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Sample records for lithium beryllium boron

  1. Beryllium, Lithium and Oxygen Abundances in F-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    García-López, R J; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Casares, C; Rasilla, J L; Rebolo, R; Allende-Prieto, C

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium and oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of F-type field stars for which lithium abundances had been measured previously, with the aim of obtaining observational constraints to discriminate between the different mixing mechanisms proposed. Mixing associated with the transport of angular momentum in the stellar interior and internal gravity waves within the framework of rotating evolutionary models, appear to be promising ways to explain the observations.

  2. A diethylhydroxylaminate based mixed lithium/beryllium aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Raphael J.F. [Paris-Lodron Universitaet Salzburg (Austria). Fachbereich fuer Materialwissenschaften und Physik; Jana, Surajit [Asansol Girls College, West-Bengal (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Froehlich, Roland [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Organisch-Chemisches Inst.; Mitzel, Norbert W. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Anorganische Chemie und Strukturchemie

    2015-07-01

    A mixed lithium/beryllium diethylhydroxylaminate compound containing {sup n}butyl beryllium units of total molecular composition {sup n}Be(ONEt{sub 2}){sub 2} [(LiONEt{sub 2}){sup 2} {sup n}BuBeONEt{sub 2}]{sub 2} (1) was isolated from a reaction mixture of {sup n}butyl lithium, N,N-diethylhydroxylamine and BeCl{sub 2} in diethylether/thf. The crystal structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The aggregate is composed of two ladder-type subunits connected in a beryllium-centered distorted tetrahedron of four oxygen atoms. Only the lithium atoms are engaged in coordination with the nitrogen donor atoms. The DFT calculations support the positional occupation determined for Li and Be in the crystal structure. The DFT and the solid-state structure are in excellent agreement, indicating only weak intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Structural details of metal atom coordination are discussed.

  3. Boronated mesophase pitch coke for lithium insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackowiak, E.; Machnikowski, J.; Kaczmarska, H.; Béguin, F.

    Boronated carbons from mesophase pitch have been used as materials for lithium storage in Li/carbon cells. Doping by boron has been realized by co-pyrolysis of coal tar pitch with the pyridine-borane complex. Amount of boron in mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) varied from 1.4 to 1.8 wt.% affecting the texture of carbon. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffractograms have shown tendency to more disordered structure for boron-doped carbon. The values of specific reversible capacity ( x) varied from 0.7 to 1.1 depending significantly on the final temperature of pyrolysis (700-1150°C). The optimal charge/discharge performance was observed for boronated carbon heated at 1000°C.

  4. Inorganic arrangement crystal beryllium, lithium, selenium and silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Gobato, Ricardo; Fedrigo, Desire Francine Gobato

    2015-01-01

    The use of inorganic crystals technology has been widely date. Since quartz crystals for watches in the nineteenth century, and common way radio in the early twentieth century, to computer chips with new semiconductor materials. Chemical elements such as beryllium, lithium, selenium and silicon, are widely used in technology. The development of new crystals arising from that arrangement can bring technological advances in several areas of knowledge. The likely difficulty of finding such crystals in nature or synthesized, suggest an advanced study of the subject. A study using computer programs with ab initio method was applied. As a result of the likely molecular structure of the arrangement of a crystal was obtained.

  5. REQUIREMENTS FOR COLLISION DATA ON THE SPECIES HELIUM, BERYLLIUM AND BORON IN MAGNETIC CONFINEMENT FUSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUMMERS, HP; VONHELLERMANN, M; DEHEER, FJ; HOEKSTRA, R

    1992-01-01

    Requirements for collision data on helium, beryllium and boron are reviewed in the light of the directions of present and planned tokamak fusion experiments. The occurrence of the atoms and ions of these species and their roles in plasma behaviour and diagnostic measurements are described. Special e

  6. Isotope shifts in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazé, C.; Verdebout, S. [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, CP160/09, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rynkun, P.; Gaigalas, G. [Vilnius University, Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Godefroid, M., E-mail: mrgodef@ulb.ac.be [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, CP160/09, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Jönsson, P. [Group for Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Malmö University, 205-06 Malmö (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Energy levels, normal and specific mass shift parameters as well as electronic densities at the nucleus are reported for numerous states along the beryllium, boron, carbon, and nitrogen isoelectronic sequences. Combined with nuclear data, these electronic parameters can be used to determine values of level and transition isotope shifts. The calculation of the electronic parameters is done using first-order perturbation theory with relativistic configuration interaction wavefunctions that account for valence, core–valence, and core–core correlation effects as zero-order functions. Results are compared with experimental and other theoretical values, when available.

  7. The shocking development of lithium (and boron) in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, David S. P.; Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Truran, James

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that significant amounts of Li-7 and B-11 are produced in Type 2 supernovae. The synthesis of these rare elements occurs as the supernova shock traverses the base of the hydrogen envelope burning He-3 to masses 7 and 11 via alpha capture. The yields in this process are sufficient to account for the difference in lithium abundance observed between Pop 2 and Pop 1 stars. Since lithium (and boron) would, in this manner, be created in the same stars that produce the bulk of the heavy elements, the lithium abundance even in old Pop 1 stars would be high (as observed). The B-11 production may remedy the long-standing problem of the traditional spallation scenario to account for the observed isotopic ratio of boron. Observational consequences of this mechanism are discussed, including the evolution of lithium and boron isotope ratios in the Galaxy and the possible use of the boron yields to constrain the number of blue progenitor Type 2 supernovae.

  8. Lamb shift in muonic ions of lithium, beryllium and boron

    CERN Document Server

    Krutov, A A; Martynenko, F A; Sukhorukova, O S

    2016-01-01

    We present a precise calculation of the Lamb shift $(2P_{1/2}-2S_{1/2})$ in muonic ions $(\\mu ^6_3Li)^{2+},~(\\mu ^7_3Li)^{2+}$, $(\\mu ^9_4Be)^{3+},~(\\mu ^{10}_4Be)^{3+}$, $(\\mu ^{10}_5B)^{4+},~(\\mu ^{11}_5B)^{4+}$. The contributions of orders $\\alpha^3\\div\\alpha^6$ to the vacuum polarization, nuclear structure and recoil, relativistic effects are taken into account. Our numerical results are consistent with previous calculations and improve them due to account of new corrections. The obtained results can be used for the comparison with future experimental data, and extraction more accurate values of nuclear charge radii.

  9. Lamb shift in muonic ions of lithium, beryllium, and boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutov, A. A.; Martynenko, A. P.; Martynenko, F. A.; Sukhorukova, O. S.

    2016-12-01

    We present a precise calculation of the Lamb shift (2 P1 /2-2 S1 /2) in muonic ions (μ36Li) 2 +,(μ37Li) 2 + , (μ49Be) 3 +,(μ410Be) 3 + , (μ510B) 4 +,(μ511B) 4 + . The contributions of orders α3÷α6 to the vacuum polarization, nuclear structure and recoil, and relativistic effects are taken into account. Our numerical results are consistent with previous calculations and improved by additional corrections. The obtained results can be used for the comparison with future experimental data, and extraction more accurate values of nuclear charge radii.

  10. Halo effective field theory constrains the solar Beryllium-7 + proton -> Boron-8 + photon rate

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xilin; Phillips, D R

    2015-01-01

    We report an improved low-energy extrapolation of the cross section for the process Beryllium-7+proton -> Boron-8+photon, which determines the Boron-8 neutrino flux from the Sun. Our extrapolant is derived from Halo Effective Field Theory (EFT) at next-to-leading order. We apply Bayesian methods to determine the EFT parameters and the low-energy S-factor, using measured cross sections and scattering lengths as inputs. Asymptotic normalization coefficients of Boron-8 are tightly constrained by existing radiative capture data, and contributions to the cross section beyond external direct capture are detected in the data at E < 0.5 MeV. Most importantly, the S-factor at zero energy is constrained to be S(0)= 21.3 + - 0.7 eV b, which is an uncertainty smaller by a factor of two than previously recommended. That recommendation was based on the full range for S(0) obtained among a discrete set of models judged to be reasonable. In contrast, Halo EFT subsumes all models into a controlled low-energy approximant, w...

  11. Amorphous boron nanorod as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changjian; Lau, Miu Lun; Barkholtz, Heather M; Xu, Haiping; Parrish, Riley; Xu, Meiyue Olivia; Xu, Tao; Liu, Yuzi; Wang, Hao; Connell, Justin G; Smith, Kassiopeia A; Xiong, Hui

    2017-08-03

    We report an amorphous boron nanorod anode material for lithium-ion batteries prepared through smelting non-toxic boron oxide in liquid lithium. Boron in theory can provide capacity as high as 3099 mA h g(-1) by alloying with Li to form B4Li5. However, experimental studies of the boron anode have been rarely reported for room temperature lithium-ion batteries. Among the reported studies the electrochemical activity and cycling performance of the bulk crystalline boron anode material are poor at room temperature. In this work, we utilized an amorphous nanostructured one-dimensional (1D) boron material aiming at improving the electrochemical reactivity between boron and lithium ions at room temperature. The amorphous boron nanorod anode exhibited, at room temperature, a reversible capacity of 170 mA h g(-1) at a current rate of 10 mA g(-1) between 0.01 and 2 V. The anode also demonstrated good rate capability and cycling stability. The lithium storage mechanism was investigated by both sweep voltammetry measurements and galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques (GITTs). The sweep voltammetric analysis suggested that the contributions from lithium ion diffusion into boron and the capacitive process to the overall lithium charge storage are 57% and 43%, respectively. The results from GITT indicated that the discharge capacity at higher potentials (>∼0.2 V vs. Li/Li(+)) could be ascribed to a capacitive process and at lower potentials (lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Lithium and boron burning S(E)-factor measurements at astrophysical energies via the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Grineviciute, J.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Palmerini, S.; Pappalardo, L.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tognelli, E.; Tumino, A.

    2014-03-01

    The residual amount of light elements lithium, beryllium and boron (LiBeB) abundances in stellar atmospheres has been largely accepted as one of the most powerful probes for understanding stellar structure and mixing phenomena. They are in fact gradually destroyed at different depths of stellar interior mainly by (p,α), thus their fate in stars is an incomparable tool for studying mixing processes. In order to avoid extrapolation procedures on the available direct S(E)-factor measurements, the Trojan Horse Method (THM) has been developed, allowing one to measure the bare nucleus S(E)-factor for astrophysically relevant reactions without experiencing Coulomb penetrability effects. Here, a summary on the recent 6,7Li and 11B TH investigations will be given and the corresponding results discussed.

  13. An intensified π-hole in beryllium-doped boron nitride meshes: its determinant role in CO2 conversion into hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofra, Luis Miguel; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Sun, Chenghua

    2016-02-28

    DFT investigations on beryllium-doped boron nitride meshes or sheets (BNs) predict the existence of a very reactive kind of novel material capable of spontaneously reducing the first hydrogenation step in the CO2 conversion mechanism. This impressive behaviour appears as a result of the very deep π-hole generated by the beryllium moieties, and also determines its selectivity towards the production of CH4.

  14. Distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8, were obtained by spontaneous nucleation from a high-temperature melt. In the Sr2Li[BeB3O8] structure, [BeB2O7]6− rings, made up from one BeO4 tetrahedron and two BO3 triangles, are connected to each other by [BO3] triangles to form the smallest repeat unit {[BeB3O8]8−} and then form chains along the b axis. The Sr2+ cations are seven- or eight-coordinated and Li+ cations are tetra-coordinated and lie between the chains.

  15. Beryllium is an inhibitor of cellular GSK-3β that is 1,000-fold more potent than lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudireddy, Swapna R; Abdul, Ataur Rahman Mohammed; Gorjala, Priyatham; Gary, Ronald K

    2014-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is a key regulator in signaling networks that control cell proliferation, metabolism, development, and other processes. Lithium chloride is a GSK-3 family inhibitor that has been a mainstay of in vitro and in vivo studies for many years. Beryllium salt has the potential to act as a lithium-like inhibitor of GSK-3, but it is not known whether this agent is effective under physiologically relevant conditions. Here we show that BeSO4 inhibits endogenous GSK-3β in cultured human cells. Exposure to 10 µM Be(2+) produced a decrease in GSK-3β kinase activity that was comparable to that produced by 10 mM Li(+), indicating that beryllium is about 1,000-fold more potent than the classical inhibitor when treating intact cells. There was a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in specific activity of GSK-3β immunoprecipitated from cells that had been treated with either agent. Lithium inhibited GSK-3β kinase activity directly, and it also caused GSK-3β in cells to become phosphorylated at serine-9 (Ser-9), a post-translational modification that occurs as part of a well-known positive feedback loop that suppresses the kinase activity. Beryllium also inhibited the kinase directly, but unlike lithium it had little effect on Ser-9 phosphorylation in the cell types tested, suggesting that alternative modes of feedback inhibition may be elicited by this agent. These results indicate that beryllium, like lithium, can induce perturbations in the GSK-3β signaling network of treated cells.

  16. Graphitized boron-doped carbon foams: Performance as anodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Elena; Camean, Ignacio; Garcia, Roberto [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), C/Francisco Pintado Fe 26, 33011 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, Ana B., E-mail: anabgs@incar.csic.es [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), C/Francisco Pintado Fe 26, 33011 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > Because of the catalytic effect of boron, graphite-like foams were prepared. > The presence of substitutional boron in carbon foams improves their anodic performance. > The graphitized boron-doped foams provide reversible capacities of 310 mA h g{sup -1}. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance as potential anodes in lithium-ion batteries of several boron-doped and non-doped graphitic foams with different degree of structural order was investigated by galvanostatic cycling. The boron-doped foams were prepared by the co-pyrolysis of a coal and two boron sources (boron oxide and a borane-pyridine complex), followed by heat treatment in the 2400-2800 deg. C temperature interval. The extent of the graphitization process of the carbon foams depends on boron concentration and source. Because of the catalytic effect of boron, lightweight graphite-like foams were prepared. Boron in the foams was found to be present as carbide (B{sub 4}C), in substitutional positions in the carbon lattice (B-C), bonded to nitrogen (B-N) and forming clusters. Larger reversible lithium storage capacities with values up to {approx}310 mA h g{sup -1} were achieved by using the boron oxide-based carbon foams. Moreover, since the electrochemical anodic performance of these boron-doped foams with different degree of structural order is similar, the beneficial effect of the presence of the B-C boron phase was inferred. However, the bonding of boron with nitrogen in the pyridine borane-based has a negative effect on lithium intercalation.

  17. Potential mining of lithium, beryllium and strontium from oilfield wastewater after enrichment in constructed wetlands and ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Headley, Tom; Prigent, Stephane; Breuer, Roman

    2014-09-15

    Shortages of resources (chemical elements) used by growing industrial activities require new techniques for their acquisition. A suitable technique could be the use of wetlands for the enrichment of elements from produced water of the oil industry. Oil industries produce very high amounts of water in the course of oil mining. These waters may contain high amounts of rare elements. To our best knowledge nothing is known about the economic potential regarding rare element mining from produced water. Therefore, we estimated the amount of harvestable rare elements remaining in the effluent of a constructed wetland-pond system which is being used to treat and evaporate vast quantities of produced waters. The examined wetland system is located in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula. This system manages 95,000 m(3) per day within 350 ha of surface flow wetlands and 350 ha of evaporation ponds and is designed to be used for at least 20 years. We found a strong enrichment of some chemical elements in the water pathway of the system (e.g. lithium up to 896 μg L(-1) and beryllium up to 139 μg L(-1)). For this wetland, lithium and beryllium are the elements with the highest economic potential resulting from a high price and load. It is calculated that after 20 years retention period 131 t of lithium and 57 t of beryllium could be harvested. This technique may also be useful for acquisition of rare earth elements. Other elements (e.g. strontium) with a high calculated load of 4500 tons in 20 years are not efficiently harvestable due to a relatively low market value. In conclusion, wetland treated waters from the oil industry offer a promising new acquisition technique for elements like lithium and beryllium.

  18. Lithium insertion/deinsertion of boron doped graphitic carbons synthesized by different procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frackowiak, E.; Kierzek, K.; Lota, G.; Machnikowski, J. [Poznan Technical University, Poznan (Poland)

    2008-05-15

    The lithium insertion/deinsertion behaviour for a series of pure and boron doped graphites prepared from coal tar derived pitch has been studied. Materials treated with boron were pitch-coke and graphitic carbon produced by heat treatment at 1000 and 2900{sup o}C, respectively. The powdered samples were mixed with 2 wt% of nanocrystalline boron and annealed at 2300{sup o}C for 0.5 h under argon. Additionally, post-treatment of samples in hydrogen at 700 degrees C for 1 h was applied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed. Lithium intercalation/deintercalation was monitored using voltammetry and galvanostatic methods. The results show that boron is a very effective catalyst of pitch-coke graphitization during heat treatment at 2300{sup o} C. When added to graphitic carbon, boron induces a slight improvement of structural ordering which has been established by preceding heat treatment at 2900{sup o}C, but the final effect is inferior to that of heat treatment at 3100{sup o}C without boron. Boron seems to have no positive effect on lithium insertion, whatever the procedure used. For all the graphitized materials lithium insertion/deinsertion occurs within a narrow potential range (0-0.5 V) with reversible capacity X{sub rev} between 0.75 and 0.83 (where X stands for Li insertion degree in the LixC6 compound, X = 1 corresponds to 372 mAh/g). Post-treatment of graphitic materials in hydrogen at 700{sup o}C has a profitable effect on lithium insertion/demsertion, giving the formation of stable passivating layer at first cycle and a decrease of irreversible capacity. Graphite produced by heat treatment at 2900{sup o}C followed by treatment in hydrogen gives the most promising electrochemical characteristics (X{sub rev} = 0.83 and X{sub irr} = 0. 10).

  19. Lithium Nitride Synthesized by in situ Lithium Deposition and Ion Implantation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitama, Shintaro; Baba, Yuji; Fujii, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru; Imahori, Yoshio

    Li3N synthesis on Li deposition layer was conducted without H2O and O2 by in situ lithium deposition in high vacuum chamber of 10-6 Pa and ion implantation techniques and the thermo-chemical stability of the Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under laser heating and air exposure was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Following conclusions were derived; (1) Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target with very low oxide and carbon contamination was synthesized by in situ lithium vacuum deposition and N2+ ion implantation without H2O and O2 additions, (2) The starting temperature of evaporation of Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target increased by 120K compared to that of the Li/Cu target and (3) Remarkable oxidation and carbon contamination were observed on the surface of Li3N/Li/Cu after air exposure and these contaminated compositions was not removed by Ar+ heavy sputtering.

  20. Potential mining of lithium, beryllium and strontium from oilfield wastewater after enrichment in constructed wetlands and ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, Jörg [Institute of General Ecology and Environmental Protection, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Bauer Resources, 86529 Schrobenhausen (Germany); Headley, Tom; Prigent, Stephane [Bauer Resources, Constructed Wetland Competence Centre, P.O. Box 1186, P.C. 114 Al Mina, Muscat (Oman); Breuer, Roman [Bauer Resources, 86529 Schrobenhausen (Germany); Bauer Resources, Constructed Wetland Competence Centre, P.O. Box 1186, P.C. 114 Al Mina, Muscat (Oman)

    2014-09-15

    Shortages of resources (chemical elements) used by growing industrial activities require new techniques for their acquisition. A suitable technique could be the use of wetlands for the enrichment of elements from produced water of the oil industry. Oil industries produce very high amounts of water in the course of oil mining. These waters may contain high amounts of rare elements. To our best knowledge nothing is known about the economic potential regarding rare element mining from produced water. Therefore, we estimated the amount of harvestable rare elements remaining in the effluent of a constructed wetland-pond system which is being used to treat and evaporate vast quantities of produced waters. The examined wetland system is located in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula. This system manages 95,000 m{sup 3} per day within 350 ha of surface flow wetlands and 350 ha of evaporation ponds and is designed to be used for at least 20 years. We found a strong enrichment of some chemical elements in the water pathway of the system (e.g. lithium up to 896 μg L{sup −1} and beryllium up to 139 μg L{sup −1}). For this wetland, lithium and beryllium are the elements with the highest economic potential resulting from a high price and load. It is calculated that after 20 years retention period 131 t of lithium and 57 t of beryllium could be harvested. This technique may also be useful for acquisition of rare earth elements. Other elements (e.g. strontium) with a high calculated load of 4500 tons in 20 years are not efficiently harvestable due to a relatively low market value. In conclusion, wetland treated waters from the oil industry offer a promising new acquisition technique for elements like lithium and beryllium. - Highlights: • Produced water of oil industry is a source for rare earth elements. • Wetlands can be used for mining of rare earth elements. • A considerable monetary worth can be gained by use of the proposed technique.

  1. Polymorphs of lithium-boron imidazolates: energy landscape and hydrogen storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburin, Igor A; Assfour, Bassem; Seifert, Gotthard; Leoni, Stefano

    2011-04-21

    The topological diversity of lithium-boron imidazolates LiB(imid)(4) was studied by combining topological enumeration and ab initio DFT calculations. The structures based on zeolitic rho, gme and fau nets are shown to be stable and have high total hydrogen uptake (6.9-7.8 wt.%) comparable with that of MOF-177.

  2. Gel Polymer Electrolytes Containing Anion-Trapping Boron Moieties for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jimin; Lee, Ji Su; Lee, Jin Hong; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2016-10-04

    Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure for lithium-ion batteries were prepared by mixing boron-containing crosslinker (BC) composed of ion-conducting ethylene oxide (EO) chains, crosslinkable methacrylate group, and anion-trapping boron moiety with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) followed by ultraviolet light-induced curing process. Various physical and electrochemical properties of the GPEs were systematically investigated by varying the EO chain length and boron content. Dimensional stability at high temperature without thermal shrinkage, if any, was observed due to the presence of thermally stable PVDF in the GPEs. GPE having 80 wt% of BC and 20 wt% of PVDF exhibited an ionic conductivity of 4.2 mS cm(-1) at 30 (o)C which is one order of magnitude larger than that of the liquid electrolyte system containing the commercial Celgard separator (0.4 mS cm(-1)) owing to the facile electrolyte uptake ability of EO chain and anion-trapping ability of boron moiety. As a result, lithium-ion battery cell prepared using the GPE with BC showed an excellent cycle performance at 1.0 C maintaining 87 % of capacity during 100 cycles.

  3. Studies of lithiumization and boronization of ATJ graphite PFCs for NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Javier; Bedoya, Felipe; Krstic, Predrag; Allain, Jean Paul; Neff, Anton; Luitjohan, Kara

    2016-10-01

    We examine and compare the effects of boron and lithium conditioning on ATJ graphite surfaces bombarded by low-energy deuterium atoms on deuterium retention and chemical sputtering. We use atomistic simulations and compare them with experimental in-situ ex-tempore studies with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to understand the effects of deuterium exposure on the chemistry in lithiated, boronized and oxidized amorphous carbon surfaces. Our results are validated qualitatively by comparison with experiments and with classical-quantum molecular dynamic simulations. We explain the important role of oxygen in D retention for lithiated surfaces and the suppression of the oxygen role by boron in boronized surfaces. The calculated increase of the oxygen role in deuterium uptake after D accumulation in a B-C-O surface configuration is discussed. The sputtering yield per low-energy D impact is significantly smaller in boronized surfaces than in lithiated surfaces. This work was supported by the USDOE Grants DE-SC0013752 (PSK), DE-SC0010717 (JPA and FB) and DE-SC0010719 (AN) and by National council for Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACyT) through postdoctoral fellowship # 267898 (JD).

  4. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks.

  5. Acidity enhancement of unsaturated bases of group 15 by association with borane and beryllium dihydride. Unexpected boron and beryllium Brønsted acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sómer, Ana; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-21

    The intrinsic acidity of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]CHXH2, HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CXH2 (X = N, P, As, Sb) derivatives and of their complexes with BeH2 and BH3 has been investigated by means of high-level density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio calculations, using as a reference the ethyl saturated analogues. The acidity of the free systems steadily increases down the group for the three series of derivatives, ethyl, vinyl and ethynyl. The association with both beryllium dihydride and borane leads to a very significant acidity enhancement, being larger for BeH2 than for BH3 complexes. This acidity enhancement, for the unsaturated compounds, is accompanied by a change in the acidity trends down the group, which do not steadily decrease but present a minimum value for both the vinyl- and the ethynyl-phosphine. When the molecule acting as the Lewis acid is beryllium dihydride, the π-type complexes in which the BeH2 molecules interact with the double or triple bond are found, in some cases, to be more stable, in terms of free energies, than the conventional complexes in which the attachment takes place at the heteroatom, X. The most important finding, however, is that P, As, and Sb ethynyl complexes with BeH2 do not behave as P, As, or Sb Brønsted acids, but unexpectedly as Be acids.

  6. Effect of Boron-Doping on the Graphene Aerogel Used as Cathode for the Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Meng, Zhen; Cai, Tingwei; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-18

    A porous interconnected 3D boron-doped graphene aerogel (BGA) was prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal treatment. The BGA material was first loaded with sulfur to serve as cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries. Boron was positively polarized on the graphene framework, allowing for chemical adsorption of negative polysufide species. Compared with nitrogen-doped and undoped graphene aerogel, the BGA-S cathode could deliver a higher capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 100 cycles, as well as an outstanding rate capability, which indicated the BGA was an ideal cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries.

  7. Oxygen- and Lithium-Doped Hybrid Boron-Nitride/Carbon Networks for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeganfar, Farzaneh; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2016-12-20

    Hydrogen storage capacities have been studied on newly designed three-dimensional pillared boron nitride (PBN) and pillared graphene boron nitride (PGBN). We propose these novel materials based on the covalent connection of BNNTs and graphene sheets, which enhance the surface and free volume for storage within the nanomaterial and increase the gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen uptake capacities. Density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations show that these lithium- and oxygen-doped pillared structures have improved gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen capacities at room temperature, with values on the order of 9.1-11.6 wt % and 40-60 g/L. Our findings demonstrate that the gravimetric uptake of oxygen- and lithium-doped PBN and PGBN has significantly enhanced the hydrogen sorption and desorption. Calculations for O-doped PGBN yield gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacities greater than 11.6 wt % at room temperature. This increased value is attributed to the pillared morphology, which improves the mechanical properties and increases porosity, as well as the high binding energy between oxygen and GBN. Our results suggest that hybrid carbon/BNNT nanostructures are an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage, owing to the combination of the electron mobility of graphene and the polarized nature of BN at heterojunctions, which enhances the uptake capacity, providing ample opportunities to further tune this hybrid material for efficient hydrogen storage.

  8. Hyperfine structures and Landé g{sub J}-factors for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdebout, S.; Nazé, C. [Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, CP160/09, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Jönsson, P., E-mail: per.jonsson@mah.se [Faculty of Technology and Society, Group for Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Malmö University, 205-06 Malmö (Sweden); Rynkun, P. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Godefroid, M. [Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, CP160/09, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Gaigalas, G. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-09-15

    Energy levels, hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé g{sub J}-factors are reported for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Valence, core–valence, and core–core correlation effects are taken into account through single and double-excitations from multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. A systematic comparison of the calculated hyperfine interaction constants is made with values from the available literature.

  9. In-vacuo studies of Boronization and Lithiumization in NSTX-U and relationship to plasma performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Carlos; Allain, Jean Paul; Kaita, Robert; Skinner, Charles; Filippo, Scotti; Koel, Bruce; UIUC Team; PPPL Collaboration; Princeton U Collaboration; Princeton U Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    A new plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic, the MAPP probe, was installed on NSTX-U in the beginning of the 2015 campaign. MAPP was used to find qualitative correlations between PFC conditions and plasma performance. XPS data collected with MAPP suggests the formation of B4C following boron deposition (boronization). The depositions of these thin films seem to temporarily improve the plasma performance. The data shows how the atomic concentration of oxygen in the coatings rises from 5% to almost 30% after exposures to tens of plasma discharges. This oxidation coincides with the decrease in plasma performance. Increments in the content of oxygen (OII line) in the plasma were also observed with visible light spectroscopy over the same time range. MAPP is also able to measure the chemical state of graphite as a result of lithium evaporation onto PFCs (lithiumization). This work will report on the effect on the surface chemistry of ATJ graphite of lithium deposition and plasma exposure in NSTX-U. As it was the case with boronization, the relationship between plasma performance and PFC conditioning with lithium is investigated. Work supported by USDOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466, COLCIENCIAS Francisco Jose de Caldas Fellowship Program, USDOE Contract DE-SC0010717 and Award Number DE-SC0012890.

  10. Synthesis and studies of boron based anion receptors and their use in non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.; Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Choi, L.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes and can greatly increase solubility and ionic conductivities of various lithium salts, such as LiF, LiCl, CF{sub 3}COOLi and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}COOLi, in DME solutions. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} anions of LiCl are complexed with these compounds in DME solutions. The electrochemical stability of lithium salts and one of the boron compounds in deferent solvents was studied. For the first time, LiF has been successfully used as conducting salt in a novel electrolyte with this boron compound as an additive in DME. A rechargeable Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell using this electrolyte was successfully cycled 51 times. However, the capacity fades with cycling due to decomposition of the solvent. The cycling performance of the battery was greatly improved by replacing DME with PC-EC-DMC as the solvent.

  11. Fabrication of boron-doped carbon fibers by the decomposition of B4C and its excellent rate performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqi; Ma, Canliang; Yang, Xueteng; Han, Tao; Tao, Zechao; Song, Yan; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui; Liu, Lang

    2015-03-01

    A facile route, for the first time, was developed to fabricate boron-doped carbon fibers (BDCFs). Boron was doped into mesosphere pitch-based carbon fibers (CFs) by exposing the CFs in a vapor of boron by the decomposition of boron carbide. The microstructure of BDCFs was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. When used as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, BDCFs electrode exhibits an improved performance. Concretely, the specific capacity of BDCFs still had a value of over 400 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. Moreover, BDCFs exhibits better rate capability and less hysteresis in comparison to the pristine CFs. Such enhanced lithium storage capability can be attributed to the improvement of graphitization properties and the high amount of defects induced by boron.

  12. Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an eye wash. Boron was used as a food preservative between 1870 and 1920, and during World Wars ... chemical symbol), B (symbole chimique), Borate, Borate de Sodium, Borates, Bore, Boric Acid, Boric Anhydride, Boric Tartrate, ...

  13. Beryllium 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Roskill report on beryllium gives information on the occurrence and reserves, production technology, geographic distribution, consumption and end-uses, stocks, prices and beryllium and health. There is an appendix on international trade statistics. (author).

  14. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  15. Toward ambient temperature operation with all-solid-state lithium metal batteries with a sp3 boron-based solid single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Cai, Weiwei; Rohan, Rupesh; Pan, Meize; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xupo; Li, Cuicui; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-02-01

    The ionic conductivity decay problem of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) when increase the lithium salt of the SPEs up to high concentration is here functionally overcome by the incorporation of a charge delocalized sp3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with poly(ethylene oxide) to fabricate solid-state sp3 boron based SIPE membranes (S-BSMs). By characterizations, particularly differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and ionic conductivity studies, the fabricated S-BSMs showed decreased melting points and increased ionic conductivity as steadily increase the content of sp3 boron based SIPE, which significantly improved the low temperature performance of the all-solid-state lithium batteries. The fabricated Li | S-BSMs | LiFePO4 cells exhibit highly electrochemical stability and excellent cycling at temperature below melting point of PEO, which has never been reported so far for SIPEs based all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  16. Lithium- and boron-bearing brines in the Central Andes: exploring hydrofacies on the eastern Puna plateau between 23° and 23°30'S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, R. L. López

    2016-04-01

    Internally drained basins of the Andean Plateau are lithium- and boron-bearing systems. The exploration of ionic facies and parental links in a playa lake located in the eastern Puna (23°-23°30'S) was assessed by hydrochemical determinations of residual brines, feed waters and solutions from weathered rocks. Residual brines have been characterized by the Cl- (SO4 =)/Na+ (K+) ratio. Residual brines from the playa lake contain up to 450 mg/l of boron and up to 125 mg/l of lithium, and the Las Burras River supplies the most concentrated boron (20 mg/l) and lithium (3.75 mg/l) inflows of the basin. The hydro-geochemical assessment allowed for the identification of three simultaneous sources of boron: (1) inflow originating from granitic areas of the Aguilar and Tusaquillas ranges; (2) weathering of the Ordovician basement; and (3) boron-rich water from the Las Burras River. Most of the lithium input of the basin is likely generated by present geothermal sources rather than by weathering and leaching of ignimbrites and plutonic rocks. However, XRD analyses of playa lake sediments revealed the presence of lithian micas of clastic origin, including taeniolite and eucriptite. This study is the first to document these rare Li-micas from the Puna basin. Thus, both residual brines and lithian micas contribute to the total Li content in the studied hydrologic system.

  17. Polymer composite electrolytes having core-shell silica fillers with anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jimin; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-04-15

    Core-shell silica particles with ion-conducting poly(ethylene glycol) and anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer were prepared to be used as fillers for polymer composite electrolytes based on organic/inorganic hybrid branched copolymer as polymer matrix for all-solid-state lithium-ion battery applications. The core-shell silica particles were found to improve mechanical strength and thermal stability of the polymer matrix and poly(ethylene glycol) and boron moiety in the shell layer increase compatibility between filler and polymer matrix. Furthermore, boron moiety in the shell layer increases both ionic conductivity and lithium transference number of the polymer matrix because lithium salt can be more easily dissociated by the anion-trapping boron. Interfacial compatibility with lithium metal anode is also improved because well-dispersed silica particles serve as protective layer against interfacial side reactions. As a result, all-solid-state battery performance was found to be enhanced when the copolymer having core-shell silica particles with the boron moiety was used as solid polymer electrolyte.

  18. Lithium- and boron-bearing brines in the Central Andes: exploring hydrofacies on the eastern Puna plateau between 23° and 23°30'S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, R. L. López

    2017-01-01

    Internally drained basins of the Andean Plateau are lithium- and boron-bearing systems. The exploration of ionic facies and parental links in a playa lake located in the eastern Puna (23°-23°30'S) was assessed by hydrochemical determinations of residual brines, feed waters and solutions from weathered rocks. Residual brines have been characterized by the Cl- (SO4 =)/Na+ (K+) ratio. Residual brines from the playa lake contain up to 450 mg/l of boron and up to 125 mg/l of lithium, and the Las Burras River supplies the most concentrated boron (20 mg/l) and lithium (3.75 mg/l) inflows of the basin. The hydro-geochemical assessment allowed for the identification of three simultaneous sources of boron: (1) inflow originating from granitic areas of the Aguilar and Tusaquillas ranges; (2) weathering of the Ordovician basement; and (3) boron-rich water from the Las Burras River. Most of the lithium input of the basin is likely generated by present geothermal sources rather than by weathering and leaching of ignimbrites and plutonic rocks. However, XRD analyses of playa lake sediments revealed the presence of lithian micas of clastic origin, including taeniolite and eucriptite. This study is the first to document these rare Li-micas from the Puna basin. Thus, both residual brines and lithian micas contribute to the total Li content in the studied hydrologic system.

  19. Lithium and boron analysis by LA-ICP-MS results from a bowed PWR rod with contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puranen Anders

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously published investigation of an irradiated fuel rod from the Ringhals 2 PWR, which was bowed to contact with an adjacent rod, identified a significant but highly localised thinning of the clad wall and increased corrosion. Rod fretting was deemed unlikely due to the adhering oxide covering the surfaces. Local overheating in itself was also deemed insufficient to account for the accelerated corrosion. Instead, an enhanced concentration of lithium due to conditions of local boiling was hypothesised to explain the accelerated corrosion. Studsvik has developed a hot cell coupled LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer equipment that enables a flexible means of isotopic analysis of irradiated fuel and other highly active surfaces. In this work, the equipment was used to investigate the distribution of lithium (7Li and boron (11B in the outer oxide at the bow contact area. Depth profiling in the clad oxide at the opposite side of the rod to the point of contact, which is considered to have experienced normal operating conditions and which has a typical oxide thickness, evidenced levels of ∼10–20 ppm 7Li and a 11B content reaching hundreds of ppm in the outer parts of the oxide, largely in agreement with the expected range of Li and B clad oxide concentrations from previous studies. In the contact area, the 11B content was similar to the reference condition at the opposite side. The 7Li content in the outermost oxide closest to the contact was, however, found to be strongly elevated, reaching several hundred ppm. The considerable and highly localised increase in lithium content at the area of enhanced corrosion thus offers strong evidence for a case of lithium induced breakaway corrosion during power operation, when rod-to-rod contact and high enough surface heat flux results in a very local increase in lithium concentration.

  20. Implications of the serpentine phase transition on the behaviour of beryllium and lithium-boron of subducted ultramafic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vils, Flurin; Müntener, Othmar; Kalt, Angelika; Ludwig, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The Totalp-Platta-Malenco ophiolites in the Eastern Central Alps offer a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of Li, Be and B in ultramafic rocks in response to serpentinization and to progressive Alpine metamorphism. These units represent the remnants of a former ocean-continent transition that was intensely serpentinized during exposure on the Jurassic seafloor of the Ligurian Tethys. From north to the south, three isograd reactions ( lizardite⇒antigorite+brucite;lizardite+talc⇒antigorite;lizardite+tremolite⇒antigorite+diopside) have been used to quantify the evolution of the light element content of metamorphic minerals. We determined the Li, Be and B concentrations in major silicate minerals from the ultramafic bodies of Totalp, Platta and Malenco by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Mantle minerals have Be concentrations (e.g. <0.001-0.009 μg/g in olivine) similar to the metamorphic minerals that replace them (e.g. <0.001-0.016 μg/g in serpentine). The mantle signature of Be is thus neither erased during seafloor alteration nor by progressive metamorphism from prehnite-pumpellyite to epidote-amphibolite facies. In contrast, the Li and B inventories of metamorphic minerals are related to the lizardite-to-antigorite transition. Both elements display higher concentrations in the low-temperature serpentine polymorph lizardite (max. 156 μg/g Li, max. 318 μg/g B) than in antigorite (max. 0.11 μg/g Li, max. 12 μg/g B). Calculated average B/Li ratios for lizardite (˜1395) and antigorite (˜115) indicate that Li fractionates from B during the lizardite-to-antigorite transition during prograde metamorphism in ultramafic rocks. In subduction zones, this signature is likely to be recorded in the B-rich nature of forearc fluids. Relative to oceanic mantle the Be content of mantle clinopyroxene is much higher, but similar to Be values from mantle xenoliths and subduction-related peridotite massifs. These data support previous hypothesis that the mantle rocks from the Eastern Central Alps have a subcontinental origin. We conclude that Be behaves conservatively during subduction metamorphism of ultramafic rocks, at least at low-temperature, and thus retains the fingerprint of ancient subduction-related igneous events in mantle peridotites.

  1. Beryllium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aerospace, aircraft manufacture and maintenance, computer, dental laboratories, telecommunications, and foundries and metal reclamation. How Can I ... if exposure stops. Beryllium usually affects the respiratory system, although it can affect other parts of the ...

  2. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Beryllium Disease Chronic Beryllium Disease Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... MD, MSPH, FCCP (February 01, 2016) What is chronic beryllium disease (CBD)? Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is ...

  3. Some Lewis acid-base adducts involving boron trifluoride as electrolyte additives for lithium ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Mengyun; Madec, L.; Xia, J.; Hall, D. S.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Three complexes with boron trifluoride (BF3) as the Lewis acid and different Lewis bases were synthesized and used as electrolyte additives in Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2/graphite and Li[Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16]O2/graphite pouch cells. Lewis acid-base adducts with a boron-oxygen (Bsbnd O) bond were trimethyl phosphate boron trifluoride (TMP-BF) and triphenyl phosphine oxide boron trifluoride (TPPO-BF). These were compared to pyridine boron trifluoride (PBF) which has a boron-nitrogen (Bsbnd N) bond. The experimental results showed that cells with PBF had the least voltage drop during storage at 4.2 V, 4.4 V and 4.7 V at 40 °C and the best capacity retention during long-term cycling at 55 °C compared to cells with the other additives. Charge-hold-discharge cycling combined with simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that impedance growth in TMP-BF and TPPO-BF containing cells was faster than cells containing 2%PBF, suggesting that PBF is useful for impedance control at high voltages (>4.4 V). XPS analysis of the SEI films highlighted a specific reactivity of the PBF-derived SEI species that apparently hinders the degradation of both LiPF6 and solvent during formation and charge-hold-discharge cycling. The modified SEI films may explain the improved impedance, the smaller voltage drop during storage and the improved capacity retention during cycling of cells containing the PBF additive.

  4. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  5. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  6. Lithium and Beryllium By-product Recovery from the Round Top Mountain, Texas, Peraluminous Rhyolite Heavy Rare Earth Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E., Jr.; Clague, J. W.; Gorski, D.

    2016-12-01

    The technology metals Li and Be combine low mass and unique properties. Li batteries are critical in applications at scales from micro-electronics to automotive and grid storage. Low mass Be structural components are essential in aerospace/defense applications and in non-sparking BeCu alloy oilfield tools. Most Li is sourced from desert salarsin the "Lithium Triangle" of Argentina—Bolivia—Chile. In contrast, Materion Corp mines >80% of global Be at Spor Mountain, UT. The massive peraluminous rhyolite heavy rare earth deposit at Round Top Mountain, TX is also enriched in Li, 500 ppm, and Be, 50 ppm. 2016 prices of 7000/tonne Li2CO3 (19% Li) and 1000/kg Be metal suggest favorable economics to extract Li and Be as by-products of HREE mining. Li and some Be are hosted in annite biotite that comprises up to 5% of the rhyolite. Texas Mineral Resources Corp proposes to heap leach crushed rhyolite with dilute H2SO4to release the yttrofluorite-hosted HREEs. At bench scale the annite biotite dissolves, but not quartz and feldspars (>90% of the rock). A series of 40 high-yield laboratory tests at various acid strength, particle size, and exposure time released up to 350 ppm (70%) of the Li and 14 ppm (30%) of the Be. For a 20,000 tonne/day operation, these recoveries correspond to daily production of >3 tonnes Li and 250 kg Be. Higher Li and Be recoveries also increased yields of gangue elements, Fe & Al, into solution. This complicates subsequent separation of Li, Be, and HREEs from the pregnant leach solution. Recovery of target HREEs did not increase beyond 200 ppm Li and 8 ppm Be recovery. Greater Li and Be recoveries increased acid consumption. Thus the "sweet spot" economics for heap leach is likely under conditions of acid strength, grain size, and exposure time that do not maximize by-product Li and Be recoveries. Evolving market prices for the full target element suite and additional costs to recover and purify the Li and Be must also be considered.

  7. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: halfon@phys.huji.ac.il; Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Steinberg, D. [Biofilm Laboratory, Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Hebrew University-Hadassah (Israel); Nagler, A.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Polacheck, I. [Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center (Israel); Srebnik, M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)

    2009-07-15

    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor.

  8. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Steinberg, D; Nagler, A; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Polacheck, I; Srebnik, M

    2009-07-01

    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor.

  9. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO4@B0.4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g-1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g-1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  10. High-performance flexible all-solid-state microbatteries based on solid electrolyte of lithium boron oxynitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung-Wan; Lee, Ki-Chang; Park, Ho-Young

    2016-10-01

    Rapidly growing interest and demand for wearable electronics require the development of flexible and lightweight all-solid-state batteries as power sources that guarantee high performance and safety with the absence of the risk of fire or explosion that can occur with traditional liquid electrolyte systems. Herein, we successfully fabricate new flexible all-solid-state microbatteries integrating a solid electrolyte film of lithium boron oxynitride (LiBON) on a flexible substrate using sophisticated thin-film fabrication technology. The new microbattery of Li/LiBON/LiCoO2 exhibits excellent mechanical integrity even under severe bending and twisting test conditions, enabling the realization of flexible microbatteries. The microbatteries demonstrate superior electrochemical cycling stability relative to conventional batteries, delivering an outstanding capacity retention of 90% on the 1000th cycle. Furthermore, operation at various temperatures from -10 °C to +60 °C and fast charging within 3-6 min are achieved. With various types of flexible substrates, the microbatteries can provide diverse opportunities for flexible and wearable electronics.

  11. A first-principles study of lithium-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zi-Yu [College of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Shao, Xiaohong, E-mail: shaoxh@mail.buct.edu.cn, E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn [College of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min, E-mail: shaoxh@mail.buct.edu.cn, E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Johnson, J. Karl [Departments of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption of hydrogen onto Li-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains of (BN){sub x}C{sub 1−x} complexes with x = 1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0, and B{sub 0.125}C{sub 0.875}. The most stable adsorption sites for the nth hydrogen molecule in the lithium-decorated (BN){sub x}C{sub 1−x} complexes are systematically discussed. The most stable adsorption sites were affected by the charge localization, and the hydrogen molecules were favorably located above the C-C bonds beside the Li atom. The results show that the nitrogen atoms in the substrate planes could increase the hybridization between the 2p orbitals of Li and the orbitals of H{sub 2}. The results revealed that the (BN){sub x}C{sub 1−x} complexes not only have good thermal stability but they also exhibit a high hydrogen storage of 8.7% because of their dehydrogenation ability.

  12. Super Large Lithium and Boron Deposit in Jadar Basin,Serbia%塞尔维亚贾达尔盆地超大型锂硼矿床

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵元艺; 符家骏; 李运

    2015-01-01

    锂和硼有着广泛的用途,我国常年大量进口锂和硼矿石。近些年在塞尔维亚贾达尔盆地中发现一个特殊的超大型锂硼矿床,与Rio Tinto、Pan Global Resources和Ultra Lithium等公司一样,我国地勘单位正在这一矿区进行勘查工作,因此对该地区的锂硼矿床地质特征进行总结和报道很有必要。该矿床的矿石矿物是世界独有的既含锂也含硼的羟硼硅钠锂石(Jadarite)[LiNaSiB3 O7(OH)],其含B2 O347.2%,含Li2 O 7.3%,密度2.46g/cm3。已有资料显示,找矿标志层为中新统湖相沉积岩中的凝灰岩层,矿体具有电阻率小于4.4Ω·m和重力异常值小于-15 mGal的特征。该矿床设施齐全,且选矿和化工处理简便,短期内可获得硼和锂产品。%Lithium and boron are widely used,and our country import ore perennially.Recently,a special world-class lithium and boron deposit was found in Serbia Jadar basin.Like Rio Tinto,Pan Global Resources and Ultra Lithium,Chinese geological prospecting institute will doing exploration work in it,so it's necessary to report the geological characteristics of the deposit.The ore minerals is unique in the world,which contains both lithium and boron,called jadarte [LiNaSiB3O7 (HO)].It contains B2O3 47.2% and Li2O7.3%,weight 2.46g/cm3. According to the data,The wall rock is Miocene lacustrine sedimentary rock.Lithium and boron are most likely the volcanic origin,showing as that jadarite zone appears near the tuff horizon.The characteristics of ore body is that the resistivity is less than 4.4 Ωom and the gravity negative anomaly, generally less than -15 mGal. Infrastructures are sufficient;Mine method is well mining;Ore beneficiation is convenient and raw materials are available,so lithium and boron can be produced in short period.

  13. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal ...

  14. Demonstration of a high-intensity neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Kreisel, A; Mardor, I; Shimel, G; Shor, A; Silverman, I; Tessler, M

    2015-12-01

    A free surface liquid-lithium jet target is operating routinely at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), bombarded with a ~1.91 MeV, ~1.2 mA continuous-wave narrow proton beam. The experiments demonstrate the liquid lithium target (LiLiT) capability to constitute an intense source of epithermal neutrons, for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The target dissipates extremely high ion beam power densities (>3 kW/cm(2), >0.5 MW/cm(3)) for long periods of time, while maintaining stable conditions and localized residual activity. LiLiT generates ~3×10(10) n/s, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional (7)Li(p,n)-based near threshold neutron sources. A shield and moderator assembly for BNCT, with LiLiT irradiated with protons at 1.91 MeV, was designed based on Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of BNCT-doses produced in a phantom. According to these simulations it was found that a ~15 mA near threshold proton current will apply the therapeutic doses in ~1h treatment duration. According to our present results, such high current beams can be dissipated in a liquid-lithium target, hence the target design is readily applicable for accelerator-based BNCT.

  15. Comparative Studies of the Electrochemical and Thermal Stability of Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Using Two Types of Boron-Based Anion Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X. Q.; Lee, H. S.; Sun, X.; McBreen, J.

    1999-10-17

    Comparative studies were done on two new types of boron based anion receptors, tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane (TFPB) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borate (TFPBO), regarding conductivity enhancement electrochemical and thermal stability when used as additives in composite electrolytes for lithium batteries. Both additives enhance the ionic conductivity of electrolytes of simple lithium salts, LiF, CF{sub 3}CO{sub 2}Li and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}CO{sub 2}Li in several organic solvents. The electrochemical windows of TPFB based electrolytes in ethylene carbonate (EC)-propylene carbonate (PC)-dmethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1:3, v/v) are up to 5, 4.76 and 4.96 V for LiF, CF{sub 3}CO{sub 2}Li and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}CO{sub 2}Li respectively. TPFBO has lower electrochemical stability compared to TPFB. The thermal stability of pure TFPB is better than TFPBO. The lithium salt complexes have higher thermal stability than these two compounds. TPFB based electrolytes showed high cycling efficiencies and good cycleability when they were tested in Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells. The capacity retention of the cells using TFPB based electrolytes during multiple cycling is better than those using TFPBO based electrolytes.

  16. Accelerator driven neutron source design via beryllium target and (208)Pb moderator for boron neutron capture therapy in alternative treatment strategy by Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Abdollah

    2017-01-01

    The reactor has increased its area of application into medicine especially boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT); however, accelerator-driven neutron sources can be used for therapy purposes. The present study aimed to discuss an alternative method in BNCT functions by a small cyclotron with low current protons based on Karaj cyclotron in Iran. An epithermal neutron spectrum generator was simulated with 30 MeV proton energy for BNCT purposes. A low current of 300 μA of the proton beam in spallation target concept via 9Be target was accomplished to model neutron spectrum using 208Pb moderator around the target. The graphite reflector and dual layer collimator were planned to prevent and collimate the neutrons produced from proton interactions. Neutron yield per proton, energy distribution, flux, and dose components in the simulated head phantom were estimated by MCNPX code. The neutron beam quality was investigated by diverse filters thicknesses. The maximum epithermal flux transpired using Fluental, Fe, Li, and Bi filters with thicknesses of 7.4, 3, 0.5, and 4 cm, respectively; as well as the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio was 161. Results demonstrated that the induced neutrons from a low energy and low current proton may be effective in tumor therapy using 208Pb moderator with average lethargy and also graphite reflector with low absorption cross section to keep the generated neutrons. Combination of spallation-based BNCT and proton therapy can be especially effective, if a high beam intensity cyclotron becomes available.

  17. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  18. An industrial risk: Beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Çaylak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Beryllium is a vocational disease factor and berylliumexposure can potentially lead to Chronic Beryllium Disease(CBD in 2-6 % of workers. While acute lymphocyticpneumonia occurred in individuals who were exposedto high doses of beryllium, low dose exposure to berylliumfollowed by a long subclinical period can cause CBDcharacterized with chronic granulomatosis. It has beenobserved that varying amounts of beryllium exposureare necessary to produce symptoms of CBD or berylliumsensitization (BeS. Genetic differences between patientsmay be the underlying cause of these dose-effects andfurther study of the differences in patients exposed to berylliummay lead to earlier diagnosis and the identificationof biomarkers of CBD. In this review, it is summarizedthe general properties of beryllium exposure, the immunopathogenesisand genetic differences of beryllium-induceddiseases, genotoxicity and the carcinogenic effectsof beryllium. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(1: 141-148

  19. Thermochemical properties, electronic structure and bonding of mixed lithium boron clusters (B nLi, n = 1-8) and their anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Truong Ba; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2010-09-01

    The electronic structure and molecular properties of a series of small mixed lithium boron clusters B nLi ( n = 1-8) in both neutral and anionic states are investigated using quantum chemical methods. The lowest-energy structures are identified. Standard heats of formation, adiabatic electron affinities (EAs) and vertical detachment energies (VDEs) are predicted using coupled-cluster theory CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d) calculations. Addition of Li to B n to form B nLi clusters marginally distorts the geometries of the parent B n. The chemical bond in B nLi has a highly ionic character in which the positive charges are located on Li. MO analysis confirms a similar degree of aromaticity between B nLi and Bn-. The relative stabilities of the clusters are evaluated using the average binding energy ( E b), second order difference in energy (Δ 2E), resonance energy (RE) and normalized resonance energy (NRE). Both REs and NREs quantities of the Li-doped boron clusters are consistently larger than those of the pure B n clusters. The B 3Li species exhibits a remarkably high stability within the B nLi series.

  20. Engineering the work function of buckled boron α-sheet by lithium adsorption: a first-principles investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bing; Yu, Hai-tao; Xie, Ying; Lian, Yong-fu

    2014-11-26

    First-principles density functional theory calculations were performed to study the effect of Li adsorption on the structural and electronic properties, particularly the work function, of boron α-sheet. The calculated binding energies indicated that boron α-sheet could be well stabilized by the adsorption of Li atoms. Furthermore, the work functions of Li-adsorbed boron α-sheets were observed to decrease drastically with increasing Li coverage. The work functions are lower than that of Mg and even, for some of them, lower than that of Ca, indicating a considerable potential application of Li-adsorbed boron α-sheets as field-emission and electrode materials. Based on the calculated geometric and electronic structures, we discuss in details some possible aspects affecting the work function. The Li coverage dependence of the work functions of Li-adsorbed boron α-sheets was further confirmed by electrostatic potential analyses. The relationship between the work function variation and the Fermi and vacuum energy level shifts was also discussed, and we observed that the variation of the work function is primarily associated with the shift of the Fermi energy level. It is the surface dipole formed by the interaction between adatoms and substrate that should be responsible for the observed variation of the work function, whereas the increasing negative charge and rumpling for boron α-sheet only play minor roles. Additionally, the effect of Li adatoms on the work function of boron α-sheet was confirmed to be much stronger than that of graphene or a graphene double layer.

  1. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  2. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958; Le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, P.; Rigaud, A

    1959-07-01

    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  3. Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Terry; Bowser, Darlene

    2003-12-10

    Beryllium (Be) has physical-chemical properties, including low density and high tensile strength, which make it useful in the manufacture of products ranging from space shuttles to golf clubs. Despite its utility, a number of standard setting agencies have determined that beryllium is a carcinogen. Only a limited number of studies, however, have addressed the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of beryllium. Importantly, mutation and chromosomal aberration assays have yielded somewhat contradictory results for beryllium compounds and whereas bacterial tests were largely negative, mammalian test systems showed evidence of beryllium-induced mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell transformation. Although inter-laboratory differences may play a role in the variability observed in genotoxicity assays, it is more likely that the different chemical forms of beryllium have a significant effect on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because workers are predominantly exposed to airborne particles which are generated during the machining of beryllium metal, ceramics, or alloys, testing of the mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of beryllium should be performed with relevant chemical forms of beryllium.

  4. Beryllium Desorption from Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, V.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Beryllium isotopes have provided a useful tool in the field of geochronology and geomorphology over the last 25 years. The amount of cosmogenic meteoric 10Be and native 9Be absorbed to soils often scales with the residence time and chemical weathering of sediments in a landscape, respectively. Thus, the concentrations in river sediment may be used to quantify the denudation of specific watersheds. When deposited in ocean sediment, these concentrations are thought to record the history of denudation on Earth over the last ~10 Ma. The use of both isotopes often relies on the premise of beryllium retention to sediment surfaces in order to preserve a landscape's erosion and weathering signature. Changes in setting, en route from the soil to fluvial system to the ocean, can cause beryllium desorption and may preclude some applications of the 10Be/9Be system. Four mechanisms were tested to determine the desorption potential of beryllium including a reduction in pH, an increase in ionic strength and complexation with soluble organic and inorganic species. These processes have the potential to mobilize beryllium into solution. For example, by both reducing the pH and increasing the ionic strength, competition for adsorption sites increases, potentially liberating beryllium from the sediment surface. In addition, organic and inorganic ligands can complex beryllium causing it to become mobilized. To determine which of these alterations influence beryllium desorption and to quantify the effect, we prepared separate solutions of beryllium bound to minerals and organic compounds and measured beryllium concentrations in solution before and after adjusting the pH, ionic strength, and changing inorganic and organic ligand concentrations. We conclude from our observations that overall, beryllium sorbed to organic compounds was more resistant to desorption relative to mineral-associated beryllium. Among the methods tested, a reduction in pH resulted in the greatest amount of

  5. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2014-03-07

    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  6. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  7. Lithium absorption on single-walled boron nitride, aluminum nitride, silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish Ganji, M.; Dalirandeh, Z.; Khorasani, M.

    2016-03-01

    Using the DFT-B3LYP calculations we investigate the adsorption of Li atom on CNT, BNNT, AlNNT and SiCNT. We found that Li atom can be chemisorbed on zig-zag SiCNT with binding energy of -2.358 eV and charge transfer of 0.842 |e|, which are larger than the results of other nanotubes. The binding energy of Li on SiCNT is foun to be stronger than activation energy barrier indicating that Li metal could be well dispersed on SiCNTs. Furthermore, the average voltage caused by the lithium adsorption on SiCNT demonstrated that SiCNTs could exhibit as a stable anode similar to the lithium metal anode. The binding nature has been rationalized by analyzing the electronic structures. Our findings demonstrate that Li-BNNT, Li-SiCNT and Li-AlNNT systems exhibit spin polarized behaviors and can fascinating potential application in future spintronics. Also, Li-SiCNT system with rather small band gap might be a promising material for optical applications and active molecule in its environment.

  8. Beryllium and copper-beryllium alloys; Beryllium und Kupfer-Beryllium-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Nikolaus [Materion Brush GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Operation and Quality/EH and S

    2017-02-15

    The light metal beryllium is a comparatively rare element, which today is primarily derived from bertrandite. It is mainly used as pure metal or in the form of copper-beryllium alloys, e.g., in automotive industry, aerospace, and electrical components. The wide range of applications is mainly attributed to the extremely high rigidity/density ratio. An overview of the history of the metal, its production, and recycling as well as the properties of CuBe alloys are given.

  9. Determination of Lithium,boron,zirconium and niobium in natural uranium dioxde by ICP-AES%ICP-AES法测定天然二氧化铀中锂、硼、锆、铌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪; 李强; 杨箭; 贺艳红

    2011-01-01

    采用TBP萃淋树脂铀基体分离-ICP-AES法测定天然二氧化铀中锂、硼、锆、铌4种杂质元素的含量,当试样平行测定数量为6个时,锂、硼、锆、铌测定结果相对标准偏差依次为0.8%、4.7%、4.9%、1.1%,加标回收率锂为91.9%-96.8%,硼为95.0%-106.5%,锆为93.4%-103.5%,铌为97.8%-103.9%.方法快捷,测定方法满足工厂二氧化铀产品验收质量分析要求.%The contents of four impurity elements such as lithium,boron,zirconium and niobium in natural uranium dioxide were determined by TBP levextrel resin uranium matrix separation-ICP-AES method. Relative standard deviations (n = 6) for four elements were 0. 8% for lithium, 4. 7% for boron,7.9% for zirconium, 1. 1% for niobium. The recovery rates were 91. 9%-96. 8% for lithium, 95. 0%-106. 5% for boron, 93. 4%-103. 5% for zirconium, 97. 8%-103. 9% for niobium. The method is fast,and the results can meet requirements.

  10. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (σ=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors.

  11. Lithium insertion into boron containing carbons prepared by co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch and borane-pyridine complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machnikowski, J.; Frackowiak, E.; Kierzek, K.; Waszak, D.; Benoit, R.; Beguin, F. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-03-01

    Carbon materials of boron content ranging from 0.6 to 4 wt.% were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of QI-free coal-tar pitch with the borane-pyridine complex. The growing amount of boron introduced into the carbonaceous material is associated with an increase in nitrogen content and a progressive degradation of structural and textural ordering. The structural variations of the boron-doped materials on heat treatment up to 2500{sup o}C were monitored using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The intrinsic boron acts effectively as a catalyst of graphitization above 2100{sup o}C. The carbonaceous material with boron content of about 1.5 wt% shows the highest degree of structural ordering after thermal treatment. A high amount of oxygen was found in the graphitized boronated carbons, proving that the incorporated boron induces a strong chemisorption activity of the material when exposed to air. For a series of cokes calcined at 1000 {sup o}C, the most striking effect of increasing the boron content is an increase of irreversible capacity X-irr from 0.2 to 0.7. The reversible capacity (X-rev) amounts to about 1, with a slight tendency to decrease with the boron content. Upon increasing the temperature up to 2500{sup o}C, X-irr decreases to about 0.1 in the graphitic carbons, while X-rev reaches a minimum of 0.4-0.5 at 1700{sup o}C and next increases to a value close to 1 at 2500{sup o}C. In the boron doped graphite, X-irr has a slight tendency to increase with the boron content, due to the simultaneous presence of nitrogen in these materials and their strong affinity for oxygen from the atmosphere.

  12. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tatenuma, K. [KAKEN Co., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  13. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  14. T cell recognition of beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shaodong; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; McKee, Amy S; Fontenot, Andrew P

    2013-12-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium and characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium-induced disease is strongly associated with HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the β-chain (βGlu69). The structure of HLA-DP2, the most prevalent βGlu69-containing molecule, revealed a unique solvent-exposed acidic pocket that includes βGlu69 and represents the putative beryllium-binding site. The delineation of mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that complete the αβTCR ligand for beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells suggests a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of altered self-peptides, blurring the distinction between hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  15. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  16. Characterization of Shocked Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, Carl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adams, Chris D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray III, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Addessio, Francis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wynn, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    Beryllium metal has many excellent structural properties in addition to its unique radiation characteristics, including: high elastic modulus, low Poisson's ratio, low density, and high melting point. However, it suffers from several major mechanical drawbacks: 1) high anisotropy - due to its hexagonal lattice structure and its susceptibility to crystallographic texturing; 2) susceptibility to impurity-induced fracture - due to grain boundary segregation; and 3) low intrinsic ductility at ambient temperatures thereby limiting fabricability. While large ductility results from deformation under the conditions of compression, the material can exhibit a brittle behavior under tension. Furthermore, there is a brittle to ductile transition at approximately 200 C under tensile conditions. While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. The beryllium used in this study was Grade S200-F (Brush Wellman, Inc., Elmore, OH) material. The work focused on high strain rate deformation and examine the validity of constitutive models in deformation rate regimes, including shock, the experiments were modeled using a Lagrangian hydrocode. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using the same set of quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data taken at temperatures from 77K to 873K and strain rates from 0.001/sec to 4300/sec. In spite of being calibrated on the same data, the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured wave profiles. These high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to

  17. Joining of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    A handbook dealing with the many aspects of beryllium that would be important for the users of this metal is currently being prepared. With an introduction on the applications, advantages and limitations in the use of this metal the following topics will be discussed in this handbook: physical, thermal, and nuclear properties; extraction from the ores; purification and casting of ingots; production and types of beryllium powders; consolidation methods, grades, and properties; mechanical properties with emphasis on the various factors affecting these properties; forming and mechanical working; welding, brazing, bonding, and fastening; machining; powder deposition; corrosion; health aspects; and examples of production of components. This report consists of ''Section X--Joining'' from the handbook. The prefix X is maintained here for the figures, tables and references. In this section the different methods used for joining beryllium and the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each are presented. The methods discussed are fusion welding, brazing, solid state bonding (diffusion bonding and deformation bonding), soldering, and mechanical fastening. Since beryllium has a high affinity for oxygen and nitrogen with the formation of oxides and nitrides, considerable care must be taken on heating the metal, to protect it from the ambient atmosphere. In addition, mating surfaces must be cleaned and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses as well as locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part is subjected to moisture or to any type of corroding environment. This becomes a problem if the less noble (anodic) metal has a significantly smaller area than the more noble (cathodic) metal since the ions (positive charges) from the anodic (corroding) metal must correspond to the number of electrons (negative charges) involved at the cathode. Beryllium

  18. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  19. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  20. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hannah E. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  1. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H. [JET Joint undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m{sup 2} to 5 MW/m{sup 2} and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m{sup 2}. These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures {le} 600{degrees}C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T{sub max} {le} 750{degrees}C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with {Phi} = 25 MW/m{sup 2} and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed.

  2. Beryllium in the ITER blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper consists of viewgraphs used in a presentation on the application of beryllium in breeding blankets for ITER and JET. The paper brings together data on the physical, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of beryllium and beryllium oxide for this type of application, as well as issues of compatibility with construction materials, and irradiation experience. It includes the results from testing programs carried out to arrive at some of the information, including fabrication work, irradiation experiments, and sample tests performed both in and out of the irradiation piles.

  3. Mineral-deposit model for lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; McCauley, Andrew D.; Stillings, Lisa M.

    2017-06-20

    -order criteria are an orogenic hinterland setting, appropriate regional metamorphic grades, and the presence of evolved granites and common granitic pegmatites. New LCT pegmatites are most likely to be found near known deposits. Pegmatites tend to show a regional mineralogical and geochemical zoning pattern with respect to the inferred parental granite, with the greatest enrichment in the more distal pegmatites. Mineral-chemical trends in common pegmatites that can point toward an evolved LCT pegmatite include: increasing rubidium in potassium feldspar, increasing lithium in white mica, increasing manganese in garnet, and increasing tantalum and manganese in columbite-tantalite. Most LCT pegmatite bodies show a distinctive internal zonation featuring four zones: border, wall, intermediate (where lithium, cesium, and tantalum are generally concentrated), and core. This zonation is expressed both in cross section and map view; thus, what may appear to be a common pegmatite may instead be the edge of a mineralized body.Neither lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatites nor their parental granites are likely to cause serious environmental concerns. Soils and country rock surrounding a LCT pegmatite, as well as waste from mining operations, may be enriched in characteristic elements relative to global average soil and bedrock values. These elements may include lithium, cesium, tantalum, beryllium, boron, fluorine, phosphorus, manganese, gallium, rubidium, niobium, tin, and hafnium. Among this suite of elements, however, the only ones that might present a concern for environmental health are beryllium and fluorine, which are included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations with maximum contaminant levels of 4 micrograms per liter and 4 milligrams per liter, respectively.

  4. Boron reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-07-01

    A process to recover high purity /sup 10/B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron.

  5. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and

  6. Boron and Nitrogen Codoped Carbon Layers of LiFePO4 Improve the High-Rate Electrochemical Performance for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinli; Nie, Ning; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jiao; Yu, Feng; Gu, Junjie; Li, Wei

    2015-09-16

    An evolutionary composite of LiFePO4 with nitrogen and boron codoped carbon layers was prepared by processing hydrothermal-synthesized LiFePO4. This novel codoping method is successfully applied to LiFePO4 for commercial use, and it achieved excellent electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance can be improved through single nitrogen doping (LiFePO4/C-N) or boron doping (LiFePO4/C-B). When modifying the LiFePO4/C-B with nitrogen (to synthesis LiFePO4/C-B+N) the undesired nonconducting N-B configurations (190.1 and 397.9 eV) are generated. This decreases the electronic conductivity from 2.56×10(-2) to 1.30×10(-2) S cm(-1) resulting in weak electrochemical performance. Nevertheless, using the opposite order to decorate LiFePO4/C-N with boron (to obtain LiFePO4/C-N+B) not only eliminates the nonconducting N-B impurity, but also promotes the conductive C-N (398.3, 400.3, and 401.1 eV) and C-B (189.5 eV) configurations-this markedly improves the electronic conductivity to 1.36×10(-1) S cm(-1). Meanwhile the positive doping strategy leads to synergistic electrochemical activity distinctly compared with single N- or B-doped materials (even much better than their sum capacity at 20 C). Moreover, due to the electron and hole-type carriers donated by nitrogen and boron atoms, the N+B codoped carbon coating tremendously enhances the electrochemical property: at the rate of 20 C, the codoped sample can elevate the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 121.6 mAh g(-1), and the codoped product based on commercial LiFePO4/C shows a discharge capacity of 78.4 mAh g(-1) rather than 48.1 mAh g(-1). Nevertheless, the B+N codoped sample decreases the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 95.4 mAh g(-1), while the commercial LFP/C changes from 48.1 mAh g(-1) to 40.6 mAh g(-1).

  7. Beryllium Related Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylord, R F

    2008-12-23

    In recent months, LLNL has identified, commenced, and implemented a series of interim controls, compensatory measures, and initiatives to ensure worker safety, and improve safety processes with regards to potential worker exposure to beryllium. Many of these actions have been undertaken in response to the NNSA Independent Review (COR-TS-5/15/2008-8550) received by LLNL in November of 2008. Others are the result of recent discoveries, events or incidents, and lessons learned, or were scheduled corrective actions from earlier commitments. Many of these actions are very recent in nature, or are still in progress, and vary in the formality of implementation. Actions are being reviewed for effectiveness as they progress. The documentation of implementation, and review of effectiveness, when appropriate, of these actions will be addressed as part of the formal Corrective Action Plan addressing the Independent Review. The mitigating actions taken fall into the following categories: (1) Responses to specific events/concerns; (2) Development of interim controls; (3) Review of ongoing activities; and (4) Performance improvement measures.

  8. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

  9. Beryllium--important for national defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the lightest and stiffest metals, but there was little industrial demand for it until the 1930s and 1940s when the aerospace, defense, and nuclear sectors began using beryllium and its compounds. Beryllium is now classified by the U.S. Department of Defense as a strategic and critical material because it is used in products that are vital to national security. The oxide form of beryllium was identified in 1797, and scientists first isolated metallic beryllium in 1828. The United States is the world's leading source of beryllium. A single mine at Spor Mountain, Utah, produced more than 85 percent of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010. China produced most of the remainder, and less than 2 percent came from Mozambique and other countries. National stockpiles also provide significant amounts of beryllium for processing. To help predict where future beryllium supplies might be located, U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) scientists study how and where beryllium resources are concentrated in Earth's crust and use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered beryllium resources may exist. Techniques to assess mineral resources have been developed by the USGS to support the stewardship of Federal lands and to better evaluate mineral resource availability in a global context. The USGS also compiles statistics and information on the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of beryllium. These data are used to inform U.S. national policymaking.

  10. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for...

  11. Beryllium strain under dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkov Victor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some data (not much on dynamic characteristics of beryllium that are important, for example, when estimating construction performance at NPP emergencies. A number of data on stress-strain curves, spall strength, shear strength, fracture and structure responses of shock loaded beryllium have obtained in US and Russian laboratories. For today the model description of this complex metal behavior does not have a reasonable agreement with the experimental data, thus a wider spectrum of experimental data is required. This work presents data on dynamic compression-test diagrams of Russian beryllium. Experiments are performed using Hopkinson bar method (SHPB. Strain rates were ε ∼ 103 s−1.

  12. Beryllium abundances in parent stars of extrasolar planets 16 Cyg A & B and $\\rho^{1}$ Cnc$^{*}$

    CERN Document Server

    García-López, R J

    1998-01-01

    The Be II 3131 A doublet has been observed in the solar-type stars 16 Cyg A & B and in the late G-type star rho 1 Cnc, to derive their beryllium abundances. 16 Cyg A & B show similar (solar) beryllium abundances while 16 Cyg B, which has been proposed to have a planetary companion of ~2 M_Jup, is known to be depleted in lithium by a factor larger than 6 with respect to 16 Cyg A. Differences in their rotational histories which could induce different rates of internal mixing of material, and the ingestion of a similar planet by 16 Cyg A are discussed as potential explanations. The existence of two other solar-type stars which are candidates to harbour planetary-mass companions and which show lithium and beryllium abundances close to those of 16 Cyg A, requires a more detailed inspection of the peculiarities of the 16 Cyg system. For rho 1 Cnc, which is the coolest known object candidate to harbour a planetary-mass companion (M > 0.85 M_Jup), we establish a precise upper limit for its beryllium abundance...

  13. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kato, M. [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Aichi-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700{degrees}C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper).

  14. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  15. Primordial nucleosynthesis and the abundances of beryllium and boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Fields, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    The recently attained ability to make measurements of Be and B as well as to put constraints on Li-6 abundances in metal-poor stars has led to a detailed reexamination of big bang nucleosynthesis in the A is greater than about 6 regime. The nuclear reaction network has been significantly expanded, with many new rates added. It is demonstrated that although a number of A is greater than 7 reaction rates are poorly determined, even with extreme values chosen, the standard homogeneous model is unable to produce significant yields above A = 7, and the (Li-7)/(Li-6) ratio always exceeds 500. We also preliminarily explore inhomogeneous models, such as those inspired by a first-order quark-hadron phase transition, where regions with high neutron/proton ratios can allow some leakage up to A is greater than 7. However, models that fit the A is not greater than 7 abundances still seem to have difficulty in obtaining significant A is greater than 7 yields.

  16. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  17. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  18. Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Surveillance Identifies Clinically Significant Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Margaret M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Strand, Matthew; Silviera, Lori; Newman, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace surveillance identifies chronic beryllium disease (CBD) but it remains unknown over what time frame mild CBD will progress to a more severe form. Methods We examined physiology and treatment in 229 beryllium sensitization (BeS) and 171 CBD surveillance-identified cases diagnosed from 1982 to 2002. Never smoking CBD cases (81) were compared to never smoking BeS patients (83) to assess disease progression. We compared CBD machinists to non-machinists to examine effects of exposure. Results At baseline, CBD and BeS cases did not differ significantly in exposure time or physiology. CBD patients were more likely to have machined beryllium. Of CBD cases, 19.3% went on to require oral immunosuppressive therapy. At 30 years from first exposure, measures of gas exchange were significantly worse and total lung capacity was lower for CBD subjects. Machinists had faster disease progression as measured by pulmonary function testing and gas exchange. Conclusions Medical surveillance for CBD identifies individuals at significant risk of disease progression and impairment with sufficient time since first exposure. PMID:19681064

  19. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R

    1987-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of a number of beryllium compounds has been confirmed in experiments on laboratory animals and this metal has to be treated as a possible carcinogenic threat to man. These carcinogenic properties are associated with mutagenic activity as shown by the results of short-term tests performed in vitro with beryllium chloride and beryllium sulfate. These soluble beryllium compounds can produce some infidelity of in vitro synthesis, forward gene mutations in microorganisms and in mammalian cells. They are also able to induce cell transformation. In addition to the positive results obtained in several short-term assays beryllium compounds have been found to bind to nucleoproteins, to inhibit certain enzymes needed for DNA synthesis, to bind nucleic acids to cell membranes and to inhibit microtubule polymerization. The teratogenicity of beryllium salts is relatively unknown and needs additional investigation.

  20. Advances in identifying beryllium sensitization and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Dan; Kowalski, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and 1940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD) typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms.

  1. MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHAO,Y.; WANG,H.

    2000-03-31

    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  2. Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

  3. High-temperature beryllium embrittlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 189631 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bagautdinov, R.M. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Goncharenko, Yu.D. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    The neutron irradiation effect on the mechanical properties, swelling and fracture surface structure of various beryllium grades was studied in the BOR-60 reactor at 340 to 350 C up to a fluence of 7.2 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. At a mechanical testing temperature of 400 C there was observed a strong anisotropy of plastic beryllium deformation depending on the direction of sample cutting relative to the pressing direction. An increase of the testing temperature up to 700 C resulted in an abrupt embrittlement of all irradiated samples. In the most part of the surface structure the intercrystallite fracture along the grain boundaries was covered entirely with large pores, 1 to 4 {mu}m in size. It was suggested that the increased rate of pore formation along the grain boundaries resulted from a high-temperature embrittlement under irradiation. (orig.).

  4. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  5. Beryllium particulate exposure and disease relations in a beryllium machining plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, P C; Martyny, J W; Mroz, M M; Maier, L A; Ruttenber, A J; Young, D A; Newman, L S

    2001-03-01

    We examined the relationship between exposure to beryllium and the presence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers in a beryllium precision machining facility. Twenty workers with BeS or CBD (cases) were compared with 206 worker-controls in a case-control study. Exposure for each job title was measured using cascade impactors placed in the workers' breathing zone to measure total beryllium exposure and exposure to particles 0.20. In conclusion, increased cumulative and LTW exposure to total and respirable beryllium was observed in workers with CBD or BeS compared with the controls. These results support efforts to control beryllium exposure in the workplace.

  6. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  7. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  8. Benchmark Experiment for Beryllium Slab Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE; Yang-bo; BAO; Jie; HAN; Rui; RUAN; Xi-chao; REN; Jie; HUANG; Han-xiong; ZHOU; Zu-ying

    2015-01-01

    In order to validate the evaluated nuclear data on beryllium,a benchmark experiment has been performed at China Institution of Atomic Energy(CIAE).Neutron leakage spectra from pure beryllium slab samples(10cm×10cm×11cm)were measured at 61°and 121°using timeof-

  9. Diffusion-bonded beryllium aluminum optical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapes, Thomas F.

    2003-12-01

    Beryllium aluminum material can present significant advantages for optical support structures. A likely advantage of beryllium aluminum compared to aluminum or titanium for such structures is its higher specific stiffness. However, beryllium aluminum material is significantly more expensive than most competing materials. The cost problem with beryllium aluminum is exacerbated if fabrication methods that result in near net shape parts are not used. Near net shape methods result in the least amount of material "thrown away" in the fabrication process. Casting is a primary example of near net shape manufacturing that is appropriate for some optical support structures. Casting aluminum, and other materials as well, is common. Casting of beryllium aluminum is very difficult, however, and has not had significant success. Diffusion bonding - a different approach for achieving near net shape beryllium aluminum optical support structures, was pursued and accomplished. Diffusion bonding is a term used to describe the joining of solid metal pieces under high temperature and pressure, but without melting. Three different optical support structures were designed and built of beryllium aluminum using diffusion bonding. Relatively small solid beryllium aluminum pieces were arranged together and then joined under hot isostatic pressure conditions. The resulting relatively large pressure bonded part was then machined to achieve the final product. Significant cost savings as compared to machining the part from a solid block were realized. Difficulties achieving diffusion bonds in complex joints were experienced and addressed.

  10. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  11. Some characteristics of fine beryllium particle combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, D. A.; Kholopova, O. V.; Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-08-01

    Beryllium dust will be produced under plasma interaction with beryllium armor of the first wall in ITER. Exothermal reaction of this dust with water steam or air, which can leak into the reactor vacuum chamber in some accidents, gives concern in respect to reactor safety. Results of studies devoted to combustion of fine beryllium particles are reviewed in the paper. A chemically active medium and elevated temperature are prerequisite to the combustion of beryllium particles. Their ignition is hampered by oxide films, which form a diffusion barrier on the particle surface as a result of pre-flame oxidation. The temperature to initiate combustion of particles depends on flame temperature, particle size, composition of combustible mixture, heating rate and other factors. In mixtures enriched with combustible, the flame temperature necessary to ignite individual particles approaches the beryllium boiling temperature.

  12. Lithium hydride - A space age shielding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    Men and materials performing in the environment of an operating nuclear reactor require shielding from the escaping neutron particles and gamma rays. For efficient shielding from gamma rays, dense, high atomic number elements such as iron, lead, or tungsten are required, whereas light, low atomic number elements such as hydrogen, lithium, or beryllium are required for efficient neutron shielding. The use of lithium hydride (LiH) as a highly efficient neutron-shielding material is considered. It contains, combined into a single, stable compound, two of the elements most effective in attenuating and absorbing neutrons.

  13. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M. [Association EURATOM-MEC Romania, National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Rubel, M. [Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Coad, J.P. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, OX, Oxon (United Kingdom); Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R. [UKAEA Fusion, Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science and Engineering Centre, OX 3DB ABINGDON, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 {mu}m of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  14. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide...

  15. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  16. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  17. Exposure-response analysis for beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in a beryllium metal machining plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Unice, Ken; Brown, Jay L; Kolanz, Marc E; Kent, Michael S

    2007-06-01

    The current occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium has been in place for more than 50 years and was believed to be protective against chronic beryllium disease (CBD) until studies in the 1990s identified beryllium sensitization (BeS) and subclinical CBD in the absence of physical symptoms. Inconsistent sampling and exposure assessment methodologies have often prevented the characterization of a clear exposure-response relationship for BeS and CBD. Industrial hygiene (3831 personal lapel and 616 general area samples) and health surveillance data from a beryllium machining facility provided an opportunity to reconstruct worker exposures prior to the ascertainment of BeS or the diagnosis of CBD. Airborne beryllium concentrations for different job titles were evaluated, historical trends of beryllium levels were compared for pre- and postengineering control measures, and mean and upper bound exposure estimates were developed for workers identified as beryllium sensitized or diagnosed with subclinical or clinical CBD. Five approaches were used to reconstruct historical exposures of each worker: industrial hygiene data were pooled by year, job title, era of engineering controls, and the complete work history (lifetime weighted average) prior to diagnosis. Results showed that exposure metrics based on shorter averaging times (i.e., year vs. complete work history) better represented the upper bound worker exposures that could have contributed to the development of BeS or CBD. Results showed that beryllium-sensitized and CBD workers were exposed to beryllium concentrations greater than 0.2 microg/m3 (95th percentile), and 90% were exposed to concentrations greater than 0.4 microg/m3 (95th percentile) within a given year of their work history. Based on this analysis, BeS and CBD generally occurred as a result of exposures greater than 0.4 microg/m3 and maintaining exposures below 0.2 microg/m3 95% of the time may prevent BeS and CBD in the workplace.

  18. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

  19. THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BERYLLIUM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

  20. Metallurgical viewpoints on the brittleness of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerberg, G.

    1960-02-15

    At present the development and use of beryllium metal for structural applications is severely hampered by its brittleness. Reasons for this lack of ductility are reviewed in discussing the deformation behaviour of beryllium in relation to other hexagonal metals. The ease of fracturing in beryllium is assumed to be a consequence of a limited number of deformation modes in combination with high deformation resistance. Models for the nucleation of fracture are suggested. The relation of ductility to elastic constants as well as to grain size, texture and alloying additions is discussed.

  1. Fundamental Studies on the Aluminum-Lithium-Beryllium Alloy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Rapidly Solidified Crystalline Alloys ," S.K... Solidified Crystalline Alloys ," S.K. Das, B.H. Kear, and C.M. Adam, eds., pp. 157-183, The ,W Metallurgical Society of AIME, Warrendale, PA, (1986). 2.i...Adda, J. Phys. 29, 345(1968) °t. 8. W.C. Oliver and W.D. Nix, Acta Metall. vol. 30,pp. 1335 to - 1347(1982). 9. C.M. Adam and R.E. Lewis, " Rapidly

  2. Electrochemistry of samarium in lithium-beryllium fluoride salt mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Straka; Michal Korenko; Frantisek Lisy; Lórant Szatmáry

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of samarium was investigated in LiF-BeF2 system on an inert (Mo) electrode by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry at 804,833,847 and 872 K.Redox process Sm3++e-→Sm2+ was recognized and analysed.Cyclic voltammetry data suggested that at potential sweep rates lower than 0.25 V/s,the reduction was limited by the diffusion of Sm3+ ions.It was not possible to observe reduction process of Sm2++2e-→Sm0 due to insufficient electrochemical stability of LiF-BeF2.Diffusion coefficients of Sm3+ ions in LiF- BeF2 were calculated from voltammetric and chronopotentiometric data in the temperature range 804-872 K.Diffusion coefficient values obeyed Arrhenius law.Activation energy was calculated to be 102.5 kJ/mol.

  3. Viscosity of molten lithium, thorium and beryllium fluorides mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlyakov, Alexander V.; Ignatiev, Victor V.; Abalin, Sergei S.

    2011-12-01

    Considering development of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept, following Molten Salt fluorides mixtures have been chosen as an object for viscosity studies in this work (in mol%): 78LiF-22ThF 4; 71LiF-27ThF 4-2BeF 2 and 75LiF-20ThF 4-5BeF 2. Additionally, the effect of the 3 mol% CeF 3 additives on viscosity of the molten 75LiF-20ThF 4-5BeF 2 (mol%) salt mixture has been investigated experimentally. The method of torsional oscillations of cylindrical crucible filled by molten fluorides mixture has been chosen for kinematic viscosity measurement at temperatures up to 800-850 °C. In temperature ranges, where melts behave as normal liquids, dependences on viscosity vs. temperature are received: ν = А exp [B/T(K)], where ν - kinematic viscosity, m 2/s; T - temperature, K. The kinematic viscosity Rout mean squares (RMS) estimated in the assumption about dispersion homoscedasticity is (0.04-0.12) × 10 -6 (m 2/s). Discrepancies left in the data of viscosity for molten mixtures of LiF, BeF 2 and ThF 4 received by different researchers need further investigations in this area to be continued.

  4. Efficacy of serial medical surveillance for chronic beryllium disease in a beryllium machining plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L S; Mroz, M M; Maier, L A; Daniloff, E M; Balkissoon, R

    2001-03-01

    There is limited information on the use of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) at regular intervals in medical surveillance. Employees of a beryllium machining plant were screened with the BeLPT biennially, and new employees were screened within 3 months of hire. Of 235 employees screened from 1995 to 1997, a total of 15 (6.4%) had confirmed abnormal BeLPT results indicating beryllium sensitization; nine of these employees were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease. Four of the 15 cases were diagnosed within 3 months of first exposure. When 187 of the 235 employees participated in biennial screening in 1997 to 1999, seven more had developed beryllium sensitization or chronic beryllium disease, increasing the overall rate to 9.4% (22 of 235). The blood BeLPT should be used serially in beryllium disease surveillance to capture new or missed cases of sensitization and disease. Beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease can occur within 50 days of first exposure in modern industry.

  5. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-04-04

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. In one aspect, a material comprises an aerogel comprising boron nitride. The boron nitride has an ordered crystalline structure. The ordered crystalline structure may include atomic layers of hexagonal boron nitride lying on top of one another, with atoms contained in a first layer being superimposed on atoms contained in a second layer.

  6. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-04-04

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. In one aspect, a material comprises an aerogel comprising boron nitride. The boron nitride has an ordered crystalline structure. The ordered crystalline structure may include atomic layers of hexagonal boron nitride lying on top of one another, with atoms contained in a first layer being superimposed on atoms contained in a second layer.

  7. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  8. Hydrogen release from reactor-irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepikov, A.Kh. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Tazhibaeva, I.L. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Shestakov, V.P. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Romanenko, O.G. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Chikhray, Y.V. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Kenzhin, E.A. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Cherepnin, Yu.S. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Tikhomirov, L.N. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Experiments on gas release of reactor-irradiated beryllium samples were carried out and compared to control samples. The simultaneous influence of reactor irradiation and exposure to hydrogen results in more hydrogen retention in beryllium, than if beryllium is initially irradiated and then exposed to hydrogen. Appearance of low temperature peaks at 460 K and 540 K with 0.71 eV/atom and 0.84 eV/atom desorption activation energies, respectively, assessed in a frame of a second order desorption model, is mainly responsible for the increase in hydrogen content. These peaks can be attributed to chemical hydrogen bonds with surface oxide. The simultaneous influence of hydrogen and nuclear reactor irradiation at a temperature of 1150 K was assumed to increase significantly microcrack formation near the surface of beryllium samples, resulting in an increase in low temperature peak intensities. (orig.).

  9. Synthesis and ceramization of polycarbosilane containing beryllium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小忠; 周珊; 程勇; 杜作娟; 段曦东; 王超英

    2014-01-01

    Polycarbosilane containing beryllium (BPCS) precursors was prepared by the reaction of polycarbosilane (PCS) with beryllium acetylacetone (Be (acac)2). The analysis of structures and components of BPCS demonstrates that their main structures are basically the same as PCS. Ceramization of BPCS precursors shows that BPCS precursors are organic below 600 °C and inorganic at 800 °C. At 1400 °C, BPCS precursors convert into silicon carbide ceramics. The ceramization of different beryllium content precursors were studied, which show that beryllium plays an important role in the inhibition of crystalline grain growth ofβ-SiC at high temperature and it can adjust the dielectric constant of silicon carbide ceramics.

  10. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children’s pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2–17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02–0.04 µg/g.

  11. Benchmark Experiment for Beryllium Slab Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE; Yang-bo; BAO; Jie; HAN; Rui; RUAN; Xi-chao; REN; Jie; HUANG; Han-xiong; ZHOU; Zu-ying

    2013-01-01

    The neutron leakage spectra were measured at 60°from pure beryllium slab samples(10 cm×10 cm×5 cm and 10 cm×10 cm×11 cm)by TOF method.The experimental results were compared with the calculated ones by MCNP5 simulation,using the evaluated data of beryllium from CENDL3.1,

  12. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Ewa; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Misiołek, Maciej; Golusiński, Wojciech; Kowol, Jolanta; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children's pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2-17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years) living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02-0.04 µg/g.

  13. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  14. Boron nitride composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2017-02-21

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and one or more borate binders; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and amorphous boron nitride; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material.

  15. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  16. Hydrogen release from deposited beryllium layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, V.P.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Tazhibaeva, I.L. [NIIETF of Al Farabi Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2000-04-01

    The analysis of hydrogen retained in deposited beryllium layers deposited by magnetron sputtering was carried out by means of thermodesorption (TDS) technique. Two hydrogen release peaks were clearly seen on the thermodesorption curves at the temperatures 760-800 K and 920-970 K. Hydrogen concentrations in the deposited beryllium layers were calculated from the gas release curves corresponding to the number of Be atoms in the beryllium layer of 100% theoretical density. Average hydrogen concentration in the beryllium samples loaded in the process of magnetron sputtering was equal to 3800{+-}200 appm. The experiments with beryllium layers, enriched with carbon, revealed the increase of retained hydrogen concentration up to 9600{+-}200 appm. Assuming that gas release can be described within the framework of model of diffusion from layer system BeO-Be-BeO, hydrogen diffusion coefficient in BeO and the trapping and detrapping constants for the traps appearing in beryllium in the process of deposition were evaluated. (orig.)

  17. Characteristics of beryllium bonds; a QTAIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, K

    2012-08-01

    The nature of beryllium bonds formed between BeX2 (X is H, F and Cl) and some Lewis bases have been investigated. The distribution of the Laplacian of electron density shows that there is a region of charge depletion around the Be atom, which, according to Laplacian complementary principal, can interact with a region of charge concentration of an atom in the base and form a beryllium bond. The molecular graphs of the investigated complexes indicate that beryllium in BeH2 and BeF2 can form “beryllium bonds” with O, N and P atoms but not with halogens. In addition, eight criteria based on QTAIM properties, including the values of electron density and its Laplacian at the BCP, penetration of beryllium and acceptor atom, charge, energy, volume and first atomic moment of beryllium atom, have been considered and compared with the corresponding ones in conventional hydrogen bonds. These bonds share many common features with very strong hydrogen bonds, however,some differences have also been observed.

  18. Occupational Exposure to Beryllium. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to beryllium at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to beryllium are at increased risk of developing chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. This final rule establishes new permissible exposure limits of 0.2 micrograms of beryllium per cubic meter of air (0.2 [mu]g/m\\3\\) as an 8-hour time-weighted average and 2.0 [mu]g/m\\3\\ as a short-term exposure limit determined over a sampling period of 15 minutes. It also includes other provisions to protect employees, such as requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, respiratory protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, housekeeping, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and recordkeeping. OSHA is issuing three separate standards--for general industry, for shipyards, and for construction--in order to tailor requirements to the circumstances found in these sectors.

  19. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  20. Boron Hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-07-01

    of direct interest could be b.P.4d. ’Thus the discovory of a now proj.ect, since silano is probably too readily infla-zmablo for practical usc’ this...devoted, ho specc4fie compounds vhitih a’-ould be tocdte at prescnt arc: nron tiy * silano , %;2.SiFi3 , diothyl sila~no, (C2 115 )2 Si112, mono r.-rop; ! (n...Bcrohydrido or Li h.... I .A-4A- The prepuation of Silano med of Stannane by the interaction or lithium aluzirun hydride v-ithl silicon tetrtchiorido and

  1. Dose point kernel for boron-11 decay and the cellular S values in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunzhi; Geng, JinPeng; Gao, Song; Bao, Shanglian

    2006-12-01

    The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction 10B(n,alpha)7Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the dose is heterogeneously distributed in cells. In the present work, the (scaled) dose point kernel of boron-11 decay, called 11B-DPK, was calculated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The DPK curve drops suddenly at the radius of 4.26 microm, the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) range of a lithium-7 ion. Then, after a slight ascending, the curve decreases to near zero when the radius goes beyond 8.20 microm, which is the CSDA range of a 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion. With the DPK data, S values for nuclei and cells with the boron-10 on the cell surface are calculated for different combinations of cell and nucleus sizes. The S value for a cell radius of 10 microm and a nucleus radius of 5 microm is slightly larger than the value published by Tung et al. [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 739-743 (2004)]. This result is potentially more accurate than the published value since it includes the contribution of a lithium-7 ion as well as the alpha particle.

  2. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  3. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  4. Liquid lithium for high power density fragmentation targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, J. A.; Reed, C. B.; Hassanein, A.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ottarson, J. H.; Sherrill, B. M.

    2001-10-01

    Windowless liquid lithium targets for in-flight fragmentation or fission of high power heavy ion beams are being developed for the U.S. RIA project. With uranium beam power of 100 kW and a beam spot diameter of 1 mm the power density in the target is over 1 MW/cm3. Thermal analysis for this example indicates a very low peak temperature for the lithium when flowing at a linear velocity of 10 m/s. A vacuum test chamber is under construction at Argonne at an existing liquid lithium facility to demonstrate a 2 cm thick windowless target. As a first step towards using liquid lithium target technology at a nuclear physics fragmentation facility, a lower power target is being constructed for use at the NSCL. This target will use beryllium windows with flowing lithium. It is designed for beams between oxygen and calcium with beam power above 3 kW. The tapered beryllium windows are each 1 mm thick for the calcium beams and 7 mm thick for the oxygen beams. The lithium is 5 mm thick. This gives an overall target thickness ranging from about 1 g/cm2 to 3 g/cm2 which is adjusted by moving the target vertically. The designs of these targets and the status of the prototypes will be discussed.

  5. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  6. Illness Absences Among Beryllium Sensitized Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Janice P.; Ellis, Elizabeth D.; Girardi, David J.; Cragle, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined absence rates among US Department of Energy workers who had beryllium sensitization (BeS) or were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) compared with those of other workers. Methods. We used the lymphocyte proliferation test to determine beryllium sensitivity. In addition, we applied multivariable logistic regression to compare absences from 2002 to 2011 between workers with BeS or CBD to those without, and survival analysis to compare time to first absence by beryllium sensitization status. Finally, we examined beryllium status by occupational group. Results. Fewer than 3% of the 19 305 workers were BeS, and workers with BeS or CBD had more total absences (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.46) and respiratory absences (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.24, 1.84) than did other workers. Time to first absence for all causes and for respiratory conditions occurred earlier for workers with BeS or CBD than for other workers. Line operators and crafts personnel were at increased risk for BeS or CBD. Conclusions. Although not considered “diseased,” workers with BeS have higher absenteeism compared with nonsensitized workers. PMID:25211750

  7. An official American Thoracic Society statement: diagnosis and management of beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmes, John R; Abraham, Jerrold L; Dweik, Raed A; Fireman, Elizabeth; Fontenot, Andrew P; Maier, Lisa A; Muller-Quernheim, Joachim; Ostiguy, Gaston; Pepper, Lewis D; Saltini, Cesare; Schuler, Christine R; Takaro, Tim K; Wambach, Paul F

    2014-11-15

    Beryllium continues to have a wide range of industrial applications. Exposure to beryllium can lead to sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The purpose of this statement is to increase awareness and knowledge about beryllium exposure, BeS, and CBD. Evidence was identified by a search of MEDLINE. The committee then summarized the evidence, drew conclusions, and described their approach to diagnosis and management. The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test is the cornerstone of both medical surveillance and the diagnosis of BeS and CBD. A confirmed abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test without evidence of lung disease is diagnostic of BeS. BeS with evidence of a granulomatous inflammatory response in the lung is diagnostic of CBD. The determinants of progression from BeS to CBD are uncertain, but higher exposures and the presence of a genetic variant in the HLA-DP β chain appear to increase the risk. Periodic evaluation of affected individuals can detect disease progression (from BeS to CBD, or from mild CBD to more severe CBD). Corticosteroid therapy is typically administered when a patient with CBD exhibits evidence of significant lung function abnormality or decline. Medical surveillance in workplaces that use beryllium-containing materials can identify individuals with BeS and at-risk groups of workers, which can help prioritize efforts to reduce inhalational and dermal exposures.

  8. Status of lithium-filled specimen subcapsules for the HFIR-MFE-RB10J experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.P.; Howell, M.; Lenox, K.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The HFIR-MFE-RB-10J experiment will be irradiated in a Removable Beryllium position in the HFIR for 10 reactor cycles, accumulating approximately 5 dpa in steel. The upper region of the capsule contains two lithium-filled subcapsules containing vanadium specimens. This report describes the techniques developed to achieve a satisfactory lithium fill with a specimen occupancy of 26% in each subcapsule.

  9. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F

    1992-05-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls.

  10. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... and Offsets; Overpayments Payment of Claims and Offset for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm...

  11. Characteristics of beryllium exposure to small particles at a beryllium production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Day, Gregory A; Stanton, Marcia L; Kent, Michael S; Kreiss, Kathleen; Schuler, Christine R

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported process-specific elevated prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) among workers. However, exposure-response relationships have been inconsistent, possibly due to incomplete characterization of many biologically relevant aspects of exposure, including particle size. In 1999, two surveys were conducted 3-5 months apart at a beryllium metal, oxide, and alloy production facility during which personal impactor samples (n = 198) and personal 37-mm closed-face cassette (CFC) 'total' samples (n = 4026) were collected. Among process areas, median particle mass median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 5 to 14 μm. A large fraction of the beryllium aerosol was in the nonrespirable size range. Respirable beryllium concentrations were among the highest for oxide production [geometric mean (GM) = 2.02 μg m⁻³, geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.3] and pebbles plant (GM = 1.05 μg m⁻³, GSD = 2.9), areas historically associated with high risk of BeS and CBD. The relationship between GM 'CFC total' and GM respirable beryllium for jobs varied by process areas; the rank order of the jobs showed high overall consistency (Spearman r = 0.84), but the overall correlation was moderate (Pearson r = 0.43). Total beryllium concentrations varied greatly within and between workers among process areas; within-worker variance was larger than between-worker variance for most processes. A review of exposure characteristics among process areas revealed variation in chemical forms and solubility. Process areas with high risk of BeS and CBD had exposure to both soluble and insoluble forms of beryllium. Consideration of biologically relevant aspects of exposure such as beryllium particle size distribution, chemical form, and solubility will likely improve exposure assessment.

  12. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J.

    2017-06-20

    A method is provided for extracting hydrogen from lithium hydride. The method includes (a) heating lithium hydride to form liquid-phase lithium hydride; (b) extracting hydrogen from the liquid-phase lithium hydride, leaving residual liquid-phase lithium metal; (c) hydriding the residual liquid-phase lithium metal to form refined lithium hydride; and repeating steps (a) and (b) on the refined lithium hydride.

  13. [Effects of beryllium chloride on cultured cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T; Sakaguchi, S; Nakamura, I; Kagami, M

    1984-05-01

    The effects of beryllium on cultured cells were investigated. Three cell-lines (HeLa-S3, Vero, HEL-R66) were used in these experiments and they were cultured in Eagle's MEM plus 5 or 10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) containing beryllium in various concentrations. HeLa cells or Vero cells were able to grow in the medium with 10 micrograms Be/ml (1.1 mM). On the other hand, the growth of HEL cells were strongly inhibited, even when cultured in the medium with 1 microgram Be/ml (1.1 X 10(-1) mM) and the number of living cells showed markedly low level as compared to that of the control samples cultured in the medium without beryllium. The cytotoxic effects of beryllium on these cells, which were cultured for three days in the medium with beryllium, were observed. None of cytotoxic effects were found on HeLa cells cultured with 0.5 micrograms/ml (5.5 X 10(-2) mM) and on Vero cells cultured with 0.05 micrograms Be/ml (5.5 X 10(-3) mM), while HEL cells received cytotoxic effects even when cultured in the medium containing 0.05 micrograms Be/ml (5.5 X 10(-3) mM), and these effects on the cells appeared strong when cultured in the medium without FBS. It was revealed from these experiments that HEL cells are very sensitive in terms of toxic effects of beryllium. Therefore, there cells can be used for the toxicological study on low level concentrations of the metal.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2006-01-01

    Beryllium metal is lighter than aluminum and stiffer than steel. These and other properties, including its strength, dimensional stability, thermal properties and reflectivity, make it useful for aerospace and defense applications, such as satellite and space-vehicle structural components. Beryllium’s nuclear properties, combined with its low density, make it useful as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Because it is transparent to most X rays, beryllium is used as X-ray windows in medical, industrial and analytical equipment.

  15. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  16. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques.

  17. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...... supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Lithium poisoning has a low mortality rate; however, chronic lithium poisoning can require a prolonged hospital length of stay from impaired mobility and cognition and associated nosocomial complications. Persistent...

  18. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  19. Historical analysis of airborne beryllium concentrations at a copper beryllium machining facility (1964-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, B L; Donovan, E P; Gaffney, S H; Frede, W; Knutsen, J S; Paustenbach, D J

    2009-06-01

    Copper beryllium alloys are the most commonly used form of beryllium; however, there have been few studies assessing occupational exposure in facilities that worked exclusively with this alloy versus those where pure metal or beryllium oxide may also have been present. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne beryllium concentrations at a machining plant using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1964 and 2000. With the exception of a few projects conducted in the 1960s, it is believed that >95% of the operations used copper beryllium alloy exclusively. Long-term (>120 min) and short-term (machining of copper beryllium-containing parts, as well as finishing operations (e.g., deburring and polishing) and decontamination of machinery. A total of 580 beryllium air samples were analyzed (311 personal and 269 area samples). The average concentration based on area samples (1964-2000) was 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.17 microg m(-3); range 0.00012-2.5 microg m(-3)); 68.8% were below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). The average airborne beryllium concentration, based on all personal samples available from 1964 through the end of 2000 (n = 311), was 0.026 microg m(-3) (SD 0.059 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.8 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Personal samples collected from machinists (n = 78) had an average airborne concentration of 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.014 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.14 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Airborne concentrations were consistently below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for beryllium (2 microg m(-3)). Overall, the data indicate that for machining operations involving copper beryllium, the airborne concentrations for >95% of the samples were below the contemporaneous occupational exposure limits or the 1999 Department of Energy action level of 0.2 microg m(-3) and, in most cases, were below the LOD.

  20. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jobson Lopes de; Silva Júnior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Abreu, Krasnalhia Lívia Soares de; Rocha, Natália de Albuquerque; Franco, Luiz Fernando Leonavicius G; Araújo, Sônia Maria Holanda Almeida; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its renal toxicity includes impaired urinary concentrating ability and natriuresis, renal tubular acidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis progressing to chronic kidney disease and hypercalcemia. The most common adverse effect is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which affects 20-40% of patients within weeks of lithium initiation. Chronic nephropathy correlates with duration of lithium therapy. Early detection of renal dysfunction should be achieved by rigorous monitoring of patients and close collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists. Recent experimental and clinical studies begin to clarify the mechanisms by which lithium induces changes in renal function. The aim of this study was to review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological aspects and treatment of lithium-induced nephrotoxicity.

  1. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  2. Characterization of plasma sprayed beryllium ITER first wall mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.

    1998-01-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/m{sup 2} without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface. (author)

  3. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride; Rueckhaltemechanismen fuer Wasserstoff in metallischem Beryllium und Berylliumoxid sowie Eigenschaften von ioneninduziertem Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-09-22

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  4. Boron in sillimanite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, E S; Hinthorne, J R

    1983-08-05

    Sillimanite in six granulite-facies, kornerupine-bearing rocks contains 0.035 to 0.43 percent B(2)O(3) and 0.02 to 0.23 percent MgO (by weight). Substitution of boron for silicon and magnesium for aluminum is coupled such that the ratio of magnesium to boron is about 0.5. Sillimanite incorporates more than 0.1 percent B(2)O(3) only at high temperatures in a boron-rich environment at very low partial pressures of water. In the amphibolite facies, the sillimanite boron contents are too low to appreciably affect the stability relations of sillimanite with kyanite and andalusite.

  5. Boron-doped Graphene as Interlayer for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries%硼掺杂石墨烯用作锂硫电池夹层材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐

    2016-01-01

    Boron doped graphene (BGE) was fabricated from pyrolyzation of boric acid and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and employed as the interlayer between sulfur cathode and separator. Research results were abtained that boron atom had been introduced into graphene skeleton, and improved the rate performance of~500 mAh/g capacity at 10C.%将硼酸和还原氧化石墨烯在高温下热解,制得硼掺杂石墨烯BGE,并用于硫正极和隔膜之间的夹层材料。形貌结构表征证明,硼原子被成功掺杂到石墨烯结构中。电化学测试表明,BGE夹层提高了电极导电性。得益于其对多硫化物的物理拦截和化学吸附功能特点,BGE夹层的采用提高了电池的倍率性能,取得了在10C下500 mAh·g-1的放电比容量。

  6. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  7. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  8. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2006-10-31

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  9. Electronic bistability in linear beryllium chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Wissam; Monari, Antonio; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2009-04-30

    A theoretical investigation on the mixed-valence behavior (bistability) of a series of cationic linear chains composed of beryllium atoms, Be(N)(+) (with N = 6,..., 12), is presented. The calculations were performed at CAS-SCF and MR-CI levels by using an ANO basis set containing 6s4p3d2f orbitals for each atom. Our results show a consistent gradual shift between different classes of mixed-valence compounds as the number of beryllium atoms increases, from class III strong coupling toward class II valence trapped. Indeed, in the largest cases (N > 10), the cationic chains were found to be closer to class I, where the coupling vanishes. The intramolecular electron transfer parameters V(ab), E(a), and E(opt) were calculated for each atomic chain. It is shown that the decrease of V(ab) with increasing N follows an exponential pattern.

  10. Plasma cleaning of beryllium coated mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Newman, M.; Widdowson, A.; Ivanova, D.; Likonen, J.; Petersson, P.; Pintsuk, G.; Rubel, M.; Meyer, E.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Cleaning systems of metallic first mirrors are needed in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems from ITER to avoid reflectivity losses. Currently, plasma sputtering is considered as one of the most promising techniques to remove deposits coming from the main wall (mainly beryllium and tungsten). This work presents the results of plasma cleaning of rhodium and molybdenum mirrors exposed in JET-ILW and contaminated with typical tokamak elements (including beryllium and tungsten). Using radio frequency (13.56 MHz) argon or helium plasma, the removal of mixed layers was demonstrated and mirror reflectivity improved towards initial values. The cleaning was evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis.

  11. PIGE analysis of magnesium and beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M.; Jesus, A. P.; Luís, H.; Mateus, R.; Cruz, J.; Gasques, L.; Galaviz, D.; Ribeiro, J. P.

    2010-06-01

    In this work, we present an alternative method for PIGE analysis of magnesium and beryllium in thick samples. This method is based on the ERYA - Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis - code, which integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. For this purpose, the excitations functions of the 25Mg(p,p'γ) 25Mg ( Eγ = 585 keV) and 9Be(p,γ) 10B ( Eγ = 718 keV) reactions were employed. Calculated gamma-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds containing magnesium or beryllium. The agreement is better than 5%. Taking into consideration the experimental uncertainty of the measured yields and the errors related to the stopping power values, this agreement shows that effects as the beam energy straggling, ignored in the calculation, seem to play a minor role.

  12. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

  13. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Scholz, M.; Igielski, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS (IFJPAN), Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Karpinski, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock - Swierk (Poland)

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  14. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-01

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, α)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting β- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  15. Beryllium induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Shannon S A; Lehnert, Bruce E; Sharma, Sunil; Kindell, Susan M; Gary, Ronald K

    2007-07-01

    After cells have completed a sufficient number of cell divisions, they exit the cell cycle and enter replicative senescence. Here, we report that beryllium causes proliferation arrest with premature expression of the principal markers of senescence. After young presenescent human fibroblasts were treated with 3 microM BeSO(4) for 24 h, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor mRNA increased by >200%. Longer periods of exposure caused mRNA and protein levels to increase for both p21 and p16(Ink4a), a senescence regulator that prevents pRb-mediated cell cycle progression. BeSO(4) also caused dose-dependent induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity (SA-beta-gal). Untreated cells had 48 relative fluorescence units (RFU)/microg/h of SA-beta-gal, whereas 3 microM BeSO(4) caused activity to increase to 84 RFU/microg/h. In chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, BeSO(4) caused p53 protein to associate with its DNA binding site in the promoter region of the p21 gene, indicating that p53 transcriptional activity is responsible for the large increase in p21 mRNA elicited by beryllium. Forced expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) rendered HFL-1 cells incapable of normal replicative senescence. However, there was no difference in the responsiveness of normal HFL-1 fibroblasts (IC(50) = 1.9 microM) and hTERT-immortalized cells (IC(50) = 1.7 microM) to BeSO(4) in a 9-day proliferation assay. The effects of beryllium resemble those of histone deacetylase-inhibiting drugs, which also cause large increases in p21. However, beryllium produced no changes in histone acetylation, suggesting that Be(2+) acts as a novel and potent pharmacological inducer of premature senescence.

  16. Computer simulation of electronic excitations in beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, A V

    2016-01-01

    An effective method for the quantitative description of the electronic excited states of polyatomic systems is developed by using computer technology. The proposed method allows calculating various properties of matter at the atomic level within the uniform scheme. A special attention is paid to the description of beryllium atoms interactions with the external fields, comparable by power to the fields in atoms, molecules and clusters.

  17. The bioinorganic chemistry and associated immunology of chronic beryllium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian L; McCleskey, T Mark; Chaudhary, Anu; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Gnanakaran, S

    2008-07-07

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating, incurable, and often fatal disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particulates. The growing use of beryllium in the modern world, in products ranging from computers to dental prosthetics (390 tons of beryllium in the US in the year 2000) necessitates a molecular based understanding of the disease in order to prevent and cure CBD. We have investigated the molecular basis of CBD at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years, employing a multidisciplinary approach of bioinorganic chemistry and immunology. The results of this work, including speciation, inhalation and dissolution, and immunology will be discussed.

  18. The bioinorganic chemistry and associated immunology of chronic beryllium disease†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Chaudhary, Anu; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating, incurable, and often fatal disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particulates. The growing use of beryllium in the modern world, in products ranging from computers to dental prosthetics (390 tons of beryllium in the US in the year 2000) necessitates a molecular based understanding of the disease in order to prevent and cure CBD. We have investigated the molecular basis of CBD at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years, employing a multidisciplinary approach of bioinorganic chemistry and immunology. The results of this work, including speciation, inhalation and dissolution, and immunology will be discussed. PMID:18566702

  19. Possible health risks from low level exposure to beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, A W; Hilmas, D E; Furman, F J

    1996-07-17

    The first case of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) was diagnosed in a machinist in 1984. Rocky Flats, located 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. Research and development operations using beryllium began at Rocky Flats in 1953, and beryllium production operations began in 1957. Exposures could have occurred during foundry operations, casting, shearing, rolling, cutting, welding, machining, sanding, polishing, assembly, and chemical analysis operations. The Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP) was established in June 1991 at Rocky Flats to provide health surveillance for beryllium exposed employees using the Lymphocyte Proliferation Test (LPT) to identify sensitized individuals. Of the 29 cases of CBD and 76 cases of beryllium sensitization identified since 1991, several cases appear to have had only minimal opportunistic exposures to beryllium, since they were employed in administrative functions rather than primary beryllium operations. In conjunction with other health surveillance programs, a questionnaire and interview are administered to obtain detailed work and health histories. These histories, along with other data, are utilized to estimate the extent of an individual's exposure. Additional surveillance is in progress to attempt to characterize the possible risks from intermittent or brief exposures to beryllium in the workplace.

  20. Disposal of beryllium and cadmium from research reactors; Entsorgung von Beryllium und Cadmium aus Forschungsreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lierse von Gostomski, C.; Remmert, A.; Stoewer, W. [Inst. fuer Radiochemie, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Bach, F.W.; Wilk, P.; Kutlu, I. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde, Univ. Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Blenski, H.J.; Berthold, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Nerlich, K.D.; Plank, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland Bau und Betrieb GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Beryllium and cadmium mostly occur in metal form as radioactive special materials during the deconstruction of research reactors. Beryllium is usually used in these reactors as a neutron reflector and moderator, while cadmium is used above all as a neutron absorber. Both metals together have a high chemotoxicity as well as an inventory of radionuclides which has not been more closely characterised up to now. A high tritium content is to be expected, particularly in the case of beryllium; this tritium is due to the reaction of the metal with thermal reactor neutrons in particular. However, other nuclides which may be formed by neutron capture from impurities also contribute to the activity inventory. Up to now there is no qualified process for proper treatment, conditioning and intermediate and final repository in Germany. (orig.)

  1. Behavior of beryllium pebbles under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik; Baldwin, D.L.; Gelles, D.S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Kawamura, H.; Oliver, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium pebbles are being considered in fusion reactor blanket designs as neutron multiplier. An example is the European `Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket.` Several forms of beryllium pebbles are commercially available but little is known about these forms in response to fast neutron irradiation. Commercially available beryllium pebbles have been irradiated to approximately 1.3 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 390degC. Pebbles 1-mm in diameter manufactured by Brush Wellman, USA and by Nippon Gaishi Company, Japan, and 3-mm pebbles manufactured by Brush Wellman were included. All were irradiated in the below-core area of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho Falls, USA, in molybdenum alloy capsules containing helium. Post-irradiation results are presented on density change measurements, tritium release by assay, stepped-temperature anneal, and thermal ramp desorption tests, and helium release by assay and stepped-temperature anneal measurements, for Be pebbles from two manufacturing methods, and with two specimen diameters. The experimental results on density change and tritium and helium release are compared with the predictions of the code ANFIBE. (author)

  2. [Lithium nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Ireneusz; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2013-01-01

    Lithium salts are the first-line drug therapy in the treatment of uni- and bipolar disorder since the sixties of the twentieth century. In the mid-70s, the first information about their nephrotoxicity appeared. Lithium salts have a narrow therapeutic index. Side effects during treatment are polyuria, polydipsia and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Accidental intoxication can cause acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy while receiving long-term lithium salt can lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. The renal biopsy changes revealed a type of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. The imaging studies revealed the presence of numerous symmetric microcysts. Care of the patient receiving lithium should include regular determination of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and monitoring of urine volume. In case of deterioration of renal function reducing the dose should be considered.

  3. Functionally Graded Nanophase Beryllium/Carbon Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Beryllium, beryllium alloys, beryllium carbide, and carbon are the ingredients of a class of nanophase Be/Be2C/C composite materials that can be formulated and functionally graded to suit a variety of applications. In a typical case, such a composite consists of a first layer of either pure beryllium or a beryllium alloy, a second layer of B2C, and a third layer of nanophase sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. The three layers are interconnected through interpenetrating spongelike structures. These Be/Be2C/C composite materials are similar to Co/WC/diamond functionally graded composite materials, except that (1) W and Co are replaced by Be and alloys thereof and (2) diamond is replaced by sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. (Optionally, one could form a Be/Be2C/diamond composite.) Because Be is lighter than W and Co, the present Be/Be2C/C composites weigh less than do the corresponding Co/WC/diamond composites. The nanophase carbon is almost as hard as diamond. WC/Co is the toughest material. It is widely used for drilling, digging, and machining. However, the fact that W is a heavy element (that is, has high atomic mass and mass density) makes W unattractive for applications in which weight is a severe disadvantage. Be is the lightest tough element, but its toughness is less than that of WC/Co alloy. Be strengthened by nanophase carbon is much tougher than pure or alloy Be. The nanophase carbon has an unsurpassed strength-to-weight ratio. The Be/Be2C/C composite materials are especially attractive for terrestrial and aerospace applications in which there are requirements for light weight along with the high strength and toughness of the denser Co/WC/diamond materials. These materials could be incorporated into diverse components, including cutting tools, bearings, rocket nozzles, and shields. Moreover, because Be and C are effective as neutron moderators, Be/Be2C/C composites could be attractive for some nuclear applications.

  4. Beryllium metal II. a review of the available toxicity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium metal was classified in Europe collectively with beryllium compounds, e.g. soluble salts. Toxicological equivalence was assumed despite greatly differing physicochemical properties. Following introduction of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, beryllium metal was classified as individual substance and more investigational efforts to appropriately characterize beryllium metal as a specific substance apart from soluble beryllium compounds was required. A literature search on toxicity of beryllium metal was conducted, and the resulting literature compiled together with the results of a recently performed study package into a comprehensive data set. Testing performed under Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development guidelines and Good Laboratory Practice concluded that beryllium metal was neither a skin irritant, an eye irritant, a skin sensitizer nor evoked any clinical signs of acute oral toxicity; discrepancies between the current legal classification of beryllium metal in the European Union (EU) and the experimental results were identified. Furthermore, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity were discussed in the context of the literature data and the new experimental data. It was concluded that beryllium metal is unlikely to be a classical nonthreshold mutagen. Effects on DNA repair and morphological cell transformation were observed but need further investigation to evaluate their relevance in vivo. Animal carcinogenicity studies deliver evidence of carcinogenicity in the rat; however, lung overload may be a species-specific confounding factor in the existing studies, and studies in other species do not give convincing evidence of carcinogenicity. Epidemiology has been intensively discussed over the last years and has the problem that the studies base on the same US beryllium production population and do not distinguish between metal and soluble compounds. It is noted that the correlation

  5. Deuterium/hydrogen isotope exchange on beryllium and beryllium nitride; Deuterium/Wasserstoff-Isotopenaustausch an Beryllium und Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollase, Petra; Eichler, Michael; Koeppen, Martin; Dittmar, Timo; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the fusion experiments JET and ITER, the first wall is made up of beryllium. The use of nitrogen is discussed for radiative cooling in the divertor. This can react with the surface of the first wall to form beryllium nitride (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}). The hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, which react in the fusion reaction to helium and a neutron, are used as fuel. Since the magnetic confinement of the plasma is not perfect, deuterium and tritium ions are also found on the beryllium wall and can accumulate there. This should be avoided due to the radioactivity of tritium. Therefore the isotope exchange with deuterium is investigated to regenerate the first wall. We investigate the isotopic exchange of deuterium and protium in order to have not to work with radioactive tritium. The ion bombardment is simulated with an ion source. With voltages up to a maximum of 5 kV, deuterium and protic hydrogen ions are implanted in polycrystalline Be and Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}. The samples are then analyzed in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Subsequently, samples prepared under the same conditions are characterized ex-situ by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). [German] In den Fusionsexperimenten JET und ITER besteht die erste Wand im Hauptraum aus Beryllium (Be). Zur Strahlungskuehlung im Divertor wird der Einsatz von Stickstoff diskutiert. Dieser kann mit der Oberflaeche der ersten Wand zu Berylliumnitrid (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}) reagieren. Als Brennstoff werden die Wasserstoffisotope Deuterium und Tritium eingesetzt, die in der Fusionsreaktion zu Helium und einem Neutron reagieren. Da der magnetische Einschluss des Plasmas nicht perfekt ist, treffen auch Deuterium- und Tritiumionen auf die Berylliumwand auf und koennen sich dort anreichern. Das soll aufgrund der Radioaktivitaet von Tritium unbedingt vermieden werden. Daher wird zur Regenerierung der ersten Wand der Isotopenaustausch mit Deuterium untersucht. Wir

  6. Thermal Conductivity of Composites of Beryllia and Lithium Titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, B. N.; Ghanwat, S. J.; Kaity, Santu; Danani, Chandan; Kulkarni, R. V.; Alur, V. D.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Anantharaman, S.

    2013-11-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power for energy purposes. Wide varieties of solid breeders and multiplier materials have been proposed for fusion blankets. Beryllium and lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) have been accepted as neutron multiplier and breeder materials, respectively. However, swelling of beryllium due to helium and tritium permeation through metallic beryllium and low thermal conductivity of lithium titanate have caused serious limitations when ITER is in the demo version. It has been well established that BeO due its highest thermal conductivity among the known ceramics, low neutron absorption cross section, and high neutron reflection cross section is a good neutron multiplier. In the present investigation, a novel ceramic single compound of BeO-Li2TiO3 was synthesized, keeping the BeO content to Li2TiO3 in the volume ratio of 80:20, 75:25, 65:35, and 55:45 with the aim of maintaining the tritium breeding ratio as more than one, and characterized for phases present by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Beryllium toxicity testing in the suspension culture of mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössner, P; Bencko, V

    1980-01-01

    Suspension culture of mouse fibroblast cell line L-A 115 was used to test beryllium toxicity in the presence of magnesium ions. Beryllium added to the MEM cultivation medium was bound in a complex with sulphosalicylic acid BeSSA complex, because the use of beryllium chloride turned out to yield ineffective beryllium phosphate that formed macroscopically detectable insoluble opacities. The BeSSA complex was used in the concentration range: 10(-3)--10(-9)M, magnesium was used in 3 concentrations: 10(-1)M, 5 x 10(-2)M and 10(-2)M. Growth curve analysis revealed pronounced beryllium toxicity at the concentration of 10(-3)M, magnesium-produced toxic changes were observed only at the concentration of 10(-1)M. No competition between the beryllium and magnesium ions was recorded. It is assumed that the possible beryllium-magnesium competition was significantly modified by the use of BeSSA complex-bound beryllium.

  8. Joining of beryllium by braze welding technique: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaim, P.; Abramov, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Zalkind, S.; Eden, S.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of some applications, there is a need to join beryllium parts to each other. Gas Tungsten Arc Braze Welds were made in beryllium using 0.3 mm commercially Aluminum (1100) shim preplaced at the joint. The welds exhibited a tendency to form microcracks in the Fusion Zone and Heat Affected Zone. All the microcracks were backfilled with Aluminum. (author)

  9. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  10. Ionization energies of beryllium in strong magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANXiao-xu; ZHANGYue-xia

    2004-01-01

    We have develop an effective frozen core approximation to calculate energy levels and ionization enegies of the beryllium atom in magnetic field strengths up to 2.35 × 105T. Systematic improvement over the Hartree-Fock results for the beryllium low-lying states has been accomplished.

  11. Ionization energies of beryllium in strong magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-xu; ZHANG Yue-xia

    2004-01-01

    We have develop an effective frozen core approximation to calculate energy levels and ionization enegies of the beryllium atom in magnetic field strengths up to 2.35×105T. Systematic improvement over the Hartree-Fock results for the beryllium low-lying states has been accomplished.

  12. Dissolution of beryllium in artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2011-05-01

    Dissolution of a lung burden of poorly soluble beryllium particles is hypothesized to be necessary for development of chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) in humans. As such, particle dissolution rate must be sufficient to activate the lung immune response and dissolution lifetime sufficient to maintain chronic inflammation for months to years to support development of disease. The purpose of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that poorly soluble beryllium compounds release ions via dissolution in lung fluid. Dissolution kinetics of 17 poorly soluble particulate beryllium materials that span extraction through ceramics machining (ores, hydroxide, metal, copper-beryllium [CuBe] fume, oxides) and three CuBe alloy reference materials (chips, solid block) were measured over 31 d using artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (pH 4.5). Differences in beryllium-containing particle physicochemical properties translated into differences in dissolution rates and lifetimes in artificial phagolysosomal fluid. Among all materials, dissolution rate constant values ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-10)gcm(-2)d(-1) and half-times ranged from tens to thousands of days. The presence of magnesium trisilicate in some beryllium oxide materials may have slowed dissolution rates. Materials associated with elevated prevalence of CBD had faster beryllium dissolution rates [10(-7)-10(-8)gcm(-2)d(-1)] than materials not associated with elevated prevalence (p<0.05).

  13. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of Beryllium was added to the IRIS database in 1998. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for Beryllium. This update will incorporate health effects information published since the last assess...

  14. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  15. Toxicological effects of beryllium on platelets and vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G; Togna, A R; Russo, P; Caprino, L

    1997-06-01

    Although ample research has described the toxic effects of the metal beryllium on the respiratory apparatus, less is known about its effects on the vascular apparatus, including pulmonary blood vessels. We investigated the in vitro effects of beryllium on endothelial vascular adenosine diphosphatase activity and prostacyclin production in bovine aortic endothelium, and on nitric oxide release in isolated rabbit arteries. Rabbit and human platelet responsiveness was also evaluated. Beryllium inhibited vascular endothelial adenosine diphosphatase activity, prostacyclin production, and nitric oxide release, thus inducing functional alterations in vascular endothelial cells. It also induced platelet hyperreactivity to arachidonic acid, as shown by a lowering of the threshold of aggregating concentration and by concurrently increasing thromboxane production. In contrast, beryllium left the response to aggregating and nonaggregating concentrations of ADP and collagen unchanged. These findings show that beryllium may impair some vascular endothelial functions and alter the interaction between platelet and endothelial mediators.

  16. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  17. Estimating occupational beryllium exposure from compliance monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Michele P; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to beryllium is widespread and is a health risk. The objectives of this study were to develop plausible models to estimate occupational airborne beryllium exposure. Compliance monitoring data were obtained from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for 12,148 personal measurements of beryllium exposure from 1979 to 2005. Industry codes were maintained as reported or collapsed based on the number of measurements per cell of a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Probability of exposure was predicted based on year, industry, job, and sampling duration. In these models, probability of exposure decreased over time, was highest in full-shift personal samples, and varied with industry and job. The probability of exposure was calculated using 6 JEMs, each providing similar rankings of the likelihood of non-negligible exposure to beryllium. These statistical models, with expert appraisal, are suitable for the assessment of the probability of elevated occupational exposure to beryllium.

  18. Release of beryllium into artificial airway epithelial lining fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Inhaled beryllium particles that deposit in the lung airway lining fluid may dissolve and interact with immune-competent cells resulting in sensitization. As such, solubilization of 17 beryllium-containing materials (ore, hydroxide, metal, oxide, alloys, and process intermediates) was investigated using artificial human airway epithelial lining fluid. The maximum beryllium release in 7 days was 11.78% (from a beryl ore melter dust), although release from most materials was beryllium ions may be released in the respiratory tract via dissolution in airway lining fluid. Beryllium-containing particles that deposit in the respiratory tract dissolve in artificial lung epithelial lining fluid, thereby providing ions for absorption in the lung and interaction with immune-competent cells in the respiratory tract.

  19. Boron and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Madeleine V; Culver, B Dwight; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2005-10-01

    Boron, the fifth element in the periodic table, is ubiquitous in nature. It is present in food and in surface and ocean waters, and is frequently used in industrial, cosmetic, and medical settings. Exposure to boron and related compounds has been recently implicated as a potential cause of chronic kidney disease in Southeast Asia. This observation prompted the present review of the published data on the effects of acute and chronic exposure to boron on renal function and structure in human beings and in experimental animals.

  20. Innovative method for boron extraction from iron ore containing boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Wang, Jing-song; Yu, Xin-yun; Shen, Ying-feng; Zuo, Hai-bin; Xue, Qing-guo

    2016-03-01

    A novel process for boron enrichment and extraction from ludwigite based on iron nugget technology was proposed. The key steps of this novel process, which include boron and iron separation, crystallization of boron-rich slag, and elucidation of the boron extraction behavior of boron-rich slag by acid leaching, were performed at the laboratory. The results indicated that 95.7% of the total boron could be enriched into the slag phase, thereby forming a boron-rich slag during the iron and slag melting separation process. Suanite and kotoite were observed to be the boron-containing crystalline phases, and the boron extraction properties of the boron-rich slag depended on the amounts and grain sizes of these minerals. When the boron-rich slag was slowly cooled to 1100°C, the slag crystallized well and the efficiency of extraction of boron (EEB) of the slag was the highest observed in the present study. The boron extraction property of the slow-cooled boron-rich slag obtained in this study was much better than that of szaibelyite ore under the conditions of 80% of theoretical sulfuric acid amount, leaching time of 30 min, leaching temperature of 40°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 8 mL/g.

  1. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  2. Plasma transferred arc deposition of beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, K.; Bartram, B.; Withers, J.; Storm, R.; Massarello, J.

    2006-12-01

    The exceptional properties of beryllium (Be), including low density and high elastic modulus, make it the material of choice in many defense and aerospace applications. However, health hazards associated with Be material handling limit the applications that are suited for its use. Innovative solutions that enable continued use of Be in critical applications while addressing worker health concerns are highly desirable. Plasma transferred arc solid free-form fabrication is being evaluated as a Be fabrication technique for civilian and military space-based components. Initial experiments producing Be deposits are reported here. Deposit shape, microstructure, and mechanical properties are reported.

  3. Neutron beams from protons on beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, D K; Meulders, J P; Octave-Prignot, M; Page, B C

    1980-09-01

    Measurements of dose rate and penetration in water have been made for neutron beams produced by 30--75 MeV protons on beryllium. The effects of Polythene filters added on the target side of the collimator have also been studied. A neutron beam comparable with a photon beam from a 4--8 MeV linear accelerator can be produced with p/Be neutrons plus 5 cm Polythene filtrations, with protons in the range 50--75 MeV. This is a more economical method than use of the d/Be reaction.

  4. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You...

  5. Boron-Based Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Hyun Seung; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The use of the element boron, which is not generally observed in a living body, possesses a high potential for the discovery of new biological activity in pharmaceutical drug design. In this account, we describe our recent developments in boron-based drug design, including boronic acid containing protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, and tubulin polymerization inhibitors, and ortho-carborane-containing proteasome activators, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 inhibitors, and topoisomerase inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied a closo-dodecaborate as a water-soluble moiety as well as a boron-10 source for the design of boron carriers in boron neutron capture therapy, such as boronated porphyrins and boron lipids for a liposomal boron delivery system.

  6. Liquid lithium self-cooled breeding blanket design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I. [Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Danilov, I.V.; Strebkov, Yu.S. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, 101100 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mattas, R.F.; Hua, T.Q.; Smith, D.L. [Fusion Power Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL 60439 (United States); Gohard, Y. [ITER Garching Joint Work Site, Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    To meet the technical objectives of the ITER extended performance phase (EPP) an advanced tritium breeding lithium/vanadium (Li/V) blanket was developed by two home teams (US and RF). The design is based on the use of liquid Li as coolant and breeder and vanadium alloy (V-Cr-Ti) as structural material. The first wall is coated with a beryllium protection layer. Beryllium is also integrated in the blanket for neutron multiplication and improved shielding. The use of tungsten carbide in the primary shield and in vacuum vessel provides adequate protection for toroidal field coils. A self-healing electrical insulator in the form of CaO or AlN coating layer is utilized to reduce MHD pressure drop in the system. To have a self-consistent ITER design, liquid metal cooling of the divertor and vacuum vessel is considered as well. (orig.) 16 refs.

  7. Boron nitride composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2016-02-16

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and a plurality of cubic boron nitride (cBN) particles, wherein the plurality of cBN particles are dispersed in a matrix of the hBN. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes a plurality of cBN particles, and one or more borate-containing binders.

  8. Boron nitride composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2016-02-16

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and a plurality of cubic boron nitride (cBN) particles, wherein the plurality of cBN particles are dispersed in a matrix of the hBN. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes a plurality of cBN particles, and one or more borate-containing binders.

  9. Lithium target for accelerator based BNCT neutron source: Influence by the proton irradiation on lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, R.; Imahori, Y.; Nakakmura, M.; Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Hamano, T.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Itami, J.; Abe, Y.; Fuse, M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is in the transition stage from nuclear reactor to accelerator based neutron source. Generation of low energy neutron can be achieved by 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction using accelerator based neutron source. Development of small-scale and safe neutron source is within reach. The melting point of lithium that is used for the target is low, and durability is questioned for an extended use at a high current proton beam. In order to test its durability, we have irradiated lithium with proton beam at the same level as the actual current density, and found no deterioration after 3 hours of continuous irradiation. As a result, it is suggested that lithium target can withstand proton irradiation at high current, confirming suitability as accelerator based neutron source for BNCT.

  10. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium; Determinazione fluorimetrica del berillio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparacino, N.; Sabbioneda, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-10-01

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure.

  11. Beryllium nitrate inhibits fibroblast migration to disrupt epimorphic regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Adam B; Seifert, Ashley W

    2016-10-01

    Epimorphic regeneration proceeds with or without formation of a blastema, as observed for the limb and skin, respectively. Inhibition of epimorphic regeneration provides a means to interrogate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate it. In this study, we show that exposing amputated limbs to beryllium nitrate disrupts blastema formation and causes severe patterning defects in limb regeneration. In contrast, exposing full-thickness skin wounds to beryllium only causes a delay in skin regeneration. By transplanting full-thickness skin from ubiquitous GFP-expressing axolotls to wild-type hosts, we demonstrate that beryllium inhibits fibroblast migration during limb and skin regeneration in vivo Moreover, we show that beryllium also inhibits cell migration in vitro using axolotl and human fibroblasts. Interestingly, beryllium did not act as an immunostimulatory agent as it does in Anurans and mammals, nor did it affect keratinocyte migration, proliferation or re-epithelialization, suggesting that the effect of beryllium is cell type-specific. While we did not detect an increase in cell death during regeneration in response to beryllium, it did disrupt cell proliferation in mesenchymal cells. Taken together, our data show that normal blastema organogenesis cannot occur without timely infiltration of local fibroblasts and highlights the importance of positional information to instruct pattern formation during regeneration. In contrast, non-blastemal-based skin regeneration can occur despite early inhibition of fibroblast migration and cell proliferation.

  12. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of beryllium at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Michael; Knudson, Marcus

    2008-03-01

    The phase boundaries and high pressure melt properties of beryllium have been the subject of several recent experimental and theoretical studies. The interest is motivated in part by the use of beryllium as an ablator material in inertial confinement fusion capsule designs. In this work, the high pressure melt curve, Hugoniot crossings, sound speeds, and phase boundaries of beryllium are explored with DFT based quantum molecular dynamics calculations. The entropy differences between the various phases of beryllium are extracted in the vicinity of the melt curve and agree favorably with earlier theoretical work on normal melting. High velocity flyer plate experiments with beryllium targets on Sandia's Z machine have generated high quality data for the Hugoniot, bulk sound speeds, and longitudinal sound speeds. This data provides a tight constraint on the pressure for the onset of shock melting of beryllium and intriguing information on the solid phase prior to melt. The results of the QMD calculations and the experimental results will be compared, and implications for the HCP and BCC phase boundaries of beryllium will be presented.

  13. Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Annyce S; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Maier, Lisa A

    2014-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disease that may be pathologically and clinically indistinguishable from pulmonary sarcoidosis, except through use of immunologic testing, such as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Similar to sarcoidosis, the pulmonary manifestations of CBD are variable and overlap with other respiratory diseases. Definitive diagnosis of CBD is established by evidence of immune sensitization to beryllium and diagnostic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. However, the diagnosis of CBD can also be established on a medically probable basis in beryllium-exposed patients with consistent radiographic imaging and clinical course. Beryllium workers exposed too much higher levels of beryllium in the past demonstrated a much more fulminant disease than is usually seen today. Some extrapulmonary manifestations similar to sarcoidosis were noted in these historic cohorts, although with a narrower spectrum. Extrapulmonary manifestations of CBD are rare today. Since lung-predominant sarcoidosis can very closely resemble CBD, CBD is still misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis when current or past exposure to beryllium is not recognized and no BeLPT is obtained. This article describes the similarities and differences between CBD and sarcoidosis, including clinical and diagnostic features that can help physicians consider CBD in patients with apparent lung-predominant sarcoidosis.

  14. Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme polymorphisms in chronic beryllium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, L A; Raynolds, M V; Young, D A; Barker, E A; Newman, L S

    1999-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genotype is associated with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and disease severity, we studied 50 cases of CBD and compared their ACE genotype to that of two different control groups, consisting of: (1) 50 participants from a beryllium machining facility; and (2) 50 participants from a non-beryllium-associated workplace. We found no statistically significant difference in the frequency of the I or D allele or of the DD genotype among cases of CBD and either control group. The odds ratio (OR) for the CBD DD genotype as compared with the non-DD genotype was 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 3.66, p = 0.12) for the beryllium-exposed control group, and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.48 to 2.46, p = 0.56) for the non-beryllium-exposed controls. We found an association between serum ACE activity and the ACE genotype, with DD cases having the highest median serum ACE activity (p = 0.005). We evaluated the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell components, chest radiography, pulmonary function test results, and exercise physiology in our CBD cases. No statistically significant associations with these disease markers were found for the CBD cases with the DD genotype. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the DD cases had a shorter median duration of exposure to beryllium before diagnosis of CBD, and tended to have a weaker response in their blood and BAL BeLPT than did the non-DD cases. These findings may indicate that the ACE genotype is important in the immune response to beryllium and in progression to beryllium disease.

  15. Inhibitory effects of beryllium chloride on rat liver microsomal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C F; Yasaka, W J; Silva, L F; Oshiro, T T; Oga, S

    1990-04-30

    A single i.v. dose (0.1 mmol Be2+/kg) of beryllium chloride prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, in rats. The effects are correlated with changes of the pharmacokinetic parameters and with the in vitro inhibition of both aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation of pentobarbital and zoxazolamine. In vitro N-demethylation of meperidine and aminopyrine was partially inhibited while O-demethylation of quinidine was unaffected by liver microsomes of rats pretreated with beryllium salt. The findings give clues that beryllium chloride inhibits some forms of cytochrome P-450, especially those responsible for hydroxylation of substrates, like pentobarbital and zoxazolamine.

  16. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  17. Development of Beryllium Vacuum Chamber Technology for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R; Dorn, C

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is the material of choice for the beam vacuum chambers around collision points in particle colliders due to a combination of transparency to particles, high specific stiffness and compatibility with ultra-high vacuum. New requirements for these chambers in the LHC experiments have driven the development of new methods for the manufacture of beryllium chambers. This paper reviews the requirements for experimental vacuum chambers. It describes the new beryllium technology adopted for the LHC and experience gained in the manufacture and installation.

  18. Selection of I-220H beryllium for NIRCam optical bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Derek J.; Nordt, Alison A.

    2005-08-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is one of the four science instruments to be installed into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on JWST. I-220H beryllium was chosen as the optical bench material for NIRCam based on its high specific stiffness, relatively high thermal conductivity, low CTE at cryogenic temperatures, and overall thermal stability at cryogenic temperatures. Beryllium has cryogenic heritage, but development of a structural bonded joint that could survive cryogenic temperatures was required. This paper will describe the trade studies performed in which bonded, I-220H beryllium was selected.

  19. Lithium in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  20. Measurement of Beryllium in Biological Samples by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Applications for Studying Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa-Zucca, M L; Finkel, R C; Martinelli, R E; McAninch, J E; Nelson, D O; Turtletaub, K W

    2004-04-15

    A method using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been developed for quantifying attomoles of beryllium (Be) in biological samples. This method provides the sensitivity to trace Be in biological samples at very low doses with the purpose of identifying the molecular targets involved in chronic beryllium disease. Proof of the method was tested by administering 0.001, 0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 {micro}g {sup 9}Be and {sup 10}Be by intraperitoneal injection to male mice and removing spleen, liver, femurs, blood, lung, and kidneys after 24 h exposure. These samples were prepared for AMS analysis by tissue digestion in nitric acid, followed by further organic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ammonium persulfate and lastly, precipitation of Be with ammonium hydroxide, and conversion to beryllium oxide at 800 C. The {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio of the extracted beryllium oxide was measured by AMS and Be in the original sample was calculated. Results indicate that Be levels were dose-dependent in all tissues and the highest levels were measured in the spleen and liver. The measured {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios spanned 4 orders of magnitude, from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -14}, with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10{sup -14}, which is equivalent to 0.8 attomoles of {sup 10}Be. These results show that routine quantification of nanogram levels of Be in tissues is possible and that AMS is a sensitive method that can be used in biological studies to understand the molecular dosimetry of Be and mechanisms of toxicity.

  1. Boron - A potential goiterogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Elizaveta V; Tinkov, Alexey A; Ajsuvakova, Olga P; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-07-01

    The iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) include a variety of disturbances such as decreased fertility, increased perinatal and infant mortality, impaired physical and intellectual development, mental retardation, cretinism, hypothyroidism, and endemic goiter (EG). The occurrence of the latter is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor is iodine status that is required for normal thyroid hormone synthesis. However, other factors like intake of micronutrients and goiterogens also have a significant impact. Essential and toxic trace elements both play a significant role in thyroid physiology. We hypothesize that in terms of overexposure boron may serve as a potential goiterogen. In particular, it is proposed that boron overload may impair thyroid physiology ultimately leading to goiter formation. Certain studies provide evidential support of the hypothesis. In particular, it has been demonstrated that serum and urinary B levels are characterized by a negative association with thyroid hormone levels in exposed subjects. Single indications on the potential efficiency of B in hypothyroidism also exist. Moreover, the levels of B were found to be interrelated with thyroid volume in children environmentally exposed to boron. Experimental studies also demonstrated a significant impact of boron on thyroid structure and hormone levels. Finally, the high rate of B cumulation in thyroid may also indicate that thyroid is the target for B activity. Chemical properties of iodine and boron also provide a background for certain competition. However, it is questionable whether these interactions may occur in the biological systems. Further clinical and experimental studies are required to support the hypothesis of the involvement of boron overexposure in goiter formation. If such association will be confirmed and the potential mechanisms elucidated, it will help to regulate the incidence of hypothyroidism and goiter in endemic

  2. Extraction of beryllium from refractory beryllium oxide with dilute ammonium bifluoride and determination by fluorescence: a multiparameter performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldcamp, Michael J; Goldcamp, Diane M; Ashley, Kevin; Fernback, Joseph E; Agrawal, Anoop; Millson, Mark; Marlow, David; Harrison, Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    Beryllium exposure can cause a number of deleterious health effects, including beryllium sensitization and the potentially fatal chronic beryllium disease. Efficient methods for monitoring beryllium contamination in workplaces are valuable to help prevent dangerous exposures to this element. In this work, performance data on the extraction of beryllium from various size fractions of high-fired beryllium oxide (BeO) particles (from Beryllium concentrations were determined by fluorescence using a hydroxybenzoquinoline fluorophore. The effects of ABF concentration and volume, extraction temperature, sample tube types, and presence of filter or wipe media were examined. Three percent ABF extracts beryllium nearly twice as quickly as 1% ABF; extraction solution volume has minimal influence. Elevated temperatures increase the rate of extraction dramatically compared with room temperature extraction. Sample tubes with constricted tips yield poor extraction rates owing to the inability of the extraction medium to access the undissolved particles. The relative rates of extraction of Be from BeO of varying particle sizes were examined. Beryllium from BeO particles in fractions ranging from less than 32 microm up to 212 microm were subjected to various extraction schemes. The smallest BeO particles are extracted more quickly than the largest particles, although at 90 degrees C even the largest BeO particles reach nearly quantitative extraction within 4 hr in 3% ABF. Extraction from mixed cellulosic-ester filters, cellulosic surface-sampling filters, wetted cellulosic dust wipes, and cotton gloves yielded 90% or greater recoveries. Scanning electron microscopy of BeO particles, including partially dissolved particles, shows that dissolution in dilute ABF occurs not just on the exterior surface but also via accessing particles' interiors due to porosity of the BeO material. Comparison of dissolution kinetics data shows that as particle diameter approximately doubles, extraction

  3. Two-dimensional boron: Lightest catalyst for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Showkat H.; Chakraborty, Sudip; Jha, Prakash C.; Wärnâ, John; Soni, Himadri; Jha, Prafulla K.; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-08-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have been envisaged on a two-dimensional (2D) boron sheet through electronic structure calculations based on a density functional theory framework. To date, boron sheets are the lightest 2D material and, therefore, exploring the catalytic activity of such a monolayer system would be quite intuitive both from fundamental and application perspectives. We have functionalized the boron sheet (BS) with different elemental dopants like carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur, and lithium and determined the adsorption energy for each case while hydrogen and oxygen are on top of the doping site of the boron sheet. The free energy calculated from the individual adsorption energy for each functionalized BS subsequently guides us to predict which case of functionalization serves better for the HER or the OER.

  4. Boron-Based Layered Structures for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory simulations, we have studied the boron-based graphite-like materials, i.e., LiBC and MgB2 for energy storage. First, when half of the Li-ions in the LiBC are removed, the BC layered structure is still preserved. The Li intercalation potential (equilibrium lithium-insertion voltage of 2.3-2.4 V relative to lithium metal) is significantly higher than that in graphite, allowing Li0.5BC to function as a cathode material. The reversible electrochemical reaction, LiBC = Li0.5BC + 0.5Li, enables a specific energy density of 1088 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 2463 Wh/L. Second, 75% of the Mg ions in MgB2 can be removed and reversibly inserted with the layered boron structures being preserved through an in-plane topological transformation between the hexagonal lattice domains and triangular domains. The mechanism of such a charge-driven transformation originates from the versatile valence state of boron in its planar form.

  5. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John

    2016-09-22

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ³11 wt% and ³80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (£100 °C) and pressures (£100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement. For the first approach, possible pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides based on Mg with various first row transition metals were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. In particular, the Mg/Mn ternary boride and mixed-metal borohydride were found to be a suitable pair and

  6. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, M.F. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

  7. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Yubao Sun; Gai Li; Yuanchu Lai; Danli Zeng; Hansong Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known “polysulfide shuttle” effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp 3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batterie...

  8. Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2011-03-25

    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ⁹Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy(h)→T, ³He→⁶He, ⁶Li→⁹Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ⁹Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the ⁹Be/H abundance down to a O(10⁻¹⁴) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

  9. Investigation of the ion beryllium surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Birukov, A.Yu.; Gureev, V.M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The self -sputtering yield of the Be was measured. The energy dependence of the Be self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by W. Eckstein et. al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yield is temperature independent; at T{sub irr}.> 870 K it increases sharply. Hot-pressed samples at 370 K were implanted with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary plasma (flux power {approximately} 5 MW/m{sup 2}). The investigation of hydrogen behavior in beryllium shows that at low doses hydrogen is solved, but at doses {ge} 5x10{sup 22} m{sup -2} the bubbles and channels are formed. It results in hydrogen profile shift to the surface and decrease of its concentration. The sputtering results in further concentration decrease at doses > 10{sup 25}m{sup -2}.

  10. Photodesorption from copper, beryllium, and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, C. L.; Halama, H. J.; Korn, G.

    Ever increasing circulating currents in electron-positron colliders and light sources demand lower and lower photodesportion (PSD) from the surfaces of their vacuum chambers and their photon absorbers. This is particularly important in compact electron storage rings and B meson factories where photon power of several kw cm(exp -1) is deposited on the surfaces. Given the above factors, we have measured PSD from 1 m long bars of solid copper and solid beryllium, and TiN, Au and C thin films deposited on solid copper bars. Each sample was exposed to about 10(exp 23) photons/m with a critical energy of 500 eV at the VUV ring of the NSLS. PSD was recorded for two conditions: after a 200 C bake-out and after an Ar glow discharge cleaning. In addition, we also measured reflected photons, photoelectrons and desorption as functions of normal, 75 mrad, 100 mrad, and 125 mrad incident photons.

  11. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  12. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used...... in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were...... published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its...

  13. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  14. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  15. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Terry

    2013-01-25

    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify

  16. Nanostructured Alloys as an Alternative to Copper-Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    bushing applications;  2) Nanometal/composite for high specific strength/stiffness components; and  3) Nanometal cobalt / copper enabled...performance of Integran’s Nanovate cobalt -based and nickel- cobalt metals is superior to copper beryllium (peak hardness); Mechanical Property Summary...Nanostructured Cobalt Alloy 285 ksi (1967 MPa) 225 ksi (1550 MPa) 290 ksi (2000 MPa) 18855 ksi (130 GPa) Copper Beryllium (C17200-TH04) 142 ksi

  17. Actinide/beryllium neutron sources with reduced dispersion characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Louis D.

    2012-08-14

    Neutron source comprising a composite, said composite comprising crystals comprising BeO and AmBe.sub.13, and an excess of beryllium, wherein the crystals have an average size of less than 2 microns; the size distribution of the crystals is less than 2 microns; and the beryllium is present in a 7-fold to a 75-fold excess by weight of the amount of AmBe.sub.13; and methods of making thereof.

  18. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  19. In Vivo Boron Uptake Determination for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binello, Emanuela; Shortkroff, Sonya; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    1999-06-06

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) has been proposed as a new application of the boron neutron capture reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In BNCS, a boron compound is injected into the joint space, where it is taken up by the synovium. The joint is then irradiated with neutrons of a desired energy range, inducing the boron neutron capture reaction in boron-loaded cells. Boron uptake by the synovium is an important parameter in the assessment of the potential of BNCS and in the determination of whether to proceed to animal irradiations for the testing of therapeutic efficacy. We present results from an investigation of boron uptake in vivo by the synovium.

  20. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found.

  1. Determination of beryllium by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawisza, Beata

    2008-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method is subject to certain difficulties and inconveniences for the elements having the atomic number 9 or less. These difficulties become progressively more severe as the atomic number decreases, and are quite serious for beryllium, which is practically indeterminable directly by XRF. Therefore, an indirect determination of beryllium that is based on the evaluation of cobalt in the precipitate is taken into consideration. In the thesis below, there is a description of a new, simple, and precise method by selective precipitation using hexamminecobalt(III) chloride and ammonium carbonate-EDTA solution as a complexing agent for the determining of a trace amount of beryllium using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The optimum conditions for [Co(NH(3))(6)][Be(2)(OH)(3)(CO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)].(3)H(2)O complex formation were studied. The complex was collected on the membrane filter, and the Co Kalpha line was measured by XRF. The method presents the advantages of the sample preparation and the elimination of the matrix effects due to the thin film obtained. The detection limit of the proposed method is 0.2 mg of beryllium. The method was successfully applied to beryllium determination in copper/ beryllium/cobalt alloys.

  2. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication.

  3. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.

  4. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  5. Monitoring and toxicity evaluation of phytoplankton on lithium manganese oxide adsorbents at lithium recovery pilot plant field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H. O.; Kim, J. A.; Kim, J. C.; Chung, K. S.; Ryu, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    For recovery of rare mineral resources such as lithium or boron from seawater, the lithium adsorbent material have been made by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and pilot plant was conducted in Okgye Harbor, Gangneung, Korea. The application of lithium adsorbent in pilot plant, it is important to consider the impact on the marine environment. Especially phytoplankton communities are important marine microorganism to represent marine primary product. At the same time, phytoplankton is possible to induce the decrease of lithium recovery rate due to cause of biofouling to surfaces of lithium adsorbents. Therefore long-term and periodic monitoring of phytoplankton is necessary to understand the environmental impact and biofouling problems near the lithium pilot plant. The abundance and biomass of phytoplankton have been evaluated through monthly interval sampling from February 2013 to May 2015. Abundance and species diversity of phytoplankton went up to summer from winter. When lithium adsorbents were immersing to seawater, eco-toxicities of released substances were determined using Microtox with bioluminescence bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The adsorbents were soaked in sterilized seawater and aeration for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days intervals under controlled temperature. Maximum EC50 concentration was 61.4% and this toxicity was showed in more than 10 days exposure.

  6. Plasma boron and the effects of boron supplementation in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, N R; Ferrando, A A

    1994-11-01

    Recently, a proliferation of athletic supplements has been marketed touting boron as an ergogenic aid capable of increasing testosterone. The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in male bodybuilders. Ten male bodybuilders (aged 20 to 26) were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement, while nine male bodybuilders (aged 21 to 27) were given a placebo for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on day 1 and day 49 of the study. A microwave digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy was used for boron determination. Twelve subjects had boron values at or above the detection limit with median value of 25 ng/ml (16 ng/ml lower quartile and 33 ng/ml upper quartile). Of the ten subjects receiving boron supplements, six had an increase in their plasma boron. Analysis of variance indicated no significant effect of boron supplementation on any of the other dependent variables. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in total testosterone (p bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser-trained bodybuilders, but boron supplementation affects these variables not at all.

  7. Boron contamination in drinking - irrigation water and boron removal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Bilici Başkan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Boron presents in IIIA group of periodic table and has high ionization capacity. Therefore it is classified as a metalloid. Average boron concentration in earth's crust is 10 mg/kg. It presents in the environment as a salts of Ca, Na, and Mg. Boron reserves having high concentration and economical extent are found mostly in Turkey and in arid, volcanic and high hydrothermal activity regions of U.S. as compounds of boron attached to oxygen. Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, although it may be toxic at higher levels. The range in which it is converted from a nutrient to a contaminant is quite narrow. Boron presents in water environment as a boric acid and rarely borate salts. The main boron sources, whose presence is detected in surface waters, are urban wastes and industrial wastes, which can come from a wide range of different activities as well as several chemical products used in agriculture. In Turkey, the most pollutant toxic element in drinking and irrigation water is boron. Therefore boron removal is very important in terms of human health and agricultural products in high quality. Mainly boron removal methods from drinking water and irrigation water are ion exchange, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and adsorption.

  8. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  9. Bright prospects for boron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2012-01-01

    Professor Lis Nanver at Dimes has laid the foundation for a range of new photodetectors by creating a thin coating of boron on a silicon substrate. The sensors are used in ASML’s latest lithography machines and FEI’s most sensitive electron microscopes.

  10. Bright prospects for boron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2012-01-01

    Professor Lis Nanver at Dimes has laid the foundation for a range of new photodetectors by creating a thin coating of boron on a silicon substrate. The sensors are used in ASML’s latest lithography machines and FEI’s most sensitive electron microscopes.

  11. How well do we understand Beryllium-7 + proton -> Boron-8 + photon? An Effective Field Theory perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xilin; Phillips, D R

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the 7Be(p,photon)8B reaction in the Halo effective field theory (EFT) framework. The leading order (LO) results were published in Phys.Rev.C89,051602(2014) after the isospin mirror process, 7Li(n,photon)8Li, was addressed in Phys.Rev.C89,024613(2014). In both calculations, one key step was using the final shallow bound state asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) computed by ab initio methods to fix the EFT couplings. Recently we have developed the next-to-LO (NLO) formalism (to appear soon), which could reproduce other model results by no worse than 1% when the 7Be-p energy was between 0 and 0.5 MeV. In our recent report (arXiv:1507.07239), a different approach from that in Phys.Rev.C89,051602(2014) was used. We applied Bayesian analysis to constrain all the NLO-EFT parameters based on measured S-factors, and found tight constraints on the S-factor at solar energies. Our S(E=0 MeV)= 21.3 + - 0.7 eV b. The uncertainty is half of that previously recommended. In this proceeding, we provide...

  12. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  13. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R., II; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  14. Nothing Boring About Boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorno, Lara

    2015-08-01

    The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body's use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents. In none of the numerous studies conducted to date, however, do boron's beneficial effects appear at intakes > 3 mg/d. No estimated average requirements (EARs) or dietary reference intakes (DRIs) have been set for boron-only an upper intake level (UL) of 20 mg/d for individuals aged ≥ 18 y. The absence of studies showing harm in conjunction with the substantial number of articles showing benefits support the consideration of boron supplementation of 3 mg/d for any individual who is consuming a diet lacking in fruits and vegetables or who is at risk for or has osteopenia; osteoporosis; osteoarthritis (OA

  15. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  16. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys. ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE...

  17. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  18. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H{sub 2} gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m{sup 2}.

  19. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  20. Oxidation of Silicon and Boron in Boron Containing Molten Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new process of directly smelting boron steel from boron-containing pig iron has been established. The starting material boron-containing pig iron was obtained from ludwigite ore, which is very abundant in the eastern area of Liaoning Province of China. The experiment was performed in a medium-frequency induction furnace, and Fe2O3 powder was used as the oxidizing agent. The effects of temperature, addition of Fe2O3, basicity, stirring, and composition of melt on the oxidation of silicon and boron were investigated respectively. The results showed that silicon and boron were oxidized simultaneously and their oxidation ratio exceeded 90% at 1 400 ℃. The favorable oxidation temperature of silicon was about 1 300-1 350 C. High oxygen potential of slag and strong stirring enhanced the oxidation of silicon and boron.

  1. Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N C; Israelian, G; Mayor, M; Rebolo, R; García-Gíl, A; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Randich, S

    2002-01-01

    We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be deple...

  2. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  3. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  4. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  5. A Report on the Validation of Beryllium Strength Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Derek Elswick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This report discusses work on validating beryllium strength models with flyer plate and Taylor rod experimental data. Strength models are calibrated with Hopkinson bar and quasi-static data. The Hopkinson bar data for beryllium provides strain rates up to about 4000 per second. A limitation of the Hopkinson bar data for beryllium is that it only provides information on strain up to about 0.15. The lack of high strain data at high strain rates makes it difficult to distinguish between various strength model settings. The PTW model has been calibrated many different times over the last 12 years. The lack of high strain data for high strain rates has resulted in these calibrated PTW models for beryllium exhibiting significantly different behavior when extrapolated to high strain. For beryllium, the α parameter of PTW has recently been calibrated to high precision shear modulus data. In the past the α value for beryllium was set based on expert judgment. The new α value for beryllium was used in a calibration of the beryllium PTW model by Sky Sjue. The calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Also, the calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the density changes of the beryllium sample during the Hopkinson bar and quasi-static experiments. In this paper, the calibrated PTW model by Sjue is compared against experimental data and other strength models. The other strength models being considered are a PTW model calibrated by Shuh- Rong Chen and a Steinberg-Guinan type model by John Pedicini. The three strength models are used in a comparison against flyer plate and Taylor rod data. The results show that the Chen PTW model provides better agreement to this data. The Chen PTW model settings have been previously adjusted to provide a better fit to flyer plate data, whereas the Sjue PTW model has not been changed based on flyer plate data. However, the Sjue model provides a reasonable fit to

  6. Genetic determinants of sensitivity to beryllium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino-Hutchison, Lauren M; Sorrentino, Claudio; Nadas, Arthur; Zhu, Yiwen; Rubin, Edward M; Tinkle, Sally S; Weston, Ainsley; Gordon, Terry

    2009-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease is caused by exposure to beryllium. This occupational hazard occurs in primary production and machining of Be-metal, BeO, beryllium - containing alloys, and other beryllium products. CBD begins as an MHC Class II-restricted, T(H)1 hypersensitivity, and the Human Leukocyte Antigen, HLA-DPB1E(69), is associated with risk of developing CBD. Because inbred strains of mice have not provided good models of CBD to date, three strains of HLA-DPB1 transgenic mice in an FVB/N background were developed; each contains a single allele of HLA-DPB1 that confers a different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR approximately 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR approximately 3), and HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR approximately 46). The mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was employed to determine if these different alleles would support a hypersensitivity response to beryllium. Mice were first sensitized on the back and subsequently challenged on the ear. In separate experiments, mice were placed into one of three groups (sensitization/challenge): C/C, C/Be, and Be/Be. In the HLA-DPB1*1701 mice, the strain with the highest risk transgene, the Be/Be group was the only group that displayed significant maximum increased ear thickness of 19.6% +/- 3.0% over the baseline measurement (p beryllium in seven inbred strains were investigated through use of the MEST, these included: FVB/N, AKR, Balb/c, C3H/HeJ, C57/BL6, DBA/2, and SJL/J. The FVB/N strain was least responsive, while the SJL/J and C57/BL6 strains were the highest responders. Our results suggest that the HLA-DPB1*1701 transgene product is an important risk factor for induction of the beryllium-sensitive phenotype. This model should be a useful tool for investigating beryllium sensitization.

  7. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  8. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  9. Identification of beryllium-dependent peptides recognized by CD4+ T cells in chronic beryllium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falta, Michael T; Pinilla, Clemencia; Mack, Douglas G; Tinega, Alex N; Crawford, Frances; Giulianotti, Marc; Santos, Radleigh; Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuewu; Maier, Lisa A; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W; Fontenot, Andrew P

    2013-07-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder characterized by an influx of beryllium (Be)-specific CD4⁺ T cells into the lung. The vast majority of these T cells recognize Be in an HLA-DP–restricted manner, and peptide is required for T cell recognition. However, the peptides that stimulate Be-specific T cells are unknown. Using positional scanning libraries and fibroblasts expressing HLA-DP2, the most prevalent HLA-DP molecule linked to disease, we identified mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that bind to MHCII and Be, forming a complex recognized by pathogenic CD4⁺ T cells in CBD. These peptides possess aspartic and glutamic acid residues at p4 and p7, respectively, that surround the putative Be-binding site and cooperate with HLA-DP2 in Be coordination. Endogenous plexin A peptides and proteins, which share the core motif and are expressed in lung, also stimulate these TCRs. Be-loaded HLA-DP2–mimotope and HLA-DP2–plexin A4 tetramers detected high frequencies of CD4⁺ T cells specific for these ligands in all HLADP2+ CBD patients tested. Thus, our findings identify the first ligand for a CD4⁺ T cell involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity and suggest a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of a common antigen specificity in CBD.

  10. Behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykolayivna-Lemishko, Kateryna; Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2014-07-31

    A significant acidity enhancement and changes on aromaticity were previously observed in squaric acid and its derivatives when beryllium bonds are present in those systems. In order to know if these changes on the chemical properties could be considered a general behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds, complexes between a set of representative carboxylic acids RCOOH (formic acid, acetic acid, propanoic acid, benzoic acid, and oxalic acid) and beryllium compounds BeX2 (X = H, F, Cl) were studied by means of density functional theory calculations. Complexes that contain a dihydrogen bond or a OH···X interaction are the most stable in comparison with other possible BeX2 complexation patterns in which no other weak interactions are involved apart from the beryllium bond. Formic, acetic, propanoic, benzoic, and oxalic acid complexes with BeX2 are much stronger acids than their related free forms. The analysis of the topology of the electron density helps to clarify the reasons behind this acidity enhancement. Importantly, when the halogen atom is replaced by hydrogen in the beryllium compound, the dihydrogen bond complex spontaneously generates a new neutral complex [RCOO:BeH] in which a hydrogen molecule is lost. This seems to be a trend for carboxylic acids on complexing BeX2 compounds.

  11. Design and cooling of BESIII beryllium beam pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xunfeng; Ji, Quan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Lifang

    2008-01-01

    The beryllium beam pipe was restructured according to the requirements of the upgraded BESIII (Beijing Spectrometer) experiment. SMO-1 (sparking machining oil no. 1) was selected as the coolant for the central beryllium beam pipe. The cooling gap width of the beryllium beam pipe was calculated, the influence of concentrated heat load on the wall temperature of the beryllium beam pipe was studied, and the optimal velocity of the SMO-1 in the gap was determined at the maximum heat load. A cooling system for the beam pipe was developed to control the outer wall temperature of the beam pipe. The cooling system is reported in this paper with regard to the following two aspects: the layouts and the automation. The performance of the cooling system was tested on the beam pipe model with trim size. The test results show that the design of the beryllium beam pipe is reasonable and that the cooling system achieves the BESIII experimental aim. The cooling system has already passed the acceptance test and has been installed in position. It will be put into practice for the BESIII experiment in 2008.

  12. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  13. Structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of α-boron and α*-boron

    OpenAIRE

    Chaoyu He; J. X. Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of α-boron and a promising metastable boron phase (α*-boron) have been studied by first-principles calculations. α-boron and α*-boron consist of equivalent icosahedra B12 clusters in different connecting configurations of “3S-6D-3S” and “2S-6D-4S”, respectively. The total energy calculations show that α*-boron is less stable than α-boron but more favorable than the well-known β-boron and γ-boron at zero pressure. Both α-boron and...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form A Appendix A to Part 850 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program...

  15. Risk-based approach for controlling beryllium exposure in a manufacturing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, W. E. (Walter E.); Clawson, C. D. (Chris D.); Ellis, K. K. (Kimberly K.)

    2003-01-01

    There are many diverse uses for beryllium in both military and industrial applications. Unfortunately, there are certain worker health risks associated with the manufacture and production of beryllium products. Respiratory illnesses due to prolonged contact with beryllium particulate are of paramount concern. However, these health risks can be controlled provided that the appropriate protective measures to prevent worker exposure from beryllium are in place. But it is no1 always a straightforward process to identify exactly what the beryllium protective measures should be in order to realize a true risk savings. Without prudent attention to a systematic inquiry and suitable evaluative criteria, a program for controlling beryllium health risks can be lacking in completeness and overall effectiveness. One approach that took into account the necessary ingredients for risk-based determination of beryllium protective measures was developed for a beryllium operation at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The methodological framework that was applied at this facility, as well as a discussion of the final beryllium protective measures that were determined by this approach will be presented. Regulatory aspects for working with beryllium, as well as a risk-assessment strategy for ranking beryllium-handling activities with respect to exposure potential will also be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a synopsis of lessons-learned as gleaned from this case study, as well as providing the participants with a constructive blueprint that can be adapted to other processes involving beryllium.

  16. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a... form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form sealed sources, or to deliver Pu-Be sealed sources...

  17. P-BN/n-Si Heterojunction Prepared by Beryllium ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Bin; CHEN Guang-Hua; LI Zhi-Zhong; DENG Jin-Xiang; ZHANG Wun-Jun

    2008-01-01

    A boron nitride(BN)/silicon p-n heterojunction is fabricated by implanting beryllium (Be) ions into the BN films deposited by rf sputtering on n-type Si(111)substrates.The FTIR observations indicate that the films deposited have a mixed phase composition of sp2-and sp3-hybridized BN.Considering the thickness of the BN layer.the ion implantation is conducted at an ion energy of 100ke V with the dose of 5×1015cm-2.After annealing at a high temperature,the surface resistance of the BN film decreases significantly by 6 orders down to 1.2×105Ω.Space-charge-limited current characteristic.which indicates the existence of shallow traps in the film,is observed.Current-voltage measurements across the BN film and the Si substrate reveal a clear rectification feature,demonstrating the achievement of p-type doping of BN films by Be ion implantation.

  18. Metallic beryllium-7 target of small diameter

    CERN Document Server

    Zyuzin, A Yu; Vincent, J S; Buckley, K R; Bateman, N P; Snover, K A; Csandjan, J M; Steiger, T D; Adelberger, E G; Swanson, H E

    1999-01-01

    The stellar sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction rate has the largest uncertainty among all nuclear reaction rates in the standard solar model. However, the solar neutrino flux predicted for the majority of proposed and existing solar neutrino detectors is directly dependent on the rate of sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction. The existing solar neutrino detectors measure rate of sup 8 B decay neutrinos that is too low. This constitutes largely the solar neutrino problem. Existing measurements of the sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction rate disagree with one another, indicating the need for more precise experiments. To provide the required targets a new procedure for sup 7 Be production, separation and target manufacturing has been developed. First, a lithium target has been designed for sup 7 Be production at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron. The lithium target has been extensively tested at 50 mu A proton beam current yielding 8.1 MBq/mu A h of sup 7 Be. An adsorption filtration technique has been developed for sup ...

  19. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  20. Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses for integral beryllium experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, U; Tsige-Tamirat, H

    2000-01-01

    The novel Monte Carlo technique for calculating point detector sensitivities has been applied to two representative beryllium transmission experiments with the objective to investigate the sensitivity of important responses such as the neutron multiplication and to assess the related uncertainties due to the underlying cross-section data uncertainties. As an important result, it has been revealed that the neutron multiplication power of beryllium can be predicted with good accuracy using state-of-the-art nuclear data evaluations. Severe discrepancies do exist for the spectral neutron flux distribution that would transmit into significant uncertainties of the calculated neutron spectra and of the nuclear blanket performance in blanket design calculations. With regard to this, it is suggested to re-analyse the secondary energy and angle distribution data of beryllium by means of Monte Carlo based sensitivity and uncertainty calculations. Related code development work is underway.

  1. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful [Department of Physical Sciences, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) Dhaka (Bangladesh); Halder, Amal [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-05-15

    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.

  2. Field-emission spectroscopy of beryllium atoms adsorbed on tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyzewski, J.J.; Grzesiak, W.; Krajniak, J. (Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland))

    1981-01-01

    Field emission energy distributions (FEED) have been measured for the beryllium-tungsten (023) adsorption system over the 78-450 K temperature range. A temperature dependence of the normalized half-width, ..delta../d, of FEED peaks changed significantly due to beryllium adsorption; and the curve, ..delta../d vs p, for the Be/W adsorption system was identical in character to the calculated curve based on the free electron model in contrast to the curve for the clean tungsten surface. In the last part of this paper Gadzuk's theory of the resonance-tunneling effect is applied to the beryllium atom on tungsten. Experimental and theoretical curves of the enhancement factor as a function of energy have been discussed.

  3. Color Enhancement by Diffusion of Beryllium in Dark Blue Sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyungj in Kim; Yongkil Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of beryllium was performed on dark blue sapphire from China and Australia.The samples were heated with beryllium as a dopant in a furnace at 1 600 ℃ for 42 h in air.After beryllium diffusion,sam-ples were analyzed by UV-Vis,FTIR,and WD-XRF spectroscopy.After heat-treatment with Be as a catalyst, the irons of the ferrous state were changed to the ferric state.Therefore,reaction of Fe2+/Ti4+ IVCT was de-creased.The absorption peaks at 3 309 cm-1 attributed to OH radical were disappeared completely due to carry out heat treatment.Consequently,the intensity of absorption band was decreased in the visible region.Espe-cially,decreased absorption band in the vicinity of 570 nm was responsible for the lighter blue color.There-fore,we confirmed that the dark blue sapphires from China and Australia were changed to vivid blue.

  4. Fivefold twinned boron carbide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Chao; Yuan, Jun

    2009-09-01

    Chemical composition and crystal structure of fivefold twinned boron carbide nanowires have been determined by electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The fivefold cyclic twinning relationship is confirmed by systematic axial rotation electron diffraction. Detailed chemical analysis reveals a carbon-rich boron carbide phase. Such boron carbide nanowires are potentially interesting because of their intrinsic hardness and high temperature thermoelectric property. Together with other boron-rich compounds, they may form a set of multiply twinned nanowire systems where the misfit strain could be continuously tuned to influence their mechanical properties.

  5. An Assessment of the Potential Use of BNNTs for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago H.; Miranda, Marcelo C.; Rocha, Zildete; Leal, Alexandre S.; Gomes, Dawidson A.; Sousa, Edesia M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, nanostructured compounds have been standing out for their optical, mechanical, and chemical features and for the possibilities of manipulation and regulation of complex biological processes. One of these compounds is boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), which are a nanostructured material analog to carbon nanotubes, but formed of nitrogen and boron atoms. BNNTs present high thermal stability along with high chemical inertia. Among biological applications, its biocompatibility, cellular uptake, and functionalization potential can be highlighted, in addition to its eased utilization due to its nanometric size and tumor cell internalization. When it comes to new forms of therapy, we can draw attention to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), an experimental radiotherapy characterized by a boron-10 isotope carrier inside the target and a thermal neutron beam focused on it. The activation of the boron-10 atom by a neutron generates a lithium atom, a gamma ray, and an alpha particle, which can be used to destroy tumor tissues. The aim of this work was to use BNNTs as a boron-10 carrier for BNCT and to demonstrate its potential. The nanomaterial was characterized through XRD, FTIR, and SEM. The WST-8 assay was performed to confirm the cell viability of BNNTs. The cells treated with BNNTs were irradiated with the neutron beam of a Triga reactor, and the apoptosis caused by the activation of the BNNTs was measured with a calcein AM/propidium iodide test. The results demonstrate that this nanomaterial is a promising candidate for cancer therapy through BNCT. PMID:28417903

  6. Neutron irradiation behavior of ITER candidate beryllium grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Melder, R.R.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the main candidate materials both for the neutron multiplier in a solid breeding blanket and for the plasma facing components. That is why its behaviour under the typical for fusion reactor loading, in particular, under the neutron irradiation is of a great importance. This paper presents mechanical properties, swelling and microstructure of six beryllium grades (DshG-200, TR-30, TshG-56, TRR, TE-30, TIP-30) fabricated by VNIINM, Russia and also one - (S-65) fabricated by Brush Wellman, USA. The average grain size of the beryllium grades varied from 8 to 25 {mu}m, beryllium oxide content was 0.8-3.2 wt. %, initial tensile strength was 250-680 MPa. All the samples were irradiated in active zone of SM-3 reactor up to the fast neutron fluence (5.5-6.2) {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (2.7-3.0 dpa, helium content up to 1150 appm), E > 0.1 MeV at two temperature ranges: T{sub 1} = 130-180degC and T{sub 2} = 650-700degC. After irradiation at 130-180degC no changes in samples dimensions were revealed. After irradiation at 650-700degC swelling of the materials was found to be in the range 0.1-2.1 %. Beryllium grades TR-30 and TRR, having the smallest grain size and highest beryllium oxide content, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was no more than 0.1 % at 650-700degC and fluence 5.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Tensile and compression test results and microstructure parameters measured before and after irradiation are also presented. (author)

  7. Automatic control of the lithium concentration of the reactor coolant in PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, A.; Bruere, X. [Framatome ANP, Paris (France); Cohen, J. [Electricite de France-DIS-CIPN, Marseille (France); Berger, M. [Electricite de France-DIS-SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    2002-07-01

    Given the specific operating mode of French units, observance of the lithium-boron diagram and consequently observance of reactor coolant pH is considered to be a priority relative to management of {sup 7}Li ({sup 7}Li recycling practices or prototypes). For this reason EDF and FRAMATOME-ANP have developed an automatic lithium hydroxide injection device, which serves to compensate in real time whenever the upper or lower limits of the lithium-boron diagram are exceeded and to prevent excursion at low pH. A prototype of this device is installed on unit N 2 of Tricastin NPP. The purpose of this document is to describe its principles and the main characteristics, to provide experience feedback on its operation and to present its potential. (author)

  8. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  9. Relativistic and QED corrections for the beryllium atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2004-05-28

    Complete relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections of order alpha(2) Ry and alpha(3) Ry are calculated for the ground state of the beryllium atom and its positive ion. A basis set of correlated Gaussian functions is used, with exponents optimized against nonrelativistic binding energies. The results for Bethe logarithms ln(k(0)(Be)=5.750 34(3) and ln(k(0)(Be+)=5.751 67(3) demonstrate the availability of high precision theoretical predictions for energy levels of the beryllium atom and light ions. Our recommended value of the ionization potential 75 192.514(80) cm(-1) agrees with equally accurate available experimental values.

  10. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  11. Lithium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Lithium and Pregnancy Saturday, 20 September 2014 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to lithium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  12. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beryllium disease covered under Part B? 30.207 Section 30.207 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.207 How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium... employee developed a covered beryllium illness. Proof that the employee developed a covered...

  13. Fixing the Big Bang Theory's Lithium Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    ) successfully predicts a lower abundance of the beryllium isotope which eventually decays into lithium relative to the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (solid lines), without changing the predicted abundances of deuterium or helium. [Hou et al. 2017]Questioning StatisticsHou and collaborators questioned a key assumption in Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory: that the nuclei involved in the process are all in thermodynamic equilibrium, and their velocities which determine the thermonuclear reaction rates are described by the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.But do nuclei still obey this classical distribution in the extremely complex, fast-expanding Big Bang hot plasma? Hou and collaborators propose that the lithium nuclei dont, and that they must instead be described by a slightly modified version of the classical distribution, accounted for using whats known as non-extensive statistics.The authors show that using the modified velocity distributions described by these statistics, they can successfully predict the observed primordial abundances of deuterium, helium, and lithium simultaneously. If this solution to the cosmological lithium problem is correct, the Big Bang theory is now one step closer to fully describing the formation of our universe.CitationS. Q. Hou et al 2017 ApJ 834 165. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/165

  14. Wetting Properties of Liquid Lithium on Stainless Steel and Enhanced Stainless Steel Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiflis, P.; Xu, W.; Raman, P.; Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.

    2012-10-01

    Research into lithium as a first wall material has proven its ability to effectively getter impurities and reduce recycling of hydrogen ions at the wall. Current schemes for introducing lithium into a fusion device consist of lithium evaporators, however, as these devices evolve from pulsed to steady state, new methods will need to be employed such as the LIMIT concept of UIUC, or thin flowing film lithium walls. Critical to their implementation is understanding the interactions of liquid lithium with various surfaces. One such interaction is the wetting of materials by lithium, which may be characterized by the contact angle between the lithium and the surface. Experiments have been performed at UIUC into the contact angle of liquid lithium with a given surface, as well as methods to increase it. To reduce the oxidation rate of the droplets, the experiments were performed in vacuum, using a lithium injector to deposit drops on each surface. Among the materials investigated are stainless steel, both untreated and coated with a diamond like carbon (DLC) layer, molybdenum, and boronized molybdenum. The contact angle and its dependence on temperature is measured.

  15. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  16. Synthesis of hexagonal boron nitride graphene-like few layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Toury, B.; Journet, C.; Brioude, A.

    2014-06-01

    Self-standing highly crystallized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) mono-, bi- and few-layers have been obtained for the first time via the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route by adding lithium nitride (Li3N) micropowders to liquid-state polyborazylene (PBN). Incorporation of Li3N as a crystallization promoter allows the onset of crystallization of h-BN at a lower temperature (1200 °C) than under classical conditions (1800 °C). The hexagonal structure was confirmed by both electron and X-ray diffraction.Self-standing highly crystallized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) mono-, bi- and few-layers have been obtained for the first time via the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route by adding lithium nitride (Li3N) micropowders to liquid-state polyborazylene (PBN). Incorporation of Li3N as a crystallization promoter allows the onset of crystallization of h-BN at a lower temperature (1200 °C) than under classical conditions (1800 °C). The hexagonal structure was confirmed by both electron and X-ray diffraction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01017e

  17. Double helix boron-10 powder thermal neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey D.

    2015-06-02

    A double-helix Boron-10 powder detector having intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency comparable to 36'' long, 2-in diameter, 2-bar Helium-3 detectors, and which can be used to replace such detectors for use in portal monitoring, is described. An embodiment of the detector includes a metallic plate coated with Boron-10 powder for generating alpha and Lithium-7 particles responsive to neutrons impinging thereon supported by insulators affixed to at least two opposing edges; a grounded first wire wound in a helical manner around two opposing insulators; and a second wire having a smaller diameter than that of the first wire, wound in a helical manner around the same insulators and spaced apart from the first wire, the second wire being positively biased. A gas, disposed within a gas-tight container enclosing the plate, insulators and wires, and capable of stopping alpha and Lithium-7 particles and generating electrons produces a signal on the second wire which is detected and subsequently related to the number of neutrons impinging on the plate.

  18. Double helix boron-10 powder thermal neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey D.

    2015-06-02

    A double-helix Boron-10 powder detector having intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency comparable to 36'' long, 2-in diameter, 2-bar Helium-3 detectors, and which can be used to replace such detectors for use in portal monitoring, is described. An embodiment of the detector includes a metallic plate coated with Boron-10 powder for generating alpha and Lithium-7 particles responsive to neutrons impinging thereon supported by insulators affixed to at least two opposing edges; a grounded first wire wound in a helical manner around two opposing insulators; and a second wire having a smaller diameter than that of the first wire, wound in a helical manner around the same insulators and spaced apart from the first wire, the second wire being positively biased. A gas, disposed within a gas-tight container enclosing the plate, insulators and wires, and capable of stopping alpha and Lithium-7 particles and generating electrons produces a signal on the second wire which is detected and subsequently related to the number of neutrons impinging on the plate.

  19. Beryllium solubility in occupational airborne particles: Sequential extraction procedure and workplace application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Davy; Durand, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Modification of an existing sequential extraction procedure for inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and in working areas is described. The speciation protocol was adapted to carry out beryllium extraction in closed-face cassette sampler to take wall deposits into account. This four-step sequential extraction procedure aims to separate beryllium salts, metal, and oxides from airborne particles for individual quantification. Characterization of the beryllium species according to their solubility in air samples may provide information relative to toxicity, which is potentially related to the different beryllium chemical forms. Beryllium salts (BeF(2), BeSO(4)), metallic beryllium (Bemet), and beryllium oxide (BeO) were first individually tested, and then tested in mixtures. Cassettes were spiked with these species and recovery rates were calculated. Quantitative analyses with matched matrix were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method Detection Limits (MDLs) were calculated for the four matrices used in the different extraction steps. In all cases, the MDL was below 4.2 ng/sample. This method is appropriate for assessing occupational exposure to beryllium as the lowest recommended threshold limit values are 0.01 µg.m(-3) in France([) (1) (]) and 0.05 µg.m(-3) in the USA.([ 2 ]) The protocol was then tested on samples from French factories where occupational beryllium exposure was suspected. Beryllium solubility was variable between factories and among the same workplace between different tasks.

  20. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, Takao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Kakihana, Hidetake (Sophia Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto (Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite (Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with high BO{sub 3}/BO{sub 4} ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO{sub 3} triangle units to the number of the BO{sub 4} tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios.

  1. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  2. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  3. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.xbatteries containing the electrodes.

  4. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Development of Enantiospecific Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Boronic Esters with Aromatic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odachowski, Marcin; Bonet, Amadeu; Essafi, Stephanie; Conti-Ramsden, Philip; Harvey, Jeremy N; Leonori, Daniele; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2016-08-03

    The stereospecific cross-coupling of secondary boronic esters with sp(2) electrophiles (Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is a long-standing problem in synthesis, but progress has been achieved in specific cases using palladium catalysis. However, related couplings with tertiary boronic esters are not currently achievable. To address this general problem, we have focused on an alternative method exploiting the reactivity of a boronate complex formed between an aryl lithium and a boronic ester. We reasoned that subsequent addition of an oxidant or an electrophile would remove an electron from the aromatic ring or react in a Friedel-Crafts-type manner, respectively, generating a cationic species, which would trigger 1,2-migration of the boron substituent, creating the new C-C bond. Elimination (preceded by further oxidation in the former case) would result in rearomatization giving the coupled product stereospecifically. Initial work was examined with 2-furyllithium. Although the oxidants tested were unsuccessful, electrophiles, particularly NBS, enabled the coupling reaction to occur in good yield with a broad range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters, bearing different steric demands and functional groups (esters, azides, nitriles, alcohols, and ethers). The reaction also worked well with other electron-rich heteroaromatics and 6-membered ring aromatics provided they had donor groups in the meta position. Conditions were also found under which the B(pin)- moiety could be retained in the product, ortho to the boron substituent. This protocol, which created a new C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) and an adjacent C-B bond, was again applicable to a range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters. In all cases, the coupling reaction occurred with complete stereospecificity. Computational studies verified the competing processes involved and were in close agreement with the experimental observations.

  6. Development of Enantiospecific Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Boronic Esters with Aromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The stereospecific cross-coupling of secondary boronic esters with sp2 electrophiles (Suzuki–Miyaura reaction) is a long-standing problem in synthesis, but progress has been achieved in specific cases using palladium catalysis. However, related couplings with tertiary boronic esters are not currently achievable. To address this general problem, we have focused on an alternative method exploiting the reactivity of a boronate complex formed between an aryl lithium and a boronic ester. We reasoned that subsequent addition of an oxidant or an electrophile would remove an electron from the aromatic ring or react in a Friedel–Crafts-type manner, respectively, generating a cationic species, which would trigger 1,2-migration of the boron substituent, creating the new C–C bond. Elimination (preceded by further oxidation in the former case) would result in rearomatization giving the coupled product stereospecifically. Initial work was examined with 2-furyllithium. Although the oxidants tested were unsuccessful, electrophiles, particularly NBS, enabled the coupling reaction to occur in good yield with a broad range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters, bearing different steric demands and functional groups (esters, azides, nitriles, alcohols, and ethers). The reaction also worked well with other electron-rich heteroaromatics and 6-membered ring aromatics provided they had donor groups in the meta position. Conditions were also found under which the B(pin)- moiety could be retained in the product, ortho to the boron substituent. This protocol, which created a new C(sp2)–C(sp3) and an adjacent C–B bond, was again applicable to a range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters. In all cases, the coupling reaction occurred with complete stereospecificity. Computational studies verified the competing processes involved and were in close agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:27384259

  7. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.; Wiechers, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  8. On-line separation of short-lived beryllium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Catherall, R; Fedosseev, V; Georg, U; Huber, G; Jading, Y; Jonsson, O; Koizumi, M; Kratz, K L; Kugler, E; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Ravn, H L; Sebastian, V; Tamburella, C; Wöhr, A

    1998-01-01

    With the development of a new laser ionization scheme, it became possible to ionize beryllium efficiently in the hot cavity of the ISOLDE laser ion source. The high target and ion source temperatures enable the release of short-lived beryllium isotopes. Thus all particle-stable beryllium isotopes could be extracted from a standard uranium carbide/graphite target. For the first time the short-lived isotopes /sup 12/Be and /sup 14/Be could be identified at an ISOL facility, /sup 14/Be being among the most short-lived isotopes separated so far at ISOLDE. The release time from the UC/graphite target was studied with several beryllium isotopes. Profiting from the element selectivity of laser ionization, the strong and isotopically pure beam of /sup 12/Be allowed to determine the half- life to T/sub 1/2 /=21.34(23) ms and the probability of beta-delayed neutron emission to P/sub n/=0.48/sub -0.10//sup +0.12/(23 refs).

  9. Codeposition of deuterium ions with beryllium oxide at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Markin, A V; Gorodetsky, A E; Negodaev, M A; Rozhanskii, N V; Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H; Wu, C H; Zalavutdinov, R K; Zakharov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-loaded BeO films were produced by sputtering the beryllium target with 10 keV Ne ions in D sub 2 gas at a pressure of approximately 1 Pa. The sputtered beryllium reacts - on the substrate surface - with the residual oxygen, thus forming a beryllium oxide layer. Biasing the substrate negatively with respect to the target provides the simultaneous bombardment of the growing film surface with D ions formed by Ne-D sub 2 collisions. Substrate potential governs the maximum energy of ions striking the growing film surface while its size governs the flux density. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data, the beryllium is deposited in the form of polycrystalline hcp-BeO layers with negligible (about 1 at.%) carbon and neon retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data shows a strong deuterium bonding, with a desorption peak at 950 K, in the films deposited at -50 and -400 V substrate potentia...

  10. THORIUM-BERYLLIUM ALLOYS AND METHOD OF PRODUCING SAME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1959-09-01

    >The preparation is described of thorium-berylium alloys from halides of the metals by stmultaneously reducing thorium fluoride and beryllium fluoride with calcium at approximately 650 deg C and maintaining the temperature until the thorium-beryhltum alloy separates from the slag.

  11. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.

    2014-12-01

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  12. Fluorometric determination of beryllium with 2-(o-hydroxylphenyl)benzoxazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladilovich, D.B.; Stolyarov, K.P.

    1985-09-01

    According to the authors, of great interest for the fluorometric determination of small quantities of beryllium is 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzthiazole (HPBT). In this work, 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzoaxzole (HPBO), which is an analog of HPBT and differs from it in that the sulfur atom in the heterocyclic portion of the molecule is replaced by an oxygen atom, is proposed as a reagent for the fluorometric determination of beryllium. The fluorescent reaction of HPBO with beryllium is studied in this paper, in addition to the selection of the optimum conditions for the determination and the development of a procedure for the analysis of complex objects on this basis. The reaction proceeds in aqueous ethanol medium at pH 7.2-7.5. The limit of detection is 0.6 ng/ml. Methods have been developed for the determination of 10/sup -2/% beryllium in alloys based on copper and 10/sup -3/-10/sup -4/% in standard samples of silicate rocks.

  13. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: michael.klimenkov@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  14. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... a person's immune system becomes highly responsive (allergic) to the presence of beryllium in the.... Hardcopies (2 copies) sent by regular mailing should be addressed to: Jacqueline D. Rogers, Office of Worker... to jackie.rogers@hq.doe.gov . If you have additional information, such as studies or journal articles...

  15. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001-10 gave the greatest match (45.9% for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991-2000. Years 1971-80 and 1981-90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951-1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential.

  16. Biological exposure metrics of beryllium-exposed dental technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Moshe; Lerman, Yehuda; Kapel, Arik; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Beryllium is commonly used in the dental industry. This study investigates the association between particle size and shape in induced sputum (IS) with beryllium exposure and oxidative stress in 83 dental technicians. Particle size and shape were defined by laser and video, whereas beryllium exposure data came from self-reports and beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) results. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression in IS was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A high content of particles (92%) in IS >5 μ in size is correlated to a positive BeLPT risk (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-13). Use of masks, hoods, and type of exposure yielded differences in the transparency of IS particles (gray level) and modulate HO1 levels. These results indicate that parameters of size and shape of particles in IS are sensitive to workplace hygiene, affect the level of oxidative stress, and may be potential markers for monitoring hazardous dust exposures.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mirzaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer.

  18. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  19. Chronic boron exposure and human semen parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Wendie A; Xun, Lin; Jia, Juan; Kennedy, Nola; Elashoff, David A; Ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary food/fluids, blood, semen, and urine from boron workers and two comparison worker groups (n=192) over three months and determined correlations between boron and semen parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA breakage, apoptosis and aneuploidy). Blood boron averaged 499.2 ppb for boron workers, 96.1 and 47.9 ppb for workers from high and low environmental boron areas (pBoron concentrated in seminal fluid. No significant correlations were found between blood or urine boron and adverse semen parameters. Exposures did not reach those causing adverse effects published in animal toxicology work but exceeded those previously published for boron occupational groups.

  20. Determination of beryllium concentrations in UK ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Sharon L.; Brown, Richard J. C.; Ghatora, Baljit K.

    2016-12-01

    Air quality monitoring of ambient air is essential to minimise the exposure of the general population to toxic substances such as heavy metals, and thus the health risks associated with them. In the UK, ambient air is already monitored under the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for a number of heavy metals, including nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) to ensure compliance with legislative limits. However, the UK Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) has highlighted a need to limit concentrations of beryllium (Be) in air, which is not currently monitored, because of its toxicity. The aim of this work was to analyse airborne particulate matter (PM) sampled onto filter papers from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for quantitative, trace level beryllium determination and compare the results to the guideline concentration specified by EPAQS. Samples were prepared by microwave acid digestion in a matrix of 2% sulphuric acid and 14% nitric acid, verified by the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). The digested samples were then analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The filters from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network were tested using this procedure and the average beryllium concentration across the network for the duration of the study period was 7.87 pg m-3. The highest site average concentration was 32.0 pg m-3 at Scunthorpe Low Santon, which is significantly lower than levels that are thought to cause harm. However the highest levels were observed at sites monitoring industrial point sources, indicating that beryllium is being used and emitted, albeit at very low levels, from these point sources. Comparison with other metals concentrations and data from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory suggests that current emissions of beryllium may be significantly overestimated.

  1. Unsuspected exposure to beryllium: potential implications for sarcoidosis diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczniak, Andrew N; Gross, Nathan A; Fuortes, Laurence J; Field, R William

    2014-07-21

    Exposure to Beryllium (Be) can cause sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in some individuals.  Even relatively low exposures may be sufficient to generate an asymptomatic, or in some cases a symptomatic, immune response. Since the clinical presentation of CBD is similar to that of sarcoidosis, it is helpful to have information on exposure to beryllium in order to reduce misdiagnosis. The purpose of this pilot study is to explore the occurrence of Be surface deposits at worksites with little or no previous reported use of commercially available Be products.  The workplaces chosen for this study represent a convenience sample of businesses in eastern Iowa. One hundred thirty-six surface dust samples were collected from 27 businesses for analysis of Be. The results were then divided into categories by the amount of detected Be according to U.S. Department of Energy guidelines as described in 10 CFR 850.30 and 10 CFR 850.31. Overall, at least one of the samples at 78% of the work sites tested contained deposited Be above the analytical limit of quantitation (0.035 µg beryllium per sample).  Beryllium was detected in 46% of the samples collected. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 0.2 µg/100 cm² and 4% of the samples exceeded a Be concentration of 3 µg/100 cm². The findings from this study suggest that there may be a wider range and greater number of work environments that have the potential for Be exposure than has been documented previously.  These findings could have implications for the accurate diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  2. Evaluation of historical beryllium abundance in soils, airborne particulates and facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Bibby, Richard K; Eppich, Gary R; Lee, Steven; Lindvall, Rachel E; Wilson, Kent; Esser, Bradley K

    2012-10-15

    Beryllium has been historically machined, handled and stored in facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since the 1950s. Additionally, outdoor testing of beryllium-containing components has been performed at LLNL's Site 300 facility. Beryllium levels in local soils and atmospheric particulates have been measured over three decades and are comparable to those found elsewhere in the natural environment. While localized areas of beryllium contamination have been identified, laboratory operations do not appear to have increased the concentration of beryllium in local air or water. Variation in airborne beryllium correlates to local weather patterns, PM10 levels, normal sources (such as resuspension of soil and emissions from coal power stations) but not to LLNL activities. Regional and national atmospheric beryllium levels have decreased since the implementation of the EPA's 1990 Clean-Air-Act. Multi-element analysis of local soil and air samples allowed for the determination of comparative ratios for beryllium with over 50 other metals to distinguish between natural beryllium and process-induced contamination. Ten comparative elemental markers (Al, Cs, Eu, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Th and Tl) that were selected to ensure background variations in other metals did not collectively interfere with the determination of beryllium sources in work-place samples at LLNL. Multi-element analysis and comparative evaluation are recommended for all workplace and environmental samples suspected of beryllium contamination. The multi-element analyses of soils and surface dusts were helpful in differentiating between beryllium of environmental origin and beryllium from laboratory operations. Some surfaces can act as "sinks" for particulate matter, including carpet, which retains entrained insoluble material even after liquid based cleaning. At LLNL, most facility carpets had beryllium concentrations at or below the upper tolerance limit determined by sampling facilities

  3. Beryllium detection in human lung tissue using electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnor, Kelly J; Sporn, Thomas A; Ingram, Peter; Gunasegaram, Sue; Pinto, John F; Roggli, Victor L

    2003-11-01

    Chronic berylliosis is an uncommon disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particles, dust, or fumes. The distinction between chronic berylliosis and sarcoidosis can be difficult both clinically and histologically, as both entities can have similar presentations and exhibit nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the lungs. The diagnosis of chronic berylliosis relies on a history of exposure to beryllium, roentgenographic evidence of diffuse nodular disease, and demonstration of beryllium hypersensitivity by ancillary studies, such as lymphocyte proliferation testing. Additional support may be gained by the demonstration of beryllium in lung tissue. Unlike other exogenous particulates, such as asbestos, detection of beryllium in human lung tissue is problematic. The low atomic number of beryllium usually makes it unsuitable for conventional microprobe analysis. We describe a case of chronic berylliosis in which beryllium was detected in lung tissue using atmospheric thin-window energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (ATW EDXA). A woman with a history of occupational exposure to beryllium at a nuclear weapons testing facility presented with progressive cough and dyspnea and a nodular pattern on chest roentgenograph. Open lung biopsy showed nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation that was histologically indistinguishable from sarcoidosis. Scanning electron microscopy and ATW EDXA demonstrated particulates containing beryllium within the granulomas. This application of EDXA offers significant advantages over existing methods of beryllium detection in that it is nondestructive, more widely available, and can be performed using routine paraffin sections.

  4. Beryllium alters lipopolysaccharide-mediated intracellular phosphorylation and cytokine release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Shannon; Ganguly, Kumkum; Fresquez, Theresa M; Gupta, Goutam; McCleskey, T Mark; Chaudhary, Anu

    2009-12-01

    Beryllium exposure in susceptible individuals leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease, a lung disorder marked by release of inflammatory cytokine and granuloma formation. We have previously reported that beryllium induces an immune response even in blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. In this study, we investigate the effects of beryllium on lipopolysaccharide-mediated cytokine release in blood mononuclear and dendritic cells from healthy individuals. We found that in vitro treatment of beryllium sulfate inhibits the secretion of lipopolysaccharide-mediated interleukin 10, while the release of interleukin 1beta is enhanced. In addition, not all lipopolysaccharide-mediated responses are altered, as interleukin 6 release in unaffected upon beryllium treatment. Beryllium sulfate-treated cells show altered phosphotyrosine levels upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Significantly, beryllium inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transducer 3, induced by lipopolysaccharide. Finally, inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase mimic the effects of beryllium in inhibition of interleukin 10 release, while they have no effect on interleukin 1beta secretion. This study strongly suggests that prior exposures to beryllium could alter host immune responses to bacterial infections in healthy individuals, by altering intracellular signaling.

  5. Rapid accurate isotopic measurements on boron in boric acid and boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, N L; Verbruggen, A; Hendrickx, F; De Bièvre, P

    1986-04-01

    A procedure is described whereby rapid and accurate isotopic measurements can be performed on boron in boric acid and boron carbide after fusion of these compounds with calcium carbonate. It allows the determination of the isotopic composition of boron in boric acid and boron carbide and the direct assay of boron or the (10)B isotope in boron carbide by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry.

  6. 国内外铍及含铍材料的研究进展%Advances in beryllium and beryllium-containing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许德美; 秦高梧; 李峰; 王战宏; 钟景明; 何季麟; 何力军

    2014-01-01

    The research progress of beryllium and beryllium-containing materials was reviewed in the past two decades in the world, and much effort in this work was focused on beryllium metallurgy, beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, beryllium matrix composites and intermetallics. The advances of beryllium materials in both research and production techniques in China were summarized, especially in technique gap as compared to that in the developed countries. Finally, the new beryllium materials and their key techniques conforming to the requirements of industry were proposed in the next one decade in China.%综述近20年来国外铍及含铍材料的研究进展,主要包括铍的冶金制备、铍合金、铍和氧化铍金属基复合材料、铍金属间化合物等。概括我国在铍材料方面取得的研究与生产技术进展,以及与国外研发水平的差距。并展望未来10年我国铍及含铍材料需要重点发展的新材料以及突破的关键技术。

  7. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces; Untersuchung des ternaeren Systems Beryllium-Kohlenstoff-Wolfram und Betrachtungen von Beryllium auf Kohlenstoffoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-05-25

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be{sub 2}C island formation for T{>=}770 K. At high temperatures (T{>=}1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be{sub 2}W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be{sub 2}W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be{sub 2}C, W{sub 2}C, WC and Be{sub 2}W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be{sub 2}C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures

  8. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül

    2016-01-01

    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents.

  9. Tritium release from EXOTIC-7 orthosilicate pebbles. Effect of burnup and contact with beryllium during irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-03-01

    EXOTIC-7 was the first in-pile test with {sup 6}Li-enriched (50%) lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) pebbles and with DEMO representative Li-burnup. Post irradiation examinations of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} have been performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), mainly to investigate the tritium release kinetics as well as the effect of Li-burnup and/or contact with beryllium during irradiation. The release rate of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from pure Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} bed of capsule 28.1-1 is characterized by a broad main peak at about 400degC and by a smaller peak at about 800degC, and that from the mixed beds of capsule 28.2 and 26.2-1 shows again these two peaks, but most of the tritium is now released from the 800degC peak. This shift of release from low to high temperature may be due to the higher Li-burnup and/or due to contact with Be during irradiation. Due to the very difficult interpretation of the in-situ tritium release data, residence times have been estimated on the basis of the out-of-pile tests. The residence time for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from caps. 28.1-1 irradiated at 10% Li-burnup agrees quite well with that of the same material irradiated at Li-burnup lower than 3% in the EXOTIC-6 experiment. In spite of the observed shift in the release peaks from low to high temperature, also the residence time for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from caps. 26.2-1 irradiated at 13% Li-burnup agrees quite well with the data from EXOTIC-6 experiment. On the other hand, the residence time for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from caps. 28.2 (Li-burnup 18%) is about a factor 1.7-3.8 higher than that for caps. 26.2-1. Based on these data on can conclude that up to 13% Li-burnup neither the contact with beryllium nor the Li-burnup have a detrimental effect on the tritium release of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles, but at 18% Li-burnup the residence time is increased by about a factor three. (J.P.N.)

  10. Nothing Boring About Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorno, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body’s use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents. In none of the numerous studies conducted to date, however, do boron’s beneficial effects appear at intakes > 3 mg/d. No estimated average requirements (EARs) or dietary reference intakes (DRIs) have been set for boron—only an upper intake level (UL) of 20 mg/d for individuals aged ≥ 18 y. The absence of studies showing harm in conjunction with the substantial number of articles showing benefits support the consideration of boron supplementation of 3 mg/d for any individual who is consuming a diet lacking in fruits and vegetables or who is at risk for or has osteopenia; osteoporosis

  11. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (10/sup 22/ atoms/cm/sup 2/) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project.

  12. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  13. Beryllium Dust Generation in PISCES-B Due to Plasma-Material Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, R.; Mays, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Luckhardt, S. C.; Sze, C. F.; Won, J.; Conn, R. W.

    1996-11-01

    The PISCES-B device has started plasma-beryllium experiments in its new location at U.C. San Diego. An improved controlled atmosphere enclosure was constructed to assure safe operation with beryllium materials. In the previous experimental campaign we found that a total of 600 mg of beryllium had been eroded during materials tests. This provided us with a unique opportunity to investigate the lost beryllium. Swipe sampling and vacuum sampling of the PISCES-B vacuum chamber revealed that 3% of the eroded beryllium resided as uniformly distributed loose dust within the vacuum chamber. An additional 33% of the eroded beryllium was coated onto the chamber wall. Filtering through a series of decreasing pore size meshes revealed a uniform distribution of particle sizes in the respirable range (between 10mm - 0.1mm), fewer larger particles (>50mm) were observed. This work is supported by USDOE under grant DE-FG03-95ER-54301.

  14. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Jain; C Ghosh; T R Ravindran; S Anthonysamy; R Divakar; E Mohandas; G S Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron was carried out by using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electron diffraction and phase contrast imaging were carried out by using transmission electron microscopy. Phase identification was done based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns and the power spectrum calculated from the lattice images from thin regions of the sample. Raman spectroscopic examination was carried out to study the nature of bonding and the allotropic form of boron obtained after electrodeposition. The results obtained from transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of nanocrystallites embedded in an amorphous mass of boron. Raman microscopic studies showed that amorphous boron could be converted to its crystalline form at high temperatures.

  15. Lithium associated autoimmune thyroiditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, M; Hirokawa, M.; T. Manabe; Shimozuma, K; Sonoo, H; Harada, T.

    1997-01-01

    A case of autoimmune thyroiditis after long term treatment with lithium is described in a 29 year old Japanese woman with manic depression. Positive serum antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies, diffuse goitre, and microscopic chronic thyroiditis, as well as the clinical history of long term lithium treatment were suggestive of lithium associated autoimmune thyroiditis. Microscopically, there was a mild degree of interstitial fibrosis and a moderate degree of lymphocytic infiltration...

  16. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  17. Combustion of boron containing compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Y.; Pivkina, A. [Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Boron is one of the most energetic components for explosives, propellants and for heterogeneous condensed systems in common. The combustion process of mixtures of boron with different oxidizers was studied. The burning rate, concentration combustion limits, the agglomeration and dispersion processes during reaction wave propagation were analysed in the respect of the percolation theory. The linear dependence of the burning rate on the contact surface value was demonstrated. The percolative model for the experimental results explanation is proposed. (authors) 5 refs.

  18. Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Bernard C

    2009-05-01

    Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within weeks of lithium initiation. After years of lithium exposure, full-blown nephropathy can develop, which is characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease. Here, we review the clinical and experimental evidence that the principal cell of the collecting duct is the primary target for the nephrotoxic effects of lithium, and that these effects are characterized by dysregulation of aquaporin 2. This dysregulation is believed to occur as a result of the accumulation of cytotoxic concentrations of lithium, which enters via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) on the apical membrane and leads to the inhibition of signaling pathways that involve glycogen synthase kinase type 3beta. Experimental and clinical evidence demonstrates the efficacy of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride for the treatment of lithium-induced NDI; however, whether this agent can prevent the long-term adverse effects of lithium is not yet known.

  19. Studies on extraction of beryllium from thiocyanate solutions by quaternary ammonium halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yamani, I S; El-Messieh, E N

    A 0.4M tricaprylmethylammonium chloride solution in n-hexane was used for the quantitative extraction of beryllium from hydrochloric acid (pH 3) and 5M potassium thiocyanate. Beryllium was stripped from the organic phase with 1M sodium hydroxide, then determined volumetrically with bismuthyl perchlorate and bromocresol green indicator. Beryllium was extracted in presence of a large number of elements which are usually associated with it in beryl and in fission products of nuclear fuel.

  20. Quality management of dispersion-strengthened beryllium-based composite alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Миколайович Макаренко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to investigation of the composition and properties of dispersion-strengthened beryllium-based composite alloy, used in various industries, including the aircraft manufacture aircraft. Analyzed the properties of these materials are analyzed to ensure their quality management. The mathematical relationship of dispersion strengthened beryllium-based composite alloy parameters from content of beryllium oxide and temperature are built

  1. Summary of historical beryllium uses and airborne concentration levels at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Weaver, Virginia M; Cadorette, Maureen; Puckett, Leslie G; Schwartz, Brian S; Wiggs, Laurie D; Jankowski, Mark D; Breysse, Patrick N

    2003-09-01

    Beryllium operations and accompanying medical surveillance of workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory began in the 1940s. In 1999 a Former Workers Medical Surveillance Program that includes screening for chronic beryllium disease was initiated. As part of this program, historical beryllium exposure conditions were reconstructed from archived paper and electronic industrial hygiene data sources to improve understanding of past beryllium uses and airborne concentration levels. Archived industrial hygiene sampling reports indicated beryllium was principally used in technical areas-01 and -03, primarily being machined. Beryllium was also used at 15 other technical areas in activities that ranged from explosives detonation to the manufacture of X-ray windows. A total of 4528 personal breathing zone and area air samples for beryllium, combined for purposes of calculating summary statistics, were identified during the records review phase. The geometric mean airborne beryllium concentration for the period 1949-1989 for all technical areas was 0.04 microg Be/m(3) with 97 percent of all sample below the 2.0 microg Be/m(3) occupational exposure limit (OEL). Average beryllium concentrations per decade were less than 1 microg Be/m(3) and annual geometric mean concentrations in technical area-03, the largest user of beryllium, were generally below 0.1 microg Be/m(3), indicating exposure was generally well-controlled, that is, below the OEL. Typical of many retrospective exposure assessments, not all archived data could be extracted and summarized. Despite this, we report a reasonable summary of potential beryllium uses and airborne concentration levels a worker may have encountered from 1949-1989. These data can be used to more effectively identify former worker populations at potential risk for chronic beryllium disease and to offer these workers screening as part of the Former Worker Medical Surveillance Program, and in the event that a case is diagnosed, help to understand

  2. Beryllium uptake and related biological effects studied in THP-1 differentiated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Lin, Lin; Hang, Wei; Yan, Xiaomei

    2009-11-01

    Investigation of cellular uptake of metal compounds is important in understanding metal-related toxicity and diseases. Inhalation of beryllium aerosols can cause chronic beryllium disease, a progressive, granulomatous fibrosis of the lung. Studies in laboratory animals and cultured animal cells indicate that alveolar macrophages take up beryllium compounds and participate in a hypersensitivity immune response to a beryllium-containing antigen. In the present work, human monocyte cell line THP-1 was induced with phorbol myristate acetate to differentiate into a macrophage. This cell with characteristics of human alveolar macrophages was employed to study cellular beryllium uptake and related biological effects. Morphological changes, phagocytosis of fluorescent latex beads, and cell surface CD14 expression were used to verify the successful differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages. An improved mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of intracellular beryllium as opposed to the traditional radioisotopic approach was developed using ICP-MS. The influence of the solubility of beryllium compounds, exposure duration, and beryllium concentration on the incorporation of beryllium was studied. Our data indicated that the uptake of particulate BeO was much more significant than that of soluble BeSO(4), suggesting the major cellular uptake pathway is phagocytosis. Nevertheless, subsequent DAPI nuclear staining and PARP cleavage study indicated that beryllium uptake had a negligible effect on the apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages compared to the unstimulated macrophage control. Meanwhile, no substantial variation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha production was observed for THP-1 macrophages upon beryllium exposure. These data imply alveolar macrophages could have some level of tolerance to beryllium and this may explain why most Be-exposed individuals remain healthy throughout life.

  3. Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium-Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained Layer Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-03

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Minority carrier lifetimes in undoped and Beryllium -doped Type-2 Ga-free, InAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattices (SLS) with...is unlimited. Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium -Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained Layer Superlattices The views, opinions and/or findings contained in...Brook University W-5510 Melville Library West Sayville, NY 11796 -3362 1 ABSTRACT Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium -Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained

  4. Beryllium dimer: a bond based on non-dynamical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khatib, Muammar; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Helal, Wissam; Leininger, Thierry; Tenti, Lorenzo; Angeli, Celestino

    2014-08-21

    The bond nature in beryllium dimer has been theoretically investigated using high-level ab initio methods. A series of ANO basis sets of increasing quality, going from sp to spdf ghi contractions, has been employed, combined with HF, CAS-SCF, CISD, and MRCI calculations with several different active spaces. The quality of these calculations has been checked by comparing the results with valence Full-CI calculations, performed with the same basis sets. It is shown that two quasi-degenerated partly occupied orbitals play a crucial role to give a qualitatively correct description of the bond. Their nature is similar to that of the edge orbitals that give rise to the quasi-degenerated singlet-triplet states in longer beryllium chains.

  5. Ultrasonic evaluation of beryllium-copper diffusion bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, E.E.

    2000-06-08

    A study was performed to compare the effectiveness of several advanced ultrasonic techniques when used to determine the strength of diffusion bonded beryllium-copper, which heretofore have each been applied to only a few material systems. The use of integrated backscatter calculations, frequency domain reflection coefficients, and time-of-flight variance was compared in their ability to characterize the bond strength in a series of beryllium-copper diffusion bond samples having a wide variation in bond quality. Correlation of integrated backscatter calculations and time-of-flight variance with bond strength was good. Some correlation of the slope of the frequency based reflection coefficient was shown for medium and high strength bonds, while its Y-intercept showed moderate correlation for all bond strengths.

  6. A joint fracture toughness evaluation of hot-pressed beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, H.; Sargent, G. A.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Fracture toughness tests at room temperature were made on three-point bend specimens cut from hot-pressed beryllium obtained from two suppliers. The test specimens had dimensions conforming to ASTM fracture toughness standard E399-72. A total of 42 specimens were machined from each batch of material. Six specimens from each batch were then distributed to seven independent laboratories for testing. The test data from the laboratories were collected and analyzed for differences between the laboratories and the two batches of material. It is concluded that ASTM 399-72 can be used as a valid test procedure for determining the fracture toughness of beryllium, providing that Kf(max) in fatigue cracking could be up to 80 percent of the K(0) value.

  7. Fabricating thin beryllium windows for X-ray applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhan, John J.; Wagner, Lawrence M.

    1980-10-01

    X-ray windows for diagnostics into vacuum chambers are commonly made of beryllium, which must be as thin as possible to minimize attenuation of the X rays. The windows must be bonded to mounting flanges, and the bond must be leak-tight and able to withstand a pressure differential of one atmosphere. A solid-state bonding process can be used to attach windows of thickness from 0.025 down to 0.015 mm. The process bonds the beryllium window, a silver intermediate layer, and the mounting flange together using compression and heat. The process is not sensitive to the bonding parameters; usual ranges are: pressures of 83-172 MPa, temperatures of 750-950 K, and holding times of 5-60 min. Unsuccessful bonds can often be repaired, or parts can be salvaged for re-use. A variety of window geometries can be accommodated.

  8. Beryllium Drive Disc Characterization for Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmar, J. R.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.

    2009-11-01

    Laboratory Astrophysics scales large-scale phenomena, such as core-collapse supernovae shocks, down to the sub-millimeter scale for investigation in a laboratory setting. In some experiments, targets are constructed with a 20μm thick beryllium disc attached to a polyimide tube. A shockwave is created by irradiating the Be disc with ˜ 4kJ of energy from the Omega Laser. The Be material is rolled into a 20μm sheet and then machined to a 2.5mm diameter. Characterizing the roughness and knowing if there are any major features on the initial surface could affect interpretations of data taken during experiments. Structure in the Beryllium discs could become an important parameter in future high-fidelity computer simulations. Surfaces were characterized with a Scanning Electron Microscope and an Atomic Force Microscope.

  9. VLT beryllium secondary mirror no. 1: performance review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel, Marc

    1998-08-01

    The four Very Large Telescope secondary mirrors are 1.2-m Beryllium lightweight convex mirrors. REOSC has been selected for the design and manufacturing of the optics and of their supporting system. The first mirror unit has been delivered in September, 1997. Operating from visible to near infrared, the mirror defines the telescope aperture stop and may be chopped during observation. The optical requirements are tight and a high stiffness, low weight and inertia are requested as well. Using beryllium is a technical challenge for such a large optic manufacturing, in particular regarding its stability. The requirements and design are presented, we review the mirror manufacturing steps: blank production, machining, grinding, Nickel plating, polishing, integration and testing. The optical quality control method, a problem for large convex mirrors control, is detailed. The results of acceptance testing of mirror No. 1 are summarized, we present conclusions about the mirror figure stability. The status of the three additional mirrors manufacturing is presented to conclude.

  10. Multiscale modelling of hydrogen behaviour on beryllium (0001 surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Stihl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beryllium is proposed to be a neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in future fusion devices. Therefore, it is crucial to acquire an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms of tritium accumulation and release as a result of transmutation processes that Be undergoes under neutron irradiation. A multiscale simulation of ad- and desorption of hydrogen isotopes on the beryllium (0001 surface is developed. It consists of ab initio calculations of certain H adsorption configurations, a suitable cluster expansion approximating the energies of arbitrary configurations, and a kinetic Monte Carlo method for dynamic simulations of adsorption and desorption. The processes implemented in the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation are deduced from further ab initio calculations comprising both, static relaxation as well as molecular dynamics runs. The simulation is used to reproduce experimental data and the results are compared and discussed. Based on the observed results, proposals for a refined model are made.

  11. Presence of Beryllium (Be) in urban soils: human health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).

  12. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  13. The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, Michael

    2013-06-03

    At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

  14. Vacuum Brazing of Beryllium Copper Components for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyhurst, C.C.; Cunningham, M.A.

    2002-06-04

    A process for vacuum brazing beryllium copper anode assemblies was required for the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell System, or PEPC, a component for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Initial problems with the joint design and wettability of the beryllium copper drove some minor design changes. Brazing was facilitated by plating the joint surface of the beryllium copper rod with silver 0.0006 inch thick. Individual air sampling during processing and swipe tests of the furnace interior after brazing revealed no traceable levels of beryllium.

  15. Proteomic analysis of beryllium-induced genotoxicity in an Escherichia coli mutant model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J; Wang, Zaolin; Sauer, Nancy N; Marrone, Babetta L

    2006-03-01

    Beryllium is the second lightest metal, has a high melting point and high strength-to-weight ratio, and is chemically stable. These unique chemical characteristics make beryllium metal an ideal choice as a component material for a wide variety of applications in aerospace, defense, nuclear weapons, and industry. However, inhalation of beryllium dust or fumes induces significant health effects, including chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. In this study, the mutagenicity of beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)) and the comutagenicity of beryllium with a known mutagen 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) were evaluated using a forward mutant detection system developed in Escherichia coli. In this system, BeSO(4) was shown to be weakly mutagenic alone and significantly enhanced the mutagenicity of MNNG up to 3.5-fold over MNNG alone. Based on these results a proteomic study was conducted to identify the proteins regulated by BeSO(4). Using the techniques of 2-DE and oMALDI-TOF MS, we successfully identified 32 proteins being differentially regulated by beryllium and/or MNNG in the E. coli test system. This is the first study to describe the proteins regulated by beryllium in vitro, and the results suggest several potential pathways for the focus of further research into the mechanisms underlying beryllium-induced genotoxicity.

  16. Chest wall shrapnel-induced beryllium-sensitization and associated pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E; Shai, A Bar; Lerman, Y; Topilsky, M; Blanc, P D; Maier, L; Li, L; Chandra, S; Abraham, J M; Fomin, I; Aviram, G; Abraham, J L

    2012-10-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is an exposure-related granulomatous disease mimicking sarcoidosis. Beryllium exposure-associated disease occurs mainly via inhalation, but skin may also be a source of sensitization. A 65-year-old male with a history of war-related shrapnel wounds was initially diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Twenty years later, the possibility of a metal-related etiology for the lung disease was raised. A beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test, elemental analysis of removed shrapnel, and genetic studies were consistent with a diagnosis of CBD. This case demonstrates that retained beryllium-containing foreign bodies can be linked to a pathophysiologic response in the lung consistent with CBD.

  17. Calculations for electron-impact excitation and ionization of beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor

    2016-12-01

    The B-spline R-matrix and the convergent close-coupling methods are used to study electron collisions with neutral beryllium over an energy range from threshold to 100 eV. Coupling to the target continuum significantly affects the results for transitions from the ground state, but to a lesser extent the strong transitions between excited states. Cross sections are presented for selected transitions between low-lying physical bound states of beryllium, as well as for elastic scattering, momentum transfer, and ionization. The present cross sections for transitions from the ground state from the two methods are in excellent agreement with each other, and also with other available results based on nonperturbative convergent pseudostate and time-dependent close-coupling models. The elastic cross section at low energies is dominated by a prominent shape resonance. The ionization from the {(2s2p)}3P and {(2s2p)}1P states strongly depends on the respective term. The current predictions represent an extensive set of electron scattering data for neutral beryllium, which should be sufficient for most modeling applications.

  18. Introduction to beryllium: uses, regulatory history, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanz, M E

    2001-05-01

    Beryllium is an ubiquitous element in the environment, and it has many commercial applications. Because of its strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and nuclear properties, beryllium products are used in the aerospace, automotive, energy, medical, and electronics industries. What eventually came to be known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD) was first identified in the 1940s, when a cluster of cases was observed in workers from the fluorescent light industry. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission recommended the first 8-hour occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium of 2.0 microg/m3 in 1949, which was later reviewed and accepted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the vast majority of countries and standard-setting bodies worldwide. The 2.0 microg/m3 standard has been in use by the beryllium industry for more than 50 years and has been considered adequate to protect workers against clinical CBD. Recently, improved diagnostic techniques, including immunological testing and safer bronchoscopy, have enhanced our ability to identify subclinical CBD cases that would have formerly remained unidentified. Some recent epidemiological studies have suggested that some workers may develop CBD at exposures less than 2.0 microg/m3. ACGIH is currently reevaluating the adequacy of the current 2.0 microg/m3 guideline, and a plethora of research initiatives are under way to provide a better understanding of the cause of CBD. The research is focusing on the risk factors and exposure metrics that could be associated with CBD, as well as on efforts to better characterize the natural history of CBD. There is growing evidence that particle size and chemical form may be important factors that influence the risk of developing CBD. These research efforts are

  19. Preparation of High Purity Amorphous Boron Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Tilekar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous boron powder of high purity (92-94 % with a particle size of l-2 mm is preferred as a fuel for fuel-rich propellants for integrated rocket ramjets and for igniter formulations. Thispaper describes the studies on process optimisation of two processes, ie, oxidative roasting of boron (roasting boron in air and roasting boron with zinc in an inert medium for preparing high purity boron. Experimental studies reveal that roasting boron with zinc at optimised process conditions yields boron of purity more than 93 per cent, whereas oxidative roasting method yields boron of purity - 92 per cent. Oxidative roasting has comparative edge over the other processes owing to its ease of scale-up and simplicity

  20. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  1. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  2. Release of beryllium from mineral ores in artificial lung and skin surface fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duling, Matthew G; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Lawrence, Robert B; Chipera, Steve J; Virji, M Abbas

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to some manufactured beryllium compounds via skin contact or inhalation can cause sensitization. A portion of sensitized persons who inhale beryllium may develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Little is understood about exposures to naturally occurring beryllium minerals. The purpose of this study was to assess the bioaccessibility of beryllium from bertrandite ore. Dissolution of bertrandite from two mine pits (Monitor and Blue Chalk) was evaluated for both the dermal and inhalation exposure pathways by determining bioaccessibility in artificial sweat (pH 5.3 and pH 6.5), airway lining fluid (SUF, pH 7.3), and alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (PSF, pH 4.5). Significantly more beryllium was released from Monitor pit ore than Blue Chalk pit ore in artificial sweat buffered to pH 5.3 (0.88 ± 0.01% vs. 0.36 ± 0.00%) and pH 6.5 (0.09 ± 0.00% vs. 0.03 ± 0.01%). Rates of beryllium released from the ores in artificial sweat were faster than previously measured for manufactured forms of beryllium (e.g., beryllium oxide), known to induce sensitization in mice. In SUF, levels of beryllium were below the analytical limit of detection. In PSF, beryllium dissolution was biphasic (initial rapid diffusion followed by latter slower surface reactions). During the latter phase, dissolution half-times were 1,400 to 2,000 days, and rate constants were ~7 × 10(-10) g/(cm(2)·day), indicating that bertrandite is persistent in the lung. These data indicate that it is prudent to control skin and inhalation exposures to bertrandite dusts.

  3. Thick beryllium target as an epithermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Moore, B R

    1994-10-01

    Accelerator-based intense epithermal neutron sources for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) have been considered as an alternative to nuclear reactors. Lithium (Li) has generally received the widest attention for this application, since the threshold energy is low and neutron yield is high. Because of the poor thermal and chemical properties of Li and the need for heat removal in the target, the design of Li targets has been quite difficult. Beryllium (Be) has been thought of as an alternative target because of its good thermal and chemical properties and reasonable neutron yield. However, in order to have a neutron yield comparable to that of a thick Li target bombarded with 2.5 MeV protons, the proton energy required for a thick Be target must be approaching 4 MeV. Consequently, the neutrons emitted are more energetic. In addition, a significant amount of high-energy gamma rays, which is undesirable, will occur when Be is bombarded with low-energy protons. Regardless of the more energetic neutrons and additional gamma rays, in this paper it is shown that it is possible to develop a high-quality and high-intensity epithermal neutron beam based on a thick Be target for NCT treatment. For a fixed proton current, the optimal Be-target-based beam (with 4-MeV protons) can produce a neutron beam, with both quality and intensity slightly better than those produced by the optimal Li-target-based beam (with 2.5-MeV protons). The single-session NCT treatment time for the optimal Be-target-based beam is estimated to be 88 min for a proton current of 50 mA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of a-boron and its twined brother a*-boron

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chaoyu; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of a-boron and its twined brother a*-boron have been studied by first-principles calculations. Both a-boron and a*-boron consist of equivalent icosahedra B12 clusters in different connecting configurations of "3S-6D-3S" and "2S-6D-4S", respectively. The total energy calculations show that a*-boron is less stable than a-boron but more favorable than beta-boron and Gamma-boron at zero pressure. Both a-boron and a*-boron are confirm...

  5. Alternative Process for Manufacturing of Thin Layers of Boron for Neutron Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auge, Gregoire; Partyka, Stanislas [Onet Technologies (France); Guerard, Bruno; Buffet, Jean-Claude [Institut Laue Langevin - ILL, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    Due to the worldwide shortage of helium 3, Boron-lined proportional counters are developed intensively by several groups. Up to now, thin boron containing layers for neutron detectors are essentially produced by sputtering of boron carbide (B{sub 4}C). This technology provides high quality films but it is slow and expensive. Our paper describes a novel and inexpensive technology for producing boron layers. This technology is based on chemical synthesis of boron 10 nanoparticles, and on electrophoretic deposition of these particles on metallic plates, or on metallic pieces with more complex shapes. The chemical synthesis consists in: - Heating boron 10 with lithium up to 700 deg. C under inert atmosphere: an intermetallic compound, LiB, is produced; - Hydrolysing this intermetallic compound: LiB + H{sub 2}O → B + Li{sup +} + OH{sup -} + 1/2H{sub 2}, where B is under the form of nanoparticles; - Purifying the suspension of boron nanoparticles in water, from lithium hydroxide, by successive membrane filtrations; - Evaporating the purified suspension, in order to get a powder of nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles have size around 300 nm, with a high porosity, of about 50%. This particle size is equivalent to about 150 nm massive particles. The nanoparticles are then put into suspension in a specific solvent, in order to perform deposition on metallic surfaces, by electrophoretic method. The solvent is chosen so that it is not electrolysed even under voltages of several tens of volts. An acid is dissolved into the solvent, so that the nanoparticles are positively charged. Deposition is performed on the cathode within about 10 min. The cathode could be an aluminium plate, or a nickel coated aluminium plate. Homogeneous deposition may also be performed on complex shapes, like grids in a Multigrid detector. A large volume of pieces, can be coated with a Boron-10 film in a few hours. The thickness of the layer can be adjusted according to the required neutron

  6. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants from receiving benefits under... Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify...

  7. 20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30.507 Section 30... Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered Part B employee, or the eligible surviving beneficiary...

  8. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? 30.205 Section 30.205 Employees... Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.205 What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? To...

  9. Structural studies of lead lithium borate glasses doped with silver oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, João; Freire, Cristina; Hussain, N. Sooraj

    2012-02-01

    Silver oxide doped lead lithium borate (LLB) glasses have been prepared and characterized. Structural and composition characterization were accessed by XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM and EDS. Results from FTIR and Raman spectra indicate that Ag 2O acts as a network modifier even at small quantities by converting three coordinated to four coordinated boron atoms. Other physical properties, such as density, molar volume and optical basicity are also evaluated. Furthermore, they are also affected by the silver oxide composition.

  10. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto [eds.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. The development and advantages of beryllium capsules for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.C.; Bradley, P.A.; Hoffman, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1998-02-01

    Capsules with beryllium ablators have long been considered as alternatives to plastic for the National Ignition Facility laser ; now the superior performance of beryllium is becoming well substantiated. Beryllium capsules have the advantages of relative insensitivity to instability growth, low opacity, high tensile strength, and high thermal conductivity. 3-D calculation with the HYDRA code NTIS Document No. DE-96004569 (M. M. Marinak et.al. in UCRL-LR-105821-95-3) confirm 2-D LASNEX U. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasmas Phys. Controlled Thermonucl. Fusion, 2, 51(2975) results that particular beryllium capsule designs are several times less sensitive than the CH point design to instability growth from DT ice roughness. These capsule designs contain more ablator mass and leave some beryllium unablated at ignition. By adjusting the level of copper dopant, the unablated mass can increase or decrease, with a corresponding decrease or increase in sensitivity to perturbations. A plastic capsule with the same ablator mass as the beryllium and leaving the same unablated mass also shows this reduced perturbation sensitivity. Beryllium`s low opacity permits the creation of 250 eV capsule designs. Its high tensile strength allows it to contain DT fuel at room temperature. Its high thermal conductivity simplifies cryogenic fielding.

  12. DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

  13. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gary Don; Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott; Brown, Louanne Kay

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  14. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...TR-7584 ● JAN 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion- Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium... Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  15. Against Drought Stress Effect of Antioxidant Enzymes of Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Doğan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soybean seeds (Glycine max. L., cv., “A3935 were grown under controlled conditions (25±2 C composed of different boron compounds. In the experiment, 5 groups were determined respectively as potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, ammonium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, sodium boron hydride (1 mg/1, lithium tetraborate tetrahydrate (100 mg/1, and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (100 mg/1. The doses used in this study were determined according to the results of a preliminary study. Soybean seeds were exposed to different amounts of drought stress based on time (control, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days. Activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1, glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2, ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11 and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6 measured. According to the results stress+potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate environment has increased the amount of CAT, decreased the amount GR, APX and SOD. Potassium tetraborate 0.1 mg / l dose administration is the most appropriate critical value, and the most important indicator of drought CAT enzyme found to give the best results.

  16. Simultaneous determination of aluminium and beryllium by first-derivative synchronous solid-phase spectrofluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán, F; Manzano, E; Navalón, A; Luis Vilchez, J; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    1992-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of aluminium and beryllium in mixtures by first-deravative synchronous solid-phase spectrofluorimetry has been developed. Aluminium and beryllium reacted with morin to give fluorescent complexes, which were fixed on a dextran-type resin. The fluoresnce of the resin, packed in a 1-mm silica cell, was measured directly with a solid-surface attachment. The constant wavelength difference chosen to optimize the determination was Deltalambda = lambda(em) = 75 nm. Aluminium was measured at lambda(em)lambda = 445/520 nm and beryllium at lambda(em)lambda(em) = 430/505 nm. The range of application is between 0.5 and 5.0 ng/ml for both aluminium and beryllium. The accuracy and precision of the method are reported. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of aluminium and beryllium in synthetic mixtures and natural waters.

  17. Coolant choice for the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Fang; Wang, Li; Wu, Ping; Ji, Quan; Li, Xun-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2010-07-01

    In order to take away much more heat on the BESIII beam pipe to guarantee the normal particle detection, EDM-1 (oil No.1 for electric discharge machining), with good thermal and flow properties was selected as the candidate coolant for the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe. Its cooling character was studied and dynamic corrosion experiment was undertaken to examine its corrosion on beryllium. The experiment results show that EDM-1 would corrode the beryllium 19.9 μm in the depth in 10 years, which is weak and can be neglected. Finite element simulation and experiment research were taken to check the cooling capacity of EDM-1. The results show that EDM-1 can meet the cooling requirement of the central beryllium pipe. Now EDM-1 is being used to cool the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe.

  18. Thermal conductivity of boron carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbide is necessary to evaluate its potential for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. Measurements have been conducted of the thermal diffusivity of hot-pressed boron carbide BxC samples as a function of composition (x in the range from 4 to 9), temperature (300-1700 K), and temperature cycling. These data, in concert with density and specific-heat data, yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results are discussed in terms of a structural model that has been previously advanced to explain the electronic transport data. Some novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are briefly discussed.

  19. Model study in chemisorption: atomic hydrogen on beryllium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauschlicher, C.W. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The interaction between atomic hydrogen and the (0001) surface of Be metal has been studied by ab initio electronic structure theory. Self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations have been performed using minimum, optimized minimum, double zeta and mixed basis sets for clusters as large as 22 Be atoms. The binding energy and equilibrium geometry (the distance to the surface) were determined for 4 sites. Both spatially restricted (the wavefunction was constrained to transform as one of the irreducible representations of the molecular point group) and unrestricted SCF calculations were performed. Using only the optimized minimum basis set, clusters containing as many as 22 beryllium atoms have been investigated. From a variety of considerations, this cluster is seen to be nearly converged within the model used, providing the most reliable results for chemisorption. The site dependence of the frequency is shown to be a geometrical effect depending on the number and angle of the bonds. The diffusion of atomic hydrogen through a perfect beryllium crystal is predicted to be energetically unfavorable. The cohesive energy, the ionization energy and the singlet-triplet separation were computed for the clusters without hydrogen. These quantities can be seen as a measure of the total amount of edge effects. The chemisorptive properties are not related to the total amount of edge effects, but rather the edge effects felt by the adsorbate bonding berylliums. This lack of correlation with the total edge effects illustrates the local nature of the bonding, further strengthening the cluster model for chemisorption. A detailed discussion of the bonding and electronic structure is included. The remaining edge effects for the Be/sub 22/ cluster are discussed.

  20. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.e [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France C2RMF, CNRS-UMR171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of {mu}g/g of beryllium in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-{mu}m diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction {sup 9}Be({alpha}, n{gamma}){sup 12}C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt {gamma}-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt {gamma}-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the {sup 27}Al({alpha}, p{gamma}){sup 30}Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required {mu}g/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 {mu}C, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 {mu}g/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 {mu}g/g.

  1. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, P. C.; Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A.; Calligaro, T.

    2010-06-01

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al 2O 3 crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of μg/g of beryllium in Al 2O 3 crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-μm diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ) 12C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt γ-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt γ-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the 27Al(α, pγ) 30Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required μg/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 μC, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 μg/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 μg/g.

  2. Beryllium, an adjuvant that promotes gamma interferon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Atochina, O; King, B; Taylor, L; Elloso, M; Scott, P; Rossman, M D

    2000-07-01

    Beryllium is associated with a human pulmonary granulomatosis characterized by an accumulation of CD4(+) T cells in the lungs and a heightened specific lymphocyte proliferative response to beryllium (Be) with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release (i.e., a T helper 1 [Th1] response). While an animal model of Be sensitization is not currently available, Be has exhibited adjuvant effects in animals. The effects of Be on BALB/c mice immunized with soluble leishmanial antigens (SLA) were investigated to determine if Be had adjuvant activity for IFN-gamma production, an indicator of the Th1 response. In this strain of Leishmania-susceptible BALB/c mice, a Th2 response is normally observed after in vivo SLA sensitization and in vitro restimulation with SLA. If interleukin-12 (IL-12) is given during in vivo sensitization with SLA, markedly increased IFN-gamma production and decreased IL-4 production are detected. We show here that when beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)) was added during in vivo sensitization of BALB/c mice with SLA and IL-12, significantly increased IFN-gamma production and decreased IL-4 production from lymph node and spleen cells were detected upon in vitro SLA restimulation. No specific responses were observed to Be alone. Lymph node and spleen cells from all mice proliferated strongly and comparably upon in vitro restimulation with SLA and with SLA plus Be; no differences were noted among groups of mice that received different immunization regimens. In vivo, when Be was added to SLA and IL-12 for sensitization of BALB/c mice, more effective control of Leishmania infection was achieved. This finding has implications for understanding not only the development of granulomatous reactions but also the potential for developing Be as a vaccine adjuvant.

  3. Beryllium-stimulated apoptosis in macrophage cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, R T; Fadok, V A; Kittle, L A; Maier, L A; Newman, L S

    2000-08-21

    In vitro stimulation of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) induces the production of TNF-alpha. We tested the hypothesis that beryllium (Be)-stimulated TNF-alpha might induce apoptosis in mouse and human macrophage cell lines. These cell lines were selected because they produce a range of Be-stimulated TNF-alpha. The mouse macrophage cell line H36.12j produces high levels of Be-stimulated TNF-alpha. The mouse macrophage cell line P388D.1 produces low, constitutive, levels of TNF-alpha and does not up-regulate Be-stimulated TNF-alpha production. The DEOHS-1 human CBD macrophage cell line does not produce constitutive or Be-stimulated TNF-alpha. Apoptosis was determined by microscopic observation of propidium iodide stained fragmented nuclei in unstimulated and BeSO(4)-stimulated macrophage cell lines. BeSO(4) induced apoptosis in all macrophage cell lines tested. Beryllium-stimulated apoptosis was dose-responsive and maximal after 24 h of exposure to 100 microM BeSO(4). In contrast, unstimulated and Al(2)(SO(4))(3)-stimulated macrophage cell lines did not undergo apoptosis. The general caspase inhibitor BD-fmk inhibited Be-stimulated macrophage cell line apoptosis at concentrations above 50 microM. Our data show that Be-stimulated macrophage cell line apoptosis was caspase-dependent and not solely dependent on Be-stimulated TNF-alpha levels. We speculate that the release of Be-antigen from apoptotic macrophages may serve to re-introduce Be material back into the lung microenvironment, make it available for uptake by new macrophages, and thereby amplify Be-stimulated cytokine production, promoting ongoing inflammation and granuloma maintenance in CBD.

  4. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  5. Boron Nitride Nanoribbons from Exfoliation of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Two types of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were exfoliated into boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNR), which were identified using transmission electron microscopy: (1) commercial BNNTs with thin tube walls and small diameters. Tube unzipping was indicated by a large decrease of the sample's surface area and volume for pores less than 2 nm in diameter. (2) BNNTs with large diameters and thick walls synthesized at NASA Glenn Research Center. Here, tube unraveling was indicated by a large increase in external surface area and pore volume. For both, the exfoliation process was similar to the previous reported method to exfoliate commercial hexagonal boron nitride (hBN): Mixtures of BNNT, FeCl3, and NaF (or KF) were sequentially treated in 250 to 350 C nitrogen for intercalation, 500 to 750 C air for exfoliation, and finally HCl for purification. Property changes of the nanosized boron nitride throughout this process were also similar to the previously observed changes of commercial hBN during the exfoliation process: Both crystal structure (x-ray diffraction data) and chemical properties (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data) of the original reactant changed after intercalation and exfoliation, but most (not all) of these changes revert back to those of the reactant once the final, purified products are obtained.

  6. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to CBD. In comparison to high-CBD risk exposures where the chemical nature of aerosol

  7. Cryogenic optical tests of a lightweight HIP beryllium mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melugin, Ramsey K.; Miller, Jacob H.; Young, J. A.; Howard, Steven D.; Pryor, G. Mark

    Five interferometric tests were conducted at cryogenic temperatures on a lightweight, 50 cm diameter, hot isostatic pressed (HIP) beryllium mirror in the Ames Research Center (ARC) Cryogenic Optics Test Facility. The purpose of the tests was to determine the stability of the mirror's figure when cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Test temperatures ranged from room ambient to 8 K. One cycle to 8 K and five cycles to 80 K were performed. Optical and thermal test methods are described. Data is presented to show the amount of cryogenic distortion and hysteresis present in the mirror when measured with an earlier, Shack interferometer, and with a newly-acquired, phase-measuring interferometer.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, E.; Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the neutron irradiated beryllium with total fast neutron fluences of 1.3 - 4.3 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 327 - 616degC were studied. Swelling increased by high irradiation temperature, high fluence, and by the small grain size and high impurity. Obvious decreasing of the fracture stress was observed in the bending test and in small grain specimens which had many helium bubbles on the grain boundary. Decreasing of the fracture stress for small grain specimens was presumably caused by crack propagation on the grain boundaries which weekend by helium bubbles. (author)

  9. Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and Other Properties of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    This report is part of a series of documents that provide a background to those involved in the construction of beryllium components and their applications. This report is divided into five sub-sections: Atomic/Crystal Structure, Elastic Properties, Thermal Properties, Nuclear Properties, and Miscellaneous Properties. In searching through different sources for the various properties to be included in this report, inconsistencies were at times observed between these sources. In such cases, the values reported by the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics was usually used. In equations, except where indicated otherwise, temperature (T) is in degrees Kelvin.

  10. Tritium analyses of COBRA-1A2 beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Selected tritium measurements have been completed for the COBRA-1A2 experiment C03 and D03 beryllium pebbles. The completed results, shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, include the tritium assay results for the 1-mm and 3-mm C03 pebbles, and the 1-mm D03 pebbles, stepped anneal test results for both types of 1-mm pebbles, and the residual analyses for the stepped-anneal specimens. All results have been reported with date-of-count and are not corrected for decay. Stepped-anneal tritium release response is provided in addenda.

  11. Use of notched beams to establish fracture criteria for beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayville, R.A.

    1980-01-04

    The fracture of an improved form of pure beryllium was studied under triaxial tensile stresses. This state of stress was produced by testing notched beams, which were thick enough to be in a state of plane strain at the center. A plane strain, elastic-incremental plasticity finite element program was then used to determine the stress and strain distributions at fracture. A four-point bend fixture was used to load the specimens. It was carefully designed and manufactured to eliminate virtually all of the shear stresses at the reduced section of the notched beams. The unixial properties were obtained.

  12. Beryllium ignition target design for indirect drive NIF experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Kline, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Clark, D. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Marinak, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Beryllium (Be) ablator offers multiple advantages over carbon based ablators for indirectly driven NIF ICF ignition targets. These are higher mass ablation rate, ablation pressure and ablation velocity, lower capsule albedo, and higher thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. Such advantages can be used to improve the target robustness and performance. While previous NIF Be target designs exist, they were obtained a long time ago and do not incorporate the latest improved physical understanding and models based upon NIF experiments. Herein, we propose a new NIF Be ignition target design at 1.45 MJ, 430 TW that takes all this knowledge into account.

  13. Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Ballif, J.L.; Yuan, W.W.; Chou, B.E.

    1978-04-01

    The lithium literature has been reviewed to provide a better understanding of the effects of lithium spills that might occur in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) facilities. Lithium may be used as a breeding blanket and reactor coolant in these facilities. Physical and chemical properties of lithium as well as the chemical interactions of lithium with various gases, metals and non-metals have been identified. A preliminary assessment of lithium-concrete reactions has been completed using differential thermal analysis. Suggestions are given for future studies in areas where literature is lacking or limited.

  14. Computational Studies of Nanostructures of Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, P.; Yu, M.; Leahy, C.; Tian, W. Q.; Wu, S. Y.; Jayanthi, C. S.

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a reliable semi-empirical Hamiltonian for boron that may be used to predict nanostructures of boron. It is well known that bonding in boron is complicated as it may form three-center, two-electron bonds. The semi-empirical Hamiltonian used here was recently developed by Leahy et al. in the framework of linear combination of atomic orbitals[1]. The salient feature of this Hamiltonian is that it treats environment dependency and charge redistributions on equal footing. It will be shown that such a parameterized Hamiltonian can predict the B80 cage structure with C1 symmetry as found in a recent first-principles study [2]. Having validated our semi-empirical Hamiltonian for boron with small boron clusters and the B80 cage, we have performed a systematic study of other boron nanostructures: (i) larger cage structures (e.g., B215), (ii) boron clusters cut from the bulk alpha boron, and (iii) boron sheets (triangular sheets with and without holes). We will discuss the ground state structures of these boron nanostructures as well as the energetics and HOMO-LUMO gaps of different families of boron clusters as a function their diameters. 1. C. Leahy et al. Phys. Rev. B74, 155408 (2006). 2. N. G. Szwacki et al. PRL 100, 159901 (2008).

  15. Boron film thickness determination to develop a low cost neutron using Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Priscila; Raele, Marcus P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Siqueira, Paulo de T.D.; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron measurement is important for safety and security of workers at nuclear facilities. As neutron is an uncharged particle, for its detection is necessary to use a converter material that interacts with the neutron and produce a charged particle, which is easy to detect. One of the converter candidates is natural boron composed by about 20% of Boron-10, which capture a low energy neutron ejecting an energetic alpha particle and a lithium ion. A neutron detector can be developed applying a boron thin film over a silicon photodiode, which is charged particle sensitive. For this reason is important to determine the optimal film thickness. We have used an empirical solution for the boron film thickness evaluation; furthermore we developed, using Monte Carlo method (MCNP6), a model to simulate the alpha particles propagation through the detector. Our goal was to ensure the best production and transference of alpha particles to silicon region. The film thickness ranged between 0 to 5.5 μm, the neutron energy was also varied. The optimal thickness value will be used to develop a prototype of a low cost neutron detector. (author)

  16. Early clinical experience of boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Bergland, R.; Capala, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that can selectively irradiate tumor tissue. BNCT uses drugs containing a stable isotope of boron. {sup 10}B, to sensitize tumor cells to irradiation by low energy (thermal) neutrons. The interaction of the {sup 10}B with a thermal neutron (neutron capture) causes the {sup 10}B nucleus to split, releasing an alpha particle and a lithium nucleus. These products of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction are very damaging to cells but have a combined path length in tissue of approximately 14 {mu}m, or roughly the diameter of one or two cells. Thus, most of the ionizing energy imparted to tissue is localized to {sup 10}B-loaded cells.

  17. SOURCE AND PATHWAY DETERMINATION FOR BERYLLIUM FOUND IN BECHTEL NEVADA NORTH LAS VEGAS FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-07-01

    In response to the report ''Investigation of Beryllium Exposure Cases Discovered at the North Las Vegas Facility of the National Nuclear Security Administration'', published by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in August 2003, Bechtel Nevada (BN) President and General Manager Dr. F. A. Tarantino appointed the Beryllium Investigation & Assessment Team (BIAT) to identify both the source and pathway for the beryllium found in the North Las Vegas (NLV) B-Complex. From September 8 to December 18, 2003, the BIAT investigated the pathway for beryllium and determined that a number of locations existed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which could have contained sufficient quantities of beryllium to result in contamination if transported. Operations performed in the B-1 Building as a result of characterization activities at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD); Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (RMAD); Test Cells A and C; and the Central Support Facility in Area 25 had the greatest opportunity for transport of beryllium. Investigative monitoring and sampling was performed at these sites with subsequent transport of sample materials, equipment, and personnel from the NTS to the B-1 Building. The timeline established by the BIAT for potential transport of the beryllium contamination into the B-1 Building was from September 1997 through November 2002. Based on results of recently completed swipe sampling, no evidence of transport of beryllium from test areas has been confirmed. Results less than the DOE beryllium action level of 0.2 ???g/100 cm2 were noted for work support facilities located in Area 25. All of the identified sites in Area 25 worked within the B-1 tenant's residency timeline have been remediated. Legacy contaminants have either been disposed of or capped with clean borrow material. As such, no current opportunity exists for release or spread of beryllium

  18. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  19. New lithium gas sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuntonov, K. [Nanoshell Materials R and D GmbH, Primoschgasse 3, 9020 Klagenfurt (Austria)], E-mail: k.chuntonov@nanoshell.at; Setina, J. [Institute of Metals and Technology, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-05-08

    Solid solutions of lithium in Ag and Cu in the form of balls, wires, or strips are convenient sources for depositing lithium films as getters on the walls of vacuum vessels. Measurement of the O{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} sorption characteristics have shown that these films - e.g. those generated electrothermally from Ag/Li solid solutions - excel the best getters of the Ba-film type or the high porosity getters based on Ti, V and Zr alloys. It has been found that tight lithium films passivate as a sorption depth of approximately 100 A is reached. Methods for further improvement of the sorption behavior of lithium coatings are discussed.

  20. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  1. Advanced microstructure of boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, Helmut; Shalamberidze, Sulkhan

    2012-09-26

    The rhombohedral elementary cell of the complex boron carbide structure is composed of B(12) or B(11)C icosahedra and CBC, CBB or B□B (□, vacancy) linear arrangements, whose shares vary depending on the actual chemical compound. The evaluation of the IR phonon spectra of isotopically pure boron carbide yields the quantitative concentrations of these components within the homogeneity range. The structure formula of B(4.3)C at the carbon-rich limit of the homogeneity range is (B(11)C) (CBC)(0.91) (B□B)(0.09) (□, vacancy); and the actual structure formula of B(13)C(2) is (B(12))(0.5)(B(11)C)(0.5)(CBC)(0.65)(CBB)(0.16) (B□B)(0.19), and deviates fundamentally from (B(12))CBC, predicted by theory to be the energetically most favourable structure of boron carbide. In reality, it is the most distorted structure in the homogeneity range. The spectra of (nat)B(x)C make it evident that boron isotopes are not randomly distributed in the structure. However, doping with 2% silicon brings about a random distribution.

  2. The mechanism for production of beryllium fluoride from the product of ammonium fluoride processing of beryllium- containing raw material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraydenko, R. I.; Dyachenko, A. N.; Malyutin, L. N.; Petlin, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    The technique of fluorite-phenacite-bertrandite ores from Russian Ermakovskoe deposit processing by ammonium bifluoride is described. To determine the temperature mode and the thermal dissociation mechanism of ammonium tetrafluoroberyllate (the product of ammonium-fluoride leaching of the ore) the TG/DTA have been carried out. By IR spectroscopy and XRD the semi-products of ammonium tetrafluoroberyllate thermal dissociation have been identified. The hygroscopic low-temperature beryllium fluoride forms higher than 380°C. The less hydroscopic form of BeF2 have been produced at 600°C.

  3. Lithium and Thyroid Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lut Tamam; Emel Kulan; Nurgul Ozpoyraz

    2003-01-01

    Lithium is a mood stabilizator drug which has been used in the treatment of many mental disorders including bipolar disorders, cyclothymia, recurrent depression, and schizoaffective disorder for the last 50 years. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that patients under lithium treatment could develop thyroid disorders in a range from single disorder in TSH response to severe mxyedema. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000): 99-114

  4. Lithium and Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is a mood stabilizator drug which has been used in the treatment of many mental disorders including bipolar disorders, cyclothymia, recurrent depression, and schizoaffective disorder for the last 50 years. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that patients under lithium treatment could develop thyroid disorders in a range from single disorder in TSH response to severe mxyedema. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 99-114

  5. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  6. Influence of neutron irradiation on the tritium retention in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolli, R.; Ruebel, S.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wu, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and beryllium are the candidates for protective layers on the components of fusion reactors facing plasma. In contact with D-T plasma, these materials absorb tritium, and it is anticipated that tritium retention increases with the neutron damage due to neutron-induced traps. Because of the poor data base for beryllium, the work was concentrated on it. Tritium was loaded into the samples from stagnant T{sub 2}/H{sub 2} atmosphere, and afterwards, the quantity of the loaded tritium was determined by purged thermal annealing. The specification of the samples is shown. The samples were analyzed by SEM before and after irradiation. The loading and the annealing equipments are contained in two different glove boxes with N{sub 2} inert atmosphere. The methods of loading and annealing are explained. The separation of neutron-produced and loaded tritium and the determination of loaded tritium in irradiated samples are reported. Also the determination of loaded tritium in unirradiated samples is reported. It is evident that irradiated samples contained much more loaded tritium than unirradiated samples. The main results of this investigation are summarized in the table. (K.I.)

  7. Calculations for electron-impact excitation and ionization of beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Fursa, Dmitry V; Bray, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix and the convergent close-coupling methods are used to study electron collisions with neutral beryllium over an energy range from threshold to 100 eV. Coupling to the target continuum significantly affects the results for transitions from the ground state, but to a lesser extent the strong transitions between excited states. Cross sections are presented for selected transitions between low-lying physical bound states of beryllium, as well as for elastic scattering, momentum transfer, and ionization. The present cross sections for transitions from the ground state from the two methods are in excellent agreement with each other, and also with other available results based on nonperturbative convergent pseudo-state and time-dependent close-coupling models. The elastic cross section at low energies is dominated by a prominent shape resonance. The ionization from the $(2s2p)^3P$ and $(2s2p)^1P$ states strongly depends on the respective term. The current predictions represent an extensive set o...

  8. Review and interpretation of recent cosmic ray beryllium isotope measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffington, A.

    1978-04-26

    Be/sup 10/ has long been of interest for cosmic ray propagation, because its radioactive decay half-life is well matched to the expected cosmic ray age. Recent beryllium isotope measurements from satellites and balloons have covered an energy range from about 30 to 300 MeV/nucleon/sup 1-3/. At the lowest energies, most of the Be/sup 10/ is absent, indicating a cosmic ray lifetime of order 2 x 10/sup 7/ years and the rather low average density of 0.2 atoms/cc traversed by the cosmic rays. At higher energies, a greater proportion of Be/sup 10/ is observed, indicating a somewhat shorter lifetime. These experiments will be reviewed and then compared with a new experiment covering from 100 to 1000 Mev/nucleon/sup 4/. Although improved experiments will be necessary to realize the full potential of cosmic ray beryllium isotope measurements, these first results are already disclosing interesting and unexpected facts about cosmic ray acceleration and propagation.

  9. Microstructural Characterization of Beryllium Treated Al-Si Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on B356 and B357 alloys using the thermal analysis technique. Metallographic samples prepared from these castings were examined using optical microscopy and FESEM. Results revealed that beryllium causes partial modification of the eutectic Si, similar to that reported for magnesium additions. Addition of 0.8 wt.% Mg reduces the eutectic temperature by ~10°C. During solidification of alloys containing high levels of Fe and Mg, but no Sr, formation of a Be-Fe phase was detected at 611°C, close to that of α-Al. The Be-Fe phase precipitates in script-like form at or close to the β-Al5SiFe platelets. A new reaction, composed of fine particles of Si and π-Fe phase, was observed to occur near the end of solidification in high Mg-, high Fe-, and Be-containing alloys. The amount of this reaction decreased with the addition of Sr. Occasionally, Be-containing phase particles were observed as part of the reaction. Addition of Be has a noticeable effect on decreasing the β-Al5FeSi platelet length; this effect may be enhanced by addition of Sr. Beryllium addition also results in precipitation of the β-Al5FeSi phase in nodular form, which lowers its harmful effects on the alloy mechanical properties.

  10. Remarkable Hydrogen Storage on Beryllium Oxide Clusters: First Principles Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Since the current transportation sector is the largest consumer of oil, and subsequently responsible for major air pollutants, it is inevitable to use alternative renewable sources of energies for vehicular applications. The hydrogen energy seems to be a promising candidate. To explore the possibility of achieving a solid-state high-capacity storage of hydrogen for onboard applications, we have performed first principles density functional theoretical calculations of hydrogen storage properties of beryllium oxide clusters (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8). We observed that polar BeO bond is responsible for H$_{2}$ adsorption. The problem of cohesion of beryllium atoms does not arise, as they are an integral part of BeO clusters. The (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8) adsorbs 8--12 H$_{2}$ molecules with an adsorption energy in the desirable range of reversible hydrogen storage. The gravimetric density of H$_{2}$ adsorbed on BeO clusters meets the ultimate 7.5 wt% limit, recommended for onboard practical applications. In conclusion,...

  11. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  12. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N., E-mail: niranjan@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Radhika, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India); Kozakov, A.T. [Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Pandian, R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Chakravarty, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam (India); Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.

  13. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  14. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

    2013-04-01

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  15. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  16. Development of radiation resistant grades of beryllium for nuclear and fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    R&D results on beryllium with high radiation resistance obtained recently are described in this report. The data are presented on nine different grades of isotropic beryllium manufactured by VNIINM and distinguished by both initial powder characteristics and properties of billets, made of these powders. The average grain size of the investigated beryllium grades varied from 8 to 26 {mu}m, the content of beryllium oxide was 0.9 - 3.9 wt.%, the dispersity of beryllium oxide - 0.04 - 0.5 {mu}m, tensile strength -- 250 - 650 MPa. All materials were irradiated in SM - 2 reactor over the temperature range 550 - 780{degrees}C. The results of the investigation showed, that HIP beryllium grades are less susceptible to swelling at higher temperatures in comparison with hot pressed and extruded grades. Beryllium samples, having the smallest grain size, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was less than 0.8 % at 750{degrees}C and Fs = 3.7 {center_dot}10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (E>0.1 MeV). The mechanical properties, creep and microstructure parameters, measured before and after irradiation, are presented.

  17. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  18. Use of 41Ar production to measure ablator areal density in NIF beryllium implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. C.; Cassata, W. B.; Sepke, S. M.; Velsko, C. A.; Huang, H.; Yeamans, C. B.; Kline, J. L.; Yi, A.; Simakov, A. N.; Haan, S. W.; Batha, S. H.; Dewald, E. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Tommasini, R.; Xu, H.; Kong, C.; Bae, J.; Rice, N.

    2017-02-01

    For the first time, 41Ar produced by the (n,ϒ) reaction from 40Ar in the beryllium shell of a DT filled Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule has been measured. Ar is co-deposited with beryllium in the sputter deposition of the capsule shell. Combined with a measurement of the neutron yield, the radioactive 41Ar then quantifies the areal density of beryllium during the DT neutron production. The measured 1.15 ± 0.17 × 10+8 atoms of 41Ar are 2.5 times that from the best post-shot calculation, suggesting that the Ar and Be areal densities are correspondingly higher than those calculated. Possible explanations are that (1) the beryllium shell is compressed more than calculated, (2) beryllium has mixed into the cold DT ice, or more likely (3) less beryllium is ablated than calculated. Since only one DT filled beryllium capsule has been fielded at NIF, these results can be confirmed and expanded in the future.

  19. On use of beryllium in fusion reactors: Resources, impurities and necessity of detritiation after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbasov, B.N., E-mail: b.kolbasov@yandex.ru; Khripunov, V.I., E-mail: Khripunov_VI@nrcki.ru; Biryukov, A.Yu.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Potential needs in Be for fusion power engineering may exceed Be resources. • Be recycling after its operation in a fusion power plant (FPP) seems inevitable. • U impurity in Be seriously impairs environmental properties of fusion power plants. • Upon burial of irradiated Be the main problems are caused by U and {sup 3}H impurities. • Clearance of Be extracted from a FPP is impossible due to U impurity. - Abstract: Worldwide identified resources of beryllium somewhat exceed 80 000 t. Beryllium production in all the countries of the world in 2012 was about 230 t. At the same time, some conceptual designs of fusion power reactors envisage utilization of several hundred tons of this metal. Therefore return of beryllium into the production cycle (recycling) will be necessary. The beryllium ore from some main deposits has uranium content inadmissible for fusion reactors. This fact raises a question on the need to develop and apply an economically acceptable technology for beryllium purification from the uranium. Practically any technological procedure with beryllium used in fusion reactors requires its detritiation. A study of tritium and helium release from irradiated beryllium at different temperatures and rates of temperature increase was performed at Kurchatov Institute.

  20. Target organ localization of memory CD4(+) T cells in patients with chronic beryllium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Andrew P; Canavera, Scott J; Gharavi, Laia; Newman, Lee S; Kotzin, Brian L

    2002-11-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is caused by exposure to beryllium in the workplace, and it remains an important public health concern. Evidence suggests that CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in the development of this disease. Using intracellular cytokine staining, we found that the frequency of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lungs (bronchoalveolar lavage) of 12 CBD patients ranged from 1.4% to 29% (mean 17.8%), and these T cells expressed a Th1-type phenotype in response to beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)). Few, if any, beryllium-specific CD8(+) T cells were identified. In contrast, the frequency of beryllium-responsive CD4(+) T cells in the blood of these subjects ranged from undetectable to 1 in 500. No correlation was observed between the frequency of beryllium-responsive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) CD4(+) T cells as detected by intracellular staining and lymphocyte proliferation in culture after BeSO(4) exposure. Staining for surface marker expression showed that nearly all BAL T cells exhibit an effector memory cell phenotype. These results demonstrate a dramatically high frequency and compartmentalization of antigen-specific effector memory CD4(+) cells in the lungs of CBD patients. These studies provide insight into the phenotypic and functional characteristics of antigen-specific T cells invading other inaccessible target organs in human disease.

  1. Machining risk of beryllium disease and sensitization with median exposures below 2 micrograms/m3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S; Martyny, J; Zhen, B

    1996-07-01

    We examined the prevalence of beryllium sensitization in relation to work process and beryllium exposure measurements in a beryllia ceramics plant that had operated since 1980. We interviewed 136 employees (97.8% of the workforce), ascertained beryllium sensitization with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test, and reviewed historical industrial hygiene measurements. Of eight beryllium-sensitized employees (5.9%), six (4.4% of participating employees) had granulomatous disease on transbronchial lung biopsy. Machinists had a sensitization rate of 14.3% compared to a rate of 1.2% among other employees. Machining had significantly higher general area and breathing zone measurements than did other processes in the time period in which most beryllium-sensitized cases had started machining work. Daily weighted average (DWA) estimates of exposure for matching processes also exceeded estimates for other work processes in that time period, with a median DWA of 0.9 microgram/m3. Machining process DWAs accounted for the majority of DWAs exceeding the 2.0 micrograms/m3 OSHA standard, with 8.1% of machining DWAs above the standard. We conclude that lowering machining process-related exposures may be important to lowering risk of beryllium disease.

  2. Considerations for the development of health-based surface dust cleanup criteria for beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Erin; De Gandiaga, Elise; Madl, Amy K

    2013-03-01

    The exposure-response patterns with beryllium sensitization (BeS), chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and lung cancer are influenced by a number of biological and physicochemical factors. Recent studies have suggested dermal exposure as a pathway for BeS. In light of the current non-health-based DOE Beryllium Rule surface criteria, the feasibility of deriving a human health-based surface dust cleanup criteria (SDCC) for beryllium was assessed based on toxicology and health risk factors via all potential routes of exposure. Beryllium-specific and general exposure factors were evaluated, including (1) beryllium physicochemical characteristics, bioavailability and influence on disease prevalence, and (2) chemical dissipation, resuspension and transfer. SDCC for non-cancer (SDCC) and cancer (SDCC) endpoints were derived from a combination of modern methods applied for occupational, residential and building reentry surface dust criteria. The most conservative SDCC estimates were derived for dermal exposure (5-379 μg/100 cm for 0.1-1% damaged skin and 17-3337 μg/100 cm for intact skin), whereas the SDCC for inhalation exposure ranged from 51 to 485 μg/100 cm. Considering this analysis, the lowest DOE surface criterion of 0.2 μg/100 cm is conservative for minimizing exposure and potential risks associated with beryllium-contaminated surfaces released for non-beryllium industrial or public sector use. Although methodological challenges exist with sampling and analysis procedures, data variability and interpretation of surface dust information in relation to anthropogenic and natural background concentrations, this evaluation should provide useful guidance with regard to cleanup of manufacturing equipment or remediation of property for transfer to the general public or non-beryllium industrial facilities.

  3. Electric batteries. Lithium batteries; Piles electrique. Piles au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrazin, Ch. [Delegation Generale pour l' Armement, DGA/DRET, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-05-01

    Lithium has the most negative potential and the highest mass capacity of all solid anode materials. It is the metal that allows to reach the highest mass energies in batteries when associated to a high potential cathode. The search for high performance cathodes has led to many different types of lithium batteries (transition metal oxides or sulfides, halogenides, oxi-halogenides, carbon, organic compounds etc..). These batteries can have a solid cathode (Li/CuO, Li/MnO{sub 2}, Li/CF{sub x}, etc..), or a liquid cathode (Li/SOCl{sub 2}, Li/SO{sub 2}, etc..) and in some cases they can have also a solid electrolyte, but not all types of lithium battery led to important industrial fabrication. The increasing use of lithium batteries is linked with the development of portable equipments for which, the compactness of the energy source is a key point. This article examines only the lithium batteries that have been the object of a significant industrial fabrication: lithium-sulfur dioxide, lithium-thionyl chloride, lithium-manganese dioxide, lithium-copper oxide, lithium-carbon fluoride, lithium-iron disulfide, other types of lithium batteries. (J.S.)

  4. Influence des ions lithium et borate sur l'hydratation de ciments sulfo-alumineux : application au conditionnement de résines échangeuses d'ions boratées

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In pressurized water reactors, a solution of boric acid, the pH of which is controlled by the addition of lithium hydroxide, is injected in the primary circuit. Boron acts as a neutron moderator and helps controlling the fission reactions. The primary coolant is purified by flowing through columns of ion exchange resins. These resins are periodically renewed and constitute a low-level radioactive waste. In addition to radionuclides, they mainly contain borate and lithium ions. They are curren...

  5. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  6. The structure and the Raman vibrational spectrum of the beryllium aquacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozmanov, Dmitry A; Sizova, Olga V; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu; Burkov, Kim A

    2005-11-01

    The experimental Raman vibrational spectrum of the 5.94 m water solution of the beryllium(II) chloride has been acquired. Theoretical frequencies, infrared and Raman intensities of the vibrational spectrum of the beryllium cation tetrahydrate have been calculated by means of quantum chemical approach. The peaks of the experimental spectrum have been assigned on the basis of the results of the quantum-chemical calculations. It has been shown that the hydrating surrounding of the aquacation increases effectively the frequency of the beryllium-oxygen stretching vibration by 16% in comparison with the free complex.

  7. Mathematical simulation of pressing X-ray lenses from nanocrystalline beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, V. V.; Shishov, I. A.; Glukhov, P. A.; Zabrodin, A. V.; Semenov, A. A.; Brylev, D. A.; Anikin, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    A computer model is developed to describe the pressing of a beryllium lens using the Deform software package. This model takes into account the rheological properties of beryllium and the deforming tool. The state of stress of a workpiece is determined at various stages of pressing, and the probability of fracture of nanocrystalline beryllium is estimated using the normalized Cockcroft-Latham criterion. The temperature dependence of the limiting values of the fracture criterion is found and used to choose the pressing conditions that exclude fracture of lenses.

  8. Study of beryllium redeposition under bombardment by high intensity -low energy- hydrogen ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureev, V.M.; Guseva, M.I.; Danelyan, L.S. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-01-01

    The results of studying the erosion of beryllium under an effect of intense ion fluxes with the energy of 250 eV, at the fluences {approx}10{sup 2}1 cm{sup -2}, at the MAGRAS-stand are given. The operating conditions under which a practically-complete redeposition of the sputtered beryllium upon the target surface were experimentally-realized. A change in the microstructure of a beryllium target under sputtering and redeposition is analyzed. Some technological applications are considered. (author)

  9. Conditions for preparation of ultrapure beryllium by electrolytic refining in molten alkali-metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Hagen

    1982-02-01

    Electrolytic refining is regarded as the most suitable process for the production of beryllium with impurity contents below 1 at.-ppM. Several parameters are important for electrolytic refining of beryllium in a BeCl/sub 2/-containing LiCl-KCl melt: current density, BeCl/sub 2/ content, electrolyte temperature, composition of the unpurified beryllium and impurity-ion concentrations in the melt, as well as apparatus characteristics such as rotation speed of the cathode and condition of the crucible material. These factors were studied and optimized such that extensive removal of the maximum number of accompanying and alloying elements was achieved.

  10. Beryllium Exposure Control Program at the Cardiff Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J S; Foote, K; McClean, M; Cogbill, G

    2001-05-01

    The Cardiff Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) plant, located in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, used metallic beryllium in their beryllium facility during the years of operation 1961-1997. The beryllium production processes included melting and casting, powder production, pressing, machining, and heat and surface treatments. As part of Cardiff's industrial hygiene program, extensive area measurements and personal lapel measurements of airborne beryllium concentrations were collected for Cardiff workers over the 36-year period of operation. In addition to extensive air monitoring, the beryllium control program also utilized surface contamination controls, building design, engineering controls, worker controls, material controls, and medical surveillance. The electronic database includes 367,757 area sampling records at 101 locations and 217,681 personal lapel sampling records collected from 194 employees over the period 1981-1997. Similar workplace samples were collected from 1961 to 1980, but they were not analyzed because they were not available electronically. Annual personal mean sampling concentrations for all workers ranged from 0.11 to 0.72 micrograms per cubic meter (microg/m3) with 95th percentiles ranging from 0.22 to 1.89 microg/m3; foundry workers worked in the highest concentration areas with a mean of 0.87 microg/m3 and a 95th percentile of 2.9 microg/m3. Area sampling concentrations, as expected, were lower than personal sampling concentrations. Mean annual area sample concentrations for all locations ranged from 0.02 to 0.32 microg/m3. The area sample 95th percentile concentrations for all years were below 0.5 microg/m3. For the overwhelming majority of samples, airborne beryllium concentrations were below the 2.0 microg/m3 standard. Although blood lymphocyte testing for beryllium sensitization has not been routinely conducted among these workers, this metal beryllium processing facility is the only large scale beryllium facility of its kind to have

  11. Evaluating the complexation behavior and regeneration of boron selective glucaminium-based ionic liquids when used as extraction solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Manishkumar D.; Steyer, Daniel J. [Department of Chemistry, School of Green Chemistry and Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Anderson, Jared L., E-mail: Jared.Anderson@UToledo.edu [Department of Chemistry, School of Green Chemistry and Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glucaminium-based ILs exhibit high selectivity for boron species using DLLME. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of glucaminium-based IL affects type of boron complex formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of 0.1 M HCl allows for regeneration of the IL solvent following extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selectivity of the glucaminium-based ILs for boron species in seawater is similar to Milli-Q water. - Abstract: Glucaminium-based ionic liquids are a new class of solvents capable of extracting boron-species from water with high efficiency. The complexation behavior of these ILs with borate was thoroughly studied using {sup 11}B NMR. Two different complexes, namely, monochelate complex and bischelate complex, were observed. {sup 11}B NMR was used extensively to determine the formation constants for monochelate and bischelate complexes. The IL concentration was observed to have a significant effect on the IL-borate complexes. Using an in situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ DLLME) method, the extraction efficiency for boron species was increased dramatically when lithium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (LiNTf{sub 2}) was used as the metathesis salt in an aqueous solution containing 0.1 M sodium chloride. IL regeneration after extraction was achieved using 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. The extraction efficiency of boron species was consistent when the IL was employed after three regeneration cycles. The selectivity of the IL for boron species in synthetic seawater samples was similar to performing the same extraction from Milli-Q water samples.

  12. Jaguar Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, L. I.; Baker, E. L.; Capellos, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Jaguar product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products by analysis of Available Hugoniot and static volumetric data to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationships for the components. Experimental melting points were also utilized to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX—boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using Jaguar are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that the boron does not react near the detonation front or that boron mixtures exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior (as shown by some aluminized explosives), with higher detonation velocities at the initial points. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX—boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the detonation properties of the formulation.

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors: an emerging therapeutic modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, R F; Soloway, A H; Goodman, J H; Gahbauer, R A; Gupta, N; Blue, T E; Yang, W; Tjarks, W

    1999-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. For BNCT to be successful, a large number of 10B atoms must be localized on or preferably within neoplastic cells, and a sufficient number of thermal neutrons must be absorbed by the 10B atoms to sustain a lethal 10B (n, alpha) lithium-7 reaction. There is a growing interest in using BNCT in combination with surgery to treat patients with high-grade gliomas and possibly metastatic brain tumors. The present review covers the biological and radiobiological considerations on which BNCT is based, boron-containing low- and high-molecular weight delivery agents, neutron sources, clinical studies, and future areas of research. Two boron compounds currently are being used clinically, sodium borocaptate and boronophenylalanine, and a number of new delivery agents are under investigation, including boronated porphyrins, nucleosides, amino acids, polyamines, monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, liposomes, and epidermal growth factor. These are discussed, as is optimization of their delivery. Nuclear reactors currently are the only source of neutrons for BNCT, and the fission reaction within the core produces a mixture of lower energy thermal and epithermal neutrons, fast or high-energy neutrons, and gamma-rays. Although thermal neutron beams have been used clinically in Japan to treat patients with brain tumors and cutaneous melanomas, epithermal neutron beams now are being used in the United States and Europe because of their superior tissue-penetrating properties. Currently, there are clinical trials in progress in the United States, Europe, and Japan using a combination of debulking surgery and then BNCT to treat patients with glioblastomas. The American and European studies are Phase I trials using boronophenylalanine and sodium borocaptate, respectively

  14. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik Ejler; Christensen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode...... materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy...

  15. Benchmark Evaluation of Fuel Effect and Material Worth Measurements for a Beryllium-Reflected Space Reactor Mockup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Margaret A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Space Nuclear Research; Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The critical configuration of the small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in 1962-1965 have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The initial intent of these experiments was to support the design of the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program, whose purpose was to study “power plants for the production of electrical power in space vehicles.” The third configuration in this series of experiments was a beryllium-reflected assembly of stainless-steel-clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel mockup of a potassium-cooled space power reactor. Reactivity measurements cadmium ratio spectral measurements and fission rate measurements were measured through the core and top reflector. Fuel effect worth measurements and neutron moderating and absorbing material worths were also measured in the assembly fuel region. The cadmium ratios, fission rate, and worth measurements were evaluated for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The fuel tube effect and neutron moderating and absorbing material worth measurements are the focus of this paper. Additionally, a measurement of the worth of potassium filling the core region was performed but has not yet been evaluated Pellets of 93.15 wt.% enriched uranium dioxide (UO2) were stacked in 30.48 cm tall stainless steel fuel tubes (0.3 cm tall end caps). Each fuel tube had 26 pellets with a total mass of 295.8 g UO2 per tube. 253 tubes were arranged in 1.506-cm triangular lattice. An additional 7-tube cluster critical configuration was also measured but not used for any physics measurements. The core was surrounded on all side by a beryllium reflector. The fuel effect worths were measured by removing fuel tubes at various radius. An accident scenario

  16. Synthesis of Boron Nanowires, Nanotubes, and Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajen B. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of boron nanowires, nanotubes, and nanosheets using a thermal vapor deposition process is reported. This work confirms previous research and provides a new method capable of synthesizing boron nanomaterials. The materials were made by using various combinations of MgB2, Mg(BH42, MCM-41, NiB, and Fe wire. Unlike previously reported methods, a nanoparticle catalyst and a silicate substrate are not required for synthesis. Two types of boron nanowires, boron nanotubes, and boron nanosheets were made. Their morphology and chemical composition were determined through the use of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. These boron-based materials have potential for electronic and hydrogen storage applications.

  17. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  18. Lithium nephropathy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Reis Pereira-Silva; Debora Esperancini-Tebar

    2014-01-01

    Although widely used in the management of bipolar disorder, lithium may cause adverse kidney effects. The importance of the present study is to report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was under regular treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder and whose imaging studies demonstrated the presence of multiple renal microcysts, suggesting lithium nephropathy as main diagnostic hypothesis.

  19. Lithium nephropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Reis Pereira-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although widely used in the management of bipolar disorder, lithium may cause adverse kidney effects. The importance of the present study is to report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was under regular treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder and whose imaging studies demonstrated the presence of multiple renal microcysts, suggesting lithium nephropathy as main diagnostic hypothesis.

  20. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2016-10-01

    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  1. Composite Reinforcement using Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11-Mar-2013 to 10-Mar-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Composite Reinforcement using Boron Nitride Nanotubes...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Boron nitride nanotubes have been proposed as a...and titanium (Ti) metal clusters with boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). First-principles density-functional theory plus dispersion (DFT-D) calculations

  2. Oxygen radical functionalization of boron nitride nanosheets

    OpenAIRE

    MAY, PETER; Coleman, Jonathan; MCGOVERN, IGNATIUS; GOUNKO, IOURI; Satti, Amro

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED The covalent chemical functionalization of exfoliated hexagonal boron-nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) is achieved by the solution phase oxygen radical functionalization of boron atoms in the h-BN lattice. This involves a two-step procedure to initially covalently graft alkoxy groups to boron atoms and the subsequent hydrolytic defunctionalisation of the groups to yield hydroxyl-functionalized BNNSs (OH-BNNSs). Characterization of the functionalized-BNNSs using HR-TEM, Raman, UV-Vis, F...

  3. Beryllium Separation from Beryllium Containing Solution with Solvent Extraction Method%溶剂萃取法从含铍溶液中分离铍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珍珍; 刘勇; 刘牡丹

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium was extracted from the sulphuric acid leaching solution of complex low grade beryllium ore with solvent extraction process. The effecting factors on beryllium single stage extraction rate were researched. The results show that the optimal conditions were pH in aqueous phase of 2?. 5, concentration of beryllium in leaching solution of 1. 5~2. 5 g/L, volume fraction of P204 of 30%, extraction time of 20 min, and W/O=l. In this conditions, more than 98. 50% beryllium is separated by four stage countercur-rent extraction.%采用溶剂萃取法从某复杂低品位铍矿的硫酸浸出液中进行铍的分离,研究了不同因素对铍的单级萃取效果的影响.结果表明,最佳条件为:水相pH=2~2.5、浸出液初始铍浓度1.5~2.5 g/L、P204体积分数30%、萃取时间20 min、相比为1.在此条件下四级逆流萃取后铍萃取率可达到98.50%.

  4. Modes of Occurrence and Geological Origin of Beryllium in Coals from the Pu'an Coalfield, Guizhou, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianye

    2007-01-01

    The concentration, modes of occurrence and geological origin of beryllium in five workable coal beds from the Pu'an Coalfield of Guizbou were studied using the inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), floating and sinking experiments (FSE) and sequential chemical extraction procedures (SCEP). The results show that the average concentration of beryllium in coals from the Pu'an Coalfield is 1.54 μg/g, much lower than that in most Chinese and worldwide coals.Beryllium in the Pu'an coals was not significantly enriched. However, it should be noted that the No. 8 coal bed from the study area has a high concentration of beryllium, 6.89 μg/g, three times higher than the background value of beryllium in coal. Beryllium in coal mainly occurs as organic association and has predominantly originated from coal-forming plants when its concentration is relatively low. The concentration of beryllium occurring as organic association is close to that distributed in inorganic matter when beryllium concentration of coal is similar to its background value, and in addition to coal-forming plants, beryllium is mainly derived from detrital materials of terrigenous origin. When beryllium is anomalously enriched in coal, it mainly occurs as organic association and is derived from volcanic tonsteins leached for a long geological time and then adsorbed by organic matter in peat mire.

  5. Boron-10 ABUNCL Active Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-07-09

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from testing of the active mode of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory using sources and fuel pins.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  7. Boron deposition from fused salts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.L.

    1980-08-01

    A partial evaluation of the feasibility of a process to electrodeposit pure coherent coatings of elemental boron from molten fluorides has been performed. The deposit produced was powdery and acicular, unless the fluoride melt was purified to have very low oxygen concentration. When the oxygen activity was reduced in the melt by addition of crystalline elemental boron, dense, amorphous boron deposit was produced. The boron deposits produced had cracks but were otherwise pure and dense and ranged up to 0.35 mm thick. Information derived during this project suggests that similar deposits might be obtained crack-free up to 1.00 mm thick by process modifications and improvements.

  8. Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Yilmaz, M. Tolga; Paluluoglu, Cihan [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-05-01

    Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%.

  9. Conduction mechanism in boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electrical conductivity, Seebeck-coefficient, and Hall-effect measurements have been made on single-phase boron carbides, B(1-x)C(x), in the compositional range from 0.1 to 0.2 X, and between room temperature and 1273 K. The results indicate that the predominant conduction mechanism is small-polaron hopping between carbon atoms at geometrically inequivalent sites.

  10. Report on an improved calculation of the Beryllium-7 + proton -> Boron-8 + photon cross section at stellar energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Nollett, Kenneth M.; Phillips, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    The radiative capture reaction, 7Be+p -> 8B+photon, is a subject of long-standing interest for nuclear astrophysics. Its cross section needs to be known at low energies (about 20 keV in our Sun), which unfortunately is too small to be directly measured in lab. Therefore, theories are used to extrapolate the higher-energy measurements down to the low energies. The previous studies, including microscopic and phenomenological models, face difficulties with estimating theoretical uncertainties. In this talk, I will present our studies based on the Halo-Effective-Field-Theory framework, which provides a systematic expansion for the reaction amplitude in terms of the low energy to the high energy scale ratio. Our next-to-leading-order formula can parameterize other existing results with sub-percent discrepancy in the relevant energy region, which is consistent with our theoretical uncertainty estimation based on the size of ignored higher order contributions. We then applied Bayesian analysis to constrain the theory parameters based on the direct capture data, and got a stringent constraint on the zero energy S factor, S(0)=21.3 +/- 0.7 (eV b). The error is less than half of the previously recommended value, S(0)=20.8 +/- 1.6 (eV b). The work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-93ER-40756 and No. DEFG02-97ER-41014.

  11. Beryllium-Boron Systematics of Refractory Inclusions in CR2 and CV3 Chondrites: Evidence for 10Be Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, E.; Wadhwa, M.; Simon, S.; Grossman, L.

    2016-08-01

    Be-B systematics of Allende (CV3), Axtell (CV3), and NWA 5028 (CR2) CAIs suggests that 10Be was distributed heterogeneously in the early solar system which implies that 10Be was produced in the solar nebula by irradiation of nebular gas or dust.

  12. Tensile and fracture toughness test results of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R.; Moons, F.; Puzzolante, J.L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1998-01-01

    Tensile and fracture toughness test results of four Beryllium grades are reported here. The flow and fracture properties are investigated by using small size tensile and round compact tension specimens. Irradiation was performed at the BR2 material testing reactor which allows various temperature and irradiation conditions. The fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV) ranges between 0.65 and 2.45 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. In the meantime, un-irradiated specimens were aged at the irradiation temperatures to separate if any the effect of temperature from irradiation damage. Test results are analyzed and discussed, in particular in terms of the effects of material grade, test temperature, thermal ageing and neutron irradiation. (author)

  13. Optical properties and structure of beryllium lead silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, I. S., E-mail: i.s.zhidkov@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002, Russia and Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Str. 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A. [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-21

    Luminescence and optical properties and structural features of (BeO){sub x}(PbO⋅SiO{sub 2}){sub 1−x} glasses (x = 0 ÷ 0.3) are investigated by means of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The regularities of the formation of the optical absorption edge and static disorder are studied. It is shown that the optical absorption and luminescence are determined by transitions between localized states of lead ions. The impact of beryllium oxide on optical and luminescence properties and electronic structure of bands tails is discussed. The presence of two different concentration ranges with various short-range order structure and band tails nature has been established.

  14. Optical properties and structure of beryllium lead silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, I. S.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    Luminescence and optical properties and structural features of (BeO)x(PbOṡSiO2)1-x glasses (x = 0 ÷ 0.3) are investigated by means of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The regularities of the formation of the optical absorption edge and static disorder are studied. It is shown that the optical absorption and luminescence are determined by transitions between localized states of lead ions. The impact of beryllium oxide on optical and luminescence properties and electronic structure of bands tails is discussed. The presence of two different concentration ranges with various short-range order structure and band tails nature has been established.

  15. Modelling of radiation impact on ITER Beryllium wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, I. S.; Janeschitz, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the ITER H-Mode confinement regime, edge localized instabilities (ELMs) will perturb the discharge. Plasma lost after each ELM moves along magnetic field lines and impacts on divertor armour, causing plasma contamination by back propagating eroded carbon or tungsten. These impurities produce enhanced radiation flux distributed mainly over the beryllium main chamber wall. The simulation of the complicated processes involved are subject of the integrated tokamak code TOKES that is currently under development. This work describes the new TOKES model for radiation transport through confined plasma. Equations for level populations of the multi-fluid plasma species and the propagation of different kinds of radiation (resonance, recombination and bremsstrahlung photons) are implemented. First simulation results without account of resonance lines are presented.

  16. Near real-time fluorescence detection of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, T. M. (Thomas Mark); Ehler, D. S. (Deborah S.); Minogue, E. M. (Edel Mary); Collis, G. E. (Gavin E.); Keizer, T. S. (Timothy S.); Burrell, A. K. (Anthony K.); Sauer, N. N. (Nancy N.); John, K. D. (Kevin D.)

    2004-01-01

    We report on a fluorescent test for beryllium designed for analyzing swipes. The detection is rapid, quantitative and deployable in the field with $5,000 portable fluorimeter. Swipes are placed in a vial and a dilution solution is added. The vials are then rotated for 30 minutes and then syringe filtered. An aliquot of 100 pL is added to a detector solution and fluorescence measured with a portable ocean optics unit. We can readily detect down to 0.02 {micro}g on a filter paper. Interference studies have been carried out with various metals including Al, Fe, Pb, U, Ca, W, Ni, Co and Cu. The technique has proven to be successful under various conditions including a variety of surfaces both in the lab and in field. It is a user-friendly, cost effective method.

  17. Specification for nuclear-grade beryllium oxide powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements of nuclear-grade beryllium oxide (BeO) powder to be used in fabricating nuclear components. 1.2 This specification does not include requirements for health and safety. , , It recognizes the material as a Class B poison and suggests that producers and users become thoroughly familiar with and comply to applicable federal, state, and local regulations and handling guidelines. 1.3 Special tests and procedures are given in Annex A1 and Annex A2. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  18. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  19. Notched strength of beryllium powder and ingot sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of notches in thin beryllium sheets were studied as functions of material variables and notch severity. Double edge notched samples having stress concentration factors of 1.0 to 15.4 were prepared by milling to size, etching, and electrical discharge machining the notches. Strength was not reduced greatly by sharp notches, and duller notches were more deleterious than sharp notches. The trend was for reduced strength for dull notches, increased strength for sharper notches, and reduced strength for very sharp notches. Differences in material purity or source of the sheet had little affect on notch sensitivity. The most important factors appear to be oxide content and directionality of the sheet microstructure; high oxide content and highly directional microstructure tend to give more notch sensitivity than low oxide content, and more bidirectional microstructure. Postulated causes of the change in notched/unnotched strength are given.

  20. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer H.-W.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1 strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accuracy of a leading-order computation in this EFT is obtained. We also indicate how higher-order corrections that affect both s-wave and p-wave 10 Be-neutron interactions will affect our results.

  1. Damage production in atomic displacement cascades in beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Borodin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a molecular dynamics simulation of cascade damage production in beryllium caused by self-ion recoils in the energy range of 0.5–3keV. It is demonstrated that point defects are produced in Be preferentially in well-separated subcascades generated by secondary and higher order recoils. A linear dependence of the point defect number on the primary recoil energy is obtained with the slope that corresponds to formal atom displacement energy of ∼21eV. Most of the damage is created as single defects and the relatively high part of created point defects (∼50% survives the correlated recombination following the ballistic cascade stage and becomes freely-migrating.

  2. Retrospective beryllium exposure assessment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, A.E.; Torma-Krajewski, J. [Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Field Office, Golden, CO (United States); Viet, S.M. [M.H. Chew & Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Since the 1960`s, beryllium machining was performed to make nuclear weapon components at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant. Beryllium exposure was assessed via fixed airhead (FAH) sampling in which the filter cassette was affixed to the machine, generally within a few feet of the worker`s breathing zone. Approximately 500,000 FAH samples were collected for beryllium over three decades. From 1984 to 1987, personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples were also collected as part of the evaluation of a new high velocity/low volume local exhaust ventilation (HV/LV LEV) system. The purpose of this study was to determine how the two types of sampling data could be used for an exposure assessment in the beryllium shop.

  3. Solvent extraction of beryllium from malonate solutions with liquid anion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, R.R.; Khopkar, S.M.

    1983-12-01

    Beryllium was quantitatively extracted at pH 5.5-7.0 in microgram amounts with 0.06 M Aliquat 336S in xylene from 5 x 10/sup -3/ M malonic acid solution, stripped with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid, and determined spectrophotometrically at 523 nm as its complex with thorin. Those metals which could not form anionic complexes with malonic acid and were not extracted with beryllium at pH 6.5 were separated from it. Metals forming weak malonato complexes were scrubbed from the organic phase with water. The elements like bismuth, antimony, iron, uranium, gallium, and vanadium which form strong malonato complexes were separated by selective stripping with hydrochloric, sulfuric, or nitric acid. The method was extended for the analysis of beryllium in beryl and beryllium alloys. 1 figure, 6 tables.

  4. Cryogenic Fracture Toughness Evaluation of an Investment Cast Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy for Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne; McGill, Preston

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation that details the fracture toughness of Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy for use in structures at cryogenic temperatures. Graphs and charts are presented in the presentation

  5. Estimations of neutron yield from beryllium target irradiated by SPring-8 hard synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gryaznykh, D A; Plokhoi, V V

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of creating a neutron source based on ''SPring-8'' synchrotron radiation interaction with beryllium targets is discussed. The possible neutron yield is estimated to be of order 10 sup 1 sup 2 s sup - sup 1 .

  6. Neutron activation analysis: Modelling studies to improve the neutron flux of Americium–Beryllium source

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdessamad Didi; Ahmed Dadouch; Otman Jaï; Jaouad Tajmouati; Hassane El Bekkouri

    2017-01-01

    Americium–beryllium (Am-Be; n, γ) is a neutron emitting source used in various research fields such as chemistry, physics, geology, archaeology, medicine, and environmental monitoring, as well as in the forensic sciences...

  7. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  8. The impact of particle size selective sampling methods on occupational assessment of airborne beryllium particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeth, Darrah K

    2013-05-01

    In 2010, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) formally changed its Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for beryllium from a 'total' particulate sample to an inhalable particulate sample. This change may have important implications for workplace air sampling of beryllium. A history of particle size-selective sampling methods, with a special focus on beryllium, will be provided. The current state of the science on inhalable sampling will also be presented, including a look to the future at what new methods or technology may be on the horizon. This includes new sampling criteria focused on particle deposition in the lung, proposed changes to the existing inhalable convention, as well as how the issues facing beryllium sampling may help drive other changes in sampling technology.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Beryllium and Compounds (2008 External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Beryllium that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  10. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  11. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  12. Cost effective aluminum beryllium mirrors for critical optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Carissa; Duich, Jack; Huskamp, Chris; White, Ray

    2013-09-01

    The unique performance of aluminum-beryllium frequently makes it an ideal material for manufacturing precision optical-grade metal mirrors. Traditional methods of manufacture utilize hot-pressed powder block in billet form which is subsequently machined to final dimensions. Complex component geometries such as lightweighted, non-plano mirrors require extensive tool path programming, fixturing, and CNC machining time and result in a high buy-to-fly ratio (the ratio of the mass of raw material purchased to the mass of the finished part). This increases the cost of the mirror structure as a significant percentage of the procurement cost is consumed in the form of machining, tooling, and scrap material that do not add value to the final part. Inrad Optics, Inc. and IBC Advanced Alloys Corp. undertook a joint study to evaluate the suitability of investment-cast Beralcast® 191 and 363 aluminum-beryllium as a precision mirror substrate material. Net shape investment castings of the desired geometry minimizes machining to just cleanup stock, thereby reducing the recurring procurement cost while still maintaining performance. The thermal stability of two mirrors, (one each of Beralcast® 191 and Beralcast® 363), was characterized from -40°F to +150°F. A representative pocketed mirror was developed, including the creation of a relevant geometry and production of a cast component to validate the approach. Information from the demonstration unit was used as a basis for a comparative cost study of the representative mirror produced in Beralcast® and one machined from a billet of AlBeMet® 162 (AlBeMet® is a registered trademark of Materion Corporation). The technical and financial results of these studies will be discussed in detail.

  13. Boron coating on boron nitride coated nuclear fuels by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmazuçar, Hasan H.; Gündüz, Güngör

    2000-12-01

    Uranium dioxide-only and uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide (5% and 10%) ceramic nuclear fuel pellets which were already coated with boron nitride were coated with thin boron layer by chemical vapor deposition to increase the burn-up efficiency of the fuel during reactor operation. Coating was accomplished from the reaction of boron trichloride with hydrogen at 1250 K in a tube furnace, and then sintering at 1400 and 1525 K. The deposited boron was identified by infrared spectrum. The morphology of the coating was studied by using scanning electron microscope. The plate, grainy and string (fiber)-like boron structures were observed.

  14. Characterization of phagolysosomal simulant fluid for study of beryllium aerosol particle dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, A B; Guilmette, R A; Day, G A; Hoover, M D; Breysse, P N; Scripsick, R C

    2005-02-01

    A simulant of phagolysosomal fluid is needed for beryllium particle dissolution research because intraphagolysosomal dissolution is believed to be a necessary step in the cellular immune response associated with development of chronic beryllium disease. Thus, we refined and characterized a potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) buffered solution with pH 4.55, termed phagolysosomal simulant fluid (PSF), for use in a static dissolution technique. To characterize the simulant, beryllium dissolution in PSF was compared to dissolution in the J774A.1 murine cell line. The effects of ionic composition, buffer strength, and the presence of the antifungal agent alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDC) on beryllium dissolution in PSF were evaluated. Beryllium dissolution in PSF was not different from dissolution in the J774A.1 murine cell line (p = 0.78) or from dissolution in another simulant having the same pH but different ionic composition (p = 0.73). A buffer concentration of 0.01-M KHP did not appear adequate to maintain pH under all conditions. There was no difference between dissolution in PSF with 0.01-M KHP and 0.02-M KHP (p = 0.12). At 0.04-M KHP, beryllium dissolution was increased relative to 0.02-M KHP (p = 0.02). Use of a 0.02-M KHP buffer concentration in the standard formulation for PSF provided stability in pH without alteration of the dissolution rate. The presence of ABDC did not influence beryllium dissolution in PSF (p = 0.35). PSF appears to be a useful and appropriate model of in vitro beryllium dissolution when using a static dissolution technique. In addition, the critical approach used to evaluate and adjust the composition of PSF may serve as a framework for characterizing PSF to study dissolution of other metal and oxide particles.

  15. Calculated power distribution of a thermionic, beryllium oxide reflected, fast-spectrum reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, W.; Lantz, E.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure is developed and used to calculate the detailed power distribution in the fuel elements next to a beryllium oxide reflector of a fast-spectrum, thermionic reactor. The results of the calculations show that, although the average power density in these outer fuel elements is not far from the core average, the power density at the very edge of the fuel closest to the beryllium oxide is about 1.8 times the core avearge.

  16. Impact of beryllium reflector ageing on Safari–1 reactor core parameters / L.E. Moloko

    OpenAIRE

    Moloko, Lesego Ernest

    2011-01-01

    The build–up of 6Li and 3He, that is, the strong thermal neutron absorbers or the so called "neutron poisons", in the beryllium reflector changes the physical characteristics of the reactor, such as reactivity, neutron spectra, neutron flux level, power distribution, etc.; furthermore,gaseous isotopes such as 3H and 4He induce swelling and embrittlement of the reflector. The SAFARI–1 research reactor, operated by Necsa at Pelindaba in South Africa, uses a beryllium reflector on...

  17. Suivi médical de salariés exposés au beryllium

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Purpose of the study: determination of a systematised procedure for medical follow-up of beryllium-exposed workers. Method: a medical follow-up of workers from a factory machining beryllium (Be) either plain or as an alloy started in 2001. Be Lymphocyte Proliferation Tests (LPT) were performed for screening Be sensitisation and were calculated again according to 1142-2001 speciation of the American Department Of Energy. A working group included occupational physicians,...

  18. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  19. Density Optimization of Lithium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics for Lightweight Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Density Optimization of Lithium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics for Lightweight Lithium -Air Batteries by Claire Weiss Brennan, Victoria Blair...Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-7145 November 2014 Density Optimization of Lithium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics for Lightweight Lithium -Air...COVERED (From - To) 1 June–31 August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Density Optimization of Lithium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics for Lightweight Lithium

  20. Sensitive detection of beryllium using a fiber optic liquid waveguide cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gang; Wei, Lily; Collins, Greg E

    2003-05-28

    The metallochromic chelating agent, Chromazurol S, has been utilized in conjunction with a fiber optic liquid waveguide capillary cell to enable the sensitive detection of beryllium in solution (30 ng l(-1) detection limit) and following extraction from a contaminated plexiglas surface (0.5 ng cm(-2) detection limit). The addition of a cationic surfactant, cetylpyridinium chloride, to Chromazurol S at pH 10 in Tris-HCl buffer results in the formation of two bathochromic peaks in the visible spectrum following metal chelation by beryllium. The first absorbance band, at 515 nm, is intermediate in nature, permitting maximal sensitivity for low beryllium concentrations, but diminishing in intensity at concentrations above 100 mug l(-1). The second absorbance band, centered at 610 nm, dominates for beryllium concentrations of 100 mug l(-1) and above. Experimental conditions including pH, buffer type, additive surfactants, masking agents, and dye concentration were investigated in order to optimize detection sensitivity and selectivity. A fiber optic spectrometer is used with both a liquid waveguide capillary cell and 1 cm cuvette cell, to give a sensitive and broad dynamic range for beryllium detection that capitalizes on both beryllium metal chelate absorbance bands formed under these conditions.

  1. Extraction and optical fluorescence method for the measurement of trace beryllium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anoop; Cronin, John P; Agrawal, Akshay; Tonazzi, Juan C L; Adams, Lori; Ashley, Kevin; Brisson, Michael J; Duran, Brandy; Whitney, Gary; Burrell, Anthony K; McCleskey, T Mark; Robbins, James; White, Kenneth T

    2008-03-15

    Beryllium metal and beryllium oxide are important industrial materials used in a variety of applications in the electronics, nuclear energy, and aerospace industries. These materials are highly toxic, they must be disposed of with care, and exposed workers need to be protected. Recently, a new analytical method was developed that uses dilute ammonium bifluoride for extraction of beryllium and a high quantum yield optical fluorescence reagent to determine trace amounts of beryllium in airborne and surface samples. The sample preparation and analysis procedure was published by both ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The main advantages of this method are its sensitivity, simplicity, use of lower toxicity materials, and low capital costs. Use of the technique for analyzing soils has been initiated to help meet a need at several of the U.S. Department of Energy legacy sites. So far this work has mainly concentrated on developing a dissolution protocol for effectively extracting beryllium from a variety of soils and sediments so that these can be analyzed by optical fluorescence. Certified reference materials (CRM) of crushed rock and soils were analyzed for beryllium content using fluorescence, and results agree quantitatively with reference values.

  2. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-12-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  3. Combined effects of gallic acid and propolis on beryllium-induced hepatorenal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Satendra K; Li, Peiqiang; Bhadauria, Monika; Guo, Guangqin

    2008-09-01

    The combined effect of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid; GA; 50 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and propolis (200 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was evaluated against beryllium-induced biochemical and morphological alterations in the liver and kidney. Female albino rats were exposed to beryllium nitrate (1 mg kg(-1) i.p.) daily for 28 days followed by treatment with the above mentioned therapeutic agents either individually or in combination for five consecutive days. Exposure to beryllium increased its concentration in the serum, liver and kidney and caused significant alterations in cytochrome P450 enzymes, microsomal lipid peroxidation and protein contents. Beryllium administration significantly altered the aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-grutamy1 transpeptidase, bilirubin, creatinine and urea in serum, and the activity of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, glucose-6-phophatase and succinic dehydrogenase, triglycerides, cholesterol, protein contents, glycogen contents, lipid peroxidation and glutathione level in the liver and kidney. Beryllium exposure induced severe alterations in hepatorenal morphology, revealing its toxic consequences at a cellular level. Individual administration of GA and propolis reduced the effects on the studied parameters to a degree. Interestingly, GA in conjunction with propolis reversed the alterations in all of the variables examined, highlighting the beneficial effects of combined therapy over monotherapy in the alleviation of beryllium-induced systemic toxicity. © 2008 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  4. Synergistic effects of ferritin and propolis in modulation of beryllium induced toxicogenic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Bhadauria, Monika

    2008-09-01

    Synergistic therapeutic potential of ferritin (5mg/kg, i.p.) and propolis (honeybee hive product; 200mg/kg, p.o.) was analyzed to encounter the beryllium induced biochemical and ultra morphological alterations. Female albino rats were exposed to beryllium nitrate (1mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 28 days followed by treatment of above mentioned therapeutic agents either individually or in combination for five consecutive days. Exposure to beryllium increased its concentration in serum, liver and kidney and significantly altered the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 enzymes, microsomal lipid peroxidation and microsomal proteins. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, protein, creatinine and urea in serum as well as hemoglobin and blood glucose level; activity of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, total protein contents, glycogen contents, lipid peroxidation and glutathione level in liver and kidney were significantly altered after beryllium administration. Beryllium exposure severely altered ultramorphology of liver and kidney that proved its toxic consequences at cellular level. Ferritin in combination with propolis dramatically reversed the alterations of these variables towards control in a synergistic manner concluding its beneficial effects over monotherapy in attenuating beryllium induced systemic toxicity.

  5. Pharmacological intervention of tiferron and propolis to alleviate beryllium-induced hepatorenal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Bhadauria, Monika; Shukla, Sangeeta; Agrawal, Om Prakash; Mathur, Asha; Li, Pei Qiang; Mathur, Ramesh

    2008-08-01

    Intervention of chelating agent tiferron (sodium-4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonate; 300 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) with propolis (honey beehive product; 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated to encounter the characteristic biochemical and ultra-morphological alterations following subchronic exposure to beryllium. Female albino rats were challenged with beryllium nitrate (1 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 28 days followed by treatment of the above-mentioned therapeutic agents either individually or in combination for five consecutive days. Exposure to beryllium increased its concentration in the serum, liver and kidney, and caused significant alterations in cytochrome P450 activity, microsomal lipid peroxidation and proteins. Activities of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, creatinine and urea in the serum and activity of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, glucose-6-phophatase and succinic dehydrogenase in the liver and kidney were significantly altered after beryllium administration. Beryllium exposure also induced severe hepatorenal alterations at histopathological and ultra-morphological level. Tiferron along with propolis dramatically reversed the alterations in all the variables more towards control rather than their individual treatment. The study concludes that pharmacological intervention of tiferron and propolis is beneficial in attenuating beryllium-induced systemic toxicity.

  6. Characterization of beryllium deformation using in-situ x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Eric Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sisneros, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Park, Jun-Sang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Beryllium’s unique mechanical properties are extremely important in a number of high performance applications. Consequently, accurate models for the mechanical behavior of beryllium are required. However, current models are not sufficiently microstructure aware to accurately predict the performance of beryllium under a range of processing and loading conditions. Previous experiments conducted using the SMARTS and HIPPO instruments at the Lujan Center(LANL), have studied the relationship between strain rate and texture development, but due to the limitations of neutron diffraction studies, it was not possible to measure the response of the material in real-time. In-situ diffraction experiments conducted at the Advanced Photon Source have allowed the real time measurement of the mechanical response of compressed beryllium. Samples of pre-strained beryllium were reloaded orthogonal to their original load path to show the reorientation of already twinned grains. Additionally, the in-situ experiments allowed the real time tracking of twin evolution in beryllium strained at high rates. The data gathered during these experiments will be used in the development and validation of a new, microstructure aware model of the constitutive behavior of beryllium.

  7. Boron Separation by the Two-step Ion-Exchange for the Isotopic Measurement of Boron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Qing-Zhong(王庆忠); XIAO,Ying-Kai(肖应凯); WANG,Yun-Hui(王蕴惠); ZHANG,Chong-Geng(张崇耿); WEI,Hai-Zhen(魏海珍)

    2002-01-01

    An improved procedure for extraction and purification of boron from natural samples is presented. The separation and purification of boron was carried out using a boron-specific resin, Amberlite IRA743, and a mixed ion exchange resin,Dowex 50W × 8 and Ion Exchanger Ⅱ resin. Using the mixed ion exchange resin which adsorbs all cations and anions except boron, the HCl and other cations and anions left in eluant from the Amberlite IRA 743 were removed effectively. In this case, boron loss can be avoided because the boron-bearing solution does not have to be evaporated to reach dryness to dislodge HCl. The boron recovery ranged from 97.6% to 102% in this study. The isotopic fractionation of boron can be negligible within the precision of the isotopic measurement. The results show that boron separation for the isotopic measurement by using both Amberlite IRA 743 resin and the mixed rein is more effective than that using Amberlite IRA 743 resin alone. The boron in samples of brine, seawater, rock, coral and foraminifer were separated by this procedure. Boron isotopic compositions of these samples were measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry in this study.

  8. The noble gases adsorption on boron-rich boron nitride nanotubes: A theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Guo, Chen

    2017-07-01

    In this work, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have systematically explored the noble gases (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr) adsorption on boron-rich boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) surface with antisite boron atom. One or two nitrogen atoms of BNNTs are replaced by boron atoms, which are considered as boron-rich BNNTs for Ng adsorption. It is found that the boron-rich BNNTs can adsorb Ng in exothermic process, and the adsorption energies increase in order from He to Kr. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and noncovalent interactions (NCIs) calculations show that the interactions between boron-rich BNNTs and Ng are noncovalent, and the interactions for Ar and Kr are obviously larger than those for He and Ne. The charge transfer from Ng to boron-rich BNNTs and the changes of energy gap caused by Ng adsorption demonstrate that the boron-rich BNNTs are expected to become the Ng adsorption and sensing materials. Moreover, the 2B-BNNTs do not decrease the Ng adsorption interactions on boron-rich BNNTs, compared with 1B-BNNTs. It is expected that the present results will provide a useful guide to develop novel boron nitride nanomaterials for storage and application of Ng.

  9. Erosion behaviour of ultrathin carbon layers and hydrogen retention in beryllium; Untersuchungen zur Erosion ultraduenner Kohlenstoffschichten und Wasserstoffrueckhaltung in Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinelt, Matthias

    2008-04-16

    Plasma-wall-interaction plays an important role on the way to technical feasibility of thermonuclear fusion. In this context, the erosion behavior of few nanometer thin amorphous carbon layers on different metallic substrates by energetic deuterium and helium ions is investigated. Several aspects of the interaction are distinguishable by XPS. Ion induced carbide formation is governed by kinematic intermixing of carbon and metal substrate. Several methods of quantification of XPS measurements are developed and discussed. Comparison of results from these methods with NRA measurements show that surface roughness and implantation of particles into the carbon layer and intermixing zone influence the XPS measurements, which are sensitive to parameters such as material density. The retention of 1 keV deuterium ions implanted into single crystalline and cleaned beryllium at room temperature is investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The residual BeO coverage was 0.2 ML. The retention is 78% at low fluences and saturates above a bombardment with a fluence of 2.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The retained maximum areal density is 2.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. Above 900 K, no deuterium is retained in the sample. An onset of self diffusion is observed at this temperature and metallic beryllium from the bulk segregates though thin BeO layers on the surface. From deuterium desorption traces, retention mechanisms are obtained. The measured TPDspectra are modeled by TMAP7 and rate equations to obtain activation energies for the release processes. From these, binding energies for the system Be-D are derived. Up to a implantation fluence of 1.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, deuterium is trapped in ion induced defects in the beryllium lattice with binding energies of 1.69 eV and 1.86 eV and release temperatures of 770 K and 840 K, respectively. The occupation of these states shows a different isotope behavior for {sup 1}H and {sup 2}H. The states are filled by diffusion of deuterium at the

  10. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program 1989. Program Technical Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Modeling Techniques 127 Degradation of the Renal Peritubular Dr. Thomas Lockwood Basement Membrane in Relation to Toxic Nephropathy of Fuels of... lithium are very reactive metals and may be ignited with a match. Beryllium and boron are difficult to ignite, requir- ing relatively large temperatures...velocity, pressure and temperature of the ex- plosive composition. 6. Lithium /Ammonium Perchlorate Compositions. The use of lithium as the reductant with

  11. Boron rates for triticale and wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Juliano Corulli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No reports are registered on responses to boron fertilization nutrient deficiency and toxicity in triticale crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate triticale response to different rates of boron in comparison to wheat in an hapludox with initial boron level at 0.08 mg dm-3 4 4 factorial design trial completely randomized blocks design (n = 4. Boron rates were 0; 0.62; 1.24 and 1.86 mg dm-3; triticale cultivars were IAC 3, BR 4 and BR 53 and IAPAR 38 wheat crop was used for comparison. The wheat (IAPAR 38 crop presented the highest boron absorption level of all. Among triticale cultivars, the most responsive was IAC 53, presenting similar characteristics to wheat, followed by BR 4; these two crops are considered tolerant to higher boron rates in soil. Regarding to BR 53, no absorption effect was observed, and the cultivars was sensitive to boron toxicity. Absorption responses differed for each genotype. That makes it possible to choose and use the best-adapted plants to soils with different boron rates.

  12. Computational Evidence for the Smallest Boron Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Jie LIN; Dong Ju ZHANG; Cheng Bu LIU

    2006-01-01

    The structure of boron nanotubes (BNTs) was found not to be limited to hexagonal pyramidal structures. Based on density functional theory calculations we provided evidence for the smallest boron nanotube, a geometrical analog of the corresponding carbon nanotube. As shown by our calculations, the smallest BNT possesses highly structural, dynamical, and thermal stability, which should be interest for attempts at its synthesis.

  13. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  14. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  15. Behaviour of boron in Mandovi estuary (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Anand, S.P.

    the postmonsoon and removal upto 31.30% in the monsoon were observed. In the postmonsoon months, removal of boron to some extent was observed due to phytoplankton. The pH and dissolved oxygen showed a negative correlation with boron whereas chlorinity...

  16. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  17. Boron Carbides As Thermo-electric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews recent theoretical and experimental research on thermoelectric materials. Recent work with narrow-band semiconductors demonstrated possibility of relatively high thermoelectric energy-conversion efficiencies in materials withstanding high temperatures needed to attain such efficiencies. Among promising semiconductors are boron-rich borides, especially boron carbides.

  18. Lithium Polymer Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    formation of the galvanic cell , lithium foil approximately 150 µm thick and with an area of 0.785 cm2 was placed on top of the pressed electrolyte/cathode...pellet. The entire galvanic cell fabricated in this configuration was hermetically sealed and under pressure. A Tenney environmental chamber was

  19. XPS analysis of boron doped heterofullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, B.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muhr, H.J.; Nesper, R. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Boron heterofullerenes were generated through arc-evaporation of doped graphite rods in a helium atmosphere. According to mass spectrometric analysis only mono-substituted fullerenes like C{sub 59}B, C{sub 69}B and higher homologues together with a large fraction of higher undoped fullerenes were extracted and enriched when pyridine was used as the solvent. XPS analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of two boron species with significantly different binding energies. One peak was assigned to borid acid. The second one corresponds to boron in the fullerene cage, which is mainly C{sub 59}B, according to the mass spectrum. This boron is in a somewhat higher oxidation state than that of ordinary boron-carbon compounds. The reported synthesis and extraction procedure opens a viable route for production of macroscopic amounts of these compounds. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  20. Stabilization of boron carbide via silicon doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, J E; Bhakhri, V; Hao, R; Prior, T J; Scheler, T; Gregoryanz, E; Chhowalla, M; Giulani, F

    2015-01-14

    Boron carbide is one of the lightest and hardest ceramics, but its applications are limited by its poor stability against a partial phase separation into separate boron and carbon. Phase separation is observed under high non-hydrostatic stress (both static and dynamic), resulting in amorphization. The phase separation is thought to occur in just one of the many naturally occurring polytypes in the material, and this raises the possibility of doping the boron carbide to eliminate this polytype. In this work, we have synthesized boron carbide doped with silicon. We have conducted a series of characterizations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction) on pure and silicon-doped boron carbide following static compression to 50 GPa non-hydrostatic pressure. We find that the level of amorphization under static non-hydrostatic pressure is drastically reduced by the silicon doping.