anodes of lithium-ion battery

  9. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping; Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming; Lu, Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO 2 spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g −1 after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g −1 ), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g −1 )

  10. Hierarchical columnar silicon anode structures for high energy density lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Kuntze, Thomas; Winkler, Sebastian; Straach, Steffen; Härtel, Paul; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for next generation lithium secondary batteries. To significantly increase the energy density of state of the art batteries with silicon, new concepts have to be developed and electrode structuring will become a key technology. Structuring is essential to reduce the macroscopic and microscopic electrode deformation, caused by the volume change during cycling. We report pulsed laser structuring for the generation of hierarchical columnar silicon films with outstanding high areal capacities up to 7.5 mAh cm-2 and good capacity retention. Unstructured columnar electrodes form a micron-sized block structure during the first cycle to compensate the volume expansion leading to macroscopic electrode deformation. At increased silicon loading, without additional structuring, pronounced distortion and the formation of cracks through the current collector causes cell failure. Pulsed laser ablation instead is demonstrated to avoid macroscopic electrode deformation by initial formation of the block structure. A full cell with lithiated silicon versus a carbon-sulfur cathode is assembled with only 15% overbalanced anode and low electrolyte amount (8 μl mgsulfur-1). While the capacity retention over 50 cycles is identical to a cell with high excess lithium anode, the volumetric energy density could be increased by 30%.

  11. On anodic stability and decomposition mechanism of sulfolane in high-voltage lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Lidan; Tu, Wenqiang; Vatamanu, Jenel; Liu, Qifeng; Huang, Wenna; Wang, Yating; Zhou, Hebing; Zeng, Ronghua; Li, Weishan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Influence of lithium salts on the anodic stability of sulfolane has been investigated. • Oxidation decomposition mechanisms of LiPF 6 /Sulfolane electrolyte have been well understood by theoretical and experimental methods. • Decomposition products of the electrolyte can be found on the electrode surface and in the interfacial electrolyte. - Abstract: In this work, we investigated the anodic stability and decomposition mechanism of sulfolane (SL). The anodic stability of SL-based electrolyte with different lithium salts on Pt and LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 electrodes was found to decrease as follows: LiPF 6 /SL > LiBF 4 /SL > LiClO 4 /SL. The oxidation potential of 1M LiPF 6 /SL electrolyte on both Pt and electrodes is about 5.0V vs Li/Li + . The presence of PF 6 - and another SL solvent dramatically alters the decomposition mechanism of SL. Oxidation decomposition of SL-SL cluster is the most favorable reaction in LiPF 6 /SL electrolyte. The dimer products with S-O-R group were detected by IR spectra on the charged LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 electrode surface and in the electrolyte near the electrode surface, and were found to increase the interfacial reaction resistance of the LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 electrode

  12. Synthesis and characterization of cathode, anode and electrolyte materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shoufeng

    Two new classes of cathode materials were studied: iron phosphate/sulfate materials and layered manganese oxides, both of which are low cost and had shown some potential. The first class of materials have poor conductivity and cyclability. I studied a number of methods for increasing the conductivity, and determined that grinding the material with carbon black was as effective as special in-situ coatings. The optimum carbon loading was determined to be between 6 and 15 wt%. Too much carbon reduces the volumetric energy density, whereas too little significantly increased cell polarization (reduced the rate of reaction). The kinetic and thermodynamic stability of LiFePO 4 was also studied and it was determined that over discharge protection will be needed as irreversible Li3PO4 can be formed at low potentials. A novel hydrothermal synthesis method was developed, but the significant level of Fe on the Li site reduces the reaction rate too much. In the case of the layered manganese oxide, cation substitution with Co and Ni is found to be effective in avoiding Jahn-Teller effects and improving electrochemistry. A wide range of tin compounds have been suggested as lithium storage media for advanced anode materials, as tin can store over 4 Li per Sn atom. Lithium hexafluorophosphate, LiPF6, is presently the salt of choice for LiCoO2 batteries, but it is expensive and dissolves some manganese compounds. The lithium bis(oxolato)borate (BOB) salt was recently reported, and I made a study of its use in cells with the LiFePO4 cathode and the tin anode. During its synthesis, it became clear that LiBOB is very reactive with many solvents, and these complexes were characterized to better understand this new material. In LiBOB the lithium is five coordinated, an unstable configuration for the lithium ion so that water and many other solvents rapidly react to make a six coordination. Only in the case of ethylene carbonate was the lithium found to be four coordinated. The Li

  13. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, Luc; Oumellal, Yassine; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH) with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g(-1) at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li(+)/Li(0)) and the lowest electrode polarization (lithium are subsequently detailed for MgH2, TiH2, complex hydrides Mg2MH x and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MH x + xLi(+) + xe(-) in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths-involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content-were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should

  14. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today\\'s commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode, which makes this material attractive for use as a negative electrode in aqueous electrolytes. This material was synthesized using a Pechini type method. Galvanostatic cycling of the resulting lithium titanium phosphate showed an initial discharge capacity of 115 mAh/g and quite good capacity retention during cycling, 84% after 100 cycles, and 70% after 160 cycles at a 1 C cycling rate in an organic electrolyte. An initial discharge capacity of 113 mAh/g and capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency above 98% was observed at a C/5 rate in pH -neutral 2 M Li2 S O4. The good cycle life and high efficiency in an aqueous electrolyte demonstrate that lithium titanium phosphate is an excellent candidate negative electrode material for use in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  15. Asymmetric Membranes Containing Micron-Size Silicon for High Performance Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, Ian; Wu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Micron-size Si anode is notorious for having extremely poor cycle life. It is mainly caused by the large volume change (∼300%) and poor mechanical strength of the Si electrode. Satisfying methods to address this issue are seriously lacking in literature. In this study, novel single-layer, double-layer and triple-layer asymmetric membranes containing micron-size silicon have been fabricated using a simple phase inversion method to dramatically improve its cyclability. The electrochemical performance of these asymmetric membranes as lithium ion battery anodes are evaluated and compared to pure micron-size Si powders and carbonaceous asymmetric membranes. All three types of asymmetric membrane electrodes demonstrate significantly enhanced stability as compared to pure Si powders. The single-layer asymmetric membrane has the largest capacity degradation due to the loss of pulverized Si powders from the membrane surface, only 40% of whose capacity can be retained in 100 cycles. But this performance is still much better than pure micron-size silicon electrode. After being coated with nanoporous carbonaceous layers on both sides of a single-layer asymmetric membrane to make a triple-layer asymmetric membrane (sandwich structure), the capacity retention is notably increased to 88% in 100 cycles at 610 mAh g"−"1 and 0.5C. The enhanced stability is attributed to the extra nanoporous coatings that can prevent the fractured Si powders from being leached out and allow facile lithium ion diffusions. Such a novel, efficient and scalable method may provide beneficiary guidance for designing high capacity lithium ion battery anodes with large volume change issues.

  16. High rate capacity nanocomposite lanthanum oxide coated lithium zinc titanate anode for rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Haoqing, E-mail: tanghaoqing@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zan, Lingxing [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Bonn, Bonn 53117 (Germany); Zhu, Jiangtao; Ma, Yiheng [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Naiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tang, Zhiyuan, E-mail: zytang46@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Lithium zinc titanate (Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) is an important titanium material of promising candidates for anode materials with superior electrochemical performance and thus has attracted extensive attention. Herein, high capacity, stable Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite for lithium-ion battery anode is prepared by a facile strategy. Compared to unmodified Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode display a high specific capacity of 188.6 mAh g{sup −1} and remain as high as 147.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at 2.0 A g{sup −1}. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 76.3 mAh g{sup −1} can be obtained after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g{sup −1} and the retention is 42.7% for Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which is much higher than un-coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The superior lithium storage performances of the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be ascribed to the stable layer of protection, small particle size and large surface area. Cyclic voltammograms result reveals that the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating layer reduces the polarization and improves the electrochemical activity of anode. - Highlights: • Nano layer La{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} particles have been prepared via a suspension mixing process followed by heat treatment. • Coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} has enhanced high rate capability, cyclic stability and long lifespan performance. • Electrochemical properties were tested in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0–0.05 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}).

  17. Microscopic properties of lithium, sodium, and magnesium battery anode materials related to possible dendrite growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jäckle, Markus; Groß, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Lithium and magnesium exhibit rather different properties as battery anode materials with respect to the phenomenon of dendrite formation which can lead to short-circuits in batteries. Diffusion processes are the key to understanding structure forming processes on surfaces. Therefore, we have determined adsorption energies and barriers for the self-diffusion on Li and Mg using periodic density functional theory calculations and contrasted the results to Na which is also regarded as a promising electrode material in batteries. According to our calculations, magnesium exhibits a tendency towards the growth of smooth surfaces as it exhibits lower diffusion barriers than lithium and sodium, and as an hcp metal it favors higher-coordinated configurations in contrast to the bcc metals Li and Na. These characteristic differences are expected to contribute to the unequal tendencies of these metals with respect to dendrite growth

  18. Anode behaviors of aluminum antimony synthesized by mechanical alloying for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, H.; Sakaguchi, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Esaka, T.

    2003-01-01

    AlSb was synthesized as an anode active material for lithium secondary battery using mechanical alloying (MA). Electrochemical performance was examined on the electrodes of AlSb synthesized with different MA time. The first charge (lithium-insertion) capacity of the AlSb electrodes decreased with increasing the MA time. The discharge capacity on repeating charge-discharge cycle, however, did not show the same dependence. The electrode, consisting of the 20 h MA sample exhibited the longest charge-discharge life cycle, suggesting that there is the optimum degree of internal energy derived from the strain and/or the amorphization due to mechanical alloying. These results were evaluated using ex situ X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry

  19. Interconnected Silicon Hollow Nanospheres for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan

    2011-07-13

    Silicon is a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, volume changes during cycling cause pulverization and capacity fade, and improving cycle life is a major research challenge. Here, we report a novel interconnected Si hollow nanosphere electrode that is capable of accommodating large volume changes without pulverization during cycling. We achieved the high initial discharge capacity of 2725 mAh g-1 with less than 8% capacity degradation every hundred cycles for 700 total cycles. Si hollow sphere electrodes also show a Coulombic efficiency of 99.5% in later cycles. Superior rate capability is demonstrated and attributed to fast lithium diffusion in the interconnected Si hollow structure. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Electrolytic deposition of Sn-coated mesocarbon microbeads as anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Min-Jen [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Du-Cheng [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Ho, Wen-Hsien [Taiwan Textile Research Institute, Taipei 23674, Taiwan (China); Li, Ching-Fei, E-mail: chingfei.li@gmail.com [Phoenix Silicon International Corporation, Hsinchu 30094, Taiwan (China); Shieu, Fuh-Sheng, E-mail: fsshieu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Deposited of crystalline tin (Sn) coatings on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) powder as anodes of lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was conducted in the SnSO{sub 4} solution by a cathodic electrochemical synthesis. The Sn-coated MCMB specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and charge/discharge tests. The synthesis condition of Sn-coated MCMB was optimized by considering the agglomeration, size, and adhesion of the samples to the current collectors in the battery. The Sn-coated MCMB electrodes exhibit increased reversible capacity without sacrificing its cycling behavior, compared with bare MCMB electrodes. It is concluded that electrolysis-deposited Sn-coated MCMB electrodes may emerge as a practical and promising anode material for secondary Li-ion batteries.

  1. Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Carbon Cryogels and Carbon Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nanofoams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  2. Electrolytic deposition of Sn-coated mesocarbon microbeads as anode material for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Min-Jen; Tsai, Du-Cheng; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Li, Ching-Fei; Shieu, Fuh-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Deposited of crystalline tin (Sn) coatings on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) powder as anodes of lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was conducted in the SnSO 4 solution by a cathodic electrochemical synthesis. The Sn-coated MCMB specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and charge/discharge tests. The synthesis condition of Sn-coated MCMB was optimized by considering the agglomeration, size, and adhesion of the samples to the current collectors in the battery. The Sn-coated MCMB electrodes exhibit increased reversible capacity without sacrificing its cycling behavior, compared with bare MCMB electrodes. It is concluded that electrolysis-deposited Sn-coated MCMB electrodes may emerge as a practical and promising anode material for secondary Li-ion batteries.

  3. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  4. Highly stable carbon coated Mg2Si intermetallic nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamirat, Andebet Gedamu; Hou, Mengyan; Liu, Yao; Bin, Duan; Sun, Yunhe; Fan, Long; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is an ideal candidate anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, it suffers from rapid capacity fading due to large volume expansion upon lithium insertion. Herein, we design and fabricate highly stable carbon coated porous Mg2Si intermetallic anode material using facile mechano-thermal technique followed by carbon coating using thermal vapour deposition (TVD), toluene as carbon source. The electrode exhibits an excellent first reversible capacity of 726 mAh g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1. More importantly, the electrode demonstrates high rate capability (380 mAh g-1 at high rate of 2 A g-1) as well as high cycle stability, with capacity retentions of 65% over 500 cycles. These improvements are attributable to both Mg supporting medium and the uniform carbon coating, which can effectively increase the conductivity and electronic contact of the active material and protects large volume alterations during the electrochemical cycling process.

  5. Characterization of silicon- and carbon-based composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomenko, Volodymyr G.; Barsukov, Viacheslav Z.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years development of active materials for negative electrodes has been of great interest. Special attention has been focused on the active materials possessing higher reversible capacity than that of conventional graphite. In the present work the electrochemical performance of some carbon/silicon-based materials has been analyzed. For this purpose various silicon-based composites were prepared using such carbon materials as graphite, hard carbon and graphitized carbon black. An analysis of charging-discharging processes at electrodes based on different carbon materials has shown that graphite modified with silicon is the most promising anode material. It has also been revealed that the irreversible capacity mainly depends on the content of Si. An optimum content of Si has been determined with taking into account that high irreversible capacity is not suitable for practical application in lithium-ion batteries. This content falls within the range of 8-10 wt%. The reversible capacity of graphite modified with 8 wt% carbon-coated Si was as high as 604 mAh g -1 . The irreversible capacity loss with this material was as low as 8.1%. The small irreversible capacity of the material allowed developing full lithium-ion rechargeable cells in the 2016 coin cell configuration. Lithium-ion batteries based on graphite modified with silicon show gravimetric and volumetric specific energy densities which are higher by approximately 20% than those for a lithium-ion battery based on natural graphite

  6. Carbon-coated mesoporous SnO2 nanospheres as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Song, Xiaoping; Yao, Gang; Zhao, Mingshu; Liu, Rui; Xu, Minwei; Sun, Zhanbo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper mesoporous SnO 2 nanospheres with an average diameter of about 83 nm, composed of many tiny primary particles (∼10 nm) and holes, are synthesized on a large scale by a simple hydrothermal route. The as-prepared mesoporous SnO 2 nanospheres were uniformly coated with carbon by a further hydrothermal treatment in glucose aqueous solution. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the core–shell SnO 2 /C nanocomposites exhibit a markedly improved cycling performance.

  7. High performance of solvothermally prepared VO2(B as anode for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The VO2 (B was synthesized via a simple solvothermal route at 160oC in ethanol. The initial discharge capacity of VO2 (B anode, in saturated aqueous solution of LiNO3, was 177 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 50 mA g-1. After 50 cycles capacity fade was 4%, but from 20th-50th cycle no capacity drop was observed. The VO2 (B has shown very good cyclability at current rate of even 1000 mA g-1 with initial discharge capacity of 92 mAh g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance of VO2 (B was attributed to the stability of micro-nano structures to repeated intercalation /deintercalation process, very good electronic conductivity as well as the very low charge transfer resistance in the aqueous electrolyte. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45014

  8. Designing self-standing silicon-copper composite helices as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, B.D.; Keles, O.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated helical thin films to be used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIB). The thin films having various Cu−Si atomic ratios (30–70%, 20–80%, and 10–90%) are prepared by using ion-assisted glancing angle co-deposition. Cu plays a crucial role in holding the electrode together, minimizing overall capacity loss and enabling faster electron transfer thus, improving the electrochemical performances of the electrodes. Increasing the Cu/Si atomic ratio affects the structure of the helices and their alignment. Implementing ion assisted deposition at the beginning of the film deposition helps to improve film adhesion. The Si-20 at.% Cu anode delivers 1885 mAh g"−"1 initially with 98% coulombic efficiency and retains 77% of the capacity after 100 cycles at 100 mA g"−"1. - Highlights: • Highly adherent SiCu helices are deposited by ion assisted glancing angle deposition. • Cu content in the SiCu helices affects the helice' morphology and structure. • SiCu helices with different Cu contents have been used as anodes for LIB. • Helices being like microsprings, improve the mechanical resistance of the anode.

  9. Coaxial Manganese Dioxide@N-doped Carbon Nanotubes as Superior Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Jie; Gu, Xin; Jiang, Xiaolei; Chen, Liang; Wang, Nana; Yang, Jian; Ma, Xiaojian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MnO 2 @N-dopedcarbonnanotube(N-CNT) composites are prepared by a facile process. • MnO 2 @N-CNT anodes exhibit better electrochemical properties than MnO 2 @CNT. • MnO 2 @N-CNT anodes show a capacity of 1415 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 after 150 cycles. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube (CNT) has been widely applied to transition metal oxides anodes for lithium ion batteries, acting as a buffer, hollow backbone and conductive additive. Since the presence of N in carbon materials can enhance the reactivity and electrical conductivity, N-doped carbon nanotube (N-CNT) might be a better choice than pure CNT, which is exemplified by coaxial manganese dioxide@N-doped carbon nanotubes as a superior anode. The electrochemical properties of MnO 2 @N-CNT are investigated in terms of cycling stability and rate capability. The nanocomposite can deliver a specific capacity of 1415 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g −1 , which is better than that of MnO 2 @commercial CNT and MnO 2 . The excellent performance might be related to the integration of hollow structure, one-dimensional nanoscale size as well as combination with N-doped carbon materials.

  10. Mechanical characterization and modeling for anodes and cathodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lubing; Yin, Sha; Zhang, Chao; Huan, Yong; Xu, Jun

    2018-07-01

    Mechanical properties of electrode materials have significant influence over electrochemical properties as well as mechanical integrity of lithium-ion battery cells. Here, anode and cathode in a commercially available 18650 NCA (Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide)/graphite cell were comprehensively studied by tensile tests considering material anisotropy, SOC (state of charge), strain rate and electrolyte content. Results showed that the mechanical properties of both electrodes were highly dependent on strain rate and electrolyte content; however, anode was SOC dependent while cathode was not. Besides, coupled effects of strain rate and SOC of anodes were also discussed. SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of surfaces and cross-sections of electrodes showed the fracture morphology. In addition, mechanical behavior of Cu foil separated from anode with different SOC values were studied and compared. Finally, constitutive models of electrodes considering both strain rate and anisotropy effects were established. This study reveals the relationship between electrochemical dependent mechanical behavior of the electrodes. The established mechanical models of electrodes can be applied to the numerical computation of battery cells. Results are essential to predict the mechanical responses as well as the deformation of battery cell under various loading conditions, facilitating safer battery design and manufacturing.

  11. Micro-length anodic porous niobium oxide for lithium-ion thin film battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Jiyoung; Cha, Gihoon; Choi, Jinsub

    2013-01-01

    The anodization of niobium in an aqueous mixture of H 3 PO 4 and HF in the potential range from 2.5 to 30 V for 2 h at 5 °C was performed, demonstrating that anodic porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of up to 2000 nm, including a surface dissolution layer, can be obtained by controlling the applied potential and composition of the electrolytes. Specifically, surface dissolution-free porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of 800 nm can be prepared in a low electrolyte concentration. The surface dissolution is observed when the concentration ratio of HF (wt.%):H 3 PO 4 (M) was more than 2:1. The discontinuous layers in the niobium oxide film were observed when the thickness was higher than 500 nm, which was ascribed to the large volume expansion of the niobium oxide grown from the niobium metal. The anodic porous niobium oxide film was used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries in the potential range from 1.2 to 3.0 V at a current density of 7.28 × 10 − 6 A cm −2 . The first discharge capacity of ca. 53 μA h cm − 2 was obtained in 800 nm thick niobium oxide without a surface dissolution layer. - Highlights: ► Anodic porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of 2000 nm was obtained. ► Surface dissolution-free porous niobium oxide film was prepared. ► The niobium oxide film was used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries

  12. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Aymard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g−1 at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li+/Li0 and the lowest electrode polarization (2, TiH2, complex hydrides Mg2MHx and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MHx + xLi+ + xe− in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths—involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content—were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should be inspired by the emergent

  13. Carbon nanotube-wrapped Fe2O3 anode with improved performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metall oxides have been proven to be potential candidates for the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs because they offer high theoretical capacities, and are environmentally friendly and widely available. However, the low electronic conductivity and severe irreversible lithium storage have hindered a practical application. Herein, we employed ethanolamine as precursor to prepare Fe2O3/COOH-MWCNT composites through a simple hydrothermal synthesis. When these composites were used as electrode material in lithium-ion batteries, a reversible capacity of 711.2 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 500 mA·g−1 after 400 cycles was obtained. The result indicated that Fe2O3/COOH-MWCNT composite is a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Influence of surface coating on structure and properties of metallic lithium anode for rechargeable Li-O2 battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Wang, Q.; Ma, Q.; Song, Q.; Chen, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Amorphous lithium phosphorous oxynitride film was coated directly on pre-treated lithium metal as anode of lithium air battery by radio-frequency sputtering technique from a Li3PO4 target. The structure and composition of modified anode was analyzed before and after charge/discharge test in a lithium-air battery, which comprises 0.5M LiNO3/TEGDME as the electrolyte and super P carbon as cathode. Batteries were galvanostatically discharged by an Arbin BT-2000 battery tester between open current voltage and 2.15V vs. Li+/Li at various current regimes ranging from 0.1–0.4mA/cm2. Compared with fresh lithium, LIPON-coated anode exhibited better electrochemical performance. Good charging efficiency of 90% at a narrower voltage gap with high ionic conductivity of 9.4×10−5S/cm was achieved through optimizing lithium pre-treated conditions, sputtering N2 flows and suitable solute for electrolyte. (Author)

  15. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  16. Optimization of Charging Strategy by Prevention of Lithium Deposition on Anodes in high-energy Lithium-ion Batteries – Electrochemical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, Thomas; Kasper, Michael; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates the capacity fade of commercial 3.25 Ah 18650-type cells with NCA cathodes and graphite anodes quantitatively for different temperatures and charging strategies. For standard constant current / constant voltage (CC-CV) charging, the aging rate for cells cycled at 0.5C is increased with decreasing temperature in the range of 25 °C to 0 °C. Interestingly, no accelerated aging is observed for CC-CV charging in the temperature range of 25 °C to 60 °C at 0.5C. The observed behavior indicates lithium deposition on anodes for temperatures up to ∼25 °C and is further investigated by reconstruction of anode and cathode from the commercial 18650-type cells into full cells with an additional lithium metal reference electrode. The reconstruction method is scrutinized regarding its validity. Measurements with the reconstructed cells at 25 °C reveal the quantitative dependency of the anode potential vs. Li/Li"+ from the charge C-rate and cell voltage. This allows deriving charging strategies involving strictly positive anode potentials to avoid lithium deposition and preventing the corresponding capacity fade.

  17. Carbon-Encapsulated Co3O4 Nanoparticles as Anode Materials with Super Lithium Storage Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xuning; Wei, Sufeng; Jiang, Zhonghao; Lian, Jianshe; Wang, Guoyong; Jiang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    A high-performance anode material for lithium storage was successfully synthesized by glucose as carbon source and cobalt nitrate as Co3O4 precursor with the assistance of sodium chloride surface as a template to reduce the carbon sheet thickness. Ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles were homogeneously embedded in ultrathin porous graphitic carbon in this material. The carbon sheets, which have large specific surface area, high electronic conductivity, and outstanding mechanical flexibility, are very effective to keep the stability of Co3O4 nanoparticales which has a large capacity. As a consequence, a very high reversible capacity of up to 1413 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 after 100 cycles, a high rate capability (845, 560, 461 and 345 mA h g-1 at 5, 10, 15 and 20 C, respectively, 1 C = 1 A g-1), and a superior cycling performance at an ultrahigh rate (760 mA h g-1 at 5 C after 1000 cycles) are achieved by this lithium-ion-battery anode material.

  18. MoS2 coated hollow carbon spheres for anodes of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yufei; Wang, Ye; Shi, Wenhui; Yang, Huiying; Yang, Jun; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-01-01

    With the assistance of resorcinol–formaldehyde, MoS 2 coated hollow carbon spheres (C@MoS 2 ) were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal route followed by heat and alkali treatments. The measurements indicate that the hollow carbon spheres with an average diameter of 300 nm and shell thickness of 20 nm. And the hollow core are uniformly covered by ultrathin MoS 2 nanosheets with a length increased to 400 nm. The unique hollow structure and the synergistic effect between carbon layer and MoS 2 nanosheets significantly enhance the rate capability and electrochemical stability of C@MoS 2 spheres as anode material of lithium-ion battery. The synthesized C@MoS 2 delivered a capacity of 750 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . More importantly, the C@MoS 2 maintained a reversible capacity of 533 mAh g −1 even at a high current density of 1000 mA g −1 . The study indicated that MoS 2 coated hollow carbon spheres can be promising anode material for next generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries. (paper)

  19. Electrochemical characteristics of nc-Si/SiC composite for anode electrode of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performances and coulombic efficiencies of the nc-Si/SiC composite anodes at different CH 4 /SiH 4 mole ratios. -- Highlights: • Our work has focused on irreversible discharge capacity and capacity retention of nc-Si/SiC composite particles. • Particles comprised a mixed construction of nc-Si/SiC structure with dual phases. • The SiC phase acted as retarding media, leading to enhanced cycle stability. -- Abstract: nc-Si/SiC composite particles were prepared as an anode material for lithium ion batteries using a plasma jet with DC arc discharge. The composition of the nc-Si/SiC composite particles was controlled by setting the mole ratio of CH 4 and SiH 4 precursor gases. X-ray diffraction, TEM images, and Raman shift analyses revealed that the synthesized nc-Si/SiC composite particles comprised a construction of nano-nocaled structure with crystalline phases of active silicon, highly disordered amorphous carbon of graphite and crystalline phases of β-SiC. In the experimental range examined, the nc-Si/SiC composite particles showed good coulombic efficiency in comparison with particles high Si–Si bonding content due to the interplay of particles with a small proportion of carbon and the buffering effect against volume expansion by structural stabilization, and played a role as retarding media for the rapid electrochemical reactions of the SiC crystal against lithium

  20. Electrochemical characteristics of nc-Si/SiC composite for anode electrode of lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bup Ju [Department of Energy Resources, Shinhan University, 233-1, Sangpae-dong, Dongducheon, Gyeonggi-do, 483-777 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Advanced Energy Materials Processing Laboratory, Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-25

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performances and coulombic efficiencies of the nc-Si/SiC composite anodes at different CH{sub 4}/SiH{sub 4} mole ratios. -- Highlights: • Our work has focused on irreversible discharge capacity and capacity retention of nc-Si/SiC composite particles. • Particles comprised a mixed construction of nc-Si/SiC structure with dual phases. • The SiC phase acted as retarding media, leading to enhanced cycle stability. -- Abstract: nc-Si/SiC composite particles were prepared as an anode material for lithium ion batteries using a plasma jet with DC arc discharge. The composition of the nc-Si/SiC composite particles was controlled by setting the mole ratio of CH{sub 4} and SiH{sub 4} precursor gases. X-ray diffraction, TEM images, and Raman shift analyses revealed that the synthesized nc-Si/SiC composite particles comprised a construction of nano-nocaled structure with crystalline phases of active silicon, highly disordered amorphous carbon of graphite and crystalline phases of β-SiC. In the experimental range examined, the nc-Si/SiC composite particles showed good coulombic efficiency in comparison with particles high Si–Si bonding content due to the interplay of particles with a small proportion of carbon and the buffering effect against volume expansion by structural stabilization, and played a role as retarding media for the rapid electrochemical reactions of the SiC crystal against lithium.

  1. Rational design of hierarchical ZnO@Carbon nanoflower for high performance lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    liu, Huichao; Shi, Ludi; Li, Dongzhi; Yu, Jiali; Zhang, Han-Ming; Ullah, Shahid; Yang, Bo; Li, Cuihua; Zhu, Caizhen; Xu, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The rational structure design and strong interfacial bonding are crucially desired for high performance zinc oxide (ZnO)/carbon composite electrodes. In this context, micro-nano secondary structure design and strong dopamine coating strategies are adopted for the fabrication of flower-like ZnO/carbon (ZnO@C nanoflowers) composite electrodes. The results show the ZnO@C nanoflowers (2-6 μm) are assembled by hierarchical ZnO nanosheets (∼27 nm) and continuous carbon framework. The micro-nano secondary architecture can facilitate the penetration of electrolyte, shorten lithium ions diffusion length, and hinder the aggregation of the nanosheets. Moreover, the strong chemical interaction between ZnO and coating carbon layer via C-Zn bond improves structure stability as well as the electronic conductivity. As a synergistic result, when evaluated as lithium ion batteries (LIBs) anode, the ZnO@C nanoflower electrodes show high reversible capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 after 80 cycles. As well as good long-cycling stability (638 and 420 mA h g-1 at 1 and 5 A g-1 after 500 cycles, respectively) and excellent rate capability. Therefore, this rational design of ZnO@C nanoflowers electrode is a promising anode for high-performance LIBs.

  2. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  3. Fe_3C@carbon nanocapsules/expanded graphite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, You-Guo; Lin, Xi-Le; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Qi-Chang; Yan, Zhi-Xiong; Wang, Hong-Qiang; Chen, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Fe_3C@carbonnanocapsules(*)/expanded graphite composite was successfully prepared by a new and facile method, including mix of starting materials and heat treatment of the precursor. It is featured by unique 3-D structure, where expanded graphite acts as scaffold to ensure a continuous entity, and Fe_3C particles coated by carbon nanocapsules are embedded intimately. The Fe_3C nanoparticles encased in carbon nanocapsules act as catalyst in the modification of SEI film during the cycles. The interesting 3-D architecture which aligns the conductivity paths in the planar direction with expanded graphite and in the axial direction with carbon nanocapsules minimizes the resistance and enhances the reversible capacity. The prepared composite exhibits a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The composite maintains a reversible capacity of 1226.2 mAh/g after 75 cycles at 66 mA/g. When the current density increases to 200 mA/g, the reversible capacity maintains 451.5 mAh/g. The facile synthesis method and excellent electrochemical performances make the composite expected to be one of the most potential anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  4. Electrochemical characteristics of nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrova, E. V.; Li, G. V.; Rumyantsev, A. M.; Zhdanov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    High-aspect periodic structures with thin vertical walls are studied as regards their applicability as negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries. The nanostructures are fabricated from single-crystal silicon using photolithography, electrochemical anodization, and subsequent anisotropic shaping. The capacity per unit of the visible surface area of the electrode and the specific internal surface area are compared for structures of varied architecture: 1D (wires), 2D (zigzag walls), and 3D structures (walls forming a grid). Main attention is given to testing the endurance of anodes based on zigzag and grid structures, performed by galvanostatic cycling in half-cells with a lithium counter electrode. The influence exerted by the geometric parameters of the structures and by the testing mode on the degradation rate is determined. It is shown that the limiting factor of the lithiation and delithiation processes is diffusion. The endurance of an electrode dramatically increases when the charging capacity is limited to ∼1000 mA h/g. In this case, nanostructures with 300-nm-thick walls, which underwent cyclic testing at a rate of 0.36C, retain a constant discharge capacity and a Coulomb efficiency close to 100% for more than 1000 cycles.

  5. Porous Fe2O3 Microspheres as Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, L.; Indra, M. A. T.; Purwaningsih, H.; Subhan, A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, Fe2O3 was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal process at low temperature. FeCl3.6H2O as precursor and variation of lysine as hydrolyzing agent were used to preparing Fe2O3. SEM images show that the morphology of Fe2O3 is porous microsphere with sizes in the range of (1 to 5) µm in diameter. The as-prepared Fe2O3 with the 2 M of lysine exhibits excellent cycling performance when used as the anode for lithium ion batteries, obtaining reversible discharge capacity of 172.33 mA·h·g‑1 at 0.5 C after 50 cycles. It is attributed to the unique structure of porous microspheres providing a large surface area which maintains good electronic contact between particles during charge-discharge process. This result demonstrates that Fe2O3 porous microsphere has a high potential as anode material for application of lithium-ion battery.

  6. Scalable Production of Si Nanoparticles Directly from Low Grade Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Zong, Linqi; Hu, Yue; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yanbin; Zhang, Qiao; Zhu, Jia

    2015-09-09

    Silicon, one of the most promising candidates as lithium-ion battery anode, has attracted much attention due to its high theoretical capacity, abundant existence, and mature infrastructure. Recently, Si nanostructures-based lithium-ion battery anode, with sophisticated structure designs and process development, has made significant progress. However, low cost and scalable processes to produce these Si nanostructures remained as a challenge, which limits the widespread applications. Herein, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles with controlled size can be massively produced directly from low grade Si sources through a scalable high energy mechanical milling process. In addition, we systematically studied Si nanoparticles produced from two major low grade Si sources, metallurgical silicon (∼99 wt % Si, $1/kg) and ferrosilicon (∼83 wt % Si, $0.6/kg). It is found that nanoparticles produced from ferrosilicon sources contain FeSi2, which can serve as a buffer layer to alleviate the mechanical fractures of volume expansion, whereas nanoparticles from metallurgical Si sources have higher capacity and better kinetic properties because of higher purity and better electronic transport properties. Ferrosilicon nanoparticles and metallurgical Si nanoparticles demonstrate over 100 stable deep cycling after carbon coating with the reversible capacities of 1360 mAh g(-1) and 1205 mAh g(-1), respectively. Therefore, our approach provides a new strategy for cost-effective, energy-efficient, large scale synthesis of functional Si electrode materials.

  7. Novel Size and Surface Oxide Effects in Silicon Nanowires as Lithium Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2011-09-14

    With its high specific capacity, silicon is a promising anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries, but volume expansion and fracture during lithium reaction have prevented implementation. Si nanostructures have shown resistance to fracture during cycling, but the critical effects of nanostructure size and native surface oxide on volume expansion and cycling performance are not understood. Here, we use an ex situ transmission electron microscopy technique to observe the same Si nanowires before and after lithiation and have discovered the impacts of size and surface oxide on volume expansion. For nanowires with native SiO2, the surface oxide can suppress the volume expansion during lithiation for nanowires with diameters <∼50 nm. Finite element modeling shows that the oxide layer can induce compressive hydrostatic stress that could act to limit the extent of lithiation. The understanding developed herein of how volume expansion and extent of lithiation can depend on nanomaterial structure is important for the improvement of Si-based anodes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. High-Performance Ga2O3 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xun; Huang, Xin; Huang, Yongmin; Gou, Yong; Pastore, James; Yang, Yao; Xiong, Yin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Brock, Joel D; Lu, Juntao; Xiao, Li; Abruña, Héctor D; Zhuang, Lin

    2018-02-14

    There is a great deal of interest in developing battery systems that can exhibit self-healing behavior, thus enhancing cyclability and stability. Given that gallium (Ga) is a metal that melts near room temperature, we wanted to test if it could be employed as a self-healing anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, Ga nanoparticles (NPs), when directly applied, tended to aggregate upon charge/discharge cycling. To address this issue, we employed carbon-coated Ga 2 O 3 NPs as an alternative. By controlling the pH of the precursor solution, highly dispersed and ultrafine Ga 2 O 3 NPs, embedded in carbon shells, could be synthesized through a hydrothermal carbonization method. The particle size of the Ga 2 O 3 NPs was 2.6 nm, with an extremely narrow size distribution, as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. A lithium-ion battery anode based on this material exhibited stable charging and discharging, with a capacity of 721 mAh/g after 200 cycles. The high cyclability is due to not only the protective effects of the carbon shell but also the formation of Ga 0 during the lithiation process, as indicated by operando X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

  9. Electrochemical characteristics of nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrova, E. V., E-mail: east@mail.ioffe.ru; Li, G. V.; Rumyantsev, A. M.; Zhdanov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High-aspect periodic structures with thin vertical walls are studied as regards their applicability as negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries. The nanostructures are fabricated from single-crystal silicon using photolithography, electrochemical anodization, and subsequent anisotropic shaping. The capacity per unit of the visible surface area of the electrode and the specific internal surface area are compared for structures of varied architecture: 1D (wires), 2D (zigzag walls), and 3D structures (walls forming a grid). Main attention is given to testing the endurance of anodes based on zigzag and grid structures, performed by galvanostatic cycling in half-cells with a lithium counter electrode. The influence exerted by the geometric parameters of the structures and by the testing mode on the degradation rate is determined. It is shown that the limiting factor of the lithiation and delithiation processes is diffusion. The endurance of an electrode dramatically increases when the charging capacity is limited to ∼1000 mA h/g. In this case, nanostructures with 300-nm-thick walls, which underwent cyclic testing at a rate of 0.36C, retain a constant discharge capacity and a Coulomb efficiency close to 100% for more than 1000 cycles.

  10. Hollow carbon sphere/metal oxide nanocomposites anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenelska, K.; Ottmann, A.; Schneider, P.; Thauer, E.; Klingeler, R.; Mijowska, E.

    2016-01-01

    HCS (Hollow carbon spheres) covered with metal oxide nanoparticles (SnO_2 and MnO_2, respectively) were successfully synthesized and investigated regarding their potential as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Raman spectroscopy shows a high degree of graphitization for the HCS host structure. The mesoporous nature of the nanocomposites is confirmed by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. For both metal oxides under study, the metal oxide functionalization of HCS yields a significant increase of electrochemical performance. The charge capacity of HCS/SnO_2 is 370 mA hg"−"1 after 45 cycles (266 mA hg"−"1 in HCS/MnO_2) which clearly exceeds the value of 188 mA hg"−"1 in pristine HCS. Remarkably, the data imply excellent long term cycling stability after 100 cycles in both cases. The results hence show that mesoporous HCS/metal oxide nanocomposites enable exploiting the potential of metal oxide anode materials in Lithium-ion batteries by providing a HCS host structure which is both conductive and stable enough to accommodate big volume change effects. - Highlights: • Strategy to synthesize hollow carbon spheres decorated by metal oxides nanoparticles. • High-performance of HCS/MOx storage as mesoporous hybrid material. • The results hence demonstrate high electrochemical activity of the HCS/MOx.

  11. Stable cyclic performance of nickel oxide–carbon composite anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung; Wang, Xinghui; Fan, Yu; Xiao, Qizhen; Fitzgerald, Eugene; Pey, Kin Leong; Zhang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) directly grown on nickel foam is regarded as a promising lithium ion battery anode material which shows good cyclic and rate performances with a theoretical specific capacity of 718 mA h g −1 . In this study, we demonstrated a carbon-incorporated NiO anode (NiO–C) with a capacity per unit area of 2.11 mA h cm −2 and 1.76 mA h cm −2 at 0.2 C and 0.5 C rates, respectively, fabricated by thermal oxidation of carbon coated nickel foam. The specific capacity of our NiO–C composite samples at 0.5 C rate is found to be typically 389.16 mA h g −1 , with a stable cyclic performance up to more than 100 cycles. This remarkable performance is apparently superior to the control samples of pure NiO samples. The improved performance is contributed to carbon incorporation which serves as a fluent channel for electrons and a flexible network preventing NiO nanostructures from structural deformation during charge and discharge processes. The advantage of using our approach is the easy preparation of the NiO–C composite using a simple two-step process: chemical vapor deposition of ethanol and annealing in air. - Highlights: • We demonstrated a directly grown NiO–C anode on nickel foam substrate. • NiO–C anode was made using simple processes: CVD of ethanol and annealing in air. • The NiO–C anode has a stable cycle life up to 102 cycles. • It has an acceptable areal capacity (1.76 mA h cm −2 at 0.5 C rate) for practical use. • Carbon provides electrons path and buffering matrix preventing NiO pulverization

  12. Graphene-bonded and -encapsulated si nanoparticles for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yang; Zhu, Yujie; Langrock, Alex; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Ehrman, Sheryl H; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-08-26

    Silicon (Si) has been considered a very promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. However, high-capacity Si nanoparticles usually suffer from low electronic conductivity, large volume change, and severe aggregation problems during lithiation and delithiation. In this paper, a unique nanostructured anode with Si nanoparticles bonded and wrapped by graphene is synthesized by a one-step aerosol spraying of surface-modified Si nanoparticles and graphene oxide suspension. The functional groups on the surface of Si nanoparticles (50-100 nm) not only react with graphene oxide and bind Si nanoparticles to the graphene oxide shell, but also prevent Si nanoparticles from aggregation, thus contributing to a uniform Si suspension. A homogeneous graphene-encapsulated Si nanoparticle morphology forms during the aerosol spraying process. The open-ended graphene shell with defects allows fast electrochemical lithiation/delithiation, and the void space inside the graphene shell accompanied by its strong mechanical strength can effectively accommodate the volume expansion of Si upon lithiation. The graphene shell provides good electronic conductivity for Si nanoparticles and prevents them from aggregating during charge/discharge cycles. The functionalized Si encapsulated by graphene sample exhibits a capacity of 2250 mAh g⁻¹ (based on the total mass of graphene and Si) at 0.1C and 1000 mAh g⁻¹ at 10C, and retains 85% of its initial capacity even after 120 charge/discharge cycles. The exceptional performance of graphene-encapsulated Si anodes combined with the scalable and one-step aerosol synthesis technique makes this material very promising for lithium ion batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride: A novel anode material for high capacity lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lianyi; Shu, Jie; Lao, Mengmeng; Lin, Xiaoting; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Li, Peng; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong

    2014-12-01

    H3NOHCl is used for the first time as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical results show that H3NOHCl with particle size of 4-12 μm can deliver an initial charge capacity of 1018.6 mAh g-1, which is much higher than commercial graphite. After 30 cycles, the reversible capacity can be kept at 676.1 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1. Up to 50 cycles, H3NOHCl still maintains a lithium storage capacity of 368.9 mAh g-1. Even cycled at 200 mA g-1, H3NOHCl can deliver a charge capacity of 715.7 mAh g-1. It suggests that H3NOHCl has high lithium storage capacity, excellent cycling stability and outstanding rate performance. Besides, the electrochemical reaction between H3NOHCl and Li is also investigated by various ex-situ techniques. It can be found that H3NOHCl irreversibly decomposes into Li3N and LiCl during the initial discharge process and LiNO2 can be formed after a reverse charge process.

  14. Limitations of disordered carbons obtained from biomass as anodes for real lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Alvaro; Hernán, Lourdes; Morales, Julián

    2011-05-23

    Two disordered microporous carbons were obtained from two different types of biomass residues: olive and cherry stones. The former (OS) was activated physically under steam while the latter (CS) chemically with an aqueous solution of ZnCl(2). Their structural and textural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N(2) adsorption/desorption. Although the samples possess similar textural properties (BET surface areas, micropore surfaces and volumes), the CS carbon is more disordered than the OS carbon. Their electrochemical response in half-cells (CS[OS]/Li) is good; the values are comparable to those obtained from mesocarbon microbeads commonly used in commercial lithium-ion batteries, which consist of highly graphitized carbon. However, cells featuring the OS or CS carbon as anode and LiMn(2)O(4) as cathode perform poorly. Electrochemical activation of the electrodes against lithium metal, a recommended procedure for boosting the electrochemical properties of real lithium-ion batteries, improves cell performance (particularly with OS) but is ultimately ineffective: the delivered average capacity of the activated cell made from OS was less than half its theoretical value. The high irreversible capacity, high polarization between the charge and discharge curves, combined with the presence of various functional groups and the high disorder of the studied carbons which may facilitate side reactions such as electrolyte decomposition, results in a degraded cell performance. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon for Red Phosphorous Based Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoyang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serving as conductive matrix and stress buffer, the carbon matrix plays a pivotal role in enabling red phosphorus to be a promising anode material for high capacity lithium ion batteries and sodium ion batteries. In this paper, nitrogen-doping is proved to effective enhance the interface interaction between carbon and red phosphorus. In detail, the adsorption energy between phosphorus atoms and oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon is significantly reduced by nitrogen doping, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption mechanisms are further revealed on the basis of DFT (the first density functional theory calculations. The RPNC (red phosphorus/nitrogen-doped carbon composite material shows higher cycling stability and higher capacity than that of RPC (red phosphorus/carbon composite anode. After 100 cycles, the RPNC still keeps discharge capacity of 1453 mAh g−1 at the current density of 300 mA g−1 (the discharge capacity of RPC after 100 cycles is 1348 mAh g−1. Even at 1200 mA g−1, the RPNC composite still delivers a capacity of 1178 mAh g−1. This work provides insight information about the interface interactions between composite materials, as well as new technology develops high performance phosphorus based anode materials.

  16. SiC Nanofibers as Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of high energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs has spurred the designing and production of novel anode materials to substitute currently commercial using graphitic materials. Herein, twisted SiC nanofibers toward LIBs anode materials, containing 92.5 wt% cubic β-SiC and 7.5 wt% amorphous C, were successfully synthesized from resin-silica composites. The electrochemical measurements showed that the SiC-based electrode delivered a stable reversible capacity of 254.5 mAh g−1 after 250 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g−1. It is interesting that a high discharge capacity of 540.1 mAh g−1 was achieved after 500 cycles at an even higher current density of 0.3 A g−1, which is higher than the theoretical capacity of graphite. The results imply that SiC nanomaterials are potential anode candidate for LIBs with high stability due to their high structure stability as supported with the transmission electron microscopy images.

  17. LEVIS active anode lithium ion source development on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Clark, B.F.; Reyes, C.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Carlson, A.L.; Lake, P.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are ongoing on the PBFA-II Accelerator (10 MV typical, 50 ns) to optimize an active lithium ion source in a 15-cm focusing Applied-B ion diode using the LEVIS (Laser Evaporation Ion Source) process. Two laser pulses impinge on a thin (500 nm) Li or Li-bearing alloy on an insulating substrate. A Nd:YAG laser beam (1 μm, 8 ns, 0.1--0.2 J/cm 2 ) creates a thin (∼1 mm) Li vapor, which is then ionized by a 30--60 mJ/cm 2 dye laser tuned to the first resonant transition of Li (670.8 nm). In order to achieve a high-purity Li beam on PBFA-II with LEVIS, it has proven necessary to clean the anode surface in some way. The principal technique has been DC-heating of the anode to temperatures of 150--200 C for typically 5 hours, and for as long as 13 hours, prior to machine firing. Use of a LiAg alloy and YAG energy densities of 200 mJ/cm 2 have yielded beams of Li purity greater than 90%. They authors also plan to test a diode configuration that deposits Li in-situ on the anode surface just prior to the machine shot, as an alternative to DC-heating

  18. A Flexible Solid Electrolyte Interphase Layer for Long-Life Lithium Metal Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian-Wu; Shi, Yang; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zeng, Xian-Xiang; Li, Jin-Yi; Li, Cong-Ju; Wan, Li-Jun; Wen, Rui; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2018-02-05

    Lithium (Li) metal is a promising anode material for high-energy density batteries. However, the unstable and static solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be destroyed by the dynamic Li plating/stripping behavior on the Li anode surface, leading to side reactions and Li dendrites growth. Herein, we design a smart Li polyacrylic acid (LiPAA) SEI layer high elasticity to address the dynamic Li plating/stripping processes by self-adapting interface regulation, which is demonstrated by in situ AFM. With the high binding ability and excellent stability of the LiPAA polymer, the smart SEI can significantly reduce the side reactions and improve battery safety markedly. Stable cycling of 700 h is achieved in the LiPAA-Li/LiPAA-Li symmetrical cell. The innovative strategy of self-adapting SEI design is broadly applicable, providing opportunities for use in Li metal anodes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Performance Study of Graphite Anode Slurry in Lithium-ion Flow Battery by Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Cai-mei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphite anode slurry of lithium-ion flow battery was prepared by the method of ball milling. The morphology, conductivity, specific capacity and cycle performance of graphite anode slurry were studied. Results show that the addition of conductive carbon material can improve the suspension stability of the electrode slurry; the ball milling process can not only improve the suspension stability but also reduce the resistivity of the mixed powders of graphite and conductive carbon materials, the ball milling effect is satisfactory when the mass ratio of the balls and the solid particles is 5:1, but too high ratio of the milling ball and the solid materials can destroy the layer structure of the graphite and affect the stability of the slurry. Increasing the fraction of the graphite and conductive carbon materials can form stable electrical network structure in the slurry and improve the reversible capacity; at the premise of keeping the flowability of the electrode slurry, the reversible specific capacity can be more than 40mAh/g. The capacity loss of graphite anode slurry mainly occurs in the first charging-discharging process, as the increase of the cycles, the capacity loss rate decreases, the capacity goes stable after 5 cycles.

  20. SiC Nanofibers as Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuejiao; Shao, Changzhen; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yi; Wu, Qi-Hui; Yang, Yonggang

    2018-01-01

    The development of high energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has spurred the designing and production of novel anode materials to substitute currently commercial using graphitic materials. Herein, twisted SiC nanofibers toward LIBs anode materials, containing 92.5 wt% cubic β-SiC and 7.5 wt% amorphous C, were successfully synthesized from resin-silica composites. The electrochemical measurements showed that the SiC-based electrode delivered a stable reversible capacity of 254.5 mAh g -1 after 250 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 . It is interesting that a high discharge capacity of 540.1 mAh g -1 was achieved after 500 cycles at an even higher current density of 0.3 A g -1 , which is higher than the theoretical capacity of graphite. The results imply that SiC nanomaterials are potential anode candidate for LIBs with high stability due to their high structure stability as supported with the transmission electron microscopy images.

  1. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-01

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  2. Structural and Electrochemical Evaluation of Three- and Two-Dimensional Organohalide Perovskites and Their Influence on the Reversibility of Lithium Intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel; Suto, Yusaku; Rosero-Navarro, Nataly Carolina; Miura, Akira; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Jaramillo, Franklin

    2018-04-02

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have recently been investigated in a variety of applications, including solar cells, light emitting devices (LEDs), and lasers because of their impressive semiconductor properties. Nevertheless, the perovskite structure has the ability to host extrinsic elements, making its application in the battery field possible. During the present study, we fabricated and investigated the electrochemical properties of three-dimensional (3D) methylammonium lead mixed-halide CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3- x Br x and two-dimensional (2D) propylammonium-methlylammonium lead bromide (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ) 2 Pb 3 Br 10 hybrid perovskite thin films as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. These electrodes were obtained by solution processing at 100 °C. CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 achieved high discharge/charge capacities of ∼500 mA h g -1 /160 mA h g -1 that could account also for other processes taking place during the Li intercalation. It was also found that bromine plays an important role for lithium intercalation, while the new 2D (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ) 2 Pb 3 Br 10 with a layered structure allowed reversibility of the lithium insertion-extraction of 100% with capacities of ∼375 mA h g -1 in the form of a thin film. Results suggest that tuning the composition of these materials can be used to improve intercalation capacities, while modification from 3D to 2D layered structures contributes to improving lithium extraction. The mechanism of the lithium insertion-extraction may consist of an intercalation mechanism in the hybrid material accompanying the alloying-dealloying process of the Li x Pb intermetallic compounds. This work contributes to revealing the relevance of both composition and structure of potential hybrid perovskite materials as future thin film electrode materials with high capacity and compositional versatility.

  3. Systematic molecular-level design of binders incorporating Meldrum's acid for silicon anodes in lithium rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-woo; Jeong, You Kyeong; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Taek-Soo; Choi, Jang Wook; Coskun, Ali

    2014-12-17

    Covalent or Noncovalent? Systematic investigation of polymeric binders incorporating Meldrum's acid reveals most critical binder properties for silicon -anodes in lithium ion batteries, that is self-healing effect facilitated by a series of noncovalent interactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Facile synthesis of SnO2 nanocrystals anchored onto graphene nanosheets as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Jiang, Li; Wang, Chunru

    2015-08-21

    A SnO2/graphene nanocomposite was prepared via a facile solvothermal process using stannous octoate as a Sn source. The as-prepared SnO2/graphene nanocomposite exhibited excellent electrochemical behavior with a high reversible capacity, a long cycle life and a good rate capability when used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries...

  6. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2011-01-01

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering

  7. One Step Hydrothermal Synthesis of FeCO3 Cubes for High Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Congcong; Liu, Weijian; Chen, Dongyang; Huang, Jiayi; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xueyan; Fang, Yueping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • FeCO 3 nanocubes with edge length of ∼300 nm were prepared. • A reversible capacity of 761 mAh g −1 was achieved at 200 mA g −1 after 130 cycles. • Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance were employed to understand the cell performances. - Abstract: Uniform FeCO 3 cubes with edge length of ∼300 nm were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal reaction and studied as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Interestingly, the FeCO 3 anode has an extremely high initial specific capacity of 1796 mAh g −1 . After cycling at a current rate of 200 mA g −1 for 130 cycles, an excellent discharge capacity of 761 mAh g −1 is still maintained. Moreover, the FeCO 3 anode exhibits significant high-rate capability, e.g., ∼430 mAh g −1 is obtained at a current rate of 1200 mA g −1 . The observation of the FeCO 3 cubes represents an important development of realizing both high capacity and good cycleability in conversion type anode materials for lithium-ion battery at the same time. Such cheap, easy-to-make, and environmentally benign material is promising for practical deployment for lithium ion batteries anode.

  8. Porous Co3O4 nanorods as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jinxue; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Haoxin

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript, porous Co 3 O 4 nanorods are prepared through a two-step approach which is composed of hydrothermal process and heating treatment as high performance anode for lithium-ion battery. Benefiting from the porous structure and 1-dimensional features, the product becomes robust and exhibits high reversible capability, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. - Graphical abstract: 1D porous Co 3 O 4 nanostructure as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • A two-step route has been applied to prepare 1D porous Co 3 O 4 nanostructure. • Its porous feature facilitates the fast transport of electron and lithium ion. • Its porous structure endows it with capacities higher than its theoretical capacity. • 1D nanostructure can tolerate volume changes during lithation/delithiation cycles. • It exhibits high capacity, good cyclability and excellent rate performance

  9. Strategies to optimize lithium-ion supercapacitors achieving high-performance: Cathode configurations, lithium loadings on anode, and types of separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanjun; Li, Yangxing; Fitch, Brian; Shih, Jonathan; Doung, Tien; Zheng, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The Li-ion capacitor (LIC) is composed of a lithium-doped carbon anode and an activated carbon cathode, which is a half Li-ion battery (LIB) and a half electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). LICs can achieve much more energy density than EDLC without sacrificing the high power performance advantage of capacitors over batteries. LIC pouch cells were assembled using activated carbon (AC) cathode and hard carbon (HC) + stabilized lithium metal power (SLMP®) anode. Different cathode configurations, various SLMP loadings on HC anode, and two types of separators were investigated to achieve the optimal electrochemical performance of the LIC. Firstly, the cathode binders study suggests that the PTFE binder offers improved energy and power performances for LIC in comparison to PVDF. Secondly, the mass ratio of SLMP to HC is at 1:7 to obtain the optimized electrochemical performance for LIC among all the various studied mass ratios between lithium loading amounts and active anode material. Finally, compared to the separator Celgard PP 3501, cellulose based TF40-30 is proven to be a preferred separator for LIC.

  10. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  11. TiO_2 hierarchical hollow microspheres with different size for application as anodes in high-performance lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Meng, Qiuxia; Wang, Yuanyuan; Liang, Huijun; Bai, Zhengyu; Wang, Kui; Lou, Xiangdong; Cai, Bibo; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In the application of lithium-ion batteries, the influences of microsphere sizes are more significant than the secondary nanoparticles size and crystallinity of TiO_2-HSs for their transfer resistance and cycling performance, so that the bigger sizes of TiO_2-HSs can retain high reversible capacities after 30 recycles. - Highlights: • Hierarchical hollow microspheres have size-effect in the application of lithium ion battery. • The microsphere sizes can significantly affect the cycling capacities of TiO_2. • The nanoparticles size affect the initial discharge capacity and lithium ion diffusion. • Controlled microsphere size is more significant for improving TiO_2 cycling capacities. - Abstract: Nowadays, the safety issue has greatly hindered the development of large capacity lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), especially in electric vehicles applications. TiO_2 is a kind of potential anode candidate for improving the safety of LIBs. However, it still needs to understand how to improve the performance of TiO_2 anode in the practical applications. Herein, we design a contrast experiment by using three sizes of TiO_2 hierarchical hollow microspheres (TiO_2-HSs). The research results indicated that the cycling performance of TiO_2-HSs anode can be affected by the size of microspheres, and the nanoparticles size of microspheres and crystallinity of TiO_2 can affect their initial discharge capacity and lithium ion diffusion. And, the influence of microspheres size is more significant. This may provide a new strategy for improving the lithium-ion storage property of TiO_2 anode material in the practical applications.

  12. Recent Progress in Synthesis and Application of Low-Dimensional Silicon Based Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuandong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is regarded as the next generation anode material for LIBs with its ultra-high theoretical capacity and abundance. Nevertheless, the severe capacity degradation resulting from the huge volume change and accumulative solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI formation hinders the silicon based anode material for further practical applications. Hence, a variety of methods have been applied to enhance electrochemical performances in terms of the electrochemical stability and rate performance of the silicon anodes such as designing nanostructured Si, combining with carbonaceous material, exploring multifunctional polymer binders, and developing artificial SEI layers. Silicon anodes with low-dimensional structures (0D, 1D, and 2D, compared with bulky silicon anodes, are strongly believed to have several advanced characteristics including larger surface area, fast electron transfer, and shortened lithium diffusion pathway as well as better accommodation with volume changes, which leads to improved electrochemical behaviors. In this review, recent progress of silicon anode synthesis methodologies generating low-dimensional structures for lithium ion batteries (LIBs applications is listed and discussed.

  13. Silver-incorporated composites of Fe2O3 carbon nanofibers as anodes for high-performance lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mingzhong; Li, Jiaxin; Wen, WeiWei; Chen, Luzhuo; Guan, Lunhui; Lai, Heng; Huang, Zhigao

    2014-12-01

    Composites of Ag-incorporated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) confined with Fe2O3 nanoparticles (Ag-Fe2O3/CNFs) have been synthesized through an electrospinning method and evaluated as anodes for lithium batteries (LIBs). The obtained Ag-Fe2O3/CNF anodes show good LIB performance with a capacity of 630 mAh g-1 tested at 800 mA g-1 after 150 cycles with almost no capacity loss and superb rate performance. The obtained properties for Ag-Fe2O3/CNF anodes are much better than Fe2O3/CNF anodes without Ag-incorporating. In addition, the low-temperature LIB performances for Ag-Fe2O3/CNF anodes have been investigated for revealing the enhanced mechanism of Ag-incorporating. The superior electrochemical performances of the Ag-Fe2O3/CNFs are associated with a synergistic effect of the CNF matrix and the highly conducting Ag incorporating. This unique configuration not only facilitates electron conduction especially at a relative temperature, but also maintains the structural integrity of active materials. Meanwhile, the related analysis of the AC impedance spectroscopy and the corresponding hypothesis for DC impedance confirm that such configuration can effectively enhance the charge-transfer efficiency and the lithium diffusion coefficient. Therefore, CNF-supported coupled with Ag incorporating synthesis supplied a promising route to obtain Fe2O3 based anodes with high-performance LIBs especially at low temperature.

  14. Effect of pore structure on anomalous behaviour of the lithium intercalation into porous V2O5 film electrode using fractal geometry concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Pyun, Su-Il

    2006-01-01

    The effect of pore structure on anomalous behaviour of the lithium intercalation into porous V 2 O 5 film electrode has been investigated in terms of fractal geometry by employing ac-impedance spectroscopy combined with N 2 gas adsorption method and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this purpose, porous V 2 O 5 film electrodes with different pore structures were prepared by the polymer surfactant templating method. From the analysis of N 2 gas adsorption isotherms and the triangulation analysis of AFM images, it was found that porous V 2 O 5 surfaces exhibited self-similar scaling properties with different fractal dimensions depending upon amount of the polymer surfactant in solution and the spatial cut-off ranges. All the ac-impedance spectra measured on porous V 2 O 5 film electrodes showed the non-ideal behaviour of the charge-transfer reaction and the diffusion reaction, which resulted from the interfacial capacitance dispersion and the frequency dispersion of the diffusion impedance, respectively. From the comparison between the surface fractal dimensions by using N 2 gas adsorption method and AFM, and the analysis of ac-impedance spectra by employing a constant phase element (CPE), it is experimentally confirmed that the lithium intercalation into porous V 2 O 5 film electrode is crucially influenced by the pore surface irregularity and the film surface irregularity

  15. Flagellar filament bio-templated inorganic oxide materials – towards an efficient lithium battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beznosov, Sergei N.; Veluri, Pavan S.; Pyatibratov, Mikhail G.; Chatterjee, Abhijit; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Fedorov, Oleg V.; Mitra, Sagar

    2015-01-01

    Designing a new generation of energy-intensive and sustainable electrode materials for batteries to power a variety of applications is an imperative task. The use of biomaterials as a nanosized structural template for these materials has the potential to produce hitherto unachievable structures. In this report, we have used genetically modified flagellar filaments of the extremely halophilic archaea species Halobacterium salinarum to synthesize nanostructured iron oxide composites for use as a lithium-ion battery anode. The electrode demonstrated a superior electrochemical performance compared to existing literature results, with good capacity retention of 1032 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles and with high rate capability, delivering 770 mAh g−1 at 5 A g−1 (~5 C) discharge rate. This unique flagellar filament based template has the potential to provide access to other highly structured advanced energy materials in the future. PMID:25583370

  16. Flagellar filament bio-templated inorganic oxide materials - towards an efficient lithium battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beznosov, Sergei N; Veluri, Pavan S; Pyatibratov, Mikhail G; Chatterjee, Abhijit; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Fedorov, Oleg V; Mitra, Sagar

    2015-01-13

    Designing a new generation of energy-intensive and sustainable electrode materials for batteries to power a variety of applications is an imperative task. The use of biomaterials as a nanosized structural template for these materials has the potential to produce hitherto unachievable structures. In this report, we have used genetically modified flagellar filaments of the extremely halophilic archaea species Halobacterium salinarum to synthesize nanostructured iron oxide composites for use as a lithium-ion battery anode. The electrode demonstrated a superior electrochemical performance compared to existing literature results, with good capacity retention of 1032 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles and with high rate capability, delivering 770 mAh g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) (~5 C) discharge rate. This unique flagellar filament based template has the potential to provide access to other highly structured advanced energy materials in the future.

  17. Molecular Spring Enabled High-Performance Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyue Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flexible butyl interconnection segments are synthetically incorporated into an electronically conductive poly(pyrene methacrylate homopolymer and its copolymer. The insertion of butyl segment makes the pyrene polymer more flexible, and can better accommodate deformation. This new class of flexible and conductive polymers can be used as a polymer binder and adhesive to facilitate the electrochemical performance of a silicon/graphene composite anode material for lithium ion battery application. They act like a “spring” to maintain the electrode mechanical and electrical integrity. High mass loading and high areal capacity, which are critical design requirements of high energy batteries, have been achieved in the electrodes composed of the novel binders and silicon/graphene composite material. A remarkable area capacity of over 5 mAh/cm2 and volumetric capacity of over 1700 Ah/L have been reached at a high current rate of 333 mA/g.

  18. Epoxidized Natural Rubber/Chitosan Network Binder for Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ha; Lee, Jeong Hun; Nam, Dong Ho; Cho, Misuk; Kim, Jaehoon; Chanthad, Chalathorn; Lee, Youngkwan

    2018-05-16

    Polymeric binder is extremely important for Si-based anode in lithium-ion batteries due to large volume variation during charging/discharging process. Here, natural rubber-incorporated chitosan networks were designed as a binder material to obtain both adhesion and elasticity. Chitosan could strongly anchor Si particles through hydrogen bonding, while the natural rubber could stretch reversibly during the volume variation of Si particles, resulting in high cyclic performance. The prepared electrode exhibited the specific capacities of 1350 mAh/g after 1600 cycles at the current density of 8 A/g and 2310 mAh/g after 500 cycles at the current density of 1 A/g. Furthermore, the cycle test with limiting lithiation capacity was conducted to study the optimal binder properties at varying degree of the volume expansion of silicon, and it was found that the elastic property of binder material was strongly required when the large volume expansion of Si occurred.

  19. Si- and Sn-containing SiOCN-based nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Synthesis, thermodynamic characterization and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Jochen; Albe, Karsten [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Materialmodellierung; Vrankovic, Dragoljub; Riedel, Ralf; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Disperse Feststoffe; Cupid, Damian; Seifert, Hans J. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). IAM - Angewandte Werkstoffphysik

    2017-11-15

    Novel nanocomposites consisting of silicon/tin nanoparticles (n-Si/n-Sn) embedded in silicon carbonitride (SiCN) or silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) ceramic matrices are investigated as possible anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The goal of our study is to exploit the large mass specific capacity of Si/Sn (3 579 mAh g{sup -1}/994 mAh g{sup -1}), while avoiding rapid capacity fading due to the large volume changes of Si/Sn during Li insertion. We show that a large amount (∝30-40 wt.%) of disordered carbon phase is dispersed within the SiOC/SiCN matrix and stabilizes the Si/Sn nanoparticles with respect to extended reversible lithium ion storage. Silicon nanocomposites are prepared by mixing of a polymeric precursor with commercial and ''home-synthesized'' crystalline and amorphous silicon. Tin nanocomposites, in contrast, are prepared using a single precursor approach, which allows the in-situ generation of Sn nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed within the SiOC host. The best electrochemical stability along with capacities of 600 - 700 mAh g{sup -1} is obtained when amorphous/porous silicon is used. Mechanisms contributing to the increase of storage capacity and the cycle stability are clarified by analyzing elemental composition, local solid-state structures, intercalation hosts and Li-ion mobility. Our work is supplemented by first-principles based atomistic modeling and thermochemical measurements.

  20. Lithium Storage in Microstructures of Amorphous Mixed-Valence Vanadium Oxide as Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Zheng, Lirong; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Xia; Cao, Minhua

    2015-07-08

    Constructing three-dimensional (3 D) nanostructures with excellent structural stability is an important approach for realizing high-rate capability and a high capacity of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we report the synthesis of hydrangea-like amorphous mixed-valence VOx microspheres (a-VOx MSs) through a facile solvothermal method followed by controlled calcination. The resultant hydrangea-like a-VOx MSs are composed of intercrossed nanosheets and, thus, construct a 3 D network structure. Upon evaluation as an anode material for LIBs, the a-VOx MSs show excellent lithium-storage performance in terms of high capacity, good rate capability, and long-term stability upon extended cycling. Specifically, they exhibit very stable cycling behavior with a highly reversible capacity of 1050 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 0.1 A g(-1) after 140 cycles. They also show excellent rate capability, with a capacity of 390 mA h g(-1) at a rate as high as 10 A g(-1) . Detailed investigations on the morphological and structural changes of the a-VOx MSs upon cycling demonstrated that the a-VOx MSs went through modification of the local VO coordinations accompanied with the formation of a higher oxidation state of V, but still with an amorphous state throughout the whole discharge/charge process. Moreover, the a-VOx MSs can buffer huge volumetric changes during the insertion/extraction process, and at the same time they remain intact even after 200 cycles of the charge/discharge process. Thus, these microspheres may be a promising anode material for LIBs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  2. Production of lithium positive ions from LiF thin films on the anode in PBFA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.; Stinnett, R.W.; Gerber, R.A.

    1995-09-01

    The production of positive lithium ions using a lithium-fluoride-coated stainless steel anode in the particle beam fusion accelerator PBFA II is considered from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. It is concluded that the mechanism of Li + ion production is electric field desorption from the tenth-micron-scale crystallites which compose the columnar growth of the LiF thin film. The required electric field is estimated to be of the order of 5 MV/cm. An essential feature of the mechanism is that the crystallites are rendered electronically conducting through electron-hole pair generation by MeV electron bombardment of the thin film during the operation of the diode. It is proposed that the ion emission mechanism is an electronic conductivity analogue to that discovered by Rollgen for lithium halide crystallites which were rendered ionically conducting by heating to several hundred degrees Celsius. Since an electric field desorption mechanism cannot operate if a surface flashover plasma has formed and reduced the anode electric field to low values, the possibility of flashover on the lithium fluoride coated anode of the PBFA II Li + ion source is studied theoretically. It is concluded with near certainty that flashover does not occur

  3. 25th anniversary article: Understanding the lithiation of silicon and other alloying anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Matthew T; Lee, Seok Woo; Nix, William D; Cui, Yi

    2013-09-25

    Alloying anodes such as silicon are promising electrode materials for next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries because of their ability to reversibly incorporate a high concentration of Li atoms. However, alloying anodes usually exhibit a short cycle life due to the extreme volumetric and structural changes that occur during lithium insertion/extraction; these transformations cause mechanical fracture and exacerbate side reactions. To solve these problems, there has recently been significant attention devoted to creating silicon nanostructures that can accommodate the lithiation-induced strain and thus exhibit high Coulombic efficiency and long cycle life. In parallel, many experiments and simulations have been conducted in an effort to understand the details of volumetric expansion, fracture, mechanical stress evolution, and structural changes in silicon nanostructures. The fundamental materials knowledge gained from these studies has provided guidance for designing optimized Si electrode structures and has also shed light on the factors that control large-volume change solid-state reactions. In this paper, we review various fundamental studies that have been conducted to understand structural and volumetric changes, stress evolution, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of nanostructured Si anodes for lithium-ion batteries and compare the reaction process of Si to other novel anode materials. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Superior cycle performance of Sn-C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shuzhao; Zhu Xuefeng; Lian Peichao; Yang Weishen; Wang Haihui

    2011-01-01

    A novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, tin nanoparticles coated with carbon embedded in graphene (Sn-C/graphene), was fabricated by hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent annealing. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The size of the Sn-C nanoparticles is about 50-200 nm. The reversible specific capacity of the nanocomposite is ∼662 mAh g -1 at a specific current of 100 mA g -1 after 100 cycles, even ∼417 mAh g -1 at the high current of 1000 mA g -1 . These results indicate that Sn-C/graphene possesses superior cycle performance and high rate capability. The enhanced electrochemical performances can be ascribed to the characteristic structure of the nanocomposite with both of the graphene and carbon shells, which buffer the volume change of the metallic tin and prevent the detachment and agglomeration of pulverized tin. - Graphical abstract: Tin nanoparticles coated with carbon embedded in graphene have been successfully fabricated by hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent annealing. This nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibits superior cycle performance. Highlights: → A novel Sn-C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. → Carbon coating and graphene improve the cycle performance of the Sn anode material. → Possess large capacity, superior cycle performance, and high rate capability.

  5. Influence of heat-treatment on lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Fanyan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hou, Zhaohui, E-mail: zhqh96@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); He, Binhong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Ge, Chongyong; Cao, Jianguo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Kuang, Yafei, E-mail: yafeik@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Mesoporous carbons possess unique nanosheet-like pore walls which can be changed by heat treatment. ► Lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons could be influenced by the nanosheet-like walls. ► Mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties LIBs. -- Abstract: Mesoporous carbons (MCs) with nanosheet-like walls have been prepared as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries by a simple one-step infiltrating method under the action of capillary flow. The influence of heat treatment temperature on the surface topography, pore/phase structure and anode performances of as-prepared materials has been investigated. The results reveal that melted liquid-crystal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be anchored on liquid/silica interfaces by molecule engineering. After carbonization, the nanosheets are formed as the pore walls of MCs and are perpendicular to the long axis of pores. The anode properties demonstrate that C-1200 displays higher reversible capacitance than those treated in higher temperature. The rate performances of C-1200 and C-1800 are similar and more excellent than that of C-2400. These improved lithium ion anode properties could be attributed to the nanosheet-like walls of MCs which can be influenced by the heat treatment temperature.

  6. Metallic MoN layer and its application as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Ma, Jiachen; Lei, Ming; Quhe, Ruge

    2018-04-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) metallic MoN was manufactured successfully in experiment. Its intrinsic properties remain to be explored theoretically, in depth. The intrinsic properties of a MoN monolayer are investigated by first-principles calculations. The distinct geometric properties of the outermost Mo and N surfaces are discovered. We predict an extremely high work function of 6.3 eV of the N surface, which indicates the great value of the 2D MoN for application in the semiconductor industry. We further explore the potential of 2D MoN as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It is found that the adsorption energy of a single Li atom on an MoN surface can be as low as -4.04 eV. The small diffusion barriers (0.41 eV) and high theoretical maximum capacity (406 mAh · g-1 with the inclusion of multilayer adsorption) all imply an outstanding lithium-ion battery performance by 2D MoN.

  7. Si nanowires/Cu nanowires bilayer fabric as a lithium ion capacitor anode with excellent performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Ming; Kao, Tzu-Lun; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2018-03-01

    A light and binder-free bilayer fabric electrode composed of silicon nanowires and copper nanowires for lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) is reported. A lithium ion capacitor is proposed employing pre-lithiated silicon/copper nanowire fabric and activated carbon as the anode and the cathode, respectively. These LICs show remarkable performance with a specific capacitance of 156 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1, which is approximately twice of that of activated carbon in electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), and still exhibit a fine specific capacitance of 68 F g-1 even at a high current density of 20 A g-1. At a low power density of 193 W kg-1, the Si/Cu fabric//AC LIC can achieve high energy density of 210 W h kg-1. As the power density is increased to 99 kW kg-1, the energy density still remains at 43 W h kg-1, showing the prominent rate performance.

  8. Simultaneous Perforation and Doping of Si Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Guangxin; Zhu, Bin; Li, Xiuqiang; Chen, Chuanlu; Li, Jinlei; Jin, Yan; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Jia

    2017-12-27

    Silicon nanostructures have served as promising building blocks for various applications, such as lithium-ion batteries, thermoelectrics, and solar energy conversions. Particularly, control of porosity and doping is critical for fine-tuning the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of these silicon nanostructures. However, perforation and doping are usually separated processes, both of which are complicated and expensive. Here, we demonstrate that the porous nano-Si particles with controllable dopant can be massively produced through a facile and scalable method, combining ball-milling and acid-etching. Nano-Si with porosity as high as 45.8% can be achieved with 9 orders of magnitude of conductivity changes compared to intrinsic silicon. As an example for demonstration, the obtained nano-Si particles with 45.8% porosity and 3.7 atom % doping can serve as a promising anode for lithium-ion batteries with 2000 mA h/g retained over 100 cycles at the current density of 0.5 C, excellent rate performance with 1600 mA h/g at the current density of 5 C, and a stable cycling performance of above 1500 mA h/g retained over 940 cycles at the current density of 1 C with carbon coating.

  9. Electrochemical performance of Fe3O4 micro flower as anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Anggara, Dika; Susanti, Diah; Subhan, Achmad; Sudaryanto

    2018-04-01

    Graphite is generally employed in commercial lithium ion batteries which has a specific capacity of 372 mAh/g. In this study, graphite is replaced with carbon-coated magnetite (Fe3O4/C) which has large theoretical specific capacity of 926 mAh/g, environmental friendly, and low cost production. The synthesis of Fe3O4/C is carried out by hydrothermal method with reacting FeCl3 and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at temperature variation of 160, 170 and 180°C. The following process is heated by calcination at temperature variations 450, 500 and 550°C. XRD and SEM results show that the as-prepared Fe3O4/C powder has a single phase of Fe3O4 and morphology micro-flowers like with size between 700 nm - 3 µm. CV test results show redox reaction occurs in the voltage range between 0.21-0.85 V and 1.68-1.81 V. The highest specific discharge capacity is obtained 644 mAh/g for specimen with temperature hydrothermal of 170°C and temperature calcination of 550°C. This result shows that Fe3O4/C has a high potential as anode material for lithium ion battery.

  10. Advanced structures in electrodeposited tin base anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haipeng; Jiang Changyin; He Xiangming; Ren Jianguo; Wan Chunrong

    2007-01-01

    A novel composite anode material consisted of electrodeposited Sn dispersing in a conductive micro-porous carbon membrane, which was directly coated on Cu current collector, was investigated. The composite material was prepared by: (1) casting a polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/dimethylformamide (DMF) solution that contained silica particles on a copper foil, (2) removing the solvent by evaporation, (3) dissolving the silica particles by immersing the copper foil into an alkaline solution, (4) drying the copper foil coated by micro-porous membrane, (5) electrodepositing Sn onto the copper foil through the micro-pores in the micro-porous membrane, and (6) annealing as-obtained composite material. This method provided the composite material with high decentralization of Sn and supporting medium purpose of conductive carbon membrane deriving from pyrolysis of PAN. SEM, XRD and EDS analysis confirmed this structure. The characteristic structure was beneficial to inhibit the aggregation between Sn micro-particles, to relax the volume expansion during cycling, and to improve the cycleability of electrode. Galvanostatic tests indicated the discharge capacity of the composite material remained over 550 mAh g -1 and 71.4% of charge retention after 30 cycles, while that of the electrode prepared by electrodepositing Sn on a bare Cu foil decreased seriously to 82.5 mAh g -1 and 13%. These results show that the composite material is a promising anode material with larger specific capacity and long cycle life for lithium ion batteries

  11. Scalable Upcycling Silicon from Waste Slicing Sludge for High-performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Qi; Huang, Yao-Hui; Lan, Chun-Kai; Chen, Bing-Hong; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has been perceived as a promising next-generation anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its superior theoretical capacity. Despite the natural abundance of this element on Earth, large-scale production of high-purity Si nanomaterials in a green and energy-efficient way is yet to become an industrial reality. Spray-drying methods have been exploited to recover Si particles from low-value sludge produced in the photovoltaic industry, providing a massive and cost-effective Si resource for fabricating anode materials. To address such drawbacks like volume expansion, low electrical and Li + conductivity and unstable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, the recycled silicon particles have been downsized into nanoscale and shielded by a highly conductive and protective graphene multilayer through high energy ball milling. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements have revealed that the graphene wrapping and size reduction approach have significantly improved the electrochemical performance. It delivers an excellent reversible capacity of 1,138 mA h g −1 and a long cycle life with 73% capacity retention over 150 cycles at a high current of 450 mA g −1 . The plentiful waste conversion methodology also provides considerable opportunities for developing additional rechargeable devices, ceramic, powder metallurgy and silane/siloxane products

  12. Heteroatom Doped-Carbon Nanospheres as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, George S; Ferrari, Stefania; Huang, Xiaobin; Bhagat, Rohit; Haddleton, David M; Wan, Chaoying

    2016-01-09

    Long cycle performance is a crucial requirement in energy storage devices. New formulations and/or improvement of "conventional" materials have been investigated in order to achieve this target. Here we explore the performance of a novel type of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) with three heteroatom co-doped (nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur) and high specific surface area as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The CNSs were obtained from carbonization of highly-crosslinked organo (phosphazene) nanospheres (OPZs) of 300 nm diameter. The OPZs were synthesized via a single and facile step of polycondensation reaction between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol (BPS). The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed a high heteroatom-doping content in the structure of CNSs while the textural evaluation from the N₂ sorption isotherms revealed the presence of micro- and mesopores and a high specific surface area of 875 m²/g. The CNSs anode showed remarkable stability and coulombic efficiency in a long charge-discharge cycling up to 1000 cycles at 1C rate, delivering about 130 mA·h·g -1 . This study represents a step toward smart engineering of inexpensive materials with practical applications for energy devices.

  13. Recycled tetrahedron-like CuCl from waste Cu scraps for lithium ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongying; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Song; Duan, Jixiang; Liao, Qishu; Yu, Chengyi; Li, Dongdong; Dai, Zhipeng

    2017-07-01

    The wide applications of metal Cu inevitably resulted in a large quantity of waste Cu materials. In order to recover the useful Cu under the mild conditions and reduce the environmental emission, waste Cu scraps were recycled in the form of CuCl powders with high economic value added (EVA) via the facile hydrothermal route. The recycled CuCl powders were characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results suggested that the recycled CuCl powders consisted of many regular tetrahedron-like micro-particles. Furthermore, in order to reduce the cost of lithium ion battery (LIB) anode and build the connection of waste Cu scraps and LIB, the recycled CuCl powders were evaluated as the anode active material of LIB. As expected, the reversible discharge capacity was about 171.8mAh/g at 2.0C even after 50 cycles, implying the satisfactory cycle stability. Clearly, the satisfactory results may open a new avenue to develop the circular economy and the sustainable energy industry, which would be very important in terms of both the resource recovery and the environmental protection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Heteroatom Doped-Carbon Nanospheres as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Pappas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long cycle performance is a crucial requirement in energy storage devices. New formulations and/or improvement of “conventional” materials have been investigated in order to achieve this target. Here we explore the performance of a novel type of carbon nanospheres (CNSs with three heteroatom co-doped (nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur and high specific surface area as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The CNSs were obtained from carbonization of highly-crosslinked organo (phosphazene nanospheres (OPZs of 300 nm diameter. The OPZs were synthesized via a single and facile step of polycondensation reaction between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP and 4,4′-sulphonyldiphenol (BPS. The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS analysis showed a high heteroatom-doping content in the structure of CNSs while the textural evaluation from the N2 sorption isotherms revealed the presence of micro- and mesopores and a high specific surface area of 875 m2/g. The CNSs anode showed remarkable stability and coulombic efficiency in a long charge–discharge cycling up to 1000 cycles at 1C rate, delivering about 130 mA·h·g−1. This study represents a step toward smart engineering of inexpensive materials with practical applications for energy devices.

  15. Synthesis of Ultrathin Si Nanosheets from Natural Clays for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaegeon; Hong, Dongki; Choi, Sinho; Park, Soojin

    2016-02-23

    Two-dimensional Si nanosheets have been studied as a promising candidate for lithium-ion battery anode materials. However, Si nanosheets reported so far showed poor cycling performances and required further improvements. In this work, we utilize inexpensive natural clays for preparing high quality Si nanosheets via a one-step simultaneous molten salt-induced exfoliation and chemical reduction process. This approach produces high purity mesoporous Si nanosheets in high yield. As a control experiment, two-step process (pre-exfoliated silicate sheets and subsequent chemical reduction) cannot sustain their original two-dimensional structure. In contrast, one-step method results in a production of 5 nm-thick highly porous Si nanosheets. Carbon-coated Si nanosheet anodes exhibit a high reversible capacity of 865 mAh g(-1) at 1.0 A g(-1) with an outstanding capacity retention of 92.3% after 500 cycles. It also delivers high rate capability, corresponding to a capacity of 60% at 20 A g(-1) compared to that of 2.0 A g(-1). Furthermore, the Si nanosheet electrodes show volume expansion of only 42% after 200 cycles.

  16. Evaluation of lithium alloy anode materials for Li-TiS2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.-K.; Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to select candidate lithium alloy anode materials and establish selection criteria. Some of the selected alloy materials were evaluated for their electrochemical properties and performance. This paper describes the criteria for the selection of alloys and the findings of the studies. Li-Si and Li-Cd alloys have been found to be unstable in the EC+2-MeTHF-based electrolyte. The Li-Al alloy system was found to be promising among the alloy systems studied in view of its stability and reversibility. Unfortunately, the large volume changes of LiAl alloys during charge/discharge cycling cause considerable 'exfoliation' of its active mass. This paper also describes ways how to address this problem. The rate of disintegration of this anode would probably be surpressed by the presence of an inert solid solution or a uniform distribution of precipitates within the grains of the active mass. It was discovered that the addition of a small quantity of Mn may improve the mechanical properties of LiAl. In an attempt to reduce the Li-Al alloy vs. Li voltage, it was observed that LiAlPb(0.1)Cd(0.3) material can be cycled at 1.5 mA/sq cm without exfoliation of the active mass.

  17. WS_2-Super P nanocomposites anode material with enhanced cycling stability for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Xin; Li, Jiayin; Cao, Liyun; Xu, Zhanwei; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    WS_2-Super P nanocomposites are prepared for lithium battery anodes by a simple two-step process consisting of hydrothermal and sulfide reduction reactions. The addition of Super P (50 nm) as a conductive addictive is beneficial for decreasing the size of nanocomposites and improving their dispersibility, which could accelerate the insertion/extraction reaction between WS_2-Super P nanocomposite electrode and electrolyte. Compared to the pure WS_2, the WS_2-Super P nanocomposites exhibit highly improved electrochemical performance with initial discharge capacity of 421 mAh g"−"1, high initial Coulombic efficiency (81%), low charge transfer impedance (53 Ω) and good retentive capacity of 389 mAh g"−"1 after 200th cycles. The much improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the incorporation of Super P, which facilitates the interface charge transfer and Li"+ diffusion. - Graphical abstract: The addition of Super P (50 nm) is beneficial for decreasing the size of WS_2-Super P nanocomposites, improving their dispersibility, accelerating the Li"+ transportation and the insertion/extraction reaction. The WS_2-Super P nanocomposites show higher cycling stability and rate performances than pure WS_2. - Highlights: • WS_2-Super P nanocomposites are prepared for LIBs anodes with good performances. • Super P as a conductive addictive is added into the WS_2 nanosheets. • The incorporation of Super P is beneficial for decreasing the size of composites. • Super P were embedded in WS_2 nanosheets for improving their dispersibility.

  18. Electrochemical performance of a hybrid lithium-ion capacitor with a graphite anode preloaded from lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide-based electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaux, C.; Lota, G.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.; Frackowiak, E.; Béguin, F.

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid LiC capacitor combining a lithium-ion battery type (graphite) electrode and an electrical double-layer (activated carbon) one has been developed by preloading graphite from 2 mol L −1 lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) organic electrolyte. The graphite intercalation compound was formed by applying ca. 10 successive charge/self-discharge pulses. The optimized hybrid device operates in the voltage range from 1.5 to 4.2 V and displays 60% higher gravimetric capacitance than an electric double-layer (EDL) capacitor using the same activated carbon for both electrodes. As a result, the energy density reaches 80 Wh kg −1 , which is four times higher than the value for the EDL capacitor with the same total mass of carbon.

  19. Aqueous Binder Enhanced High-Performance GeP5 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available GeP5 is a recently reported new anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs, it holds a large theoretical capacity about 2300 mAh g−1, and a high rate capability due to its bi-active components and superior conductivity. However, it undergoes a large volume change during its electrochemical alloying and de-alloying with Li, a suitable binder is necessary to stable the electrode integrity for improving cycle performance. In this work, we tried to apply aqueous binders LiPAA and NaCMC to GeP5 anode, and compared the difference in electrochemical performance between them and traditional binder PVDF. As can be seen from the test result, GeP5 can keep stable in both common organic solvents and proton solvents such as water and alcohol solvents, it meets the application requirements of aqueous binders. The electrochemistry results show that the use of LiPAA binder can significantly improve the initial Coulombic efficiency, reversible capacity, and cyclability of GeP5 anode as compared to the electrodes based on NaCMC and PVDF binders. The enhanced electrochemical performance of GeP5 electrode with LiPAA binder can be ascribed to the unique high strength long chain polymer structure of LiPAA, which also provide numerous uniform distributed carboxyl groups to form strong ester groups with active materials and copper current collector. Benefit from that, the GeP5 electrode with LiPAA can also exhibit excellent rate capability, and even at low temperature, it still shows attractive electrochemical performance.

  20. Cobalt-based metal organic framework with superior lithium anodic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaoshi; Hu, Huiping; Li, Chao; Li, Tian; Lou, Xiaobing; Chen, Qun; Hu, Bingwen, E-mail: bwhu@phy.ecnu.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    The reversible charging of a Co-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate MOF (Co-BDC MOF) prepared via an one-pot solvothermal method was studied for use as the anode in a Li-ion cell. It was found that this MOF anode provides high reversible capacities (1090 and 611 mA h g{sup −1} at current densities of 0.2 and 1 A g{sup −1}, respectively), and an impressive rate performance. Such an outstanding Li-ion storage property has not been reported previously for the LIB anodes within the MOFs category. Ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) studies of this material at different state of charge suggest that cobalt stays at Co{sup 2+} state during discharge/charge process, so that in this case Li{sup +} may be inserted into the organic moiety without the direct participation of cobalt ions. - Graphical abstract: Co-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate MOF, synthesized through a straightforward solvothermal method, shows outstanding lithium storage performance. - Highlights: • Co-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate MOF is synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal method. • Reversible capacity of 1090 mA h g{sup −1} is achieved at a current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}. • Reversible capacity of 611 mA h g{sup −1} is achieved at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. • Li-ions may be inserted into the organic moieties.

  1. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zichao; Shen, Jingguo; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide

  2. Electrostatic spray deposition of porous SnO₂/graphene anode films and their enhanced lithium-storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yinzhu; Yuan, Tianzhi; Sun, Wenping; Yan, Mi

    2012-11-01

    Porous SnO₂/graphene composite thin films are prepared as anodes for lithium ion batteries by the electrostatic spray deposition technique. Reticular-structured SnO₂ is formed on both the nickel foam substrate and the surface of graphene sheets according to the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. Such an assembly mode of graphene and SnO₂ is highly beneficial to the electrochemical performance improvement by increasing the electrical conductivity and releasing the volume change of the anode. The novel engineered anode possesses 2134.3 mA h g⁻¹ of initial discharge capacity and good capacity retention of 551.0 mA h g⁻¹ up to the 100th cycle at a current density of 200 mA g⁻¹. This anode also exhibits excellent rate capability, with a reversible capacity of 507.7 mA h g⁻¹ after 100 cycles at a current density of 800 mA g⁻¹. The results demonstrate that such a film-type hybrid anode shows great potential for application in high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Cobalt Oxide Porous Nanofibers Directly Grown on Conductive Substrate as a Binder/Additive-Free Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with High Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zheng, Zheng; Chen, Bochao; Liao, Libing; Wang, Xina

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the amount of inactive materials, such as binders and carbon additives in battery electrode, porous cobalt monoxide nanofibers were directly grown on conductive substrate as a binder/additive-free lithium-ion battery anode. This electrode exhibited very high specific discharging/charging capacities at various rates and good cycling stability. It was promising as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  4. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  5. Micro-sized organometallic compound of ferrocene as high-performance anode material for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Feng, Li; Su, Xiaoru; Qin, Chenyang; Zhao, Kun; Hu, Fang; Zhou, Mingjiong; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-01-01

    An organometallic compound of ferrocene is first investigated as a promising anode for lithium-ion batteries. The electrochemical properties of ferrocene are conducted by galvanostatic charge and discharge. The ferrocene anode exhibits a high reversible capacity and great cycling stability, as well as superior rate capability. The electrochemical reaction of ferrocene is semi-reversible and some metallic Fe remains in the electrode even after delithiation. The metallic Fe formed in electrode and the stable solid electrolyte interphase should be responsible for its excellent electrochemical performance.

  6. Highly conductive bridges between graphite spheres to improve the cycle performance of a graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Umeno, Tatsuo; Mizuma, Koutarou [Research Center, Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Hibiki-machi 1-3, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0021 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-01-10

    Spherical carbon-coated natural graphite (SCCNG) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but the smooth surface of graphite spheres is difficult to wet with an aqueous binder solution, and lacks electrical contacts. As a result, the cycle performance of such a graphite anode material is not satisfactory. An effective method has been introduced to tightly connect adjacent SCCNG particles by a highly conductive binder, viz. acetylene black bridges. The effect of the conductive bridges on the cyclability of SCCNG electrode has been investigated. (author)

  7. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Ying; Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery

  8. Lithium ion intercalation in thin crystals of hexagonal TaSe2 gated by a polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueshen; Lian, Hailong; He, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyu; Wang, Shun; Xing, Hui; Mao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Ionic liquid gating has been used to modify the properties of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), including two-dimensional (2D) crystals of TMDCs used extensively recently in the device work, which has led to observations of properties not seen in the bulk. The main effect comes from the electrostatic gating due to the strong electric field at the interface. In addition, ionic liquid gating also leads to ion intercalation when the ion size of the gate electrolyte is small compared to the interlayer spacing of TMDCs. However, the microscopic processes of ion intercalation have rarely been explored in layered TMDCs. Here, we employed a technique combining photolithography device fabrication and electrical transport measurements on the thin crystals of hexagonal TaSe2 using multiple channel devices gated by a polymer electrolyte LiClO4/Polyethylene oxide (PEO). The gate voltage and time dependent source-drain resistances of these thin crystals were used to obtain information on the intercalation process, the effect of ion intercalation, and the correlation between the ion occupation of allowed interstitial sites and the device characteristics. We found a gate voltage controlled modulation of the charge density waves and a scattering rate of charge carriers. Our work suggests that ion intercalation can be a useful tool for layered materials engineering and 2D crystal device design.

  9. SnO2/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Cyclability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjuan; Zhao, Xike; Ma, Zengsheng; Lin, Jianguo; Lu, Chunsheng

    2016-04-01

    SnO2 is considered as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries, however, how to build energetic SnO2-based electrode architectures has still remained a big challenge. In this article, we developed a facile method to prepare SnO2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite for an anode material of lithium-ion batteries. It is shown that, at the current density of 0.25 A.g-1, SnO2/RGO has a high initial capacity of 1705 mAh.g-1 and a capacity retention of 500 mAh . g-1 after 50 cycles. The total specific capacity of SnO2/RGO is higher than the sum of their pure counterparts, indicating a positive synergistic effect on the electrochemical performance.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of amorphous carbon-coated Sn Sb particles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Tian, Wenhuai; Liu, Xiaohe; Yang, Rong; Li, Xingguo

    2007-12-01

    The amorphous carbon coating on the Sn-Sb particles was prepared from aqueous glucose solutions using a hydrothermal method. Because the outer layer carbon of composite materials is loose cotton-like and porous-like, it can accommodate the expansion and contraction of active materials to maintain the stability of the structure, and hinder effectively the aggregation of nano-sized alloy particles. The as-prepared composite materials show much improved electrochemical performances as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries compared with Sn-Sb alloy and carbon alone. This amorphous carbon-coated Sn-Sb particle is extremely promising anode materials for lithium secondary batteries and has a high potentiality in the future use.

  11. Stable silicon/3D porous N-doped graphene composite for lithium-ion battery anodes with self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofu; Wen, Guangwu; Song, Yan

    2018-04-01

    We fabricate a novel 3D N-doped graphene/silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes, with Si nanoparticles uniformly dispersed and thoroughly embedded in the N-doped graphene matrix. The favorable structure of the composite results in a BET surface area and an average mesopore diameter of 189.2 m2 g-1 and 3.82 nm, respectively. The composite delivers reversible capacities as high as 1132 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles under a current of 5 A g-1 and 1017 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at 1 A g-1, and exhibits an improved rate capability. The present approach shows promise for the preparation of other high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  12. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of hollow Fe3O4 microspheres assembled with nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yanguo; Wang, Xiaoliang; Ma, Wuming

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Fe3O4 microspheres assembled with nanoparticles were successfully synthesized without the addition of any templates or subsequent treatments. When used as the anode materials for lithium-ion battery (LIB), the products showed good lithium storage properties, demonstrating their promising...

  13. Fabrication of electrospun ZnMn2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lei; Qiao, Hui; Chen, Ke; Fei, Yaqian; Wei, Qufu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnMn 2 O 4 nanofibers were successfully synthesized by a facile electrospinning and calcination method for lithium-ion batteries. • The as-prepared ZnMn 2 O 4 nanofibers, containing PVP and PAN with ratio of 1:9, exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1274 mAh g −1 , and the stabilized capacity was as high as 603 mAh g −1 after 60 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g −1 . • The as-prepared ZnMn 2 O 4 anode material showed good lithium storage performances and excellent rate capability and can be a promising electrode material for lithium-ion batteries in the future. - Abstract: In this paper, ZnMn 2 O 4 nanofibers were synthesized by a facile electrospinning and calcination method. Electrochemical properties of the nanofiber anode material for lithium-ion batteries were investigated. The as-prepared ZnMn 2 O 4 nanofibers, containing PVP and PAN with ratio of 1:9, exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1274 mAh g −1 , and the stabilized capacity was as high as 603 mAh g −1 after 60 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g −1 . Besides the high specific capacity and good cyclability, the electrode also showed good rate capability. Even at 2000 mA g −1 , the electrode could deliver a capacity of as high as 352 mAh g −1 . The results suggest a promising application of the electrospun ZnMn 2 O 4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

  14. Significantly enhanced electrochemical performance of lithium titanate anode for lithium ion battery by the hybrid of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiyi, Li; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Xiaoyan, Zhou; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang; Junkang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The study reported a facile synthesis of Li4Ti5O12/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots (LTO/N,S-GQDs). The unique architecture and the introduction of N,S-GQDs create both ultrafast electron transfer and electrolyte transport. The as-prepared LTO/N,S-GQDs anode provides prominent advantage of specific capacity, high-rate performance and cycle stability. - Highlights: • We reported a new lithium titanate/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots hybrid • The synthesis creates a crystalline interconnected porous framework composed of nanoscale LTO • The unique architecture achieves to maximize the rate performance and enhance the power density • Introduction of N,S-GQDs greatly enhances the electron transfer and the storage lithium capacity • The hybrid anode provides an excellent electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries - ABSTRACT: The paper reported a facile synthesis of lithium titanate/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots(LTO/N,S-GQDs). Tetrabutyl titanate was dissolved in tertbutanol and heated to refluxing state by microwave irradiation. Then, lithium acetate was added into the mixed solution to produce LTO precursor. The precursor was hybridized with N,S-GQDs in ethanol. Followed by drying and thermal annealing at 500 °C in Ar/H_2 to obtain LTO/N,S-GQDs. The synthesis creates fully crystalline interconnected porous framework composed of nanoscale LTO crystals. The unique architecture achieves to maximize the high-rate performance and enhance the power density. More importantly, the introduction of N,S-GQDs don't almost influence on the electrolyte transport, but greatly improve the electron transfer and the storage lithium capacity. The LTO/N,S-GQDs anode exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion battery. The specific discharge capacity is 254.2 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C and 126.5 mAh g"−"1 at 10C. The capacity remains 96.9% at least after 2000 cycles

  15. Binders and Hosts for High-Capacity Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufficy, Martin Kyle

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are universal electrochemical energy storage devices that have revolutionized our mobile society. Nonetheless, societal and technological advances drive consumer demand for LIBs with enhanced electrochemical performance, such as higher charge capacity and longer life, compared to conventional LIBs. One method to enhance LIB performance is to replace graphite, the industry standard anode since commercialization of LIBs in 1991, with high-charge capacity materials. Implementing high-capacity anode materials such as tin, silicon, and manganese vanadates, to LIBs presents challenges; Li-insertion is destructive to anode framework, and increasing capacity increases structural strains that pulverize anode materials and results in a short-cycle life. This thesis reports on various methods to extended the cycle life of high-capacity materials. Most of the work is conducted on nano-sized anode materials to reduce Li and electron transport pathway length (facilitating charge-transfer) and reduce strains from volume expansions (preserving anode structure). The first method involves encapsulating tin particles into a graphene-containing carbon nanofiber (CNF) matrix. The composite-CNF matrix houses tin particles to assume strains from tin-volume expansions and produces favorable surface-electrolyte chemistries for stable charge-discharge cycling. Before tin addition, graphene-containing CNFs are produced and assessed as anode materials for LIBs. Graphene addition to CNFs improves electronic and mechanical properties of CNFs. Furthermore, the 2-D nature of graphene provides Li-binding sites to enhance composite-CNF both first-cycle and high-rate capacities > 150% when compared to CNFs in the absence of graphene. With addition of Sn, we vary loadings and thermal production temperature to elucidate structure-composition relationships of tin and graphene-containing CNF electrodes that lead to increased capacity retention. Of note, electrodes containing

  16. Synthesis and performance of cerium oxide as anode materials for lithium ion batteries by a chemical precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haowen; Le, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this present work, chemical precipitation method was employed for preparing cerium oxide. XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA/DTA and BET were used to investigate the structure, shape and formation mechanism, respectively. No impurities were detected. It was found that alcohol had obvious effection on the growth of the final sample. The shape of the precursor was retained after calcined at 500 °C. This result led to the possibility of an easy scale up to a commercial process. EIS and charge–discharge tests were carried out by using the as-prepared CeO_2 as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. Specially, the initial discharge specific capacity of the rhombus CeO_2 was about 529 mAh g"−"1 and stabilized reversibly at about 374 mAh g"−"1 after 50 cycles. It showed a promising usage as anode materials in lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • Chemical precipitation method was employed for the synthesis of cerium oxide. • Alcohol has obvious effection on the growth of the final sample. • The rhombus CeO_2 showed the better electrochemical properties as anode of lithium ion batteries.

  17. Enhanced electrochemical properties of vanadium-doped titanium niobate as a new anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xiaoyan; Ma, Chenxiang; Du, Chenqiang; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinhe; Qu, Deyang; Tang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The Vanadium-doped TiNb 2 O 7 (TNO) samples have been investigated as novel anode active materials for application in lithium-ion batteries. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge tests, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The XRD results indicate that V-doping expands the lattice parameters of TiNb 2 O 7 samples and facilitates the enhanced lithium ion diffusion. SEM and TEM results show that lattice expansion caused by V-doping doesn’t significantly change the particle size distribution of TiNb 2 O 7 samples. The electrochemical measurements indicate that the TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 anode material displays a highly reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. The initial discharge capacities of TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 are 298.48 mAh g −1 and 171.99 mAh g −1 at 0.3C and 10C, respectively, indicating that the TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 material can be utilized as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Layered double hydroxides for preparing CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles as anodes of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Xu; Ma, Jingjing; Yuan, Ruo; Yang, Xia

    2017-01-01

    In the field of lithium-ion batteries, CoMn_2O_4 as an anode material has attracted a wide attention because it inherited the splendid electrochemical performances of Mn and Co-based metal oxides. Compared to graphite, Co-based oxides have a higher capacity which is about twice of the graphite. Moreover, Mn-based oxides have lower operating voltages and manganese exists abundantly in nature. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), similar with brucite structure, were used as precursor for CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles in this work. Under high temperature process, the LDHs decomposed to CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles behaved good electrochemical performance with the discharge and charge capacity of 733 mAh g"-"1 and 721 mAh g"-"1 at current density of 200 mA g"-"1 after 100 cycles. This method for preparing CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles is easy, which may provide a way for synthesis of other bimetallic oxides and anodes of lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • Layered double hydroxides were employed as precursors to synthesize CoMn_2O_4. • The CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles behaved good electrochemical performance. • This study provides a guideline for preparing bimetallic oxides.

  19. Modification of SnO2 Anodes by Atomic Layer Deposition for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yesibolati, Nulati

    2013-05-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is considered one of the most promising anode materials for Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to its large theoretical capacity and natural abundance. However, its low electronic/ionic conductivities, large volume change during lithiation/delithiation and agglomeration prevent it from further commercial applications. In this thesis, we investigate modified SnO2 as a high energy density anode material for LIBs. Specifically two approaches are presented to improve battery performances. Firstly, SnO2 electrochemical performances were improved by surface modification using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Ultrathin Al2O3 or HfO2 were coated on SnO2 electrodes. It was found that electrochemical performances had been enhanced after ALD deposition. In a second approach, we implemented a layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled graphene/carbon-coated hollow SnO2 spheres as anode material for LIBs. Our results indicated that the LBL assembled electrodes had high reversible lithium storage capacities even at high current densities. These superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the enhanced electronic conductivity and effective lithium diffusion, because of the interconnected graphene/carbon networks among nanoparticles of the hollow SnO2 spheres.

  20. Synthesis and performance of cerium oxide as anode materials for lithium ion batteries by a chemical precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haowen, E-mail: liuhwchem@hotmail.com; Le, Qi

    2016-06-05

    In this present work, chemical precipitation method was employed for preparing cerium oxide. XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA/DTA and BET were used to investigate the structure, shape and formation mechanism, respectively. No impurities were detected. It was found that alcohol had obvious effection on the growth of the final sample. The shape of the precursor was retained after calcined at 500 °C. This result led to the possibility of an easy scale up to a commercial process. EIS and charge–discharge tests were carried out by using the as-prepared CeO{sub 2} as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. Specially, the initial discharge specific capacity of the rhombus CeO{sub 2} was about 529 mAh g{sup −1} and stabilized reversibly at about 374 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. It showed a promising usage as anode materials in lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • Chemical precipitation method was employed for the synthesis of cerium oxide. • Alcohol has obvious effection on the growth of the final sample. • The rhombus CeO{sub 2} showed the better electrochemical properties as anode of lithium ion batteries.

  1. NaLaTi_2O_6 nanosheet as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Qiao; Cao, Liyun; Kong, Xingang; Xu, Zhanwei; Huang, Jianfeng; Li, Jiayin; Cheng, Yayi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • NaLaTi_2O_6 nanosheet was achieved by a simple one-step hydrothermal method. • NaLaTi_2O_6 was reported for the first time as an anode material. • NaLaTi_2O_6 shown a high discharge capacity of about 180 mAh/g at 100 mA/g. - Abstract: NaLaTi_2O_6 nanosheet was achieved by one-step hydrothermal method and was reported for the first time as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The phase structure and morphology analysis reveals that pure pervoskite NaLaTi_2O_6 possesses nanosheet morphology with thickness of about 20 nm and length of several hundred nanometers. The electrochemical performances demonstrate that NaLaTi_2O_6 has a good lithium ion insertion/extraction ability with a discharge capacity of about 180 mAh/g, which is slightly larger than Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 theoretical capacity (175 mAh/g). Even more, after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at 100 mA/g, it still maintains a discharge capacity of 165 mAh/g, suggesting that NaLaTi_2O_6 could be explored as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  2. Coaxial silicon/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite anodes for long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocoglu, Ubeyd, E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Cevher, Ozgur; Guler, M. Oguz; Akbulut, Hatem

    2014-06-01

    Abstract: In this work silicon/multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite anodes were produced via direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering of silicon onto carbon nanotube papers (buckypapers). The amount of silicon in the composite anodes was varied by using different sputtering powers of 150 W, 175 W, 200 W and the effect on the cell performance was studied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were employed for morphological characterization of anodes. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping was used to observe silicon distribution on the buckypapers. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and internal resistance of cells. The results showed capacity retention of silicon anodes was improved with composite structure and higher capacity values were achieved than graphite anodes. The silicon/carbon nanotube composite produced with 150 W showed the best cycle stability after 100 cycles of galvanostatic charge/discharge tests with capacity value of 620 mAh g{sup −1}.

  3. Metallic Sn-Based Anode Materials: Application in High-Performance Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hangjun; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    With the fast-growing demand for green and safe energy sources, rechargeable ion batteries have gradually occupied the major current market of energy storage devices due to their advantages of high capacities, long cycling life, superior rate ability, and so on. Metallic Sn-based anodes are perceived as one of the most promising alternatives to the conventional graphite anode and have attracted great attention due to the high theoretical capacities of Sn in both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) (994 mA h g -1 ) and sodium-ion batteries (847 mA h g -1 ). Though Sony has used Sn-Co-C nanocomposites as its commercial LIB anodes, to develop even better batteries using metallic Sn-based anodes there are still two main obstacles that must be overcome: poor cycling stability and low coulombic efficiency. In this review, the latest and most outstanding developments in metallic Sn-based anodes for LIBs and SIBs are summarized. And it covers the modification strategies including size control, alloying, and structure design to effectually improve the electrochemical properties. The superiorities and limitations are analyzed and discussed, aiming to provide an in-depth understanding of the theoretical works and practical developments of metallic Sn-based anode materials.

  4. Chitosan, a new and environmental benign electrode binder for use with graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Lili; Qu, Qunting; Zhang, Longfei; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Honghe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Chitosan is used as a new electrode binder for graphite anode. • Electrochemical properties of the chitosan-based electrode are compared with that of PVDF-based one. • Electrochemical performances of the graphite anode are improved by using chitosan binder. • Chitosan binder facilitates the formation of a thin, homogenous and stable SEI film of the electrode. -- Abstract: Chitosan was applied as the electrode binder material for a spherical graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries. Compared to using poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, the graphite anode using chitosan exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances in terms of the first Columbic efficiency, rate capability and cycling behavior. With similar specific capacity, the first Columbic efficiency of the chitosan-based anode is 95.4% compared to 89.3% of the PVDF-based anode. After 200 charge–discharge cycles at 0.5C, the capacity retention of the chitosan-based electrode showed to be significantly higher than that of the PVDF-based electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were carried out to investigate the formation and evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the graphite electrodes. The results show that a thin, homogenous and stable SEI layer is formed on the graphite electrode surface with chitosan binder compared with that using the conventional PVDF binder

  5. HxMoO3 nanobelts with better performance as anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Xiaokang; Ning, Peigong; Tong, Xiaobing; Lin, Xiaoping; Pan, Xi; Li, Qiuhong; Duan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Taihong

    2016-01-01

    We first report the pure H x MoO 3 nanobelts as anode for lithium-ion batteries by a facile hydrothermal with ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate ((NH 4 )6Mo 7 O 24 ∙4H 2 O) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Owing to hydrogen-doping, Mo 5+ exists in the H x MoO 3 nanobelt, which may release extra electrons. Therefore, the electric conductance of H x MoO 3 nanobelt is enhanced greatly. Moreover, the content of hydrogen can’t be high, since the ordered structure deteriorates when amount of hydrogen increasing. The H 0.28 MoO 3 nanobelts we designed exhibit outstanding specific capacity and rate performance. The stable capacity of 920 mAh g −1 is obtained after 25 charge/discharge cycles at 100 mA g −1 . At high current densities such as 1, 2, 5 and 10 A g −1 , the H 0.28 MoO 3 electrode delivers specific capacities of about 600, 500, 420, 300 mAh g −1 , respectively. Even after 450 charge discharge cycles at 1 A g −1 , the performance of our materials can maintain the capacity of about 550 mAh g −1 . Furthermore, we provide more discussion about the lithium storage mechanism of H x MoO 3 nanobelts through ex situ XRD and FESEM. By comparing H x MoO 3 with different X, we find that low content of hydrogen can greatly improve the performance of α-MoO 3 electrodes in Li-ion batteries.

  6. Application-specific electrical characterization of high power batteries with lithium titanate anodes for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-01-01

    This study shows results of extensive experimental measurements performed on high power lithium titanate based batteries. Characterization tests are performed over a wide temperature range (−20 °C – +40 °C) by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and modified hybrid pulse power characterization tests. Furthermore, the behavior of battery impedance parameters over the battery lifetime with regard to temperature, State-of-Charge and their influence on available battery power in an example of electric vehicles is discussed. Based on extracted parameters, a reduced order equivalent circuit model considering the nonlinearity of the charge transfer resistance is parametrized. The obtained results indicate that ohmic resistance increases with decreasing State-of-Charge while the shape of the curve remains almost constant over the battery lifetime. The total impedance determined at 1 mHz shows almost no dependence on State-of-Charge and remains constant over the whole State-of-Charge range. The necessity of considering the impact of the current dependence of the direct current resistance at least at low temperatures (i.e., below 0 °C) is confirmed. Moreover, by investigating the Butler-Volmer equation the behavior of exchange current density and symmetry factor is analyzed for various temperatures and State-of-Charges over the battery lifetime. - Highlights: • Impedance characteristic over the battery lifetime is investigated. • Batteries at different aging states using lithium titanate anodes are investigated. • The influence of temperature on impedance characteristic is investigated. • Butler-Volmer behavior is comprehensively investigated under various conditions.

  7. Degradation Mechanisms of Electrochemically Cycled Graphite Anodes in Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sandeep

    This research is aimed at developing advanced characterization methods for studying the surface and subsurface damage in Li-ion battery anodes made of polycrystalline graphite and identifying the degradation mechanisms that cause loss of electrochemical capacity. Understanding microstructural aspects of the graphite electrode degradation mechanisms during charging and discharging of Li-ion batteries is of key importance in order to design durable anodes with high capacity. An in-situ system was constructed using an electrochemical cell with an observation window, a large depth-of-field digital microscope and a micro-Raman spectrometer. It was revealed that electrode damage by removal of the surface graphite fragments of 5-10 mum size is the most intense during the first cycle that led to a drastic capacity drop. Once a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer covered the electrode surface, the rate of graphite particle loss decreased. Yet, a gradual loss of capacity continued by the formation of interlayer cracks adjacent to SEI/graphite interfaces. Deposition of co-intercalation compounds, LiC6, Li2CO3 and Li2O, near the crack tips caused partial closure of propagating graphite cracks during cycling and reduced the crack growth rate. Bridging of crack faces by delaminated graphite layers also retarded crack propagation. The microstructure of the SEI layer, formed by electrochemical reduction of the ethylene carbonate based electrolyte, consisted of ˜5-20 nm sized crystalline domains (containing Li2CO3, Li2O 2 and nano-sized graphite fragments) dispersed in an amorphous matrix. During the SEI formation, two regimes of Li-ion diffusion were identified at the electrode/electrolyte interface depending on the applied voltage scan rate (dV/dt). A low Li-ion diffusion coefficient ( DLi+) at dV/dt microscopic information to the electrochemical performance, novel Li2CO3-coated electrodes were fabricated that were durable. The SEI formed on pre-treated electrodes reduced

  8. Li4Ti5O12/graphene nanoribbons composite as anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, P A; Zheng, H; Fahlman, B D; Annamalai, P; Swartbooi, A; le Roux, L; Mathe, M K

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of a Li4Ti5O12/Graphene Nanoribbons (LTO/GNRs) composite using a solid-coating method. Electron microscope images of the LTO/GNRs composite have shown that LTO particles were wrapped around graphene nanoribbons. The introduction of GNRs was observed to have significantly improved the rate performance of LTO/GNTs. The specific capacities determined of the obtained composite at rates of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 C are 206.5, 200.9, 188, 178.1 and 142.3 mAh·g(-1), respectively. This is significantly higher than those of pure LTO (169.1, 160, 150, 106 and 71.1 mAh·g(-1), respectively) especially at high rate (2 and 5 C). The LTO/GNRs also shows better cycling stability at high rates. Enhanced conductivity of LTO/GNRs contributed from the GNR frameworks accelerated the kinetics of lithium intercalation/deintercalation in LIBs that also leads to excellent rate capacity of LTO/GNRs. This is attributed to its lower charge-transfer resistance (Rct = 23.38 Ω) compared with LTO (108.05 Ω), and higher exchange current density (j = 1.1 × 10(-3) mA cm(-2))-about 20 times than those of the LTO (j = 2.38 × 10(-4) mA cm(-2)).

  9. Stannous sulfide/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrids as high-performance anode materials of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuankui; Zuo, Shiyong; Wu, Zhiguo; Liu, Ying; Zhuo, Renfu; Feng, Juanjuan; Yan, De; Wang, Jun; Yan, Pengxun

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) anchored with SnS nanosheets is synthesized through a simple solvothermal method for the first time. Interestingly, SnS can be controllably deposited onto the MWCNTs backbone in the shape of nanosheets or nanoparticles to form two types of SnS/MWCNTs hybrids, SnS NSs/MWCNTs and SnS NPs/MWCNTs. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the hybrids exhibit higher lithium storage capacities and better cycling performance compared to pure SnS. It is found that the SnS NSs/MWCNTs hybrid exhibits a large reversible capacity of 620mAhg −1 at a current of 100mAg −1 as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, which is better than SnS NPs/MWCNTs. The improved performance may be attributed to the ultrathin nanosheet subunits possess short distance for Li + ions diffusion and large electrode-electrolyte contact area for high Li + ions flux across the interface. It is believed that the structural design of electrodes demonstrated in this work will have important implications on the fabrication of high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

  10. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  11. Structural analysis of highly-durable Si-O-C composite anode prepared by electrodeposition for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Hiroki; Yokoshima, Tokihiko; Otaki, Mitsutoshi; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the highly durable silicon-based anode prepared by electrodeposition was investigated for volume change and chemical structure. With repeated charge–discharge cycles, the volume change resulting from the anode film thickness decreased, and, after 100 cycles, essentially no difference was observed between the charged and discharged states. The buffering effect of the volume change was considered to be achieved by the formation of Li 2 O, Li 2 CO 3 , and lithium silicates such as Li 4 SiO 4 , whose existence were supported by STEM, EELS, and XPS analyses. From the structural analyses, the main reactions related to the capacity of the silicon-based anode were considered to be the formation of Li x Si and Li 2 Si 2 O 5 . Li x Si and Li 2 Si 2 O 5 can be delithiated into Si and SiO 2 , respectively

  12. Sandwiched Thin-Film Anode of Chemically Bonded Black Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Zou, Yuqin; Tao, Li; Ma, Zhaoling; Liu, Dongdong; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Shuangyin

    2017-09-01

    A facile vacuum filtration method is applied for the first time to construct sandwich-structure anode. Two layers of graphene stacks sandwich a composite of black phosphorus (BP), which not only protect BP from quickly degenerating but also serve as current collector instead of copper foil. The BP composite, reduced graphene oxide coated on BP via chemical bonding, is simply synthesized by solvothermal reaction at 140 °C. The sandwiched film anode used for lithium-ion battery exhibits reversible capacities of 1401 mAh g -1 during the 200th cycle at current density of 100 mA g -1 indicating superior cycle performance. Besides, this facile vacuum filtration method may also be available for other anode material with well dispersion in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. In situ Raman spectra of the discharge products of calcium and lithium-anoded thionyl chloride cells — sulphur dioxide generation in oxyhalide systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, W. P.; Sargeant, D. G.

    A cell has been constructed that allows a calcium or lithium-anoded oxyhalide cell of conventional composition to be analysed for catholyte-soluble discharge products using laser Raman spectroscopy. Both cells showed the presence of sulphur dioxide solvated by thionyl chloride. Species of the type M(SOCl 2)(SO 2) n+ (AlCl 4) n- could only be detected in cells having calcium or lithium anodes with LiAlCl 4 as the supporting electrolyte in thionyl chloride. Vapour pressure measurements of discharging cells confirmed that Ca(AlCl 4) 2 was less likely to form a complex with sulphur dioxide than the analogous lithium salt.

  14. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-04-26

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  15. Synthesis of dual porous structured germanium anodes with exceptional lithium-ion storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dohyoung; Ryu, Jaegeon; Shin, Myungsoo; Song, Gyujin; Hong, Dongki; Kim, Kwang S.; Park, Soojin

    2018-01-01

    Dual-porous Ge nanostructures are synthesized via two straightforward steps. Compared with conventional approaches related to porous Ge materials, different types of pores can be readily generated by adjusting the relative ratio of the precursor amounts for GeO2 and SiO2. Unlike using hard templates with different sizes for introducing secondary pores, this system makes a uniformly blended structure of porogen and active sites in the nanoscale range. When GeO2 is subjected to zincothermic reduction, it is selectively converted to pure Ge still connected to unreacted SiO2. During the reduction process, primary pores (larger than 50 nm) are formed by eliminating zinc oxide by-products, while inactive SiO2 with respect to zinc metal could contribute to retaining the overall structure. Finally, the HF treatment completely leaches remaining SiO2 and formed secondary pores (micro/mesopores) to complete the dual-porous Ge structure. The resulting Ge structure is tested as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The Ge electrode exhibits an outstanding reversibility and an exceptional cycling stability corresponding to a capacity retention of 100% after 100 cycles at C/5 and of 94.4% after 300 cycles at C/2. Furthermore, multi-scale pores facilitate a facile Li-ion accessibility, resulting in an excellent rate capability delivering ∼740 mAh g-1 at 5C.

  16. Low hydrogen containing amorphous carbon films - Growth and electrochemical properties as lithium battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, V.; Masarapu, Charan; Wei, Bingqing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, 130 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Karabacak, Tansel [Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Teki, Ranganath [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lu, Toh-Ming [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    Amorphous carbon films were deposited successfully on Cu foils by DC magnetron sputtering technique. Electrochemical performance of the film as lithium battery anode was evaluated across Li metal at 0.2 C rate in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The discharge curves showed unusually low irreversible capacity in the first cycle with a reversible capacity of {proportional_to}810 mAh g{sup -1}, which is at least 2 times higher than that of graphitic carbon. For the first time we report here an amorphous carbon showing such a high reversibility in the first cycle, which is very much limited to the graphitic carbon. The deposited films were extensively characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and step profilometer for the structural and surface properties. The hydrogen content of the synthesized films was studied using residual gas analysis (RGA). The low hydrogen content and the low specific surface area of the synthesized amorphous carbon film are considered responsible for such a high first cycle columbic efficiency. The growth mechanism and the reasons for enhanced electrochemical performance of the carbon films are discussed. (author)

  17. Low hydrogen containing amorphous carbon films-Growth and electrochemical properties as lithium battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, V.; Karabacak, Tansel; Masarapu, Charan; Teki, Ranganath; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wei, Bingqing

    Amorphous carbon films were deposited successfully on Cu foils by DC magnetron sputtering technique. Electrochemical performance of the film as lithium battery anode was evaluated across Li metal at 0.2 C rate in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The discharge curves showed unusually low irreversible capacity in the first cycle with a reversible capacity of ∼810 mAh g -1, which is at least 2 times higher than that of graphitic carbon. For the first time we report here an amorphous carbon showing such a high reversibility in the first cycle, which is very much limited to the graphitic carbon. The deposited films were extensively characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and step profilometer for the structural and surface properties. The hydrogen content of the synthesized films was studied using residual gas analysis (RGA). The low hydrogen content and the low specific surface area of the synthesized amorphous carbon film are considered responsible for such a high first cycle columbic efficiency. The growth mechanism and the reasons for enhanced electrochemical performance of the carbon films are discussed.

  18. Quantifying microstructural dynamics and electrochemical activity of graphite and silicon-graphite lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Patrick; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Eller, Jens; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Schmidt, Volker; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Despite numerous studies presenting advances in tomographic imaging and analysis of lithium ion batteries, graphite-based anodes have received little attention. Weak X-ray attenuation of graphite and, as a result, poor contrast between graphite and the other carbon-based components in an electrode pore space renders data analysis challenging. Here we demonstrate operando tomography of weakly attenuating electrodes during electrochemical (de)lithiation. We use propagation-based phase contrast tomography to facilitate the differentiation between weakly attenuating materials and apply digital volume correlation to capture the dynamics of the electrodes during operation. After validating that we can quantify the local electrochemical activity and microstructural changes throughout graphite electrodes, we apply our technique to graphite-silicon composite electrodes. We show that microstructural changes that occur during (de)lithiation of a pure graphite electrode are of the same order of magnitude as spatial inhomogeneities within it, while strain in composite electrodes is locally pronounced and introduces significant microstructural changes.

  19. Iron-antimony-based hybrid oxides as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Loi; Kim, Doo Soo; Hur, Jaehyun; Park, Min Sang; Yoon, Sukeun; Kim, Il Tae

    2018-06-01

    We report a facile approach to synthesize Fe-Sb-based hybrid oxides nanocomposites consisting of Sb, Sb2O3, and Fe3O4 for use as new anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The composites are synthesized via galvanic replacement between Fe3+ and Sb at high temperature in triethylene glycol medium. The phase, morphology, and composition changes of the composites involved in the various stages of the replacement reaction are characterized using X-ray diffractometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The as-prepared composites have different compositions with very small particle sizes (interfacial contact area between the nanocomposite and electrolyte, stable structure of the composites owing to a mixture of inactive phases generated by the conversion reaction between Li+ and oxide metal-whose structure serves as an electron conductor, inhibits agglomeration of Sb particles, and acts as an effective buffer against volume change of Sb during cycling-and high Li+ diffusion ability.

  20. Electrochemical performance of arc-produced carbon nanotubes as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shubin; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Okotrub, A.V.; Bulusheva, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of etching process on the morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of arc-produced multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as anode material for lithium-ion batteries were systematically investigated by TEM and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. It was found that the etched CNTs exhibited four times higher reversible capacity than that of raw CNTs, and possessed excellent cyclability with almost 100% capacity retention after 30 cycles. The kinetic properties of three kinds of CNTs electrodes involving the pristine (CNTs-1), etched (CNTs-2) as well as etch-carbonized samples (CNTs-3) were characterized via ac impedance measurement. It was indicated that, after 30 cycles the exchange current density i 0 of etched CNTs ((7.6-7.8) x 10 -3 A cm -2 ) was higher than that of the raw CNTs (5.9 x 10 -3 A cm -2 ), suggesting the electrochemical activity of CNTs was enhanced by the etching treatment. The storage characteristics of the CNTs electrodes at room temperature and 50 o C were particularly compared. It was found that the film resistance on CNTs electrode generally tended to become large with the elongation of storage time, especially storage at high temperature. In comparison with CNTs-1 and CNTs-3, CNTs-2 exhibited more distinctly increase of film resistance, which is related with the surface properties

  1. High-Temperature Stable Anatase Titanium Oxide Nanofibers for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Eom, Wonsik; Park, Hun; Han, Tae Hee

    2017-08-02

    Control of the crystal structure of electrochemically active materials is an important approach to fabricating high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we report a methodology for controlling the crystal structure of TiO 2 nanofibers by adding aluminum isopropoxide to a common sol-gel precursor solution utilized to create TiO 2 nanofibers. The introduction of aluminum cations impedes the phase transformation of electrospun TiO 2 nanofibers from the anatase to the rutile phase, which inevitably occurs in the typical annealing process utilized for the formation of TiO 2 crystals. As a result, high-temperature stable anatase TiO 2 nanofibers were created in which the crystal structure was well-maintained even at high annealing temperatures of up to 700 °C. Finally, the resulting anatase TiO 2 nanofibers were utilized to prepare LIB anodes, and their electrochemical performance was compared to pristine TiO 2 nanofibers that contain both anatase and rutile phases. Compared to the electrode prepared with pristine TiO 2 nanofibers, the electrode prepared with anatase TiO 2 nanofibers exhibited excellent electrochemical performances such as an initial Coulombic efficiency of 83.9%, a capacity retention of 89.5% after 100 cycles, and a rate capability of 48.5% at a current density of 10 C (1 C = 200 mA g -1 ).

  2. Cu2+1O coated polycrystalline Si nanoparticles as anode for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Zhang, Chunqian; Wu, Shouming; Liu, Zhi; Zheng, Jun; Zuo, Yuhua; Xue, Chunlai; Li, Chuanbo; Cheng, Buwen

    2016-12-01

    Cu2+1O coated Si nanoparticles were prepared by simple hydrolysis and were investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery. The coating of Cu2+1O on the surface of Si particles remarkably improves the cycle performance of the battery than that made by the pristine Si. The battery exhibits an initial reversible capacity of 3063 mAh/g and an initial coulombic efficiency (CE) of 82.9 %. With a current density of 300 mA/g, its reversible capacity can remains 1060 mAh/g after 350 cycles, corresponding to a CE ≥ 99.8 %. It is believed that the Cu2+1O coating enhances the electrical conductivity, and the elasticity of Cu2+1O further helps buffer the volume changes during lithiation/delithiation processes. Experiment results indicate that the electrode maintained a highly integrated structure after 100 cycles and it is in favour of the formation of stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the Si surface to keep the extremely high CE during long charge and discharge cycles.

  3. Simultaneous Purification and Perforation of Low-Grade Si Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Zhang, Su; Zhu, Bin; Tan, Yingling; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zong, Linqi; Zhu, Jia

    2015-11-11

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for lithium-ion battery anodes because of its abundance and high theoretical capacity. Various silicon nanostructures have been heavily investigated to improve electrochemical performance by addressing issues related to structure fracture and unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). However, to further enable widespread applications, scalable and cost-effective processes need to be developed to produce these nanostructures at large quantity with finely controlled structures and morphologies. In this study, we develop a scalable and low cost process to produce porous silicon directly from low grade silicon through ball-milling and modified metal-assisted chemical etching. The morphology of porous silicon can be drastically changed from porous-network to nanowire-array by adjusting the component in reaction solutions. Meanwhile, this perforation process can also effectively remove the impurities and, therefore, increase Si purity (up to 99.4%) significantly from low-grade and low-cost ferrosilicon (purity of 83.4%) sources. The electrochemical examinations indicate that these porous silicon structures with carbon treatment can deliver a stable capacity of 1287 mAh g(-1) over 100 cycles at a current density of 2 A g(-1). This type of purified porous silicon with finely controlled morphology, produced by a scalable and cost-effective fabrication process, can also serve as promising candidates for many other energy applications, such as thermoelectrics and solar energy conversion devices.

  4. Novel synthesis of tin oxide/graphene aerogel nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zheyu; Li, Xifei; Tai, Limin; Song, Haoze; Zhang, Yiyan; Yan, Bo; Fan, Linlin; Shan, Hui; Li, Dejun

    2015-01-01

    A novel method of mechanical exfoliation followed by hydrothermal approach was proposed to synthesize the tin oxide/graphene aerogels (SnO 2 /GAs) nanocomposites. Homogeneous distribution of SnO 2 nanocrystals on GAs was confirmed by SEM, XRD and TEM characterization. It was found that optimized exfoliation of the SnS 2 is the key factor to obtain high electrochemical lithiation/delithiation performance of the anodes. The as-prepared SnO 2 /GA nanocomposites exhibited high reversible capacity (up to 1086.7 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles) and excellent cycling stability. The improved rate capability was also obtained, for instance, the reversible capacity at a current density of 800 mA g −1 is over 447.9 mAh g −1 , and then recovered to as high as 784.4 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . - Highlights: • A novel approach was employed to synthesize the SnO 2 /GA nanocomposites. • The designed SnO 2 /GAs exhibited high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. • The volume change challenge of SnO 2 was markedly alleviated by the GA matrix. • The novel synthesis method can be extended for other materials in lithium ion batteries

  5. Comparison of Lithium-Ion Anode Materials Using an Experimentally Verified Physics-Based Electrochemical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujian Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are in search of parameters inside Li-ion batteries that can be utilized to control their external behavior. Physics-based electrochemical model could bridge the gap between Li+ transportation and distribution inside battery and battery performance outside. In this paper, two commercially available Li-ion anode materials: graphite and Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 or LTO were selected and a physics-based electrochemical model was developed based on half-cell assembly and testing. It is found that LTO has a smaller diffusion coefficient (Ds than graphite, which causes a larger overpotential, leading to a smaller capacity utilization and, correspondingly, a shorter duration of constant current charge or discharge. However, in large current applications, LTO performs better than graphite because its effective particle radius decreases with increasing current, leading to enhanced diffusion. In addition, LTO has a higher activation overpotential in its side reactions; its degradation rate is expected to be much smaller than graphite, indicating a longer life span.

  6. Porous Carbon Spheres Doped with Fe_3C as an Anode for High-Rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shouhui; Wu, Jiafeng; Zhou, Rihui; Zuo, Li; Li, Ping; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C was prepared via hydrothermal reaction. • The resulted material was fabricated as an anode for high-rate lithium-ion batteries. • A stepwise increase profile was shown in the discharge/charge process. • Pseudocapacity was one of the properties owned by the as-prepared anode. - Abstract: The search of advanced anodes has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands on high rate performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). It was observed that the capacity of Fe_3C as an anode is larger than its theoretical one, which might be attributed to the pseudocapacity on the interface between the carbide and electrolyte. In this work, a novel carbon sphere doped with Fe_3C nanoparticles was fabricated and tested as the anode in LIBs. In the first place, iron precursors were embedded in the cross-link polymer resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) spheres via a facile hydrothermal reaction, in which RF served as the carbon source and ethanol as a dispersant agent. Consequently, the hydrothermal products were carbonized successively at 700 °C under inert atmosphere to obtain porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C. When the composite severed as an anode in LIBs, its discharge capacity increased to the largest during the first 250-400 cycles, then dropped down to a similar level of that after 1000 cycles at different current rates. The discharge capacity of the composite increased from ∼300 mAh g"−"1 to ∼540 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 100 mA g"−"1 during the initial hundreds cycles, and even a discharge capacity of ∼230 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 2000 mA g"−"1. Moreover, it was observed that a discharge plateau gradually appeared between 0.7∼1.1 V during the first hundreds of cycles. The electrochemical behaviors of the anode before 1000 discharge/charge cycles were compared with that after 1000 discharge/charge cycles by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to find

  7. An excellent performance anode of ZnFe2O4/flake graphite composite for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lingmin; Hou, Xianhua; Hu, Shejun; Tang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Xiang; Ru, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite composite was synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite anode demonstrated high initial coulombic efficiency of 87.7%. • The initial discharge /charge capacity was 848 mA h g −1 and 744 mA h g −1 . • The high capacity retention of 98% was obtained for the ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite anode. -- Abstract: An approach of hydrothermal reaction for lithium ion battery was adopted, by which ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite composites with excellent performance could be prepared as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. With nano-sized ZnFe 2 O 4 particles coating on the electrochemical active matrix of flake graphite, the special composites allowed improved electronic conductivity and constructed an expressway for the transport of charges and lithium ions. Thus the ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite anode became a compromise between capacity and cycle ability. The initial discharge–charge capacity was 848 mA h g −1 and 744 mA h g −1 at a constant current density of 100 mA g −1 , respectively. As high as 87.7% of the initial coulombic efficiency was obtained. Additionally, the charge capacity maintained constantly in the range of 720–735 mA h g −1 in following cycles. And a high reversible charge capacity of 730 mA h g −1 could be attained after 100 cycles, with the reversible capacity retention of 98%

  8. Functional interface of polymer modified graphite anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaba, S.; Ozeki, T.; Okushi, K. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2009-04-01

    Graphite electrodes were modified by polyacrylic acid (PAA), polymethacrylic acid (PMA), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Their electrochemical properties were examined in 1 mol dm{sup -3} LiClO{sub 4} ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate (EC:DMC) and propylene carbonate (PC) solutions as an anode of lithium ion batteries. Generally, lithium ions hardly intercalate into graphite in the PC electrolyte due to a decomposition of the PC electrolyte at ca. 0.8 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}, and it results in the exfoliation of the graphene layers. However, the modified graphite electrodes with PAA, PMA, and PVA demonstrated the stable charge-discharge performance due to the reversible lithium intercalation not only in the EC:DMC but also in the PC electrolytes since the electrolyte decomposition and co-intercalation of solvent were successfully suppressed by the polymer modification. It is thought that these improvements were attributed to the interfacial function of the polymer layer on the graphite which interacted with the solvated lithium ions at the electrode interface. (author)

  9. Functional interface of polymer modified graphite anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaba, S.; Ozeki, T.; Okushi, K.

    Graphite electrodes were modified by polyacrylic acid (PAA), polymethacrylic acid (PMA), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Their electrochemical properties were examined in 1 mol dm -3 LiClO 4 ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate (EC:DMC) and propylene carbonate (PC) solutions as an anode of lithium ion batteries. Generally, lithium ions hardly intercalate into graphite in the PC electrolyte due to a decomposition of the PC electrolyte at ca. 0.8 V vs. Li/Li +, and it results in the exfoliation of the graphene layers. However, the modified graphite electrodes with PAA, PMA, and PVA demonstrated the stable charge-discharge performance due to the reversible lithium intercalation not only in the EC:DMC but also in the PC electrolytes since the electrolyte decomposition and co-intercalation of solvent were successfully suppressed by the polymer modification. It is thought that these improvements were attributed to the interfacial function of the polymer layer on the graphite which interacted with the solvated lithium ions at the electrode interface.

  10. Battery of circular cell shape with central lithium anode and non-aqueous electrolytes. Galvanisches Element in Rundzellenform mit zentrisch angeordneter Lithium-Anode und nichtwaessrigem Elektrolyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzschmar, R

    1987-06-11

    The separation of such a cell situated between the negative and positive electrode is formed by a loose plastic vliess cut into a strip, which during assembly of the cells, is laid with central orientation on the open cell cup already provided with a circular cathode and filled with electrolyte and is pressed directly through the bar-shaped lithium electrode into the hollow space of the annular cathode, where it surrounds the lithium electrode as a compressed, closed sheath. Excess electrolyte flows into the sheath from the uncompressed top part of the separator vliess over the electrodes, to the extent that the lithium electrode is electrochemically dissolved and the expanding vliess maintaining contact with the lithium takes up liquid so that there is no interruption of ion conduction between the electrodes.

  11. Three-Dimensional SnS Decorated Carbon Nano-Networks as Anode Materials for Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D SnS decorated carbon nano-networks (SnS@C were synthesized via a facile two-step method of freeze-drying combined with post-heat treatment. The lithium and sodium storage performances of above composites acting as anode materials were investigated. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 780 mAh·g−1 for SnS@C composites can be obtained at 100 mA·g−1 after 100 cycles. Even cycled at a high current density of 2 A·g−1, the reversible capacity of this composite can be maintained at 610 mAh·g−1 after 1000 cycles. The initial charge capacity for sodium ion batteries can reach 333 mAh·g−1, and it retains a reversible capacity of 186 mAh·g−1 at 100 mA·g−1 after 100 cycles. The good lithium or sodium storage performances are likely attributed to the synergistic effects of the conductive carbon nano-networks and small SnS nanoparticles.

  12. N/S Co-doped Carbon Derived From Cotton as High Performance Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous carbon with large surface areas is prepared using cotton as carbon sources which derived from discard cotton balls. Subsequently, the sulfur-nitrogen co-doped carbon was obtained by heat treatment the carbon in presence of thiourea and evaluated as Lithium-ion batteries anode. Benefiting from the S, N co-doping, the obtained S, N co-doped carbon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. As a result, the as-prepared S, N co-doped carbon can deliver a high reversible capacity of 1,101.1 mA h g−1 after 150 cycles at 0.2 A g−1, and a high capacity of 531.2 mA h g−1 can be observed even after 5,000 cycles at 10.0 A g−1. Moreover, excellently rate capability also can be observed, a high capacity of 689 mA h g−1 can be obtained at 5.0 A g−1. This superior lithium storage performance of S, N co-doped carbon make it as a promising low-cost and sustainable anode for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  13. Three-dimensional graphene foam supported Fe₃O₄ lithium battery anodes with long cycle life and high rate capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingshan; Liu, Jilei; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Ng, Chi Fan; Ma, Lingjie; Zhang, Hua; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Zexiang; Fan, Hong Jin

    2013-01-01

    Fe3O4 has long been regarded as a promising anode material for lithium ion battery due to its high theoretical capacity, earth abundance, low cost, and nontoxic properties. However, up to now no effective and scalable method has been realized to overcome the bottleneck of poor cyclability and low rate capability. In this article, we report a bottom-up strategy assisted by atomic layer deposition to graft bicontinuous mesoporous nanostructure Fe3O4 onto three-dimensional graphene foams and directly use the composite as the lithium ion battery anode. This electrode exhibits high reversible capacity and fast charging and discharging capability. A high capacity of 785 mAh/g is achieved at 1C rate and is maintained without decay up to 500 cycles. Moreover, the rate of up to 60C is also demonstrated, rendering a fast discharge potential. To our knowledge, this is the best reported rate performance for Fe3O4 in lithium ion battery to date.

  14. Synthesis of one-dimensional copper sulfide nanorods as high-performance anode in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; He, Xinyi; Shi, Chunmei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yiyong; Wu, Shunqing; Zhu, Zizong; Zhao, Jinbao

    2014-12-01

    Nanorod-like CuS and Cu2 S have been fabricated by a hydrothermal approach without using any surfactant and template. The electrochemical behavior of CuS and Cu2 S nanorod anodes for lithium-ion batteries reveal that they exhibit stable lithium-ion insertion/extraction reversibility and outstanding rate capability. Both of the electrodes exhibit excellent capacity retentions irrespective of the rate used, even at a high current density of 3200 mA g(-1) . More than 370 mAh g(-1) can be retained for the CuS electrode and 260 mAh g(-1) for the Cu2 S electrode at the high current rate. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) , the obtained CuS and Cu2 S electrodes show discharge capacities of 472 and 313 mAh g(-1) with retentions of 92% and 96%, respectively. Together with the simplicity of fabrication and good electrochemical properties, CuS and Cu2 S nanorods are promising anode materials for practical use the next-generation lithium-ion batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12 Nanoparticles for High Rate Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weijian; Shao, Dan; Luo, Guoen; Gao, Qiongzhi; Yan, Guangjie; He, Jiarong; Chen, Dongyang; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Yueping

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. • The mesoporous Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles exhibited a diameter of 40 ± 5 nm and a pore-size distribution of 6 - 8 nm. • Cells with the mesoporous Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode showed excellent high rate electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Mesoporous spinel lithium titanate (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 ) nanoparticles with the diameter of 40 ± 5 nm and the pore-size distribution of 6 - 8 nm were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 mesoporous nanoparticles exhibited desirable lithium storage properties with an initial discharge capacity of 176 mAh g −1 at 1 C rate and a capacity of approximately 145 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. These excellent electrochemical properties at high charge/discharge rates are due to the mesoporous nano-scale structures with small size particles, uniform mesopores and larger electrode/electrolyte contact area, which shortens the diffusion path for both electrons and Li + ions, and offers more active sites for Li + insertion-extraction process

  16. Preparation of Advanced CuO Nanowires/Functionalized Graphene Composite Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper oxide (CuO nanowires/functionalized graphene (f-graphene composite material was successfully composed by a one-pot synthesis method. The f-graphene synthesized through the Birch reduction chemistry method was modified with functional group “–(CH25COOH”, and the CuO nanowires (NWs were well dispersed in the f-graphene sheets. When used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, the composite exhibited good cyclic stability and decent specific capacity of 677 mA·h·g−1 after 50 cycles. CuO NWs can enhance the lithium-ion storage of the composites while the f-graphene effectively resists the volume expansion of the CuO NWs during the galvanostatic charge/discharge cyclic process, and provide a conductive paths for charge transportation. The good electrochemical performance of the synthesized CuO/f-graphene composite suggests great potential of the composite materials for lithium-ion batteries anodes.

  17. Ternary CNTs@TiO₂/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madian, Mahmoud; Ummethala, Raghunandan; Naga, Ahmed Osama Abo El; Ismail, Nahla; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Eychmüller, Alexander; Giebeler, Lars

    2017-06-20

    TiO₂ nanotubes (NTs) synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li⁺ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs)@TiO₂/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO₂/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO₂ and TiO₂/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li⁺ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO₂/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability.

  18. Ternary CNTs@TiO2/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madian, Mahmoud; Ummethala, Raghunandan; Abo El Naga, Ahmed Osama; Ismail, Nahla; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Eychmüller, Alexander; Giebeler, Lars

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li+ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs)@TiO2/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO2/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO2 and TiO2/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li+ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO2/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability. PMID:28773032

  19. Nanoporous titanium niobium oxide and titanium tantalum oxide compositions and their use in anodes of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Qiao, Zhenan

    2017-10-31

    Nanoporous metal oxide framework compositions useful as anodic materials in a lithium ion battery, the composition comprising metal oxide nanocrystals interconnected in a nanoporous framework and having interconnected channels, wherein the metal in said metal oxide comprises titanium and at least one metal selected from niobium and tantalum, e.g., TiNb.sub.2-x Ta.sub.xO.sub.y (wherein x is a value from 0 to 2, and y is a value from 7 to 10) and Ti.sub.2Nb.sub.10-vTa.sub.vO.sub.w (wherein v is a value from 0 to 2, and w is a value from 27 to 29). A novel sol gel method is also described in which sol gel reactive precursors are combined with a templating agent under sol gel reaction conditions to produce a hybrid precursor, and the precursor calcined to form the anodic composition. The invention is also directed to lithium ion batteries in which the nanoporous framework material is incorporated in an anode of the battery.

  20. Ternary CNTs@TiO2/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Madian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotubes (NTs synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li+ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs@TiO2/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO2/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO2 and TiO2/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li+ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO2/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability.

  1. SiOx/C composite from rice husks as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yanming; Tang, Joel A.; Zhu, Kai; Meng, Yuan; Wang, Chunzhong; Chen, Gang; Wei, Yingjin; Gao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rice husks were utilized to prepare SiO x /C as an anode material for lithium ion battery. • SiO x /C composite was prepared by a two-step fire process. • SiO x /C contains low valence silicon owing to thermal treatment at argon/hydrogen atmosphere. • SiO x /C exhibits a high specific capacity of nearly 600 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 current density after 100 cycles. - Abstract: SiO x /C composite material derived directly from agricultural rice husk byproducts through an economically viable and environmentally benign approach has been explored to be used as an anode for rechargeable lithium batteries. Rice husks were converted into a SiO x /C composite directly by heat treatment under argon/hydrogen atmosphere, at a temperature of 900 °C. The composite contains SiO x surrounded by an amorphous carbon matrix. A steady state reversible capacity of nearly 600 mAh g −1 was delivered at 100 mA g −1 current density after 100 cycles. The improved performance of the SiO x /C composite anode over other agricultural byproduct derived carbon materials is believed to be due to the presence of low valence silicon. The filth-to-wealth conversion of rice husks to battery material is a highly energy efficient process with great economic and environmental benefits.

  2. Cu-SnO2 nanostructures obtained via galvanic replacement control as high performance anodes for lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Loi; Park, Duckshin; Hur, Jaehyun; Son, Hyung Bin; Park, Min Sang; Lee, Seung Geol; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Il Tae

    2018-01-01

    SnO2 has been considered as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical capacity (782 mAh g-1). However, the reaction between lithium ions and Sn causes a large volume change, resulting in the pulverization of the anode, a loss of contact with the current collector, and a deterioration in electrochemical performance. Several strategies have been proposed to mitigate the drastic volume changes to extend the cyclic life of SnO2 materials. Herein, novel composites consisting of Cu and SnO2 were developed via the galvanic replacement reaction. The reaction was carried out at 180 °C for different durations and triethylene glycol was used as the medium solvent. The structure, morphology, and composition of the composites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The reaction time affected the particle size, which in turn affected the reaction kinetics. Furthermore, the novel nanostructures contained an inactive metal phase (Cu), which acted both as the buffer space against the volume change of Sn during the alloying reaction and as the electron conductor, resulting in a lower impedance of the composites. When evaluated as potential anodes for LIBs, the composite electrodes displayed extraordinary electrochemical performance with a high capacity and Coulombic efficiency, an excellent cycling stability, and a superior rate capability compared to a Sn electrode.

  3. Cryogenic plasma-processed silicon microspikes as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion-batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joe; Luais, Erwann; Wolfman, Jérôme; Tillocher, Thomas; Dussart, Rémi; Tran-Van, Francois; Ghamouss, Fouad

    2017-10-01

    Micro- or nano-structuring is essential in order to use Si as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. In the present study, we attempted to use Si wafers with a spiky microstructure (SMS), the so-called black-Si, prepared by a cryogenic reactive ion etching process with an SF6/O2 gas mixture, for Li half-cells. The SMS with various sizes of spikes from 2.0 μm (height) × 0.2 μm (width) to 21 μm × 1.0 μm was etched by varying the SF6/O2 gas flow ratio. An anode of SMS of 11 μm-height in average showed stable charge/discharge capacity and Coulombic efficiency higher than 99% for more than 300 cycles, causing no destruction to any part of the Si wafer. The spiky structure turned columnar after cycles, suggesting graded lithiation levels along the length. The present results suggest a strategy to utilize a wafer-based Si material for an anode of a lithium ion battery durable against repetitive lithiation/delithiation cycles.

  4. INTERPRETATION OF POTENTIAL INTERMITTENCE TITRATION TECHNIQUE EXPERIMENTS FOR VARIOUS Li-INTERCALATION ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D.Levi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare two different approaches for the calculation of the enhancement factor Wi, based on its definition as the ratio of the chemical and the component diffusion coefficients for species in mixed-conduction electrodes, originated from the "dilute solution" or "lattice gas" models for the ion system. The former approach is only applicable for small changes of the ion concentration while the latter allows one to consider a broad range of intercalation levels. The component diffusion coefficient of lithium ions has been determined for a series of lithium intercalation anodes and cathodes. A new "enhancement factor" for the ion transport has been defined and its relations to the intercalation capacitance and the intercalation isotherm have been established. A correlation between the dependences of the differential capacitance and the partial ion conductivity on the potential has been observed. It is considered as a prove that the intercalation process is controlled by the availability of sites for Li-ion insertion rather than by the concurrent insertion of the counter-balancing electronic species.

  5. Electrochemical performance of LiMSnO4 (M=Fe, In) phases with ramsdellite structure as anodes for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Kishore, M.V.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2004-01-01

    LiMSnO 4 (M=Fe, In) compounds were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method and the electrochemical studies were carried out vs. lithium metal. Lithium is reversibly intercalated and deintercalated in LiFeSnO 4 with a constant capacity of ∼90mAh/g. In situ X-ray diffraction data show that ramsdellite structure is stable for lithium intercalation and deintercalation in LiFeSnO 4 . Galvanostatic discharge/charge of LiFeSnO 4 in the voltage window 0.05-2.0V shows a reversible capacity of ∼100mAh/g. The observed capacity in LiFeSnO 4 is due to the two processes involving alloying/dealloying of Li 4.4 Sn and formation/decomposition of Li 2 O. In contrast, the new isotypic oxide LiInSnO 4 does not exhibit any lithium intercalation due to the absence of mixed valence for indium. Its reversible capacity is strongly dependent on the voltage window. LiInSnO 4 exhibits severe capacity fading on cycling in the voltage window 0.05-2.0V, but shows a stable capacity of ∼90mAh/g in the voltage range 0.75-2.0V

  6. Microwave Derived Facile Approach to Sn/Graphene Composite Anodes for, Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Faith R.; Epur, Rigved; Hong, Daeho; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Tin particles embedded in graphene (G) sheet have been synthesized by microwave reduction of tin halide (SnCl 2 ) and graphite oxide (GO) followed by annealing in argon. The microwave reaction resulted in the formation of tin oxide embedded in graphene sheets. Annealing in argon at elevated temperatures initiated carbothermal reduction culminating in the formation of tin decorated graphene sheet composites that were employed as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. X-ray diffraction analysis of the final composite showed the presence of crystalline tin combined with a very small diffraction peak corresponding to (002) plane of graphite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed decorated graphene layers with tin droplets. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of graphene and graphene oxide in the composite. Electrochemical cycling response indicated that the tin/graphene composite exhibited initial discharge capacities varying from 790 mAh/g to 850 mAh/g depending on the composition, while a stable reversible capacity of ∼500 mAh/g was achieved for optimized compositions when cycled at a current density of ∼100 mA/g in the voltage window of 0.02 to 1.2 V vs. Li + /Li. Carbon coating of the Sn/G composite ultimately achieved by decomposition of dextrose using microwave heating significantly improved the electrochemical cycling stability. - Highlights: • Tin embedded graphene sheets have been synthesized by microwave reduction. • Tin oxide and graphene formed was carbothermally reduced to Sn/graphene. • XPS confirmed presence of graphene and graphene oxide in the composite. • Electrochemical response indicated capacities in 790 mAh/g to 850 mAh/g range. • Carbon coated composite yielded stable reversible capacity ∼500 mAh/g. - Abstract: Tin particles embedded in graphene (G) sheets have been synthesized by microwave reduction of tin halide (SnCl 2 .2H 2 O) and graphite oxide (GO) followed by annealing in argon

  7. Compositionally graded SiCu thin film anode by magnetron sputtering for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, B.D., E-mail: bpolat@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Eryilmaz, O.L. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Keleş, O., E-mail: ozgulkeles@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Erdemir, A. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Amine, K. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Compositionally graded and non-graded composite SiCu thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Cu disks for investigation of their potentials in lithium ion battery applications. The compositionally graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu delivered a 1400 mAh g{sup −1} capacity with 80% Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle and still retained its capacity at around 600 mAh g{sup −1} (with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency) even after 100 cycles. On the other hand, the non-graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu exhibited 1100 mAh g{sup −1} as the first discharge capacity with 78% Coulombic efficiency but the cycle life of this film degraded very quickly, delivering only 250 mAh g{sup −1} capacity after 100th cycles. Not only the Cu content but also the graded film thickness were believed to be the main contributors to the much superior performance of the compositionally graded SiCu films. We also believe that the Cu-rich region of the graded film helped reduce internal stress build-up and thus prevented film delamination during cycling. In particular, the decrease of Cu content from interface region to the top of the coating reduced the possibility of stress build-up across the film during cycling, thus leading to a high electrochemical performance.b - Highlights: • Highly adherent SiCu films are deposited by magnetron sputtering. • Compositionally graded SiCu film is produced and characterized. • Decrease of Cu content diverted the propagation of stress in the anode. • Cu rich layer at the bottom improves the adherence of the film.

  8. In situ synthesis of α-MoO3/graphene composites as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiao-Shan; Dong, Wen-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The α-MoO 3 /graphene composites (MoO 3 /G) were prepared via an in situ hydrothermal synthesis. The composites were characterized using various characterization techniques including powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the electrochemical performance test. The results show that these MoO 3 /G composites exhibit high capacity and good cycle stability when used as the lithium-ion battery anode. Among all the samples, the MoO 3 /G-27 reveals the best electrochemical performance with an initial charge capacity of 977.7 mAh g −1 at a current density of 50 mA g −1 , the first coulombic efficiency of 69.5%. After eighty cycles the electrode still maintains a capacity of 869.2 mAh g −1 , giving high capacity retention of 88.9%. The good electrochemical performance of the composite anode is close related to its structure, in which the MoO 3 nanobelts are not only homogeneously anchored on the surface but also embedded in the interlayer of the graphene sheets; hence the volume change and aggregation of the MoO 3 nanobelts during lithium ion insertion/extraction process can be effectively hindered. On the other hand, graphene itself is an electronic conductor; the graphene and MoO 3 nanobelts connect closely, which offers large electrode/electrolyte contacting area, short path length for Li + transporting during lithium insertion and extraction. - Highlights: • The α-MoO 3 /graphene composites were prepared via an in situ hydrothermal synthesis. • The MoO 3 /G-27 anode delivers an initial reversible capacity of 977.7 mAh g −1 . • After 80 cycles it has a reversible capacity of 869.2 mAh g −1 at 50 mA g −1

  9. Le concept d'électrodes liquides de carbone appliqué au domaine des batteries en flux : étude et application aux matériaux d'intercalation du lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Parant , Hélène

    2017-01-01

    This project deals with flow batteries, which are very promising technologies for large scale energy storage, especially for intermittent energies. This work aims at developing new types of electrolytes with carbon particles to enhance power of batteries. This concept is called "liquid electrode" and is implemented in flow batteries with redox lithium intercalation particles in aqueous media. The first objective is to formulate the carbon electrolyte, with a good electronic conductivity (1-4 ...

  10. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dan; Shi Dongqi [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong (Australia); Liu Zongwen [University of Sydney, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (Australia); Liu Huakun; Guo Zaiping, E-mail: zguo@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong (Australia)

    2013-05-15

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in situ grown on nitrogen-doped, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been successfully synthesized as an anode material for the lithium ion battery. The nanosized TiO{sub 2} particles were homogeneously distributed on the reduced graphene oxide to inhibit the restacking of the neighbouring graphene sheets. The obtained TiO{sub 2}/N-rGO composite exhibits improved cycling performance and rate capability, indicating the important role of reduced graphene oxide, which not only facilitates the formation of uniformly distributed TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals, but also increases the electrical conductivity of the composite material. The introduction of nitrogen on the reduced graphene oxide has been proved to increase the conductivity of the reduced graphene oxide and leads to more defects. A disordered structure is thus formed to accommodate more lithium ions, thereby further improving the electrochemical performance.

  11. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong; Mølhave, Kristian; Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Xun; Xu, Shengming; Zhu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg−1), good cycling stability and rate capability. PMID:26846434

  12. Mesoporous carbon anchored with SnS2 nanosheets as an advanced anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianping; Wu, Ping; Lou, Feijian; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Yiming; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •SnS 2 nanosheets densely and uniformly anchored on 3D mesoporous carbon matrix. •Unique structural characteristics of both 2D nanosheet and 3D porous carbon matrix. •Markedly enhanced lithium storage capability by virtue of its structure superiority. -- Abstract: This paper reports a novel type of nanohybrid, mesoporous carbon anchored with SnS 2 nanosheets (MC-SnS 2 NSs), which integrates the structural characteristics of both two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet and 3D porous carbon matrix. When evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries, the MC-SnS 2 NSs exhibits significantly enhanced cycling stability and rate capability by virtue of its unique structural superiority

  13. Synthesis and electrochemistry properties of Sn-Sb ultrafine particles as anode of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhong; Tian, Wenhuai; Li, Xingguo

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine particles of Sn-Sb alloys with different chemical composition have been prepared by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction. Structure, morphology, size and chemical composition of the Sn-Sb ultrafine particles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, BET gas adsorption, and induction-coupled plasma spectroscopy. It was found that all the particles have spherical shapes, with average particle size in the range of 100-300 nm. The electrochemistry properties as an alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries have been characterized by constant current cycling and cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical measurements showed that the alloys with Sn-46.5 at.% Sb have best reversible capacity and capacity retention. It exhibited a high reversible lithium-ion storage capacity of 701 mAh g -1 in the initial cycle, which has remained at 81% (i.e., 566 mAh g -1 ) of its original capacity after 20 cycles

  14. Unique effect of mechanical crushing on the electrochemical intercalation of lithium in carbons of different morphologies; Effet unique du broyage mecanique sur l`intercalation electrochimique du lithium dans des carbones de morphologies differentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salver-Disma, F.; Tarascon, J.M. [Universite de Picardie, 80 - Amiens (France)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium ion batteries use an oxide as a positive electrode and a carbon material as a negative electrode. The performances of carbon electrodes have rapidly evolved during the last years thanks to the substitution of soft carbons of Conoco or MCMB-2510 type by graphites (F-399, MCMB-2528) and then by hard carbons. These high capacity carbons (700 mAh/g) have higher service life and volume capacity than graphites but their irreversible losses are greater (>20%). In this work, materials with similar electrochemical performances are prepared by mechanical crushing. Mechanical crushing allows to obtain a wide range of carbon materials with various morphologies, specific surfaces and levels of disorder. The formation of the passivation film is directly linked with the surface of materials. A reaction scheme of the reversible and irreversible capacities has been defined and has permitted to obtain compounds with reversible capacities of 720 mAh/g (2 lithium for 6 carbon). (J.S.)

  15. Unique effect of mechanical crushing on the electrochemical intercalation of lithium in carbons of different morphologies; Effet unique du broyage mecanique sur l`intercalation electrochimique du lithium dans des carbones de morphologies differentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salver-Disma, F; Tarascon, J M [Universite de Picardie, 80 - Amiens (France)

    1997-12-31

    Lithium ion batteries use an oxide as a positive electrode and a carbon material as a negative electrode. The performances of carbon electrodes have rapidly evolved during the last years thanks to the substitution of soft carbons of Conoco or MCMB-2510 type by graphites (F-399, MCMB-2528) and then by hard carbons. These high capacity carbons (700 mAh/g) have higher service life and volume capacity than graphites but their irreversible losses are greater (>20%). In this work, materials with similar electrochemical performances are prepared by mechanical crushing. Mechanical crushing allows to obtain a wide range of carbon materials with various morphologies, specific surfaces and levels of disorder. The formation of the passivation film is directly linked with the surface of materials. A reaction scheme of the reversible and irreversible capacities has been defined and has permitted to obtain compounds with reversible capacities of 720 mAh/g (2 lithium for 6 carbon). (J.S.)

  16. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2011-07-12

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn3O4 exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Embedded Si/Graphene Composite Fabricated by Magnesium-Thermal Reduction as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangliu; Ren, Yurong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-16

    Embedded Si/graphene composite was fabricated by a novel method, which was in situ generated SiO 2 particles on graphene sheets followed by magnesium-thermal reduction. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and flake graphite was used as original materials. On the one hand, the unique structure of as-obtained composite accommodated the large volume change to some extent. Simultaneously, it enhanced electronic conductivity during Li-ion insertion/extraction. The MR-Si/G composite is used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, which shows high reversible capacity and ascendant cycling stability reach to 950 mAh·g -1 at a current density of 50 mA·g -1 after 60 cycles. These may be conducive to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  18. Random oriented hexagonal nickel hydroxide nanoplates grown on graphene as binder free anode for lithium ion battery with high capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingjie; Ma, Hu; Guo, Mingxuan; Gao, Tie; Li, Haibo

    2018-05-01

    In this work, two-step method has been employed to prepare random oriented hexagonal hydroxide nanoplates on graphene (Ni(OH)2@G) as binder free anode for lithium ion battery (LIB) with high capacity. The morphology, microstructure, crystal phase and elemental bonding have been characterized. When evaluated as anode for LIB, the Ni(OH)2@G exhibited high initial discharge capacity of 1318 mAh/g at the current density of 50 mA/g. After 80 cycles, the capacity was maintained at 834 mAh/g, implying 63.3% remaining. Even the charge rate was increased to 2000 mA/g, an impressive capacity of 141 mAh/g can be obtained, indicating good rate capability. The superior LIB behavior of Ni(OH)2@G is ascribed to the excellent combination between Ni(OH)2 nanoplates and graphene via both covalent chemical bonding and van der Waals interactions.

  19. Embedded Si/Graphene Composite Fabricated by Magnesium-Thermal Reduction as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangliu; Ren, Yurong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-01

    Embedded Si/graphene composite was fabricated by a novel method, which was in situ generated SiO2 particles on graphene sheets followed by magnesium-thermal reduction. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and flake graphite was used as original materials. On the one hand, the unique structure of as-obtained composite accommodated the large volume change to some extent. Simultaneously, it enhanced electronic conductivity during Li-ion insertion/extraction. The MR-Si/G composite is used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, which shows high reversible capacity and ascendant cycling stability reach to 950 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 50 mA·g-1 after 60 cycles. These may be conducive to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  20. Tailoring nanostructured MnO2 as anodes for lithium ion batteries with high reversible capacity and initial Coulombic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Song, Jiajia; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Guo, Shouwu

    2018-03-01

    Developing high energy storage lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using manganese oxides as anodes is an attractive challenge due to their high theoretical capacity and abundant resources. However, the manganese oxides anodes still suffer from the low initial Coulombic efficiency and poor rate performance. Herein, we demonstrate that nano-sized morphological engineering is a facile and effective strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of the manganese dioxide (MnO2) for LIBs. The tailored MnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit high reversible capacity (1095 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), high initial Coulombic efficiency (94.5%) and good rate capability (464 mAh g-1 at 2000 mA g-1). The enhanced electrochemical performance of MnO2 NPs can be attributed to the presences of numerous electrochemically active sites and interspaces among the NPs.

  1. Preparation of Porous MnO@C Core-Shell Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhui Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous MnO@C core-shell nanowires were prepared via a simple and facile method. The morphologies, the phase purity, the mass contents, and the BET surface area of the composite were characterized by SEM, XRD, TGA, and N2 adsorption test, respectively. When the composite served as an anode for lithium-ion batteries, it showed superior electrochemical performances. The MnO@C composite presented a reversible capacity of 448.1 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at the current rate of 200 mA g−1.

  2. Structural and electrochemical properties of SnO nanoflowers as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M. Zubair; Wang, Fengping; Zhao, Hailei; Rafique, M. Yasir; Wang, Jie; Li, Quanshui

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Novel self-assembled highly hierarchical SnO nanoflowers with acute edge petals have been successfully synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal growth method using SnCl 2 ·2H 2 O and KOH as precursors. Field emission scanning electron microscopy results show that the flower-like SnO architectureis in the range 4–7 μm. Furthermore, Raman modes at A 1g = 212 and B 1g = 114 cm −1 further testify to the existence of nanotetragonal phase SnO. The electrochemical results suggest that synthesized SnO nanoflowers are a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  3. Carbon and graphene double protection strategy to improve the SnOx electrode performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Lei, Danni; Zhang, Guanhua; Li, Qiuhong; Lu, Bingan; Wang, Taihong

    2013-05-01

    SnOx is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but it usually exhibits poor cycling stability because of its huge volume variation during the lithium uptake and release process. In this paper, SnOx carbon nanofibers (SnOx@CNFs) are firstly obtained in the form of a nonwoven mat by electrospinning followed by calcination in a 0.02 Mpa environment at 500 °C. Then we use a simple mixing method for the synthesis of SnOx@CNF@graphene (SnOx@C@G) nanocomposite. By this technique, the SnOx@CNFs can be homogeneously deposited in graphene nanosheets (GNSs). The highly scattered SnOx@C@G composite exhibits enhanced electrochemical performance as anode material for LIBs. The double protection strategy to improve the electrode performance through producing SnOx@C@G composites is versatile. In addition, the double protection strategy can be extended to the fabrication of various types of composites between metal oxides and graphene nanomaterials, possessing promising applications in catalysis, sensing, supercapacitors and fuel cells.SnOx is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but it usually exhibits poor cycling stability because of its huge volume variation during the lithium uptake and release process. In this paper, SnOx carbon nanofibers (SnOx@CNFs) are firstly obtained in the form of a nonwoven mat by electrospinning followed by calcination in a 0.02 Mpa environment at 500 °C. Then we use a simple mixing method for the synthesis of SnOx@CNF@graphene (SnOx@C@G) nanocomposite. By this technique, the SnOx@CNFs can be homogeneously deposited in graphene nanosheets (GNSs). The highly scattered SnOx@C@G composite exhibits enhanced electrochemical performance as anode material for LIBs. The double protection strategy to improve the electrode performance through producing SnOx@C@G composites is versatile. In addition, the double protection strategy can be extended to the fabrication of various types of

  4. Core-shell Si/Cu nanocomposites synthesized by self-limiting surface reaction as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaiqi; Zhang, Zhizhen; Su, Wei; Huang, Xuejie

    Core-shell Si/Cu nanocomposites were synthesized via a flexible self-limiting surface reaction without extra reductant for the first time. The nano Si was uniformly coated with Cu nanoparticles with a diameter of 5-10nm, which can enhance the electronic conductivity of the nanocomposites and buffer the huge volume change during charge/discharge owing to its high ductility. Benefited from the unique structure, the Si/Cu nanocomposites exhibited a good electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium ion batteries, which exhibited a capacity retention of 656mAh/g after 50 cycles and a coulombic efficiency of more than 99%.

  5. Influence of surfactants on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the tin oxide anode in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yan-Hui, E-mail: sunyanhui0102@163.com [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Dong, Pei-Pei; Liu, Shan; Nan, Jun-Min [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • CTAB and SDS alter the formation of SnO{sub 2} from nanosheets to nanocubes during oxalate precipitation. • The CTAB concentration affects the SnO{sub 2} crystal growth direction, morphology and size. • The SnO{sub 2} anode synthesized using CTAB exhibited superior electrochemical performance. • Proposed a mechanism of influence of surfactant on SnO{sub 2} in the precipitation and annealing process. - Abstract: Different SnO{sub 2} micro–nano structures are prepared by precipitation using a surfactant-assisted process. The surfactants, such as cetyltriethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), can change the crystal growth direction and microstructure of SnO{sub 2} primary and secondary particles. Larger SnO{sub 2} nanosheets were synthesized without surfactant, and micro-fragments composed of small nanospheres or nanocubes were synthesized using CTAB and SDBS. The CTAB-assisted process resulted in smaller primary particles and larger specific surface area and larger pore volume, as a lithium-ion-battery anode that exhibits superior electrochemical performance compared to the other two anodes. Further investigation showed that the concentration of CTAB had a substantial influence on the growth of the crystal face, morphology and size of the SnO{sub 2} secondary particles, which influenced the electrochemical performance of the anode. A simple mechanism for the influence of surfactants on SnO{sub 2} morphology and size in the precipitation and annealing process is proposed.

  6. Tin-based anode materials with well-designed architectures for next-generation lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lehao; Xie, Fan; Lyu, Jing; Zhao, Tingkai; Li, Tiehu; Choi, Bong Gill

    2016-07-01

    Tin (Sn) has long been considered to be a promising replacement anode material for graphite in next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), because of its attractive comprehensive advantages of high gravimetric/volumetric capacities, environmental benignity, low cost, high safety, etc. However, Sn-based anodes suffer from severe capacity fading resulting mainly from their large volume expansions/contractions during lithiation/delithiation and subsequent pulverization, coalescence, delamination from current collectors, and poor Li+/electron transport. To circumvent these issues, a number of extraordinary architectures from nanostructures to anchored, layered/sandwich, core-shell, porous and even integrated structures have been exquisitely constructed to enhance the cycling performance. To cater for the rapid development of Sn-based anodes, we summarize the advances made in structural design principles, fabrication methods, morphological features and battery performance with focus on material structures. In addition, we identify the associated challenges and problems presented by recently-developed anodes and offer suggestions and perspectives for facilitating their practical implementations in next-generation LIBs.

  7. What makes lithium substituted polyacrylic acid a better binder than polyacrylic acid for silicon-graphite composite anodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kevin A.; Ruther, Rose E.; Kukay, Alexander J.; Cao, Pengfei; Saito, Tomonori; Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin

    2018-04-01

    Lithium substituted polyacrylic acid (LiPAA) has previously been demonstrated as a superior binder over polyacrylic acid (PAA) for Si anodes, but from where does this enhanced performance arise? In this study, full cells are assembled with PAA and LiPAA based Si-graphite composite anodes that dried at temperatures from 100 °C to 200 °C. The performance of full cells containing PAA based Si-graphite anodes largely depend on the secondary drying temperature, as decomposition of the binder is correlated to increased electrode moisture and a rise in cell impedance. Full cells containing LiPAA based Si-graphite composite electrodes display better Coulombic efficiency than those with PAA, because of the electrochemical reduction of the PAA binder. This is identified by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and observed gassing during the electrochemical reaction. Coulombic losses from the PAA and Si SEI, along with depletion of the Si capacity in the anode results in progressive underutilization of the cathode and full cell capacity loss.

  8. Rational design of anode materials based on Group IVA elements (Si, Ge, and Sn) for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Long; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) represent the state-of-the-art technology in rechargeable energy-storage devices and they currently occupy the prime position in the marketplace for powering an increasingly diverse range of applications. However, the fast development of these applications has led to increasing demands being placed on advanced LIBs in terms of higher energy/power densities and longer life cycles. For LIBs to meet these requirements, researchers have focused on active electrode materials, owing to their crucial roles in the electrochemical performance of batteries. For anode materials, compounds based on Group IVA (Si, Ge, and Sn) elements represent one of the directions in the development of high-capacity anodes. Although these compounds have many significant advantages when used as anode materials for LIBs, there are still some critical problems to be solved before they can meet the high requirements for practical applications. In this Focus Review, we summarize a series of rational designs for Group IVA-based anode materials, in terms of their chemical compositions and structures, that could address these problems, that is, huge volume variations during cycling, unstable surfaces/interfaces, and invalidation of transport pathways for electrons upon cycling. These designs should at least include one of the following structural benefits: 1) Contain a sufficient number of voids to accommodate the volume variations during cycling; 2) adopt a "plum-pudding"-like structure to limit the volume variations during cycling; 3) facilitate an efficient and permanent transport pathway for electrons and lithium ions; or 4) show stable surfaces/interfaces to stabilize the in situ formed SEI layers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Construction of SnO2?Graphene Composite with Half-Supported Cluster Structure as Anode toward Superior Lithium Storage Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chengling; Chen, Zhixin; Zhu, Shenmin; Li, Yao; Pan, Hui; Meng, Xin; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Zhang, Di

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by nature, herein we designed a novel construction of SnO2 anodes with an extremely high lithium storage performance. By utilizing small sheets of graphene oxide, the partitioned-pomegranate-like structure was constructed (SnO2@C@half-rGO), in which the porous clusters of SnO2 nanoparticles are partially supported by reduced graphene oxide sheets while the rest part is exposed (half-supported), like partitioned pomegranates. When served as anode for lithium-ion batteries, SnO2@C@half...

  10. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) supported cobalt- nickel sulfide (CoNi2S4) nanoparticles hybrid anode for high performance lithium ion capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadale, Ajay; Zhou, Xuan; Blaisdell, Douglas; Yang, Sen

    2018-01-25

    Lithium ion capacitors possess an ability to bridge the gap between lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. The main concern of fabricating lithium ion capacitors is poor rate capability and cyclic stability of the anode material which uses sluggish faradaic reactions to store an electric charge. Herein, we have fabricated high performance hybrid anode material based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and cobalt-nickel sulfide (CoNi 2 S 4 ) nanoparticles via simple electrospinning and electrodeposition methods. Porous and high conducting CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 electrode acts as an expressway network for electronic and ionic diffusion during charging-discharging processes. The effect of anode to cathode mass ratio on the performance has been studied by fabricating lithium ion capacitors with different mass ratios. The surface controlled contribution of CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 electrode was 73% which demonstrates its excellent rate capability. Lithium ion capacitor fabricated with CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 to AC mass ratio of 1:2.6 showed excellent energy density of 85.4 Wh kg -1 with the power density of 150 W kg -1 . Also, even at the high power density of 15 kW kg -1 , the cell provided the energy density of 35 Wh kg -1 . This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid anode with the combination of simple and cost effective approaches.

  11. Radiochemical study of processes of adsorption on the electrodes of chemical sources of current with lithium anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basov, V.P.; Karapetyan, Yu.A.; Krysenko, A.D.; Chuvashkin, A.N.; Rogachev, Yu.A.

    1985-04-01

    Labeled compounds are used to study the kinetics of formation of adsorption films on the electrodes on an Li-SOCL/sub 2/ current source containing a lithium tetrachloroaluminate electrolyte. Experiments were performed in a glass cell in which lithium and graphite electrodes with an area of 1 square centimeter were suspended. The kinetics of film formation in pure SOCl/sub 2/ and in LiAlCl/sub 4/ solutions were studied in the concentration range of 0.25 to 1.0 M complex salt. The quantity of chloride and sulfur precipitated on the electrodes during both charging and discharging was determined in the temperature interval from -50 to +50/sup 0/C. The kinetics of precipitation of chlorine and sulfur on the electrodes during charging showed that the elements are adsorbed only on the lithium electrode. Chlorine is precipitated as the maximum rate during the first one or two hours, and slows down but does not stop even after one hundred hours. Adsorption of chlorine increases with increasing LiAlCl/sub 4/ concentration. Adsorption of sulfur on the lithium electrode is significantly less, but increases with an increase in salt concentration. At -50 to +25/sup 0/C there is a slight increase in the quantity of adsorbed chlorine and a decrease in adsorption of sulfur with increasing temperature. Significant changes occur only at temperatures above 25/sup 0/C. During discharging the quantity of chlorine and sulfur in the precipitate on the lithium anode remains practically unchanged. On the graphite cathode during discharging there is significant adsorption of chlorine proportional to the quantity of electricity passing through the solution. 4 references, 4 figures.

  12. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip, E-mail: necipatar@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Eren, Tanju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Yola, Mehmet Lütfi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey)

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1} and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1}. • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability.

  13. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Necip; Eren, Tanju; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g −1 and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g −1 . • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability

  14. Encapsulated Vanadium-Based Hybrids in Amorphous N-Doped Carbon Matrix as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bei; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Luo, Lei; Luo, Yang; Qiu, Weitao; Song, Shuqin; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Yexiang

    2017-11-01

    Recently, researchers have made significant advancement in employing transition metal compound hybrids as anode material for lithium-ion batteries and developing simple preparation of these hybrids. To this end, this study reports a facile and scalable method for fabricating a vanadium oxide-nitride composite encapsulated in amorphous carbon matrix by simply mixing ammonium metavanadate and melamine as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. By tuning the annealing temperature of the mixture, different hybrids of vanadium oxide-nitride compounds are synthesized. The electrode material prepared at 700 °C, i.e., VM-700, exhibits excellent cyclic stability retaining 92% of its reversible capacity after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 and attractive rate performance (220 mAh g -1 ) under the current density of up to 2 A g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties can be attributed to the synergistic effect from heterojunction form by the vanadium compound hybrids, the improved ability of the excellent conductive carbon for electron transfer, and restraining the expansion and aggregation of vanadium oxide-nitride in cycling. These interesting findings will provide a reference for the preparation of transition metal oxide and nitride composites as well. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. V2O5-C-SnO2 Hybrid Nanobelts as High Performance Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linfei; Yang, Mingyang; Zhang, Shengliang; Wu, Zefei; Amini, Abbas; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Dongyong; Bao, Shuhan; Lu, Zhouguang; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Chun

    2016-09-01

    The superior performance of metal oxide nanocomposites has introduced them as excellent candidates for emerging energy sources, and attracted significant attention in recent years. The drawback of these materials is their inherent structural pulverization which adversely impacts their performance and makes the rational design of stable nanocomposites a great challenge. In this work, functional V2O5-C-SnO2 hybrid nanobelts (VCSNs) with a stable structure are introduced where the ultradispersed SnO2 nanocrystals are tightly linked with glucose on the V2O5 surface. The nanostructured V2O5 acts as a supporting matrix as well as an active electrode component. Compared with existing carbon-V2O5 hybrid nanobelts, these hybrid nanobelts exhibit a much higher reversible capacity and architectural stability when used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The superior cyclic performance of VCSNs can be attributed to the synergistic effects of SnO2 and V2O5. However, limited data are available for V2O5-based anodes in lithium-ion battery design.

  16. Preparation of a porous Sn@C nanocomposite as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Jiang, Li; Wang, Chunru

    2015-07-01

    A porous Sn@C nanocomposite was prepared via a facile hydrothermal method combined with a simple post-calcination process, using stannous octoate as the Sn source and glucose as the C source. The as-prepared Sn@C nanocomposite exhibited excellent electrochemical behavior with a high reversible capacity, long cycle life and good rate capability when used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.A porous Sn@C nanocomposite was prepared via a facile hydrothermal method combined with a simple post-calcination process, using stannous octoate as the Sn source and glucose as the C source. The as-prepared Sn@C nanocomposite exhibited excellent electrochemical behavior with a high reversible capacity, long cycle life and good rate capability when used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedure and additional characterization, including a Raman spectrum, TGA curve, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, TEM images and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03093e

  17. Preparation of octahedral CuO micro/nanocrystals and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lili; Xuan, Zhewen; Bai, Yang; Zhao, Hongbo; Li, Li; Chen, Yashun; Yang, Xianqin; Su, Changwei; Guo, Junming; Chen, Xiaokai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Octahedral cupric oxides with hollow structure were prepared. • No hard template was used in the preparation of hollow cupric oxides. • The cupric oxides show good reversible capacity. - Abstract: Herein we report that three octahedral CuO samples with hollow or solid structure are successfully prepared by firstly preparation of Cu 2 O products using a chemical reduction method, then by calcination in a muffle furnace at 300 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. The obtained CuO samples serve as a good model system for the study as anodes for lithium ion batteries. All the three CuO samples have high discharge specific capacity and good cycling stability from the 2nd cycling to the 50th cycling. Octahedral CuO hollow crystals with 400 nm in size have the highest reversible capacity and the smallest resistance. So their electrochemical performances are partly related to their morphologies. The results suggest that the as-prepared CuO samples, especially the 400 nm hollow octahedral CuO crystals could be a promising material for the anode of lithium-ion battery

  18. Improved electrochemical performances of CuO nanotube array prepared via electrodeposition as anode for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: CuO nanotube array electrodes prepared by electrodeposition method exhibit an excellent lithium ion storage ability as anode of Li-ion battery. - Highlights: • CuO nanotube arrays are synthesized by an electrodeposition method. • CuO nanotube shows a high-rate performance. • CuO nanotube shows an excellent cycling performance. - Abstract: We report a facile strategy to prepared CuO nanotube arrays directly grown on Cu plate through the electrodeposition method. The as-prepared CuO nanotubes show a quasi-cylinder nanostructure with internal diameters of ca. ∼100 nm, external diameters of ca. ∼120 nm, and average length of ∼3 μm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the CuO nanotube arrays are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Due to the unique nanotube nanostructure, the as-prepared CuO electrodes exhibit good rate performance (550 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 464 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C) and cycling performance (581 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 538 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C)

  19. Synthesis of nitrided MoO{sub 2} and its application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sukeun, E-mail: skyoon@kier.re.kr [New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jin, Chang Soo; Shin, Kyung-Hee [New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of nitrided molybdenum oxide by nitridation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superior cyclability for nitrided molybdenum oxide anodes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical reaction behavior of nitrided molybdenum oxide with lithium. - Abstract: Nitrided MoO{sub 2} has been synthesized by hydrothermal processing followed by post-nitridation with NH{sub 3} and investigated as alternative anode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Characterization data reveal the presence of molybdenum nitride ({gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN) and molybdenum oxynitride (MoO{sub x}N{sub y}). The nitrided MoO{sub 2} exhibits a capacity of >420 mAh/g after 100 cycles and good rate capability. The improved electrochemical performance of the nitrided MoO{sub 2} compared to that of molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 2}) is attributed to high electrical conductivity provided by nitrogen doping/or substitution in the oxygen octahedral site of MoO{sub 2} structure.

  20. Ultra-light and flexible pencil-trace anode for high performance potassium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Tai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering design of battery configurations and new battery system development are alternative approaches to achieve high performance batteries. A novel flexible and ultra-light graphite anode is fabricated by simple friction drawing on filter paper with a commercial 8B pencil. Compared with the traditional anode using copper foil as current collector, this innovative current-collector-free design presents capacity improvement of over 200% by reducing the inert weight of the electrode. The as-prepared pencil-trace electrode exhibits excellent rate performance in potassium-ion batteries (KIBs, significantly better than in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, with capacity retention of 66% for the KIB vs. 28% for the LIB from 0.1 to 0.5 A g−1. It also shows a high reversible capacity of ∼230 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1, 75% capacity retention over 350 cycles at 0.4 A g−1and the highest rate performance (based on the total electrode weight among graphite electrodes for K+ storage reported so far. Keywords: Current-collector-free, Flexible pencil-trace electrode, Potassium-ion battery, Lithium-ion battery, Layer-by-layer interconnected architecture

  1. Development of Embedded Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensors for Optical Characterization of Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, AbdulRahman; Nieva, Patricia; Yu, Aiping; Khajepour, Amir

    2017-11-29

    The development, fabrication, and embedment of fiber-optic evanescent wave sensors (FOEWSs) to monitor the state of charge (SOC) and the state of health (SOH) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are presented. Etching of FOEWSs is performed using a solution of 40 wt % ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F) and 49 wt % hydrofluoric acid (HF) (6:1), which is found to be superior to an etching solution containing just 49 wt % HF. FOEWSs were characterized using glycerol and found to have the highest sensitivity in a lithium-ion battery when they lose 92% of their transmittance in the presence of glycerol on their sensing region. The physical effect that the FOEWS has on the graphite anode is also investigated and is found to be much more significant in Swagelok cells compared to that in in-house-fabricated pouch cells, mainly due to pressure variation. The FOEWS was found to be most sensitive to the changes in the LIB when it was completely embedded using a slurry of graphite anode material within a pouch cell. The optimized fabrication process of the embedded FOEWS demonstrates the potential of using such sensors commercially for real-time monitoring of the SOC and SOH of LIBs while in operation.

  2. Nanocrystalline LiMn2O4 derived by HMTA-assisted solution combustion synthesis as a lithium-intercalating cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fey, G.T.-K.; Cho, Y.-D.; Kumar, T. Prem

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline LiMn 2 O 4 was synthesized by a self-sustaining solution combustion method with hexamethylenetetramine as a fuel. Ammonium nitrate was used as an additional oxidant-and-porogen. Thermal analytical studies showed the formation of LiMn 2 O 4 by a single-step decomposition process between 300 and 380 deg. C. The products were highly crystalline with an average crystallite size of ∼30 nm. Charge-discharge studies showed that the optimal heat treatment protocol was a 10 h calcination at 700 deg. C. A product obtained under these conditions from a precursor containing a 1:1 molar ratio of [LiNO 3 + Mn(NO 3 ) 2 ] and NH 4 NO 3 sustained 202 cycles between 3.0 and 4.3 V at a charge-discharge rate of 0.1 C before reaching an 80% charge retention cut-off value. Nanocrystalline particles provide small diffusion pathways that lead to an improvement in the lithium-ion intercalation kinetics and minimize surface distortions during cycling. These factors are believed to confer excellent electrochemical properties to the product

  3. Hierarchical shell/core CuO nanowire/carbon fiber composites as binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Wei; Luo, Jian; Pan, Baoyou; Qiu, Zhiqiang; Huang, Shimin; Tang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The composite anode is composed of CuO nanowire shell and carbon fiber core. •The composite anode avoids completely the use of binders. •Synergistic effect of carbon fibers and CuO nanowires enhances performance. •Carbon fibers improve electrical conductivity and buffer volume change. •CuO nanowires shorten diffusion length and alleviate structural strain. -- Abstract: Developing high-performance electrode structures is of great importance for advanced lithium-ion batteries. This study reports an efficient method to fabricate hierarchical shell/core CuO nanowire/carbon fiber composites via electroless plating and thermal oxidation processes. With this method, a binder-free CuO nanowire/carbon fiber shell/core hierarchical network composite anode for lithium-ion batteries is successfully fabricated. The morphology and chemical composition of the anode are characterized, and the electrochemical performance of the anode is investigated by standard electrochemical tests. Owing to the superior properties of carbon fibers and the morphological advantages of CuO nanowires, this composite anode still retains an excellent reversible capacity of 598.2 mAh g −1 with a capacity retention rate above 86%, even after 50 cycles, which is much higher than the CuO anode without carbon fibers. Compared to the typical CuO/C electrode systems, the novel binder-free anode yields a performance close to that of the typical core/shell electrode systems and a much higher reversible capacity and capacity retention than the similar shell/core patterns as well as the anodes with binders. It is believed that this novel anode will pave the way to the development of binder-free anodes in response to the increasing demands for high-power energy storage.

  4. Morphology-controlled graphene nanosheets as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Wook; Song, Hoon Sub; Park, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Shin, Kyoung-Hee; Lim, Sung Nam; Yeon, Sun-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene nanosheets was manufactured using a simple modified version of a previously improved Hummers method. • The wrinkle-free graphene was easily manufactured from prepared graphene by post-process treatment. • Morphology-controlled graphene nanosheets showed excellent discharge performance. • Morphology-controlled graphene has the potential to be easily applied to graphene-wrapped composite. - Abstract: Morphology-controlled graphene nanosheets can be easily synthesized as anode material for application in high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. A modified version of an improved method for higher degree of oxidation of graphite oxide (GO) has been developed and characterized. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that GO prepared using this method has a higher degree of oxidation than that of using the improved method. The interlayer d-spacing increases from 0.87 nm (using the improved method) to 0.92 nm (using the modified-improved method). Also, it is confirmed by XPS analysis that the O/C ratio in GO increases from 2.51 (improved method) to 8.27 (modified-improved method). It is hypothesized that GO, which has a higher degree of oxidation, is more reducible to graphene. The more reduced graphene has a larger amount of free π-bonds and fewer layers, and it can be easily altered to morphology-controlled graphene. Graphene nanosheets prepared using the modified-improved method exhibits discharge capacities of 1079 mAh g −1 (at a constant current of 40 mA g −1 ) and 1002 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles. The capacity retention of the synthesized graphene nanosheets is 1070 mAh g −1 at a current of 40 mA g −1 after the rate capability test, and their rate capability is 463 mAh g −1 at a current of 400 mA g −1 . The morphology-controlled graphene nanosheets prepared by the modified-improved method shows better discharge performance compared to graphene prepared by the improved method

  5. Synthesis and modification of FeVO_4 as novel anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Cao, Yuancheng; Zheng, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Feng, Chuanqi

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The FeVO_4/graphene are synthesized by combining hydrothermal and heat treatment method. It delivered an initial discharge capacity of 1302.3 mAh g"−"1 and remained capacity as 1046.5 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles and behaved better electrochemical properties than that of pure FeVO_4. - Highlights: • The FeVO_4 and FeVO_4/graphene are synthesized by combining hydrothermal and heat treatment method. • The FeVO_4/graphene nanocomposite exhibits outstanding electrochemical performance. • FeVO_4/graphene delivered an initial discharge capacity of 1302.3 mAh g"−"1 and remained capacity as 1046.5 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles. • The FeVO_4/graphene composite behaved better electrochemical properties than that of pure FeVO_4. - Abstract: FeVO_4 and FeVO_4/graphene nanorods were synthesized successfully by combining a facile hydrothermal and heat treatment method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The content of graphene in FeVO_4/graphene was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The electrochemical properties of the samples were also investigated by battery testing system. The results showed that the FeVO_4 formed were taken on morphology of nanorods with the length between 0.5 and 1 μm and the diameter in range of 50 to 100 nm. Besides, the size of FeVO_4/graphene was smaller than that of pure FeVO_4. The content of graphene in composite was about 25.0% by weight. The reversible discharge capacities of FeVO_4 and FeVO_4/graphene were 405.2 mAh g"−"1 and 1046.5 mAh g"−"1 separately after 100 cycles at the current density of 100 mAh g"−"1 in the voltage range of 0.01–3 V. The reasons for the FeVO_4/graphene composite to behave outstanding electrochemical properties were also discussed. The FeVO_4/graphene composite can be a novel and promising anode material for lithium ion battery application.

  6. Intercalated compounds of niobium and tantalum dicalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wypych, F.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of niobium and tantalum lamellar compounds and its intercalated derivatives is described. The intercalated compounds with lithium, with alkaline metal and with metals of the first-row transition are studied, characterized by X-ray diffraction. (C.G.C.) [pt

  7. Closing to Scaling-Up High Reversible Si/rGO Nanocomposite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokur, Mahmud; Algul, Hasan; Ozcan, Seyma; Cetinkaya, Tugrul; Uysal, Mehmet; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • rGO wrapped Si composite anodes for li-ion batteries were prepared by a hybrid assembly and followed by GO reduction. • To improve mechanical bonding between rGO and Si nanoparticles, mechanical alloying method was performed. • Different Si/rGO composite mixtures were prepared to investigate electrochemical performance of composite anodes. - Abstract: In spite of its excellent discharge capacity, low conductivity and poor cycling stability prevent to commercialize silicon negative electrodes for the Lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Since graphene has large surface area, high electrical conductivity and discharge capacity, silicon/graphene nanocomposite anodes in proper architectures alleviate difficulties to improve electrochemical performances of the LIBs. This article demonstrates the nanocomposite synthesizing with 10 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 50 wt.% graphene oxide (GO) dispersion in the silicon matrix following reduction of GO (rGO) result in remarkable improvements in the discharge capacity, cycle stability and rate capability. Mechanical milling after GO reduction provides decoration of silicon nanoparticles between the rGO sheets and improves interfacial bonding between silicon and rGO which alleviates huge volume increase during cycling. Among the nanocomposite negative electrodes, 50 wt.% rGO exhibits highest reversible capacity of about 2000 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles and good coulombic efficiency approximately 99%. This study proves that dispersion of silicon with rGO and the increase content of rGO lead to improve ionic conductivity, cycling stability, reversibility and rate capability of the Lithium ion cell. Because of the easy scaling-up possibility of the method Si/rGO hybrid nanocomposites can be new electrodes for electrochemical energy storage. .

  8. Phosphorus Enhanced Intermolecular Interactions of SnO2 and Graphene as an Ultrastable Lithium Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Kangning; Yu, Ruohan; Yan, Mengyu; Xu, Wangwang; Dong, Yifan; Ren, Wenhao; Xu, Xu; Tang, Chunjuan; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-05-01

    SnO 2 suffers from fast capacity fading in lithium-ion batteries due to large volume expansion as well as unstable solid electrolyte interphase. Herein, the design and synthesis of phosphorus bridging SnO 2 and graphene through covalent bonding are demonstrated to achieve a robust structure. In this unique structure, the phosphorus is able to covalently "bridge" graphene and tin oxide nanocrystal through PC and SnOP bonding, respectively, and act as a buffer layer to keep the structure stable during charging-discharging. As a result, when applied as a lithium battery anode, SnO 2 @P@GO shows very stable performance and retains 95% of 2nd capacity onward after 700 cycles. Such unique structural design opens up new avenues for the rational design of other high-capacity materials for lithium battery, and as a proof-of-concept, creates new opportunities in the synthesis of advanced functional materials for high-performance energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Hierarchical three-dimensional porous SnS{sub 2}/carbon cloth anode for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Junfeng, E-mail: chchjjff@163.com [College of Electronic Information and Electric Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Zhang, Xiutai [College of Electronic Information and Electric Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Xing, Shumin [College of Mathematics and Physics, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Fan, Qiufeng; Yang, Junping; Zhao, Luhua; Li, Xiang [College of Electronic Information and Electric Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical 3D porous SnS{sub 2}/carbon cloth, good electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • Hierarchical 3D porous SnS{sub 2}/carbon cloth has been firstly synthesized. • The SnS{sub 2}/carbon clothes were good candidates for excellent lithium ion batteries. • The SnS{sub 2}/carbon cloth exhibits improved capacity compared to pure SnS{sub 2}. - Abstract: Hierarchical three-dimension (3D) porous SnS{sub 2}/carbon clothes were synthesized via a facile polyol refluxing process. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer (UV–vis DRS). The 3D porous SnS{sub 2}/carbon clothes-based lithium ion batteries exhibited high reversible capacity and good rate capability as anode materials. The good electrochemical performance for lithium ion storage could be attributed to the special nanostructure, leading to high-rate transportation of electrolyte ion and electrons throughout the electrode matrix.

  10. Pseudo-solid-solution CuCo2O4/C nanofibers as excellent anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hang; Tang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Kang; Wang, Lei; Shi, Huimin; Zhang, Guanhua; Duan, Huigao

    2017-01-01

    Ternary transition metal oxides have received intense research interest as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, due to their high specific capacity originating from the synergic effects of multiple metal active sites. Reducing the size of metal oxides nanoparticles and dispersing these nanoparticles in carbon matrix are considering effective strategies to improve the electrochemical performance of transition metal oxides. Ternary CuCo 2 O 4 nanoclusters ultra-uniformly dispersed in carbon nanofiber matrix forming a pseudo-solid-solution structure are successfully synthesized by a facile electrospinning method followed by an appropriate annealing process. As the anodic electrode for lithium ion batteries, the pseudo-solid-solution CuCo 2 O 4 /C electrode exhibits a high reversible specific capacity, improved rate capacity and excellent cycling stability. A discharge capacity of 865 mAh g −1 is obtained at the current density of 200 mA g −1 after 400 cycles. Surprisingly, the electrode still retains about 610 mAh g −1 after 800 cycles even at the current density of 600 mA g −1 . The superior lithium storage performance of the pseudo-solid-solution CuCo 2 O 4 /C composites is mainly attributed to the unique amorphous structure. The ultrafine CuCo 2 O 4 nanoclusters uniformly dispersed in carbon matrix can buffer the volume change and improve the conductivity of the metal oxide based electrode, guaranteeing the structure stability and fast electron transfer.

  11. Hollow carbon spheres with encapsulation of Co3O4 nanoparticles as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Liang; Wang Yanli; Qiao Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Yang Shubin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hollow carbon spheres with encapsulation of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized. As anode materials for lithium ion battery, the reversible capacity of obtained electrode is as high as 732 mAh g −1 at 74 mA g −1 and 500 mAh g −1 at 744 mA g −1 . - Abstract: Based on the high theoretical capacity of Co 3 O 4 for lithium storage, a noval type of monodisperse hollow carbon spheres with encapsulation of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles (HCSE-Co 3 O 4 ) were designed and synthesized. The monodisperse hollow carbon spheres not only can provide enough void volume to accommodate the volume change of encapsulated Co 3 O 4 nanoparicles, but also can prevent the formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films on the surface of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles and following direct contact of Co and SEI films upon lithium extraction. The HCSE-Co 3 O 4 electrode exhibit highly reversible capacity, excellent cycle performance and rate capability attributed to the unique structure. The reversible capacity of HCSE-Co 3 O 4 electrode is as high as 500 mAh g −1 at a current density of 744 mA g −1 , while that of bare Co 3 O 4 electrode is only around 80 mAh g −1 .

  12. MnO2 prepared by hydrothermal method and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Xuan, Zhewen; Zhao, Hongbo; Bai, Yang; Guo, Junming; Su, Chang-Wei; Chen, Xiaokai

    2014-01-01

    Two α-MnO2 crystals with caddice-clew-like and urchin-like morphologies are prepared by the hydrothermal method, and their structure and electrochemical performance are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), galvanostatic cell cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The morphology of the MnO2 prepared under acidic condition is urchin-like, while the one prepared under neutral condition is caddice-clew-like. The identical crystalline phase of MnO2 crystals is essential to evaluate the relationship between electrochemical performances and morphologies for lithium-ion battery application. In this study, urchin-like α-MnO2 crystals with compact structure have better electrochemical performance due to the higher specific capacity and lower impedance. We find that the relationship between electrochemical performance and morphology is different when MnO2 material used as electrochemical supercapacitor or as anode of lithium-ion battery. For lithium-ion battery application, urchin-like MnO2 material has better electrochemical performance.

  13. Construction of reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides composite electrode as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhang, Jiawei [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Chen, Qingguo, E-mail: qgchen@263.net [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Qi, Meili [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xia, Xinhui, E-mail: helloxxh@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides are prepared by two-step strategy. • A unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • The integrated electrode shows excellent Li ion storage performance. - Abstract: Metal carbides are emerging as promising anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report reduced graphene oxide (RGO) supported molybdenum carbides (Mo{sub 2}C) integrated electrode by the combination of solution and carbothermal methods. In the designed integrated electrode, Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed among graphene nanosheets, forming a unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure. As anode of LIBs, the as-prepared Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode exhibits noticeable electrochemical performances with a high reversible capacity of 850 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1}, and 456 mAh g{sup −1} at 1000 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. Moreover, the Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode shows excellent cycling life with a capacity of ∼98.6 % at 1000 mA g{sup −1} after 400 cycles. Our research may pave the way for construction of high-performance metal carbides anodes of LIBs.

  14. Fabrication of Si Nanoparticles@Carbon Fibers Composites from Natural Nanoclay as an Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Flexible Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainan Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cost-effective strategy for fabricating silicon-carbon composites was designed to further improve the electrochemical performance and commercialization prospects of Si anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. Silicon-carbon fibers (CFs were prepared by loading Si nanoparticles (SiNPs on interconnected carbon fibers via an electrospinning technique (SiNPs@CFs. The Si nanoparticles were obtained by the reduction reaction of natural clay minerals. As a flexible anode for LIBs, the SiNPs@CFs anode demonstrated a reversible capacity of 1238.1 mAh·g−1 and a capacity retention of 77% after 300 cycles (in contrast to the second cycle at a current density of 0.5 A·g−1. With a higher current density of 5.0 A·g−1, the electrode showed a specific capacity of 528.3 mAh·g−1 after 1000 cycles and exhibited a superior rate capability compared to Si nanoparticles. The excellent electrochemical properties were attributed to the construction of flexible electrodes and the composite comprising carbon fibers, which lessened the volume expansion and improved the conductivity of the system.

  15. α-Fe2O3 lithium battery anodes by nanocasting strategy from ordered 2D and 3D templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lupo, F.; Gerbaldi, C.; Casino, S.; Francia, C.; Meligrana, G.; Tuel, A.; Penazzi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanosized α-Fe 2 O 3 lithium battery conversion anodes with tunable morphology. • Nanocasting technique using MCM-41 and MCM-48 silica moulds is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • α-Fe 2 O 3 replica of MCM-41 exhibits stable capacity (∼300 mA h g −1 ) after 100 cycles. • α-Fe 2 O 3 replica of MCM-41 shows promising prospects as high-capacity Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Nanocasting strategy is here proposed as effective approach to tune structure and size of α-Fe 2 O 3 active nanoparticles as a promising anode material for Li-ion cells. MCM-41 and MCM-48 silicas, presenting hexagonal 2D and cubic 3D symmetry, respectively, and regular pore diameter of about 4 nm are selected as moulds. The structural–morphological and electrochemical characteristics are assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N 2 physisorption at 77 K, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge/charge cycling. It is here demonstrated that structural–morphological features change accordingly to the template used and careful control of the texture/particle characteristics is likely a fundamental variable noticeably affecting the cycling behaviour

  16. Electrochemical performance of SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite composite material as anode of lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Qiang [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy Materials, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Yang, Guan-Hua; Huang, You-Guo; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Zhi-Xiong [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy Materials, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Li, Qing-Yu, E-mail: liqingyu62@126.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy Materials, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we synthesized SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite anode composite material by a simple reflux method using SnCl{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O as tin source and modified graphite as carbon source. The as-obtained composite was investigated with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and galvanostatic cycling tests. The results show that the composite has a wave-shaped fold structure and the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles on it have an average size of about 50 nm. Compared to pure modified graphite, the SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite exhibits a better electrochemical performance with a reversible specific capacity of 581.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 80 cycles, owing to high mechanical stress and elasticity of modified graphite could hinder the volume effect of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles during the Li{sup +} insertion/extraction process. All these favourable characters reveal that the composite is a great potential anode material in high-performance lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A simple synthetic method of SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite composite as anode. • The as-prepared composite with layered structure alleviates the huge reunion of SnO{sub 2}. • The composite exhibits a good capacity retention rate of 85.8% after 25 cycles.

  17. Compact-Nanobox Engineering of Transition Metal Oxides with Enhanced Initial Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfei; Hu, Aiping; Tang, Qunli; Zhang, Shiying; Deng, Weina; Li, Yanhua; Liu, Zheng; Fan, Binbin; Xiao, Kuikui; Liu, Jilei; Chen, Xiaohua

    2018-03-14

    A novel strategy is proposed to construct a compact-nanobox (CNB) structure composed of irregular nanograins (average diameter ≈ 10 nm), aiming to confine the electrode-electrolyte contact area and enhance initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of transition metal oxide (TMO) anodes. To demonstrate the validity of this attempt, CoO-CNB is taken as an example which is synthesized via a carbothermic reduction method. Benefiting from the compact configuration, electrolyte can only contact the outer surface of the nanobox, keeping the inner CoO nanograins untouched. Therefore, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation is reduced. Furthermore, the internal cavity leaves enough room for volume variation upon lithiation and delithiation, resulting in superior mechanical stability of the CNB structure and less generation of fresh SEI. Consequently, the SEI remains stable and spatially confined without degradation, and hence, the CoO-CNB electrode delivers an enhanced ICE of 82.2%, which is among the highest values reported for TMO-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries. In addition, the CoO-CNB electrode also demonstrates excellent cyclability with a reversible capacity of 811.6 mA h g -1 (90.4% capacity retention after 100 cycles). These findings open up a new way to design high-ICE electrodes and boost the practical application of TMO anodes.

  18. N-type nano-silicon powders with ultra-low electrical resistivity as anode materials in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhihao; Zhou, Lang; Jin, Chenxin; Xu, Guojun; Liu, Liekai; Tang, Hao; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Fugen; Huang, Haibin; Yuan, Jiren

    2017-06-01

    N-type silicon wafers with electrical resistivity of 0.001 Ω cm were ball-milled to powders and part of them was further mechanically crushed by sand-milling to smaller particles of nano-size. Both the sand-milled and ball-milled silicon powders were, respectively, mixed with graphite powder (silicon:graphite = 5:95, weight ratio) as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Electrochemical measurements, including cycle and rate tests, present that anode using sand-milled silicon powder performed much better. The first discharge capacity of sand-milled silicon anode is 549.7 mAh/g and it is still up to 420.4 mAh/g after 100 cycles. Besides, the D50 of sand-milled silicon powder shows ten times smaller in particle size than that of ball-milled silicon powder, and they are 276 nm and 2.6 μm, respectively. In addition, there exist some amorphous silicon components in the sand-milled silicon powder excepting the multi-crystalline silicon, which is very different from the ball-milled silicon powder made up of multi-crystalline silicon only.

  19. Low temperature molten salt synthesis of Y(sub2)Sn(sub2)O(sub7) anode material for lithium ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nithyadharseni, P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acta 182 (2015) 1060–1069 Low temperature molten salt synthesis of Y2Sn2O7 anode material for lithium ion batteries P. Nithyadharsenia,b, M.V. Reddya,c,*, Kenneth I. Ozoemenab,d, R. Geetha Balakrishnae, B.V.R. Chowdaria a Advanced Batteries...

  20. Uniform Fe3O4 microflowers hierarchical structures assembled with porous nanoplates as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Yanguo; Arandiyan, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Fe3O4 microflowers electrodes delivered superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than that of Fe3O4 microspheres electrodes. The improved electrochemical performance was attributed to the microscale flowerlike architecture...

  1. Graphene encapsulated Fe3O4 nanorods assembled into a mesoporous hybrid composite used as a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Xinxin; Engelbrekt, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of new anode materials and engineering their fine structures are the core elements in the development of new-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). To this end, we herein report a novel nanostructured composite consisting of approximately 75% Fe3O4 nanorods and 25% reduced graphene...

  2. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  3. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Anguo; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g −1 at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path

  4. Carbon treated self-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with enhanced lithium-ion intercalation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Sik [Energy Material Group, Lotte Chemical, 115, Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-726 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Center for Energy Conversion and Storage, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soon Hyung, E-mail: skang@jnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Education, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • C-doped TONT was prepared by anodization, followed by acetylene treatment. • C-doped TONT exhibited the superior cycle performance and electrochemical kinetics. • It was attributed from the enhanced electrical conductivity from carbon doping. - Abstract: Vertically aligned TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TONT) arrays on titanium substrate developed by facile electrochemical anodization in an aqueous solution of 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 0.5 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, 0.2 M sodium citrate, and 0.5 wt% NaF were prepared having a pore diameter and thickness of 100 nm and 1.2 μm, respectively. The undoped (u-doped) TONT arrays possessing an anatase phase were again annealed at 500 °C under a mixed gas flux of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), to induce the enhancement of electrical conductivity. It was designated as carbon-doped (c-doped) TONT arrays. Undoped and c-doped TONT arrays were compared using various characterization tools, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, based on several electrochemical tests (galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)), it was observed that c-doped TONT arrays revealed improved charge/discharge capacity, cycle stability, and rate capability, due to the enhanced electrical conductivity of c-doped TONT arrays.

  5. Advanced LiTi2(PO4)3@N-doped carbon anode for aqueous lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhangxing; Jiang, Yingqiao; Meng, Wei; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Yang; Dai, Lei; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon anode was prepared by in-situ coating approach for aqueous lithium ion batteries. • The well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer and loose nanoporous structure was obtained using urea as nitrogen source and pore former. • LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon demonstrates excellent rate performance and good cycling stability. - Abstract: In this paper, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon anode has been synthesized by in situ carbon coating approach. The well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer and loose nanoporous structure was obtained by using urea as nitrogen source and pore former. LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon as anode demonstrates much better rate capability than LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @carbon in ALIBs. The optimized anode delivers the discharge capacity of 93.7 mAh g −1 and 74.2 mAh g −1 at rates of 10C and 20C, 22.5 mAh g −1 and 50.0 mAh g −1 larger than that of LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @carbon. Moreover, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon exhibits excellent cycling performance with capacity retention of 84.3% at 5C after 1000 cycles. As verified, the well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer could reduce charge transfer resistance and improve electrical conductivity. The loose nanoporous structure could shorten pathway and facilitate diffusion for Li ion. Therefore, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon gets the superior electrochemical properties benefiting from those two characteristics.

  6. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of ruthenium oxide-coated carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Yura; Choi, Jin-Yeong [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heai-Ku [Department of Chemical Engineering, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Seop, E-mail: surfkm@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on Ni foam were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. • When RuO{sub 2}/CNFs/Ni foam was used as the anode material, initial capacity was improved from 276 mAh/g to 494 mAh/g with retention rate of 47.4% after 30 cycles. - Abstract: In this study, ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. The CNFs were grown on Ni foam via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method after CNFs/Ni foam was put into the 0.01 M RuCl{sub 3} solution. The ruthenium oxide-coated CNFs/Ni foam was dried in a dryer at 80 °C. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal quality of RuO{sub 2}/CNFs/Ni foam were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS. The electrochemical characteristics of RuO{sub 2}/CNFs/Ni foam as anode of Li secondary batteries were investigated using three-electrode cell. The RuO{sub 2}/CNFs/Ni foam was directly employed as a working electrode without any binder, and lithium foil was used as the counter and reference electrodes. LiClO{sub 4} (1 M) was employed as electrolyte and dissolved in a mixture of propylene carbonate (PC): ethylene carbonate (EC) in a 1:1 volume ratio. The galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements were carried out at room temperature by using a battery tester. In particular, synthesized RuO{sub 2}/CNFs/Ni foam showed the highest retention rate (47.4%). The initial capacity (494 mAh/g) was reduced to 234 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  7. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of ruthenium oxide-coated carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Yura; Choi, Jin-Yeong; Park, Heai-Ku; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ruthenium oxide (RuO_2) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on Ni foam were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. • When RuO_2/CNFs/Ni foam was used as the anode material, initial capacity was improved from 276 mAh/g to 494 mAh/g with retention rate of 47.4% after 30 cycles. - Abstract: In this study, ruthenium oxide (RuO_2) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. The CNFs were grown on Ni foam via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method after CNFs/Ni foam was put into the 0.01 M RuCl_3 solution. The ruthenium oxide-coated CNFs/Ni foam was dried in a dryer at 80 °C. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal quality of RuO_2/CNFs/Ni foam were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS. The electrochemical characteristics of RuO_2/CNFs/Ni foam as anode of Li secondary batteries were investigated using three-electrode cell. The RuO_2/CNFs/Ni foam was directly employed as a working electrode without any binder, and lithium foil was used as the counter and reference electrodes. LiClO_4 (1 M) was employed as electrolyte and dissolved in a mixture of propylene carbonate (PC): ethylene carbonate (EC) in a 1:1 volume ratio. The galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements were carried out at room temperature by using a battery tester. In particular, synthesized RuO_2/CNFs/Ni foam showed the highest retention rate (47.4%). The initial capacity (494 mAh/g) was reduced to 234 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  8. 3D Flower-Like Hierarchitectures Constructed by SnS/SnS2 Heterostructure Nanosheets for High-Performance Anode Material in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sn chalcogenides, including SnS, Sn2S3, and SnS2, have been extensively studied as anode materials for lithium batteries. In order to obtain one kind of high capacity, long cycle life lithium batteries anode materials, three-dimensional (3D flower-like hierarchitectures constructed by SnS/SnS2 heterostructure nanosheets with thickness of ~20 nm have been synthesized via a simple one-pot solvothermal method. The obtained samples exhibit excellent electrochemical performance as anode for Li-ion batteries (LIBs, which deliver a first discharge capacity of 1277 mAhg−1 and remain a reversible capacity up to 500 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at a current of 100 mAg−1.

  9. Application of C{sub 60}, C{sub 72} and carbon nanotubes as anode for lithium-ion batteries: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Meysam, E-mail: meysamnajafi2016@gmail.com

    2017-07-01

    The application of C{sub 60}, C{sub 72}, CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results show that the average values of voltage cell (V{sub cell}) and adsorption energy (E{sub ad}) of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C{sub 60} and C{sub 72} ca 0.327 V and 6.52 kcal/mol, respectively. The NH{sub 2} functionalization of studied nanostructures as a strategy to improve the performance of these systems as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. Results show that, NH{sub 2} functionalization of studied nanostructures increase the average values of voltage cell and adsorption energy ca 0.197 V and 8.20 kcal/mol, respectively. Obtained results propose that NH{sub 2} functionalized C{sub 72} and CNT (10, 0) have larger V{sub cell} and E{sub ad} values and therefore these nanostructures have higher potential as anode material for Lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • C{sub 60} and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. • V{sub cell} and E{sub ad} of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C{sub 60} and C{sub 72} ca. • NH{sub 2} functionalization of C{sub 60} improve the performance of it as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Application of C_6_0, C_7_2 and carbon nanotubes as anode for lithium-ion batteries: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Meysam

    2017-01-01

    The application of C_6_0, C_7_2, CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results show that the average values of voltage cell (V_c_e_l_l) and adsorption energy (E_a_d) of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C_6_0 and C_7_2 ca 0.327 V and 6.52 kcal/mol, respectively. The NH_2 functionalization of studied nanostructures as a strategy to improve the performance of these systems as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. Results show that, NH_2 functionalization of studied nanostructures increase the average values of voltage cell and adsorption energy ca 0.197 V and 8.20 kcal/mol, respectively. Obtained results propose that NH_2 functionalized C_7_2 and CNT (10, 0) have larger V_c_e_l_l and E_a_d values and therefore these nanostructures have higher potential as anode material for Lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • C_6_0 and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. • V_c_e_l_l and E_a_d of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C_6_0 and C_7_2 ca. • NH_2 functionalization of C_6_0 improve the performance of it as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Titanium oxynitride thin films as high-capacity and high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Su, Shih-Hsuan; Leu, Hoang-Jyh; Hsia, Chen-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Titanium oxynitride (TiO_xN_y) was synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering in a mixed N_2/O_2/Ar gas at ambient temperature. TiO_xN_y thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were deposited by varying the N_2/O_2 ratios in the background gas. The synthesized TiO_xN_y films with different compositions (TiO_1_._8_3_7N_0_._0_6_0_, TiO_1_._8_9_0N_0_._0_6_8_, TiO_1_._8_6_5N_0_._0_7_3, and TiO_1_._8_8_2N_0_._1_6_3) all displayed anatase phase, except TiO_1_._8_8_2N_0_._1_6_3. The impedances and grain sizes showed obvious variations with the nitrogen contents. A wide potential window from 3.0 V to 0.05 V, high-rate charge–discharge testing, and long cycle testing were applied to investigate the performances of synthesized TiO_xN_y and pure TiO_2 as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. These TiO_xN_y anodes can be cycled under high rates of 125 μA/cm"2 (10 °C) because of the lower charge–transfer resistance compared with the TiO_2 anode. At 10 °C the discharge capacity of the optimal TiO_xN_y composition is 1.5 times higher than that of pure TiO_2. An unexpectedly large reversible capacity of ~ 300 μAh/cm"2 μm (~ 800 mAh/g) between 1.0 V and 0.05 V was recorded for the TiO_xN_y anodes. The TiO_xN_y anode was cycled (3.0 V to 0.05 V) at 10 °C over 300 times without capacity fading while delivering a capacity of ~ 150 μAh/cm"2 μm (~ 400 mAh/g). - Highlights: • Titanium oxynitride (TiO_xN_y) thin films as anode materials were studied. • TiO_xN_y thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were studied_. • High rate capability of TiO_xN_y was studied.

  12. Vanadium nitride as a novel thin film anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qian; Fu Zhengwen

    2008-01-01

    Vanadium mononitride (VN) thin films have been successfully fabricated by magnetron sputtering. Its electrochemical behaviour with lithium was examined by galvanostatic cell cycling and cyclic voltammetry. The capacity of VN was found to be stable above 800 mAh g -1 after 50 cycles. By using ex situ X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction as well as in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements, the electrochemical reaction mechanism of VN with lithium was investigated. The reversible conversion reaction of VN into metal V and Li 3 N was revealed. The high reversible capacity and good stable cycle of VN thin film electrode made it a new promising lithium-ion storage material for future rechargeable lithium batteries

  13. Crystalline and Amorphous Phosphorus – Carbon Nanotube Composites as Promising Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Smajic, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Battery research has been going full steam and with that the search for alternative anodes. Among many proposed electrode materials, little attention has been given to phosphorus. Phosphorus boasts the third highest gravimetric charge capacity

  14. Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.; Patel, Reken N.; O’ Connell, Michael J.; Korgel, Brian A.; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Composite electrodes composed of silicon nanowires synthesized using the supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) method mixed with amorphous carbon or carbon nanotubes were evaluated as Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon coating of the silicon nanowires

  15. Designing Si/porous-C composite with buffering voids as high capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Lu; Zhang, Wenhui; Yang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lingzhi

    2014-01-01

    A novel Si/porous-C composite with buffering voids was prepared by the co-assembly of phenol-formaldehyde resin, SiO 2 and Si nanoparticles, followed by a carbonizing process and subsequent removal of SiO 2 template. Si nanoparticle was coated with a layer of porous carbon shell with rationally designed void in between which provides the accommodating space for the volume change of Si over cycling. The as-prepared composite electrode exhibited good electrochemical performances as an anode material in lithium-ion cells, showing a stable reversible capacity of 980 mAh g −1 over 80 cycles with small capacity fade of 0.17%/cycle and high rate capability (721 mAh g −1 at 2000 mA g −1 )

  16. Assembly of core–shell structured porous carbon–graphene composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rong; Zhao, Li; Yue, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    As potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous carbons such as CMK-3 and CMK-8 usually show stable cycling performances but only slightly higher reversible capacities than commercial graphite. Graphene has much higher theoretical capacity than that of graphite in theory. However, its electrochemical behavior is not as good as expected due to the aggregation of graphene nanosheets. Herein we describe a novel strategy for the preparation of core–shell structured porous carbon–graphene composites. Compared to pure porous carbons or pure graphene nanosheets, these novel composites exhibit superior electrochemical performances including higher reversible capacities and better cycle/rate performances. This core–shell structure can avoid the aggregation of graphene nanosheets as well as may stabilize the mesostructure of porous carbon, which is beneficial to improving the electrochemical performances of the composites

  17. Synthesis of Azanucleosides by Anodic Oxidation in a Lithium Perchlorate-Nitroalkane Medium and Diversification at the 4'-Nitrogen Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takao; Kim, Shokaku; Chiba, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-27

    Azanucleosides, in which the 4'-oxygen atom has been replaced with a nitrogen atom, have drawn much attention owing to their anticancer and antivirus activity, and tolerance towards nucleases. However, the traditional synthetic strategy requires multiple steps and harsh conditions, thereby limiting the structural and functional diversity of the products. Herein we describe the synthesis of azanucleosides by an electrochemical reaction in a lithium perchlorate-nitroethane medium, followed by postmodification at the 4'-N position. N-Acryloyl prolinol derivatives were converted into azanucleosides by anodic activation of the N-α-C-H bond. Moreover, the use of nitroethane instead of nitromethane lowered the oxidation potential of the N-acryloyl prolinols and increased the Faradic yield. The prepared azanucleosides were efficiently functionalized at the 4'-N-acryloyl group with a lipophilic alkanethiol and a fluorescent dye by conjugate addition and olefin cross-metathesis, respectively. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synthesis and superior anode performances of TiO2-carbon-rGO composites in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yameng; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Hongbian; Wei, Huijuan; Li, Baojun; Wang, Xiangyu

    2012-09-26

    In this article, TiO(2)-Carbon-rGO (GCT) three-component composite material has been constructed by anchoring TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in carbon shells onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The structure of GCT was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This material shows a superior retention as the anode materials in lithium ion battery with a specific discharge capacity of 188 mA h g(-1) in the initial cycle and 158 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles.

  19. Efficient preparation of highly hydrogenated graphene and its application as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wufeng; Zhu, Zhiye; Li, Sirong; Chen, Chunhua; Yan, Lifeng

    2012-03-01

    A novel method has been developed to prepare hydrogenated graphene (HG) via a direct synchronized reduction and hydrogenation of graphene oxide (GO) in an aqueous suspension under 60Co gamma ray irradiation at room temperature. GO can be reduced by the aqueous electrons (eaq-) while the hydrogenation takes place due to the hydrogen radicals formed in situ under irradiation. The maximum hydrogen content of the as-prepared highly hydrogenated graphene (HHG) is found to be 5.27 wt% with H/C = 0.76. The yield of the target product is on the gram scale. The as-prepared HHG also shows high performance as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  20. Silver-nickel oxide core-shell nanoflower arrays as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjia; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of Ag-NiO core-shell nanoflower arrays via a one-step solution-immersion process and subsequent RF-sputtering method. The aligned Ag nanoflower arrays on copper substrate are prepared by a facile displacement reaction in absence of any surfactant at a mild temperature. When used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the Ag-NiO core-shell nanoflower arrays show better cycling performance and higher capacity than the planar NiO electrodes. The improved performance should be attributed to the core-shell structures that can enhance the conductivity and accommodate the volume change during the charge-discharge process.

  1. Improved lithium-ion battery anode capacity with a network of easily fabricated spindle-like carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengting; Xie, Wenhe; Gu, Lili; Qin, Tianfeng; Hou, Xiaoyi; He, Deyan

    2016-01-01

    A novel network of spindle-like carbon nanofibers was fabricated via a simplified synthesis involving electrospinning followed by preoxidation in air and postcarbonization in Ar. Not only was the as-obtained carbon network comprised of beads of spindle-like nanofibers but the cubic MnO phase and N elements were successfully anchored into the amorphous carbon matrix. When directly used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, the network showed excellent electrochemical performance with high capacity, good rate capacity and reliable cycling stability. Under a current density of 0.2 A g -1 , it delivered a high reversible capacity of 875.5 mAh g -1 after 200 cycles and 1005.5 mAh g -1 after 250 cycles with a significant coulombic efficiency of 99.5%.

  2. Monodispersed macroporous architecture of nickel-oxide film as an anode material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    A nickel-oxide film with monodispersed open macropores was prepared on a stainless-steel substrate by electrophoretic deposition of a polystyrene-sphere monolayer followed by anodic electrodeposition of nickel oxy-hydroxide. The deposited films convert to cubic nickel oxide after annealing at 400 o C for 1 h. Galvanostatic charge and discharge results indicate that the nickel-oxide film with monodispersed open macropores is capable of delivering a higher capacity than the bare nickel-oxide film, especially in high-rate charge and discharge processes. The lithiation capacity of macroporous nickel oxide reaches 1620 mA h g -1 at 1 C current discharge and decreases to 990 mA h g -1 at 15 C current discharge. The presence of monodispersed open macropores in the nickel-oxide film might facilitate the electrolyte penetration, diffusion, and migration. Electrochemical reactions between nickel oxide and lithium ions are therefore markedly improved by this tailored film architecture.

  3. Amorphous-silicon@silicon oxide/chromium/carbon as an anode for lithium-ion batteries with excellent cyclic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingqi; Gu, Jingwei; Feng, Xiaofang; He, Hongyan; Zeng, Chunmei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new amorphous-Si@SiO x /Cr/carbon anode composite for lithium-ion batteries is synthesized by a simple method. • At a current density of 100 mA g −1 , this as-prepared composite exhibit a stable discharge capacity of about 810 mAh g −1 with good capacity retention up to 200 cycles. Even at a current density of 800 mA g −1 , a stable discharge capacity of 570 mAh g −1 can be obtained. • This work creates a new method to improve the electrochemical performance of SiO-based electrode materials. - Abstract: A new amorphous-Si@SiO x /Cr/carbon (a-Si@SiO x /Cr/C) anode composite for lithium-ion batteries is synthesized, using SiO, chromium powder and graphite as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) are employed to characterize the composition, morphology and microstructure of the composite. Coin-type cells are assembled to investigate the electrochemical behaviors of the as-prepared composites by constant current charge–discharge technique, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that chromium facilitates the crush of Si@SiO x and graphite during milling, and thus improves their mutual dispersion in the composite. When cycled at 100 mA g −1 , the a-Si@SiO x /Cr/C exhibits a stable discharge capacity of about 810 mAh g −1 (calculated on the mass of a-Si@SiO x /Cr/C) with good capacity retention up to 200 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the reduced particle size of a-Si@SiO x and the synergistic effect of carbon and chromium

  4. CoFe2O4/carbon nanotube aerogels as high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs require electrode material to have an ideal electrode construction which provides fast ion transport, short solid-state ion diffusion, large surface area, and high electric conductivity. Herein, highly porous three-dimensional (3D aerogels composed of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4, CFO nanoparticles (NPs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs are prepared using sustainable alginate as the precursor. The key feature of this work is that by using the characteristic egg-box structure of the alginate, metal cations such as Co2+ and Fe3+ can be easily chelated via an ion-exchange process, thus binary CFO are expected to be prepared. In the hybrid aerogels, CFO NPs interconnected by the CNTs are embedded in carbon aerogel matrix, forming the 3D network which can provide high surface area, buffer the volume expansion and offer efficient ion and electron transport pathways for achieving high performance LIBs. The as-prepared hybrid aerogels with the optimum CNT content (20 wt% delivers excellent electrochemical properties, i.e., reversible capacity of 1033 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and a high specific capacity of 874 mAh g−1 after 160 cycles at 1 A g−1. This work provides a facile and low cost route to fabricate high performance anodes for LIBs. Keywords: Alginate, Aerogels, Cobalt ferrite, Anode, Lithium-ion battery

  5. A general strategy toward graphitized carbon coating on iron oxides as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan; Zhou, Weiwei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xin; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-08-25

    Integration of carbon materials with benign iron oxides is blazing a trail in constructing high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this paper, a unique general, simple, and controllable strategy is developed toward in situ uniform coating of iron oxide nanostructures with graphitized carbon (GrC) layers. The basic synthetic procedure only involves a simple dip-coating process for the loading of Ni-containing seeds and a subsequent Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the growth of GrC layers. More importantly, the CVD treatment is conducted at a quite low temperature (450 °C) and with extremely facile liquid carbon sources consisting of ethylene glycol (EG) and ethanol (EA). The GrC content of the resulting hybrids can be controllably regulated by altering the amount of carbon sources. The electrochemical results reveal remarkable performance enhancements of iron oxide@GrC hybrids compared with pristine iron oxides in terms of high specific capacity, excellent rate and cycling performance. This can be attributed to the network-like GrC coating, which can improve not only the electronic conductivity but also the structural integrity of iron oxides. Moreover, the lithium storage performance of samples with different GrC contents is measured, manifesting that optimized electrochemical property can be achieved with appropriate carbon content. Additionally, the superiority of GrC coating is demonstrated by the advanced performance of iron oxide@GrC compared with its corresponding counterpart, i.e., iron oxides with amorphous carbon (AmC) coating. All these results indicate the as-proposed protocol of GrC coating may pave the way for iron oxides to be promising anodes for LIBs.

  6. Upcycling of Packing-Peanuts into Carbon Microsheet Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etacheri, Vinodkumar; Hong, Chulgi Nathan; Pol, Vilas G

    2015-09-15

    Porous carbon microsheet anodes with Li-ion storage capacity exceeding the theoretical limit are for the first time derived from waste packing-peanuts. Crystallinity, surface area, and porosity of these 1 μm thick carbon sheets were tuned by varying the processing temperature. Anodes composed of the carbon sheets outperformed the electrochemical properties of commercial graphitic anode in Li-ion batteries. At a current density of 0.1 C, carbon microsheet anodes exhibited a specific capacity of 420 mAh/g, which is slightly higher than the theoretical capacity of graphite (372 mAh/g) in Li-ion half-cell configurations. At a higher rate of 1 C, carbon sheets retained 4-fold higher specific capacity (220 mAh/g) compared to those of commercial graphitic anode. After 100 charge-discharge cycles at current densities of 0.1 and 0.2 C, optimized carbon sheet anodes retained stable specific capacities of 460 and 370 mAh/g, respectively. Spectroscopic and microscopic investigations proved the structural integrity of these high-performance carbon anodes during numerous charge-discharge cycles. Considerably higher electrochemical performance of the porous carbon microsheets are endorsed to their disorderness that facilitate to store more Li-ions than the theoretical limit, and porous 2-D microstructure enabling fast solid-state Li-ion diffusion and superior interfacial kinetics. The work demonstrated here illustrates an inexpensive and environmentally benign method for the upcycling of packaging materials into functional carbon materials for electrochemical energy storage.

  7. Facile synthesis of uniform MWCNT@Si nanocomposites as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yifan; Du, Ning, E-mail: dna1122@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A uniform SiO{sub 2} layer was deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotube. • Synthesis of uniform (MWCNT)@Si nanocomposites via the magnesiothermic reduction. • The MWCNT@Si nanocomposites show high reversible capacity and good cyclability. • Enhanced performance is attributed to porous nanostructure, introduction of MWCNTs. - Abstract: We demonstrate the synthesis of uniform multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)@Si nanocomposites via the magnesiothermic reduction of pre-synthesized MWCNT@SiO{sub 2} nanocables. At first, the acid vapor steaming is used to treat the surface, which can facilitate the uniform deposition of SiO{sub 2} layer via the TEOS hydrolysis. Then, the uniform MWCNT@Si nanocomposites are obtained on the basis of MWCNT@SiO{sub 2} nanocables via a simple magnesiothermic reduction. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-synthesized MWCNT@Si nanocomposites show high reversible capacity and good cycling performance, which is better than bulk Si and bare MWCNTs. It is believed that the good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the novel porous nanostructure and the introduction of MWCNTs that can buffer the volume change, maintain the electrical conductive network, and enhance the electronic conductivity and lithium-ion transport.

  8. 3D hollow framework of GeOx with ultrathin shell for improved anode performance in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen; Qiang, Tingting; Fang, Jiaxin; Song, Yixuan; Ma, Qiuyang; Ye, Ming; Qiang, Feiqiang; Geng, Baoyou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D hollow framework of GeO x was synthesized using hydrothermal procedure. • The obtained GeO x 3D hollow framework has large surface area and porous thin shell. • The structure improved the cycle and rate performances. - Abstract: In this paper, 3D hollow framework of GeO x is synthesized using a bubble-template hydrothermal procedure. The as-obtained hollow structure exhibits excellent cycling performance and rate capability in comparison with GeO x nanoparticles when used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries. The GeO x 3D hollow framework shows a high capacity of up to 1480 mAh·g −1 and 1109 mAh·g −1 at 80 mA·g −1 and 1600 mA·g −1 current density, respectively. The excellent lithium storage performance can be attributed to the unique 3D hollow framework. The framework not only acts as the buffer layer to alleviate the strain during lithiation, but also facilitates the electron transfer during the charge/discharge processes

  9. Solid-solution-like ZnO/C composites as excellent anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guanhua; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xiang; Zeng, Wei; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui; Duan, Huigao

    2015-01-01

    Exploring advanced anode materials to maximize the capacity of lithium ion batteries has been an active research area for decades. Constructing composites materials has been proved to be one of the most effective methods to achieve higher capacity due to the synergistic effect. In this work, we proposed and demonstrated a concept of solid-solution-like ZnO/C composites to approach the largest possible synergistic effect by introducing the most interfaces and minimizing the pulverization. The solid-solution-like ZnO/C electrode could achieve a high reversible capacity of 813.3 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 after 100 cycles with a decrease rate of only 0.4% per cycle. Moreover, the discharge capacity still maintained 53.5% of the original value even when the current density increased to 40 times as much as the original, showing a distinguished rate performance. In addition, such solid-solution-like nanofibers can be easily prepared because of their compatibility with the existing industrial PAN-based spinning process. This may pave the way to mass produce lithium ion batteries with significantly enhanced performance using existing low-cost commercial facilities and recipes.

  10. Hierarchical structured graphene/metal oxide/porous carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Ren, Yu; Zhou, Wuzong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles display different behavior within CMK-3. • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 show various electrochemical properties • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets. • Graphene-encapsulated composites show better electrochemical performances. - Abstract: As a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, CeO 2 displays imperceptible volumetric and morphological changes during the lithium insertion and extraction processes, and thereby exhibits good cycling stability. However, the low theoretical capacity and poor electronic conductivity of CeO 2 hinder its practical application. In contrast, Co 3 O 4 possesses high theoretical capacity, but undergoes huge volume change during cycling. To overcome these issues, CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles are formed inside the pores of CMK-3 and display various electrochemical behaviors due to the different morphological structures of CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 within CMK-3. Moreover, the graphene/metal oxide/CMK-3 composites with a hierarchical structure are then prepared and exhibit better electrochemical performances than metal oxides with or without CMK-3. This novel synthesis strategy is hopefully employed in the electrode materials design for Li-ion batteries or other energy conversion and storage devices.

  11. One-step synthesis of SnCo nanoconfined in hierarchical carbon nanostructures for lithium ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Liu, Dongye; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, En-Zuo; He, Fang; Ma, Liying; Li, Qunying; Li, Jiajun; He, Chunnian

    2017-10-26

    A new strategy for the one-step synthesis of a 0D SnCo nanoparticles-1D carbon nanotubes-3D hollow carbon submicrocube cluster (denoted as SnCo@CNT-3DC) hierarchical nanostructured material was developed via a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process with the assistance of a water-soluble salt (NaCl). The adopted NaCl not only acted as a cubic template for inducing the formation of the 3D hollow carbon submicrocube cluster but also provides a substrate for the SnCo catalysts impregnation and CNT growth, ultimately leading to the successful construction of the unique 0D-1D-3D structured SnCo@CNT-3DC during the CVD of C 2 H 2 . When utilized as a lithium-ion battery anode, the SnCo@CNT-3DC composite electrode demonstrated an excellent rate performance and cycling stability for Li-ion storage. Specifically, an impressive reversible capacity of 826 mA h g -1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g -1 and a high rate capacity of 278 mA h g -1 even after 1000 cycles at 5 A g -1 were achieved. This remarkable electrochemical performance could be ascribed to the unique hierarchical nanostructure of SnCo@CNT-3DC, which guarantees a deep permeation of electrolytes and a shortened lithium salt diffusion pathway in the solid phase as well as numerous hyperchannels for electron transfer.

  12. Dominant factors governing the rate capability of a TiO2 nanotube anode for high power lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyungkyu; Song, Taeseup; Lee, Eung-Kwan; Devadoss, Anitha; Jeon, Yeryung; Ha, Jaehwan; Chung, Yong-Chae; Choi, Young-Min; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-09-25

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is one of the most promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries due to low cost and structural stability during Li insertion/extraction. However, its poor rate capability limits its practical use. Although various approaches have been explored to overcome this problem, previous reports have mainly focused on the enhancement of both the electronic conductivity and the kinetic associated with lithium in the composite film of active material/conducting agent/binder. Here, we systematically explore the effect of the contact resistance between a current collector and a composite film of active material/conducting agent/binder on the rate capability of a TiO(2)-based electrode. The vertically aligned TiO(2) nanotubes arrays, directly grown on the current collector, with sealed cap and unsealed cap, and conventional randomly oriented TiO(2) nanotubes electrodes were prepared for this study. The vertically aligned TiO(2) nanotubes array electrode with unsealed cap showed superior performance with six times higher capacity at 10 C rate compared to conventional randomly oriented TiO(2) nanotubes electrode with 10 wt % conducting agent. On the basis of the detailed experimental results and associated theoretical analysis, we demonstrate that the reduction of the contact resistance between electrode and current collector plays an important role in improving the electronic conductivity of the overall electrode system.

  13. High Performance Lithium-Ion Hybrid Capacitors Employing Fe3O4-Graphene Composite Anode and Activated Carbon Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijia; Li, Chen; Zhang, Xiong; Sun, Xianzhong; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei

    2017-05-24

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are considered as promising energy storage devices to realize excellent electrochemical performance, with high energy-power output. In this work, we employed a simple method to synthesize a composite electrode material consisting of Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystallites mechanically anchored among the layers of three-dimensional arrays of graphene (Fe 3 O 4 -G), which exhibits several advantages compared with other traditional electrode materials, such as high Li storage capacity (820 mAh g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), high electrical conductivity, and improved electrochemical stability. Furthermore, on the basis of the appropriated charge balance between cathode and anode, we successfully fabricated Fe 3 O 4 -G//activated carbon (AC) soft-packaging LICs with a high energy density of 120.0 Wh kg -1 , an outstanding power density of 45.4 kW kg -1 (achieved at 60.5 Wh kg -1 ), and an excellent capacity retention of up to 94.1% after 1000 cycles and 81.4% after 10 000 cycles. The energy density of the Fe 3 O 4 -G//AC hybrid device is comparable with Ni-metal hydride batteries, and its capacitive power capability and cycle life is on par with supercapacitors (SCs). Therefore, this lithium-ion hybrid capacitor is expected to bridge the gap between Li-ion battery and SCs and gain bright prospects in next-generation energy storage fields.

  14. Si@SiOx/Graphene nanosheet anode materials for lithium-ion batteries synthesized by ball milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xiaoyong; Han, Qianyan; Liang, Chunyan; Li, Bo; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2017-12-01

    Si@SiOx/Graphene nanosheet (GNS) nanocomposites as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries are synthesized by mechanically blending the mixture of expanded graphite with Si nanoparticles, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During the ball milling process, the size of Si nanoparticles will decrease, and the layer of expanded graphite can be peeled off to thin multilayers. Electrochemical performances reveal that the obtained Si@SiOx/GNS nanocomposites exhibit improved cycling stability, high reversible lithium storage capacity and superior rate capability, e.g. the discharge capacity is kept as high as 1055 mAh g-1 within 50 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, retaining 63.6% of the initial value. The high performance of the obtained nanocomposites can be ascribed to GNS prepared through heat-treat and ball-milling methods, the decrease in the size of Si nanoparticles and SiOx layer on Si surface, which enhance the interactions between Si and GNS.

  15. Preparation and electrochemical performance of bramble-like ZnO array as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Junfeng; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ruan, Xiongfei; Zhao, Wu; Yun, Jiangni; Xu, Manzhang

    2015-01-01

    A bramble-like ZnO array with a special three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure was successfully fabricated on Zn foil through a facile two-step hydrothermal process. A possible growth mechanism of the bramble-like ZnO array was proposed. In the first step of hydrothermal process, the crystal nucleus of Zn(OH) 4 2− generated by the zinc atoms and OH − ions fold together preferentially along the positive polar (0001) to form the needle-like ZnO array. In the second step of hydrothermal process, the crystal nuclei of Zn(OH) 4 2− adjust their posture to keep their c-axes vertical to the perching sites due to the sufficient environmental force and further grow preferentially along the (0001) direction so as to form bramble-like ZnO array. The electrochemical properties of the needle- and bramble-like ZnO arrays as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared. The results show that the bramble-like ZnO material exhibits much better lithium storage properties than the needle-like ZnO sample. Reasons for the enhanced electrochemical performance of the bramble-like ZnO material were investigated

  16. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Coexistence of conversion and intercalation mechanisms in lithium ion batteries. Consequences for microstructure and interaction between the active material and electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Robert [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Materials Science; Lepple, Maren [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP); Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Eduard-Zintl-Inst. fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie; Mayer, Nicolas A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP); and others

    2017-11-15

    Conversion-type lithium ion batteries experience severe and partly irreversible phase transitions during operation. Such phase transitions reduce the crystallite size and therefore enhance the exchange of the Li ions. Concurrently, the irreversible nature of the phase transitions may deteriorate the cycling stability and the long-term capacity of conversion-type batteries. In this contribution, the observed correlations between the crystal structures of compounds which are employed as anodes in conversion-type Li ion cells, the capacity and the long-term stability of these cells are discussed. The central characteristics affecting the performance of conversion-type Li ion cells seem to be the similarity of crystal structures of intermediately forming phases during the charge/discharge process, which facilitates strong local preferred orientation of nanocrystallites of neighboring phases and for the formation of local strain fields at partially coherent phase boundaries. The effect of the above-mentioned phenomena on capacity and cycle stability is argued from the point of view of a possibly impeded ion exchange. Equilibrium open circuit potentials are calculated using the CALPHAD method. However, it is shown that in order to better reproduce the experimentally determined plateau voltages, thermodynamic descriptions of the non-equilibrium intermediate phases have to be included. In addition, the stabilization of the conversion reaction by the electrolyte is pointed out.

  18. Shape Modification and Size Classification of Microcrystalline Graphite Powder as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Gai, Guosheng; Yang, Yufen

    2018-03-01

    Natural microcrystalline graphite (MCG) composed of many crystallites is a promising new anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) and has received considerable attention from researchers. MCG with narrow particle size distribution and high sphericity exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. A nonaddition process to prepare natural MCG as a high-performance LiB anode material is described. First, raw MCG was broken into smaller particles using a pulverization system. Then, the particles were modified into near-spherical shape using a particle shape modification system. Finally, the particle size distribution was narrowed using a centrifugal rotor classification system. The products with uniform hemispherical shape and narrow size distribution had mean particle size of approximately 9 μm, 10 μm, 15 μm, and 20 μm. Additionally, the innovative pilot experimental process increased the product yield of the raw material. Finally, the electrochemical performance of the prepared MCG was tested, revealing high reversible capacity and good cyclability.

  19. Hydrothermal growth of Cobalt germanate/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as superior anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Ruihan; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongkuan; Feng, Jinkui; Xiong, Shenglin; Qian, Yitai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanosized Co 2 GeO 4 and Co 2 GeO 4 /RGO nanocomposites were prepared by a facile one pot hydrothermal route. • The Co 2 GeO 4 and Co 2 GeO 4 /RGO nanocomposites could be used as novel high capacity anodes with both alloying and conversion reactions. • The RGO incorporation can improve the electrochemical performance of Co 2 GeO 4 by buffering the volume changes and enhancing the conductivity of the electrodes. • The CGO/RGO nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity of 1250 mAh g −1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1085 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles. Remarkable rate performance was also recorded. - Abstract: Well dispersed Co 2 GeO 4 (CGO) nanoplates and CGO/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites are prepared via hydrothermal method and characterized as novel lithium anode materials for the first time. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the CGO/RGO nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity of 1250 mAh g −1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1085 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles. Remarkable rate performance was also recorded. The superior electrochemical performance of the CGO/RGO nanocomposites electrode compared to the pure CGO electrode can be attributed to the well dispersed RGO which enhances the electronic conductivity and accommodate the volume change during the conversion reactions

  20. Anodic Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries: TiO2-rGO Composites for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minella, M.; Versaci, D.; Casino, S.; Di Lupo, F.; Minero, C.; Battiato, A.; Penazzi, N.; Bodoardo, S.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide/reduced graphene oxide (TiO 2 -rGO) composites were synthesized at different loadings of carbonaceous phase, characterized and used as anode materials in Lithium-ion cells, focusing not only on the high rate capability but also on the simplicity and low cost of the electrode production. It was therefore chosen to use commercial TiO 2 , GO was synthesized from graphite, adsorbed onto TiO 2 and reduced to rGO following a chemical, a photocatalytic and an in situ photocatalytic procedure. The synthesized materials were in-depth characterized with a multi-technique approach and the electrochemical performances were correlated i) to an effective reduction of the GO oxidized moieties and ii) to the maintenance of the 2D geometry of the final graphenic structure observed. TiO 2 -rGO obtained with the first two procedures showed good cycle stability, high capacity and impressive rate capability particularly at 10% GO loading. The photocatalytic reduction applied in situ on preassembled electrodes showed similarly good results reaching the goal of a further simplification of the anode production.

  1. Three-dimensional free-standing carbon nanotubes for a flexible lithium-ion battery anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chiwon; Cha, Eunho; Baskaran, Rangasamy; Choi, Wonbong

    2016-01-01

    Flexible lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have received considerable attention as energy sources for wearable electronics. In recent years, much effort has been devoted to study light-weight, robust, and flexible electrodes. However, high areal and volumetric capacities need to be achieved for practical power and energy densities. In this paper, we report the use of three-dimensional (3D) free-standing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a current collector-free anode to demonstrate flexible LIBs with enhanced areal and volumetric capacities. High density CNTs grown on copper (Cu) mesh are transferred to a flexible graphene/polyethylene terephthalate  film and integrated into a flexible LIB. A fully flexible LIB cell integrated with the 3D CNT anode delivers a high areal capacity of 0.25 mAh cm"−"2 at 0.1C and shows fairly consistent open circuit voltage under bending. These findings may provide significant advances in the application of flexible LIB based electronic devices. (paper)

  2. Partially etched Ti3AlC2 as a promising high capacity Lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xifan; Zhu, Yuanzhi; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Peng, Wenchao; Li, Yang; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2018-06-25

    MXenes, a family of two-dimensional transition-metal carbide and nitride materials, are supposed to be the promising materials in energy storage because of the high electronic conductivity, hydrophilic surfaces and low diffusion barriers. MXenes are generally prepared by removing the "A" elements (A = Al, Si, Sn, etc.) from their corresponding MAX phases by using hydrofluoric acid (HF) and the other etching agents, despite the fact that these "A" elements usually have great volumetric and gravimetric capacities. Herein, we studied the etching progress of Ti3AlC2 and evaluated their anode performance in Lithium-ion batteries. We found that a partially etched sample (0.5h-peTi3C2Tx) showed much higher capacity (160 mA h g-1, 331.6 mA h cm-3 at 1C) when compared with the fully etched Ti3C2Tx (110 mA h g-1, 190.3 mA h cm-3 at 1C). Besides, a 99% capacity retention was observed even after 1000 cycles in the 0.5h-peTi3C2Tx anode. This interesting result can be explained, at least in part, by the alloying of the residue Al element during lithiation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Electrochemical Investigation of Natural Ore Molybdenite (MoS2) as a First-Hand Anode for Lithium Storages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijie; Tang, Honghu; Ge, Peng; Jiang, Feng; Zhou, Jiahui; Zhang, Chenyang; Hou, Hongshuai; Sun, Wei; Ji, Xiaobo

    2018-02-21

    Considering serious pollution from the traditional chemical synthesis process, the resource-rich, clean, and first-hand electrode materials are greatly desired. Natural ore molybdenite (MoS 2 ), as the low-cost, high-yield, and environmental-friendly natural source, is investigated as a first-hand anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Compared with chemosynthetic pure MoS 2 , natural molybdenite provides an ordered ion diffusion channel more effectively owing to its excellent characteristics, containing well-crystalline, large lattice distance, and trance dopants. Even at a large current density of 2.0 A g -1 , a natural molybdenite electrode employing a carboxymethyl cellulose binder displays an initial charge capacity of 1199 mA h g -1 with a capacity retention of 72% after 1000 cycles, much higher than those of the electrodes utilizing a poly(vinylidene fluoride) binder. These types of binders play a crucial role in stabilizing a microstructure demonstrated by ex situ scanning electron microscopy and in affecting pseudocapacitive contributions quantitatively determined by a series of kinetic exploration. Briefly, this work might open up a new avenue toward the use of natural molybdenite as a first-hand LIB anode in scalable applications and deepen our understanding on the fundamental effect of binders in the metal-sulfide.

  4. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development.

  5. Surface chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase on silicon nanowire lithium-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.

    2009-04-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have the potential to perform as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with a much higher energy density than graphite. However, there has been little work in understanding the surface chemistry of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on silicon due to the reduction of the electrolyte. Given that a good, passivating SEI layer plays such a crucial role in graphite anodes, we have characterized the surface composition and morphology of the SEI formed on the SiNWs using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have found that the SEI is composed of reduction products similar to that found on graphite electrodes, with Li2CO3 as an important component. Combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the results were used to determine the optimal cycling parameters for good cycling. The role of the native SiO2 as well as the effect of the surface area of the SiNWs on reactivity with the electrolyte were also addressed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MoO2-ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingxing; Zheng, Cheng; Deng, Cuilin; Ding, Xiaokun; Wei, Mingdeng

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, the nanocomposite of MoO2-ordered mesoporous carbon (MoO2-OMC) was synthesized for the first time using a carbon thermal reduction route and the mesoporous carbon as the nanoreactor. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Furthermore, this nanocomposite was used as an anode material for Li-ion intercalation and exhibited large reversible capacity, high rate performance, and good cycling stability. For instance, a high reversible capacity of 689 mAh g(-1) can remain after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g(-1). It is worth mentioning that the MoO2-OMC nanocomposite electrode can attain a high reversible capacity of 401 mAh g(-1) at a current density as high as 2 A g(-1). These results might be due to the intrinsic characteristics of nanocomposite, which offered a better accommodation of the strain and volume changes and a shorter path for Li-ion and electron transport, leading to the improved capacity and enhanced rate capability.

  7. Facile crystal-structure-controlled synthesis of iron oxides for adsorbents and anode materials of lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yao; Liu, Lihu; Qiao, Wencan; Liu, Fan; Zhang, Yashan; Tan, Wenfeng; Qiu, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxides exhibit excellent physicochemical properties as functional materials because of the diversity of crystal structure. Nano-sized iron oxides, including akaganite (β-FeOOH), maghemite (γ-Fe_2O_3), ferrihydrite (Fe_5HO_8∙4H_2O) and hematite (α-Fe_2O_3), were prepared by a facile reflux treatment of iron powder in NaClO solution at 50 °C for 12 h. The crystal structures were controlled by adjusting the pH values of reaction systems. Akaganite, maghemite, ferrihydrite, and hematite were formed when pHs were adjusted to 2–4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. They showed excellent adsorption performance for As(III), and the adsorption capacity was affected by crystal structure as well as specific surface area. The maximum adsorption capacity for akaganite, maghemite, ferrihydrite, and hematite reached 89.8, 79.1, 78.4, and 63.4 mg g"−"1, respectively. Hematite showed lithium storage capacity of 2043 mAh g"−"1 for the first cycle and then kept stable after twenty cycles at a current density of 100 mA g"−"1. The discharge specific capacity stabilized at 639 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles. The as-prepared iron oxides might be applied as potential adsorbents and anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • Nano-sized ferric oxides were fabricated by refluxing iron powder in NaClO solutions. • Crystal structures were controlled by adjusting pHs from 2.0 to 10.0 in systems. • Akaganite exhibited the largest As(III) adsorption capacity of 89.8 mg g"−"1. • Hematite had lithium storage capacity of 639 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles.

  8. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

    1995-11-01

    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  9. Lithium titanate hybridized with trace amount of graphene used as an anode for a high rate lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Hai-Yong; He, Yan-Bing; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Ming; Su, Fangyuan; Lv, Wei; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A novel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) electrode with a hierarchical carbon-based conducting network has been developed for high rate lithium ion battery. The unique network is constructed by graphene sheets (GS) that are not only dispersed among (inter-) but also inside (intra-) LTO particles, together with a thin carbon layer wrapping around the LTO particles. The intraparticle GS promotes the electron transfer inside LTO particles while the interparticle GS together with carbon coating bridges the particles guaranteeing fast electron transfer among LTO particles, which construct a highway throughout the whole electrode sheet. Quantitatively, only a trace amount of GS (∼ 0.4 wt%) synergistic with carbon coating (∼0.8 wt%) contributes to a more effective conducting network in the produced LTO electrode and as a result much better performance as compared to the LTO case with similar carbon coating but free of GS. Due to the effectiveness of the conducting network, even with a tap density as high as ∼1.0 g cm −3 , the novel LTO possesses both excellent rate performance and cycling behaviors. The capacity of 123.5 mA h g −1 is obtained at a charge/discharge rate as high as 30 C and a very high capacity of 144.8 mAh g −1 is maintained even after 100 cycles at 10 C. Due to such a low fraction of carbon and a high tape density, the novel LTO electrode has a great practical application value in both the power and energy storage lithium ion batteries

  10. Electrophoretic Nanocrystalline Graphene Film Electrode for Lithium Ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaprans, Kaspars; Bajars, Gunars; Kucinskis, Gints; Dorondo, Anna; Mateuss, Janis; Gabrusenoks, Jevgenijs; Kleperis, Janis; Lusis, Andrejs

    2015-01-01

    Graphene sheets were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition method from water suspension of graphene oxide followed by thermal reduction. The formation of nanocrystalline graphene sheets has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of graphene sheets as anode material for lithium ion batteries was evaluated by cycling voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Fabricated graphene sheets exhibited high discharge capacity of about 1120 mAh·g −1 and demonstrated good reversibility of lithium intercalation and deintercalation in graphene sheet film with capacity retention over 85 % after 50 cycles. Results show that nanocrystalline graphene sheets prepared by EPD demonstrated a high potential for application as anode material in lithium ion batteries

  11. A Lithium-Ion Battery using a 3 D-Array Nanostructured Graphene-Sulfur Cathode and a Silicon Oxide-Based Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Almudena; Di Lecce, Daniele; Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Caballero, Álvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2018-05-09

    An efficient lithium-ion battery was assembled by using an enhanced sulfur-based cathode and a silicon oxide-based anode and proposed as an innovative energy-storage system. The sulfur-carbon composite, which exploits graphene carbon with a 3 D array (3DG-S), was synthesized by a reduction step through a microwave-assisted solvothermal technique and was fully characterized in terms of structure and morphology, thereby revealing suitable features for lithium-cell application. Electrochemical tests of the 3DG-S electrode in a lithium half-cell indicated a capacity ranging from 1200 to 1000 mAh g -1 at currents of C/10 and 1 C, respectively. Remarkably, the Li-alloyed anode, namely, Li y SiO x -C prepared by the sol-gel method and lithiated by surface treatment, showed suitable performance in a lithium half-cell by using an electrolyte designed for lithium-sulfur batteries. The Li y SiO x -C/3DG-S battery was found to exhibit very promising properties with a capacity of approximately 460 mAh g S -1 delivered at an average voltage of approximately 1.5 V over 200 cycles, suggesting that the characterized materials would be suitable candidates for low-cost and high-energy-storage applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Group IVA Element (Si, Ge, Sn)-Based Alloying/Dealloying Anodes as Negative Electrodes for Full-Cell Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Liu, Zheng Jiao; Li, Xiuwan; Xie, Wenhe; Wang, Qi; Liu, Qiming; Fu, Yujun; He, Deyan

    2017-12-01

    To satisfy the increasing energy demands of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and miniaturized energy storage devices, improvements to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are required to provide higher energy/power densities and longer cycle lives. Group IVA element (Si, Ge, Sn)-based alloying/dealloying anodes are promising candidates for use as electrodes in next-generation LIBs owing to their extremely high gravimetric and volumetric capacities, low working voltages, and natural abundances. However, due to the violent volume changes that occur during lithium-ion insertion/extraction and the formation of an unstable solid electrolyte interface, the use of Group IVA element-based anodes in commercial LIBs is still a great challenge. Evaluating the electrochemical performance of an anode in a full-cell configuration is a key step in investigating the possible application of the active material in LIBs. In this regard, the recent progress and important approaches to overcoming and alleviating the drawbacks of Group IVA element-based anode materials are reviewed, such as the severe volume variations during cycling and the relatively brittle electrode/electrolyte interface in full-cell LIBs. Finally, perspectives and future challenges in achieving the practical application of Group IVA element-based anodes in high-energy and high-power-density LIB systems are proposed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Effect of 1-Pentylamine as Solid Electrolyte Interphase Precursor on Lithium Metal Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Markus S.; Koch, Stephan L.; Passerini, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Manufacturing of a well-controlled artificial SEI on lithium metal electrodes. • Native SEI-free lithium electrodes. • Lithium electrodes with decreased impedance and overpotential due to artificial SEI. • Process development to remove influence of native SEI. • 1-pentylamine in n-pentane as artificial SEI precursor for lithium metal. - Abstract: In this study, the formation of an artificial primary solid electrolyte interphase on a fresh Li surface, via reaction with 1-pentylamine (PA), is reported, allowing removing the influence of the metal electrode’s prior history. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic cycling, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used in order to investigate the effect of PA as solid electrolyte interphase precursor on Li metal. It is shown that pretreating native SEI-free Li metal surfaces with 1 M PA in n-pentane sharply decreases the electrode impedance and overpotential with respect to the treatment with only n-pentane. The treatment with 1 M PA in n-pentane results in surface roughening, but no increase of dendrite formation upon cycling. However, the use of higher PA concentration (5 M) increases impedance and overpotential and leads to dendrite growth.

  14. Crystalline and Amorphous Phosphorus – Carbon Nanotube Composites as Promising Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Smajic, Jasmin

    2016-05-04

    Battery research has been going full steam and with that the search for alternative anodes. Among many proposed electrode materials, little attention has been given to phosphorus. Phosphorus boasts the third highest gravimetric charge capacity and the highest volumetric charge capacity of all elements. Because of that, it would be an attractive battery anode material were it not for its poor cyclability with significant capacity loss immediately after the first cycle. This is known to be the consequence of considerable volume changes of phosphorus during charge/discharge cycles. In this work, we propose circumventing this issue by mixing amorphous red phosphorus with carbon nanotubes. By employing a non-destructive sublimation-deposition method, we have synthesized composites where the synergetic effect between phosphorus and carbon nanotubes allow for an improvement in the electrochemical performance of battery anodes. In fact, it has been shown that carbon nanotubes can act as an effective buffer to phosphorus volumetric expansions and contractions during charging and discharging of the half-cells [1]. By modifying the synthesis parameters, we have also been able to change the degree of crystallinity of the phosphorus matrix in the composites. In fact, the less common phase of red phosphorus, named fibrous phosphorus, was obtained, and that explains some of the varying electrochemical performances observed in the composites. Overall, it is found that a higher surface area of amorphous phosphorus allows for a better anode material when using single-walled carbon nanotubes as fillers.

  15. Next Generation Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Thermodynamic Understanding and Abuse Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this report are as follows: elucidate degradation mechanisms, decomposition products, and abuse response for next generation silicon based anodes; and Understand the contribution of various materials properties and cell build parameters towards thermal runaway enthalpies. Quantify the contributions from particle size, composition, state of charge (SOC), electrolyte to active materials ratio, etc.

  16. Next Generation Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries: Thermodynamic Understanding and Abuse Performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this project are to elucidate degradation mechanisms, decomposition products, and abuse response for next generation silicon based anodes; and understand the contribution of various materials properties and cell build parameters towards thermal runaway enthalpies. Quantify the contributions from various cell parameters such as particle size, composition, state of charge (SOC), electrolyte to active materials ratio, etc.

  17. Confined SnO2 quantum-dot clusters in graphene sheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chengling; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Kai; Hui, Zeyu; Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Di; Wang, Da-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Construction of metal oxide nanoparticles as anodes is of special interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The main challenge lies in their rapid capacity fading caused by the structural degradation and instability of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during charge/discharge process. Herein, we address these problems by constructing a novel-structured SnO2-based anode. The novel structure consists of mesoporous clusters of SnO2 quantum dots (SnO2 QDs), which are wrapped with...

  18. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ramabadran, Navaneet [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  19. Low-density silicon thin films for lithium-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkan, M.T., E-mail: tmdemirkan@ualr.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Trahey, L. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Karabacak, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Density of sputter deposited silicon (Si) thin films was changed by a simple working gas pressure control process, and its effects on the cycling performance of Si films in Li-ion batteries as anodes was investigated. Higher gas pressure results in reduced film densities due to a shadowing effect originating from lower mean free path of sputter atoms, which leads to a wider angular distribution of the incoming flux and formation of a porous film microstructure. Si thin film anodes of different densities ranging from 2.27 g/cm{sup 3} (film porosity ~ 3%) down to 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 30% porosity) were fabricated by magnetron sputtering at argon pressures varying from 0.2 Pa to 2.6 Pa, respectively. High density Si thin film anodes of 2.27 g/cm{sup 3} suffered from an unstable cycling behavior during charging/discharging depicted by a continuous reduction in specific down to ~ 830 mAh/g at the 100th cycle. Electrochemical properties of lower density films with 1.99 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 15% porosity) and 1.77 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 24% porosity) got worse resulting in only ~ 100 mAh/g capacity at 100th cycle. On the other hand, as the density of anode was further reduced down to about 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 30% porosity), cycling stability and capacity retention significantly improved resulting in specific capacity values ~ 650 mAh/g at 100th cycle with coulombic efficiencies of > 98%. Enhancement in our low density Si film anodes are believed to mainly originate from the availability of voids for volumetric expansion during lithiation and resulting compliant behavior that provides superior mechanical and electrochemical stability. - Highlights: • Low density Si thin films were studied as Li-ion battery anodes. • Low density Si films were fabricated by magnetron sputter deposition. • Density of Si films reduced down to as low as ~ 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} with a porosity of ~ 30% • Low density Si films presented superior mechanical properties during cycling.

  20. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  1. A Novel 2D Porous Print Fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 Sheet with High Performance as the Anode Material for Lithium-ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Suyue; Zhang, Peigen; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Shen, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Anode materials are very crucial in lithium ion batteries. Exploring the simple and low cost production of anodes with excellent electrochemical performance remains a great challenge. Here, we used natural flower spikes of Typha orientalis as the bio-templates and organizers to prepare a novel two-dimensional (2D) porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheet with thickness of about 30 nm. The prepared large-area sheets were orderly assembled by many nanosheets or nanoparticles, and two kinds of pore structures, such as pores with average diameter of about 50 nm or pore channels with aspect ratio of ca. 4, presented between adjacent nanosheets. The pre-treatment by ammonium for flower spikes has a great effect on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the products. As the anode material for lithium ion battery (LIB), the as-obtained porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheets show an initial discharge capacity of 2264 mA h g"−"1 and the specific capacity of 1028 mA h g"−"1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1, which is higher than the theoretical capacity of α-Fe_2O_3 (1007 mA h g"−"1). This highly reversible capacity is attributed to the very thin large-area sheet structure, and many pores or pore channels among the interconnected nanosheets, which could increase lithium-ion mobility, facilitate the transport of electrons and shorten the distance for Li"+ diffusion, and also buffer large volume changes of the anodes during lithium insertion and extraction at the same time. The synthesis process is very simple, providing a low-cost production approach toward high-performance energy storage materials.

  2. Exceptional Lithium Storage in a Co(OH) 2 Anode: Hydride Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunchul; Choi, Woon Ih [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Jang, Yoonjung; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Lee, Wontae; Park, Gwi Ok; Park, Su Bin; Yoo, Jaeseung; Hong, Jin Seok [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Choi, Youn-Suk [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Lee, Hyo Sug [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Bae, In Tae; Kim, Ji Man; Yoon, Won-Sub

    2018-02-26

    Current lithium ion battery technology is tied in with conventional reaction mechanisms such as insertion, conversion, and alloying reactions even though most future applications like EVs demand much higher energy densities than current ones. Exploring the exceptional reaction mechanism and related electrode materials can be critical for pushing current battery technology to a next level. Here, we introduce an exceptional reaction with a Co(OH)(2) material which exhibits an initial charge capacity of 1112 mAh g(-1), about twice its theoretical value based on known conventional conversion reaction, and retains its first cycle capacity after 30 cycles. The combined results of synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicate that nanosized Co metal particles and LiOH are generated by conversion reaction at high voltages, and CoxHy, Li2O, and LiH are subsequently formed by hydride reaction between Co metal, LiOH, and other lithium species at low voltages, resulting in a anomalously high capacity beyond the theoretical capacity of Co(OH)(2). This is further corroborated by AIMD simulations, localized STEM, and XPS. These findings will provide not only further understanding of exceptional lithium storage of recent nanostructured materials but also valuable guidance to develop advanced electrode materials with high energy density for next-generation batteries.

  3. “Double-Sandwich-Like” CuS@reduced graphene oxide as an Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yurong; Wei, Hengma; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jiawei; Ding, Jianning

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CuS@reduced graphene oxide displays excellent electrochemical behavior as an anode material for Lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: The CuS@reduced graphene oxide (CSG) was synthesized and used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). CuS nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets via a hydrothermal method. The rGO nanosheets in the CSG hydrids can improve the electrical conductivity and structure stability of CSG. The LIB with a CSG anode displays excellent performance, with a first discharge capacity up to 851 mAh/g, a reversible capacity of 648.1 mAh/g in the initial cycle, and an enhanced cyclic performance with a discharge capacity of 710.7 mAh/g at the 100 th cycle, which corresponds to 114.3% of the theoretical value of CSG and 83.5% of the first discharge capacity accompanied by an excellent Coulombic efficiency of 99.1% at a current density of 0.2 C, which is much larger than (close to 4.5 times) that with a pure CuS anode at the 100 th cycle (159.7 mAh/g). This phenomenon can be attributed to the synergistic action of CuS nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets in the “double-sandwich-like” CSG hybrids. These results indicate that CSG is an excellent anode material and has promising prospects in lithium ion batteries applications

  4. SnSe/carbon nanocomposite synthesized by high energy ball milling as an anode material for sodium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Zhao, Xingxing; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was synthesised by high energy ball milling and empolyed as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The nanocomposite anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Highlights: • A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was fabricated by high energy ball milling. • SnSe and carbon black are homogeneously mixed at the nanoscale level. • The SnSe/C anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black, denoted as SnSe/C nanocomposite, was fabricated by high energy ball milling and empolyed as a high performance anode material for both sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed that SnSe in SnSe/C nanocomposite was homogeneously distributed within carbon black. The nanocomposite anode exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances including a high capacity, long cycling behavior and good rate performance in both sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In SIBs, an initial capacitiy of 748.5 mAh g −1 was obtained and was maintained well on cycling (324.9 mAh g −1 at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 in the 200 th cycle) with 72.5% retention of second cycle capacity (447.7 mAh g −1 ). In LIBs, high initial capacities of approximately 1097.6 mAh g −1 was obtained, and this reduced to 633.1 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 500 mA g −1

  5. Titanium oxynitride thin films as high-capacity and high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Kuo-Feng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Su, Shih-Hsuan, E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Leu, Hoang-Jyh [Master' s Program of Green Energy Science and Technology, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Hsia, Chen-Hsien [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Titanium oxynitride (TiO{sub x}N{sub y}) was synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering in a mixed N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/Ar gas at ambient temperature. TiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were deposited by varying the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratios in the background gas. The synthesized TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films with different compositions (TiO{sub 1.837}N{sub 0.060,} TiO{sub 1.890}N{sub 0.068,} TiO{sub 1.865}N{sub 0.073}, and TiO{sub 1.882}N{sub 0.163}) all displayed anatase phase, except TiO{sub 1.882}N{sub 0.163}. The impedances and grain sizes showed obvious variations with the nitrogen contents. A wide potential window from 3.0 V to 0.05 V, high-rate charge–discharge testing, and long cycle testing were applied to investigate the performances of synthesized TiO{sub x}N{sub y} and pure TiO{sub 2} as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. These TiO{sub x}N{sub y} anodes can be cycled under high rates of 125 μA/cm{sup 2} (10 °C) because of the lower charge–transfer resistance compared with the TiO{sub 2} anode. At 10 °C the discharge capacity of the optimal TiO{sub x}N{sub y} composition is 1.5 times higher than that of pure TiO{sub 2}. An unexpectedly large reversible capacity of ~ 300 μAh/cm{sup 2} μm (~ 800 mAh/g) between 1.0 V and 0.05 V was recorded for the TiO{sub x}N{sub y} anodes. The TiO{sub x}N{sub y} anode was cycled (3.0 V to 0.05 V) at 10 °C over 300 times without capacity fading while delivering a capacity of ~ 150 μAh/cm{sup 2} μm (~ 400 mAh/g). - Highlights: • Titanium oxynitride (TiO{sub x}N{sub y}) thin films as anode materials were studied. • TiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were studied{sub .} • High rate capability of TiO{sub x}N{sub y} was studied.

  6. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zichao

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide. An in situ, scalable method for creating a variety of transition metal oxide-carbon nanocomposites has been developed based on free-radical polymerization and cross-linking of poly(acrylonitrile) in the presence of the metal oxide precursor containing vinyl groups. The approach yields a cross-linked polymer network, which uniformly incorporates nanometre-sized transition metal oxide particles. Thermal treatment of the organic-inorganic hybrid material produces nearly monodisperse metal oxide nanoparticles uniformly embedded in a porous carbon matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling electrochemical measurements in a lithium half-cell are used to evaluate the electrochemical properties of a Fe3O 4-carbon composite created using this approach. These measurements reveal that when used as the anode in a lithium battery, the material exhibits stable cycling performance at both low and high current densities. We further show that the polymer/nanoparticle copolymerization approach can be readily adapted to synthesize metal oxide/carbon nanocomposites based on different particle chemistries for applications in both the anode and cathode of LIBs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Three-dimensional core-shell Fe_2O_3 @ carbon/carbon cloth as binder-free anode for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Enzuo; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The 3D core-shell Fe_2O_3@C/CC structure is fabricated by simple hydrothermal route. • The composite connected 3D carbon networks consist of carbon cloth, Fe_2O_3 nanorods and outer carbon layer. • The Fe_2O_3@C/CC used as binder-free anode in LIBs, demonstrates excellent performances. - Abstract: A facile and scalable strategy is developed to fabricate three dimensional core-shell Fe_2O_3 @ carbon/carbon cloth structure by simple hydrothermal route as binder-free lithium-ion battery anode. In the unique structure, carbon coated Fe_2O_3 nanorods uniformly disperse on carbon cloth which forms the conductive carbon network. The hierarchical porous Fe_2O_3 nanorods in situ grown on the carbon cloth can effectively shorten the transfer paths of lithium ions and reduce the contact resistance. The carbon coating significantly inhibits pulverization of active materials during the repeated Li-ion insertion/extraction, as well as the direct exposure of Fe_2O_3 to the electrolyte. Benefiting from the structural integrity and flexibility, the nanocomposites used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent cyclability. Moreover, this kind of material represents an alternative promising candidate for flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices.

  8. Ultra-small Fe3O4 nanocrystals decorated on 2D graphene nanosheets with excellent cycling stability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Manman; Yang, Mingzhi; Liu, Weiliang; Li, Mei; Su, Liwei; Qiao, Congde; Wu, Xianbin; Ma, Houyi

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals decorated on 2D graphene nanosheets with excellent cycling stability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries Manman Ren, Mingzhi Yang, Weiliang Liu, Mei Li, Liwei Su, Congde Qiao, Xianbin Wu, Houyi Ma Ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals/graphene nanosheets composites demonstrate excellent long-term cycling stability at high-rate. - Abstract: Ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals (NCs)/garphene nanosheets (GNSs) composites have been synthesized through a facile gel-like film (GF) assisted method in this work. Fe 3 O 4 NCs with particle size ∼10 nm homogeneously dispersed on 2D GNSs. Profiting from the ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 NCs and GNSs, the composites demonstrate superior long-term and high-rate performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Even at the current density of 5 A g −1 , the reversible capacity still maintains 323.4 mAh g −1 after 700 cycles. This work might enlighten us on exploring preferable strategies to develop advanced metal oxides NCs/GNSs composites anode materials for lithium ion batteries or other energy storage devices.

  9. Layered oxides-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as anode electrode for symmetric rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Feng, Zimin; Yang, Shi-Ze; Gagnon, Catherine; Gariépy, Vincent; Laul, Dharminder; Zhu, Wen; Veillette, René; Trudeau, Michel L.; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-02-01

    High-performance and long-cycling rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been in steadily increasing demand for the past decades. Nevertheless, the two dominant anodes at the moment, graphite and L4T5O12, suffer from a safety issue of lithium plating (operating voltage at ∼ 0.1 V vs. Li+/Li) and low capacity (175 mAh/g), respectively. Here, we report LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as an alternative anode material which has a working voltage of ∼1.1 V and a capacity as high as 330 mAh/g at the current rate of C/15. Symmetric cells with both electrodes containing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can deliver average discharge voltage of 2.2 V. In-situ XRD, HRTEM and first principles calculations indicate that the reaction mechanism of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 anode is comprised mainly of conversion. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is a promising negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Gold-coated silicon nanowire-graphene core-shell composite film as a polymer binder-free anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Jung; Lee, Sang Eon; Lee, Jihye; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Eung-Sug; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Jun-Ho; Oh, Minsub; Hyun, Seungmin; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2014-07-01

    We designed and fabricated a gold (Au)-coated silicon nanowires/graphene (Au-SiNWs/G) hybrid composite as a polymer binder-free anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A large amount of SiNWs for LIB anode materials can be prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) process. The Au-SiNWs/G composite film on current collector was obtained by vacuum filtration using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and hot pressing method. Our experimental results show that the Au-SiNWs/G composite has a stable reversible capacity of about 1520 mA h/g which was maintained for 20 cycles. The Au-SiNWs/G composite anode showed much better cycling performance than SiNWs/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/Super-P, SiNWs/G composite, and pure SiNWs anodes. The improved electrochemical properties of the Au-SiNWs/G composite anode material is mainly ascribed to the composite's porous network structure.

  11. In situ electrochemical creation of cobalt oxide nanosheets with favorable performance as a high tap density anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Qian; Sha, Yujing; Zhao, Bote; Chen, Yubo; Tadé, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt oxide nanosheets in situ electrochemical generated from commercial LiCoO_2. • TEM indicates creation of cobalt oxide nanosheets from coarse layered LiCoO_2_. • Coarse-type LiCoO_2 with high tap density shows promising anode performance. • Optimizing weight ratio of LiCoO_2 in electrode, a high capacity was achieved. - Abstract: Cobalt oxides are attractive alternative anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To improve the performance of conversion-type anode materials such as cobalt oxides, well dispersed and nanosized particulate morphology is typically required. In this study, we describe the in situ electrochemical generation of cobalt oxide nanosheets from commercial micrometer-sized LiCoO_2 oxide as an anode material for LIBs. The electrode material as prepared was analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM and TEM. The electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and by a constant current galvanostatic discharge–charge test. The material shows a high tap density and promising anode performance in terms of capacity, rate performance and cycling stability. A capacity of 560 mA h g"−"1 is still achieved at a current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 by increasing the amount of additives in the electrode to 40 wt%. This paper provides a new technique for developing a high-performance conversion-type anode for LIBs.

  12. Hierarchical structured graphene/metal oxide/porous carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rong [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yue, Wenbo, E-mail: wbyue@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ren, Yu [National Institute of Clean-and-Low-Carbon Energy, Beijing 102209 (China); Zhou, Wuzong [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fite KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles display different behavior within CMK-3. • CMK-3-CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} show various electrochemical properties • CMK-3-CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets. • Graphene-encapsulated composites show better electrochemical performances. - Abstract: As a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, CeO{sub 2} displays imperceptible volumetric and morphological changes during the lithium insertion and extraction processes, and thereby exhibits good cycling stability. However, the low theoretical capacity and poor electronic conductivity of CeO{sub 2} hinder its practical application. In contrast, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} possesses high theoretical capacity, but undergoes huge volume change during cycling. To overcome these issues, CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are formed inside the pores of CMK-3 and display various electrochemical behaviors due to the different morphological structures of CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} within CMK-3. Moreover, the graphene/metal oxide/CMK-3 composites with a hierarchical structure are then prepared and exhibit better electrochemical performances than metal oxides with or without CMK-3. This novel synthesis strategy is hopefully employed in the electrode materials design for Li-ion batteries or other energy conversion and storage devices.

  13. Hierarchical SnO2-Graphite Nanocomposite Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries through High Energy Mechanical Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Vincent Ming Hong; Wu, Shuying; Liu, Peijiang; Zhu, Beibei; Yu, Linghui; Wang, Chuanhu; Huang, Hui; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhou, Jintang; Que, Wenxiu; Kong, Ling Bing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A simple and scalable process to concomitant downsizing to nanoscale, carbon coating, inclusion of voids and conductive network of graphite. •Using tungsten carbide milling media and 80:1 ball to powder ratio, micron SnO 2 particles are comminuted to nanosized SnO 2 crystallites. •Hierarchical structure of carbon-coated SnO2 nanoclusters anchored on thin graphite sheets are prepared. •Impressive reversible capacity of 725 mAh g −1 is achieved by ball milling a mixture of SnO 2 with 20 wt. % graphite for 20 h. •Synthesis parameters such as graphite content and milling time are systematically examined. -- Abstract: Development of novel electrode materials with unique architectural designs is necessary to attain high power and energy density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). SnO 2 , with high theoretical capacity of 1494 mAh g −1 , is a promising candidate anode material, which has been explored with various strategies, such as dimensional reduction, morphological modifications and composite formation. Unfortunately, most of the SnO 2 -based electrodes are prepared by using complex chemical synthesis methods, which are not feasible to scale up for practical applications. In addition, concomitant irrecoverable initial capacity loss and consequently poor initial Coulombic efficiency still persistently plagued these SnO 2 -based anodes. To overcome hitherto conceived irreversible formation of Li 2 O by conversion reaction, to fully harness its theoretical capacity, this work demonstrates that a hierarchical structured SnO 2 -C nanocomposite with 68.5% initial Coulombic efficiency and reversible capacity of 725 mAh g −1 can be derived from the mixtures of SnO 2 and graphite, by using low cost industrial compatible high energy ball milling activation.

  14. Recycled hierarchical tripod-like CuCl from Cu-PCB waste etchant for lithium ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Song [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 China (China); Hou, Hongying, E-mail: hongyinghou@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 China (China); Liu, Xianxi [Faculty of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 China (China); Duan, Jixiang; Yao, Yuan; Liao, Qishu; Li, Jing; Yang, Yunzhen [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 China (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • High EVA CuCl was recycled with 85% recovery from Cu-PCB waste etchant. • The recycled CuCl displayed a hierarchical tripod-like morphology. • The evolution mechanism of the recycled hierarchical CuCl crystal was proposed. • The corresponding discharge capacity in LIB was 201.4 mAh/g after 100 cycles. • The results shed a new light on resource recovery and environmental protection. - Abstract: Hierarchical CuCl with high economic value added (EVA) was successfully recycled with 85% recovery from the acid Cu printed circuit board (Cu-PCB) waste etchant via facile liquid chemical reduction. The micro-structure and morphology of the recycled hierarchical CuCl were systematically characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Furthermore, the corresponding electrochemical performances as lithium ion battery (LIB) anode were also investigated in terms of galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance. As expected, the recycled CuCl displayed a hierarchical tripod-like structure and large specific surface area of 21.2 m{sup 2}/g. As the anode in LIB, the reversible discharge capacity was about 201.4 mAh/g even after 100 cycles, implying the satisfactory cycle performance. Clearly, the satisfactory results may open a new avenue to develop the sustainable industry, which is very important in terms of both the resource recovery and the environmental protection.

  15. Electrochemical improvement of low-temperature petroleum cokes by chemical oxidation with H2O2 for their use as anodes in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concheso, A.; Santamaria, R.; Menendez, R.; Jimenez-Mateos, J.M.; Alcantara, R.; Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of non-graphitized petroleum cokes has been improved by mild oxidation using hydrogen peroxide, a procedure used for the first time in these materials. For this purpose, various carbonisation temperatures and H 2 O 2 treatments were tested. For low sulfur content cokes, the aqueous oxidative treatment significantly increases the capacity values above 372 mAh/g during the first cycles. In contrast, cokes with a sulfur content of ca. 5%, did not shown a real improvement. The former results have been interpreted in terms of an effective oxidation of the particles surface, which removes unorganized carbon, where lithium can be irreversibly trapped. Moreover, a stable and less resistive passivating layer grows during the first discharge of lithium, as revealed by impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, chemical procedures, as mild oxidation, open an interesting field of research for the improvement of disordered carbons as anode materials in lithium ion batteries

  16. Facile fabrication of composited Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers with high electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dianyun; Hao, Qin; Xu, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers are successfully prepared through one step dealloying of Mn_5Fe_5Al_9_0 alloy at room temperature. This hierarchical flower-like structure with consists of a packed array of uniform regular hexagon-like nanoslices. Combined with the specific hierarchical flower-like architecture and the synergistic effect exerted by Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4, the nanocomposite exhibits enhanced performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries than pure Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 anode. - Highlights: • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers are easily prepared by one step dealloying method. • The nanoflowers consist of packed regular nanoslices with interconnected voids. • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers deliver higher discharge capacity than Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4. • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers show lower initial irreversible loss than Mn_3O_4 anode. - Abstract: Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers with controllable components are simply fabricated through one step etching of the Mn_5Fe_5Al_9_0 ternary alloy. The as-made hierarchical flower-like structure with interconnected voids consists of a packed array of uniform regular hexagon-like nanoslices. Based on the simple dealloying strategy the target metals are directly converted to uniform nanocomposite composed of Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 species. With the unique hierarchical flower-like structure and the synergistic effects between Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4, the nanocomposite exhibits higher performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries than that of pure Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 anodes. The Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanocomposite deliver much higher discharge capacity and lower initial irreversible loss than Mn_3O_4 anode. The Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 anode material also shows an excellent cycling stability at the high rate of 1500 mA g"−"1 with outstanding rate capability. With the advantages of simple preparation and excellent electrochemical performance, Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers manifest great application potential as

  17. Bouquet-Like Mn2SnO4 Nanocomposite Engineered with Graphene Sheets as an Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Wasif Ur; Xu, Youlong; Sun, Xiaofei; Ullah, Inam; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Long

    2018-05-30

    Volume expansion is a major challenge associated with tin oxide (SnO x ), which causes poor cyclability in lithium-ion battery anode. Bare tin dioxide (SnO 2 ), tin dioxide with graphene sheets (SnO 2 @GS), and bouquet-like nanocomposite structure (Mn 2 SnO 4 @GS) are prepared via hydrothermal method followed by annealing. The obtained composite material presents a bouquet structure containing manganese and tin oxide nanoparticle network with graphene sheets. Benefiting from this porous nanostructure, in which graphene sheets provide high electronic pathways to enhance the electronic conductivity, uniformly distributed particles offer accelerated kinetic reaction with lithium ion and reduced volume deviation in the tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) particle during charge-discharge testing. As a consequence, ternary composite Mn 2 SnO 4 @GS showed a high rate performance and outstanding cyclability of anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The electrode achieved a specific capacity of about 1070 mA h g -1 at a current density of 400 mA g -1 after 200 cycles; meanwhile, the electrode still delivered a specific capacity of about 455 mA h g -1 at a high current density of 2500 mA g -1 . Ternary Mn 2 SnO 4 @GS material could facilitate fabrication of unique structure and conductive network as advanced lithium-ion battery.

  18. Fe3O4/C composite with hollow spheres in porous 3D-nanostructure as anode material for the lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Su, Danyang; Yang, Jinping; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    3d transition-metal oxides, especially Fe3O4, as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries have been attracting intensive attentions in recent years due to their high energy capacity and low toxicity. A new Fe3O4/C composite with hollow spheres in porous three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure, which was synthesized by a facile solvothermal method using FeCl3·6H2O and porous spongy carbon as raw materials. The specific surface area and microstructures of composite were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm method, FE-SEM and HR-TEM. A homogeneous distribution of hollow Fe3O4 spheres (diameter ranges from 120 nm to 150 nm) in the spongy carbon (pore size > 200 nm) conductive 3D-network significantly reduced the lithium-ion diffusion length and increased the electrochemical reaction area, and further more enhanced the lithium ion battery performance, such as discharge capacity and cycle life. As an anode material for the lithium-ion battery, the title composite exhibit excellent electrochemical properties. The Fe3O4/C composite electrode achieved a relatively high reversible specific capacity of 1450.1 mA h g-1 in the first cycle at 100 mA g-1, and excellent rate capability (69% retention at 1000 mA g-1) with good cycle stability (only 10% loss after 100 cycles).

  19. A high performance lithium ion capacitor achieved by the integration of a Sn-C anode and a biomass-derived microporous activated carbon cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Zhu, Yuwen; Pi, Xinxin; Wang, Lijie; Liu, Xin; Qin, Yukun

    2017-02-03

    Hybridizing battery and capacitor materials to construct lithium ion capacitors (LICs) has been regarded as a promising avenue to bridge the gap between high-energy lithium ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors. One of the key difficulties in developing advanced LICs is the imbalance in the power capability and charge storage capacity between anode and cathode. Herein, we design a new LIC system by integrating a rationally designed Sn-C anode with a biomass-derived activated carbon cathode. The Sn-C nanocomposite obtained by a facile confined growth strategy possesses multiple structural merits including well-confined Sn nanoparticles, homogeneous distribution and interconnected carbon framework with ultra-high N doping level, synergically enabling the fabricated anode with high Li storage capacity and excellent rate capability. A new type of biomass-derived activated carbon featuring both high surface area and high carbon purity is also prepared to achieve high capacity for cathode. The assembled LIC (Sn-C//PAC) device delivers high energy densities of 195.7 Wh kg -1 and 84.6 Wh kg -1 at power densities of 731.25 W kg -1 and 24375 W kg -1 , respectively. This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid system by tailoring the nanostructures of Li insertion anode and ion adsorption cathode.

  20. Scalable Production of the Silicon-Tin Yin-Yang Hybrid Structure with Graphene Coating for High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Bin; Zheng, Qinghui; Zhang, Zijiao; Zhu, Guoying; Yu, Qian; Jin, Zhong; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-10

    Alloy anodes possessed of high theoretical capacity show great potential for next-generation advanced lithium-ion battery. Even though huge volume change during lithium insertion and extraction leads to severe problems, such as pulverization and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), various nanostructures including nanoparticles, nanowires, and porous networks can address related challenges to improve electrochemical performance. However, the complex and expensive fabrication process hinders the widespread application of nanostructured alloy anodes, which generate an urgent demand of low-cost and scalable processes to fabricate building blocks with fine controls of size, morphology, and porosity. Here, we demonstrate a scalable and low-cost process to produce a porous yin-yang hybrid composite anode with graphene coating through high energy ball-milling and selective chemical etching. With void space to buffer the expansion, the produced functional electrodes demonstrate stable cycling performance of 910 mAh g -1 over 600 cycles at a rate of 0.5C for Si-graphene "yin" particles and 750 mAh g -1 over 300 cycles at 0.2C for Sn-graphene "yang" particles. Therefore, we open up a new approach to fabricate alloy anode materials at low-cost, low-energy consumption, and large scale. This type of porous silicon or tin composite with graphene coating can also potentially play a significant role in thermoelectrics and optoelectronics applications.

  1. Carbon-coated Si nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide multilayer anchored to nanostructured current collector as lithium-ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhengjiao; Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Boli; Xie, Wenhe; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan, E-mail: hedy@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-02-28

    Silicon is the most promising anode material for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation and low intrinsic conductivity hamper its electrochemical performance. Here we report a well-designed LIB anode in which carbon-coated Si nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (Si/rGO) multilayer was anchored to nanostructured current collector with stable mechanical support and rapid electron conduction. Furthermore, we improved the integral stability of the electrode through introducing amorphous carbon. The designed anode exhibits superior cyclability, its specific capacity remains above 800 mAh g{sup −1} after 350 cycles at a current density of 2.0 A g{sup −1}. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fact that the Si/rGO multilayer is reinforced by the nanostructured current collector and the formed amorphous carbon, which can maintain the structural and electrical integrities of the electrode.

  2. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  3. Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.

    2010-03-23

    Composite electrodes composed of silicon nanowires synthesized using the supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) method mixed with amorphous carbon or carbon nanotubes were evaluated as Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon coating of the silicon nanowires using the pyrolysis of sugar was found to be crucial for making good electronic contact to the material. Using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the conducting additive was found to be more effective for obtaining good cycling behavior than using amorphous carbon. Reversible capacities of 1500 mAh/g were observed for 30 cycles. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Solution-grown silicon nanowires for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Patel, Reken N; O'Connell, Michael J; Korgel, Brian A; Cui, Yi

    2010-03-23

    Composite electrodes composed of silicon nanowires synthesized using the supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) method mixed with amorphous carbon or carbon nanotubes were evaluated as Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon coating of the silicon nanowires using the pyrolysis of sugar was found to be crucial for making good electronic contact to the material. Using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the conducting additive was found to be more effective for obtaining good cycling behavior than using amorphous carbon. Reversible capacities of 1500 mAh/g were observed for 30 cycles.

  5. Electrochemistry and safety of Li 4Ti 5O 12 and graphite anodes paired with LiMn 2O 4 for hybrid electric vehicle Li-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belharouak, Ilias; Koenig, Gary M.; Amine, K.

    A promising anode material for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is Li 4Ti 5O 12 (LTO). LTO intercalates lithium at a voltage of ∼1.5 V relative to lithium metal, and thus this material has a lower energy compared to a graphite anode for a given cathode material. However, LTO has promising safety and cycle life characteristics relative to graphite anodes. Herein, we describe electrochemical and safety characterizations of LTO and graphite anodes paired with LiMn 2O 4 cathodes in pouch cells. The LTO anode outperformed graphite with regards to capacity retention on extended cycling, pulsing impedance, and calendar life and was found to be more stable to thermal abuse from analysis of gases generated at elevated temperatures and calorimetric data. The safety, calendar life, and pulsing performance of LTO make it an attractive alternative to graphite for high power automotive applications, in particular when paired with LiMn 2O 4 cathode materials.

  6. Facile crystal-structure-controlled synthesis of iron oxides for adsorbents and anode materials of lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yao; Liu, Lihu; Qiao, Wencan; Liu, Fan [College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Zhang, Yashan [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 55 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT, 06269 (United States); Tan, Wenfeng [College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Qiu, Guohong, E-mail: qiugh@mail.hzau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Iron oxides exhibit excellent physicochemical properties as functional materials because of the diversity of crystal structure. Nano-sized iron oxides, including akaganite (β-FeOOH), maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 8}∙4H{sub 2}O) and hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), were prepared by a facile reflux treatment of iron powder in NaClO solution at 50 °C for 12 h. The crystal structures were controlled by adjusting the pH values of reaction systems. Akaganite, maghemite, ferrihydrite, and hematite were formed when pHs were adjusted to 2–4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. They showed excellent adsorption performance for As(III), and the adsorption capacity was affected by crystal structure as well as specific surface area. The maximum adsorption capacity for akaganite, maghemite, ferrihydrite, and hematite reached 89.8, 79.1, 78.4, and 63.4 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. Hematite showed lithium storage capacity of 2043 mAh g{sup −1} for the first cycle and then kept stable after twenty cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The discharge specific capacity stabilized at 639 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles. The as-prepared iron oxides might be applied as potential adsorbents and anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • Nano-sized ferric oxides were fabricated by refluxing iron powder in NaClO solutions. • Crystal structures were controlled by adjusting pHs from 2.0 to 10.0 in systems. • Akaganite exhibited the largest As(III) adsorption capacity of 89.8 mg g{sup −1}. • Hematite had lithium storage capacity of 639 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles.

  7. High-rate capability of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous T-Nb2O5 through Li+ intercalation pseudocapacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shuaifeng; Cheng, Xinqun; Wang, Long; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Qin; Ma, Yulin; Gao, Yunzhi; Zuo, Pengjian; Du, Chunyu; Yin, Geping

    2017-09-01

    Orthorhombic Niobium oxide (T-Nb2O5) has been regarded as a promising anode material for high-rate lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its potential to operate at high rates with improved safety and high theoretical capacity of 200 mA h g-1. Herein, three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) T-Nb2O5, with mesoporous hierarchical structure, was firstly prepared by a simple approach employing self-assembly polystyrene (PS) microspheres as hard templates. The obtained T-Nb2O5 anode material presents obvious and highly-efficiency pseudocapacitive Li+ intercalation behaviour, which plays a dominant role in the kinetics of electrode process. As a result, rapid Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation are achieved, leading to excellent rate capability and long cycle life. The 3DOM T-Nb2O5 shows a remarkable high capacity of 106 and 77 mA h g-1 at the rate of 20C and 50C. The work presented herein holds great promise for future design of material structure, and demonstrates the great potential of T-Nb2O5 as a practical high-rate anode material for LIBs.

  8. Correlations among structure, composition and electrochemical performances of WO3 anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pu; Li, Xing; Zhao, Ziyan; Wang, Mingshan; Fox, Thomas; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The residual precursor ions affect the charge/discharge performances of WO 3 . • Lithiated monoclinic WO 3 reveals the best discharge capacity. • Lithiation can enhance the conductivity of WO 3 . - Abstract: Suitable host structure for lithium insertion and extraction is crucial for lithium-ion batteries. Tungsten trioxides (WO 3 ) are particularly interesting materials for this purpose. In this work, the influences of structure and composition of WO 3 on the charge/discharge performances of Li-ion batteries are systematically investigated. Firstly, lithiated tungsten trioxides (Li-WO 3 ) are successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method followed by annealing at different temperatures (200–600 °C). It is found that the hexagonal framework collapses and gradually transforms to the monoclinic phase due to the release of NH 4 + and NH 3 molecules. Unexpectedly, monoclinic WO 3 reveals better performances than that of hexagonal WO 3 . Among all the investigated samples, the lithiated WO 3 annealed at 500 °C exhibits the highest discharge capacity and cycle performance (703 mAh g −1 after 10 cycles). We believe that the Li + remained in the solid structure of WO 3 can lead to a more stable structure. In addition, Li + could inhibit the oxidation of W 5+ during the heat treatment process, which increases the electron conductivity of WO 3 . Our results indicate that the electrochemical properties of WO 3 are strongly related to the residual precursor and crystal structure.

  9. Inhibition of anodic corrosion of aluminium cathode current collector on recharging in lithium imide electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianming; Yasukawa, Eiki; Mori, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Research Center, Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Pitting corrosion of aluminum as cathode current collector for lithium rechargeable batteries was found to take place at potential positive of 3.5 V in 1 mol dm {sup -3} LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} /EC + DME (1:1) electrolyte. The corrosion mechanism of aluminum in the presence of LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} was proposed, and three methods were deduced to inhibit the aluminum corrosion based on this mechanism. As a result, an additive of lithium salts based on perfluorinated inorganic anions, especially LiPF{sub 6}, was found to inhibit the aluminum corrosion to a certain extent by forming a protective film on aluminum surface. The oxidation stability of aluminum in LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} -containing electrolytes depended strongly on the solvent structure. The ether solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dimethoxyethane (DME) were effective in preventing aluminum corrosion due to their low dielectric constants. Furthermore, LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2} salt with a larger anion than that of LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} was evaluated and good oxidation stability of aluminum was obtained regardless of the kind of solvents. (Author)

  10. Theoretical prediction of silicene as a new candidate for the anode of lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Talebi, Seyedeh Mozhgan; Kazeminezhad, Iraj; Beheshtian, Javad

    2015-11-28

    Using density functional theory calculations, we determine the band structure and DOS of graphene and silicene supercell models. We also study the adsorption mechanism of Li metal atoms and Li-ions onto free-standing silicene (buckled, θ = 101.7°) and compare the results with those of graphene. In contrast to graphene, interactions between Li metal atoms and Li-ions with the silicene surface are quite strong due to its highly reactive buckled hexagonal structure. As a consequence of structural properties the adsorption height, the most stable adsorption site and energy barrier against Li diffusion are also discussed here to outline the prospects of using silicene in electronic devices such as Li ion batteries (LiBs), hydrogen storage and molecular machines. However, in most LiBs, graphene layers are used as anode electrodes. Here, it is shown that graphene has very limited Li storage capacity and low surface area than silicene. As our models are in good agreement with previous predictions, this finding presents a possible avenue for creating better anode materials that can replace graphene for higher capacity and better cycling performance of LiBs.

  11. Effects of entropy changes in anodes and cathodes on the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williford, Ralph E.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The entropy changes ({delta}S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). A thermal model based on the fundamental properties of individual electrodes was used to obtain transient and equilibrium temperature distributions of Li-ion batteries. The results from theoretical simulations were compared with results obtained in experimental measurements. We found that the detailed shape of the entropy curves strongly depends on the manufacturer of the materials even for the same nominal compositions. LiCoO{sub 2} has a much larger entropy change than LiNi{sub x}Co{sub y}Mn{sub z}O{sub 2}. This means that LiNi{sub x}Co{sub y}Mn{sub z}O{sub 2} is much more thermodynamically stable than LiCoO{sub 2}. The temperatures around the positive terminal of a prismatic battery are consistently higher than those at the negative terminal, due to differences in the thermal conductivities of the different terminal connectors. When all other simulation parameters are the same, simulations that use a battery-averaged entropy tend to overestimate the predicted temperatures when compared with simulations that use individual entropies for the anode and the cathode, due to computational averaging. (author)

  12. Silicon-Encapsulated Hollow Carbon Nanofiber Networks as Binder-Free Anodes for Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Nan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-encapsulated hollow carbon nanofiber networks with ample space around the Si nanoparticles (hollow Si/C composites were successfully synthesized by dip-coating phenolic resin onto the surface of electrospun Si/PVA nanofibers along with the subsequent solidification and carbonization. More importantly, the structure and Si content of hollow Si/C composite nanofibers can be effectively tuned by merely varying the concentration of dip solution. As-synthesized hollow Si/C composites show excellent electrochemical performance when they are used as binder-free anodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs. In particular, when the concentration of resol/ethanol solution is 3.0%, the product exhibits a large capacity of 841 mAh g−1 in the first cycle, prominent cycling stability, and good rate capability. The discharge capacity retention of it was ~90%, with 745 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. The results demonstrate that the hollow Si/C composites are very promising as alternative anode candidates for high-performance LIBs.

  13. High quality NMP exfoliated graphene nanosheet-SnO2 composite anode material for lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Raman; Gopukumar, Sukumaran

    2013-03-21

    A graphene nanosheet-SnO(2) (GNS-SnO(2)) composite is prepared using N-methylpyrrolidone as a solvent to exfoliate graphene from graphite bar with the aid of CTAB by single phase co-precipitation method. The synthesized composites has been characterised physically by powder XRD which confirms the formation of the composite tetragonal SnO(2) crystal system with the low intense broad 002 plane for GNS. The sandwiched morphology of GNS-SnO(2) and the formation of nanosized particles (around 20 nm) have been confirmed by SEM and TEM images. The presence of sp(2) carbon in the GNS is clear by the highly intense G than D band in laser Raman spectroscopy analysis; furthermore, a single chemical shift has been observed at 132.14 ppm from solid-state (13)C NMR analysis. The synthesized composite has been electrochemically characterized using charge-discharge and EIS analysis. The capacity retentions at the end of the first 10 cycles is 57% (100 mA g(-1) rate), the second 10 cycles is 77.83% (200 mA g(-1)), and the final 10 cycles (300 mA g(-1)) is 81.5%. Moreover the impedance analysis clearly explains the low resistance pathway for Li(+) insertion after 30 cycles when compared with the initial cycle. This superior characteristic of GNS-SnO(2) composite suggests that it is a promising candidate for lithium ion battery anode.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties of nano-sized Co-Sn alloy anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianchao; Zhao Hailei; Wang Jing; Wang Jie; Chen Jingbo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nano-sized Co-Sn alloys were synthesized by hydrothermal route. → Li 2 O and CoSn can buffer the large volume change associated with lithiation of Sn. → A two-step reaction mechanism of CoSn 2 alloy during cycling was confirmed. - Abstract: Nano-sized Co-Sn alloys with a certain amount of Sn oxides used as potential anode materials for lithium ion batteries were synthesized by hydrothermal route. The effects of hydrothermal conditions and post annealing on the phase compositions and the electrochemical properties of synthesized powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis and galvanostatic cycling tests. Prolonging the dwelling time at the same hydrothermal temperature can increase the content of Sn oxides, which will lead to a high initial irreversible capacity loss but a better cycling stability owing to the buffer effect of irreversible product Li 2 O. Heat-treatment can increase the crystallinity and cause the presence of a certain amount of inert CoSn component, which both have positive impact on the cycling stability of Co-Sn electrode. By comparison with the lithiation/delithiation processes of metal Sn, a two-step mechanism of CoSn 2 alloy during cycling was confirmed.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, elect