WorldWideScience

Sample records for lipoprotein cholesterol level

  1. Effects of intensive atorvastatin and rosuvastatin treatment on apolipoprotein B-48 and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin at maximal doses are both highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Rosuvastatin has been shown to be more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL-C, small dense LDL-C and in raising high-density lipoprote...

  2. Comparison of different statin therapy to change low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in Korean patients with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Ah Reum; Song, Young Shin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to apply the proper intensity of statin for new treatment guidelines in clinical settings because of few data about the statin efficacy in Asians. We conducted a retrospective, observational study to estimate the percentage changes in lipid parameters and glucose induced by different statins. We analyzed 3854 patients including those with nondiabetes and diabetes treated at the outpatient clinic between 2003 and 2013 who were statin-naïve and maintained fixed-dose of statin for at least 18 months. Moderate- and low-intensity statin therapy was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to statin group. The effects of statins in elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar in each statin groups, except the ezetimibe-simvastatin group (4.5 ± 2.1%) and high-dose atorvastatin groups (9.7 ± 3.3% and 8.7 ± 2.4% for 40 mg and 80 mg of atorvastatin/day, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased less and LDL-C decreased more in diabetes than in nondiabetes. There were no significant changes of fasting glucose after statin use in nondiabetic patients. Moderate- or low-intensity statin was effective enough in reaching National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III LDL-C target goals in Koreans. Low-intensity statin showed around 30% LDL-C reduction from the baseline level in Koreans, which is comparable to moderate-intensity statin in new guideline. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  4. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  5. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes.

  6. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  7. A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader - Rahnama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players.
    • METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser.
    • RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001, whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl. Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl between before and after the match.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid

    • Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lyons, Jasmine G; O'Dea, Kerin; Walker, Karen Z

      2014-06-02

      Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia's Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes prevalence and inflammatory markers suggest a particularly adverse CVD risk factor profile. An absence of sex dichotomy in HDL-C levels warrants further investigation.

    • Impact of Hypertriglyceridemia on Carotid Stenosis Progression under Normal Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kitagami, Masayuki; Yasuda, Ryuta; Toma, Naoki; Shiba, Masato; Nampei, Mai; Yamamoto, Yoko; Nakatsuka, Yoshinari; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hidenori

      2017-08-01

      Dyslipidemia is a well-known risk factor for carotid stenosis progression, but triglycerides have attracted little attention. The aim of this study was to assess if serum triglycerides affect progression of carotid stenosis in patients with well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This is a retrospective study in a single hospital consisting of 71 Japanese patients with internal carotid artery stenosis greater than or equal to 50% and normal serum LDL-C levels who underwent angiographic examination with or without the resultant carotid artery stenting or endarterectomy from 2007 to 2011, and were subsequently followed up for 4 years. Clinical factors including fasting serum triglyceride values were compared between the progression (≥10% increase in degree of carotid stenosis on ultrasonography) and the nonprogression groups. During 4 years, 15 patients (21.1%) had carotid stenosis progression on either side. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that symptomatic cases (hazard ratio [HR], 4.327; P = .019), coexisting intracranial arteriosclerotic stenosis (HR, 5.341; P = .005), and hypertriglyceridemia (HR, 6.228; P = .011) were associated with subsequent progression of carotid stenosis. Kaplan-Meier plots demonstrated that the progression-free survival rate was significantly higher in patients without hypertriglyceridemia and intracranial arteriosclerotic stenosis at baseline. Among patients with moderate to severe carotid stenosis and well-controlled LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia was an important risk factor for progression of carotid stenosis irrespective of surgical treatments. It would be worthwhile to test if triglyceride-lowering medications suppress carotid stenosis progression. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard

      2011-06-01

      Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05). The mean triglyceride and total body weight were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the exposed group when compared with the unexposed. The plasma level of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

    • High blood cholesterol levels

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

    • Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and pulmonary function in healthy Korean adolescents: the JS high school study.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Park, Ji Hye; Mun, Seyeon; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

      2017-12-11

      Accumulating evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with pulmonary function and pulmonary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function in healthy adolescents. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected for the JS High School study. The analysis included 644 adolescents (318 male and 326 female) aged 15-16 years old and free from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fasting blood samples were collected for hematologic and biochemical assessment. Forced vital capacity volume (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the 1 s (FEV1) were measured using dry-rolling-seal spirometry. The associations between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Among male adolescents, an increase of 1.0 mg/dL in HDL cholesterol was associated with 10 mL decrease in FVC (p = 0.013) and FEV1 (p = 0.013) after adjusting for age, height, weight, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and monthly household income. Percent predicted values of FVC (p = 0.036) and FEV1 (p = 0.017) were also inversely associated with HDL cholesterol. However, among female adolescents, HDL cholesterol level was not significantly associated with absolute or percent predictive value of FVC and FEV1. Higher HDL cholesterol level may be associated with decreased pulmonary function among healthy male adolescents. The sex differences observed in the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function need further investigation.

    • Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serumic levels of lipids and lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed male rat

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M.H Khayat Nouri

      2008-11-01

      Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. High blood cholesterol affects the general health and increases the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. High levels of cholesterol in the diet increases LDL levels and decreases the activity of LDL receptors in the liver. Oxidation of vascular LDL lipoproteins increases the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have indicated that consumption of antioxidants decreases hypercholesterolemia. This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation on blood lipid levels in high cholesterol-fed rats. In this experimental study, three groups of male rats (n=10 for each group were used. The control group received basic diet and one of the other two groups received a diet containing one percent cholesterol and while the other received the same diet plus vitamin E supplement (2500 IU/kg in dry matter of the diet for one month. After determining the values of TC, LDL, VLDL, HDL and TG the results indicated that in rats fed with 1% cholesterol apart from HDL and VLDL the other lipids had increased significantly compared with the control group (p

    • A lipoprotein lipase mutation (Asn291Ser) is associated with reduced HDL cholesterol levels in premature atherosclerosis

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Reymer, P.W.A.; Gagné, S E; Groenemeyer, B E; Zhang, H; Forsyth, I; Jansen, H; Seidell, J C; Kromhout, D.; Lie, K E; Kastelein, J.J.

      1995-01-01

      A reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDC) is recognized as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We now show in approximately 1 in 20 males with proven atherosclerosis that an Asn291Ser mutation in the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene is associated with

    • Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

      Science.gov (United States)

      1987-04-01

      over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

    • Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C among children with steady-state sickle cell disease

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Seixas Magda O

      2010-08-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic subphenotype characterized by low HDL-C with hypertriglyceridemia and high VLDL-C in association with other biomarkers, including those related to inflammation. This represents an important step toward a more reliable clinical prognosis. Additional studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and the probably mechanisms involved in this complex network of markers and their role in SCD pathogenesis.

    • Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Link, Jenny C; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen

      2015-08-01

      The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the four core genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male-female gonadal sex and XX-XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male-female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male-female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared with a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with 2 X chromosomes compared with mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY, and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of 2 X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. We demonstrate that having 2 X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

    • Cholesterol synthesis by human fetal hepatocytes: effect of lipoproteins

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Carr, B.R.; Simpson, E.R.

      1984-01-01

      The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effect of various lipoproteins on the rate of cholesterol synthesis of human fetal liver cells maintained in culture. This was accomplished by measuring the rate of incorporation of tritium from tritiated water or carbon 14-labeled acetate into cholesterol in human fetal liver cells. Optimal conditions for each assay were determined. When human fetal liver cells were maintained in the presence of low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol synthesis was inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion. Intermediate--density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein also suppressed cholesterol synthesis in human fetal liver cells. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein stimulated cholesterol synthesis in human fetal liver cells. The results of the present as well as our previous investigations suggest that multiple interrelationships exist between fetal liver cholesterol synthesis and lipoprotein-cholesterol utilization by the human fetal adrenal gland and that these processes serve to regulate the lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in fetal plasma

    • EFFECT OF THE LEVEL AND TYPE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE METABOLISM OF CHOLESTEROL AND BETA LIPOPROTEINS IN THE CEBUS MONKEY

      Science.gov (United States)

      Portman, Oscar W.; Hegsted, D. Mark; Stare, Fredrick J.; Bruno, Dorothy; Murphy, Robert; Sinisterra, Leonardo

      1956-01-01

      A study was carried out to determine the effect of the level and type of dietary fat on the concentration of cholesterol and beta lipoproteins in the sera of Cebus monkeys. Three groups of monkeys were fed isocaloric diets containing a fixed ratio of alpha protein and cholesterol to calories but with different amounts of corn oil and sucrose. Corn oil provided 10, 32, and 45 per cent of the calories in the three diets, and the level of sucrose was varied inversely. After 8 weeks the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoprotein concentrations were significantly greater in the medium and high fat groups. When corn oil was decreased from 45 to 10 per cent of dietary calories and sucrose was increased, the serum cholesterol fell in all cases, and when the reverse change was made, the concentration of serum cholesterol increased. Variation in dietary sucrose had no specific effect. Substitution of starch for sucrose with diets otherwise constant did not cause significant change in the concentration of serum cholesterol. When monkeys fed corn oil diets at any of three levels were changed to hydrogenated cottonseed oil diets at the same level, the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoproteins rose. However, hydrogenated cottonseed oil had no greater hypercholesteremic effect than did corn oil in the absence of dietary cholesterol. Diets containing lard with cholesterol also produced strikingly greater serum lipide responses than did diets based on corn oil and cholesterol. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil had a greater hypercholesteremic effect than an unhydrogenated cottonseed oil from the same lot. Preliminary studies indicated that the saturated fats (hydrogenated cottonseed oil) produced the most striking elevation of serum cholesterol values (above controls fed corn oil) when casein was the dietary protein. PMID:13376806

    • The levels of plasma low density lipoprotein are independent of cholesterol ester transfer protein in fish-oil fed F1B hamsters

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Davis Phillip J

      2005-03-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP plays a major role in regulating the levels of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol. We previously observed a fish-oil-induced elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol concentrations and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol concentration in F1B hamsters. The molecular mechanism/s by which fish oil induces hyperlipidaemic effect was investigated in this study. We examined whether the effects of dietary fish oil on plasma lipoprotein concentrations are due to fish-oil-induced alterations in plasma CETP activity. MIX diet, a diet supplemented with a mixture of lard and safflower oil, was used as the control diet. Results We found that fish oil feeding in hamsters reduced CETP mass as well as CETP activity. Increasing the dietary fat level of fish-oil from 5% to 20% (w/w led to a further decrease in CETP mass. Supplementation with dietary cholesterol increased both CETP mass and CETP activity in fish-oil and MIX-diet fed hamsters. However, there was no correlation between CETP mass as well as CETP activity and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that cholesterol ester transfer between HDL and LDL is not likely to play a major role in determining fish-oil-induced changes in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in F1B hamsters. A possible role of reduced clearance of LDL-particles as well as dietary fat level and dietary cholesterol dependent changes in LDL-lipid composition have been discussed.

  1. Hepatic S1P deficiency lowers plasma cholesterol levels in apoB-containing lipoproteins when LDLR function is compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debapriya; Huq, Afroza; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Jin, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    Site-1 protease (S1P) is the key enzyme required for activation of the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) that govern lipid synthesis. While S1P has been speculated to influence plasma apoB-containing lipoprotein (Blp) metabolism, there has been little investigative work. LDL receptor (LDLR) is the major receptor for clearing plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-c). Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) modulates LDL-c through post-translational degradation of the LDLR. A hepatic-specific knockdown (KD) of S1P was achieved using floxed S1P mouse models (S1P(f/f) and LDLR(-/-)S1P(f/f)) and hepatic expression of Cre recombinase. Lipids were measured in total plasma and size fractionated plasma using colorimetric assays. Realtime polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA were used to determine hepatic expression of key genes/protein. Plasmid mediated overexpression and siRNA mediated knockdown of genes were performed in mouse primary hepatocytes to determine the mechanistic basis of PCSK9 gene regulation. A hepatic-specific KD of S1P resulted in a 45 % and 38 % reduction in plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, respectively. Hepatic S1P KD had a minimal effect on plasma Blp cholesterol (Blp-c) in S1P(f/f) mice, despite significantly reducing VLDL secretion. Notably, hepatic S1P KD decreased the LDL receptor (LDLR) mRNA expression by 50 %. However, the reduction in LDLR protein levels was less than that of mRNA expression, especially under fed conditions. Further assessment of hepatic S1P deficiency revealed that it increased LDLR protein stability in vivo. Mechanistically, hepatic S1P KD was shown to decrease the liver and plasma levels of the protein proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which degrades LDLR protein. This effect was more prominent in the fed condition and sufficient to account for the discordance in LDLR mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic S1P was shown to regulate PCSK9

  2. Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas-Ramos D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas-Ramos,1 Paloma Almeda-Valdés,1 Emma Chávez-Manzanera,1 Clara Elena Meza-Arana,2 Griselda Brito-Córdova,1 Roopa Mehta,1 Oscar Pérez-Méndez,3 Francisco J Gómez-Pérez1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P > 0.0001. Conclusion: Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. Keywords: lycopene, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight, cardiovascular diseases

  3. Mutations in the gene for lipoprotein lipase. A cause for low HDL cholesterol levels in individuals heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimstone, S. N.; Gagné, S. E.; Gagné, C.; Lupien, P. J.; Gaudet, D.; Williams, R. R.; Kotze, M.; Reymer, P. W.; Defesche, J. C.; Kastelein, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by elevated plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol resulting from mutations in the gene for the LDL receptor. Low HDL cholesterol levels are seen frequently in patients both heterozygous and homozygous for mutations in this gene. Suggested

  4. Sevelamer does not decrease lipopolysaccharide or soluble CD14 levels but decreases soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in individuals with untreated HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Netanya G; Zhang, Xinyan; Bosch, Ronald J; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Choi, Andrew I; Robinson, Janet K; Fine, Derek M; Coombs, Robert W; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Landay, Alan L; Douek, Daniel C; Tressler, Randall; Read, Sarah W; Wilson, Cara C; Deeks, Steven G; Lederman, Michael M; Gandhi, Rajesh T

    2014-11-15

    Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits. NCT 01543958. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...

  6. Importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia: A 2-year survey of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Araki, Atsushi; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Takemoto, Minoru; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Noto, Hiroshi; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Ze-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Nomura, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia are not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between lipid levels and IHD and CVA in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4014 type 2 diabetic patients (1936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years). The primary end-points were the onset of IHD or CVA. Lipid and glucose levels, and other factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of IHD or CVA. A total of 462 participants were included in the group of patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. The 462 diabetic participants with type IIb dyslipidemia were divided into those who were aged 75 years (n=168, 190 and 104, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C were significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged <75 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  8. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Relates to Working Memory, Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall in Brazilian Older Adults: The Role of Cognitive Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. A critically low HDL-C level (cued recall. Moderation analyses suggested that the relations of the HDL-C level to working memory and delayed cued recall were negligible in individuals with longer education, a higher cognitive level of the job, and greater engagement in cognitive leisure activity. Cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course may reduce the detrimental influences of a critically low HDL-C level on cognitive functioning in old age. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Alterations of serum cholesterol and serum lipoprotein in breast cancer of women

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.

    2005-01-01

    Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...

  10. Physical activity, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids levels, in men and women from the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Ioanna

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has long been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. In this work we evaluated the effect of physical activity on lipid levels, in a sample of cardiovascular disease free people. Methods The ATTICA study is a population – based cohort that has randomly enrolled 2772 individuals, stratified by age – gender (according to the census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, during 2001–2002. Of them, 1376 were men (45 ± 12 years old, range: 18 – 86 and 1396 women (45 ± 13 years old, range: 18 – 88. We assessed the relationship between physical activity status (measured in kcal/min expended per day and several lipids, after taking into account the effect of several characteristics of the participants. Results 578 (42% men and 584 (40% women were classified as physically active. Compared to sedentary physically active women had significantly lower levels of total serum cholesterol (p Conclusions Substantial independent increases in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations were observed in women, but not in men, in a Mediterranean cohort.

  11. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M.; Brown, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lipoprotein hydrolysis products were produced by lipoprotein lipase. • Hydrolysis products lowers expression of macrophage cholesterol transporters. • Hydrolysis products reduces expression of select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products lowers cholesterol transporters and select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophages. - Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL

  12. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M.; Brown, Robert J., E-mail: rbrown@mun.ca

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Lipoprotein hydrolysis products were produced by lipoprotein lipase. • Hydrolysis products lowers expression of macrophage cholesterol transporters. • Hydrolysis products reduces expression of select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products lowers cholesterol transporters and select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophages. - Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL.

  13. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  14. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M; Brown, Robert J

    2014-09-05

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rethinking reverse cholesterol transport and dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Rosales, Corina; Xu, Bingqing; Gotto, Antonio M; Pownall, Henry J

    2018-04-12

    Human plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations are a negative risk factor for atherosclerosis-linked cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological attempts to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have been disappointing so that recent research has shifted from HDL quantity to HDL quality, that is, functional vs dysfunctional HDL. HDL has varying degrees of dysfunction reflected in impaired reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In the context of atheroprotection, RCT occurs by 2 mechanisms: one is the well-known trans-hepatic pathway comprising macrophage free cholesterol (FC) efflux, which produces early forms of FC-rich nascent HDL (nHDL). Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase converts HDL-FC to HDL-cholesteryl ester while converting nHDL from a disc to a mature spherical HDL, which transfers its cholesteryl ester to the hepatic HDL receptor, scavenger receptor B1 for uptake, conversion to bile salts, or transfer to the intestine for excretion. Although widely cited, current evidence suggests that this is a minor pathway and that most HDL-FC and nHDL-FC rapidly transfer directly to the liver independent of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. A small fraction of plasma HDL-FC enters the trans-intestinal efflux pathway comprising direct FC transfer to the intestine. SR-B1 -/- mice, which have impaired trans-hepatic FC transport, are characterized by high plasma levels of a dysfunctional FC-rich HDL that increases plasma FC bioavailability in a way that produces whole-body hypercholesterolemia and multiple pathologies. The design of future therapeutic strategies to improve RCT will have to be formulated in the context of these dual RCT mechanisms and the role of FC bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene are associated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and not with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Young Min; Moon, Min Kyong; Choi, Hye Hun; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Seong Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Kyong Soo

    2006-11-01

    Ghrelin is known to play a role in glucose metabolism and in beta-cell function. There are controversies regarding the role of ghrelin polymorphisms in diabetes and diabetes-related phenotypes. The objective of this study was to examine polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene in a Korean cohort and investigate associations between them and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and its related phenotypes. The ghrelin gene was sequenced to identify polymorphisms in 24 DNA samples. Common variants were then genotyped in 760 type 2 diabetic patients and 641 nondiabetic subjects. Genetic associations with diabetes-related phenotypes were also analyzed. Nine polymorphisms were identified, and four common polymorphisms [g.-1500C>G, g.-1062G > C, g.-994C > T, g.+408C > A (Leu72Met)] were genotyped in a larger study. The genotype distributions of these four common polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes patients were similar to those of normal nondiabetic controls. However, these four common polymorphisms were variably associated with several diabetes-related phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. In particular, subjects harboring g.-1062C were associated with a lower serum HDL cholesterol level after adjusting for other variables (P = 0.0004 or 0.01 after Bonferroni correction for 24 tests). The aforementioned four common polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene were not found to be significantly associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Korean population. However, the common polymorphism g.-1062G > C in the promoter region of the ghrelin gene was found to be significantly associated with serum HDL cholesterol levels.

  17. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran Pillai, Raji; Wilson, Anand Babu; Premkumar, Nancy R.; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha

    2018-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10–20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015). Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05). Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047), whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004). Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:29444162

  18. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Ramachandran Pillai

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression (PPD is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10-20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015. Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05. Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047, whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004. Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms.

  19. A pooled analysis of the association of isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2017-07-01

    Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.

  20. Role of Hepatic Lipase and Endothelial Lipase in High-Density Lipoprotein-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) constitutes a key part of the atheroprotective properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although overexpression of EL decreases overall

  1. VARIABILITY IN LEVELS OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL IN PATIENTS WITH FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA DEPENDING ON AGE AND SEX AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THIS DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Korneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the ranges of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol depending on the age and gender of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC by an example of a sample of patients living in the Republic of Karelia.Material and methods. Parameters of lipid spectrum of 219 patients (aged 52.5±1.7 years; males 38.3% with heterozygous FHC were studied before the start of statin therapy. Definite FHC was diagnosed in 102 patients. Lipid profile was estimated by enzymatic calorimetric method. The diagnosis of FHC was established according to the criteria of The Dutch Lipid Clinic Network.  Genetic analysis was performed in 102 patients (46.6%; pathogenic mutation in the LDL receptor was identified in 21 patients. The control group consisted of 539 people with the excluded diagnosis of FHC (aged 46.8±0.8 years; males 53.8%.Results. We determined the level of LDL cholesterol (LDLC associated with increased frequency of mutations of the LDL receptor in patients with definite FHC; mutation frequency was 3 times higher when LDLC level was more than 6.5 mmol/L. We revealed the following characteristic intervals of the LDLC levels in patients with a definite FHC: up to 20 years old – 4.8-6.2 mmol/l; in patients of 20-29 years old – 5.9-8.2 mmol/l; in the age range of 30-39 years the upper value of the LDLC levels reached 9.6 mmol/l; in individuals of 40-49 years old a stabilization, "plateau", was observed – LDLC level did not differ significantly compared to the previous decade, and was 5.4-9.0 mmol/l. In the age range  of 50-59 years the upper LDLC level was up to 11.4 mmol/l. Similar indicators were identified in patients aged 60-69 years. Patients older than 70 years with a definite FHC an upper level of LDLC was higher and reached 12.5 mmol/l. Tendency to increase in the characteristic values of LDLC with age was observed both in men and in women. Specific age-related trends  for men (an increase from a plateau by the age of 50

  2. HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barter, Philip; Gotto, Antonio M.; LaRosa, John C.; Maroni, Jaman; Szarek, Michael; Grundy, Scott M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Bittner, Vera; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear whether this association is maintained at very low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of the recently

  3. Monitoring of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is predictive of EGFR mutation and efficacy of EGFR-TKI in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yang Lv,1,2 Li-Yun Miao,2 Qiu-Fang Chen,1 Yan Li,2 Zhi-Xiang Shi,1 Xuan-Sheng Ding1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 2Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Respiration, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical College, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C has an inverse association with the incidence of lung cancer. However, whether it can be used as a predictive factor in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI still remains undefined. This research aimed at studying the relationship of serum HDL-C baseline level and HDL-C kinetics to EGFR mutation, the efficacy of EGFR-TKI, and the predictive value of PFS. The presence of mutation rate in the 192 patients with lung adenocarcinoma was compared within stratified groups. Levels of baseline HDL-C and kinetics of HDL-C were analyzed retrospectively in patients treated with EGFR-TKI harboring EGFR mutation. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic value of HDL-C. EGFR mutation rate of HDL-C high-level group was significantly higher than that of low-level group (59.0% vs 35.6%, P=0.001. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that high-level HDL-C was an independent predictive factor for EGFR gene mutation (P=0.005; odds ratio =0.417; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.227–0.768. Patients with a low level of HDL-C before therapy showed a progression of disease in most cases (P<0.001. According to HDL-C kinetics, patients who received EGFR-TKI treatment harboring EGFR mutation were divided into four groups. Univariate analysis showed that patients in nondecreased group had longer progression-free survival (P<0.001; hazard ratio =0.003; 95% CI, 0.001–0.018. Multivariate

  4. Achieving secondary prevention low-density lipoprotein particle concentration goals using lipoprotein cholesterol-based data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Mathews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C ≥ 40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3. METHODS: We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients. RESULTS: TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10(-6. The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150 was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10(-5. However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150 was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10(-5 with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively. LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094 and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47 alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets. CONCLUSIONS: A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical

  5. Transport of cholesterol autoxidation products in rabbit lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shi-Kaung; Phillips, G.A.; Xia, Guang-Zhi; Morin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled pure [4- 14 C] cholesterol was kept at 60 0 C under air to autoxidize for 5 weeks, after which approximately 12% cholesterol oxidation products were formed. The mixture, suspended in gelatin, was given to rabbits by gastric gavage. Rabbits were killed 4, 24 and 48 h after treatment. Cholesterol and its autoxidation products were separated by thin-layer chromatography into 5 fractions and radioactivities of each fraction were measured. Percentages of each fraction of cholesterol oxidation products and cholesterol in the original mixture before administration and in the rabbit sera after administration were similar, suggesting that the rates of absorption of cholesterol oxidation products are not significantly different from that of cholesterol. Lipoproteins were fractioned by ultracentrifugation into VLDL, LDL and HDL. Radioactivities of each fraction in lipoproteins separated by thin layer chromatography showed that fractions containing cholestane-3β, 5α, 6β-triol, 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were more selectively transported in VLDL, whereas most of the 25-hydroxycholesterol was present in LDL. HDL contained only minute amounts of cholesterol oxidation products. 22 refs

  6. Remnant cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure as mediators from obesity to ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-02-13

    Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk because of obesity is mediated through lipoproteins, blood pressure, glucose, and C-reactive protein. Approximately 90 000 participants from Copenhagen were included in a Mendelian randomization design with mediation analyses. Associations were examined using conventional measurements of body mass index and intermediate variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood pressure, and possibly also through elevated nonfasting glucose levels; however, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated C-reactive protein levels were not mediators in genetic analyses. The 3 intermediate variables that explained the highest excess risk of IHD from genetically determined obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. The increased IHD risk because of obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and through elevated blood pressure. Our results suggest that there may be benefit to gain by reducing levels of these risk factors in obese individuals not able to achieve sustained weight loss. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in lipoproteins levels in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are well.known, but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL.c) on ...

  8. Remnant Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Blood Pressure as Mediators From Obesity to Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk because of obesity is mediated through...... variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood...... obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The increased IHD risk because...

  9. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density

  10. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop...

  11. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  12. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic...

  13. Cholesterol transfer from normal and atherogenic low density lipoproteins to Mycoplasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitschelen, J.J.; St Clair, R.W.; Hester, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the free cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein from cholesterol-fed nonhuman primates has a greater potential for surface transfer to cell membranes than does the free cholesterol of normal low density lipoprotein. The low density lipoproteins were isolated from normal and hypercholesterolemic rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, incubated with membranes from Acholeplasma laidlawii, a mycoplasma species devoid of cholesterol in its membranes, and the mass transfer of free cholesterol determined by measuring membrane cholesterol content. Since these membranes neither synthesize nor esterify cholesterol, nor degrade the protein or cholesterol ester moieties of low density lipoprotein, they are an ideal model with which to study differences in the cholesterol transfer potential of low density lipoprotein independent of the uptake of the intact low density lipoprotein particle. These studies indicate that, even though there are marked differences in the cholesterol composition of normal and hypercholesterolemic low density lipoproteins, this does not result in a greater chemical potential for surface transfer of free cholesterol. Consequently, if a difference in the surface transfer of free cholesterol is responsible for the enhanced ability of hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein to promote cellular cholesterol accumulation and, perhaps, also atherosclerosis, it must be the result of differences in the interaction to the hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein with the more complicated mammalian cell membranes, rather than differences in the chemical potential for cholesterol transfer

  14. Genetic analysis of long-lived families reveals novel variants influencing high density-lipoprotein cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feitosa, Mary F; Wojczynski, Mary K; Straka, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) have an inverse relationship to the risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and have also been associated with longevity. We sought to identify novel loci for HDL that could potentially provide new insights...

  15. Effect of apolipoprotein E-free high density lipoproteins on cholesterol metabolism in cultured pig hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachorik, P.S.; Virgil, D.G.; Kwiterovich, P.O. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    We studied cholesterol synthesis from [ 14 C]acetate, cholesterol esterification from [ 14 C]oleate, and cellular cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels after incubating cells with apoE-free high density lipoproteins (HDL) or low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL suppressed synthesis by up to 60%, stimulated esterification by up to 280%, and increased cell cholesteryl ester content about 4-fold. Esterification increased within 2 h, but synthesis was not suppressed until after 6 h. ApoE-free HDL suppressed esterification by about 50% within 2 h. Cholesterol synthesis was changed very little within 6 h, unless esterification was maximally suppressed; synthesis was then stimulated about 4-fold. HDL lowered cellular unesterified cholesterol by 13-20% within 2 h and promoted the removal of newly synthesized cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. These changes were transient; by 24 h, both esterification and cellular unesterified cholesterol returned to control levels, and cholesteryl esters increased 2-3-fold. HDL core lipid was taken up selectively from 125 I-labeled [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester- and ether-labeled HDL. LDL core lipid uptake was proportional to LDL apoprotein uptake. The findings suggest that 1) the cells respond initially to HDL or LDL with changes in esterification, and 2) HDL mediates both the removal of free cholesterol from the cell and the delivery of HDL cholesteryl esters to the cell

  16. Comparison of soymilk and probiotic soymilk effects on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Babashahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soy milk (SM and its fermented products are identified as rich sources of bioactive compounds helping to manage and to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This study aimed to compare the effects of SM and probiotic SM (PSM consumption on serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in diabetic Wistar rats. METHODS: Probiotic SM was prepared by fermentation of the plain SM with a native strain of Lactobacillus plantarum. 20 streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic Wistar rats were divided into two groups based on the type of administered SM (SM group and PSM group. The animals were fed with 1 ml/day of either soy or PSM for 21 days. The serum lipoprotein levels were analyzed at baseline and the end of the intervention period. RESULTS: HDL-C increased significantly in PSM group. Furthermore, this group showed more percent of change in increased HDL-C in compression with SM group (P < 0.050. Regarding LDL-C level, rats fed with SM was not significantly different from the PSM group (P < 0.050; though, this biomarker was reduced in both group. CONCLUSION: Probiotic SM could modulate blood lipoprotein levels. Thus, it may be considered in managing diabetes complications and atherosclerotic risks. 

  17. Acrolein impairs the cholesterol transport functions of high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Holme, Rebecca L; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Silverstein, Roy L; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway.

  18. Should we change our lipid management strategies to focus on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rana, Jamal S.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering, patients continue to be at significant risk of cardiovascular events. Assessment of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) provides a measure of cholesterol contained in all atherogenic particles. In the

  19. Secondary prevention care and effect: Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug use in women and men after incident myocardial infarction - The Tromsø Study 1994-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopstock, Laila A; Eggen, Anne Elise; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Secondary prevention guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI) are gender neutral, but underutilisation of treatment in women has been reported. We investigated the change in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use after first-ever MI in a population-based study. We followed 10,005 participants (54% women) attending the Tromsø Study 1994-1995 and 8483 participants (55% women) attending the Tromsø Study 2007-2008 for first-ever MI up to their participation in 2007-2008 and 2015-2016, respectively. We used linear and logistic regression models to investigate sex differences in change in lipid levels. A total of 395 (MI cohort I) and 132 participants (MI cohort II) had a first-ever MI during 1994-2008 and 2007-2013, respectively. Mean change in total cholesterol was -2.34 mmol/L (SD 1.15) in MI cohort I, and in LDL cholesterol was -1.63 mmol/L (SD 1.12) in MI cohort II. Men had a larger decrease in lipid levels compared to women: the linear regression coefficient for change was -0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.51 to -0.14) for total cholesterol and -0.21 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.04) for LDL cholesterol, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. Men had 73% higher odds (95% CI 1.15-2.61) of treatment target achievement compared to women, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. LLD use was reported in 85% of women and 92% of men in MI cohort I, and 80% in women and 89% in men in MI cohort II. Compared to men, women had significantly less decrease in lipid levels after MI, and a smaller proportion of women achieved the treatment target.

  20. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipoprotein ( LDL ) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein ( HDL ) cholesterol. LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup ... Teens How to Lower Cholesterol How to Lower Cholesterol with Diet LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol Nutrition Statins Triglycerides VLDL Cholesterol ...

  1. [A history and review of cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and their contribution to the understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of high density lipoprotein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Pablo; Schreier, Laura

    2014-01-01

    There is irrefutable evidence that statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in a magnitude proportional to the intensity of the decrease in cholesterol transport by the low density lipoproteins. Despite this great advance there is still a residual risk of cardiovascular events. For this reason, an increase in the levels of high density lipoprotein is considered in order to boost the main action of this lipoprotein, which is reverse cholesterol transport. Distinct classes of evidence (epidemiological, genetic, and pathophysiological) show that the inhibition and/or modulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein increases plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The main reason for presenting this review is to look at the physiology of cholesterol ester transfer protein, its interrelationship with high density lipoproteins, and to give an update on the development of different cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor/modulator molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between plasma cholesterol levels and cholesterol esterification in isolated human mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallongeville, J.; Davignon, J.; Lussier-Cacan, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the relationship between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and cholesterol esterification in freshly isolated human mononuclear cells from 27 normolipidemic and 32 hyperlipidemic individuals. Cells were either incubated for 5 hours with radiolabeled oleate immediately after isolation or were preincubated for 18 hours in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, and then incubated with [ 14 C]sodium-oleate-albumin complex. In the absence of exogenous cholesterol, control and hypercholesterolemic subjects had similarly low values of intracellular cholesterol esterification. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, both hypertriglyceridemic and hypercholesterolemic subjects had higher cholesterol esterification than controls. There was a significant correlation between the rate of cholesterol esterification and plasma total cholesterol. These results suggest that plasma cholesterol levels may regulate mononuclear cell intra-cellular cholesterol esterification in humans

  3. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  4. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were assayed. ... Abiodun and Gwarzo: Association of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with haemolysis in sickle cell disease ... analyses were carried out to determine the correlation.

  5. Elevated Remnant Cholesterol Causes Both Low-Grade Inflammation and Ischemic Heart Disease, Whereas Elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Causes Ischemic Heart Disease Without Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown....

  6. On-treatment non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, and lipid ratios in relation to residual vascular risk after treatment with potent statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), tri...

  7. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... and restores high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- ... cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined .... However, we found a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.96,.

  8. α-Defensins Induce a Post-translational Modification of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) That Promotes Atherosclerosis at Normal Levels of Plasma Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Fanne, Rami; Maraga, Emad; Abd-Elrahman, Ihab; Hankin, Aviel; Blum, Galia; Abdeen, Suhair; Hijazi, Nuha; Cines, Douglas B; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2016-02-05

    Approximately one-half of the patients who develop clinical atherosclerosis have normal or only modest elevations in plasma lipids, indicating that additional mechanisms contribute to pathogenesis. In view of increasing evidence that inflammation contributes to atherogenesis, we studied the effect of human neutrophil α-defensins on low density lipoprotein (LDL) trafficking, metabolism, vascular deposition, and atherogenesis using transgenic mice expressing human α-defensins in their polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Def(+/+)). Accelerated Def(+/+) mice developed α-defensin·LDL complexes that accelerate the clearance of LDL from the circulation accompanied by enhanced vascular deposition and retention of LDL, induction of endothelial cathepsins, increased endothelial permeability to LDL, and the development of lipid streaks in the aortic roots when fed a regular diet and at normal plasma levels of LDL. Transplantation of bone marrow from Def(+/+) to WT mice increased LDL clearance, increased vascular permeability, and increased vascular deposition of LDL, whereas transplantation of WT bone marrow to Def(+/+) mice prevented these outcomes. The same outcome was obtained by treating Def(+/+) mice with colchicine to inhibit the release of α-defensins. These studies identify a potential new link between inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Current guidelines for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in therapy and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subedi BH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bishnu H Subedi,1,2 Parag H Joshi,1 Steven R Jones,1 Seth S Martin,1 Michael J Blaha,1 Erin D Michos1 1Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, 2Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, lipids, cholesterol, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, therapy

  10. Association between cholesterol plasma levels and craving among heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hsieh, Pei Chun; Chen, Po See; Lu, Ru-Band; Chen, Kao Chin

    2012-12-01

    Lipids may play some roles in the central nervous system functions that are associated with drug addiction. To date, cholesterol is known to influence relapse of cocaine use. However, the relationship between cholesterol and heroin craving is unclear. This study examined the concurrent association between cholesterol and craving. The serum lipid levels of 70 heroin users who were undergoing or had undergone a methadone maintenance therapy were measured. Their craving and demographic data were assessed. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are negatively associated with craving before (r = -0.33, P cognitive aspect of craving and may be a potential marker to predict risk of drug relapse.

  11. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is strong risk factor for acquired color vision impairment in young to middle-aged Japanese men: the Okubo Color Study Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takuhei; Sakurai, Yutaka; Sato, Hiroki; Chihara, Etsuo; Ishida, Masahiro; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2010-06-01

    To investigate associations between blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the prevalence of acquired color vision impairment (ACVI) in middle-aged Japanese men. Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent color vision testing, ophthalmic examination, a standardized interview and examination of venous blood samples. Ishihara plates, a Lanthony 15-hue desaturated panel, and Standard pseudoisochromatic Plates part 2 were used to examine color vision ability. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test was performed to define ACVI. Smoking status and alcohol intake were recorded during the interview. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, LDL-C level, systemic hypertension, diabetes, cataract, glaucoma, overweight, smoking status, and alcohol intake. Adjusted odds ratios for four LDL-C levels were calculated. A total of 1042 men were enrolled, 872 participants were eligible for the study, and 31 subjects were diagnosed with ACVI. As compared to the lowest LDL-C category level (or=160 mg/dl). The multiple-adjusted ORs were 2.91 (95% CI, 0.87-9.70) for the 2nd highest category and 3.81 (95% CI, 1.03-14.05) for the highest level. Tests for trend were significant (Pmen with elevated LDL-C levels. These changes might be related to deteriorated neurologic function associated with lipid metabolite abnormalities. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treating patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: choices, issues and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Gerald F

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three clinical trials have recently focused on the benefits of lipid-regulating therapy in populations with normocholesterolaemia and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol. Two secondary prevention studies (Veterans Affairs HDL-Cholesterol Intervention Trial [VA-HIT] and Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention [BIP] trial testified to the efficacy of fibrates in decreasing cardiovascular events, particularly in patients with coexisting risk factors, including hypertriglyceridaemia. The Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS demonstrated that a statin could decrease acute coronary events in patients with isolated low HDL-cholesterol in a primary prevention setting. The absolute risk reduction in coronary events in the VA-HIT study compares favourably with those reported from the statin-based Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE and Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID trials. The absolute risk reduction in AFCAPS-TexCAPS is similar to that in West of Scotland Coronary Pravastatin Study (WOSCOPS. Recommendations are given concerning lifestyle and pharmacological management of low HDL-cholesterol. Optimal management also requires review of current treatment targets for HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels.

  13. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples (serum were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser, supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in all the subjects were < 200 mg/dL; only one subject (1.89% had TC < 200 mg/dL; nine subjects (17.0% had HDL-C ≤ 35 mg/dL; for LDL-C only one subject (1.89% had a desirable level of < 130 mg/dL; for VLDL-C 29 subjects (54.7% had values 17.2 mg/dL and above. For therapeutic decision-making, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, were calculated. In TC/HDL-C, three subjects (5.66% had values < 4.4 and in LDL-C/HDL-C, 41 subjects (77.4% had values < 4.5. Hence, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and slightly LDL-C/HDL-C and VLDL-C in the subjects could lead to increase coronary heart diseases. Results were matched for the age and sex of subjects.

  14. Relationship between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and severe acute pancreatitis (“the lipid paradox”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong W

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wandong Hong,1,* Vincent Zimmer,2,3,* Simon Stock,4,* Maddalena Zippi,5 Jones AQ Omoshoro-Jones,6 Mengtao Zhou71Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Medicine II, Saarland University Medical Center, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany; 3Department of Medicine, Marienhausklinik St Josef Kohlhof, Neunkirchen, Germany; 4Department of Surgery, World Mate Emergency Hospital, Battambang, Cambodia; 5Unit of Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Rome, Italy; 6Department of Surgery, Chris Hani-Baragwanath Academic Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 7Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground and aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP.Patients and methods: A total of 674 patients with acute pancreatitis were enrolled. Nonlinearity in the relationship between LDL-C and SAP was assessed by restricted cubic spline analysis. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors of SAP.Results: The restricted cubic spline analysis suggested a nonlinear association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride levels and incidence of SAP. The incidence of SAP in patients with low LDL-C (<90 mg/dL, moderate LDL-C (90–150 mg/dL and high LDL-C (>150 mg/dL levels was 15.1%, 3.7% and 9.8%, respectively. Multivariable analysis confirmed that low LDL-C levels (odds ratio [OR] 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35–6.90, high LDL-C levels (OR 4.42; 95% CI 1.41–13.87 and low HDL-C levels (OR 6.90; 95% CI 2.61–18.23 but

  15. Can non-cholesterol sterols and lipoprotein subclasses distribution predict different patterns of cholesterol metabolism and statin therapy response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkovic, Tamara; Vladimirov, Sandra; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Djuricic, Ivana; Sobajic, Sladjana; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2017-03-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis disorders may cause dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis progression and coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Evaluation of non-cholesterol sterols (NCSs) as synthesis and absorption markers, and lipoprotein particles quality may indicate the dyslipidemia early development. This study investigates associations of different cholesterol homeostasis patterns with low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in statin-treated and statin-untreated CAD patients, and potential use of aforementioned markers for CAD treatment optimization. The study included 78 CAD patients (47 statin-untreated and 31 statin-treated) and 31 controls (CG). NCSs concentrations were quantified using gas chromatography- flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Lipoprotein subclasses were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis. In patients, cholesterol-synthesis markers were significantly higher comparing to CG. Cholesterol-synthesis markers were inversely associated with LDL size in all groups. For cholesterol homeostasis estimation, each group was divided to good and/or poor synthetizers and/or absorbers according to desmosterol and β-sitosterol median values. In CG, participants with reduced cholesterol absorption, the relative proportion of small, dense LDL was higher in those with increased cholesterol synthesis compared to those with reduced synthesis (p<0.01). LDL I fraction was significantly higher in poor synthetizers/poor absorbers subgroup compared to poor synthetizers/good absorbers (p<0.01), and good synthetizers/poor absorbers (p<0.01). Statin-treated patients with increased cholesterol absorption had increased proportion of LDL IVB (p<0.05). The results suggest the existence of different lipoprotein abnormalities according to various patterns of cholesterol homeostasis. Desmosterol/β-sitosterol ratio could be used for estimating individual propensity toward dyslipidemia development and direct the future treatment.

  16. The Relationship between the Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Young-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Jung, Yo-Han; Kang, Hee-Cheol

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by insulin resistance. Recent studies suggest that the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDLC) ratio predicts insulin resistance better than individual lipid levels, including TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), or HDLC. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome in the general Korean population. We evaluated the data of adults ≥20 years old who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013 and 2014. Subjects with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the harmonized definition. We examined the odds ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome according to TG/HDLC ratio quartiles using logistic regression analysis (SAS ver. 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Weighted complex sample analysis was also conducted. We found a significant association between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome. The cutoff value of the TG/HDLC ratio for the fourth quartile was ≥3.52. After adjustment, the OR for metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile compared with that of the first quartile was 29.65 in men and 20.60 in women (Pmetabolic syndrome.

  17. Lipoprotein cholesterol uptake mediates upregulation of bile acid synthesis by increasing cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase but not sterol 27- hydroxylase gene expression in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, S.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van der Fits, L.T.E.; Wit, E.C.M.; Hoekman, M.F.M.; Mager, W.H.; Princen, H.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Lipoproteins may supply substrate for the formation of bile acids, and the amount of hepatic cholesterol can regulate bile-acid synthesis and increase cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase expression. However, the effect of lipoprotein cholesterol on sterol 27-hydroxylase expression and the role of different

  18. Changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypo- and hyperthyroid patients are related to changes in free thyroxine, not to polymorphisms in LDL receptor or cholesterol ester transfer protein genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Anghelescu, N.; Endert, E.; Bakker, O.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in lipoprotein metabolism. Both plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase in hypothyroidism and decrease in hyperthyroidism. Changes in LDL-C relate to altered clearance of LDL particles

  19. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL (bad) cholesterol and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to ...

  20. Effect of the Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii on Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Particles in Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Single-Arm, Open-Label Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer Joan; Hanes, Douglas Allen; Schafer, Morgan Beth; Mikolai, Jeremy; Zwickey, Heather

    2015-05-01

    Elevated blood cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Probiotics have been investigated as potential cholesterol-lowering therapies, but no previous studies have assessed the effect of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii on cholesterol levels in human volunteers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of S. boulardii on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein particles in hypercholesterolemic adults. This study was a single-arm, open-label pilot study. Twelve hypercholesterolemic participants were recruited into the study; one dropped out. Participants took 5.6×10(10) colony forming unit (CFU) encapsulated S. boulardii (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-1079) twice daily for an 8-week period. Fasting concentrations of cholesterol (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], and triglycerides), lipoprotein particles (very-low-density lipoprotein-particle [VLDL-P], remnant lipoprotein particle [RLP-P], total LDL-P, LDL III-P, LDL IV-P, total HDL-P, and HDL 2b-P), and additional cardiovascular biomarkers (apo B-100, lipoprotein [a], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, fibrinogen, and insulin) were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks. Remnant lipoprotein particles decreased by 15.5% (p=0.03) over the 8-week period. The remaining outcome measures were not significantly altered. In this pilot study, 8 weeks of daily supplementation with S. boulardii lowered remnant lipoprotein, a predictive biomarker and potential therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of coronary artery disease.

  1. Comparison of human plasma low- and high-density lipoproteins as substrates for lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, P J; Hopkins, G J; Gorjatschko, L

    1984-01-17

    A recent observation that lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.43) interacts with both low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in human plasma is in apparent conflict with an earlier finding that the purified enzyme, while highly reactive with isolated HDL, was only minimally reactive with LDL. There is evidence, however, that lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase may exist physiologically as a component of a complex with other proteins and that studies with the isolated enzyme may therefore provide misleading results. Consequently, interactions of the enzyme with isolated human lipoproteins have been re-examined in incubations containing lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase as a component of human lipoprotein-free plasma in which a physiologically active complex of the enzyme with other proteins may have been preserved. In this system there was a ready esterification of the free cholesterol associated with both LDL and HDL-subfraction 3 (HDL3) in reactions that obeyed typical enzyme-saturation kinetics. For a given preparation of lipoprotein-free plasma the Vmax values with LDL and with HDL3 were virtually identical. The apparent Km for free cholesterol associated with HDL3 was 5.6 X 10(-5) M, while for that associated with LDL it was 4.1 X 10(-4) M. This implied that, in terms of free cholesterol concentration, the affinity of HDL3 for lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase was about 7-times greater than that of LDL. When expressed in terms of lipoprotein particle concentration, however, it was apparent that the affinity of LDL for the enzyme was considerably greater than that of HDL3. When the lipoprotein fractions were equated in terms of lipoprotein surface area, the apparent affinities of the two fractions for the enzyme were found to be comparable.

  2. Transfer of plasma lipoprotein components and of plasma proteins into aortas of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Molecular size as a determinant of plasma lipoprotein influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stender, S.; Zilversmit, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The arterial influx of esterified and free cholesterol from low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins in 20 hypercholesterolemic rabbits was measured simultaneously by the use of lipoproteins labeled in vivo with [ 3 H]- and [ 14 C]-cholesterol. The simultaneous arterial influx of either [ 3 H]-leucine-labeled very low density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins, or plasma proteins was also measured in each rabbit. The arterial influx was calculated as intimal clearance, i.e., the influx of a given fraction divided by its plasma concentration. The intimal clearance of low density lipoprotein esterified cholesterol was equal to that for the apolipoproteins of that fraction, which is compatible with an arterial influx of intact low density lipoprotein molecules. The intimal clearance of very low density apolipoprotein or cholesteryl ester was less than that for low density lipoprotein, whereas high density lipoprotein and albumin clearances exceeded low density lipoprotein clearance by 1.5- to 3-fold. The intimal clearances of plasma proteins, high density, low density, and very low density lipoproteins decreased linearly with the logarithm of the macromolecular diameter. This indicates that the arterial influx of three plasma lipoprotein fractions and of plasma proteins proceeds by similar mechanisms. Apparently the relative intimal clearances of lipoproteins are more dependent on their size relative to pores or vesicular diameters at the plasma-artery interface than on specific interactions between lipoproteins and the arterial intimal surface

  3. Prevalence of Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Among Adults, by Physical Activity: United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa L; Akinbami, Lara J; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Fryar, Chryl D

    2017-03-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •The prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly higher among adults who did not meet recommended physical activity guidelines (21.0%) than adults who met the guidelines (17.7%). •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence differed significantly for both men and women by adherence to physical activity guidelines. •Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol declined as age increased for both those who did and did not meet the physical activity guidelines. •Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults who did not meet the physical activity guidelines had a higher prevalence than those who met the guidelines. •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence declined with increasing education level regardless of adherence to physical activity guidelines. Regular physical activity can improve cholesterol levels among adults, including increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (1). HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because high levels can reduce cardiovascular disease risk (2). The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend that adults engage in 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination (3). Adherence to these guidelines is expected to decrease the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol levels (4-8). This report presents national data for 2011-2014 on low HDL cholesterol prevalence among U.S. adults aged 20 and over, by whether they met these guidelines. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  4. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    AND RESULTS: The SPARCL trial randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and no known coronary heart disease and LDL-C between 100 and 190 mg/dL to either atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Baseline assessment included SBP, DBP and measurements of low-density lipoprotein...... associated with MCVE. Atorvastatin treatment was similarly effective regardless of baseline lipoprotein levels....

  5. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. Four prospective American studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D J; Probstfield, J L; Garrison, R J; Neaton, J D; Castelli, W P; Knoke, J D; Jacobs, D R; Bangdiwala, S; Tyroler, H A

    1989-01-01

    The British Regional Heart Study (BRHS) reported in 1986 that much of the inverse relation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and incidence of coronary heart disease was eliminated by covariance adjustment. Using the proportional hazards model and adjusting for age, blood pressure, smoking, body mass index, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we analyzed this relation separately in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Mortality Follow-up Study (LRCF) and Coronary Primary Prevention Trial (CPPT), and Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). In CPPT and MRFIT (both randomized trials in middle-age high-risk men), only the control groups were analyzed. A 1-mg/dl (0.026 mM) increment in HDLC was associated with a significant coronary heart disease risk decrement of 2% in men (FHS, CPPT, and MRFIT) and 3% in women (FHS). In LRCF, where only fatal outcomes were documented, a 1-mg/dl increment in HDLC was associated with significant 3.7% (men) and 4.7% (women) decrements in cardiovascular disease mortality rates. The 95% confidence intervals for these decrements in coronary heart and cardiovascular disease risk in the four studies overlapped considerably, and all contained the range 1.9-2.9%. HDLC levels were essentially unrelated to non-cardiovascular disease mortality. When differences in analytic methodology were eliminated, a consistent inverse relation of HDLC levels and coronary heart disease event rates was apparent in BRHS as well as in the four American studies.

  6. Significant Relationship Between Serum High-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels and Children With Kawasaki Disease and Coronary Artery Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yen Ou

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: Our results support the possibility of ongoing low-grade inflammation late after the acute phase of KD in children with coronary aneurysms. Serum hs-CRP and HDL-C levels are associated with coronary artery lesions in children with KD.

  7. Drugs targeting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for coronary artery disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Pamela M; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Many patients remain at high risk for future cardiovascular events despite levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at, or below, target while taking statin therapy. Much effort is therefore being focused on strategies to reduce this residual risk. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a strong, independent, inverse predictor of coronary heart disease risk and is therefore an attractive therapeutic target. Currently available agents that raise HDL-C have only modest effects and there is limited evidence of additional cardiovascular risk reduction on top of background statin therapy associated with their use. It was hoped that the use of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors would provide additional benefit, but the results of clinical outcome studies to date have been disappointing. The results of ongoing trials with other CETP inhibitors that raise HDL-C to a greater degree and also lower LDL-C, as well as with other emerging therapies are awaited. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intracellular transport of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is defective in Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscum, L.; Ruggiero, R.M.; Faust, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is characterized by substantial intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol. The accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in NPC fibroblasts cultured with low density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to result from the inability of LDL to stimulate cholesterol esterification in addition to impaired LDL-mediated downregulation of LDL receptor activity and cellular cholesterol synthesis. Although a defect in cholesterol transport in NPC cells has been inferred from previous studies, no experiments have been reported that measure the intracellular movement of LDL-cholesterol specifically. We have used four approaches to assess intracellular cholesterol transport in normal and NPC cells and have determined the following: (a) mevinolin-inhibited NPC cells are defective in using LDL-cholesterol for growth. However, exogenously added mevalonate restores cell growth equally in normal and NPC cells; (b) the transport of LDL-derived [3H]cholesterol to the plasma membrane is slower in NPC cells, while the rate of appearance of [3H]acetate-derived, endogenously synthesized [3H]cholesterol at the plasma membrane is the same for normal and NPC cells; (c) in NPC cells, LDL-derived [3H]cholesterol accumulates in lysosomes to higher levels than normal, resulting in defective movement to other cell membranes; and (d) incubation of cells with LDL causes an increase in cholesterol content of NPC lysosomes that is threefold greater than that observed in normal lysosomes. Our results indicate that a cholesterol transport defect exists in NPC that is specific for LDL-derived cholesterol

  9. Plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in patients with homozygous autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjouke, Barbara; Yahya, Reyhana; Tanck, Michael W. T.; Defesche, Joep C.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Wiegman, Albert; Kastelein, John J. P.; Mulder, Monique T.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), caused by mutations in either low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) are characterized by high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and in some

  10. Plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in patients with homozygous autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjouke, B.; Yahya, R.; Tanck, M.W.T.; Defesche, J.C.; Graaf, J. de; Wiegman, A.; Kastelein, J.J.; Mulder, M.T.; Hovingh, G.K.; Roeters van Lennep, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), caused by mutations in either low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) are characterized by high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and

  11. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as Reproduction II ( b = -.0020, p = .026) and log of the Trail Making Test, Part B (b = .0001, p = .044). Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is associated with fracture risk in diabetes patients - a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starup-Linde, Jakob; Gregersen, Søren; Vestergaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    available for an analysis of patient characteristics, co-morbidities, biochemical parameters and drug usage. Results: Patient age at the time of diabetes diagnosis, a diagnosis of previous fracture, an alcohol related diagnosis, total cholesterol level, and the usage of antidepressants, antiepileptics...... and insulin all increased the odds of fracture. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels decreased the odds of fracture, where the level of 3.04-5.96 mmol/l was optimal with regard to fracture risk. Conclusion: LDL may add to the understanding of fractures in diabetes patients and it may be added...

  13. Early incorporation of cell-derived cholesterol into pre-beta-migrating high-density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.R.; Fielding, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cultures of human skin fibroblasts were labeled to high cholesterol specific activity with [ 3 H]cholesterol and incubated briefly (1-3 min) with normal human plasma. The plasma was fractionated by two-dimensional agarose-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the early appearance of cholesterol label among plasma lipoproteins determined. A major part of the label at 1-min incubation was in a pre-beta-migrating apo A-I lipoprotein fraction with a molecular weight of ca. 70,000. Label was enriched about 30-fold in this fraction relative to its content of apo A-I (1-2% of total apo A-I). The proportion of label in this lipoprotein was strongly correlated with its concentration in plasma. Further incubation (2 min) in the presence of unlabeled cells demonstrated transfer of label from this fraction to a higher molecular weight pre-beta apo A-I species, to low-density lipoprotein, and to the alpha-migrating apo A-I that made up the bulk (96%) of total apo A-I in plasma. The data suggest that a significant part of cell-derived cholesterol is transferred specifically to a pre-beta-migrating lipoprotein A-I species as part of a cholesterol transport transfer sequence in plasma

  14. Phospholipase A2-treated human high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol movements: exchange processes and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, F; Perret, B P; Chap, H; Douste-Blazy, L

    1986-02-12

    Human HDL3 (d 1.125-1.21 g/ml) were treated by an exogenous phospholipase A2 from Crotalus adamenteus in the presence of albumin. Phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis ranged between 30 and 90% and the reisolated particle was essentially devoid of lipolysis products. (1) An exchange of free cholesterol was recorded between radiolabelled erythrocytes at 5-10% haematocrit and HDL3 (0.6 mM total cholesterol) from 0 to 12-15 h. Isotopic equilibration was reached. Kinetic analysis of the data indicated a constant rate of free cholesterol exchange of 13.0 microM/h with a half-time of equilibration around 3 h. Very similar values of cholesterol exchange, specific radioactivities and kinetic parameters were measured when phospholipase-treated HDL replaced control HDL. (2) The lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity of HDL3, containing different amounts of phosphatidylcholine, as achieved by various degrees of phospholipase A2 treatment, was measured using a crude preparation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (the d 1.21-1.25 g/ml plasma fraction). The rate of esterification was determined between 0 and 12 h. Following a 15-30% lipolysis, the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity of HDL3 was reduced about 30-40%, and then continued to decrease, though more slowly, as the phospholipid content was further lowered in the particle. (3) The addition of the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase preparation into an incubation medium made of labelled erythrocytes and HDL3 promoted a movement of radioactive cholesterol out of cells, above the values of exchange, and an accumulation of cholesteryl esters in HDL. This reflected a mass consumption of free cholesterol, from both the cellular and the lipoprotein compartments upon the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase action. As a consequence of a decreased reactivity, phospholipase-treated HDL (with 2/3 of phosphatidylcholine hydrolyzed) proved much less effective in the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase

  15. Lipoprotein(a Serum Levels in Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Malaguarnera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atherogenic lipoproteins, such as total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and triglycerides, are associated with progression of retinopathy. Aim. To evaluate the relationship between lipoprotein(a and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 145 diabetic consecutive patients (82 females, 63 males; mean age 66.8±12 years, mean duration of diabetes 9.4±6.8 years. Presence and severity of retinopathy were evaluated. Serum lipid profile, including Lp(a level, was assessed. Results. High Lp(a levels have been observed in 54 (78.3% subjects and normal levels in 13 (18.85% subjects as regards diabetic patients with retinopathy. Lp(a levels were high in 15 subjects (21.75% and normal in 63 subjects (91.35% as regards patients without retinopathy. Conclusions. Lp(a levels are increased in a significant percentage of patients with retinopathy compared to diabetic patients without retinopathy. The impact of Lp(a levels on diabetic retinopathy needs to be further investigated.

  16. Role of low density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol esters in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, J.L.; Madden, E.A.; Melnykovych, G.

    1986-01-01

    The glucocorticoid sensitive CEM-C7 T-cell line was derived from human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by Norman and Thompson. Madden et al. have demonstrated that this growth inhibitory effect is due in part to a glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and can be partially reversed by cholesterol dispersions. To further delineate the role of cholesterol in this growth inhibition, they have examined the ability of low density lipoprotein (LDL)-bound [ 3 H]cholesterol linoleate to reverse the growth inhibitory effect of 1 μM dexamethasone (Dex) on the CEM-C7 cells. LDL-bound cholesterol linoleate was unable to reverse the Dex-mediated growth inhibition, although incorporation of [ 14 C] acetate into free cholesterol was inhibited by 29%, following the Brown and Goldstein model. The presence of Dex further inhibited acetate incorporation into free cholesterol in the LDL-treated cells. Under all conditions, more than 99% of the acetate incorporated into cholesterol was present as free cholesterol, while over 87% of the LDL-bound cholesterol linoleate taken up remained in the ester compartment. These results indicate that CEM-C7 cells are unable to utilize LDL-bound cholesterol esters as a source of free cholesterol and rely on endogenous synthesis for their free cholesterol requirements

  17. Novel association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children with high prevalence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Marco Alberto; Galindo-Gómez, Carlos; Juárez-Martínez, Liliana; Gómez, F Enrique; Diaz-Diaz, Eulises; Ávila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Ávila-Curiel, Abelardo

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disorder that includes a cluster of several risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene has been associated with low HDL-cholesterol in several studies, but its association with MetS in children remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the R230C variant with MetS and other metabolic traits in school-aged Mexican children. The study was performed in seven urban primary schools in the State of Mexico. Four hundred thirty-two Mexican school-age children 6-13 years old were recruited. MetS was identified using the International Diabetes Federation definition. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene was genotyped to seek associations with MetS and other metabolic traits. The prevalence of MetS was 29% in children aged 10-13 years. The R230C variant was not associated with MetS (OR = 1.65; p = 0.139). Furthermore, in the whole population, the R230C variant was associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels (β coefficient = -3.28, p <0.001). Interestingly, in the total population we found a novel association of this variant with high triglyceride levels (β coefficient = 14.34; p = 0.027). We found a new association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels. Our findings also replicate the association of this variant with low HDL-cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Robinson, John F; McIntyre, Adam D; Ban, Matthew R; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Hegele, Robert A

    2017-11-01

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Plasma cholesterol and related lipid levels of seemingly healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was achieved through analysis of fasting plasma samples for the following: Total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerols (TG), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and molar ratios of LDL/HDL, TC/ HDL, and TC/TG. Methods: One hundred and seventy four ...

  20. Impact of hormonal contraception and weight loss on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux and lipoprotein particles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokras, Anuja; Playford, Martin; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Williams, Nancy I; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C; Coutifaris, Christos; Mehta, Nehal; Legro, Richard S

    2017-05-01

    To study the effects of oral contraceptive pills (OCP), the first-line treatment for PCOS, on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) function (reverse cholesterol efflux capacity) and lipoprotein particles measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in obese women. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (OWL-PCOS) of OCP or Lifestyle (intensive Lifestyle modification) or Combined (OCP + Lifestyle) treatment groups for 16 weeks. Eighty-seven overweight/obese women with PCOS at two academic centres. Change in HDL-C efflux capacity and lipoprotein particles. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity increased significantly at 16 weeks in the OCP group [0·11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·03, 0·18, P = 0·008] but not in the Lifestyle (P = 0·39) or Combined group (P = 0·18). After adjusting for HDL-C and TG levels, there was significant mean change in efflux in the Combined group (0·09; 95% CI 0·01, 0·15; P = 0·01). Change in HDL-C efflux correlated inversely with change in serum testosterone (r s = -0·21; P = 0·05). In contrast, OCP use induced an atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) profile with increase in small (P = 0·006) and large LDL-particles (P = 0·002). Change in small LDL-particles correlated with change in serum testosterone (r s = -0·31, P = 0·009) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI; r s = -0·31, P = 0·02). Both Lifestyle and Combined groups did not show significant changes in the atherogenic LDL particles. Oral contraceptive pills use is associated with improved HDL-C function and a concomitant atherogenic LDL-C profile. Combination of a Lifestyle program with OCP use improved HDL-C function and mitigated adverse effects of OCP on lipoproteins. Our study provides evidence for use of OCP in overweight/obese women with PCOS when combined with Lifestyle changes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) metabolism and its role in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzado, Z.A.; Sngi, S.A.; Malik, R.

    1999-01-01

    Case control and prospective epidemiological studies have found a striking, consistently negative association between High Density Lipoprotein(HDL) levels and coronary vascular events. As a results, the genetic and environmental determinants of HDL levels are being studied intensively. These investigations and their potential clinical applications require a fundamental understanding of the structure, function and metabolism of HDL and its components. Of the special interest are the means by which it exerts its apparently protective effect. In this report we characterize the structure of HLD: and describe its compounds, particularly the protein component. We discuss HDL metabolism in light of the relationship of HDL to other lipoprotein classes and relate what little is known of the functions of HDL. We also review the biochemical mechanism by which HDL may protect against cardiovascular disease and discuss further biochemical research that will be necessary for a better understanding of HDL. Interest in HDL has been greatly intensified in recent years, stimulated largely by the finding that HDL is inversely related in HDL has been greatly intensified in recent years, stimulated largely by the finding that HDL is inversely related to coronary artery disease. Case-control and prospective observations of the striking, consistent and independent negative association between HDL levels and coronary vascular events have in turn generated new interest in the structure, composition and metabolism of these fascinating lipoproteins. Several studies carried out in Pakistan also reveal the inverse relation of HDL to IHD/sup 1,2/. This article contains a tremendous amount of information on HDL and its relationship to genetic and environmental factors which should be useful to investigations and clinicians in their evaluation and use of HDL cholesterol measurements to assess hearth disease risk. A knowledge of the structure, function and metabolism of HDL and its components is

  2. Effect of theobromine consumption on serum lipoprotein profiles in apparently healthy humans with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Doris M.; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; Roo, de Niels; Trautwein, Elke A.; Duynhoven, van John; Mensink, Ronald P.; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP)

  3. Genetics, Lifestyle, and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Young and Apparently Healthy Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, Jan-Willem; Rimbert, Antoine; Zhang, Xiang; Viel, Martijn; Kanninga, Roan; van Dijk, Freerk; Lansberg, Peter; Sinke, Richard; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis starts in childhood but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a causal risk factor, is mostly studied and dealt with when clinical events have occurred. Women are usually affected later in life than men and are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and understudied in

  4. Identifying low density lipoprotein cholesterol associated variants in the Annexin A2 (ANXA2) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairoozy, Roaa Hani; Cooper, Jackie; White, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Annexin-A2 (AnxA2) is an endogenous inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9). The repeat-one (R1) domain of AnxA2 binds to PCSK9, blocking its ability to promote degradation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-receptors (LDL-R) and thereby regulat...

  5. Lipoprotein(a Levels in Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu Cristina Corina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the serum levels of Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] in subjects with thyroid disorders, as well as to investigate their relationship with lipid profile and the markers of thyroid function and autoimmunity, admitting that elevated Lp(a levels and dyslipidemia caused by thyroid disorders synergistically increased the atherogenic process.

  6. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-01-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using 14 C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD

  7. Fractionation of human serum lipoproteins and simultaneous enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir; Kok, Wim Th.; Schoenmakers, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    A method based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) was developed to separate different types of lipoproteins from human serum. The emphasis in the method optimization was on the possibilities to characterize the largest lipoprotein fractions (LDL and VLDL), which is usually not possible with the size-exclusion chromatography methods applied in routine analysis. Different channel geometries and flow programs were tested and compared. The use of a short fractionation channel was shown to give less sample dilution at the same fractionation power compared to a conventional, long channel. Different size selectivities were obtained with an exponential decay and a linear cross flow program. The ratio of the UV absorption signal to the light scattering signal was used to validate the relation between retention time and size of the fractionated particles. An experimental setup was developed for the simultaneous determination of the cholesterol and triglycerides distribution over the lipoprotein fractions, based on enzymatic reactions followed by UV detection at 500 nm. Coiled and knitted PTFE tubing reactors were compared. An improved peak sharpness and sensitivity were observed with the knitted tubing reactor. After optimization of the experimental conditions a satisfactory linearity and precision (2-3% rsd for cholesterol and 5-6% rsd for triglycerides) were obtained. Finally, serum samples, a pooled sample from healthy volunteers and samples of sepsis patients, were analyzed with the method developed. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol and triglyceride distributions could be correlated with the clinical background of the samples.

  8. Fractionation of human serum lipoproteins and simultaneous enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kok, Wim Th., E-mail: W.Th.Kok@uva.nl [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schoenmakers, Peter J. [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-11-03

    A method based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) was developed to separate different types of lipoproteins from human serum. The emphasis in the method optimization was on the possibilities to characterize the largest lipoprotein fractions (LDL and VLDL), which is usually not possible with the size-exclusion chromatography methods applied in routine analysis. Different channel geometries and flow programs were tested and compared. The use of a short fractionation channel was shown to give less sample dilution at the same fractionation power compared to a conventional, long channel. Different size selectivities were obtained with an exponential decay and a linear cross flow program. The ratio of the UV absorption signal to the light scattering signal was used to validate the relation between retention time and size of the fractionated particles. An experimental setup was developed for the simultaneous determination of the cholesterol and triglycerides distribution over the lipoprotein fractions, based on enzymatic reactions followed by UV detection at 500 nm. Coiled and knitted PTFE tubing reactors were compared. An improved peak sharpness and sensitivity were observed with the knitted tubing reactor. After optimization of the experimental conditions a satisfactory linearity and precision (2-3% rsd for cholesterol and 5-6% rsd for triglycerides) were obtained. Finally, serum samples, a pooled sample from healthy volunteers and samples of sepsis patients, were analyzed with the method developed. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol and triglyceride distributions could be correlated with the clinical background of the samples.

  9. Characterization of blood lipoproteins and validation of cholesterol and triacylglycerol assays for free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, John P; Frank, Nicholas; Greller, Katie A; Harlow, Henry J; Ben-David, Merav

    2013-05-01

    Blood triacylglycerol (TG) and lipoproteins are important variables for evaluating nutritional status of wildlife, but measurements are often expensive and difficult. Performance of a small, portable blood analyzer intended for human medical diagnostics was evaluated in measuring these variables in plasma and serum from free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus), which are experiencing nutritional stress related to sea ice loss. The analyzer accurately tracked changes in concentration of total cholesterol (Ctotal), cholesterol associated with high-density lipoprotein (CHDL), and TG during a validation protocol of diluting samples and spiking them with exogenous cholesterol and glycerol. Values of Ctotal and TG agreed well with values obtained by other methods (ultracentrifugation followed by colorimetric assays); agreement was variable for values of cholesterol associated with specific lipoproteins. Similar to a study of captive polar bears, ultracentrifugation methods revealed greater TG in very low-density lipoproteins than in low-density lipoprotein, which is unusual and merits additional study.

  10. Cholesterol Level: Can It Be Too Low?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total cholesterol level has been associated with some health problems. Doctors are still trying to find out more about the connection between low cholesterol and health risks. There is no consensus on how to ...

  11. To Study the Activity of Paraoxonase-1 and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Nemagoudar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is the most common complication of ethanol abuse. Alcoholic fatty liver progresses to alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Lipoproteins are synthesized by the liver and secreted into the circulation. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis causes alteration in lipoprotein metabolism producing liver steatosis and necrosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1 is an enzyme synthesized in liver and has an esterase activity towards lipid peroxides and circulates in plasma bound to High-Density Lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c. Aim and Objectives: To determine the activity of PON-1 and levels of HDL-c in alcoholic liver disease and to correlate PON-1 activity with HDL-c. Materials and Methods: A Cross sectional study done in Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India, from 1st December 2014 to 31st January 2016 Study included 50 males (age range 25-55 years with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and 50 healthy male participants (age range 25-55 years. PON-1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of phenylacetate. HDL-c level was measured by cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase method. Results: The serum PON-1 activity and levels of HDL-c in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were significantly reduced (p<0.001 compared with controls. Conclusion: A significant decrease in PON-1 and HDL-c in alcoholic liver cirrhosis may contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis in alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients.

  12. Domains of apolipoprotein E contributing to triglyceride and cholesterol homeostasis in vivo. Carboxyl-terminal region 203-299 promotes hepatic very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kypreos, K.E.; Dijk, K.W. van; Zee, A. van der; Havekes, L.M.; Zannis, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E has been implicated in cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis in humans. At physiological concentration apoE promotes efficient clearance of apoE-containing lipoprotein remnants. However, high apoE plasma levels correlate with high plasma triglyceride levels. We have used

  13. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein associated cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions correlates with intimal thickening in thoracic aortas of juvenile rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that calcifying vesicles play an important role in aortic calcification and that cholesterol content in the isolated vesicle fraction is increased when rabbits are fed supplemental cholesterol diets. Whether lipoprotein-associated cholesterols and other lipids are also increased in the vesicle fraction and whether the increase correlates with atherosclerosis remain unknown. Results Fourteen juvenile male rabbits fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil for 3 months developed varying degrees of hypercholesterolemia and intimal thickening in the ascending thoracic aorta. The correlation between these two parameters was insignificant, and likely attributable to the use of small numbers of rabbits in this study. Despite this lack of correlation, we demonstrate that the accumulation of cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions obtained from the collagenase-digested aorta fragments correlates well with intimal thickening (r2 = 0.98, p Conclusion When limited numbers of rabbits are used, LDL-C accumulation in calcifying vesicle fractions is a better biomarker for atherosclerosis than LDL-C levels in the serum. The close association of LDL-C with calcifying vesicles may play an important role in atherosclerosis and calcification.

  14. Identification of miR-185 as a regulator of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Muhua; Liu, Weidong; Pellicane, Christina; Sahyoun, Christine; Joseph, Biny K.; Gallo-Ebert, Christina; Donigan, Melissa; Pandya, Devanshi; Giordano, Caroline; Bata, Adam; Nickels, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis is associated with various metabolic diseases, including atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. The sterol response element binding protein (SREBP)-2 transcription factor induces the expression of genes involved in de novo cholesterol biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake, thus it plays a crucial role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we found that overexpressing microRNA (miR)-185 in HepG2 cells repressed SREBP-2 expression and protein level. miR-185-directed inhibition caused decreased SREBP-2-dependent gene expression, LDL uptake, and HMG-CoA reductase activity. In addition, we found that miR-185 expression was tightly regulated by SREBP-1c, through its binding to a single sterol response element in the miR-185 promoter. Moreover, we found that miR-185 expression levels were elevated in mice fed a high-fat diet, and this increase correlated with an increase in total cholesterol level and a decrease in SREBP-2 expression and protein. Finally, we found that individuals with high cholesterol had a 5-fold increase in serum miR-185 expression compared with control individuals. Thus, miR-185 controls cholesterol homeostasis through regulating SREBP-2 expression and activity. In turn, SREBP-1c regulates miR-185 expression through a complex cholesterol-responsive feedback loop. Thus, a novel axis regulating cholesterol homeostasis exists that exploits miR-185-dependent regulation of SREBP-2 and requires SREBP-1c for function. PMID:24296663

  15. [THE SPIRIT CHOLESTEROL, BIOLOGICA L ROLE AT STAGES OF PHYLOGENESIS, MECHANISMS OF INHIBITION OF SYNTHESIS OF STEROL BY STATINS, FACTORS OF PHARMACOGENOMICS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CHOLESTEROL OF LIPOPROTEINS OF LOW DENSITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Kotlovskii, M Yu; Pokrovskii, A A; Kotlovskaia, O S; Osedko, A V; Titova, N M; Kotlovskii, Yu V; Digaii, A M

    2015-04-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of statins is realized by inhibition of synthesis of local pool of cholesterol spirit in endoplasmic net of hepatocytes. The cholesterol spirit covers all hydrophobic medium of triglycerides with polar mono layer of phosphatidylcholines and cholesterol spirit prior to secretion of lipoproteins of very low density into hydrophilic medium. The lesser mono layer between lipase enzyme and triglycerides substrate contains of cholesterol spirit the higher are the parameters of hydrolysis of palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density. The sequence of effect of statins is as follows: blocking of synthesis in hepatocytes and decreasing of content of unesterified cholesterol spirit in blood plasma; activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density; formation of ligand lipoproteins of very low density and their absorption by cells by force of apoB-100 endocytosis; decreasing in blood of content of polyenoic fatty acids, equimolar esterified by cholesterol spirit, polyethers of cholesterol spirit and decreasing of level of cholesterol spirit-lipoproteins of very low density. There is no way to eliminate aphysiological effect of disordered biological function of trophology (nutrition) on metabolism of fatty acids in population by means of pharmaceuticals intake. It is necessary to eliminate aphysiological effect of environment. To decrease rate of diseases of cardiovascular system one has to decrease in food content of saturated fatty acids and in the first instance palmitic saturated fatty acid, trans-form fatty acid, palmitoleic fatty acids up to physiological values and increase to the same degree the content of polyenoic fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids block absorption of polyenoic fatty acids by cells. The atherosclerosis is a deficiency of polyenoic fatty acids under surplus of palmitic saturated fatty acid.

  16. Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S.; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Robinson, John F.; McIntyre, Adam D.; Ban, Matthew R.; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J.; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. PMID:28870971

  17. High triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol lipid profile in rheumatoid arthritis: A potential link among inflammation, oxidative status, and dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carrio, Javier; Alperi-López, Mercedes; López, Patricia; López-Mejías, Raquel; Alonso-Castro, Sara; Abal, Francisco; Ballina-García, Francisco J; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Suárez, Ana

    The interactions between inflammation and lipid profile in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are poorly understood. The lipid profile study in RA has been biased toward lipoprotein levels, whereas those of triglycerides (TGs) and lipoprotein functionality have been underestimated. Since recent findings suggest a role for TG and TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) on inflammation, we aimed to evaluate a combined lipid profile characterized by high TG and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (TG high HDL low ) in RA. Lipid profiles were analyzed in 113 RA patients, 113 healthy controls, and 27 dyslipemic subjects. Levels of inflammatory mediators, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, and total antioxidant capacity were quantified in serum. PON1-rs662 status was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The TG high HDL low profile was detected in 29/113 RA patients. Although no differences in prevalence compared with healthy controls or dyslipemic subjects were observed, this profile was associated with increased tumor necrosis factor α (P = .004), monocyte chemotactic protein (P = .004), interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (P = .018), and leptin (P < .001) serum levels in RA, where decreased PON1 activity and total antioxidant capacity were found. TG high HDL low prevalence was lower among anti-TNFα-treated patients (P = .004). When RA patients were stratified by PON1-rs662 status, these associations remained in the low-activity genotype (QQ). Finally, a poor clinical response on TNFα blockade was related to an increasing prevalence of the TG high HDL low profile over treatment (P = .021) and higher TRL levels at baseline (P = .042). The TG high HDL low profile is associated with systemic inflammation, decreased PON1 activity, and poor clinical outcome on TNFα blockade in RA, suggesting a role of TRL and HDL dysfunction as the missing link between inflammation and lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. Nonfasting Triglycerides, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Heart Failure Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of heart failure is increasing in the aging population, and heart failure is a disease with large morbidity and mortality. There is, therefore, a need for identifying modifiable risk factors for prevention. We tested the hypothesis that high concentrations of nonfasting...... triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with higher risk of heart failure in the general population. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We included 103 860 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study and 9694 from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 2 prospective observational...... association studies. Nonfasting triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline. Individuals were followed for ≤23 years, during which time 3593 were diagnosed with heart failure. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In the Copenhagen...

  19. Genomic determinants of triglyceride and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslava Hodúlová

    Full Text Available The plasma profile of major lipoprotein classes and its subdivision into particular fractions plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is a major predictor of coronary artery disease. Our aim was to identify genomic determinants of triglyceride and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions and lipoprotein particle sizes in the recombinant inbred rat set PXO, in which alleles of two rat models of the metabolic syndrome (SHR and PD inbred strains segregate together with those from Brown Norway rat strain. Adult male rats of 15 PXO strains (n = 8-13/strain and two progenitor strains SHR-Lx (n = 13 and BXH2/Cub (n = 18 were subjected to one-week of high-sucrose diet feeding. We performed association analyses of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (C concentrations in 20 lipoprotein fractions and the size of major classes of lipoprotein particles utilizing 704 polymorphic microsatellite markers, the genome-wide significance was validated by 2,000 permutations per trait. Subsequent in silico focusing of the identified quantitative trait loci was completed using a map of over 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. In most of the phenotypes we identified substantial gradient among the strains (e.g. VLDL-TG from 5.6 to 66.7 mg/dl. We have identified 14 loci (encompassing 1 to 65 genes on rat chromosomes 3, 4, 7, 8, 11 and 12 showing suggestive or significant association to one or more of the studied traits. PXO strains carrying the SHR allele displayed significantly higher values of the linked traits except for LDL-TG and adiposity index. Cholesterol concentrations in large, medium and very small LDL particles were significantly associated to a haplotype block spanning part of a single gene, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B (Lrp1b. Using genome-wide association we have identified new genetic determinants of triglyceride and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions in the recombinant

  20. Comparing the Impact of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Randall P; Gales, Barry J; Sirajuddin, Riaz

    2018-04-01

    Elevated levels of triglycerides are associated with pancreatitis and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Numerous pharmacologic therapies are available to treat hypertriglyceridemia, including prescription omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce triglyceride levels by 20-50%. Available data indicate the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be beneficial for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Products containing DHA may increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and, subsequently, coronary heart disease risk. We reviewed prescription omega-3 fatty acid products, of which two-omega-3 acid ethyl esters (OM3EE) and omega-3 carboxylic acid (OM3CA)-contain both DHA and EPA, whereas the other-icosapent ethyl (IPE)-contains EPA only. We identified three retrospective chart reviews and three case reports comparing IPE with OM3EE, whereas two studies compared IPE with placebo. We also reviewed the major studies of OM3EE versus placebo used to gain US FDA approval. LDL-C levels decreased or did not increase significantly in all available studies and case reports in patients receiving the IPE product, with the best data supporting a dose of 4 g per day. The majority of studies only included patients taking IPE concomitantly with statins, but limited data from one study using IPE monotherapy showed a small reduction in LDL-C. Many questions remain regarding IPE, including whether the product reduces cardiovascular events and mortality.

  1. Clinical benefit from pharmacological elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourcade-Potelleret, F; Laporte, S; Lehnert, V; Delmar, P; Benghozi, Renée; Torriani, U; Koch, R; Mismetti, P

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence that the risk of coronary heart disease is inversely associated with the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has motivated several phase III programmes with cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors. To assess alternative methods to predict clinical response of CETP inhibitors. Meta-regression analysis on raising HDL-C drugs (statins, fibrates, niacin) in randomised controlled trials. 51 trials in secondary prevention with a total of 167,311 patients for a follow-up >1 year where HDL-C was measured at baseline and during treatment. The meta-regression analysis showed no significant association between change in HDL-C (treatment vs comparator) and log risk ratio (RR) of clinical endpoint (non-fatal myocardial infarction or cardiac death). CETP inhibitors data are consistent with this finding (RR: 1.03; P5-P95: 0.99-1.21). A prespecified sensitivity analysis by drug class suggested that the strength of relationship might differ between pharmacological groups. A significant association for both statins (p<0.02, log RR=-0.169-0.0499*HDL-C change, R(2)=0.21) and niacin (p=0.02, log RR=1.07-0.185*HDL-C change, R(2)=0.61) but not fibrates (p=0.18, log RR=-0.367+0.077*HDL-C change, R(2)=0.40) was shown. However, the association was no longer detectable after adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for statins or exclusion of open trials for niacin. Meta-regression suggested that CETP inhibitors might not influence coronary risk. The relation between change in HDL-C level and clinical endpoint may be drug dependent, which limits the use of HDL-C as a surrogate marker of coronary events. Other markers of HDL function may be more relevant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743

  3. SR-BI: Linking Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Metabolism with Breast and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Gutierrez-Pajares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have demonstrated the significant role of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in the progression of cancer. The SCARB1 gene encodes the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI, which is an 82-kDa glycoprotein with two transmembrane domains separated by a large extracellular loop. SR-BI plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol exchange between cells and high-density lipoproteins. Accordingly, hepatic SR-BI has been shown to play an essential role in the regulation of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, which promotes the removal and excretion of excess body cholesterol. In the context of atherosclerosis, SR-BI has been implicated in the regulation of intracellular signaling, lipid accumulation, foam cell formation, and cellular apoptosis. Furthermore, since lipid metabolism is a relevant target for cancer treatment, recent studies have focused on examining the role of SR-BI in this pathology. While signaling pathways have initially been explored in non-tumoral cells, studies with cancer cells have now demonstrated SR-BI’s function in tumor progression. In this review, we will discuss the role of SR-BI during tumor development and malignant progression. In addition, we will provide insights into the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the SCARB1 gene. Overall, studying the role of SR-BI in tumor development and progression should allow us to gain useful information for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  4. Lipoprotein(a) levels, apo(a) isoform size, and coronary heart disease risk in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], Lp(a) cholesterol, and of apo(a) isoform size to prospective coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma Lp(a) and Lp(a) cholesterol levels, and apo(a) isoform size were measured at examinati...

  5. Prognostic value of fasting versus nonfasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels on long-term mortality: insight from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Bethany; Guo, Yu; Xu, Jinfeng; Weintraub, Howard; Mora, Samia; Maron, David J; Bangalore, Sripal

    2014-08-12

    National and international guidelines recommend fasting lipid panel measurement for risk stratification of patients for prevention of cardiovascular events. However, the prognostic value of fasting versus nonfasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is uncertain. Patients enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES-III), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey performed from 1988 to 1994, were stratified on the basis of fasting status (≥8 or fasting and nonfasting cohorts with similar baseline characteristics. The risk of outcomes as a function of LDL-C and fasting status was assessed with the use of receiver operating characteristic curves and bootstrapping methods. The interaction between fasting status and LDL-C was assessed with Cox proportional hazards modeling. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome was cardiovascular mortality. One-to-one matching based on propensity score yielded 4299 pairs of fasting and nonfasting individuals. For the primary outcome, fasting LDL-C yielded prognostic value similar to that for nonfasting LDL-C (C statistic=0.59 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.61] versus 0.58 [95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.60]; P=0.73), and LDL-C by fasting status interaction term in the Cox proportional hazards model was not significant (Pinteraction=0.11). Similar results were seen for the secondary outcome (fasting versus nonfasting C statistic=0.62 [95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.66] versus 0.62 [95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.66]; P=0.96; Pinteraction=0.34). Nonfasting LDL-C has prognostic value similar to that of fasting LDL-C. National and international agencies should consider reevaluating the recommendation that patients fast before obtaining a lipid panel. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Anthocyanins increase low-density lipoprotein and plasma cholesterol and do not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L. F.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2005-01-01

    a purified anthocyanin fraction front black currants, a black currant juice, probucol or control diet for 16 weeks. Purified anthocyanins significantly increased plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Intake of black currant juice had no effect on total plasma cholesterol......, but lowered very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol significantly. There were no significant effects of either purified anthocyanins or black currant juice on aortic cholesterol or development of atherosclerosis after 16 weeks. Probucol had no effect on plasma cholesterol but significantly lowered......, antioxidant enzymes, protein and lipid oxidation were not affected by any of the anthocyanin treatments. Adverse effects of purified anthocyanins were observed on plasma- and LDL-cholesterol. These effects were not observed with black currant juice, suggesting that black currants may contain components...

  7. The Ratio of Unesterified/esterified Cholesterol is the Major Determinant of Atherogenicity of Lipoprotein Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Babak; Alikhani, Asal; Mokhtari, Hossein; Rasouli, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that the atherogenicity of lipoporotein fractions is correlated with the content of unesterified cholesterol. To evaluate the role and prognostic values of unesterified and esterified cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions for coronary artery disease (CAD). The study population consisted of 400 patients who were divided to CAD controls and cases according to the data of coronary angiography. Fractional cholesterol esterification (FCE) as well as the complete profile of lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were determined. Total cholesterol was increased significantly in CAD patients (196.3 ± 52.3 mg/dL vs. 185.7 ± 48.0, p≤ 0.049) and the increment occurred totally in unesterified portion (77.2 ± 28.4 mg/dL vs. 71.1 ± 24.4, p≤ 0.031). HDL cholesterol showed a significant decrease in CAD group (39.9 ± 9.5 mg/dL vs. 44.6 ± 10.5, p≤ 0.001), but the decrement occurred wholly in the esterified portion (26.2 ± 9.2 mg/dL vs. 31.1 ± 8.1, p≤ 0.001). NonHDL cholesterol was increased significantly in CAD group (156.8 ± 48.3 mg/dL vs. 140.3 ± 43.6, p≤ 0.001), and the changes occurred in both un- and esterified portions. FCE in HDL was diminished significantly in CAD patients (64.8 ± 13.9% vs. 69.3 ± 7.9, p≤ 0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, unesterified cholesterol in NonHDL (UeNonHDLc) and esterified cholesterol in HDL (EsHDLc) excluded total cholesterol and HDLc respectively from the regression equation. In ROC analysis, the ratio of UeNonHDLc/EsHDLc was the strongest predictor for CAD among cholesterol subfractions. The results confirm that UeNonHDLc is atherogenic and EsHDLc is antiatherogenic and are independent risk factors for CAD.

  8. Serum oxidized low density lipoprotein levels in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, A; Yildirmak, S Turkmen; Mihmanli, V; Ayabakan, H; Cicek, Y G; Kalaslioglu, V; Doean, S; Cebeci, H Cerci

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/AIM: The aim of the study was to determine serum lipids and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels in preeclamptic pregnants and compare with those of normotensives. Ox-LDL levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); total cholesterol, hight density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assay in 26 normotensive and 27 preeclamptic pregnants. LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol was calculated by Friedwald formula. Serum levels of Ox-LDL (U/L), total-cholesterol (mg/dL), HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), triglyceride (mg/dL), and VLDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnants were found as 130±60 and 133±69; 248±49 and 248±81; 67±14 and 61±16; 147±61 and 135±59; 207±76 and 256±87; 41±15 and 50±17, respectively. Mean values of Ox-LDL and other lipid parameters were higher than the upper limits of their reference ranges in both of groups. However no significant differences were found in Ox-LDL, total, HDL and LDL-cholesterol levels between two groups. However, the levels of triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in preeclampsia group. The present results suggest that the levels of serum Ox-LDL and other lipid parameters rise as a result of pregnancy rather than as a result of preeclampsia.

  9. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  10. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Serum Creatinine Can Predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Lin, Suhan; Zippi, Maddalena; Geng, Wujun; Stock, Simon; Zimmer, Vincent; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2017-01-01

    Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr) determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs) were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model) was developed to predict SAP as follows: -2.25-0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl) at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl) at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl) at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.

  11. Association between Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and occipital periventricular hyperintensities in a group of Chinese patients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dazhi; Shen, Lin; Cui, Chun; Shu, Tongsheng; Zheng, Jian

    2017-02-27

    While occipital periventricular hyperintensities (OPVHs) are among the most common mild white matter hyperintensities, the clinical factors associated with OPVHs remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of clinical factors in development of pure OPVHs. This study included 97 patients with OPVHs and 73 healthy controls. Univariate analysis of clinical factors in OPVH patients and controls was followed by binomial logistic regression analysis to identify clinical factors significantly associated with OPVHs. Univariate analysis indicated that age, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B) levels differed significantly between the OPVH patients and controls (p correlated with OPVH scores (p anti-correlated with OPVHs scores (p correlated with OPVHs (p correlated with OPVHs (p < 0.001). In summary, LDL-C was negatively and age was positively associated with OPVHs among Chinese patients in a hospital.

  12. Common low-density lipoprotein receptor p.G116S variant has a large effect on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in circumpolar inuit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Joseph B; Wang, Jian; Cao, Henian; McIntyre, Adam D; Johansen, Christopher T; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Stringer, Randa; Hosseinzadeh, Siyavash; Kennedy, Brooke A; Ban, Matthew R; Young, T Kue; Connelly, Philip W; Dewailly, Eric; Bjerregaard, Peter; Boyer, Bert B; Hegele, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    Inuit are considered to be vulnerable to cardiovascular disease because their lifestyles are becoming more Westernized. During sequence analysis of Inuit individuals at extremes of lipid traits, we identified 2 nonsynonymous variants in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), namely p.G116S and p.R730W. Genotyping these variants in 3324 Inuit from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland showed they were common, with allele frequencies 10% to 15%. Only p.G116S was associated with dyslipidemia: the increase in LDL cholesterol was 0.54 mmol/L (20.9 mg/dL) per allele (P=5.6×10(-49)), which was >3× larger than the largest effect sizes seen with other common variants in other populations. Carriers of p.G116S had a 3.02-fold increased risk of hypercholesterolemia (95% confidence interval, 2.34-3.90; P=1.7×10(-17)), but did not have classical familial hypercholesterolemia. In vitro, p.G116S showed 60% reduced ligand-binding activity compared with wild-type receptor. In contrast, p.R730W was associated with neither LDL cholesterol level nor altered in vitro activity. LDLR p.G116S is thus unique: a common dysfunctional variant in Inuit whose large effect on LDL cholesterol may have public health implications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels during antipsychotics treatment in Parkinson's disease and related psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko

    2006-01-01

    Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (prelationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone.

  14. Density profile and cholesterol concentration of serum lipoproteins in experimental animals and human subjects on hypercholesterolaemic diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Terpstra, A.H.M.

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. The density profile of Sudan black stained serum lipoproteins was studied in human subjects and various animal species on diets supplemented with cholesterol. 2. 2. In the animals studied (rabbits, calves, mice, chickens, rats and guinea-pigs), the feeding of cholesterol resulted in an

  15. Gold nanocrystal labeling allows low-density lipoprotein imaging from the subcellular to macroscopic level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allijn, Iris E.; Leong, Wei; Tang, Jun; Gianella, Anita; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Fay, Francois; Ma, Ge; Russell, Stewart; Callo, Catherine B.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Korkmaz, Emine; Post, Jan Andries; Zhao, Yiming; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Thran, Axel; Proksa, Roland; Daerr, Heiner; Storm, Gert; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Cormode, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a critical role in cholesterol transport and is closely linked to the progression of several diseases. This motivates the development of methods to study LDL behavior from the microscopic to whole-body level. We have developed an approach to efficiently load LDL

  16. Association of Genetic Variants Related to CETP Inhibitors and Statins With Lipoprotein Levels and Cardiovascular Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ference, Brian A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Chapman, M. John; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Packard, Chris J.; Laufs, Ulrich; Brook, Robert D.; Oliver-Williams, Clare; Butterworth, Adam S.; Danesh, John; Smith, George Davey; Catapano, Alberico L.; Sabatine, Marc S.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Some cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels without reducing cardiovascular events, suggesting that the clinical benefit of lowering LDL-C may depend on how LDL-C is lowered. OBJECTIVE To estimate the association

  17. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailamuguli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. MethodsA total of 1271 postmenopausal Uyghur women who underwent physical examination in the physical examination centers of hospitals in Urumqi and Kashi, Xinjiang, were enrolled as study subjects, and according to the presence or absence of NAFLD, they were divided into NAFLD group (682 women and control group (589 women. Demographic data were recorded in detail, and the hepatic enzyme parameters, parameters for glucose and lipid metabolism, and parameters including uric acid and non-HDL-C were measured. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ResultsCompared with the control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and non-HDL-C level (all P<0.05, and a significantly lower HDL-C level (P<0.05. Compared with the group with a non-HDL-C level of ≥3.58 mmol/L, the group with a non-HDL-C level of <3.58 mmol/L had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, AST, ALT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-HDL-C, serum uric acid, and BMI were risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ConclusionNon-HDL-C, along with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia, is a major risk factor for NAFLD in postmenopausal women.

  18. Cholesterol esterification and atherogenic index of plasma correlate with lipoprotein size and findings on coronary angiography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobiášová, Milada; Frohlich, J.; Šedová, Michaela; Cheung, M. C.; Brown, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2011), s. 566-571 ISSN 0022-2275 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8328; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fractional esterification rate (FERHDL). * log(TG/HDL-Cholesterol) * AIP * biomarkers of cardiovascular risk * lipoprotein particle size * HDL- Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS) Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.559, year: 2011

  19. Effect of Synthetic Truncated Apolipoprotein C-I Peptide on Plasma Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampratap S. Kushwaha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies were conducted to determine whether a synthetic truncated apoC-I peptide that inhibits CETP activity in baboons would raise plasma HDL cholesterol levels in nonhuman primates with low HDL levels. We used 2 cynomolgus monkeys and 3 baboons fed a cholesterol- and fat-enriched diet. In cynomolgus monkeys, we injected synthetic truncated apoC-I inhibitor peptide at a dose of 20 mg/kg and, in baboons, at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected 3 times a week and VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were measured. In cynomolgus monkeys, administration of the inhibitor peptide caused a rapid decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations (30%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations returned to baseline levels in approximately 15 days. In baboons, administration of the synthetic inhibitor peptide caused a decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol (20%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol returned to baseline levels by day 21, whereas HDL cholesterol concentrations remained elevated for up to 26 days. ApoA-I concentrations increased, whereas apoE and triglyceride concentrations decreased. Subcutaneous and intravenous administrations of the inhibitor peptide had similar effects on LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations. There was no change in body weight, food consumption, or plasma IgG levels of any baboon during the study. These studies suggest that the truncated apoC-I peptide can be used to raise HDL in humans.

  20. Rosuvastatin for Primary Prevention in Older Persons With Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Low to Average Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: Exploratory Analysis of a Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, R.J.; Koenig, W.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    or older. Design: Secondary analysis of JUPITER ( Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: 1315 sites in 26 countries randomly assigned participants in JUPITER. Participants: Among......Background: Randomized data on statins for primary prevention in older persons are limited, and the relative hazard of cardiovascular disease associated with an elevated cholesterol level weakens with advancing age. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in persons 70 years...... assigned in a 1: 1 ratio to receive 20 mg of rosuvastatin daily or placebo. Measurements: The primary end point was the occurrence of a first cardiovascular event ( myocardial infarction, stroke, arterial revascularization, hospitalization for unstable angina, or death from cardiovascular causes). Results...

  1. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaibelet, Gérald [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tercé, François [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Bertrand-Michel, Justine [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Lipidomic Platform Metatoul, Toulouse (France); Allart, Sophie [Plateau Technique d’Imagerie Cellulaire, INSERM U1043, Toulouse (France); Azalbert, Vincent [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Lecompte, Marie-France [INSERM U563, Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Collet, Xavier [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Orlowski, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.orlowski@cea.fr [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  2. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaibelet, Gérald; Tercé, François; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Allart, Sophie; Azalbert, Vincent; Lecompte, Marie-France; Collet, Xavier; Orlowski, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  3. Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been reported that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<35 mg/dL. But in this study, some patients had hypertension that may have affected the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio. This study consisted of 1274 asymptomatic healthy young men. In contrast with the previous study, we investigated the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with controls. Methods: We studied 1274 asymptomatic young males (military personnel screening who underwent routine health check-up. Of them, 102 subjects had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results: The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher among the men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than that of the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We conclude that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in asymptomatic healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with control participants.

  4. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Shuzo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to examine how lipid profiles are associated with insulin resistance in Japanese community-dwelling adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 614 men aged 58 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 20-89 years and 779 women aged 60 ± 12 (range, 21-88 years. The study sample were 1,042 (74.8% non-obese (BMI 2 and 351 (25.2% overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 subjects. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR of at least 2.5. The areas under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC were used to compare the power of these serum markers. Results In non-obese subjects, the best marker of insulin resistance was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio of 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.66-0.80. The HDL-C, triglyceride (TG/HDL-C ratio, and non-HDL-C also discriminated insulin resistance, as the values for AUC were 0.31 (95% CI, 0.24-0.38, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.62-0.75 and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.62-0.75, respectively. In overweight subjects, the AUC for TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were 0.64 (0.58-0.71 and 0.64 (0.57-0.70, respectively. The optimal cut-off point to identifying insulin resistance for these markers yielded the following values: TG/HDL-C ratio of ≥1.50 and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio of ≥2.14 in non-obese subjects, and ≥2.20, ≥2.25 in overweight subjects. In non-obese subjects, the positive likelihood ratio was greatest for LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Conclusion In non-obese Japanese adults, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio may be the best reliable marker of insulin resistance.

  5. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  6. Macrophage cholesterol efflux correlates with lipoprotein subclass distribution and risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremer Werner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in patients with low HDL have suggested that impaired cellular cholesterol efflux is a heritable phenotype increasing atherosclerosis risk. Less is known about the association of macrophage cholesterol efflux with lipid profiles and CAD risk in normolipidemic subjects. We have therefore measured macrophage cholesterol efflux in142 normolipidemic subjects undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Monocytes isolated from blood samples of patients scheduled for cardiac catheterization were differentiated into macrophages over seven days. Isotopic cholesterol efflux to exogenously added apolipoprotein A-I and HDL2 was measured. Quantitative cholesterol efflux from macrophages was correlated with lipoprotein subclass distribution in plasma from the same individuals measured by NMR-spectroscopy of lipids and with the extent of coronary artery disease seen on coronary angiography. Results Macrophage cholesterol efflux was positively correlated with particle concentration of smaller HDL and LDL particles but not with total plasma concentrations of HDL or LDL-cholesterol. We observed an inverse relationship between macrophage cholesterol efflux and the concntration of larger and triglyceride rich particles (VLDL, chylomicrons. Subjects with significant stenosis on coronary angiography had lower cholesterol efflux from macrophages compared to individuals without significant stenosis (adjusted p = 0.02. Conclusion Macrophage cholesterol efflux is inversely correlated with lipoprotein particle size and risk of CAD.

  7. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...... of such genetic determinants with cardiovascular disease risk will either favor or disfavor that these lipoproteins are causally related to cardiovascular disease....

  8. Effectiveness of Shelled Almonds in Decreasing Blood Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels of Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mozaffari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Nuts such as almonds are high in unsaturated lipids and antioxidants. Some studies indicate that nuts have beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effectiveness of shelled almonds on reduction of blood lipid and lipoprotein levels in hyperlipidemic patients. Methods: This study was a clinical trial (before and after and was done on 30 men volunteering for the study. They consumed 60 grams shelled almonds per day for four weeks. Their blood lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein and lipoprotein (a levels were measured after and before almond consumption. Results: Shelled almond consumption caused significant decrease in serum cholesterol 36.1 mg/dl, triglyceride 45.94 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol 28.68 mg/dl and increase in HDL-cholesterol 10.64 mg/dl(p<0.001. Shelled almond consumption decreased lipoprotein (a (2.11 mg/dl, apolipoprotein B100 (8.93 mg/dl and increased apolipoprotein A (1 1.74 mg/dl levels, but this effect was insignificant statistically. Conclusion: Continuous consumption of shelled almonds has beneficial effect on blood lipids and may play a preventive role in Atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. We therefore suggest that a daily intake of 60 grams of almonds can be used for treatment of hyprelipidemic patients.

  9. Comparison of Friedewald Formula and Modified Friedewald Formula with Direct Homogeneous Assay for Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.; Khan, D. A.; Khan, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the Friedewald and modified Friedewald formulae with direct homogeneous assay for serum lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels estimation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from June to December 2011. Methodology: Healthy subjects of either gender, from Rawalpindi, aged 18-75 years were included by consecutive sampling. Patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, chronic kidney disease, those taking lipid lowering drugs and samples with triglyceride (TG) > 4.52 mmol/l were excluded from the study. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG and LDL-C were measured on Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer (Roche). LDL-C levels were also calculated by Friedewald formula (FF) and Vujovic modified formula (VMF). Paired sample t-test and scatter plots were used for statistical analysis. Results: Although both calculated methods showed good correlation with direct assay (r > 0.93) in 300 subjects, but the difference was statistically significant. The ffLDL-C were 0.12 +- 31 mmol/l (p < 0.001) lower and vmfLDL-C were 0.11 +- 26 mmol/l (p < 0.001) higher than dLDL-C. The difference was not significant between ffLDL-C and dLDL-C at TG levels < 1.70 mmol/l (p = 0.58) and between vmfLDL-C and dLDL-C at TG levels 2.26 - 4.52 mmol/l (p = 0.38). At all other TG levels, the difference between LDL-C calculated by both formulas and dLDL-C was statistically significant (p < 0.001). As compared to direct assay, 11% and 14% subjects were classified in wrong National Cholesterol Education Programm cardiac risk categories by FF and VMF respectively. Conclusion: LDL-C should be measured by direct homogeneous assay in routine clinical laboratories, as the calculated methods did not have a uniform performance for LDL-C estimation at different TG levels. (author)

  10. Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610

  11. Hepatitis C Virus, Cholesterol and Lipoproteins — Impact for the Viral Life Cycle and Pathogenesis of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmlee, Daniel J.; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Lefevre, Mathieu; Baumert, Thomas F.; Schuster, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis C infection associates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism disorders such as hepatic steatosis, hypobetalipoproteinemia, and hypocholesterolemia. Furthermore, virus production is dependent on hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly, and circulating virions are physically associated with lipoproteins in complexes termed lipoviral particles. Evidence has indicated several functional roles for the formation of these complexes, including co-opting of lipoprotein receptors for attachment and entry, concealing epitopes to facilitate immune escape, and hijacking host factors for HCV maturation and secretion. Here, we review the evidence surrounding pathogenesis of the hepatitis C infection regarding lipoprotein engagement, cholesterol and triglyceride regulation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:23698400

  12. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and mortality from coronary heart disease among Japanese men and women: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ohtaka, Emiko; Ohta, Hitoshi

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-cholesterol) raises the risk of coronary heart disease in a dose-response fashion in a non-obese population with low total cholesterol levels and high HDL-cholesterol levels, such as Japanese. A total of 30,802 men and 60,417 women, aged 40 to 79 years with no history of stroke or coronary heart disease, completed a baseline risk factor survey in 1993 under the auspices of the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study. Systematic mortality surveillance through 2003 identified 539 coronary heart disease deaths. The mean values for non-HDL-cholesterol were 140 mg/dL for men and 151 mg/dL for women. The corresponding mean values were 193 mg/dL and 208 mg/dL total cholesterol and 52 mg/dL and 57 mg/dL HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Men with non-HDL-cholesterol > or = 180 mg/dL had a two-fold higher age-adjusted risk of mortality from coronary heart disease than did those with non-HDL-cholesterol or = 180 mg/dL versus <100 mg/dL of non-HDL-cholesterol was 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 3.62) for men and 0.71 (0.37 to 1.34) for women. Higher concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease for men, but not for women.

  13. The total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of poor outcomes in a Chinese population with acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifang; Xu, Jianing; Sun, Hao; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-11-01

    High admission cholesterol has been associated with better outcome after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), but a paradox not completely illustrated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) on short-term survival after AIS. Consecutive patients admitted in 2013 and 2015 were enrolled in the present study. The logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate predictors of 3-month outcomes. The primary endpoint was death. Secondary endpoint was good (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 or equal to prestrike modified Rankin Scale score) at 3 months. Of 871 patients enrolled in the final analysis, 94 (10.8%) individuals died during 3 months of observation. The serum TC and TC/HDL-C levels at admission were significantly associated with stroke outcomes at 3 months, and the HDL-C level was only correlated with the good outcomes at 3 months. Mortality risk was markedly decreased for patients with high TC/HDL-C ratio (odds ratio: 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.50 for Q4:Q1; P-trend <.001) after adjustment. The effect of TC/HDL-C ratio on the probability of good outcomes was still obvious (odds ratio: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.40-3.39 for Q4:Q1; P-trend=.029). According to the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the best discriminating factor was a TG/HDL-C ≥3.37 (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.643, sensitivity 61.3%, specificity 61.7%) as well as the TC/HDL-C ≥4.09 for good outcomes (AUC: 0.587, sensitivity 63.9%, specificity 79.7%). High TC/HDL-C ratio may be associated with increased short-term survival and better outcomes after AIS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Novel function of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. Hydrolysis of oxidized polar phospholipids generated during lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, J; Wang, K; Liu, M; Subbaiah, P V

    1997-06-27

    Although the major function of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is cholesterol esterification, our previous studies showed that it can also hydrolyze platelet-activating factor (PAF). Because of the structural similarities between PAF and the truncated phosphatidylcholines (polar PCs) generated during lipoprotein oxidation, we investigated the possibility that LCAT may also hydrolyze polar PCs to lyso-PC during the oxidation of plasma. PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), which is known to hydrolyze polar PCs in human plasma, was completely inhibited by 0.2 mM p-aminoethyl benzenesulfonyl fluoride (Pefabloc), a new serine esterase inhibitor, which had no effect on LCAT at this concentration. On the other hand, 1 mM diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) completely inhibited LCAT but had no effect on PAF-AH. Polar PC accumulation during the oxidation of plasma increased by 44% in the presence of 0.2 mM Pefabloc and by 30% in the presence of 1 mM DFP. The formation of lyso-PC was concomitantly inhibited by both of the inhibitors. The combination of the two inhibitors resulted in the maximum accumulation of polar PCs, suggesting that both PAF-AH and LCAT are involved in their breakdown. Oxidation of chicken plasma, which has no PAF-AH activity, also resulted in the formation of lyso-PC from the hydrolysis of polar PC, which was inhibited by DFP. Polar PCs, either isolated from oxidized plasma or by oxidation of labeled synthetic PCs, were hydrolyzed by purified LCAT, which had no detectable PAF-AH activity. These results demonstrate a novel function for LCAT in the detoxification of polar PCs generated during lipoprotein oxidation, especially when the PAF-AH is absent or inactivated.

  15. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol calculation and goal awareness among physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Smita I; Steinberg, Lynne; Polsani, Venkateshwar R; Gowani, Saqib A; Nambi, Vijay; Kumar, Varinder; Marinescu, Victor; Jones, Peter H; Petersen, Laura A; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2012-01-01

    Non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) goal attainment per Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines remains low. To understand gaps in knowledge and practices of physicians-in-training (internal medicine, family medicine, cardiology, endocrinology) towards non-HDL-C. A survey based on a conceptual model to assess the trainee's knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding non-HDL-C was developed and administered to physicians-in-training (n = 655) at 26 training programs in the United States. Responses of those in internal medicine and family medicine (residents-in-training; n = 418) were compared with those in cardiology and endocrinology (fellows-in-training; n = 124). Response rate was 83.7%. Fifty-three percent of residents and 31% of fellows-in-training had not read the ATP III guidelines (P training could not calculate non-HDL-C from a standard lipid panel (P = .7). Sixty-seven percent of the residents and 52% of fellows were not aware of treatment goals for non-HDL-C (P = .004 for comparison between residents and fellows). Both residents and fellows reported infrequent calculation of non-HDL-C levels in patients with elevated triglycerides (≥200 mg/dL; 32.5% vs 35.4%, respectively, P = .6). Lack of familiarity with ATP III guidelines, lack of knowledge regarding importance of non-HDL-C, lack of institutional mandate to calculate non-HDL-C, and lack of emphasis on non-HDL-C by teaching staff were reported as barriers to non-HDL-C use in routine clinical practice. At least one-third of physicians-in-training could not calculate non-HDL-C from a standard lipid panel, and a large number were not aware of ATP III treatment goals pertaining to non-HDL-C. This area represents one for improvement if non-HDL-C is to be retained as a treatment target in the forthcoming ATP-IV guidelines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance of such gene......To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...

  17. High density lipoprotein as a source of cholesterol for adrenal steroidogenesis: a study in individuals with low plasma HDL-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, Andrea E.; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Hoekstra, Menno; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Motazacker, Mahdi M.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Stroes, Erik S. G.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the delivery of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol to the adrenals for steroid production in humans. While there is evidence against a role for low-density lipoprotein (LDL), it is unresolved whether high density lipoprotein (HDL) contributes to adrenal steroidogenesis. To

  18. PCSK9 R46L Loss-of-Function Mutation Reduces Lipoprotein(a), LDL Cholesterol, and Risk of Aortic Valve Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge; Benn, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Novel, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol-lowering proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) inhibitors also lower lipoprotein(a) levels, but the effect on aortic valve stenosis and myocardial infarction is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that the PCSK9 R46L...... individuals of Danish descent. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 103 083 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, and the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lipoprotein(a), LDL cholesterol, and PCSK9 R46L genotype and diagnoses of aortic...... P = .02). The corresponding values for LDL cholesterol levels were 124 (101-147) mg/dl, 104 (85-132) mg/dl, and 97 (85-128) mg/dl, respectively (trend P = 2 × 10(-52)). PCSK9 R46L carriers vs noncarriers had an age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio of 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.95) for aortic...

  19. Effects of MAT9001 containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, compared to eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, on triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol, and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Bobotas, George; Dicklin, Mary R; Huebner, Margie; Keane, William F

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid concentrate pharmaceuticals are used in the United States for treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥500 mg/dL) and are under investigation as adjuncts to statins for lowering cardiovascular risk in patients with high triglycerides (TGs; 200-499 mg/dL). To evaluate MAT9001, an investigational prescription-only omega-3 fatty acid agent containing predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid, in 42 men and women with fasting TG 200 to 400 mg/dL. In this open-label, crossover trial, subjects received MAT9001 and EPA ethyl esters (EPA-EE) in random order. They were housed in a clinical research unit for 2 14-day treatment periods, separated by a ≥35-day washout. Lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 levels were measured before and at the end of each treatment period. MAT9001, compared with EPA-EE, resulted in significantly (P < .05) larger reductions from pretreatment levels for TG (-33.2% vs -10.5%), total cholesterol (-9.0% vs -6.2%), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-8.8% vs -4.6%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-32.5% vs -8.1%), Apo C3 (-25.5% vs -5.0%), and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (-12.3% vs +8.8%). MAT9001 also produced a significantly (P = .003) larger reduction in Apo A1 (-15.3% vs -10.2%), but responses for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-11.3% vs -11.1%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-2.4% vs -4.3%), and Apo B (-3.8% vs -0.7%), respectively, were not significantly different relative to EPA-EE. MAT9001 produced significantly larger reductions than EPA-EE in several lipoprotein-related variables that would be expected to favorably alter cardiovascular disease risk in men and women with hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels: influence of normal food intake on lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, A.; Freiberg, J.J.; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We cross-sectionally studied 33 391 individuals 20 to 95...... to HDL cholesterol, and ratio of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 did not change in response to normal food intake. The maximum changes after normal food and fluid intake from fasting levels were -0.2 mmol/L for total cholesterol, -0.2 mmol/L for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, -0.1 mmol...... years of age from the Copenhagen General Population Study. We also studied 9319 individuals 20 to 93 years of age from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 1166 of whom developed cardiovascular events during 14 years of follow-up. Compared with fasting levels, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein...

  1. Gemfibrozil treatment of the high triglyceride-low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol trait in men with established atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knipscheer, H. C.; Nurmohamed, M. T.; van den Ende, A.; Plaat, B.; Pruijs, H. J.; Mulder, W. J.; Kastelein, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the short-term efficacy, tolerability and safety of the treatment with gemfibrozil 600 mg twice daily or placebo in male patients with established atherosclerosis, with a lipid profile matching the 'high triglyceride-low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol trait'. Double-blind

  2. Physical inactivity interacts with an endothelial lipase polymorphism to modulate high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the GOLDN study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is highly heritable but is also modifiable by environmental factors including physical activity. HDL-C response to exercise varies among individuals, and this variability may be associated with genetic polymorphism...

  3. Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C; Sutherland, W; Mann, J; de Jong, S; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this present study was to determine plasma levels of lathosterol, lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins during diets rich in butter, coconut fat and safflower oil. The study consisted of sequential six week periods of diets rich in butter, coconut fat then safflower oil and measurements were made at baseline and at week 4 in each diet period. Forty-one healthy Pacific island polynesians living in New Zealand participated in the trial. Subjects were supplied with some foods rich in the test fats and were given detailed dietary advice which was reinforced regularly. Plasma lathosterol concentration (P safflower oil diets compared with butter diets. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and apoA-levels were also significantly (Psafflower oil compared with diets rich in butter and might be associated with lower production rates of apoB-containing lipoproteins.

  4. The prevalence and correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis among adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Martin, Seth S; McEvoy, John W; Nasir, Khurram; Blankstein, Ron; Yeboah, Joseph; Miedema, Michael; Shea, Steven J; Polak, Joseph F; Ouyang, Pamela; Blumenthal, Roger S; Bittencourt, Marcio; Bensenor, Isabela; Santos, Raul D; Duncan, Bruce B; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Blaha, Michael J

    2018-07-01

    The prevalence and correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are low remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the association of cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis among individuals with untreated LDL-C ELSA-Brasil) cohorts. To optimize accuracy, LDL-C was calculated by the validated Martin/Hopkins equation that uses an adjustable factor for the ratio of triglycerides to very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We defined subclinical atherosclerosis as a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score >0 in the combined cohort or common carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in the 4 th quartile, using cohort-specific cIMT distributions at baseline. Logistic regression models examined the cross-sectional associations of cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis. Among 9411 participants not on lipid lowering therapy, 263 (3%) had LDL-C ELSA: 57). Mean age in this population was 58 (SD 12) years, with 43% men, and 41% Black. The prevalence of CAC >0 in those with untreated LDL-C<70 mg/dL was 30%, and 18% were in 4th quartile of cIMT. In demographically adjusted models, only ever smoking was significantly associated with both CAC and cIMT. Similar results were obtained in risk factor-adjusted models (smoking: OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.10-4.80 and OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.41-8.37 for CAC and cIMT, respectively). Among middle-aged to older individuals with untreated LDL-C <70 mg/dL, subclinical atherosclerosis remains moderately common and is associated with cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlling for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol does not affect the magnitude of the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Per; Bakke, Eirin; Hoff, Dominic A; Høiseth, Gudrun; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Myhre, Ronny; Normann, Per Trygve; Næss, Øyvind; Tambs, Kristian; Thelle, Dag S; Mørland, Jørg

    2011-11-22

    This study tested the hypothesis that moderate alcohol intake exerts its cardioprotective effect mainly through an increase in the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) study, 149 729 adult participants, recruited from 1994 to 2003, were followed by linkage to the Cause of Death Registry until 2006. At recruitment, questionnaire data on alcohol intake were collected, and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum was measured. Using Cox regression, we found that the adjusted hazard ratio for men for dying from coronary heart disease was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.69) when consuming alcohol more than once a week compared with never or rarely. The ratio changed only slightly, to 0.55 (0.41-0.73), after the regression model included the serum level of high-density cholesterol. For women, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.62 (0.32-1.23) and 0.68 (0.34-1.34), respectively. Alcohol intake is related to a reduced risk of death from coronary heart disease in the follow-up of a large, population-based Norwegian cohort study with extensive control for confounding factors. Our findings suggest that the serum level of high-density cholesterol is not an important intermediate variable in the possible causal pathway between moderate alcohol intake and coronary heart disease.

  6. Correlation between Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Calculated, and Measured Lipoproteins: Whether Calculated Small Density Lipoprotein Fraction Predicts Cardiovascular Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayat Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent literature in lipidology has identified LDL-fractions to be more atherogenic. In this regard, small density LDL-cholesterol (sdLDLc has been considered to possess more atherogenicity than other LDL-fractions like large buoyant LDL-cholesterol (lbLDLc. Recently, Srisawasdi et al. have developed a method for calculating sdLDLc and lbLDLc based upon a regression equation. Using that in developing world may provide us with a valuable tool for ASCVD risk prediction. Objective. (1 To correlate directly measured and calculated lipid indices with insulin resistance, UACR, glycated hemoglobin, anthropometric indices, and blood pressure. (2 To evaluate these lipid parameters in subjects with or without metabolic syndrome, nephropathy, and hypertension and among various groups based upon glycated hemoglobin results. Design. Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study. From Jan 2016 to 15 April 2017. Subjects and Methods. Finally enrolled subjects (male: 110, female: 122 were evaluated for differences in various lipid parameters, including measured LDL-cholesterol (mLDLc, HDLc and calculated LDL-cholesterol (cLDLc, non-HDLc, sdLDLC, lbLDLC, and their ratio among subjects with or without metabolic syndrome, nephropathy, glycation index, anthropometric indices, and hypertension. Results. Significant but weak correlation was mainly observed between anthropometric indices, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and nephropathy for non-HDLc, sdLDLc, and sdLDLc/lbLDLc. Generally lipid indices were higher among subjects with metabolic syndrome [{sdLDLc: 0.92 + 0.33 versus 0.70 + 0.29 (p 7.0%. Subjects having nephropathy (UACR > 2.4 mg/g had higher concentration of non-HDLc levels in comparison to sdLDLc [{non-HDLc: 3.68 + 0.59 versus 3.36 + 0.43} (p=0.007, {sdLDLc: 0.83 + 0.27 versus 0.75 + 0.35 (p=NS}]. Conclusion. Lipid markers including cLDLc and mLDLc are less associated with traditional ASCVD markers than non-HDLc, sdLDLc, and sd

  7. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk of cancer: a mendelian randomization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Stender, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    cholesterol was calculated using the Friedewald equation in samples in which the triglyceride level was less than 354 mg/dL and measured directly by colorimetry for samples with higher triglyceride levels. Risk of cancer was estimated prospectively using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses and cross...

  8. Distribution and correlates of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in Lebanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannagé-Yared, Marie-Hélène; Farah, Vanessa; Chahine, Elise; Balech, Nicole; Ibrahim, Toni; Asmar, Nadia; Barakett-Hamadé, Vanda; Jambart, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidelmia in pediatric Middle-Eastern populations is unknown. Our study aims to investigate the distribution and correlates of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides among Lebanese school children. A total of 969 subjects aged 8-18 years were included in the study (505 boys and 464 girls). Recruitment was done from 10 schools located in the Great Beirut and Mount-Lebanon areas. Non-fasting total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. Non-HDL-C was calculated. Schools were categorized into 3 socioeconomic statuses (SESs; low, middle, and high). In the overall population, the prevalence of high non-HDL-C (>3.8 mmol/L), very high non-HDL-C (>4.9 mmol/L), and high triglycerides (>1.5 mmol/l) are respectively 9.2%, 1.24%, and 26.6%. There is no significant gender difference for non-HDL-C or triglycerides. Non-HDL-C and triglycerides are inversely correlated with age in girls (P triglycerides are higher in children from lower SES schools. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), testosterone is inversely associated with triglycerides in boys (P triglycerides are independently associated with BMI and schools' SES in both girls and boys. This study confirms, in our population, the association between obesity and both high non-HDL-C and triglycerides, and between high triglycerides and low SES. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma 27-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratio is increased in low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Valéria S; Leança, Camila C; Panzoldo, Natália B; Parra, Eliane; Zago, Vanessa; Cazita, Patrícia M; Nakandakare, Edna R; de Faria, Eliana C; Quintão, Eder C R

    2013-10-01

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) which is widely distributed among tissues and is expressed at high levels in the vascular endothelium and macrophages. There is a continuous flow of this oxysterol from the tissues into the liver, where it is converted to bile acids. Measure plasma concentrations of 27-OHC in subjects that differ according to their plasma HDL-C concentration. Healthy men presenting low HDL-C (1.55 mmol/L), n=18, BMIm² were recruited after excluding secondary causes that might interfere with their plasma lipid concentrations such as smoking, heavy drinking and diabetes. Blood samples were drawn after a 12h fasting period for the measurement of 27-OHC by the combined GC/MS analysis utilizing deuterium-label internal standards. The plasma ratio 27-OHC/total cholesterol (median and range nmoL/mmoL) was 50.41 (27.47-116.00) in the High HDL-C subjects and 63.34 (36.46-91.18) in the Low HDL-C subjects (p=0.0258). Our data indicate that the production of 27-OHC by extrahepatic tissues and its transport to the liver may represent an alternative pathway for a deficient reverse cholesterol transport system when plasma HDL-C is low. © 2013.

  10. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on the risks of stroke: a result from the Kailuan study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Wu

    Full Text Available AIMS: To prospectively explore the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC and the risks of stroke and its subtypes. METHODS: A total of 95,916 participants (18-98 years old; 76,354 men and 19,562 women from a Chinese urban community who were free of myocardial infarction and stroke at baseline time point (2006-2007 were eligible and enrolled in the study. The serum non-HDLC levels of participants were determined by subtracting the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC from total serum cholesterol. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of stroke, which was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria and classified into three subtypes: ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate risk of stroke and its subtypes. RESULTS: During the four-year follow-up, we identified 1614 stroke events (1,156 ischemic, 416 intracerebral hemorrhagic and 42 subarachnoid hemorrhagic. Statistical analyses showed that hazard ratios (HR (95% Confidence Interval: CI of serum Non-HDLC level for total and subtypes of stroke were: 1.08 (1.03-1.12 (total, 1.10 (1.05-1.16 (ischemic, 1.03 (0.96-1.10 (intracerebral hemorrhage and 0.83 (0.66-1.05 (subarachnoid hemorrhage. HR for non-HDLC refers to the increase per each 20 mg/dl. For total and ischemic stroke, the risks were significantly higher in the fourth and fifth quintiles of non-HDLC concentrations compared to the first quintile after adjusting the confounding factors (total stroke: 4(th quintile HR=1.33 (1.12-1.59; 5(th quintile HR = 1.36 (1.15-1.62; ischemic stroke: 4(th quintile HR =1.34 (1.09-1.66; 5(th quintile HR = 1.53 (1.24-1.88. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that serum non-HDLC level is an independent risk factor for total and ischemic stroke, and that higher serum non-HDLC concentrations are associated with increased risks for total stroke and ischemic stroke, but not

  11. Low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and risk of incident diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Lyass, Asya; Larson, Martin G

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Statins and niacin (nicotinic acid) reduce circulating LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by different mechanisms. Yet, both increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. Our objective was to relate blood LDL-C concentrations and a genetic risk score (GRS) for LDL-C to the risk of incident...

  12. Use of 3H-colesterol and its kinetics to assess the dynamics of the cholesterol metabolism in human lipoprotein fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, K.D.; Marek, H.; Fieber, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of the dynamics of 3 H cholesterols in very low, low and high density lipoproteins, resp. lipoproteins after oral administration in normal subjects and in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia type II a and II b is described. Specific activity-time-curves of the lipoprotein fractions isolated by means of discontinuous ultracentrifugation were recorded. In order to optimize the centrifugation activity-electrophoresis-profiles of the separating steps were recorded. The fractions obtained were characterized by the determination of cholesterol, agarose electrophoresis and radioactivity measurement. The turnover of the tracer in the lipoproteins was determined on the basis of the maximum values of the specific activity-time-curves. Hyperlipoproteinemia patients showed time shifts of the maximum values especially with regard to esterized cholesterols and high density lipoprotein cholesterol as compared to healthy persons. (author)

  13. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging.

  14. Agonistic Human Antibodies Binding to Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Modulate High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardane, Ruwanthi N.; Fordstrom, Preston; Piper, Derek E.; Masterman, Stephanie; Siu, Sophia; Liu, Dongming; Brown, Mike; Lu, Mei; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Richard; Cheng, Janet; Gates, Andrew; Meininger, David; Chan, Joyce; Carlson, Tim; Walker, Nigel; Schwarz, Margrit; Delaney, John; Zhou, Mingyue

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery opportunities where loss-of-function alleles of a target gene link to a disease-relevant phenotype often require an agonism approach to up-regulate or re-establish the activity of the target gene. Antibody therapy is increasingly recognized as a favored drug modality due to multiple desirable pharmacological properties. However, agonistic antibodies that enhance the activities of the target enzymes are rarely developed because the discovery of agonistic antibodies remains elusive. Here we report an innovative scheme of discovery and characterization of human antibodies capable of binding to and agonizing a circulating enzyme lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Utilizing a modified human LCAT protein with enhanced enzymatic activity as an immunogen, we generated fully human monoclonal antibodies using the XenoMouseTM platform. One of the resultant agonistic antibodies, 27C3, binds to and substantially enhances the activity of LCAT from humans and cynomolgus macaques. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the 2.45 Å LCAT-27C3 complex shows that 27C3 binding does not induce notable structural changes in LCAT. A single administration of 27C3 to cynomolgus monkeys led to a rapid increase of plasma LCAT enzymatic activity and a 35% increase of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol that was observed up to 32 days after 27C3 administration. Thus, this novel scheme of immunization in conjunction with high throughput screening may represent an effective strategy for discovering agonistic antibodies against other enzyme targets. 27C3 and other agonistic human anti-human LCAT monoclonal antibodies described herein hold potential for therapeutic development for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26644477

  15. Birth Weight, Cord Blood Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein Levels in Indian Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmi Kharb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Primordial prevention of chronic disease is of clinical andpublic health importance. Considering the fetal onset of atherosclerosis,we aimed to determine the cord blood level of lipoproteins andapolipoproteins as well as their correlation with birth weight and gestationalage.Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 100 healthy Indiannewborns. Ten ml. of cord blood was collected from placental end ofumbilical vein. Serum was separated by centrifugation and analyzed onthe same day for lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides(TG, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C, very lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL and low density lipoproteincholesterol(LDL-C, apolipoproteins A-I and B (ApoA-I, ApoB.Atherogenic index (AI was calculated as the ratio of ApoB to ApoA-I.Results: Cord blood of female newborns had higher TC, HDL-C,LDL-C, Apo A-I, Apo B and AI as compared to male newborns,whereas TG and VLDL-C were higher in male than in female newborns.Significant positive correlation was observed between cordblood Apo A-I and HDL-C (r= 0.45, p0.05.Conclusions: These findings are another confirmatory evidence forthe association of prenatal factors with cord blood lipid profile, andcan serve as starting point for studying lipid transport system changesduring early life.

  16. Lower Squalene Epoxidase and Higher Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Protein Levels Are Involved in Reduced Serum Cholesterol Levels in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michihara, Akihiro; Mido, Mayuko; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Yurika

    2015-01-01

    A lower serum cholesterol level was recently shown to be one of the causes of stroke in an epidemiological study. Spontaneously hypertensive rats stroke-prone (SHRSP) have lower serum cholesterol levels than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP, we determined whether the amounts of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes or the receptor and transporter involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux in the liver were altered in SHRSP. When the mRNA levels of seven cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and squalene epoxidase (SQE) levels in the liver of SHRSP were significantly lower than those in WKY. SQE protein levels were significantly reduced in tissues other than the brain of SHRSP. No significant differences were observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (uptake of serum LDL-cholesterol) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (efflux of cholesterol from the liver/formation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) protein levels in the liver and testis between SHRSP and WKY, whereas scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1: uptake of serum HDL-cholesterol) protein levels were higher in the livers of SHRSP. These results indicated that the lower protein levels of SQE and higher protein levels of SRB1 in the liver were involved in the reduced serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP.

  17. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is more likely to clog blood vessels because ... Here's a way to remember the difference: the LDL cholesterol is the bad kind, so call it "lousy" ...

  18. STUDY OF LIPOPROTEIN (A LEVELS AS A RISK FACTOR IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun S. Menon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lipoprotein (a has been identified as an important, independent, causal risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases, but its association with hypertension has shown differing results. The studies regarding this association are limited. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In the present study, the levels of Lp (a and other lipid parameters like Serum Total Cholesterol, Serum LDL Cholesterol, Serum HDL Cholesterol, serum triglycerides have been studied in hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients to investigate any significant relationship between the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 essential hypertensive patients were selected and were compared with 30 controls matched in terms of age and sex. Lipid profile including Total cholesterol, LDL- Cholesterol, HDL- Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Lp (a were studied in both groups. RESULTS Hypertensive patients were observed to have higher levels of Serum Total Cholesterol, Serum Triglycerides, Serum LDL cholesterol, but it was not found to be significant. But lipoprotein (a was found to be significantly higher (p<0.01 in cases than in controls.

  19. Cholesterol concentrations in lipoprotein fractions separated by anion-exchange-high-performance liquid chromatography in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Hitomi; Mori, Akihiro; Hirowatari, Yuji; Takoura, Toshie; Manita, Daisuke; Takahashi, Tomoya; Shono, Saori; Onozawa, Eri; Mizutani, Hisashi; Miki, Yohei; Itabashi, Yukiko; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-10-01

    Anion-exchange (AEX)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for measurement of cholesterol can be used to separate serum lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein (HDL); low-density lipoprotein (LDL); intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL); very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)) in humans. However, AEX-HPLC has not been applied in veterinary practice. We had three objectives: (i) the validation of AEX-HPLC methods including the correlation of serum cholesterol concentration in lipoprotein fraction measured by AEX-HPLC and gel permeation-HPLC (GP-HPLC) in healthy dogs and those with hypercholesterolemia was investigated; (ii) the reference intervals of lipoprotein fractions measured by AEX-HPLC from healthy dogs (n=40) was established; (iii) lipoprotein fractions from the serum of healthy dogs (n=12) and dogs with hypercholesterolemia (n=23) were compared. Analytic reproducibility and precision of AEX-HPLC were acceptable. Positive correlation between serum concentrations of total cholesterol (Total-Chol), HDL cholesterol (HDL-Chol), LDL cholesterol (LDL-Chol)+IDL cholesterol (IDL-Chol), and VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-Chol) was noted for AEX-HPLC and GP-HPLC in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercholesterolemia. Reference intervals measured by AEX-HPLC for serum concentrations of Total-Chol, HDL-Chol, and LDL-Chol were determined to be 2.97-9.32, 2.79-6.57, 0.16-3.28mmol/L (2.5-97.5% interval), respectively. Furthermore, there was significant difference in lipoprotein profiles between healthy and dogs with hypercholesterolemia. These results suggest that AEX-HPLC can be used to evaluate lipoprotein profiles in dogs and could be a new useful indicator of hyperlipidemia in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Addition of Garlic Extract in Ration to Reduce Cholesterol Level of Broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, M. M. D.; Pantaya, D.; Agus, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of garlic extract (GE) in reducing cholesterol level of broiler chicken by analyzing cholesterol level of broiler chicken blood. Two hundred one day broiler age were used in this study for 35 days. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatments, each treatment consist of five replications and each repetition consist of ten chickens. This research is used completely randomized design, such as: T0: 0% EBP, T1: 2%, T2: 4% and T3: 6%. Furthermore, at age 35 days each chicken was taken blood to be analyzed cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calculated the ratio of LDL and HDL levels. The data obtained were analyzed using software from Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0). The results of significant analysis continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Addition of GE from the 2% level decreases (P <0.05) of LDL and total cholesterol, and increases HDL and HDL-LDL ratio. The conclusions is obtained garlic extract plays an important role in lowering cholesterol levels of broiler meat.

  1. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette

    2001-01-01

    , plasma fatty acids, and preheparin lipoprotein lipase and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activities. Design: Six test fats high (approximate to 43% by wt) in stearic acid, palmitic acid, palmitic + myristic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid (trans 18:1), and linoleic acid were produced...... to the test-fat meals were observed for plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid concentrations, and lipoprotein lipase and CETP activities (diet x time interaction: 0.001 acids stearic and palmitic acids resulted......Background: There is increasing evidence that postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins may be related to atherogenic risk. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of individual fatty acid intakes on postprandial plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations...

  2. Suppression of cholesterol synthesis in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia by her own low density lipoprotein density fraction. A possible role of apolipoprotein E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, L.; Vermeer, B.J.; Wit, E. de

    1980-01-01

    The suppression of cellular cholesterol synthesis by low density lipoprotein (LDL) from a normal and from a homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic subject was measured on normal fibroblasts and on fibroblasts derived from the same homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic patient. On normal

  3. Baseline characteristics of participants in the JUPITER trial, a randomized placebo-controlled primary prevention trial of statin therapy among individuals with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridker, Paul M.; Fonseca, Francisco A. H.; Genest, Jacques; Gotto, Antonio M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khurmi, Nardev S.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Libby, Peter; Lorenzatti, Alberto J.; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Shepherd, James; Willerson, James T.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The Justification for the Use of statins in Primary prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial of statin therapy among persons with average to low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol

  4. Hip circumference is associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol response following statin therapy in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio-Magalhães, J A; Ferreira-Sae, M C; Souza, F A; Grespan-Magossi, A M; Schreiber, R; Velloso, L A; Geloneze, B; Franchini, K G; Nadruz, W

    2011-10-01

    This report investigated the relationship between anthropometric measurements of body fat distribution and lipid response to statins in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive patients. We prospectively examined 129 subjects who used either simvastatin 20 mg/day (no.=83) or atorvastatin 10 mg/day (no.=46) for 3 months. Anthropometry included evaluation of body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip-ratio. Significant decreases in LDL (pcorrelation between waist circumference and HDLcholesterol levels was detected (r=-0.18; p=0.04). Conversely, a direct relationship between hip circumference and HDLcholesterol response to statins was found in the whole sample (r=0.24; p=0.006), while no other anthropometric measurement displayed significant correlation with lipid changes. The association between HDL-cholesterol response and hip circumference was further confirmed by stepwise regression analysis adjusted for baseline HDL-cholesterol levels, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, and waist circumference. Hip circumference, a surrogate marker of peripheral adiposity, is associated with HDL-cholesterol changes following statin therapy in hypertensive patients.

  5. Trans-intestinal cholesterol effl ux is not mediated through high density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, C.L.; Ottenhoff, R.; Oever, K. van den; Waart, D.R. de; Kruyt, J.K.; Zhao, Y.; Berkel, T.J. van; Havekes, L.M.; Aerts, J.M.; Eck, M. van; Rensen, P.C.; Groen, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) provides an attractive target to increase body cholesterol excretion. At present, the cholesterol donor responsible for direct delivery of plasma cholesterol to the intestine is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of HDL in TICE. ATP-binding

  6. Trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux is not mediated through high density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; van den Oever, Karin; de Waart, Dirk R.; Kruyt, J. Kar; Zhao, Ying; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Havekes, Louis M.; Aerts, Johannes M.; van Eck, Miranda; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Groen, Albert K.

    2012-01-01

    Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) provides an attractive target to increase body cholesterol excretion. At present, the cholesterol donor responsible for direct delivery of plasma cholesterol to the intestine is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of HDL in TICE. ATP-binding

  7. Cholesterol lipoproteins and prevalence of dyslipidemias in urban Asian Indians: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soneil Guptha

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Mean cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are low and triglycerides were high in urban Asian Indians. Most prevalent dyslipidemias are borderline high LDL, low HDL and high triglycerides. Subjects with high socioeconomic status, high fat intake and greater adiposity have higher total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol.

  8. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye-Rin; Shin, Sae-Ron; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and sub...

  9. The biology of PCSK9 from the endoplasmic reticulum to lysosomes: new and emerging therapeutics to control low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Steve Poirier,1,2 Gaétan Mayer1–31Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, QC, Canada; 2Départements de Pharmacologie, 3Médecine, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 directly binds to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A domain of low-density lipoprotein receptor and induces its degradation, thereby controlling circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentration. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 can decrease the incidence of coronary heart disease by up to 88%, owing to lifelong reduction of LDL-C. Moreover, two subjects with PCSK9 loss-of-function mutations on both alleles, resulting in a total absence of functional PCSK9, were found to have extremely low circulating LDL-C levels without other apparent abnormalities. Accordingly, PCSK9 could represent a safe and effective pharmacological target to increase clearance of LDL-C and to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Recent clinical trials using anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies that block the PCSK9:low-density lipoprotein receptor interaction were shown to considerably reduce LDL-C levels by up to 65% when given alone and by up to 72% in patients already receiving statin therapy. In this review, we will discuss how major scientific breakthroughs in PCSK9 cell biology have led to the development of new and forthcoming LDL-C-lowering pharmacological agents.Keywords: PCSK9, LDLR, LDL-cholesterol, lipoproteins, coronary heart disease, inhibitors, monoclonal antibody therapy

  10. Lipoprotein lipase gene variants: Association with acute myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahyar Bahrami

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... ated with acute myocardial infarction but with triglyceride levels. У 2015 The ... C) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. (HDL-C) are .... relationship between LDL, HDL, cholesterol and TG levels with LPL ...

  11. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol

  12. [Relationship between Ghrelin polymorphism and serum lipoprotein levels in Han Chinese with or without coronary heart disease risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yu-huan; Wang, Jun-hong; Zhang, Chun-hong; Ni, Hong-yan; Yuan, Xiao-hong

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of Ghrelin gene and serum levels of lipoprotein in Han Chinese with or without coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was used to detect the distribution of genotypes of Ghrelin gene in 225 Han Chinese (40 to 69 years-old) with CHD risk factors, 78 subjects without CHD risk factors served as normal controls. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were measured to analyze the relationship with the polymorphism of Ghrelin gene. Ghrelin genotype frequencies of AA, AG, GG (0.975, 0.025, 0.00 in control group and 0.956, 0.040, 0.004 in the high-risk group, all P > 0.05) as well as the allele frequencies of A, G (0.987, 0.013 in control group and 0.976, 0.024 in the high-risk group, all P > 0.05) were similar between the groups. HDL-C levels of the Arg/Gln carriers were significantly lower than those of Arg/Arg carriers in control group and in the high-risk group (all P < 0.05). Arg/Gln carriers were associated lower HDL-C levels in Han Chinese.

  13. Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aim to determine the serum levels of trace metals and correlate same with serum levels of lipoproteins (an established marker of HBP) in newly diagnosed hypertensives (NDH) A total of 50 NDH subjects (24 males and 26 females) attending Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo ...

  14. Low plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activities in growth hormone deficient and acromegalic men: role in altered high density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, JAM; van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency and acromegaly may be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Little is known about alterations in high density lipoproteins (HDL) in these conditions. Lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) has the ability to esterify free cholesterol (FC) in HDL.

  15. Lipoprotein Lipase and PPAR Alpha Gene Polymorphisms, Increased Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels, and Decreased High-Density Lipoprotein Levels as Risk Markers for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Dias Teixeira Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis (VL endemic areas, a minority of infected individuals progress to disease since most of them develop protective immunity. Therefore, we investigated the risk markers of VL within nonimmune sector. Analyzing infected symptomatic and, asymptomatic, and noninfected individuals, VL patients presented with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triacylglycerol (TAG, and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C levels. A polymorphism analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL gene using HindIII restriction digestion (N = 156 samples (H+ = the presence and H− = the absence of mutation revealed an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR of VL versus noninfected individuals when the H+/H+ was compared with the H−/H− genotype (OR = 21.3; 95% CI = 2.32–3335.3; P = 0.003. The H+/H+ genotype and the H+ allele were associated with elevated VLDL-C and TAG levels (P < 0.05 and reduced HDL-C levels (P < 0.05. An analysis of the L162V polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα gene (n = 248 revealed an increased adjusted OR when the Leu/Val was compared with the Leu/Leu genotype (OR = 8.77; 95% CI = 1.41–78.70; P = 0.014. High TAG (P = 0.021 and VLDL-C (P = 0.023 levels were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas low HDL (P = 0.006 levels with resistance to infection. The mutated LPL and the PPARα Leu/Val genotypes may be considered risk markers for the development of VL.

  16. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. Methods A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Results From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  17. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  18. Combined measurement of plasma cystatin C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: A valuable tool for evaluating progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ruihui; Wei, Xiaobo; Yu, Bin; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yang, Xiaohua; Xie, Fen; Zhang, Mahui; Jiang, Ying; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo; Xia, Ying; Jin, Kunlin; Chan, Piu; Wang, Qing; Gao, Xiaoya

    2018-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) was previously thought as a cause of atypical Parkinsonism. Although Cystatin C (Cys C) and low-density cholesterol lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) are known to play critical roles in Parkinsonism, it is unknown whether they can be used as markers to distinguish PSP patients from healthy subjects and to determine disease severity. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine plasma Cys C/HDL/LDL-C levels of 40 patients with PSP and 40 healthy age-matched controls. An extended battery of motor and neuropsychological tests, including the PSP-Rating Scale (PSPRS), the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), was used to evaluate the disease severity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were adopted to assess the prognostic accuracy of Cys C/LDL-C levels in distinguishing PSP from healthy subjects. Patients with PSP exhibited significantly higher plasma levels of Cys C and lower LDL-C. The levels of plasma Cys C were positively and inversely correlated with the PSPRS/NMSS and MMSE scores, respectively. The LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with PSPRS/NMSS and GDS scores. The ROC curve for the combination of Cys C and LDL-C yielded a better accuracy for distinguishing PSP from healthy subjects than the separate curves for each parameter. Plasma Cys C and LDL-C may be valuable screening tools for differentiating PSP from healthy subjects; while they could be useful for the PSP intensifies and severity evaluation. A better understanding of Cys C and LDL-C may yield insights into the pathogenesis of PSP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cholesterol and Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fats and oil in the diet on the other hand. Gallstones result from ... such factors as high levels of estrogens, multiple pregnancies, obesity, genetic factors and certain ... protein with an inner core of cholesterol and triglycerides. Lipoproteins are ...

  20. Interaction between TCF7L2 polymorphism and dietary fat intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Bodhini

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2 gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs17782313 and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146 and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT (n = 821 and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D (n = 861 recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P = 0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day (Pinteraction = 0.0001 on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, where the 'T' allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P = 0.008 and those in the highest tertile (P = 0.017 had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day (Pinteraction<0.0001 on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P = 0.024 and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P = 0.028 than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day on HDL

  1. Comparison of apolipoprotein (apoB/apoA-I and lipoprotein (total cholesterol/HDL ratio determinants. Focus on obesity, diet and alcohol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Tognon

    Full Text Available The ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I has been suggested to be a powerful and more accurate predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk than total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Since diet and lifestyle can directly influence dyslipidemia, it is of interest to identify modifiable factors that are associated with high levels of the apolipoprotein ratio and if they can have a different association with a more traditional indicator of cardiovascular risk such as total cholesterol/HDL. The relationship between obesity and dyslipidemia is established and it is of interest to determine which factors can modify this association. This study investigated the cross-sectional association of obesity, diet and lifestyle factors with apoB/apoA-I and total cholesterol/HDL respectively, in a Swedish population of 2,907 subjects (1,537 women as part of the INTERGENE study. The apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios were highly correlated, particularly in women, and obesity was strongly associated with both. Additionally, age, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake were important determinants of these ratios. Alcohol was the only dietary factor that appreciably attenuated the association between obesity and each of the ratios, with a stronger attenuation in women. Other dietary intake and lifestyle-related factors such as smoking status and physical activity had a lower effect on this association. Because the apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios share similar diet and lifestyle determinants as well as being highly correlated, we conclude that either of these ratios may be a sufficient indicator of dyslipidemia.

  2. Normal cholesterol levels with lovastatin (Mevinolin) therapy in a child with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia following liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, C.; Grundy, S.M.; Bilheimer, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia produce no normal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and as a result, LDL accumulates in plasma, causing severe premature atherosclerosis. Two years ago, liver transplantation was performed in a child with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, restoring LDL receptor activity to about 60% of normal and reducing the LDL cholesterol level by 81%. However, the patient's lipoprotein levels remained significantly elevated for her age and sex. Treatment with lovastatin (mevinolin) one year after transplantation produced a marked improvement in the patient's lipoprotein profile. The total and LDL cholesterol levels fell 40% and 49%, respectively, to values within the normal range. The level of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fell 41%, and the level of total triglycerides declined 28%. While lovastatin therapy decreased the production rate of LDL by 35%, it did not affect the LDL fractional clearance rate. Thus, the combination of liver transplantation and lovastatin restored total and LDL cholesterol levels to normal in this patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

  3. Impact of hydrogenated fat consumption on endogenous cholesterol synthesis and susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchel, M; Schwab, U S; Jones, P J; Vogel, S; Lammi-Keefe, C; Li, Z; Ordovas, J; McNamara, J R; Schaefer, E J; Lichtenstein, A H

    1996-02-01

    The effects of replacing corn oil with corn oil margarine in stick form on endogenous cholesterol synthesis and susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation were assessed in 14 middle-aged and elderly men and women aged 63 +/- 12 years (mean +/- SD) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (mean LDL-cholesterol [LDL-C], 4.24 +/- 0.59 mmol/L at the time of recruitment). Subjects consumed each of two diets for 32-day periods, one enriched in corn oil, which contained 30% of energy as fat (7% saturated fatty acid [SFA], 9% monounsaturated fatty acid [MUFA] [0.4% 18:1n9 trans], and 11% polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA]) and 85 mg cholesterol/4.2 MJ, and one enriched in stick corn oil margarine, which contained 30% fat (8% SFA, 12% MUFA [4.2% 18:1n9trans], and 8% PUFA) and 77 mg cholesterol/4.2 MJ. Both diets were isocaloric and supplied by a metabolic research kitchen. Mean total cholesterol levels were lowest (P = .039) when subjects consumed the corn oil-enriched diet (5.01 +/- 0.51 mmol/L) as compared with the margarine-enriched diet (5.30 +/- 0.58 mmol/L). LDL-C levels were 3.24 +/- 0.51 and 3.50 +/- 0.54 mmol/L when subjects consumed corn oil-and margarine-enriched diets, respectively (P = .058). There were no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or triglyceride concentrations between the two experimental periods. Consumption of the margarine-enriched diet versus the corn oil-enriched diet tended to result in lower cholesterol fractional synthetic rates ([C-FSRs] 0.0466 +/- 0.0175 and 0.0668 +/- 0.0298, respectively, P = .080) and cholesterol absolute synthetic rates ([C-ASRs] 1.1761 +/- 0.5375 and 1.6954 +/- 0.8685, respectively, P = .092); however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Consumption of the margarine-enriched diet versus the corn oil-enriched diet resulted in a significantly higher concentration of alpha-tocopherol in both plasma and LDL(P = .004 and P = .011, respectively). LDL particle

  4. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  5. Circulating PCSK9 affects serum LDL and cholesterol levels more than SREBP-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Asghar; Shabani, Mohamad; Naseri, Faezeh; Hosseni, Bita; Soltanmohammadi, Elham; Piran, Sadegh; Najafi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is dependent upon the sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) regulatory system and the functioning of plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Many studies have also reported that low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels in cellular membranes are related to the functioning of these proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of lipid profiles with circulating PCSK9 protein values and SREBP-2 expression levels in normal subjects. The study involved 120 randomly chosen healthy subjects. Their lipid profiles were measured using routine laboratory techniques, and the plasma PCSK9 protein and SREBP-2 expression levels were determined by ELISA and real time quantitative PCR methods, respectively. A statistical analysis was carried out using a statistical software package. Linear regression analyses showed a significant correlation between total cholesterol and PCSK9 (3.54 ± 1.31 ng/mL), as well as between total cholesterol and SREBP-2 (0.1-35.38) (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, multiple regression analyses showed strict correlations between PCSK9 and cholesterol-related parameters especially the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (β = 3.53, p = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between circulating PCSK9 and SREBP-2 expression levels (r = 1.2, p = 0.3). The study results revealed that serum cholesterol-related parameters are strictly associated with plasma PCSK9 values, suggesting that PCSK9 function has a greater effect on serum total cholesterol levels than SREBP-2 expression does. Furthermore, the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio was a better indicator for evaluating PCSK9 level than total cholesterol.

  6. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (re)absorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory) mechanisms. PMID:22018353

  7. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eussen Simone RBM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (reabsorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory mechanisms.

  8. Probucol selectively increases oxidation of atherogenic lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed mice and in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, S.T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    1999-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic and cholesterol-lowering drug probucol (0.5-1%) or quercetin (1%), a natural antioxidant, was given to cholesterol-fed (1.5%) mice for a period of 6 weeks and to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits for a period of 8 weeks to investigate the oxidative changes.......001) and cholesterol-fed mice (579.7 +/- 47.3 nmol/g vs. 408.1 +/- 85.8 nmol/g, P mice: P ... and thereby leads to a decrease in cholesterol levels....

  9. Pathways-driven sparse regression identifies pathways and genes associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in two Asian cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Silver

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK

  10. Pathways-Driven Sparse Regression Identifies Pathways and Genes Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Two Asian Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Matt; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Montana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK signalling and immune

  11. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  12. Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gylling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%–10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein

  13. Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Helena; Simonen, Piia

    2015-09-17

    The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%-10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein particles will be

  14. Remnant lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: To review recent advances in the field of remnant lipoproteins and remnant cholesterol with a focus on cardiovascular disease risk. Recent findings: In line with previous years' research, current observational, genetic, and mechanistic studies find remnant lipoproteins (defined...... of cardiovascular disease risk reduction through remnant lipoprotein lowering are under way....

  15. Pitavastatin 4 mg Provides Significantly Greater Reduction in Remnant Lipoprotein Cholesterol Compared With Pravastatin 40 mg: Results from the Short-term Phase IV PREVAIL US Trial in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P Elliott; Martin, Seth S; Joshi, Parag H; Jones, Steven R; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Sponseller, Craig A; Toth, Peter P

    2016-03-01

    Remnants are partially hydrolyzed, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that are implicated in atherosclerosis. We assessed the adequacy of pitavastatin 4 mg and pravastatin 40 mg in reducing atherogenic lipid parameters beyond LDL-C, in particular remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C). From the Phase IV, multicenter, randomized, double-blind PREVAIL US (A Study of Pitavastatin 4 mg Vs. Pravastatin 40 mg in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia) trial, we examined lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions using Vertical Auto Profile testing and apolipoproteins B and A-I at baseline and 12 weeks. Participants with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia had LDL-C levels of 130 to 220 mg/dL and triglyceride levels ≤ 400 mg/dL. In this post hoc analysis, changes in lipid parameters were compared by using ANCOVA. Lipoprotein subfraction data were available in 312 patients (pitavastatin, n = 157; pravastatin, n = 155). Pitavastatin promoted a greater reduction in RLP-C than pravastatin (-13.6 [8.7] vs -9.3 [9.5] mg/dL). Furthermore, the pitavastatin group reported greater reductions in both components of RLP-C (both, P < 0.001): intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-9.5 [6.3] vs -6.4 [6.6] mg/dL) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfraction 3 (-4.1 [3.5] vs -2.9 [3.8] mg/dL). There were also greater reductions in the major ratios of risk (apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and total cholesterol/HDL-C) (both, P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in HDL-C, its subfractions, or natural log lipoprotein(a)-cholesterol. The mean age was 58.8 ± 8.9 years in the pitavastatin group and 57.0 ± 10.2 years in the pravastatin group. Compared with pravastatin 40 mg daily, pitavastatin 4 mg provided superior reductions in atherogenic lipid parameters beyond LDL-C, including RLP-C. Future studies are needed investigate the clinical implications of lowering directly measured RLP-C as the principal target. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier

  16. Meta-regression analysis of the effect of trans fatty acids on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bruce C; Vincent, Melissa J; Liska, DeAnn; Haber, Lynne T

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a meta-regression of controlled clinical trial data to investigate quantitatively the relationship between dietary intake of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Previous regression analyses included insufficient data to determine the nature of the dose response in the low-dose region and have nonetheless assumed a linear relationship between iTFA intake and LDL-C levels. This work contributes to the previous work by 1) including additional studies examining low-dose intake (identified using an evidence mapping procedure); 2) investigating a range of curve shapes, including both linear and nonlinear models; and 3) using Bayesian meta-regression to combine results across trials. We found that, contrary to previous assumptions, the linear model does not acceptably fit the data, while the nonlinear, S-shaped Hill model fits the data well. Based on a conservative estimate of the degree of intra-individual variability in LDL-C (0.1 mmoL/L), as an estimate of a change in LDL-C that is not adverse, a change in iTFA intake of 2.2% of energy intake (%en) (corresponding to a total iTFA intake of 2.2-2.9%en) does not cause adverse effects on LDL-C. The iTFA intake associated with this change in LDL-C is substantially higher than the average iTFA intake (0.5%en). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Cholesterol Efflux Capacity, High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number, and Incident Cardiovascular Events: An Analysis From the JUPITER Trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Amit V; Demler, Olga V; Adelman, Steven J; Collins, Heidi L; Glynn, Robert J; Ridker, Paul M; Rader, Daniel J; Mora, Samia

    2017-06-20

    Recent failures of drugs that raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels to reduce cardiovascular events in clinical trials have led to increased interest in alternative indices of HDL quality, such as cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL quantity, such as HDL particle number. However, no studies have directly compared these metrics in a contemporary population that includes potent statin therapy and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. HDL cholesterol levels, apolipoprotein A-I, cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL particle number were assessed at baseline and 12 months in a nested case-control study of the JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized primary prevention trial that compared rosuvastatin treatment to placebo in individuals with normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but increased C-reactive protein levels. In total, 314 cases of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, arterial revascularization, stroke, or cardiovascular death) were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models adjusting for risk factors evaluated associations between HDL-related biomarkers and incident CVD. Cholesterol efflux capacity was moderately correlated with HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and HDL particle number (Spearman r = 0.39, 0.48, and 0.39 respectively; P capacity (OR/SD, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; P =0.28), HDL cholesterol (OR/SD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.02; P =0.08), or apolipoprotein A-I (OR/SD, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.03; P =0.08). Twelve months of rosuvastatin (20 mg/day) did not change cholesterol efflux capacity (average percentage change -1.5%, 95% CI, -13.3 to +10.2; P =0.80), but increased HDL cholesterol (+7.7%), apolipoprotein A-I (+4.3%), and HDL particle number (+5.2%). On-statin cholesterol efflux capacity was inversely associated with incident CVD (OR/SD, 0.62; 95% CI, 0

  18. Atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice fed cholesterol and soybean oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Olsen, P.; Frandsen, H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study aortic atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic response to dietary cholesterol and soybean oil in homozygous LDLR-/- mice, the 16 weeks old animals were randomized in 4 groups either fed standard diet (no cholesterol added, group I, 12 male and 12 female), standard diet added 0.......5% cholesterol (group II, 12 male and 12 female), standard diet added 10% soybean oil (group Iii, 7 male) or standard diet added 0.5% cholesterol and 10% soybean oil (group IV, 7 male) for 14 weeks. At termination, the plasma cholesterol of males was: 9.4 mmol/I +/- 0.3 (SD) (group I), 34.4 +/- 6.2 (group II), 9...

  19. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris M. Jacobs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH. We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (CH in various lipoprotein (LP subclasses.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2 with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum.Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses.Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  20. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; de Roo, Niels; Trautwein, Elke A; van Duynhoven, John; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP) subclasses. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1 H NMR spectra of fasting serum. Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM) particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses. Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  1. Apolipoprotein A-I configuration and cell cholesterol efflux activity of discoidal lipoproteins depend on the reconstitution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Luz Ángela; Prieto, Eduardo Daniel; Cabaleiro, Laura Virginia; Garda, Horacio Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Discoidal high-density lipoproteins (D-HDL) are critical intermediates in reverse cholesterol transport. Most of the present knowledge of D-HDL is based on studies with reconstituted lipoprotein complexes of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) obtained by cholate dialysis (CD). D-HDL can also be generated by the direct microsolubilization (DM) of phospholipid vesicles at the gel/fluid phase transition temperature, a process mechanistically similar to the "in vivo" apoAI lipidation via ABCA1. We compared the apoA-I configuration in D-HDL reconstituted with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine by both procedures using fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements with apoA-I tryptophan mutants and fluorescently labeled cysteine mutants. Results indicate that apoA-I configuration in D-HDL depends on the reconstitution process and are consistent with a "double belt" molecular arrangement with different helix registry. As reported by others, a configuration with juxtaposition of helices 5 of each apoAI monomer (5/5 registry) predominates in D-HDL obtained by CD. However, a configuration with helix 5 of one monomer juxtaposed with helix 2 of the other (5/2 registry) would predominate in D-HDL generated by DM. Moreover, we also show that the kinetics of cholesterol efflux from macrophage cultures depends on the reconstitution process, suggesting that apoAI configuration is important for this HDL function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Farnworth, Edward R; Savard, Tony; Chabot, Denise; Mafu, Akier; Jones, Peter JH

    2002-01-01

    Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p < 0.05) fecal isobutyric, isovaleric and propionic acids as well as the total amount of fecal short chain fatty acids. Kefir supplementation resulted in increased fecal bacterial content in the majority of the subjects. Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent. PMID:11825344

  3. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafu Akier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.

  4. Plasma lipoprotein(a levels: a comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holanda Maurus Marques de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate lipoprotein(a (Lp(a, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL , triglycerides , apolipoprotein A (apo A and B100 (apo B100, uric acid, glycaemic and insulin plasmatic concentrations in patients affected by acute stroke. In this group of patients, we have compared the variables between type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients. METHOD: We evaluate a total of 34 non-diabetic patients (22 males and 12 females; mean age 66.71 ± 10.83 years and a group of 26 type 2 diabetic patients (15 males and 11 females; mean age 66.35 ± 9.92 years in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Mean Lp(a concentration did not significantly differ between type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects (29.49 ± 23.09 vs 44.81 ± 44.34 mg/dl. The distribution of Lp(alevels was highly skewed towards the higher levels in both groups, being over 30 mg/dl in 50%. Lp(a concentration was positively correlated with abdominal adiposity, using waist-hip ratio(WHR(p< 0.05. No association was found between Lp(a and others risk factors like sex, age, other lipidic parameters and the presence of stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that there were no significant differences between diabetic and non-diabetic patients' serum Lp(a levels, which indicates that elevated Lp(a levels were associated with ischemic stroke, irrespective of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM.

  5. Efficacy and safety of ETC-1002, a novel investigational low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol-lowering therapy for the treatment of patients with hypercholesterolemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Maria J; Rosenberg, Noah L; Macdougall, Diane E; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Margulies, Janice R; Strange, Poul; Milad, Mark A; McBride, Scott J; Newton, Roger S

    2014-03-01

    8-Hydroxy-2,2,14,14-tetramethylpentadecanedioic acid (ETC-1002) is a small molecule with a unique mechanism of action shown in nonclinical studies to modulate pathways of cholesterol, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. In previous phase 2 clinical trials, once daily oral treatment with ETC-1002 significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in patients with hypercholesterolemia. In this trial, the lipid-lowering efficacy of ETC-1002 was evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Additional cardiometabolic biomarkers, including glycemic measures, were also assessed. A single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Patients discontinued all diabetes mellitus and lipid-regulating drugs and were randomized to receive ETC-1002 80 mg QD for 2 weeks followed by 120 mg QD for 2 weeks or placebo for 4 weeks. ETC-1002 lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by 43±2.6% (least squares mean±SE), compared with a reduction of 4±2.5% by placebo at day 29 (Pdiabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia without worsening glycemic control. ETC-1002 was well tolerated in this population. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT# 01607294.

  6. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Cholesterol There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL and HDL. The cholesterol blood test tells how much of each kind you have. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. This type is most ...

  7. Association of Serum LDL Cholesterol Level with Periodontitis among Patients Visiting a Tertiary-care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sharma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In recent years, some evidence has been presented that periodontitis,an infectious inflammatory condition of the periodontium, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To further elucidate this association, we have studied the levels of LDL cholesterol, a known risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in a periodontally-diseased group. Methods: The levels of serum LDL cholesterol in 47 subjects with mild to severe (clinical attachment loss equal to or greater than 1 mm chronic generalized (at least 30% of teeth affected periodontitis with the mean age of 42.21 ± 1.46 years were measured and compared with those obtained from 42 age (39.83 ± 0.94 and sex matched controls. Both groups were free from systemic illnesses. Results: The mean serum LDL cholesterol in periodontitis patients was found to be signifi cantly higher (P < 0.001 as compared to that of the controls. The mean clinical attachment loss was positively correlated with serum LDL cholesterol (P < 0.01 and gingival index (P<0.05. The frequency of persons with pathologic values of LDL cholesterol was signifi cantly higher in periodontitis patients compared with that of the controls. Conclusions: These results showed that high serum LDL cholesterol may be associated with periodontitis in healthy people. However, it is unclear whether periodontitis causes an increase in the levels of serum LDL or an increased LDL is a risk factor for both periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, LDL cholesterol, periodontitis.

  8. "LIPOPROTEIN (a LEVELS AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN IRANIAN PATIENTS. IS THERE A LINK?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rezvan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a, an LDL variant, has been claimed to have a role in atherogenesis and therefore coronary artery disease (CAD. However, its production and atherogenecity seems to vary among ethnic groups. In order to study the possible correlation between levels of Lp(a and CAD in Iranian patients who suffered myocardial infarction (MI, a case-control study was carried out on 120 MI patients and 120 matched healthy subjects. Levels of Lp(a were significantly higher in the MI patients than the control group (P < 0.0001, which demonstrates a possible correlation between levels of Lp(a and CAD. Estimation of Lp (a may be helpful in evaluating the risk of CAD, particularly in those patients with borderline levels of triglycerides and cholesterol.

  9. Essential oil of Pinus koraiensis leaves exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an important factor to induce metabolic syndrome such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, some antihyperlipidemic agents from herbal medicines have been in the spotlight in the medical science field. Thus, the present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Pinus koraiensis SIEB (EOPK) that has been used as a folk remedy for heart disease. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that EOPK up-regulated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the mRNA level as well as negatively suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, SREBP-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) involved in lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. Also, western blotting showed that EOPK activated LDLR and attenuated the expression of FAS at the protein level in the cells. Consistently, EOPK significantly inhibited the level of human acylcoenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (hACAT)1 and 2 and reduced the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation activity. Furthermore, chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that EOPK, an essential oil mixture, contained camphene (21.11%), d-limonene (21.01%), α-pinene (16.74%) and borneol (11.52%). Overall, the findings suggest that EOPK can be a potent pharmaceutical agent for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  11. Relations between particle size of HDL and LDL lipoproteins and cholesterol esterification rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobiášová, Milada; Urbanová, Z.; Šamánek, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2005), s. 159-165 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NA6590; GA MZd(CZ) NR8328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : particle size of lipoproteins * FER(HDL) * Log(TG/HDL-C) Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  12. Oxidation of cholesterol moiety of low density lipoprotein in the presence of human endothelial cells or Cu+2 ions: identification of major products and their effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, S; Arshad, M A; Rymaszewski, Z; Norman, E; Wherley, R; Subbiah, M T

    1991-04-15

    Oxidation of lipoproteins is believed to play a key role in atherogenesis. In this study, low density lipoproteins (LDL) was subjected to oxidation in the presence of either human umbilical vein endothelial cells or with Cu+2 ions and the major oxides formed were identified. While cholesterol-alpha-epoxide (C-alpha EP) was the major product of cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of endothelial cells, cholest-3,5-dien-7-one (CD) predominated in the presence of Cu+2 ion. Both steroids were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. HDL cholesterol was resistant to oxidation. When tested on human skin fibroblasts in culture C-alpha EP (10 micrograms/ml) caused marked stimulation of 14C-oleate incorporation into cholesterol esters, while CD stimulated cholesterol esterification only mildly. These studies show that a) C-alpha EP is the major peroxidation product of LDL cholesterol moiety in the presence of endothelial cells and b) it causes marked stimulation of cholesterol esterification in cells. C-alpha EP may play a key role in increasing cholesterol esterification noted in atherogenesis.

  13. Oxidation of Cholesterol Does Not Alter Significantly Its Uptake into High-Density Lipoprotein Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karilainen, T.; Timr, Štěpán; Vattulainen, I.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 13 (2015), s. 4594-4600 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics * free energy profiles * cholesterol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.187, year: 2015

  14. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance associated with cholesterol-induced activation of macrophages is prevented by high density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Carey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL may modulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms including pancreatic insulin secretion as well as insulin-independent glucose uptake into muscle. We hypothesized that HDL may also increase skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity via cholesterol removal and anti-inflammatory actions in macrophages associated with excess adiposity and ectopic lipid deposition. METHODS: Human primary and THP-1 macrophages were treated with vehicle (PBS or acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL with or without HDL for 18 hours. Treatments were then removed, and macrophages were incubated with fresh media for 4 hours. This conditioned media was then applied to primary human skeletal myotubes derived from vastus lateralis biopsies taken from patients with type 2 diabetes to examine insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS: Conditioned media from acLDL-treated primary and THP-1 macrophages reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes compared with vehicle (primary macrophages, 168±21% of basal uptake to 104±19%; THP-1 macrophages, 142±8% of basal uptake to 108±6%; P<0.05. This was restored by co-treatment of macrophages with HDL. While acLDL increased total intracellular cholesterol content, phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages, none were altered by co-incubation with HDL. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in human skeletal myotubes exposed to conditioned media was unaltered by either treatment condition. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes by conditioned media from macrophages pre-incubated with acLDL was restored by co-treatment with HDL. However, these actions were not linked to modulation of common pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators or insulin signaling via Akt.

  15. [Phytosterols: another way to reduce LDL cholesterol levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzur, Rafael; Cohen, Hofit; Kamari, Yehuda; Harats, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Phytosterols are sterols found naturally in various oils from plants. Phytosterols compete with cholesterol for a place in the mixed micelles, needed for cholesterol absorption by the small intestine. As a result, cholesterol absorption, either from food or from bile salts is lowered by about 50%, leading to a towering of about 10% of blood cholesterol level, despite an increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. This reduction is achieved when phytosterols are given both as monotherapy, and in addition to statin therapy. The average Western diet contains about 400-800 mg of phytosterols per day, while the dose needed for lowering the blood cholesterol level is about 2-3 grams per day. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing blood cholesterol, they should be given either as phytosterol-enriched food or as supplements. The reduction in the level of LDL-choLesterol achieved with phytosterols may reduce the risk of coronary disease by about 25%. Hence, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of phytosterols, as part of a balanced diet, for towering blood cholesterol levels.

  16. Rational Targeting of Cellular Cholesterol in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Enabled by Functional Lipoprotein Nanoparticles: A Therapeutic Strategy Dependent on Cell of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Jonathan S; Yang, Shuo; Cen, Osman; Taxter, Tim; McMahon, Kaylin M; Misener, Sol; Behdad, Amir; Longnecker, Richard; Gordon, Leo I; Thaxton, C Shad

    2017-11-06

    Cancer cells have altered metabolism and, in some cases, an increased demand for cholesterol. It is important to identify novel, rational treatments based on biology, and cellular cholesterol metabolism as a potential target for cancer is an innovative approach. Toward this end, we focused on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as a model because there is differential cholesterol biosynthesis driven by B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in germinal center (GC) versus activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL. To specifically target cellular cholesterol homeostasis, we employed high-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles (HDL NP) that can generally reduce cellular cholesterol by targeting and blocking cholesterol uptake through the high-affinity HDL receptor, scavenger receptor type B-1 (SCARB1). As we previously reported, GC DLBCL are exquisitely sensitive to HDL NP as monotherapy, while ABC DLBCL are less sensitive. Herein, we report that enhanced BCR signaling and resultant de novo cholesterol synthesis in ABC DLBCL drastically reduces the ability of HDL NPs to reduce cellular cholesterol and induce cell death. Therefore, we combined HDL NP with the BCR signaling inhibitor ibrutinib and the SYK inhibitor R406. By targeting both cellular cholesterol uptake and BCR-associated de novo cholesterol synthesis, we achieved cellular cholesterol reduction and induced apoptosis in otherwise resistant ABC DLBCL cell lines. These results in lymphoma demonstrate that reduction of cellular cholesterol is a powerful mechanism to induce apoptosis. Cells rich in cholesterol require HDL NP therapy to reduce uptake and molecularly targeted agents that inhibit upstream pathways that stimulate de novo cholesterol synthesis, thus, providing a new paradigm for rationally targeting cholesterol metabolism as therapy for cancer.

  17. Current and future pharmacologic options for the management of patients unable to achieve low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol goals with statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Harchaoui, Karim; Akdim, Fatima; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Trip, Mieke D.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering is the mainstay of the current treatment guidelines in the management of cardiovascular risk. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are Currently the most effective LDL-C-lowering drugs. However, a substantial number of patients do not reach

  18. Dietary supplementation with d-tagatose in subjects with type 2 diabetes leads to weight loss and raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Thomas W; Magder, Laurence S; Zarbalian, Kiarash

    2010-12-01

    Oral d-tagatose (d-tag) attenuates the rise in plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and reduces food intake in healthy human subjects. A reduction in food consumption and less weight gain occur in rats fed tagatose. This pilot study explored the metabolic effects of d-tag given daily to 8 human subjects with type 2 DM for 1 year. We hypothesized that this treatment period would lead to weight loss and improvements in glycated hemoglobin and the lipid profile. A 2-month run-in period was followed by a 12-month treatment period when 15 g of oral d-tag was taken 3 times daily with food. No serious adverse effects were seen during the 12-month treatment period. Ten of the initially 12 recruited subjects experienced gastrointestinal side effects that tended to be mild and transient. When 3 subjects were excluded who had oral diabetes, medications added and/or dosages increased during the study and mean (SD) body weight declined from 108.4 (9.0) to 103.3 (7.3) kg (P = .001). Glycated hemoglobin fell nonsignificantly from 10.6% ± 1.9% to 9.6% ± 2.3% (P = .08). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol progressively rose from a baseline level of 30.5 ± 15.8 to 41.7 ± 12.1 mg/dL at month 12 in the 6 subjects who did not have lipid-modifying medications added during the study (P < .001). Significant improvements in body weight and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in this pilot study suggest that d-tag may be a potentially useful adjunct in the management of patients with type 2 DM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM.......005 between genders for the mean [95 % CI] fasting adjusted difference at 4.5 h in the change versus time 0 in LDL-C; gender by time interaction: p50.007 (repeated measures mixed model)). Conclusions. In T2DM patients served a fat-rich meal, levels of LDL-C decreased significantly more in women compared...

  20. Effect of the stage of lactation in humans on carotenoid levels in milk, blood plasma and plasma lipoprotein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Florian J; Bathe, Katharina; Chen, Frank; Büscher, Ulrich; Dudenhausen, Joachim W

    2004-02-01

    In mammals the composition of milk changes during early lactation, with a rapid decline of fat-soluble vitamins and a continuous increase in total lipids. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood, but might involve selective mechanisms related to mammary uptake or secretion into the milk. Since carotenoids are specifically distributed among the lipoprotein fractions in plasma, the simultaneous determination of carotenoids in plasma, lipoprotein fractions and milk might offer an opportunity to gain insight into this phenomenon. In 21 healthy mothers carotenoids in plasma and lipoprotein fractions were investigated at day 2 and 19 and milk on day 4 and 19 after delivery. Plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol as well as lutein, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin were significantly lower later in lactation (day 19) than shortly after birth (P milk, triacylglycerol increased (P milk it was similar to the pattern found in the high density lipoprotein fraction. Based on these observations a selective mechanism might be responsible for the transfer of these components in milk involving different lipoprotein fractions at specific times of lactation.

  1. Cholesterol pathways affected by small molecules that decrease sterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C mutant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Rujoi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a genetically inherited multi-lipid storage disorder with impaired efflux of cholesterol from lysosomal storage organelles.The effect of screen-selected cholesterol lowering compounds on the major sterol pathways was studied in CT60 mutant CHO cells lacking NPC1 protein. Each of the selected chemicals decreases cholesterol in the lysosomal storage organelles of NPC1 mutant cells through one or more of the following mechanisms: increased cholesterol efflux from the cell, decreased uptake of low-density lipoproteins, and/or increased levels of cholesteryl esters. Several chemicals promote efflux of cholesterol to extracellular acceptors in both non-NPC and NPC1 mutant cells. The uptake of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is inhibited by some of the studied compounds.Results herein provide the information for prioritized further studies in identifying molecular targets of the chemicals. This approach proved successful in the identification of seven chemicals as novel inhibitors of lysosomal acid lipase (Rosenbaum et al, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2009, 1791:1155-1165.

  2. Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and Hypertensive Pregnant and Parturient Nigerian Women. Kashope D. Thomas, Oyebola G. Adeosun, Norah O. Akinola, Uche Onwudiegwu, Alexander T. Owolabi ...

  3. Impact of high-density lipoprotein 3 cholesterol subfraction on periprocedural myocardial injury in patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Susumu; Tanaka, Akihito; Aoki, Toshijiro; Iwakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hirayama, Kenshi; Mitsuda, Takayuki; Sumi, Takuya; Negishi, Yosuke; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2018-02-02

    Periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) is a major complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is associated with atherosclerotic coronary plaque and worse clinical outcomes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a protective factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the role of HDL-C subfractions, such as HDL2 cholesterol (HDL2-C) or HDL3 cholesterol (HDL3-C), in cardiovascular disease remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between HDL2-C and HDL3-C subfractions and the incidence of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI. We enrolled 129 patients who underwent elective PCI for stable angina pectoris. PMI was defined as an increase in high-sensitivity troponin T levels > 5 times the upper normal limit (> 0.070 ng/mL) at 24 h after PCI. Serum HDL-C subfractions (HDL2-C and HDL3-C) were assessed using ultracentrifugation in patients with and those without PMI. HDL3-C levels were significantly lower in patients with PMI than in those without (15.1 ± 3.0 mg/dL vs. 16.4 ± 2.9 mg/dL, p = 0.016) and had an independent and inverse association with PMI (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99; p = 0.038). When divided by the cut-off value of HDL3-C for PMI (14.3 mg/dL), the incidence of PMI was significantly higher in low HDL3-C patients than in high HDL3-C patients (51.2% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.020). HDL3-C was an independent inverse predictor of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI.

  4. GUAVA JUICE REDUCES CHOLESTEROL LEVEL FOR ELDERLY WITH HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah.; Effendi, Fery

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  5. Guava Juice Reduces Cholesterol Level for Elderly with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah; Effendi, Fery

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  6. Self-Reported Snoring Is Associated with Dyslipidemia, High Total Cholesterol, and High Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Rural Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naijin; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Jia, Pengyu; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-17

    Studies to explore the relationship between self-reported snoring and dyslipidemia, especially high total cholesterol (TC) and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), in the general population are still lacking. Our study was designed to examine whether self-reported snoring is significantly associated with dyslipidemia and ascertain the effects of different snoring intensities on dyslipidemia. There were 10,139 participants in our study. After adjustment for all confounding factors, self-reported snoring (OR = 1.207; p = 0.003), moderate (OR = 1.229; p = 0.015), strong (OR = 1.222; p = 0.033), and very strong (OR = 1.467; p = 0.012) snoring intensity, but not low (OR = 1.110; p = 0.224) snoring intensity, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia among adults with BMI (body mass index) ≥ 25 kg/m². In addition, self-reported snoring was significantly associated with high TC (OR = 1.167; p = 0.048) and high LDL-C (OR = 1.228; p = 0.044), rather than low HDL-C (OR = 1.171; p = 0.057) and high triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.110; p = 0.141). In conclusion, adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and who experience snoring, especially moderate, strong, and very strong intensity levels of snoring, should be on the alert regarding the possibility of dyslipidemia, especially high LDL-C and high TC.

  7. Metabolism of high density lipoproteins reconstituted with [3H]cholesteryl ester and [14C]cholesterol in the rat, with special reference to the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestler, J.E.; Bamberger, M.; Rothblat, G.H.; Strauss, J.F. III

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the metabolism of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-carried sterol in the rat, human HDL was reconstituted with [ 14 C]cholesterol and [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester. After iv injection into immature PMSG-human CG primed rats pretreated with 4-aminopyrazolopyrimidine and aminoglutethimide, there was time-dependent accumulation of 3 H and 14 C in various organs which reached a maximum by 15-90 min. On a milligram wet weight basis, uptake of 3 H and 14 C was greatest in the adrenals, next in ovaries, followed by the liver, with little uptake by kidneys and spleen. On an organ basis, accumulation was greatest by the liver. Coadministration of excess unlabeled HDL, but not human low density lipoprotein, reduced accumulation of radioactivity by the ovaries and adrenals by 60%, indicating a specific and saturable uptake process. Granulosa cells cultured in lipoprotein-deficient medium with reconstituted HDL formed 3 H- and 14 C-labeled 20 alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one. Over a 24-h period, utilization of both [ 14 C]cholesterol and [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester was linear, but rates of utilization of the two sterol moieties were not parallel. Lysosomotropic agents had no effect on utilization of either free or esterified cholesterol for steroidogenesis but reduced degradation of 125 I-labeled low density lipoprotein apoprotein. These findings lend further support to the concept of a distinct HDL pathway in steroidogenic cells of the rat

  8. Dietary carbohydrate modifies the inverse association between saturated fat intake and cholesterol on very low-density lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary saturated fat on fasting triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and any mediation of this relationship by dietary carbohydrate intake. Men and women in the NHLBI Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (n = 1036, mea...

  9. Effects of red grape juice consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B and homocysteine in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad H; Rasmi, Yousef; Ramezani, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    It has suggested that grape juice consumption has lipid- lowering effect and it is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red grape juice (RGj) consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in healthy human volunteers. Twenty six healthy and nonsmoking males, aged between 25-60 years, who were under no medication asked to consume 150 ml of RGj twice per day for one month. Serum HDL-C, apoAI, apoB and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after one month RGj consumption. HDL-C levels after RGj consumption were significantly higher than the corresponding levels before the RGj consumption (41.44 ± 4.50 and 44.37 ± 4.30 mg/dl; P0.05). Hcy levels were decreased after RGj consumption (7.70 ± 2.80 and 6.20 ± 2.30 µmol/l; P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that RGj consumption can significantly increase serum HDL-C levels and decrease Hcy levels. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals.

  10. Cholesterol delivery to the adrenal glands estimated by adrenal venous sampling: An in vivo model to determine the contribution of circulating lipoproteins to steroidogenesis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenwerf, Edward; Dullaart, Robin P F; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Links, Thera P; Sluiter, Wim J; Connelly, Margery A; Kerstens, Michiel N

    Cholesterol, required for adrenal steroid hormone synthesis, is at least in part derived from circulating lipoproteins. The contribution of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to adrenal steroidogenesis in humans is unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which HDL and LDL are taken up by the adrenal glands using samples obtained during adrenal venous sampling (AVS). AVS was successfully performed in 23 patients with primary aldosteronism. Samples were drawn from both adrenal veins and inferior vena cava (IVC). HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and lipoprotein particle profiles were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoB were assayed by immunoturbidimetry. Plasma HDL-C and HDL and LDL particle concentrations (HDL-P and LDL-P) were not lower in samples obtained from the adrenal veins compared with the IVC (HDL-C, P = .59; HDL-P, P = .06; LDL-P, P = .93). ApoB was lower in adrenal venous plasma than in IVC (P = .026; P lipoproteins and steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Prospective Birth Cohort Study on Maternal Cholesterol Levels and Offspring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insight on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuelong; Riley, Anne W; Lee, Li-Ching; Volk, Heather; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Angomas, Rayris; Stivers, Tom; Wahl, Anastacia; Ji, Hongkai; Bartell, Tami R; Burd, Irina; Paige, David; Fallin, Margaret D; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin

    2017-12-23

    Growing evidence suggests that maternal cholesterol levels are important in the offspring's brain growth and development. Previous studies on cholesterols and brain functions were mostly in adults. We sought to examine the prospective association between maternal cholesterol levels and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. We analyzed data from the Boston Birth Cohort, enrolled at birth and followed from birth up to age 15 years. The final analyses included 1479 mother-infant pairs: 303 children with ADHD, and 1176 neurotypical children without clinician-diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders. The median age of the first diagnosis of ADHD was seven years. The multiple logistic regression results showed that a low maternal high-density lipoprotein level (≤60 mg/dL) was associated with an increased risk of ADHD, compared to a higher maternal high-density lipoprotein level, after adjusting for pertinent covariables. A "J" shaped relationship was observed between triglycerides and ADHD risk. The associations with ADHD for maternal high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides were more pronounced among boys. The findings based on this predominantly urban low-income minority birth cohort raise a new mechanistic perspective for understanding the origins of ADHD and the gender differences and future targets in the prevention of ADHD.

  12. Serum Lipoprotein (a Levels in Chronic Renal Failure and Liver Cirrhosis Patients. Relationship with Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Mady

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between lipoprotein (a levels and the development of atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure (CRF patients with the possible role of the liver. Serum Lp (a levels were measured in samples from 20 CRF patients on hemodialysis (HD, 20 liver cirrhosis (LC patients, 20 patients having both CRF and LC and undergoing HD, and 20 normal control subjects. Renal function (blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine, hepatic function (transaminases (ALT and AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin investigations and serum cholesterol were carried out for all the subjects enrolled in this study. Serum Lp (a concentration in CRF patients without LC was 87.25 ± 6.17 mg/dl, which was significantly higher than all the investigated groups (P < 0.001. Lp(a concentration in patients with both CRF and LC was 24.65 ± 1.98 mg/dl, which was not significantly different from the controls, but was significantly higher than that in the subjects with LC only (P < 0.001 where the latter group had significantly low Lp (a values (11.1 ± 0.99 relative to all the other groups (P < 0.001. Lp (a correlated positively with cholesterol in all groups except the LC subjects, but did not correlate with age, or renal function in both CRF groups.

  13. EFFECT OF ADIPOSITY ON PLASMA-LIPID TRANSFER PROTEIN ACTIVITIES - A POSSIBLE LINK BETWEEN INSULIN-RESISTANCE AND HIGH-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; SLUITER, WJ; DIKKESCHEI, LD; HOOGENBERG, K; VANTOL, A

    The mechanisms responsible for the decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels associated with obesity and insulin resistance are not well understood. Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) are key factors in the esterification of

  14. Normal Non-HDL Cholesterol, Low Total Cholesterol, and HDL Cholesterol Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Patients in the Steady State: A Case-Control Study of Tema Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Richard K D; Adu, Patrick; Ake, Edem; Agbodzakey, Hope; Adoba, Prince; Cudjoe, Obed; Agoni, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8-28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8-38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C. Results. Total cholesterol (TC) ( p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ( p < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. The levels of non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were similar among the participants. The levels of decrease in TC and HDL were associated with whether a patient was SCD-SS or SCD-SC. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were each significantly associated with increased VLDL [SBP, p = 0.01, OR: 0.74 (CI: 0.6-0.93); DBP, p = 0.023, OR: 1.45 (CI: 1.05-2.0)]. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is common among participants in this study. It was more pronounced in the SCD-SS than in SCD-SC. This dyslipidemia was associated with high VLDL as well as increased SBP and DBP.

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibition decreases cholesterol levels in neuronal cells by modulating key genes in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Nunes

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as trichostatin A (TSA are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism.

  16. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL AND CORTISOL PLASMA LEVELS, AND THEIR BIORHYTMICITY, IN 24 HOURS, THROUGHOUT YEAR, IN IDEAL-POLWARTH RAMS NÍVEIS PLASMÁTICOS DE COLESTEROL TOTAL, LIPOPROTEÍNAS DE ALTA DENSIDADE (HDL E CORTISOL, E SUA BIORRITMICIDADE, EM CARNEIROS IDEAL-POLWARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mean plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL and cortisol, blood samples were collected of five Ideal-Polwarth rams, maintained at 22?53’S latitude, in semi-confinement, every two months throughout the year, by 24h period, with 2-hour intervals between colects. The TC, changed 40.70?1,11mg/dL (April and 61.48?1,11mg/dL (December, between months, while HDL changed 22.16?0.23mg/dL (December as 33.40?0.23mg/dL (February, but not make evident a circannual rhythm in this levels. The TC presented the lowest value at 16:30h (50.40?1.57mg/dL and the highest value at 8:30h collect (54.67?1.57mg/dL; the HDL lowest level was at 10:30h (27.04?0.33mg/dL and the highest level also at 8:30h collect (28.49?0.33mg/dL, however without permit circadian rhythm determination in your plasma concentrations. Similarly, the cortisol plasma concentrations, between collect months, presents variable, however without demonstrate circadian rhythm in this hormone secretion. In relation to different collection’s moments, throughout months, it wasn’t possible to define, by statistical analysis, a circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion. KEY WORDS: Ovine, adrenal hormone, biochemistry metabolites, circadian rhythm. Visando avaliar as concentrações médias de colesterol total (CT, lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL e cortisol plasmáticos, foram colhidas amostras de sangue de cinco carneiros Ideal-Polwarth, alocados em latitude 22°53’S, em regime de semiconfinamento, a cada dois meses, ao longo de um ano, com as colheitas em um período de 24 horas, e intervalos de duas horas entre elas. O CT oscilou entre 40,70±1,11mg/dL (abril e 61,48±1,11mg/dL (dezembro, entre os meses, enquanto HDL variou de 22,16±0,23mg/dL (dezembro a 33,40±0,23mg/dL (fevereiro, mas não evidenciando um ritmo circanual em seus níveis. O CT apresentou seu valor mínimo na colheita das 16h30min (50,40±1,57mg/dL e o máximo às 8h30min

  17. Effects of inhibition of interleukin-6 signalling on insulin sensitivity and lipoprotein (a levels in human subjects with rheumatoid diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Schultz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been found to be increased in type 2 diabetic subjects. However, it still remains unclear if these elevated IL-6 levels are co-incidental or if this cytokine is causally related to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Therefore, in the present study we examined insulin sensitivity, serum adipokine levels and lipid parameters in human subjects before and after treatment with the IL-6 receptor antibody Tocilizumab.11 non-diabetic patients with rheumatoid disease were included in the study. HOMA-IR was calculated and serum levels for leptin, adiponectin, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a (Lp (a were measured before as well as one and three months after Tocilizumab treatment. The HOMA index for insulin resistance decreased significantly. While leptin concentrations were not altered by inhibition of IL-6 signalling, adiponectin concentrations significantly increased. Thus the leptin to adiponectin ratio, a novel marker for insulin resistance, exhibited a significant decrease. Serum triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol tended to be increased whereas Lp (a levels significantly decreased.Inhibition of IL-6 signalling improves insulin sensitivity in humans with immunological disease suggesting that elevated IL-6 levels in type 2 diabetic subjects might be causally involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Furthermore, our data indicate that inhibition of IL-6 signalling decreases Lp (a serum levels, which might reduce the cardiovascular risk of human subjects.

  18. Plasma Cholesteryl Ester Transfer, But Not Cholesterol Esterification, Is Related to Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A(2) : Possible Contribution to an Atherogenic Lipoprotein Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Constantinides, Alexander; Perton, Frank G.; van Leeuwen, Jeroen J. J.; van Pelt, Joost L.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie

    Context: Plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) predicts incident cardiovascular disease and is associated preferentially with negatively charged apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. The plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) process, which contributes to low high-density

  19. Dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption in rats. Effect of dietary cholesterol level and cholesterol saturation of bile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if cholesterol introduced into the duodenum of rats in a micellar form as occurs with bile, is absorbed more efficiently than cholesterol presented in a nonmicellar form, as occurs with dietary cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption was measured during the constant intraduodenal infusion of liquid diets ([ 14 C] cholesterol) and artificial biles ([ 3 H] cholesterol) in thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats. Percentage absorption was calculated by dividing the rate of appearance of radiolabeled cholesterol in lymph by its rate of infusion when lymph cholesterol specific activity was constant. Results provide strong evidence that under certain conditions biliary cholesterol is more efficiently absorbed than is dietary cholesterol, and that this differential must be considered when evaluating the influence of diet or drug therapy on cholesterol absorption

  20. Effective reduction of LDL cholesterol by indigenous plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P K; Dasgupta, D J; Prashar, B S; Kaushal, S S

    1994-03-01

    A herbal powder containing guar gum, methi, tundika and meshasringi was administered to 30 control and 30 type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus patients for a month. Total serum cholesterol and its fractions eg, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and serum triglyceride were determined before and after the trial period. Total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols were reduced significantly after the therapy. There were no significant changes in high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) or triglyceride levels. Side-effects eg, mild flatulence and looseness of bowel were noticed in less than 40% cases.

  1. Application of pooled genotyping to scan candidate regions for association with HDL cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds David A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Association studies are used to identify genetic determinants of complex human traits of medical interest. With the large number of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs currently available, two limiting factors in association studies are genotyping capability and costs. Pooled DNA genotyping has been proposed as an efficient means of screening SNPs for allele frequency differences in case-control studies and for prioritising them for subsequent individual genotyping analysis. Here, we apply quantitative pooled genotyping followed by individual genotyping and replication to identify associations with human serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. The DNA from individuals with low and high HDL cholesterol levels was pooled separately, each pool was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in triplicate and each amplified product was separately hybridised to a high-density oligonucleotide array. Allele frequency differences between case and control groups with low and high HDL cholesterol levels were estimated for 7,283 SNPs distributed across 71 candidate gene regions spanning a total of 17.1 megabases. A novel method was developed to take advantage of independently derived haplotype map information to improve the pooled estimates of allele frequency differences. A subset of SNPs with the largest estimated allele frequency differences between low and high HDL cholesterol groups was chosen for individual genotyping in the study population, as well as in a separate replication population. Four SNPs in a single haplotype block within the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene interval were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both populations. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the application of pooled genotyping followed by confirmation with individual genotyping to identify genetic determinants of a complex trait.

  2. [Consensus on objectives and action guidelines on low density lipoproteins-cholesterol control in very high risk cardiovascular patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Enrique; Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Among cardiovascular disease risk factors one of the most relevant is low-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol (LDL-c), but there is controversy about the methods used to control it. The aim was to obtain an expert opinion to clarify the most relevant issues regarding the control of dyslipidemia in very high cardiovascular risk patients. A survey with 55 items, stratified into 4 blocks: LDL-c as a therapeutic target, therapeutic goals, causes of the failure to achieve LDL-c goals, and recommendations to optimize their achievement, was addressed to 41 specialists (Cardiology and Internal Medicine) using the Delphi method to achieve professional consensus criteria. A high consensus was reached among all items, in line with the European recommendations. The panelists considered that the goal of 70mg/dl for LDL-c for high cardiovascular disease risk (mainly vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure), using combined treatment when necessary. Lack of adherence and therapeutic inertia were considered the main reasons for treatment failure. The Spanish experts show an elevated consensus with the European recommendations, confirming the LDL-c control target of <70mg/dl. The simplification of the guidelines and the combined treatment may favor an improvement the achievement of lipid target goals. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Can Predict Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon Ah; Oh, Jee Young

    2016-11-01

    The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be related to insulin resistance (IR). We previously reported that Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We aimed to determine the cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR and to examine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio is useful for identifying individuals at risk of IGT in young Korean women with PCOS. We recruited 450 women with PCOS (24±5 yrs) and performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR was assessed by a homeostasis model assessment index over that of the 95th percentile of regular-cycling women who served as the controls (n=450, 24±4 yrs). The cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR was 2.5 in women with PCOS. Among the women with PCOS who had normal fasting glucose (NFG), the prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in the women with PCOS who had a high TG/HDL-C ratio compared with those with a low TG/HDL-C ratio (15.6% vs. 5.6%, p2.5 are recommended to be administered an OGTT to detect IGT even if they have NFG.

  4. IMPACT OF DIET, EXERCISE AND DIET COMBINED WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMS ON PLASMA LIPOPROTEIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN OBESE GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ben Ounis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of three programs, diet restriction (D, individualized exercise training (E at the maximal lipid oxidation point (LIPOXmax and diet combined with exercise (D+E, on body mass, plasma lipoprotein and adiponectin levels in obese girls. Eighteen obese adolescents girls aged 12-14 years were studied. A longitudinal intervention was carried out, consisting of a two-month diet (D; -500 kcal·day-1, of individualized exercise (E; 4 days/week, 90 min·day-1 and of diet combined with exercise (D+E. Body mass, body mass index (BMI, body fat mass, waist circumference, substrate crossover point, LIPOXmax point, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of lipids and circulatory adiponectin, were measured in all subjects before and after the program. In subjects of the D+E group, body mass, BMI, body fat mass, waist circumference, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol / high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C ratio were significantly lower, and HDL-C and adiponectin were higher after the program than that of subjects in the D or E groups. Diet/exercise improved the ability to oxidize lipids during exercise (crossover point: + 18.5 ± 3.4 of % Wmax; p < 0.01 and fat oxidation rate at LIPOXmax: + 89.7 ± 19.7 mg·min-1; p < 0.01. In the D+E group, significant correlations were found between changes in body mass and adiponectin and between changes in the TC/HDL-C ratio and LIPOXmax. These findings show that the combined program of diet restriction and individualized exercise training at the LIPOXmax point is necessary to simultaneously improve body mass loss, adiponectin levels, as well as metabolic parameters, in obese girls

  5. Requirement of cholesterol for secretion of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) by the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, B.; Wilcox, H.G.; Elam, M.B.; Heimberg, M.

    1987-01-01

    Fatty acids stimulate hepatic secretion of VLDL triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (C), increase C synthesis, and enhance activity of HMG-CoA reductase. Livers from normal fed male rats were perfused for 4 hr in a medium containing 20μCi [2- 14 C] acetate, 6g/dl serum albumin, 300 mg/dl glucose in Krebs-Henseleit HCO 3 buffer (pH 7.4), 0-100 μg/ml mevinolin, and oleate. TG secretion was decreased 0%, 23%, and 32% from control with 1, 10, and 100 μg/ml mevinolin, respectively; there was no significant effect on C or C ester (CE) secretion. Specific activity (dpm/μmol) of C synthesized from acetate in the liver decreased 67%, 98%, and 99% from control; incorporation into CE decreased 64%, 81%, and 84%, respectively. TG and phospholipid (PL) activities did not change. Synthesis of TG and PL from [1- 14 C] oleate by isolated hepatocytes from normal fed rats was not affected by addition of 0-100 μg/ml mevinolin. The mass of C and TG in the liver did not change. Preliminary experiments with perfused liver suggest that output of VLDL TG, C, CE, and PL was diminished; the ratio of C/TG and PL/TG in the VLDL was constant, suggesting secretion of fewer VLDL particles with the same composition. These data suggest that mevinolin acutely reduces biosynthesis of C and secretion of the VLDL, presumably because of a requirement of C for synthesis and secretion of the VLDL

  6. Serum cholesterol levels of Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C B; Allen, E S; Mikkelson, B; Kang-Jey, H

    1976-10-01

    Serum cholesterol levels and dietary habits were surveyed in 27 male and 34 female Seventh-day Adventist. All subjects studied were lacto-ovo-vegetarians and a few consumed some meat products. Their serum cholesterol levels, significantly lower than those of the United States general population, showed no sex difference but increased with age and were higher in overweight males. Their levels, however, were much higher than those of true vegetarians which was most likely attributable to their consumption, even though to a limited acount, of dairy foods.

  7. Blood cholesterol level in Sudanese females with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N. M.

    2004-08-01

    In view to high incidence of thyroid dis function among Sudanese females, this study was conducted, essentially to study the effect of thyroid disorders on lipids metabolism, mainly on total cholesterol. In this study samples were collected from RIA laboratory in Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. 50 hyperthyroidism females were selected as a study group of age range (20-55) years. In addition 47 samples were collected with same age of study group used as control group. Thyroid related hormones thyroxine T4, triiodothyronine T3, thyroid stimulating hormone TSH using the sensitive radioimmunoassay method and cholesterol were measured for the two groups using enzymatic-calorimetric test. Statistical analysis were done with SPSS computer program to compare the cholesterol levels in the control subjects with the patients levels. The results showed significantly decreased cholesterol level of patient group when compared with the control group (p<0.01). At the end of this study the result was agreed well with previous results concerning cholesterol level as affected by thyroid disorder. (Author)

  8. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Alice; Matthan, Nirupa R; Spartano, Nicole L; Butkowski, Ann E; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-12-01

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat type on aortic cholesterol accumulation, lipoprotein profiles, hepatic lipids and selected genes. F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (20/group) were fed (12 weeks) semi-purified or non-purified diets containing either 10 % (w/w) coconut oil or safflower oil and 0.15 % (w/w) cholesterol. The non-purified diets relative to semi-purified diets resulted in significantly higher TC (72 % [percent difference] and 38 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) and nHDL-C (84 and 61 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively), and lower HDL-C (-47 and -45 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) concentrations. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the hamsters fed the non-purified coconut oil-supplemented diets were three- to fourfold higher than non-purified safflower oil-supplemented, and both semi-purified diets. With the exception of HDL-C, a significant effect of fat type was observed in TC, nHDL-C and triacylglycerol (all P < 0.05) concentrations. Regardless of diet induced differences in lipoprotein profiles, there was no significant effect on aortic cholesterol accumulation. There was an inverse relationship between plasma nHDL-C and triacylglycerol, and hepatic cholesteryl ester content (P < 0.001). Diet induced differences in hepatic gene transcription (LDL receptor, apoB-100, microsomal transfer protein) were not reflected in protein concentrations. Although hamsters fed non-purified and/or saturated fatty acid-supplemented diets had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles compared to hamsters fed semi-purified and/or polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented diets these differences were not reflected in aortic cholesterol accumulation.

  9. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that

  10. LRP5 and plasma cholesterol levels modulate the canonical Wnt pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Pages, Maria; Carolina Romero, July; Badimon, Lina

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is triggered after invasion or injury to restore homeostasis. Although the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the first molecular responses to cellular damage, its role in inflammation is still unclear. It was our hypothesis that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are modulators of inflammatory mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and LRP5(-/-) mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet to trigger dislipidemia and chronic inflammation. Diets were supplemented with plant sterol esters (PSEs) to induce LDL cholesterol lowering and the reduction of inflammation. HC WT mice showed increased serum cholesterol levels that correlated with increased Lrp5 and Wnt/β-catenin gene expression while in the HC LRP5(-/-) mice Wnt/β-catenin pathway was shut down. Functionally, HC induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting an inhibitory role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation. Dietary PSE administration downregulated serum cholesterol levels in WT and LRP5(-/-) mice. Furthermore, in WT mice PSE increased anti-inflammatory genes expression and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation. Hepatic gene expression of Vldlr, Lrp2 and Lrp6 was increased after HC feeding in WT mice but not in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in the clearance of plasmatic lipoproteins. Finally, an antiatherogenic role for LRP5 was demonstrated as HC LRP5(-/-) mice developed larger aortic atherosclerotic lesions than WT mice. Our results show an anti-inflammatory, pro-survival role for LRP5 and the Wnt signaling pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  11. Accumulation of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Psoriatic Skin and Changes of Plasma Lipid Levels in Psoriatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Solak Tekin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an accelerated turnover of epidermal cells and an incomplete differentiation in epidermis with lesion. However, the exact etiology of psoriasis is unknown. Abnormalities in essential fatty acid metabolism, free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and release of lymphokines have been proposed. Objective. Our purpose was to evaluate the plasma lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein accumulation in psoriatic skin lesion in order to ascertain the possible participation of oxidative stress and oxidative modification of lipids in pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods. The study group included 84 patients with psoriasis, and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Blood lipid profile was determined. Psoriatic and nonlesional skin samples of psoriatic patients were evaluated for the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by using an immune-fluorescent staining method. Results. The mean levels of lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol in patients with psoriasis were found to be significantly higher than those of healthy subjects. Psoriatic skins were shown positive oxidized low-density lipoprotein staining. There was no staining in nonlesional skin samples of the same individuals. Conclusion. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is believed to be one of the important causes of cell membrane destruction and cell damage. This study shows for the first time the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in psoriatic skin lesion. We believe that accumulation of ox-LDL in psoriatic skin may have an important role in the immune-inflammatory events that result in progressive skin damage.

  12. Serum cholesterol as a risk factor for coronary heart disease revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-04

    Aug 4, 2014 ... levels to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, and high- density ... intestinal absorption of triglycerides and cholesterol, plus very low- ... These relationships are present across the age spectrum and in both sexes.

  13. Conflicting interactions of apolipoprotein A and high density lipoprotein cholesterol with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Zahra; Afarideh, Mohsen; Ghajar, Alireza; Esteghamati, Sadaf; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2017-11-01

    This study is amid at investigating the associations, and interactions of serum lipid biomarkers with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A nested case-control study was conducted within an ongoing prospective study on patients with T2D. Microvascular complications of T2D including diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy were investigated. A total of 444 cases with at least one of the microvascular complications of T2D and 439 age- and gender-matched controls free of any of the chronic microvascular complications of T2D were included. The associations and interactions of a panel of serum lipid biomarkers with the microvascular complications of T2D were investigated. Serum triglyceride had the strongest association with microvascular complications of T2D (crude model: β=0.632, P value=0.045). Each standard deviation increment in serum TG was associated with 3.7 times increased frequency of microvascular complications. Despite high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) was positively associated with the presence of diabetic neuropathy. Each standard deviation increment in serum ApoA1 was associated with increased frequency of diabetic neuropathy (OR, 1.2, 95% CI, (1.1-1.3), P value=0.006). The frequency of diabetic neuropathy was higher in 2nd and 3rd quartiles of serum Lp(a) compared to diabetic patients in the first quartile (OR, 5.52, 95% (1.17-25.8), P value=0.047). ApoA1 but not HDL-C is straightly associated with diabetic neuropathy. Even Slight rise in serum Lp(a) is associated with increased frequency of diabetic retinopathLipid variables could serve as specific predictors of vascular complications in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. LDL-C levels in older people: Cholesterol homeostasis and the free radical theory of ageing converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Auley, Mark T; Mooney, Kathleen M

    2017-07-01

    The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increases with age, up until the midpoint of life in males and females. However, LDL-C can decrease with age in older men and women. Intriguingly, a recent systematic review also revealed an inverse association between LDL-C levels and cardiovascular mortality in older people; low levels of LDL-C were associated with reduced risk of mortality. Such findings are puzzling and require a biological explanation. In this paper a hypothesis is proposed to explain these observations. We hypothesize that the free radical theory of ageing (FRTA) together with disrupted cholesterol homeostasis can account for these observations. Based on this hypothesis, dysregulated hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in older people is characterised by two distinct metabolic states. The first state accounts for an older person who has elevated plasma LDL-C. This state is underpinned by the FRTA which suggests there is a decrease in cellular antioxidant capacity with age. This deficiency enables hepatic reactive oxidative species (ROS) to induce the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase, the key rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. An increase in cholesterol synthesis elicits a corresponding rise in LDL-C, due to the downregulation of LDL receptor synthesis, and increased production of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). In the second state of dysregulation, ROS also trigger the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase. However, due to an age associated decrease in the activity of cholesterol-esterifying enzyme, acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase, there is restricted conversion of excess free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol esters. Consequently, the secretion of VLDL-C drops, and there is a corresponding decrease in LDL-C. As intracellular levels of FC accumulate, this state progresses to a pathophysiological condition akin to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is our

  15. Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funamoto M

    2016-08-01

    and hemoglobin A1c and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels after treatment were similar for the two groups. However, the percent change in the AT-LDL level was significantly (P=0.020 lower in the Theracurmin® group compared with the placebo group.Conclusion: Theracurmin® reduced levels of atherosclerotic AT-LDL, which may lead to the prevention of future cardiovascular events in mild COPD subjects. Keywords: curcumin, AT-LDL, COPD, atherosclerosis

  16. Evaluation of Plasma Lipoprotein (A Levels in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Indiviuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA Jalai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipoprotein (a is a particle rich in cholesterol in human plasma and it is known as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. In addition to genetic background, other factors such as diabetes affect the plasma concentration of this lipoprotein as a risk factor. The aim of this study was evaluation and comparison of plasma concentration of Lp(a in type II diabetics and non diabetic individuals. Material and Methods: The study population included 180 diabetic patients who had referred to the Diabetic Research center of Yazd and 180 non diabetic individuals who were matched according to age and sex with the patient group. Blood samples were collected from the study groups in fasting condition. Glycated hemoglobin, glucose, lipids and lipoproteins were measured by routine laboratory methods and Lp(a assay was carried out by electro immunodiffusion. Results were analyzed with the use of SPSS program. Statistical tests included variance analysis, t-test for comparing lipids and lipoproteins, U-test for comparing Lp(a in the two groups and Pearson Correlation for determining of the variables with Lp(a. Results: Mean plasma concentratin of Lp(a in diabetic patients (Mean + SD 41.98+ 34.63 mg/dl was significantly higher than that of the control group (26.6 + 20.2 mg/dl (P<0.001. Mean concentration of cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL cholesterol in the patient group was higher but mean HDL cholesterol in control group was higher than patient group. However, no significant correlation was found between Lp(a and other variables in the patient and control groups. Conclusion: Plasma concentration of Lp(a in Diabetes Mellitus is increased independently. In diabetic patients, the risk of coronary artery disease may increase with increase in Lp(a.

  17. Association of anti-Mullerian hormone and small-dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hepatosteatosis in young lean women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Efser; Caglar, Gamze S; Kaya, Cemil; Karadag, Demet; Demirtas, Selda; Kurt, Mevlut; Pabuccu, Recai

    2014-11-01

    To study the association of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and small-dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL) with hepatosteatosis among young, lean, polycystic ovary patients. A prospective, case control study was carried out including 79 young lean women. Fifty-eight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 21 age-and BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited. Anthropometric variables, biochemical and hormonal parameters, insulin-resistance indices, lipid profiles including sd-LDL levels and serum AMH levels were determined. Hepatic lipid content was evaluated by abdominal ultrasonography (USG). Determining the best predictor(s) which discriminate normal USG and hepatosteatosis was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. PCOS patients had an increased prevalence of hepatosteatosis by 41.4% (P = 0.006) and they had significantly higher levels of sd-LDL and AMH when compared with the control group (P lean women with and without PCOS (OR: 2.877, 95%CI: 1.453-5.699, P: 0.02 and OR: 1.336, 95%CI: 1.083-1.648, P: 0.007, respectively). AMH and sd-LDL levels were positively correlated in PCOS patients (r = 0.626, P PCOS group. (OR: 3.347, 95%CI: 1.348-8.313, P = 0.009 and OR: 1.375, 95%CI: 1.072-1.764, P = 0.012, respectively). Statistically significant higher levels of AMH were associated with hepatosteatosis both in insulin resistance (IR) positive and IR negative PCOS patients (P lean PCOS patients. Increased AMH and sd-LDL levels may independently predict hepatosteatosis in young lean women with and without PCOS.

  18. Metabolic syndrome and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with adverse pathological features in patients with prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebdai, Souhil; Mathieu, Romain; Leger, Julie; Haillot, Olivier; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Fournier, Georges; Perrouin-Verbe, Marie-Aimée; Doucet, Laurent; Azzouzi, Abdel Rahmene; Rigaud, Jérome; Renaudin, Karine; Charles, Thomas; Bruyere, Franck; Fromont, Gaelle

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study, we aimed to assess the association between MetS and markers of PCa aggressiveness on radical prostatectomy (RP). All patients consecutively treated for PCa by RP in 6 academic institutions between August 2013 and July 2016 were included. MetS was defined as at least 3 of 5 components (obesity, elevated blood pressure, diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia). Demographic, biological, and clinical parameters were prospectively collected, including: age, biopsy results, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen, surgical procedure, and pathological data of RP specimen. Locally advanced disease was defined as a pT-stage ≥3. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) groups were used for pathological grading. Qualitative and quantitative variables were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon tests; logistic regression analyses assessed the association of MetS and its components with pathological data. Statistical significance was defined as a P<0.05. Among 567 men, 249 (44%) had MetS. In a multivariate model including preoperative prostate-specific antigen, biopsy ISUP-score, clinical T-stage, age, and ethnicity: we found that MetS was an independent risk factor for positive margins, and ISUP group ≥4 on the RP specimen (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3; P = 0.035; OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-4.0; P = 0.044, respectively). In addition, low HDL-cholesterol level was associated with locally advanced PCa (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4; P = 0.024). Risks of adverse pathological features increased with the number of MetS components: having ≥ 4 MetS components was significantly associated with higher risk of ISUP group ≥ 4 and higher risk of positive margins (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3; P = 0.017; OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.8; P = 0.007, respectively). MetS was an independent predictive factor for

  19. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in some but not all studies. Limitations of previous studies include lack of risk estimates for extreme lipoprotein(a) levels, measurements in long-term frozen samples, no correction for regression dilution bias, and lack...... of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  20. Remnant lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2017-08-01

    To review recent advances in the field of remnant lipoproteins and remnant cholesterol with a focus on cardiovascular disease risk. In line with previous years' research, current observational, genetic, and mechanistic studies find remnant lipoproteins (defined in different ways) to be involved in atherosclerosis development and cardiovascular disease risk. High concentrations of remnant cholesterol could explain some of the residual risk of cardiovascular disease seen after LDL cholesterol lowering. This will be increasingly important as populations worldwide become more obese and more have diabetes, both of which elevate remnant cholesterol concentrations. Many smaller scale studies and post hoc analyses show that remnant cholesterol can be lowered by different types of drugs; however, results from large scale studies with the primary aim of reducing cardiovascular disease risk through lowering of remnant cholesterol in individuals with elevated concentrations are still missing, although some are under way. Remnant cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and can be lowered by different types of drugs; however, large scale studies of cardiovascular disease risk reduction through remnant lipoprotein lowering are under way.

  1. Lipoprotein cholesterol fractions are related to markers of inflammation in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Anna-Helene; Pedersen, Freddy Karup; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2016-01-01

    disease activity (JADAS27), biomarkers of inflammation (myelo-related protein complex 8/14 (MRP8/14), C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WtH ratio), and PA were explored. RESULTS: Mean values for TC, LDLc, and HDLc...... in the patients were within the normal range for Danish Children. HDLc was negatively correlated with MRP8/14 (r = -0.343, CI -0.474 to -0.201, p MRP8/14 correlated positively...... with CRP, JADAS27 and WtH ratio (r = 0.277, CI 0.142 to 0.413, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Levels of cholesterol fractions in patients with JIA were found within the normal range. Nonetheless, the level of HDLc was negatively associated with the level of the inflammatory marker MRP8/14, which is in accordance...

  2. Phenotypic Characterization of Genetically Lowered Human Lipoprotein(a) Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Connor A.; Khera, Amit V.; Natarajan, Pradeep; Klarin, Derek; Won, Hong-Hee; Peloso, Gina M.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Nomura, Akihiro; Zekavat, Seyedeh M.; Bick, Alexander G.; Gupta, Namrata; Asselta, Rosanna; Duga, Stefano; Merlini, Piera Angelica; Correa, Adolfo; Kessler, Thorsten; Wilson, James G.; Bown, Matthew J.; Hall, Alistair S.; Braund, Peter S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; McPherson, Ruth; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Willer, Cristen; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Felix, Janine F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Lander, Eric; Rader, Daniel J.; Danesh, John; Ardissino, Diego; Gabriel, Stacey; Saleheen, Danish; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genomic analyses have suggested that the LPA gene and its associated plasma biomarker, lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), represent a causal risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). As such, lowering Lp(a) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy. Beyond target identification, human genetics may contribute to the development of new therapies by defining the full spectrum of beneficial and adverse consequences and by developing a dose-response curve of target perturbation. OBJECTIVES We attempted to establish the full phenotypic impact of LPA gene variation and to estimate a dose-response curve between genetically altered plasma Lp(a) and risk for CHD. METHODS We leveraged genetic variants at the LPA gene from 3 data sources: individual-level data from 112,338 participants in the UK Biobank; summary association results from large-scale genome-wide association studies; and LPA gene sequencing results from cases with and controls free of CHD. RESULTS One standard deviation genetically lowered Lp(a) level was associated with 29% lower risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69 to 0.73), 31% lower risk of peripheral vascular disease (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.80), 13% lower risk of stroke (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.96), 17% lower risk of heart failure (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.94), and 37% lower risk of aortic stenosis (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.83). We observed no association with 31 other disorders including type 2 diabetes and cancer. Variants that led to gain of LPA gene function increased risk for CHD whereas those that led to loss of gene function reduced CHD risk. CONCLUSIONS Beyond CHD, genetically lowered Lp(a) is associated with a lower risk of peripheral vascular disease, stroke, heart failure, and aortic stenosis. As such, pharmacological lowering of plasma Lp(a) may impact a range of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:28007139

  3. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Warren, Helen R; Trompet, Stella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Inter-individual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed...... a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify variants with an effect on statin-induced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) changes. The 123 most promising signals with p

  4. [Levels of total lipids, cholesterol and progesterone during estrus synchronization and pregnancy in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnicáková, M; Bekeová, E; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1993-01-01

    Our investigations were concerned with dynamic changes in total lipids (CL), cholesterol (CHOL) and progesterone (P4) in blood serum of sheep in the period of oestrus synchronization treatment and during mating and gravidity. Our experiment was carried out using 10 animals housed under the conditions of productive rearing. Blood samples were taken from v. jugularis on day of swab application (day 0) and on days 3 and 7 of the action of Agelin vaginal swabs, on day of insemination, and on days 7, 14, 17 and in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th month of gravidity. Blood serum was used to determine total lipids and cholesterol by means of Bio-Lachema tests, and P4 concentrations employing RIA-test-Prog kits (URVJT, Kosice). A statistically significant decrease in concentrations of total lipids (Fig. 1, Tab. I) in sheep blood serum was recorded on day of insemination (P < 0.05) compared to day 0, with the value 1.59 +/- 0.31 g/l of serum, and in the 3rd month of gravidity (P < 0.01), at concentrations 1.36 +/- 0.38 g/l of serum. The determined decrease in their values in the mentioned period can be modulated by the mutually changing ratio of steroid hormones or by inhibition of synthesis of lipoproteins responsible for changes in total plasma lipids. Changes in cholesterol concentrations (Fig. 2, Tab. I) during the introduction of swabs were insignificant and ranged from 1.60 +/- 0.42 to 1.73 +/- 0.33 mmol/l of serum. An insignificant increase in cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05), with its highest levels 1.98 +/- 0.43 mmol/l of serum, was recorded in the 3rd month of gravidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Very low levels of HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis, a variable relationship – a review of LCAT deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savel J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Julia Savel,1,2 Marianne Lafitte,1 Yann Pucheu,1,3 Vincent Pradeau,1 Antoine Tabarin,2,3 Thierry Couffinhal1,3,41Centre d'Exploration, de Prévention et de Traitement de l'Athérosclérose, Hôpital Cardiologique, 2Service d'endocrinologie, CHU Bordeaux, Université Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France; 3Université de Bordeaux Adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, 4INSERM, Adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, U1034, Pessac, FranceAbstract: A number of epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL level is a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. HDL is believed to retard the formation of atherosclerotic lesions by removing excess cholesterol from cells and preventing endothelial dysfunction. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT plays a central role in the formation and maturation of HDL, and in the intravascular stage of reverse cholesterol transport: a major mechanism by which HDL modulates the development and progression of atherosclerosis. A defect in LCAT function would be expected to enhance atherosclerosis, by interfering with the reverse cholesterol transport step. As such, one would expect to find more atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in LCAT-deficient patients. But this relationship is not always evident. In this review, we describe contradictory reports in the literature about cardiovascular risks in this patient population. We discuss the paradoxical finding of severe HDL deficiency and an absence of subclinical atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient patients, which has been used to reject the hypothesis that HDL level is important in the protection against atherosclerosis. Furthermore, to illustrate this paradoxical finding, we present a case study of one patient, referred for evaluation of global cardiovascular risk in the presence of a low HDL cholesterol level, who was diagnosed with LCAT gene mutations.Keywords: atherosclerosis, LCAT function

  6. Activation of the human complement system by cholesterol-rich and pegylated liposomes - Modulation of cholesterol-rich liposome-mediated complement activation by elevated serum LDL and HDL levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Bunger, R.

    2006-01-01

    level of S-protein-bound form of the terminal complex (SC5b-9). However, liposome-induced rise of SC5b-9 was significantly suppressed when serum HDL cholesterol levels increased by 30%. Increase of serum LDL to levels similar to that observed in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia also suppressed......Intravenously infused liposomes may induce cardiopulmonary distress in some human subjects, which is a manifestation of "complement activation-related pseudoallergy." We have now examined liposome-mediated complement activation in human sera with elevated lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) levels, since...... abnormal or racial differences in serum lipid profiles seem to modulate the extent of complement activation and associated adverse responses. In accordance with our earlier observations, cholesterol-rich (45 mol% cholesterol) liposomes activated human complement, as reflected by a significant rise in serum...

  7. Comparison of a direct enzymatic assay and polyacrylamide tube gel electrophoresis for measurement of small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanavanan, Somlak; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Rochanawutanon, Mana; Kerdmongkol, Jirapa; Kroll, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    Small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) has been linked to the progression of cardiovascular disease. We compared two methods for determination of sdLDL-C, a direct enzymatic (ENZ) method and a polyacrylamide tube gel electrophoresis (PGE) assay, and investigated the associations of both sdLDL-C measurements with metabolic syndrome. We analyzed 242 patient sera for sdLDL and atherosclerosis-related markers. The PGE method separates the intermediate-density lipoprotein particles into three midbands (MID-A to MID-C) and the LDL particles into seven subfractions (LDL1 to LDL7); the sdLDL-PGE result is calculated as the sum of cholesterol concentrations from LDL3 to LDL7. The regression equation for sdLDL-C was [ENZmmol/L]=0.779[PGE]+0.67, r=0.713. ENZ showed higher sdLDL-C concentrations than PGE (0.86±0.33 vs. 0.24±0.32 mmol/L); however, the difference was not associated with sdLDL-C concentration (p=0.290). sdLDL-C, as measured with the enzymatic assay, exhibited significant positive correlations with very-low-density lipoprotein, MID-C, MID-B, and LDL2 (all p0.600). The ENZ and PGE methods yielded similar patterns of correlation between sdLDL-C, and atherosclerosis-related markers. Using logistic regression, sdLDL-ENZ and apolipoprotein B were identified as significant predictors of metabolic syndrome (p<0.03). The ENZ assay for sdLDL-C correlated well with the PGE method. The ENZ method measures a broader range of atherogenic lipoprotein particles than PGE and has the potential to identify subjects with vascular risk, thus contributing in directing specific interventions for cardiovascular prevention.

  8. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC 6.21 mmol/L than in women with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but palmolein decreased serum and LDL-peroxide in hypercholesterolemics more than in the normocholesterolemics, resulting in serum and LDL-peroxide levels which theoretically are more adequate. Though palmolein increased LDL-C concentrations, it better protected LDL particles, mainly in women with high TC, against peroxidation than did oleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

  9. Effects of atorvastatin on biomarkers of immune activation, inflammation, and lipids in virologically suppressed, human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <130 mg/dL (AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5275).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Daniel E; Bosch, Ronald J; Chan, Ellen S; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Hodder, Sally; Lake, Jordan E; Lederman, Michael M; Klingman, Karin L; Aberg, Judith A

    Persistent immune activation and inflammation in virologically suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are linked to excess cardiovascular risk. To evaluate atorvastatin as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. A5275 was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study of atorvastatin (10 mg/day for 4 weeks then 20 mg/day for 16 weeks) with a planned enrollment of 97 HIV-infected participants ≥18 years old, receiving boosted protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy for ≥6 months, with plasma HIV-1 RNAs below limits of quantification ≥180 days, and fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ≥70 and atorvastatin treatment. Analyses were as-treated. Ninety-eight participants were enrolled at 31 U S sites and 73 completed study treatment. Atorvastatin treatment did not decrease T-lymphocyte or monocyte activation, circulating biomarker levels (interleukin-6, D-dimer, soluble CD14, soluble CD163, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-gamma-induced protein-10, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, CD40L, and P-selectin) or white blood cell Krüppel-like Factor 2/4 messenger RNA levels. Pre-to-post atorvastatin reductions in calculated LDL (-38%), oxidized-LDL (-33%), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (-31%) were significant (P atorvastatin did not significantly decrease levels of soluble or cellular biomarkers of immune activation and inflammation but resulted in robust reductions in LDL cholesterol, oxLDL, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 , biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular disease markers responses in male receiving improved-fat meat-products vary by initial LDL-cholesterol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Celada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is prevalent in people at high meat-product consumption. To study the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on clinical/emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers with different initial LDL-cholesterol levels (< and ³ 3.36 mmol/L. Method: Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a crossover controlled study. Pork-products were consumed during 4wk: reduced-fat (RF, omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF, and normal-fat (NF. Pork-products were separated by 4wk washout. Lipids, lipoproteins, oxidized LDL (oxLDL, apolipoproteins (apo and their ratios, homocysteine (tHcys, arylesterase (AE, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrotic factor (TNFa were tested. Results: The rate of change for AE, oxLDL, Lp(a, AE/HDL-cholesterol, LDL/apo B and AE/oxLDL ratios varied (p<0.05 among periods only in volunteers with LDLcholesterol ³3.36 mmol/L. TNFa decreased (p<0.05 among volunteers with low-normal LDL-cholesterol values while AE increased (p<0.01 in high LDL-cholesterol volunteers during the RF-period. AE increased while CRP decreased (both p<0.01 in low-normal LDL-cholesterol volunteers while AE (p<0.001 and apo B (p<0.01 increased in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the n-3RF-period. Total cholesterol (p<0.05 increased in the low/normal LDL-cholesterol group while tHcys decreased (p<0.05 in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the NF-period. Differences in response in volunteers with low-normal vs. high initial LDL-cholesterol levels to the n-3RF but not to the RF meat-products seem evident. Conclusions: Subjects with high LDL-cholesterol seem target for n-3RF products while subjects with LDL-cholesterol <3.36 mmol/L were more negatively affected by NF-products. Any generalization about functional meat product or consumption should be avoided.

  11. Recombinant high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles containing gadolinium-labeled cholesterol for morphologic and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mengjie Rui,1 Wei Guo,2 Qian Ding,2 Xiaohui Wei,2 Jianrong Xu,3 Yuhong Xu21School of Life Science and Biotechnology, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital Affiliation with Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Natural high-density lipoproteins (HDL possess important physiological functions to the transport of cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver for metabolic degradation and excretion in the bile.Methods and results: In this work, we took advantage of this pathway and prepared two different gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-labeled cholesterol-containing recombinant HDL nanoparticles (Gd-chol-HDL and Gd-(chol2-HDL as liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. The reconstituted HDL nanoparticles had structural similarity to native HDL, and could be taken up by HepG2 cells via interaction with HDL receptors in vitro. In vivo MRI studies in rats after intravenous injections of 10 µmol gadolinium per kg of recombinant HDL nanoparticles indicated that both nanoparticles could provide signal enhancement in the liver and related organs. However, different T1-weighted image details suggested that they participated in different cholesterol metabolism and excretion pathways in the liver.Conclusion: Such information could be highly useful to differentiate functional changes as well as anatomic differences in the liver. These cholesterol-derived contrast agents and their recombinant HDL preparations may warrant further development as a new class of contrast agents for MRI of the liver and related organs.Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, apolipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, contrast agent, gadolinium, liver

  12. Zonal differences in the distribution and morphology of lipid droplets using 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine to lower cholesterol level in the rat adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, D; Somogyi, J; Acs, Z; Mihály, K

    1980-01-01

    The effect of reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels on adrenocortical lipid droplets have been examined by treating adult rats with 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine (4-APP), a drug that inhibits hepatic secretion of lipoproteins. Lowering the blood cholesterol level and the cholesterol content of the adrenals was associated with a marked reduction in the lipid droplets and with a simultaneous increase in their electron density in the inner cortical zones. In the zona glomerulosa cells, no perceptible differences were found in the quantity and morphology of lipid droplets. These data suggest that reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels do not affect lipids located in the zona glomerulosa and in the inner cortical zones in the same way, probably due to differences in their intracellular lipid dynamism. Noteworthy, that in spite of the marked lipid depletion, the adrenal glands retained their responsiveness to ACTH stimulation.

  13. Recurrent Embolic Strokes of Undetermined Source in a Patient with Extreme Lipoprotein(a Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Bulwa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a is a plasma lipoprotein and known cardiovascular risk factor most recently implicated in the development of high-risk carotid atherosclerotic plaques without significant carotid stenosis. We present a case of a young African-American female with recurrent embolic strokes of undetermined source. After our thorough investigation we identified the link between a small, irregular plaque in the right internal carotid artery and an extremely elevated plasma level of lipoprotein(a as the source of her embolic strokes.

  14. The triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio fails to predict insulin resistance in African-American women: an analysis of Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Harman, Jane L; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Miller, Bernard V; Tambay, Anita V; Wyatt, Sharon B; Taylor, Herman A; Rotimi, Charles N; Sarpong, Daniel F

    2010-12-01

    Compared to whites, insulin-resistant African Americans have worse outcomes. Screening programs that could identify insulin resistance early enough for intervention to affect outcome often rely on triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Racial differences in TG and HDL-C may compromise the efficacy of these programs in African Americans. A recommendation currently exists to use the TG/HDL-C ratio ≥2.0 to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. The validity of this recommendation needs examination. Therefore, our aim was to determine the ability of TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. In 1,903 African Americans [895 men, 1,008 women, age 55 ± 12 years, mean ± standard deviation (SD), range 35-80 years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 6.4 kg/m(2), range 18.5-55 kg/m(2)] participating in the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based study of African Americans, Jackson, Mississippi tricounty region, insulin resistance was defined by the upper quartile (≥4.43) of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of >0.70 was required for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C. The optimal test cutoff was determined by the Youden index. HOMA-IR was similar in men and women (3.40 ± 2.03 vs. 3.80 ± 2.46, P = 0.60). Women had lower TG (94 ± 49 vs. 109 ± 65 mg/dL P Heart Study can help determine the efficacy of screening programs in African-Americans.

  15. Common Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor p.G116S Variant Has a Large Effect on Plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Circumpolar Inuit Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dube, J. B.; Wang, J.; Cao, H.

    2015-01-01

    .G116S and p.R730W. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genotyping these variants in 3324 Inuit from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland showed they were common, with allele frequencies 10% to 15%. Only p.G116S was associated with dyslipidemia: the increase in LDL cholesterol was 0.54 mmol/L (20.9 mg/dL) per allele (P=5.6x...

  16. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  17. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol in humans and mice with monogenic disturbances of high density lipoprotein metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karuna, Ratna; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Motazacker, Mohammad M

    2011-01-01

    Secretion of 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) from macrophages is considered as an alternative to HDL-mediated reverse transport of excess cholesterol. We investigated 27OHC-concentrations in plasma of humans and mice with monogenic disorders of HDL metabolism. As compared to family controls mutations...... activities of LCAT and CETP, respectively, than the formation and transfer of cholesterylesters. 27OHC plasma levels were also decreased in apoA-I-, ABCA1- or LCAT-knockout mice but increased in SR-BI-knockout mice. Transplantation of ABCA1- and/or ABCG1-deficient bone marrow into LDL receptor deficient mice...... decreased plasma levels of 27OHC. In conclusion, mutations or absence of HDL genes lead to distinct alterations in the quantity, esterification or lipoprotein distribution of 27OHC. These findings argue against the earlier suggestion that 27OHC-metabolism in plasma occurs independently of HDL....

  18. Royal Jelly Reduces Cholesterol Levels, Ameliorates Aβ Pathology and Enhances Neuronal Metabolic Activities in a Rabbit Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia characterized by aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ and neuronal loss. One of the risk factors for AD is high cholesterol levels, which are known to promote Aβ deposition. Previous studies have shown that royal jelly (RJ, a product of worker bees, has potential neuroprotective effects and can attenuate Aβ toxicity. However, little is known about how RJ regulates Aβ formation and its effects on cholesterol levels and neuronal metabolic activities. Here, we investigated whether RJ can reduce cholesterol levels, regulate Aβ levels and enhance neuronal metabolic activities in an AD rabbit model induced by 2% cholesterol diet plus copper drinking water. Our results suggest that RJ significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and decreased the level of Aβ in rabbit brains. RJ was also shown to markedly ameliorate amyloid deposition in AD rabbits from Aβ immunohistochemistry and thioflavin-T staining. Furthermore, our study suggests that RJ can reduce the expression levels of β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, and increase the expression levels of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1 and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE. In addition, we found that RJ remarkably increased the number of neurons, enhanced antioxidant capacities, inhibited activated-capase-3 protein expression, and enhanced neuronal metabolic activities by increasing N-acetyl aspartate (NAA and glutamate and by reducing choline and myo-inositol in AD rabbits. Taken together, our data demonstrated that RJ could reduce cholesterol levels, regulate Aβ levels and enhance neuronal metabolic activities in AD rabbits, providing preclinical evidence that RJ treatment has the potential to protect neurons and prevent AD.

  19. Contemporary data on treatment practices for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 3867 patients who had suffered an acute coronary syndrome across the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm K. Gitt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available DYSIS II ACS was a longitudinal, observational study in 3867 patients from 18 countries. They were being hospitalized after suffering an acute coronary syndrome. Evaluations were performed at the time of admission and again 120±15 days following the date of admission (the follow-up time point. 2521 patients were on active lipid lowering treatment (LLT at admission. Mean atorvastatin dose was 22 mg per day and 2.7% received ezetimibe in combination with a statin. At discharge from hospital, 3767 patients received LLT expressed as a mean atorvastatin dose of 36 mg per day with 4.8% receiving ezetimibe on top of a statin. After 120 days, intensity in lipid lowering treatment was reduced to 32 mg per day with 4.9% of the patients receiving ezetimibe and a statin. Of note, during this 4-month follow up period, only 32% of all patients received laboratory lipid testing. 37% attained the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C target value of <70 mg/dl after 120 days. There are differences in the therapy administered as well as in the switch strategies when comparing the data from the respective countries studied. Conclusions: Only one in three patients achieved the LDL-C target value following only marginal improvements in atorvastatin dose or combination therapy after an ACS event. Keywords: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Treatment target, Global, Region, Statins

  20. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN......: This was a prospective study with 25 yr 100% follow up, The Copenhagen City Heart Study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Danish general population. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 9185 women and men aged 20-80+ yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic......Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g>t, T2488Tc>t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4+171c>a, A591V, Ivs18+379a>c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P

  1. Cholesterol efflux is differentially regulated in neurons and astrocytes: implications for brain cholesterol homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kusumo, Handojo; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with neurological, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNS is a closed system with regard to cholesterol homeostasis, as cholesterol-delivering lipoproteins from the periphery cannot pass the blood-brain-barrier and enter the brain. Different cell types in the brain have different functions in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, with astrocytes producing and releasing apolipoprotein E and lipoproteins, and neurons metabolizing cholesterol to 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol. We present evidence that astrocytes and neurons adopt different mechanisms also in regulating cholesterol efflux. We found that in astrocytes cholesterol efflux is induced by both lipid-free apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, while cholesterol removal from neurons is triggered only by lipoproteins. The main pathway by which apolipoproteins induce cholesterol efflux is through ABCA1. By upregulating ABCA1 levels and by inhibiting its activity and silencing its expression, we show that ABCA1 is involved in cholesterol efflux from astrocytes but not from neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest that ABCG1 is involved in cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteins and lipoproteins from astrocytes but not from neurons, while ABCG4, whose expression is much higher in neurons than astrocytes, is involved in cholesterol efflux from neurons but not astrocytes. These results indicate that different mechanisms regulate cholesterol efflux from neurons and astrocytes, reflecting the different roles that these cell types play in brain cholesterol homeostasis. These results are important in understanding cellular targets of therapeutic drugs under development for the treatments of conditions associated with altered cholesterol homeostasis in the CNS. PMID:23010475

  2. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  3. Impact of the Triglyceride/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and the Hypertriglyceremic-Waist Phenotype to Predict the Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bibra, Helene; Saha, Sarama; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Müller, Gabriele; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2017-07-01

    Insulin resistance is the underlying mechanism for the metabolic syndrome and associated dyslipidaemia that theoretically implies a practical tool for identifying individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2-diabetes. Another screening tool is the hypertriglyceremic-waist phenotype (HTW). There is important impact of the ethnic background but a lack of studied European populations for the association of the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and insulin resistance. This observational, retrospective study evaluated lipid ratios and the HTW for predicting the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance in 1932 non-diabetic individuals from Germany in the fasting state and during a glucose tolerance test. The relations of triglyceride/HDL-C, total-cholesterol/HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C with 5 surrogate estimates of insulin resistance/sensitivity and metabolic syndrome were analysed by linear regression analysis and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) in participants with normal (n=1 333) or impaired fasting glucose (n=599), also for the impact of gender. Within the lipid ratios, triglyceride/HDL-C had the strongest associations with insulin resistance/sensitivity markers. In the prediction of metabolic syndrome, diagnostic accuracy was good for triglyceride/HDL-C (area under the ROC curve 0.817) with optimal cut-off points (in mg/dl units) of 2.8 for men (80% sensitivity, 71% specificity) and 1.9 for women (80% sensitivity, 75% specificity) and fair for HTW and HOMA-IR (area under the curve 0.773 and 0.761). These data suggest the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio as a physiologically relevant and practical index for predicting the concomitant presence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia for therapeutic and preventive care in apparently healthy European populations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness in Chinese adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Deng, You-Ping; Yang, Miao; Wu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Su-Xin; Sun, Jia-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety-eight subjects aged 10-24 yr with newly-diagnosed T2DM had general inflammation, anthropometric, laboratory and CIMT data collected, and were divided into three groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. There were no significant differences in gender, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and carotid arterial diameter (CAD) among the groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. Across TG/HDL-C tertiles, there was a significant progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TG, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and CIMT (all P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while HDL-C was decreased significantly across the groups (P < 0.01). In general linear regression model, TG/HDL-C was an independent determinant of CIMT even after adjusting for BMI, SBP, DBP, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. TG/HDL-C ratio, the marker of small dense LDL particles, is an independent determinant of CIMT in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed T2DM, and may be a simple and helpful tool in predicting the increased CIMT in such patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Association of Air Pollution Exposures With High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Particle Number: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Griffith; Mora, Samia; Greenland, Philip; Tsai, Michael; Gill, Ed; Kaufman, Joel D

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease may be explained by changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We examined the cross-sectional relationship between air pollution and both HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number in the MESA Air study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution). Study participants were 6654 white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese men and women aged 45 to 84 years. We estimated individual residential ambient fine particulate pollution exposure (PM 2.5 ) and black carbon concentrations using a fine-scale likelihood-based spatiotemporal model and cohort-specific monitoring. Exposure periods were averaged to 12 months, 3 months, and 2 weeks prior to examination. HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number were measured in the year 2000 using the cholesterol oxidase method and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between air pollution exposure and HDL measures. A 0.7×10 - 6 m - 1 higher exposure to black carbon (a marker of traffic-related pollution) averaged over a 1-year period was significantly associated with a lower HDL cholesterol (-1.68 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -2.86 to -0.50) and approached significance with HDL particle number (-0.55 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -1.13 to 0.03). In the 3-month averaging time period, a 5 μg/m 3 higher PM 2.5 was associated with lower HDL particle number (-0.64 μmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -1.01 to -0.26), but not HDL cholesterol (-0.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -0.82 to 0.71). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution is adversely associated with measures of HDL. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. High cholesterol level is essential for myelin membrane growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Brügger, Britta; Lappe-Siefke, Corinna; Möbius, Wiebke; Tozawa, Ryu-ichi; Wehr, Michael C; Wieland, Felix; Ishibashi, Shun; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2005-04-01

    Cholesterol in the mammalian brain is a risk factor for certain neurodegenerative diseases, raising the question of its normal function. In the mature brain, the highest cholesterol content is found in myelin. We therefore created mice that lack the ability to synthesize cholesterol in myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. Mutant oligodendrocytes survived, but CNS myelination was severely perturbed, and mutant mice showed ataxia and tremor. CNS myelination continued at a reduced rate for many months, and during this period, the cholesterol-deficient oligodendrocytes actively enriched cholesterol and assembled myelin with >70% of the cholesterol content of wild-type myelin. This shows that cholesterol is an indispensable component of myelin membranes and that cholesterol availability in oligodendrocytes is a rate-limiting factor for brain maturation.

  7. Data on plasma levels of apolipoprotein E, correlations with lipids and lipoproteins stratified by APOE genotype, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine L.; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    Data on correlations of plasma apoE with levels of lipids and lipoproteins stratified by APOE genotypes as well as data exploring the association between plasma levels of apoE and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) are wanted. The present data on 91,695 individuals from the general population...... provides correlations between plasma levels of apoE and lipids and lipoproteins for the three APOE genotypes ε33, ε44 and ε22, representing each of the three apoE isoforms. Further, data on extreme groups of plasma apoE (highest 5%) versus lower levels of apoE at enrollment explores risk of IHD...... and myocardial infarction (MI) and is given as hazard ratios. In addition, IHD and MI as a function of apoE/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio, as well as data on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins are given as hazard ratios. Data is stratified by gender and presented for the Copenhagen...

  8. 2013 Cholesterol Guidelines Revisited: Percent LDL Cholesterol Reduction or Attained LDL Cholesterol Level or Both for Prognosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Fayyad, Rana; Kastelein, John J.; Laskey, Rachel; Amarenco, Pierre; Demicco, David A.; Waters, David D.

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends moderate- to high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but departs from the traditional treat-to-target approach. Whether

  9. Clinical significance of changes of serum lipoprotein (a) levels in patients with cerebral vascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qian; Chen Xinghua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes of serum lipoprotein (a) levels and development of stroke. Methods: Lipoprotein (a) levels were determined with ELISA in 100 patients with stroke and 60 controls. Results: The serum LP (a) levels in patients with stroke complicated with diabetes were also significantly higher than those in patients with stroke but without diabetes (P<0.01). Conclusion: The levels of serum LP(a) was a relatively independent risk factor, and it could be of some prognostic value. (authors)

  10. Trans fatty acids and cholesterol levels: An evidence map of the available science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, DeAnn J; Cook, Chad M; Wang, Ding Ding; Gaine, P Courtney; Baer, David J

    2016-12-01

    High intakes of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) increase circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which has implicated iTFA in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Published data on iTFA and LDL-C, however, represent higher intake levels than the U.S. population currently consume. This study used state-of-the-art evidence mapping approaches to characterize the full body of literature on LDL-C and iTFA at low intake levels. A total of 32 independent clinical trials that included at least one intervention or control group with iTFA at ≤3%en were found. Findings indicated that a wide range of oils and interventions were used, limiting the ability to determine an isolated effect of iTFA intake. Few data points were found for iTFA at available to assess the relationship of low levels of iTFA, particularly from PHO exposure, and LDL-C. Therefore, limited evidence is available to determine the effect of iTFA at current consumption levels on CHD risk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma Lipoprotein(a Levels and Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis in Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Catena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The contribution of emergent cardiovascular risk factors to atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS is debated. We investigated the relationship of lipoprotein(a and prothrombotic factors with ARAS in hypertension. Methods: In 50 hypertensive patients with angiographic evidence of ARAS and 58 hypertensive patients who had comparable cardiovascular risk factor burden but no evidence of renovascular disease, we measured renal function, lipoprotein(a, homocysteine, and hemostatic-fibrinolytic markers. Results: Patients with ARAS were more frequently smokers and had longer duration of hypertension, heavier antihypertensive treatment, and worse renal function than controls. Lipoprotein(a was higher in patients with ARAS than controls, whereas no differences were found in homocysteine and all hemostatic variables. Multivariate analysis showed that lipoprotein(a was associated with ARAS independent of other confounders including renal function and history of coronary heart, cerebrovascular, and peripheral artery disease. Conclusion: Lipoprotein(a might contribute to the development of ARAS and detection of elevated levels of this lipoprotein could raise the suspicion of renovascular disease in patients with high blood pressure.

  12. TRIIODOTHYRONINE RAPIDLY LOWERS PLASMA-LIPOPROTEIN (A) IN HYPOTHYROID SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; HOOGENBERG, K; SLUITER, WJ

    Background: Increases in plasma low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo-B) are well known in primary hypothyroidism, but it is uncertain whether thyroid dysfunction is associated with elevated levels of the atherogenic lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Methods: The effect of

  13. Non-HDL Cholesterol is a More Superior Predictor of Small-Dense LDL Cholesterol than LDL Cholesterol in Japanese Subjects with TG Levels <400 mg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko

    2016-09-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperlipidemia in Japanese adults recommend using low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) calculated by Friedewald formula (F_LDL-C) for subjects with triglyceride (TG) levels <400 mg/dL and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels for subjects with TG levels ≥400 mg/dL. Because small-dense LDL particles are more atherogenic than large LDL particles, we sought the better lipid parameter which was more reflective of the high small-dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) levels in subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL. This study included 769 Japanese subjects who met our inclusion criteria and underwent an annual health examination, including sdLDL-C analyses. The correlation coefficient of non-HDL-C for sdLDL-C (r=0.760) was significantly higher than that of F_LDL-C (r=0.601). The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.771 (0.731, 0.811) for F_LDL-C and 0.871 (0.842, 0.901) for non HDL-C, which showed significantly higher predictive value for more than fourth quartile value of sdLDL-C (46 mg/dL). The optimal cut-off point of non-HDL-C was 158 mg/dL. Even in subjects stratified by waist circumstance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG, and F_LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C showed stronger relationships with sdLDL-C than F_LDL-C. Moreover, non-HDL-C showed a better relationship with sdLDL-C than total cholesterol (TC), TC/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C. Our data suggested that non-HDL-C is superior to F_LDL-C and one of the reliable surrogate lipid markers of sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL.

  14. comparison of various cholesterol lowering diets in young healthy volunteers : effects on serum lipoproteins and on other risk indicators for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effect of type and amount of dietary fat on the concentration and composition of serum lipoproteins, colonic function, plasma glucose and serum insulin levels and blood pressure in healthy human volunteers.

    Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment

  15. Treatment of HIV infection with a raltegravir-based regimen increases LDL levels, but improves HDL cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburg, Nicholas T; Xu, Dihua; Playford, Martin P; Joshi, Aditya A; Andrade, Adriana; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lederman, Michael M; Mehta, Nehal N

    2017-01-01

    Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. We report results from 39 ART-naive participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir, emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks after ART initiation. We performed advanced lipid phenotyping using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Liposcience, Raleigh, NC, USA) for lipid particle size and number, and examined high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function measuring reverse cholesterol transport using J774 macrophages. We report significant increases in total cholesterol (13 mg/dl; PLDL; 8 mg/dl; P=0.03), with no change in triglycerides and without an increase in LDL particle number (P>0.1 all time points). HDL levels were increased over baseline levels at all time points (PLDL (oxLDL) levels decreased by week 12, but rose subsequently, and were not different from baseline at later time points. HDL increases were associated with increases in beneficial HDL particles and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, which may reduce future CVD events. Persistent inflammation in these HIV+ participants, may be a cause or consequence of oxLDL levels, and may contribute to declining levels of HDL over time. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00660972.

  16. Variations of Lipoprotein(a Levels in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Report from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet its influence on metabolic syndrome (MS is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact generated by this diagnosis in serum Lp(a concentrations. Materials and Methods. A total of 1807 subjects of both genders (55.3% women and 44.7% men belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study were evaluated. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD, determining differences through Student’s t-test and One-Way ANOVA test. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized for analyzing factors associated with elevated serum Lp(a levels and MS. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were corrected according to Lp(a-Cholesterol when necessary. Results. No differences were found in Lp(a values between genders; P=0,292. The association between MS and the classification of Lp(a was statistically significant (χ2=28.33; P<0,0001, with greater levels in subjects with this diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, subjects with each of the separate diagnostic criteria showed higher serum Lp(a concentrations, except for hyperglycemia. Conclusions. Lp(a values exhibit important variations regarding MS and each of its components. Impaired fasting glucose appeared as a protecting factor against elevated Lp(a concentrations, whereas its association with LDL-C and hs-CRP suggests a potential pro-inflammatory role.

  17. The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio as a predictor of insulin resistance but not of β cell function in a Chinese population with different glucose tolerance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meicen; Zhu, Lixin; Cui, Xiangli; Feng, Linbo; Zhao, Xuefeng; He, Shuli; Ping, Fan; Li, Wei; Li, Yuxiu

    2016-06-07

    Triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was a surrogate marker of IR; however, the relationship of TG/HDL-C with IR might vary by ethnicity. This study aims to investigate whether lipid ratios-TG/HDL-C, cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C)) could be potential clinical markers of insulin resistance (IR) and β cell function and further to explore the optimal cut-offs in a Chinese population with different levels of glucose tolerance. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects without a history of diabetes underwent a 75 g 2 h Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). New-onset diabetes (n = 101), pre-diabetes (n = 186), and normal glucose tolerance (n = 192) were screened. IR was defined by HOMA-IR > 2.69. Based on indices (HOMA-β, early-phase disposition index [DI30], (ΔIns30/ΔGlu30)/HOMA-IR and total-phase index [DI120]) that indicated different phases of insulin secretion, the subjects were divided into two groups, and the lower group was defined as having inadequate β cell compensation. Logistic regression models and accurate estimates of the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were obtained. In all of the subjects, TG/HDL, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and TG were significantly associated with IR. The AUROCs of TG/HDL-C and TG were 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.66-0.75) and 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.75), respectively. The optimal cut-offs of TG/HDL-C and TG for IR diagnosis were 1.11 and 1.33 mmol/L, respectively. The AUROCs of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were 0.66 and 0.65, respectively, but they were not acceptable for IR diagnosis. TG/HDL-C,LDL-C/HDL-C and TG were significantly associated with HOMA-β, but AUROCs were less than 0.50; therefore, the lipid ratios could not be predictors of basal β cell dysfunction. None of the lipid ratios was associated with early-phase insulin secretion. Only TG/HDL-C and

  18. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, Iris; Warren, Helen R.; Trompet, Stella; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Avery, Christy L.; Bis, Joshua C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; de Keyser, Catherine E.; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Evans, Daniel S.; Feng, QiPing; Li, Xiaohui; Smit, Roelof A. J.; Smith, Albert V.; Sun, Fangui; Taylor, Kent D.; Arnold, Alice M.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barratt, Bryan J.; Betteridge, John; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buckley, Brendan M.; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Cummings, Steven R.; Denny, Joshua C.; Dubé, Marie Pierre; Durrington, Paul N.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Ford, Ian; Guo, Xiuqing; Harris, Tamara B.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Launer, Leonore J.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Yongmei; Lumley, Thomas; McKeigue, Paul M.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Neil, Andrew; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Nyberg, Fredrik; O'Brien, Eoin; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy; Poulter, Neil; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Rice, Kenneth; Rich, Stephen S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sattar, Naveed; Sever, Peter; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Shields, Denis C.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smith, Nicholas L.; Smith, Joshua D.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Stanton, Alice; Stott, David J.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Stürmer, Til; Uitterlinden, André G.; Wei, Wei-Qi; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Wilke, Russell A.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Franco, Oscar H.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hitman, Graham; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ridker, Paul M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Stein, Charles M.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Caulfield, Mark J.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Inter-individual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide

  19. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Postmus (Douwe); H. Warren (Helen); S. Trompet (Stella); B.J. Arsenault (Benoit J.); C.L. Avery; J.C. Bis (Joshua); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); H. Deshmukh (Harshal); D.S. Evans (Daniel); Feng, Q. (QiPing); X. Li (Xiaohui); Smit, R.A.J. (Roelof A.J.); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); F. Sun (Fangui); K.D. Taylor (Kent); A.M. Arnold (Alice M.); M.J. Barnes (Michael); B.J. Barratt (Bryan J.); J. Betteridge (John); S.M. Boekholdt (Matthijs); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); Y.D. Chen (Y.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); S. Cummings; Denny, J.C. (Joshua C.); G.P. Dubé (Gregory); P.N. Durrington (Paul); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); I. Ford (Ian); X. Guo (Xiuqing); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Kees Hovingh; J.J.P. Kastelein (John); Launer, L.J. (Leonore J.); Liu, C.-T. (Ching-Ti); Y. Liu (YongMei); T. Lumley (Thomas); P.M. Mckeigue (Paul); P. Munroe (Patricia); A. Neil (Andrew); D.A. Nickerson (Deborah); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); E. O'Brien (Eoin); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); W.S. Post (Wendy S.); N.R. Poulter (Neil); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); S.S. Rich (Stephen); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); N. Sattar (Naveed); P. Sever (Peter); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); D.C. Shields (Denis C.); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); J.D. Smith (Joshua D.); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); A. Stanton (Alice); D.J. Stott (David. J.); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); T. Stürmer; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); W.-Q. Wei (Wei-Qi); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); E.A. Whitsel (Eric A.); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); R.A. Wilke (Russell A.); C. Ballantyne (Christie); H.M. Colhoun (H.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); O.H. Franco (Oscar); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); G.A. Hitman (Graham); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); Stein, C.M. (Charles M.); J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); Rotter, J.I. (Jerome I.); R.M. Krauss (Ronald)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Interindividual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. Methods and results We

  20. Peri and Postparturient Concentrations of Lipid Lipoprotein Insulin and Glucose in Normal Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞOĞLU, Abdullah; SEVİNÇ, Mutlu; OK, Mahmut

    1998-01-01

    In order to provide uniqe insight into the metabolic disturbences seen after calving cholesterol, triglycerid, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose and insulin levels in serum were studied before calving (group I), in aerly (group II) and late (group III) lactation in 24 normal cows. Serum lipoproteins were separeted into various density classes by repeated ultracentrifugation. The results indicate that there was a rise in glucose, trygl...

  1. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  2. GRP94 Regulates Circulating Cholesterol Levels through Blockade of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Poirier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc by hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR is central for vascular health. Secreted by hepatocytes, PCSK9 induces the degradation of LDLR, resulting in higher plasma LDLc levels. Still, it remains unknown why LDLR and PCSK9 co-exist within the secretory pathway of hepatocytes without leading to complete degradation of LDLR. Herein, we identified the ER-resident GRP94, and more precisely its client-binding C-terminal domain, as a PCSK9-LDLR inhibitory binding protein. Depletion of GRP94 did not affect calcium homeostasis, induce ER stress, nor did it alter PCSK9 processing or its secretion but greatly increased its capacity to induce LDLR degradation. Accordingly, we found that hepatocyte-specific Grp94-deficient mice have higher plasma LDLc levels correlated with ∼80% reduction in hepatic LDLR protein levels. Thus, we provide evidence that, in physiological conditions, binding of PCSK9 to GRP94 protects LDLR from degradation likely by preventing early binding of PCSK9 to LDLR within the ER.

  3. Annurca (Malus pumila Miller cv. Annurca) apple as a functional food for the contribution to a healthy balance of plasma cholesterol levels: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Caruso, Domenico; Buonomo, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Emanuela; D'Avino, Maria; Campiglia, Pietro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-05-01

    Recent human studies have evaluated the effect of daily apple consumption on plasma cholesterol level, which is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, slightly significant effects have been generally registered although consuming more than two apples a day for several weeks. This study describes the influence of daily consumption of Annurca apples on the cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolaemic healthy subjects. A monocentric, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 4-month study was conducted. The subjects (n = 250) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (each one of 50 subjects: 28 men and 22 women). Four groups were administered one apple per day among the following: Red Delicious, Granny Smith, Fuji, Golden Delicious. The fifth group was asked to consume two Annurca apples per day, since the weight of this cultivar is on average half that of the commercial ones considered in this study. Comparing results, Annurca led to the most significant outcome, allowing a reduction in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 8.3% and 14.5%, respectively, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 15.2% (all P apple as a useful tool to contribute to the prevention of CVD risk through normal diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2003-01-01

    Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern.

  5. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins) as a contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and IHD. Observational studies show association between elevated remnant cholesterol and IHD, and mechanistic studies show remnant cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall like LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation. Furthermore, large...... genetic studies show evidence of remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for IHD independent of HDL-cholesterol levels. Genetic studies also show that elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with low-grade inflammation, whereas elevated LDL-C is not. There are several pharmacologic ways of lowering...

  6. Obesity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in black and white 9- and 10-year-old girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Sprecher, D; McMahon, RP; Schreiber, GB; Khoury, PR

    It has been hypothesized that the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be mediated in part through its inverse relationship with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Obesity is inversely correlated with HDL-C, and HDL-C has been shown to be protective

  7. Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) : Randomized trial to assess the effects of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among 9,438 patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baigent, C.; Landray, M.; Reith, C.; Dasgupta, T.; Emberson, J.; Herrington, W.; Lewis, D.; Mafham, M.; Collins, R.; Collins, R.; Baigent, C.; Landray, M.; Bray, C.; Chen, Y.; Baxter, A.; Young, A.; Hill, M.; Knott, C.; Cass, A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Fellstroem, B.; Grobbee, R.; Groenhagen-Riska, C.; Haas, M.; Holdaas, H.; Hooi, L. S.; Jiang, L.; Kasiske, B.; Krairittichai, U.; Levin, A.; Massy, Z.; Tesar, V.; Walker, R.; Wanner, C.; Wheeler, D.; Wiecek, A.; Dasgupta, T.; Lewis, D.; Mafham, M.; Majoni, W.; Reith, C.; Simpson, D.; Strony, J.; Musliner, T.; Agodoa, L.; Armitage, J.; Chen, Z.; Craig, J.; de Zeeuw, D.; Gaziano, M.

    Background Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with statin therapy has been shown to reduce the incidence of atherosclerotic events in many types of patient, but it remains uncertain whether it is of net benefit among people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Patients with

  8. Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) : Randomized trial to assess the effects of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among 9,438 patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baigent, C.; Landray, M.; Reith, C.; Dasgupta, T.; Emberson, J.; Herrington, W.; Lewis, D.; Mafham, M.; Collins, R.; Collins, R.; Baigent, C.; Landray, M.; Bray, C.; Chen, Y.; Baxter, A.; Young, A.; Hill, M.; Knott, C.; Cass, A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Fellstroem, B.; Grobbee, R.; Groenhagen-Riska, C.; Haas, M.; Holdaas, H.; Hooi, L. S.; Jiang, L.; Kasiske, B.; Krairittichai, U.; Levin, A.; Massy, Z.; Tesar, V.; Walker, R.; Wanner, C.; Wheeler, D.; Wiecek, A.; Dasgupta, T.; Lewis, D.; Mafham, M.; Majoni, W.; Reith, C.; Simpson, D.; Strony, J.; Musliner, T.; Agodoa, L.; Armitage, J.; Chen, Z.; Craig, J.; de Zeeuw, D.; Gaziano, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with statin therapy has been shown to reduce the incidence of atherosclerotic events in many types of patient, but it remains uncertain whether it is of net benefit among people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Patients with

  9. Circulating Cholesterol Levels May Link to the Factors Influencing Parkinson’s Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesA growing literature suggests that circulating cholesterol levels have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD. In this study, we investigated a possible causal basis for the cholesterol-PD link.MethodsFasting plasma cholesterol levels were obtained from 91 PD and 70 age- and gender-matched controls from an NINDS PD Biomarkers Program cohort at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. Based on the literature, genetic polymorphisms in selected cholesterol management genes (APOE, LDLR, LRP1, and LRPAP1 were chosen as confounding variables because they may influence both cholesterol levels and PD risk. First, the marginal structure model was applied, where the associations of total- and LDL-cholesterol levels with genetic polymorphisms, statin usage, and smoking history were estimated using linear regression. Then, potential causal influences of total- and LDL-cholesterol on PD occurrence were investigated using a generalized propensity score approach in the second step.ResultsBoth statins (p < 0.001 and LRP1 (p < 0.03 influenced total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. There also was a trend for APOE to affect total- and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.08 for both, and for LRPAR1 to affect LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05. Conversely, LDLR did not influence plasma cholesterol levels (p > 0.19. Based on propensity score methods, lower total- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly linked to PD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively.ConclusionThe current study suggests that circulating total- and LDL-cholesterol levels potentially may be linked to the factor(s influencing PD risk. Further studies to validate these results would impact our understanding of the role of cholesterol as a risk factor in PD, and its relationship to recent public health controversies.

  10. Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pinsulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Relationship between the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, insulin resistance index and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa Barrios, Marlene; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela; Valeri, Lenin; Velázquez-Maldonado, Elsy

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the triglyceride/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-c) ratio, insulin resistance index and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The present crosssectional study analyzed 62 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women (control group) aged 17- 35 years old. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were registered. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-c were measured. TheTG/HDL-c ratio, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Women with PCOS showed significantly higher values of the TG/HDL-c ratio and HOMA(IR), and a significantly lower QUICKI value. These differences were related to BMI and WC, with the highest values being observed in obese patients. The 50th percentile for the TG/HDL-c ratio was 3.64; the TG/cHDL ratio was positively correlated with BMI, WC and HOMA(IR) (r=0.48, pglucose > 100 mg/dl (10% vs 3%; ptriglycerides>150 mg/dl (55% vs 20%; p80 cm (82.3% vs 43.8%; pindexes (HOMA(IR), QUICKI). The TG/HDL-c ratio could be considered as a useful and practical method to identify an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with PCOS.

  12. Gene-gene combination effect and interactions among ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP polymorphisms for serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Gene-gene interactions in the reverse cholesterol transport system for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are poorly understood. The present study observed gene-gene combination effect and interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP in serum HDL-C from a cross-sectional study in the Japanese population. METHODS: The study population comprised 1,535 men and 1,515 women aged 35-69 years who were enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC Study. We selected 13 SNPs in the ABCA1, APOA1, CETP, and SR-B1 genes in the reverse cholesterol transport system. The effects of genetic and environmental factors were assessed using general linear and logistic regression models after adjusting for age, sex, and region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alcohol consumption and daily activity were positively associated with HDL-C levels, whereas smoking had a negative relationship. The T allele of CETP, rs3764261, was correlated with higher HDL-C levels and had the highest coefficient (2.93 mg/dL/allele among the 13 SNPs, which was statistically significant after applying the Bonferroni correction (p<0.001. Gene-gene combination analysis revealed that CETP rs3764261 was associated with high HDL-C levels with any combination of SNPs from ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, although no gene-gene interaction was apparent. An increasing trend for serum HDL-C was also observed with an increasing number of alleles (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a multiplier effect from a polymorphism in CETP with ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, as well as a dose-dependence according to the number of alleles present.

  13. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Triglycerides/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Were the Optimal Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Uighur Men and Women in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Dang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Yi-Tong; Pan, Shuo; He, Chun-Hui; Liu, Fen; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Ying-Ying

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the best single predictor of metabolic syndrome by comparing the predictive ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic parameters among a Uighur population in Xinjiang, northwest China. A total of 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS), which was carried out from October, 2007, to March, 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting glucose were documented. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components were confirmed according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome was compared. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), distance in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and cutoffs of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome were calculated. In all, 23.7% of men had the metabolic syndrome, whereas 40.1% of women had the metabolic syndrome in a Uighur population in Xinjiang; the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women was significantly higher than that in men (PAUC value (AUC=0.838); it was followed by TGs/HDL-C (AUC=0.826), body mass index (BMI) (AUC=0.812), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (AUC=0.781), and body adiposity index (BAI) (AUC=0.709). In women, the TGs/HDL-C had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.815); it was followed by WHtR (AUC=0.780), WHR (AUC=0.730), BMI (AUC=0.719), and BAI (AUC=0.699). Similarly, among all five anthropometric and atherogenic parameters, the WHtR had the shortest ROC distance of 0.32 (Sen=85.40%, Spe=71.6%), and the optimal cutoff for WHtR was 0.55 in men. In women, TGs/HDL-C had the shortest ROC distance of 0.35 (Sen=75.29%, Spe=75.18%), and the optimal cutoff of TGs/HDL-C was 1.22. WHtR was the best predictor of metabolic

  14. Association among retinol-binding protein 4, small dense LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL levels in dyslipidemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Shi, Yong-hui; Niu, Dong-mei; Li, Han-qing; Zhang, Chun-ni; Wang, Jun-jun

    2012-06-01

    To investigate retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and their associations in dyslipidemia subjects. We determined RBP4, sdLDL-C, ox-LDL levels in 150 various dyslipidemia subjects and 50 controls. The correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. The RBP4, sdLDL-C and ox-LDL levels were found increased in various dyslipidemia subjects. The sdLDL-C levels were positively correlated with RBP4 (r=0.273, P=0.001) and ox-LDL (r=0.273, P=0.001). RBP4 levels were also correlated with ox-LDL (r=0.167, P=0.043). The multiple regression analysis showed that only sdLDL-C was a significant independent predictor for RBP4 (β coefficient=0.219, P=0.009; adjusted R(2)=0.041) and ox-LDL (β coefficient=0.253, P=0.003; adjusted R(2)=0.057) levels, respectively. The independent associations of sdLDL-C with RBP4 and ox-LDL were observed in dyslipidemia subjects. RBP4 may play an important role in lipid metabolism of atherosclerosis, particularly in formation of sdLDL. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Statistical Study of Serum Cholesterol Level by Gender and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharu, Bhikhari Prasad; Tsokos, Chris P

    2017-07-25

    Cholesterol level (CL) is growing concerned as health issue in human health since it is considered one of the causes in heart diseases. A study of cholesterol level can provide insight about its nature and characteristics. A cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANS) II was conducted on a probability sample of approximately 28,000 persons in the USA and cholesterol level is obtained from laboratory results. Samples were selected so that certain population groups thought to be at high risk of malnutrition. Study included 11,864 persons for CL cases with 9,602 males and 2,262 females with races: whites, blacks, and others. Non-parametric statistical tests and goodness of fit test have been used to identify probability distributions. The study concludes that the cholesterol level exhibits significant racial and gender differences in terms of probability distributions. The study has concluded that white people are relatively higher at risk than black people to have risk line and high risk cholesterol. The study clearly indicates that black males normally have higher cholesterol. Females have lower variation in cholesterol than males. There exists gender and racial discrepancies in cholesterol which has been identified as lognormal and gamma probability distributions. White individuals seem to be at a higher risk of having high risk cholesterol level than blacks. Females tend to have higher variation in cholesterol level than males.

  16. Influence of moderate physical activity on the levels of plasma lipoproteins in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković-Košćal Milanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity and healthy diet, as lifestyle factors, are essential components in the prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Impared glucose intolerance (IGT is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Dyslipidaemia is a cardiometabolic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of moderate physical activity of plasma lipoprotein indicators in high-risk subjects for diabetes mellitus during one-year planned intervention. Methods. We randomly assigned 60 overweight subjects with IGT aged 30-60 years. The subjects were divided into intervention group with 30 subjects, who were intensively and individually instructed on weight reduction, nutrition and increased physical activity, and control group with 30 subjects, who were counselled, as standard, on nutrition and increased exercise. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides (Tg were measured at the beginning of the study, and at 2 months, 6 months, and at the end of the study (12 months. Results. Compared to the beginning of the study, after 2 and 6 months there was no statistically significant difference in serum lipid values. After 12 months, the average values of the measured lipid levels in the intervention group decreased by 18.36% for TC, 27.3% for LDL-C, and 34.2% for Tg (compared to 10.27%, 13.45%, and 10.4%, respectively in the control group. Value of HDL-C in the intervention group increased by 19.12%, and decreased in the control group by 1.48%. Total/HDL-C ratio was reduced by 30.6% and LDL-C/H by 38.1% in the intervention group (compared to 12.36%, and 15.9% in the control group. After 12 months, significantly greater decrease in TC (p<0.01, LDL-C (p<0.01 and Tg (p<0.0001 and significantly greater increase in HDL-C (p<0.05 was detected in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusion. Plasma lipoproteins can

  17. The levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijuan; Lv, Dezhao; Zhou, Wu; Ji, Lili; Zhou, Beibei; Chen, Han; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; He, Jincai

    2017-04-01

    The serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels have been reported altered in the traditional drug-dependence (such as marijuana and heroin). However, studies assessing the relationships among serum TC, TG, and methamphetamine (MA)-dependence have not been described well. In this study, our aim is to explore the serum TG and TC levels in large sample of MA-dependent patients. A retrospective study was conducted in 938 MA-dependent patients who were recruited between February 2, 2008 and March 11, 2013, with social characteristics and drug-dependence history (duration of MA use, routes of drug administration, and daily dose were collected). Then, the serum levels of TC, TG, glucose (GLU), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were measured among the participants. Meanwhile, 985 age- and gender-matched healthy people in the physical examination center were selected as control group. Compared with the control group, significant decreases of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI were observed in MA-dependent patients (P < 0.05). Besides, we found that the daily dose of MA use was associated with TC (β = -0.079, P = 0.015) and the duration of MA use was independently related to BMI (β = -0.071, P = 0.031). This study demonstrated that the levels of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI factors altered in the MA-dependent patients. In addition, there is a negative association between MA dependence and TC and BMI.

  18. A Common LPA Null Allele Associates With Lower Lipoprotein(a) Levels and Coronary Artery Disease Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakou, Theodosios; Seedorf, Udo; Goel, Anuj; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Clarke, Robert; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; van der Hout, A.H.

    Objective-Increased levels of lipoprotein(a) are a highly heritable risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The genetic determinants of lipoprotein(a) levels are mainly because of genetic variation in the apolipoprotein(a) gene (LPA). We have tested the association of a relatively common null

  19. SCARB1 Gene Variants Are Associated With the Phenotype of Combined High High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and High Lipoprotein (a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Sethi, Amar A; Yanek, Lisa R

    2016-01-01

    variants in 6. Functional studies with 4 of the SCARB1 variants (c.386C>T, c.631-14T>G, c.4G>A, and c.631-53(m)C>T & c.726+55(m)CG>CA) showed decreased receptor function in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Human SCARB1 gene variants are associated with a new lipid phenotype, characterized by high levels of both HDL...

  20. Relations Between Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase and Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein of Controlled and Uncontrolled Type 2 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Susanti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes Melitus are proven to be prone to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, especially type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM patient who have higher risk and mortality for cardiovascular risk factor. The Dyslipidemia condition is very common in T2DM as one of the risk factors. Diabetic dyslipidemia is marked by the increased triglyceride (TG, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the differential and correlation between Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP, ratio of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL/lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT and ratio of sdLDL/cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP of controlled and uncontrolled T2DM. METHODS: This study was observational with cross sectional design. In total of 72 patients with T2DM consist of 36 controlled and 36 uncontrolled, participated in this study. The serum TG, HDL-C, sdLDL, LCAT and CETP were examined in their relationship with to T2DM risk. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the AIP (p<0.001 increase controlled and uncontrolled T2DM and the ratio of sdLDL/CETP (p=0.004, odds ratio of AIP was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 and odds ratio of sdLDL/CETP ratio was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 in uncontrolled T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP had a significant correlation with the uncontrolled T2DM. The AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP increase was found at the uncontrolled T2DM to be 4 times greater than the controlled T2DM. KEYWORDS: T2DM, atherosclerosis, atherogenic index of plasma, small dense LDL, LCAT, CETP, ratio of sdLDL/LCAT, ratio of sdLDL/CETP.

  1. Association of soluble Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL with central adiposity and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Brombo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL, in addition to having a prognostic value in patients with cardiovascular disease, seems to interact with adiposity, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the results of previous clinical studies, focused on the association of TRAIL with selected metabolic or anthropometric indices were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to further investigate how soluble TRAIL concentrations independently correlate with major cardiovascular risk factors, including lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features. MATERIALS/METHODS: We examined the associations between serum soluble TRAIL concentrations, measured by ELISA, and lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features in 199 subjects recruited at our Metabolic Outpatient Clinic. RESULTS: Soluble TRAIL concentrations had a significant and direct correlation with total cholesterol (p = 0.046, LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.032, triglycerides (p = 0.01, body mass index (p = 0.046, waist circumference (p = 0.008, fat mass (p = 0.056 and insulin (p = 0.046 and an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02. In multivariable regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders (age, gender, C-reactive protein, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, and insulin, TRAIL levels continued to have an independent correlation with LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference (r(2 = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Serum TRAIL levels were weakly but significantly and independently associated with waist circumference, a marker of visceral adiposity, and with LDL-cholesterol. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological basis of these relationships.

  2. Association of soluble Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) with central adiposity and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombo, Gloria; Volpato, Stefano; Secchiero, Paola; Passaro, Angelina; Bosi, Cristina; Zuliani, Giovanni; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), in addition to having a prognostic value in patients with cardiovascular disease, seems to interact with adiposity, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the results of previous clinical studies, focused on the association of TRAIL with selected metabolic or anthropometric indices were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to further investigate how soluble TRAIL concentrations independently correlate with major cardiovascular risk factors, including lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features. We examined the associations between serum soluble TRAIL concentrations, measured by ELISA, and lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features in 199 subjects recruited at our Metabolic Outpatient Clinic. Soluble TRAIL concentrations had a significant and direct correlation with total cholesterol (p = 0.046), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.032), triglycerides (p = 0.01), body mass index (p = 0.046), waist circumference (p = 0.008), fat mass (p = 0.056) and insulin (p = 0.046) and an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02). In multivariable regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders (age, gender, C-reactive protein, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, and insulin), TRAIL levels continued to have an independent correlation with LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference (r(2) = 0.04). Serum TRAIL levels were weakly but significantly and independently associated with waist circumference, a marker of visceral adiposity, and with LDL-cholesterol. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological basis of these relationships.

  3. LDL cholesterol still a problem in old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Deelen, Joris; Sedaghat, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies in older subjects have shown no or inverse associations between cholesterol levels and mortality. However, in old age plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may not reflect the lifetime level due to reverse causality, and hence the risk may...

  4. Chlordecone, a mixed pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist, alters cholesterol homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Junga; Scheri, Richard C.; Zhang Yuan; Curtis, Lawrence R.

    2008-01-01

    Chlordecone (CD) is one of many banned organochlorine (OC) insecticides that are widespread persistent organic pollutants. OC insecticides alter lipid homeostasis in rodents at doses that are not neurotoxic or carcinogenic. Pretreatment of mice or rats with CD altered tissue distribution of a subsequent dose of [ 14 C]CD or [ 14 C]cholesterol (CH). Nuclear receptors regulate expression of genes important in the homeostasis of CH and other lipids. In this study, we report that CD suppresses in vitro reporter systems for human liver X receptors (LXRs) and activates those for human farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) in a concentration-dependent manner (0-50 μM). Consistent with human PXR activation in vitro, three days after a single dose of CD (15 mg/kg) hepatic microsomal CYP3A11 protein increases in C57BL/6 mice. CD decreases hepatic CH ester content without altering total CH concentration. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) contents of hepatic lipoprotein-rich and microsomal fractions of CD-treated mice are higher than controls. There is a significant reduction in non-high density lipoprotein CH but not apolipoprotein B-48/100 (apoB-48/100) in plasma from CD-treated mice after a 4 h fast. At 14 days after 15 mg CD/kg apoA-I and apoB-100 proteins but not CYP3A11 protein in hepatic microsomes are similar to controls. This work indicates that altered CH homeostasis is a mode of OC insecticide action of relevance after a single dose. This at least partially explains altered CH tissue distribution in CD-pretreated mice

  5. Predictors of coronary heart disease events among asymptomatic persons with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J; Shaw, Leslee J; Goff, David C; Polak, Joseph F; Lima, Joao; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2011-07-19

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) events among asymptomatic persons with low (≤ 130 mg/dl) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Even among persons with low LDL-C, some will still experience CHD events and may benefit from more aggressive pharmacologic and lifestyle therapies. The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort of 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Of 5,627 participants who were not receiving any baseline lipid-lowering therapies, 3,714 (66%) had LDL-C ≤ 130 mg/dl and were included in the present study. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated to assess the association of traditional risk factors and biomarkers with CHD events. To determine if subclinical atherosclerosis markers provided additional information beyond traditional risk factors, coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness were each separately added to the multivariable model. During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 120 (3.2%) CHD events were observed. In unadjusted analysis, age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglycerides, and subclinical atherosclerosis markers (CAC >0; carotid intima media thickness ≥1 mm) predicted CHD events. Independent predictors of CHD events included age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C. After accounting for all traditional risk factors, the predictive value of CAC was attenuated but remained highly significant. The relationship of all independent clinical predictors remained robust even after accounting for elevated CAC. Among persons with low LDL-C, older age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C are associated with adverse CHD events. Even after accounting for all such variables, the presence of CAC provided incremental prognostic value. These results may serve as a basis for deciding which patients with low LDL-C may be considered for

  6. High levels of confusion for cholesterol awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika V

    2008-09-15

    Earlier this year, two industry-sponsored advertising campaigns for cholesterol awareness that target the general public were launched in Australia. These campaigns aimed to alert the public to the risks associated with having high cholesterol and encouraged cholesterol testing for wider groups than those specified by the National Heart Foundation. General practitioners should be aware of the potential for the two campaigns to confuse the general public as to who should be tested, and where. The campaign sponsors (Unilever Australasia and Pfizer) each have the potential to benefit by increased market share for their products, and increased profits. These disease awareness campaigns are examples of what is increasingly being termed "condition branding" by pharmaceutical marketing experts.

  7. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Serum Cholesterol Levels and on Die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-12

    Jun 12, 1974 ... Myasnikova' was the first to show that vitamin Chad the ability to influence ~erum cholesterol levels of patients. She observed that the intravenous administration of high doses of vitamin C to patients with high levels of serum cholesterol resulted in a distinct decrease, whereas in patients with low values it ...

  8. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  9. Prevalence of obesity and high level of cholesterol in hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine what proportion of patients with hypertension are obese and or have elevated serum cholesterol. The data of two hundred and fifty patients who attended the outpatient clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan from January 1998 to December 2001 were analysed. Almost half ...

  10. Effect of herbicide (primextra) on tissue cholesterol level in Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were exposed to sub lethal concentrations (0.04, 0.06 and 0.10μg/L) of primextra for 21 days in a static renewal bioassay system. The changes in the tissue cholesterol concentrations were determined every seven days. The result showed that primextra had adverse effect on the tissue ...

  11. Diet and lifestyle: its association with cholesterol levels among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and high cholesterol (>240) was 21.1 % and 9.4 % among select tribal populations. It was found that 71.7% were nonvegetarian and 28.3% were vegetarian out which 82.6% were males and 63.2% were females. It was observed that males ...

  12. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willer, Cristen J.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V. M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stancáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mohlke, Karen L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.

    2013-01-01

    Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577

  13. Remnant cholesterol as a cause of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), on its definition, measurement, atherogenicity, and levels in high risk patient groups; in addition, present and future pharmacological approaches to lowering remnant cholesterol levels...... are considered. Observational studies show association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even when remnant cholesterol levels are defined, measured, or calculated in different ways. In-vitro and animal studies also support the contention that elevated...... levels of remnant cholesterol may cause atherosclerosis same way as elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, by cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall. Genetic studies of variants associated with elevated remnant cholesterol levels show that an increment of 1mmol/L (39mg...

  14. Association between serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the association between the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. We examined the relationship between the TG/HDL ratio and sarcopenia in 879 elderly males ≥60years who participated in the 2010-2011 KNHANES. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by the weight (%), which is >1 SD below the mean for young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across the TG/HDL ratio quartiles (Q1: ≤1.4, Q2: 1.5-2.4, Q3: 2.5-3.8 and Q4: ≥3.9) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia significantly increased in accordance with TG/HDL ratio quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio for sarcopenia was 2.10 (1.12-3.91) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. TG/HDL ratio was positively related with a higher risk of sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  16. Comparison of two methods using plasma triglyceride concentration as a surrogate estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic subjects: triglycerides × glucose versus triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fahim; Reaven, Gerald M

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to compare relationships between insulin-mediated glucose uptake and surrogate estimates of insulin action, particularly those using fasting triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test in 455 nondiabetic subjects. Fasting TG, HDL-C, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured; and calculations were made of the following: (1) plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C, (2) TG × fasting glucose (TyG index), (3) homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and (4) insulin area under the curve (insulin-AUC) during a glucose tolerance test. Insulin-AUC correlated most closely with SSPG (r ∼ 0.75, P index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and fasting TG and insulin (r ∼ 0.60, P index correlated with SSPG concentration to a similar degree, and the relationships were comparable to estimates using fasting insulin. The strongest relationship was between SSPG and insulin-AUC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heterogeneity at the CETP gene locus. Influence on plasma CETP concentrations and HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J.A.; de Knijff, P.; Boer, J M; Smalheer, H A; Botma, G.J.; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J.J.; Pritchard, P H

    This study was designed to investigate the association(s) between heterogeneity at the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene locus, CETP plasma concentrations, and HDL cholesterol levels. Healthy men with the lowest, median, and highest deciles of HDL cholesterol were selected from a large

  18. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Dong-Feng

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P - and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P -A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P P 3.20 mmol/L subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P P P P +A+ genotype had higher serum LDL-C, TC, HDL-C or ApoA1 levels than the subjects with A-A+ and A-A- genotypes. Spearman rank correlation analysis revealed that the levels of LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C in Han were correlated with genotypes (P P Conclusions The association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels is different between the Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. The discrepancy might partly result from different LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism or LDL-R gene-enviromental interactions.

  20. Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels and risk of Alzheimer disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroula Proitsi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD.We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n=10,578. We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013. Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10-8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5 × 10-8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]=1.005, 95% CI 0.82-1.24, p = 0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR=0.901, 95% CI 0.65-1.25, p=0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR=1.104, 95% CI 0.89-1.37, p=0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR=0.954, 95% CI 0.76-1.21, p=0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol. Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance.Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and

  1. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjufca, V H; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1997-09-01

    Male Ross x Ross 208 chickens were fed from hatching to 21 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of a commercial garlic powder in Experiments 1 and 2. Once the dose-response relationship was established, 3% garlic powder or 63 or 180 mg/kg copper as cupric citrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate were supplemented to the diet (Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6). In the first two experiments, reductions of plasma cholesterol (P = 0.006) and triacylglycerols (P = 0.013) and liver (P = 0.012) and breast muscle (P = 0.165) cholesterol were observed in garlic-supplemented birds. Feeding either garlic powder or copper (63 and 180 mg/kg) resulted in reduced levels of plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, and breast and thigh muscle cholesterol. Differences were significant at P copper (P = 0.982). The activity of fatty acid synthetase was decreased in birds fed copper (P = 0.035). Both garlic and copper supplements decreased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity (P = 0.024 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of these trials confirm the findings that garlic and copper alter lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, they do not work by the same mechanism. Feeding dietary garlic or copper for 21 d reduced cholesterol levels of broiler meat without altering growth of the chickens or feed efficiency.

  2. Higher Lipoprotein (a Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People - Data from the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Buchmann

    Full Text Available Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II. We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1 in men with low Lp(a concentrations (t-test. This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here.

  3. Correlation studies between serum concentrations of zinc and lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    In this study, serum zinc and lipoprotein concentrations were determined in order to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. This population consisted of elderly considered healthy and participating of a 'Successful Ageing' program of the Sao Paulo University Medical School. Fasting blood samples were collected from 87 elderly individuals (63 females and 24 males) aged 60-91 and mean age of 72 +- 7 years. Zn concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis at the IPEN/CNEN/ SP and, the lipoprotein (HDL, LDL and total cholesterol) concentrations were determined using routine analysis methods of the Central Laboratory Division, Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP. Results obtained for Zn indicated that all the individuals presented this element within the recommended value. For total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, 96 % of elderly presented levels within the desired range but for LDL cholesterol concentrations only about 70.0 % of individuals were in the desired range. Serum concentration of Zn were positively correlated to LDL-cholesterol levels (correlation coefficient r = 0.21, p < 0.06). Furthermore, the ratios of [HDL-cholesterol] / [LDL-cholesterol] were negatively correlated with Zn concentrations (r = - 0.234, p < 0.04). The positive correlation found between the serum concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol indicates the possible effect of this element in serum lipoprotein profiles. Thus ,these findings suggest that more investigations should be conducted on Zn supplementation in elderly subjects with cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  4. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH. Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients.MethodsIn 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis.ResultsSodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case.ConclusionDespite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations.

  5. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnaz, S.; Qamar, M.Z.; Karim, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  6. Glycaemic, Blood Pressure and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Control in Adult Patients with Diabetes in Singapore: A Review of Singapore Literature Over Two Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Zhongxian; Venkataraman, Kavita; Toh, Sue-Anne Es; Low, Lian Leng

    2017-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a burgeoning global health epidemic, with an estimated 422 million people living with diabetes in 2014. The number of adult diabetic patients in Singapore is expected to rise to 1 million in 2050. Despite advances made in the management of diabetes and improvements in healthcare accessibility and delivery, the rate and complications of diabetes (myocardial infarction, stroke, kidney failure and lower limb amputation) in Singapore have not decreased. Gaps between guidelines and practice have been reported in several parts of the world. In this narrative review, we aimed to describe the control of diabetes in Singapore over the past 20 years. We reviewed studies describing, or trials intervening in, the glycaemic, blood pressure (BP) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control of adult diabetic patients in Singapore published over the past 20 years (1997-2016). Studies selected from comprehensive electronic databases searches were reviewed by 4 reviewers (2 primary care physicians, 1 diabetologist and 1 public health epidemiologist). The GRADE approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence. We included 23 articles involving 257,097 subjects. There were 9 longitudinal, 12 cross-sectional and 2 case-control studies. All studies reported mean/median HbA1c between 7.2%-8.6%. BP ranged between 126.5-144 mmHg (systolic) and 70-84 mmHg (diastolic) in 9 studies. Nine studies reported LDL-C between 2.4-3.3 mmol/L. Mirroring global patterns, the glycaemic, BP and LDL-C control in adult diabetic patients in Singapore do not appear to be treated to target in the majority of patients.

  7. Use of health information technology (HIT) to improve statin adherence and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment in high-risk patients: proceedings from a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jerome D; Aspry, Karen E; Brown, Alan S; Foody, Joanne M; Furman, Roy; Jacobson, Terry A; Karalis, Dean G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Laforge, Ralph; O'Toole, Michael F; Scott, Ronald D; Underberg, James A; Valuck, Thomas B; Willard, Kaye-Eileen; Ziajka, Paul E; Ito, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    The workshop discussions focused on how low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment can be enhanced with the use of health information technology (HIT) in different clinical settings. A gap is acknowledged in LDL-C goal attainment, but because of the passage of the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Acts there is now reason for optimism that this gap can be narrowed. For HIT to be effectively used to achieve treatment goals, it must be implemented in a setting in which the health care team is fully committed to achieving these goals. Implementation of HIT alone has not resulted in reducing the gap. It is critical to build an effective management strategy into the HIT platform without increasing the overall work/time burden on staff. By enhancing communication between the health care team and the patient, more timely adjustments to treatment plans can be made with greater opportunity for LDL-C goal attainment and improved efficiency in the long run. Patients would be encouraged to take a more active role. Support tools are available. The National Lipid Association has developed a toolkit designed to improve patient compliance and could be modified for use in an HIT system. The importance of a collaborative approach between nongovernmental organizations such as the National Lipid Association, National Quality Forum, HIT partners, and other members of the health care industry offers the best opportunity for long-term success and the real possibility that such efforts could be applied to other chronic conditions, for example, diabetes and hypertension. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio is an index of heart disease mortality and of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Gloria Lena; Barlow, Carolyn E; Grundy, Scott M; Leonard, David; DeFina, Laura F

    2014-02-01

    High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) impart risk for heart disease. This study examines the relationships of TG/HDL-C ratio to mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Survival analysis was done in 39,447 men grouped by TG/HDL-C ratio cut point of 3.5 and for metabolic syndrome. National Death Index International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes were used for CVD and CHD deaths occurring from 1970 to 2008. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) according to ratio was estimated in 22,215 men. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and cross-product of TG and fasting blood glucose (TyG index) were used in analysis. Men were followed up for 581,194 person-years. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicted CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and non-HDL-C. Mortality rates were higher in individuals with a high ratio than in those with a low ratio. Fifty-five percent of men had metabolic syndrome that was also predictive of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Annual incidence of DM was 2 times higher in men with high TG/HDL-C ratio than in those with a low ratio. Individuals with high TG/HDL-C ratio had a higher incidence of DM than those with a low ratio. The TyG index was not equally predictive of causes of mortality to TG/HDL-C, but both were equally predictive of diabetes incidence. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicts CHD and CVD mortality as well as or better than do metabolic syndrome in men. Also, a high ratio predisposes to DM. The TyG index does not predict CHD, CVD, or all-cause mortality equally well, but like TG/HDL-C ratio, it predicts DM incidence.

  9. Treatment patterns and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment among patients receiving high- or moderate-intensity statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen M; Tai, Ming-Hui; Kostev, Karel; Hatz, Maximilian; Qian, Yi; Laufs, Ulrich

    2018-05-01

    European clinical guidelines recommend a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of C goal attainment among atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD) patients with various utilization patterns of moderate- or high-intensity statins in routine care. This retrospective cohort study used electronic medical records data from the QuintilesIMS® Disease Analyzer (> 2 million individuals annually) to identify ASCVD (coronary atherosclerosis, stable/unstable angina, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, aneurysm, peripheral artery disease) patients on moderate-/high-intensity statin in Germany. Proportion of patients with LDL-C C value for each patient (index) in 2012, 2013, and 2014, while on statin. Treatment patterns were assessed for patients with at least 1 year of post-index follow-up. Results were stratified by year and treatment pattern [no change, switch, dose up-/down-titration, discontinuation (≥ 90 day gap)]. In > 14,000 patients assessed in each year (mean age 71 years, 35% female, 8-12% taking high-intensity statins), approximately 80% had LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL. Treatment patterns were assessed for most (88-93%) patients. Approximately 79-81% of patients made no change to statin regimens, 1% switched statins, 14-16% discontinued; 1% of moderate-intensity patients up-titrated, and 3% of all patients down-titrated. LDL-C goal attainment in these treatment pattern groups was 20, 16-24, 17, 11-14, and 17-19%, respectively. Majority of ASCVD patients had LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL while on moderate-/high-intensity statins. Despite low LDL-C goal attainment, few patients changed their treatment regimens.

  10. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  11. Serum Lipoprotein (a Levels in Black South African Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein (a (Lp(a which is a low-density lipoprotein-like particle containing apo(a is considered as an emergent cardiovascular risk factor. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with a two- to threefold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of Lp(a in Black South African T2DM patients and its association with other metabolic factors. 67 T2DM patients and 48 healthy control participants were recruited for the cross-sectional study. The Lp(a level was determined by ELISA and the result was analyzed using SPSS. The Lp(a level in diabetics was found to be significantly increased (P=0.001 when compared to the normal healthy group. In the diabetic group, the Lp(a levels correlated significantly with the duration of diabetes (P=0.008 and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL levels (P=0.03 and decreased total antioxidant capacity (P=0.001. The third tertile of Lp(a was significantly correlated with increased ox-LDL, C-reactive protein, and triglycerides and decreased total antioxidant capacity.

  12. Higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in middle-aged men with low serum cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.A. Steegmans; A.W. Hoes (Arno); A.A.A. Bak (Annette); E. van der Does (Emiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Investigators from several studies have reported a positive relationship between low cholesterol levels and death due to violent causes (eg, suicide and accidents), possibly mediated by depressive symptoms, aggression or hostility, or

  13. WDR1 and CLNK gene polymorphisms correlate with serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein levels in Tibetan gout patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Bing; Chen, Peng; Jiri, Mutu; He, Na; Feng, Tian; Liu, Kai; Jin, Tianbo; Kang, Longli

    2016-03-01

    Current evidence suggests heredity and metabolic syndrome contributes to gout progression. Specifically, the WDR1 and CLNK genes may play a role in gout progression in European ancestry populations. However, no studies have focused on Chinese populations, especially Tibetan individuals. This study aims to determine whether variations in these two genes correlate with gout-related indices in Chinese-Tibetan gout patients. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the WDR1 and CLNK genes were detected in 319 Chinese-Tibetan gout patients and 318 controls. We used one-way analysis of variance to evaluate the polymorphisms' effects on gout based on mean serum levels of metabolism indicators, such as albumin, glucose (GLU), triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), creatinine, and uric acid, from fasting venous blood samples. All p values were Bonferroni corrected. Polymorphisms of the WDR1 and CLNK genes affected multiple risk factors for gout development. Significant differences in serum GLU levels were detected between different genotypic groups with WDRI polymorphisms rs4604059 (p = 0.005) and rs12498927 (p = 0.005). In addition, significant differences in serum HDL-C levels were detected between different genotypic groups with the CLNK polymorphism rs2041215 (p = 0.001). Polymorphisms of CLNK also affected levels of albumin, triglycerides, and creatinine. This study is the first to investigate and identify positive correlations between WDR1 and CLNK gene polymorphisms in Chinese-Tibetan populations. Our findings provide significant evidence for the effect of genetic polymorphisms on gout-related factors in Chinese-Tibetan populations.

  14. The Effects of Smoking Cessation on Visceral Adiposity Index Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-06-11

    Jun 11, 2018 ... mass index (BMI), and high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol levels .... used to determine the relationship between not normally .... monoxide; VAI=Visceral adiposity index; TG=Triglyceride; HDL‑cholesterol=High density ...

  15. Lack of Abcg1 results in decreased plasma HDL cholesterol levels and increased biliary cholesterol secretion in mice fed a high cholesterol diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Harmen; Nijstad, Niels; de Boer, Jan Freark; Out, Ruud; Hogewerf, Wytse; Van Berkel, Theo J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Objective: The ATP Binding Cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) has been implicated in cholesterol efflux towards HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Biliary cholesterol secretion is considered as an important step in RCT. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of Abcg1

  16. Arterial Retention of Remnant Lipoproteins Ex Vivo Is Increased in Insulin Resistance Because of Increased Arterial Biglycan and Production of Cholesterol-Rich Atherogenic Particles That Can Be Improved by Ezetimibe in the JCR:LA-cp Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Rabban; Warnakula, Samantha; Borthwick, Faye; Hassanali, Zahra; Uwiera, Richard R.E.; Russell, James C.; Cheeseman, Christopher I.; Vine, Donna F.; Proctor, Spencer D

    2012-01-01

    Background Literature supports the “response-to-retention” hypothesis—that during insulin resistance, impaired metabolism of remnant lipoproteins can contribute to accelerated cardiovascular disease progression. We used the JCR:LA-cp rat model of metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine the extent of arterial accumulation of intestinal-derived remnants ex vivo and potential mechanisms that contribute to exacerbated cholesterol deposition in insulin resistance. Methods and Results Arteries from control and MetS (insulin-resistant) JCR:LA-cp rats were perfused ex vivo with Cy5-labeled remnant lipoproteins, and their arterial retention was quantified by confocal microscopy. Arterial proteoglycans were isolated from control and MetS rats at 6, 12, and 32 weeks of age. There was a significant increase in the arterial retention of remnants and in associated cholesterol accumulation in MetS rats as compared to control rats. Mechanistic studies reveal that increased cholesterol deposition is a result of greater arterial biglycan content; longer glycosaminoglycans and increased production of cholesterol-rich intestinal-derived remnants, as compared to controls. Additionally, perfusion of vessels treated with ezetimibe, alone or in combination with simvastatin, with remnants isolated from the respective treatment group reduced ex vivo arterial retention of remnant-derived cholesterol ex vivo as compared to untreated controls. Conclusions Increased progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus might be explained in part by an increase in the arterial retention of cholesterol-rich remnants. Furthermore, ezetimibe alone or in combination treatment with simvastatin could be beneficial in ameliorating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in insulin resistance and MetS. PMID:23316299

  17. Exome Sequencing and Directed Clinical Phenotyping Diagnose Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease Presenting as Autosomal Recessive Hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stitziel, Nathan O.; Fouchier, Sigrid W.; Sjouke, Barbara; Peloso, Gina M.; Moscoso, Alessa M.; Auer, Paul L.; Goel, Anuj; Gigante, Bruna; Barnes, Timothy A.; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Duga, Stefano; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Nikpay, Majid; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kooperberg, Charles; Lange, Leslie A.; Ardissino, Diego; McPherson, Ruth; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.; de Faire, Ulf; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J.; Charnas, Lawrence; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kastelein, John J. P.; Defesche, Joep C.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hovingh, G. Kees

    2013-01-01

    Objective Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia is a rare inherited disorder, characterized by extremely high total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, that has been previously linked to mutations in LDLRAP1. We identified a family with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia not

  18. Lipoprotein profile, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolla, Roberta; De Mauri, Andreana; Valsesia, Ambra; Vidali, Matteo; Chiarinotti, Doriana; Bellomo, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients; the increased risk of cardiovascular disease is due to accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and impaired lipoprotein metabolism. We aimed to evaluate lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and some pro-inflammatory aspects of the lipoprotein profile in dialyzed patients in order to evaluate the relationship with the accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular accidents. In 102 dialysis patients and 40 non-uremic controls, we investigated the lipoprotein plasma profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), ceruloplasmin and serum amyloid A protein (SAA), and followed patients for 1 year to analyze the risk of acute cardiovascular events. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein plasma levels were significantly lower in uremic patients than controls, whereas CRP, SAA, ceruloplasmin, Lp-PLA2 and their ratio with apolipoprotein A1 were significantly higher. Patients with Lp-PLA2 levels >194 nmol/min/ml had more acute cardiovascular events than patients with lower values. Our results show that in dialysis subjects: (1) low-density lipoproteins show a more atherogenic phenotype than in the general population; (2) high-density lipoproteins are less anti-inflammatory; (3) Lp-PLA2 could potentially be used to evaluate cardiovascular risk.

  19. Barley β-glucan reduces blood cholesterol levels via interrupting bile acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Harding, Scott V; Thandapilly, Sijo J; Tosh, Susan M; Jones, Peter J H; Ames, Nancy P

    2017-11-01

    Underlying mechanisms responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan have been proposed, yet have not been fully demonstrated. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of barley β-glucan lowers cholesterol by affecting the cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis or bile acid synthesis. In addition, this study was aimed to assess whether the underlying mechanisms are related to cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) SNP rs3808607 as proposed by us earlier. In a controlled, randomised, cross-over study, participants with mild hypercholesterolaemia (n 30) were randomly assigned to receive breakfast containing 3 g high-molecular weight (HMW), 5 g low-molecular weight (LMW), 3 g LMW barley β-glucan or a control diet, each for 5 weeks. Cholesterol absorption was determined by assessing the enrichment of circulating 13C-cholesterol over 96 h following oral administration; fractional rate of synthesis for cholesterol was assessed by measuring the incorporation rate of 2H derived from deuterium oxide within the body water pool into the erythrocyte cholesterol pool over 24 h; bile acid synthesis was determined by measuring serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations. Consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan decreased total cholesterol (TC) levels (P=0·029), but did not affect cholesterol absorption (P=0·25) or cholesterol synthesis (P=0·14). Increased bile acid synthesis after consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan was observed in all participants (P=0·049), and more pronounced in individuals carrying homozygous G of rs3808607 (P=0·033). In addition, a linear relationship between log (viscosity) of β-glucan and serum 7α-HC concentration was observed in homozygous G allele carriers. Results indicate that increased bile acid synthesis rather than inhibition of cholesterol absorption or synthesis may be responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of barley β-glucan. The pronounced TC reduction in G allele carriers of rs

  20. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    KAUST Repository

    Chauke, Chesa G.; Arieff, Zainunisha; Kaur, Mandeep; Seier, Jü rgen V.

    2014-01-01

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African

  1. Mechanism of action of gemfibrozil on lipoprotein metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Saku, K; Gartside, P S; Hynd, B A; Kashyap, M L

    1985-01-01

    Gemfibrozil is a potent lipid regulating drug whose major effects are to increase plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) and to decrease plasma triglycerides (TG) in a wide variety of primary and secondary dyslipoproteinemias. Its mechanism of action is not clear. Six patients with primary familial endogenous hypertriglyceridemia with fasting chylomicronemia (type V lipoprotein phenotype) with concurrent subnormal HDL cholesterol levels (HDL deficiency) were treated initially by diet and once...

  2. Effects of Fatty Acids at Different Positions in the Triglycerides on Cholesterol Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, S.S.; Voon, P.T.; Ng, Y.T.; Ong, S.H.; Augustine, S.H.O.; Choo, Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies established a series of regression equations for predicting the risk factor effects from serum cholesterol concentrations. However, the degree of saturation was solely based on total fatty acid composition in triglycerides. Our article is focused on the relationships between the published human nutrition studies and predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on total fatty acid compositions and at sn-2 position in triglycerides. Twenty-two published human nutrition studies were chosen to assess the effects of palm olein, olive oil, cocoa butter, sunflower seed oil, corn oil, soyabean oil, grape seed oil, groundnut oil and rice bran oil diets on serum cholesterol levels. There were no statistically significant differences between the predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on fatty acids at sn-2 position and the published human nutrition studies as proven by the statistical analyses with p values more than 0.05. In contrast, there were statistically significant differences between the predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on total fatty acids and the published human nutritional studies with p values less than 0.05. Fatty acids at sn-2 position appear to influence the cholesterol levels rather than total fatty acids of the triglyceride. (author)

  3. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  4. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  5. Lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms: associations with myocardial infarction and lipoprotein levels, the ECTIM study. Etude Cas Témoin sur l'Infarctus du Myocarde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemaa, R; Fumeron, F; Poirier, O; Lecerf, L; Evans, A; Arveiler, D; Luc, G; Cambou, J P; Bard, J M; Fruchart, J C

    1995-10-01

    Several lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene polymorphisms have been found associated with fasting lipid levels, but their impact on coronary heart disease (CHD) is less clearly established. We investigated associations of LPL polymorphisms (HindIII, PvuII, Ser447-->Ter) and the newly described mutation Asn291-->Ser with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), severity of atherosclerosis, and fasting plasma lipoprotein concentrations in the ECTIM study (614 patients and 733 controls). The Ter447 allele had a lowering effect on triglycerides (P Ser polymorphisms did not exhibit any significant association with the biochemical traits examined. The HindIII genotype distributions differed between cases and controls, the odds ratios for MI associated with H+H+ and H+H- genotypes being 2.05 (P Ter and MI suggested that this mutation was unlikely to be the cause of the association found with HindIII. In some cases, the severity of atherosclerosis assessed by coronarography increased with the presence of P+ allele (coronary scores: 1.41, 1.57, and 1.64 in P-P-, P-P+, and P+P+ individuals respectively, P Ser mutation (1.58 vs. 1.90, P = 0.06). Our results suggest that the LPL gene is involved in the determination of lipoprotein profiles, the predisposition to CHD, and the severity of atherosclerosis.

  6. The role of cholesterol metabolism and cholesterol transport in carcinogenesis; A review of scientific findings, relevant to future cancer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While the unique metabolic activities of malignant tissues as potential targets for cancer therapeutics has been the subject of several recent reviews, the role of cholesterol metabolism in this context is yet to be fully explored. Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes as well as a precursor of bile acids and steroid hormones. The hypothesis that cancer cells need excess cholesterol and intermediates of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway to maintain a high level of proliferation is well accepted, however the mechanisms by which malignant cells and tissues reprogram cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux are yet to be fully elucidated as potential therapeutic targets. High and low density plasma lipoproteins, area the likely major suppliers of cholesterol to cancer cells and tumors, potentially via receptor mediated mechanisms. This review is primarily focused on the role(s of lipoproteins in carcinogenesis, and their future roles as drug delivery vehicles for targeted cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Increased fluidity and oxidation of malarial lipoproteins: relation with severity and induction of endothelial expression of adhesion molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looareesuwan Sornchai

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oxidative stress has been demonstrated in malaria. The potential oxidative modification of lipoproteins derived from malaria patients was studied. These oxidized lipids may have role in pathogenesis of malaria. Method The plasma lipid profile and existence of oxidized forms of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL were investigated in malaria (17 mild and 24 severe patients and 37 control subjects. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs, conjugated dienes, tryptophan fluorescence and fluidity of lipoproteins were determined as markers of oxidation. The biological effect of malarial lipoproteins was assessed by the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. Results Malarial lipoproteins had decreased cholesterol (except in VLDL and phospholipid. The triglyceride levels were unchanged. The cholesterol/phospholipid ratio of LDL was decreased in malaria, but increased in VLDL and HDL. TBARs and conjugate dienes were increased in malarial lipoproteins, while the tryptophan fluorescence was decreased. The fluidity of lipoproteins was increased in malaria. These indicated the presence of oxidized lipoproteins in malaria by which the degree of oxidation was correlated with severity. Of three lipoproteins from malarial patients, LDL displayed the most pronounced oxidative modification. In addition, oxidized LDL from malaria patients increased endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. Conclusion In malaria, the lipoproteins are oxidatively modified, and the degree of oxidation is related with severity. Oxidized LDL from malarial patients increases the endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. These suggest the role of oxidized lipoproteins, especially LDL, on the pathogenesis of disease.

  8. Effect of Sitagliptin therapy on postprandial lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, AJ; Lamarche, B; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2011-01-01

    as glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirty-six subjects with type 2 diabetes (30 men/6 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 58.1 ± 6.4 years and a body mass index of 30.7 ± 4.9 kg/m2) were recruited in this double-blind cross-over study using sitagliptin 100 mg/day or placebo......Aim: Recent studies indicate that type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased secretion of both hepatic and intestinal lipoproteins, leading to the accumulation of atherogenic triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Sitagliptin is a selective inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 that has been shown...... to reduce fasting and postprandial glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes presumably through incretin hormone-mediated improvements in islet function. The objective of the present study is to examine the effects of treatment with sitagliptin on postprandial lipid and incretin hormone levels as well...

  9. Central Nervous System Demyelination and Remyelination is Independent from Systemic Cholesterol Level in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Barbara B; Sun, Wenhui; Brogden, Graham; Sun, Yanyong; Kammeyer, Patricia; Kalkuhl, Arno; Colbatzky, Florian; Deschl, Ulrich; Naim, Hassan Y; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    High dietary fat and/or cholesterol intake is a risk factor for multiple diseases and has been debated for multiple sclerosis. However, cholesterol biosynthesis is a key pathway during myelination and disturbances are described in demyelinating diseases. To address the possible interaction of dyslipidemia and demyelination, cholesterol biosynthesis gene expression, composition of the body's major lipid repositories and Paigen diet-induced, systemic hypercholesterolemia were examined in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) using histology, immunohistochemistry, serum clinical chemistry, microarrays and high-performance thin layer chromatography. TME-virus (TMEV)-infected mice showed progressive loss of motor performance and demyelinating leukomyelitis. Gene expression associated with cholesterol biosynthesis was overall down-regulated in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. Spinal cord levels of galactocerebroside and sphingomyelin were reduced on day 196 post TMEV infection. Paigen diet induced serum hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipidosis. However, high dietary fat and cholesterol intake led to no significant differences in clinical course, inflammatory response, astrocytosis, and the amount of demyelination and remyelination in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. The results suggest that down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis is a transcriptional marker for demyelination, quantitative loss of myelin-specific lipids, but not cholesterol occurs late in chronic demyelination, and serum hypercholesterolemia exhibited no significant effect on TMEV infection. © 2015 International Society of Neuropathology.

  10. Novel mechanism by which probucol lowers low density lipoprotein levels demonstrated in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruszewicz, M.; Carew, T.E.; Pittman, R.C.; Witztum, J.L.; Steinberg, D.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits (WHHL rabbits) with probucol (1% w/w in a chow diet) lowered their LDL-cholesterol levels by 36%, consonant with the reported effectiveness of the drug in patients deficient in the LDL receptor. Initial studies of LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) using 125 I-labeled LDL prepared from the serum of untreated WHHL rabbits showed no difference between probucol-treated WHHL rabbits and untreated WHHL rabbits. When, however, 125 I-labeled LDL was prepared from donor WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol and injected back into them, the FCR was found to be increased by about 50% above that measured simultaneously using 131 I-labeled LDL prepared from untreated WHHL donors. The labeled LDL from probucol-treated donors was also metabolized more rapidly than that from untreated donors when injected into untreated WHHL rabbits or into untreated wild-type New Zealand White rabbits. Finally, it was shown that rabbit skin fibroblasts in culture degraded labeled LDL prepared from probucol-treated WHHL rabbits more rapidly than that prepared from untreated WHHL donors. This was true both for normal rabbit fibroblasts and also for WHHL skin fibroblasts, although the absolute degradation rates in the latter were, of course, much lower for both forms of LDL. The data indicate that a major mechanism by which probucol lowers LDL levels relates not to changes in the cellular mechanisms for LDL uptake or to changes in LDL production but rather to intrinsic changes in the structure and metabolism of the plasma LDL of the probucol-treated animal

  11. The fibrate drug gemfibrozil disrupts lipoprotein metabolism in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prindiville, John S.; Mennigen, Jan A.; Zamora, Jake M.; Moon, Thomas W.; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Gemfibrozil (GEM) is a fibrate drug consistently found in effluents from sewage treatment plants. This study characterizes the pharmacological effects of GEM on the plasma lipoproteins of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Our goals were to quantify the impact of the drug on: 1) lipid constituents of lipoproteins (phospholipids (PL), triacylglycerol (TAG), and cholesterol), 2) lipoprotein classes (high, low and very low density lipoproteins), and 3) fatty acid composition of lipoproteins. Potential mechanisms of GEM action were investigated by measuring lipoprotein lipase activity (LPL) and the hepatic gene expression of LPL and of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, β, and γ isoforms. GEM treatment resulted in decreased plasma lipoprotein levels (- 29%) and a reduced size of all lipoprotein classes (lower PL:TAG ratios). However, the increase in HDL-cholesterol elicited by GEM in humans failed to be observed in trout. Therefore, HDL-cholesterol cannot be used to assess the impact of the drug on fish. GEM also modified lipoprotein composition by reducing the abundance of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, thereby potentially reducing the nutritional quality of exposed fish. The relative gene expression of LPL was increased, but the activity of the enzyme was not, and we found no evidence for the activation of PPAR pathways. The depressing effects of GEM on fish lipoproteins demonstrated here may be a concern in view of the widespread presence of fibrates in aquatic environments. Work is needed to test whether exposure to environmental concentrations of these drugs jeopardizes the capacity of fish for reproduction, temperature acclimation or migratory behaviors.

  12. Non-Cholesterol Sterol Levels Predict Hyperglycemia and Conversion to Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Henna; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A.; Paananen, Jussi; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Stančáková, Alena; Smith, Ulf; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the levels of non-cholesterol sterols as predictors for the development of hyperglycemia (an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test) and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Finnish men (METSIM Study, N = 1,050) having non-cholesterol sterols measured at baseline. Additionally we determined the association of 538,265 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with non-cholesterol sterol levels in a cross-sectional cohort of non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetes (the Kuopio cohort of the EUGENE2 Study, N = 273). We found that in a cross-sectional METSIM Study the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol absorption were reduced as a function of increasing fasting glucose levels, whereas the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol synthesis were increased as a function of increasing 2-hour glucose levels. A cholesterol synthesis marker desmosterol significantly predicted an increase, and two absorption markers (campesterol and avenasterol) a decrease in the risk of hyperglycemia and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort, mainly attributable to insulin sensitivity. A SNP of ABCG8 was associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in a cross-sectional study but did not predict hyperglycemia or incident type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, the levels of some, but not all non-cholesterol sterols are markers of the worsening of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23840693

  13. Low density lipoprotein levels linkage with the periodontal status patients of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nafisah Ibrahim; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Studies found an association between periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD), but relationship between periodontal status CHD patients with LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) levels, as risk factors for atherosclerosis, has not been studied. Objective: To analyze relationship between LDL and periodontal status CHD. Methods: Periodontal status of 60 CHD, 40 controls were examined (PBI, PPD, CAL) and their blood was taken to assess levels of LDL. Result: Found significant differences LDL (p=0.005), correlation between LDL with PPD (p=0.003) and CAL CHD (p=0.013), and PPD (p=0.001), CAL (p=0.008) non-CHD, but no significant correlation between LDL with PBI CAD (p=0.689) and PBI non-CHD (p=0.320). Conclusion: There is a correlation between the LDL levels with periodontal status.

  14. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  15. Corn oil improves the plasma lipoprotein lipid profile compared with extra-virgin olive oil consumption in men and women with elevated cholesterol: results from a randomized controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Lawless, Andrea L; Kelley, Kathleen M; Kaden, Valerie N; Geiger, Constance J; Dicklin, Mary R

    2015-01-01

    Restricted intakes of saturated and trans-fatty acids is emphasized in heart-healthy diets, and replacement with poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids is encouraged. To compare the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich corn oil (CO) and monounsaturated fatty acid-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) on plasma lipids in men and women (N = 54) with fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL and consumption away from the clinic. Baseline mean (standard error) lipids in mg/dL were: LDL-C 153.3 (3.5), total cholesterol (total-C) 225.7 (3.9), non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL)-C 178.3 (3.7), HDL-C 47.4 (1.7), total-C/HDL-C 5.0 (0.2), and TG 124.8 (7.2). CO resulted in significantly larger least-squares mean % changes (all P Consumption of CO in a weight-maintenance, low saturated fat and cholesterol diet resulted in more favorable changes in LDL-C and other atherogenic lipids vs EVOO. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and partial metabolic characterization of a dietary cholesterol-resistant colony of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, M.L.; Smith, S.A.; Hewett-Emmett, D.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.; Soma, M.R.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Morrisett, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more 125 I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group

  17. Modulation by geraniol of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism leading to a reduction of serum-cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Marianela; Kladniew, Boris Rodenak; Castro, María Agustina; Villegas, Sandra Montero; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Polo, Mónica; de Bravo, Margarita García; Crespo, Rosana

    2015-07-15

    Geraniol (G) is a natural isoprenoid present in the essential oils of several aromatic plants, with various biochemical and pharmacologic properties. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of action of G on cellular metabolism are largely unknown. We propose that G could be a potential agent for the treatment of hyperlipidemia that could contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of its mechanism of action on cholesterol and TG metabolism. NIH mice received supplemented diets containing 25, 50, and 75 mmol G/kg chow. After a 3-week treatment, serum total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by commercial kits and lipid biosynthesis determined by the [(14)C] acetate incorporated into fatty acids plus nonsaponifiable and total hepatic lipids of the mice. The activity of the mRNA encoding HMGCR-the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis-along with the enzyme levels and catalysis were assessed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and HMG-CoA-conversion assays, respectively. In-silico analysis of several genes involved in lipid metabolism and regulated by G in cultured cells was also performed. Finally, the mRNA levels encoded by the genes for the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), the sterol-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor (SREBF2), the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), and the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA) were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Plasma total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels plus hepatic fatty-acid, total-lipid, and nonsaponifiable-lipid biosynthesis were significantly reduced by feeding with G. Even though an up-regulation of the mRNA encoding HMGCR occurred in the G treated mouse livers, the protein levels and specific activity of the enzyme were both inhibited. G also enhanced the mRNAs encoding the LDL and VLDL receptors and reduced ACACA mRNA, without altering the transcription of the mRNA encoding the SREBF2. The following

  18. The effect of indigestible dextrin and phytosterol on serum LDL-cholesterol level on hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Then

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the effects of indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and phytosterol 2x0.6g/day provided for 6 weeks in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol levels amongs hypercholesterolemic subjects.Methods A randomized clinical trial, two pararel groups, double blinded and randomly assigned to each different group was done in 16 subjects per-group.Results Before the, intervention the level of LDL cholesterol of both ID and FS group were 158.81 ± 17.74 mg/dL and 176.18 ± 25.31 mg/dL, respectively. After the intervention there was a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol level in both groups, i.e. among the ID group by 20.93 ± 12.65 mg/dL (13.24% with p value of <0.001, while the reduction of LDL cholesterol level among the PS group was 21.87 ± 28.76 mg/dL (11.21% with p value of 0.008. However, the reduction of cholesterol level between the two groups did not show any significant difference.Conclusion Consuming indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and 2x0.6g/day phytosterol (PS for 6 weeks will have the same ability to decrease the serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 114-9Key words: indigestible dextrin, phytosterol, cholesterol

  19. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  20. Lipid peroxide levels of serum lipoprotein fractions of diabetic patients with angiopathy and 60Co-irradiated rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunekawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    For a better understanding of the relationship between lipid peroxide (LPO) and vascular diseases, the author determined LPO levels and lipid contents of serum lipoprotein fractions of diabetics with angiopathy. The LPO level in high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of diabetic serum was significantly higher than that of normal serum whereas no significant increase was observed in the levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions of diabetic serum. As to the ratios of LPO to total lipids in these lipoprotein fractions, it was found that the ratio in HDL fraction of the diabetics was markedly higher than that of the normals. These results suggest that the increase in LPO levels in the sera of diabetic patiens is due to that in HDL fraction. To study further this problem, the author employed 60 Co-irradiated rabbit as a model, since it was already reported that radiation affects lipid metabolism and LPO formation, and that it induces the development of atherosclerosis. Upon irradiation with 60 Co ranging from 100R to 700R, serum LPO level of rabbit was significantly increased. Although elevation of LPO level was found in each serum lipoprotein fraction of VLDL, LDL and HDL, LPO level per lipid content was significantly increased only in HDL fraction. In the irradiated rabbit, significant elevation of the level of LPO was also observed in the liver, while no significant increase was found in the kidney and spleen. These results indicate that high level of LPO observed in the serum of irradiated rabbit would be the reflection of the increased LPO in the liver. (J.P.N.)

  1. Lipid peroxide levels of serum lipoprotein fractions of diabetic patients with angiopathy and /sup 60/Co-irradiated rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunekawa, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1982-09-01

    For a better understanding of the relationship between lipid peroxide (LPO) and vascular diseases, the author determined LPO levels and lipid contents of serum lipoprotein fractions of diabetics with angiopathy. The LPO level in high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of diabetic serum was significantly higher than that of normal serum whereas no significant increase was observed in the levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions of diabetic serum. As to the ratios of LPO to total lipids in these lipoprotein fractions, it was found that the ratio in HDL fraction of the diabetics was markedly higher than that of the normals. These results suggest that the increase in LPO levels in the sera of diabetic patients is due to that in HDL fraction. To study further this problem, the author employed /sup 60/Co-irradiated rabbit as a model, since it was already reported that radiation affects lipid metabolism and LPO formation, and that it induces the development of atherosclerosis. Upon irradiation with /sup 60/Co ranging from 100R to 700R, serum LPO level of rabbit was significantly increased. Although elevation of LPO level was found in each serum lipoprotein fraction of VLDL, LDL and HDL, LPO level per lipid content was significantly increased only in HDL fraction. In the irradiated rabbit, significant elevation of the level of LPO was also observed in the liver, while no significant increase was found in the kidney and spleen. These results indicate that high level of LPO observed in the serum of irradiated rabbit would be the reflection of the increased LPO in the liver.

  2. Activation of lipoprotein lipase by lipoprotein fractions of human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, D M; Havel, R J

    1970-11-01

    Triglycerides in fat emulsions are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase only when they are "activated" by serum lipoproteins. The contribution of different lipoprotein fractions to hydrolysis of triglycerides in soybean oil emulsion was assessed by determining the quantity of lipoprotein fraction required to give half-maximal hydrolysis. Most of the activator property of whole serum from normolipidemic, postabsorptive subjects was in high density lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins and serum from which all lipoprotein classes were removed had little or no activity. Also, little activator was present in guinea pig serum or in very low density poor serum from an individual with lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, both of which are deficient in high density lipoproteins. Human very low density lipoproteins are potent activators and are much more active than predicted from their content of high density lipoprotein-protein. Per unit weight of protein, very low density lipoproteins had 13 times the activity of high density lipoproteins. These observations suggest that one or more of the major apoproteins of very low density lipoproteins, present as a minor constituent of high density lipoproteins, may be required for the activation process.

  3. Effect of Two Lipoprotein (a-Associated Genetic Variants on Plasminogen Levels and Fibrinolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two genetic variants (rs3798220 and rs10455872 in the apolipoprotein (a gene (LPA have been implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD, presumably through their association with lipoprotein (a [Lp(a] levels. While Lp(a is recognized as a lipoprotein with atherogenic and thrombogenic characteristics, it is unclear whether or not the two Lp(a-associated genetic variants are also associated with markers of thrombosis (i.e., plasminogen levels and fibrinolysis. In the present study, we genotyped the two genetic variants in 2919 subjects of the Old Order Amish (OOA and recruited 146 subjects according to the carrier and noncarrier status for rs3798220 and rs10455872, and also matched for gender and age. We measured plasma Lp(a and plasminogen levels in these subjects, and found that the concentrations of plasma Lp(a were 2.62- and 1.73-fold higher in minor allele carriers of rs3798220 and rs10455872, respectively, compared with noncarriers (P = 2.04 × 10−17 and P = 1.64 × 10−6, respectively. By contrast, there was no difference in plasminogen concentrations between carriers and noncarriers of rs3798220 and rs10455872. Furthermore, we observed no association between carrier status of rs3798220 or rs10455872 with clot lysis time. Finally, plasminogen mRNA expression in liver samples derived from 76 Caucasian subjects was not significantly different between carriers and noncarriers of these two genetic variants. Our results provide further insight into the mechanism of action behind two genetic variants previously implicated in CVD risk and show that these polymorphisms are not major modulating factors for plasma plasminogen levels and fibrinolysis.

  4. Cholesterol Levels Are Associated with 30-day Mortality from Ischemic Stroke in Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Kuan; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsu, Shih-Pin; Chen, Chih-Hung; Lien, Li-Ming; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Chen, An-Chih; Lin, Huey-Juan; Chi, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Ta-Chang; Sun, Yu; Lee, Siu-Pak; Sung, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Po-Lin; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Chiang, Tsuey-Ru; Lin, Shinn-Kuang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Ma, Henry; Wen, Chi-Pang; Sung, Fung-Chang; Hsu, Chung Y

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the impact of serum cholesterol levels on 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke in dialysis patients. From the Taiwan Stroke Registry data, we identified 46,770 ischemic stroke cases, including 1101 dialysis patients and 45,669 nondialysis patients from 2006 to 2013. Overall, the 30-day mortality was 1.46-fold greater in the dialysis group than in the nondialysis group (1.75 versus 1.20 per 1000 person-days). The mortality rates were 1.64, .62, 2.82, and 2.23 per 1000 person-days in dialysis patients with serum total cholesterol levels of cholesterol levels of 120-159 mg/dL, the corresponding adjusted hazard ratios of mortality were 4.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-17.4), 8.06 (95% CI = 2.02-32.2), and 6.89 (95% CI = 1.59-29.8) for those with cholesterol levels of cholesterol levels of ≥160 mg/dL or <120 mg/dL on admission are at an elevated hazard of 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, Chesa G; Arieff, Zainunisha; Kaur, Mandeep; Seier, Jurgen V

    2014-02-01

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.

  6. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    KAUST Repository

    Chauke, Chesa G.

    2014-01-22

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.©2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Apolipoprotein B knockdown by AAV-delivered shRNA lowers plasma cholesterol in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Annemart; Maczuga, Piotr; van Logtenstein, Richard; Borel, Florie; Blits, Bas; Ritsema, Tita; van Deventer, Sander; Petry, Harald; Konstantinova, Pavlina

    2011-01-01

    Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are proportionate to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In order to reduce serum total cholesterol and LDL-C levels in mice, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inhibit expression of the structural protein of LDL-C,

  8. Ten years of lipoprotein apheresis for familial hypercholesterolemia in Malaysia: A creative approach by a cardiologist in a developing country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoo, Kah Lin; Page, Michael M.; Liew, Yin Mei; Defesche, Joep C.; Watts, Gerald F.

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) leads to premature coronary artery disease and aortic stenosis, with undertreated severe forms causing death at a young age. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is often required for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in severe FH. The objective of this

  9. Effect of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1 gene polymorphism on high density lipoprotein levels in response to hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Nogueira-de-Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy and estrogen plus progestin replacement therapy alter serum levels of total, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. However, HDL cholesterol levels in women vary considerably in response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT. A significant portion of the variability of these levels has been attributed to genetic factors. Therefore, we investigated the influence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1 gene polymorphisms on HDL levels in response to postmenopausal HRT. We performed a prospective cohort study on 54 postmenopausal women who had not used HRT before the study and had no significant general medical illness. HRT consisted of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate continuously for 1 year. The lipoprotein levels were measured from blood samples taken before the start of therapy and after 1 year of HRT. ESR1 polymorphism (MspI C>T, HaeIII C>T, PvuII C>T, and XbaI A>G frequencies were assayed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A general linear model was used to describe the relationships between HDL levels and genotypes after adjusting for age. A significant increase in HDL levels was observed after HRT (P = 0.029. Women with the ESR1 PvuII TT genotype showed a statistically significant increase in HDL levels after HRT (P = 0.032. No association was found between other ESR1 polymorphisms and HDL levels. According to our results, the ESR1 PvuII TT genotype was associated with increased levels of HDL after 1 year of HRT.

  10. High Density Lipoprotein and it's Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Esin; Yilmaz, Necat; Aydin, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) levels do not predict functionality and composition of high-density lipoprotein(HDL). Traditionally, keeping levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) down and HDL-C up have been the goal of patients to prevent atherosclerosis that can lead to coronary vascular disease(CVD). People think about the HDL present in their cholesterol test, but not about its functional capability. Up to 65% of cardiovascular death cannot be prevented by putative LDL-C lowering agents. It well explains the strong interest in HDL increasing strategies. However, recent studies have questioned the good in using drugs to increase level of HDL. While raising HDL is a theoretically attractive target, the optimal approach remains uncertain. The attention has turned to the quality, rather than the quantity, of HDL-C. An alternative to elevations in HDL involves strategies to enhance HDL functionality. The situation poses an opportunity for clinical chemists to take the lead in the development and validation of such biomarkers. The best known function of HDL is the capacity to promote cellular cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells and deliver cholesterol to the liver for excretion, thereby playing a key role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The functions of HDL that have recently attracted attention include anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. High antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HDL are associated with protection from CVD.This review addresses the current state of knowledge regarding assays of HDL functions and their relationship to CVD. HDL as a therapeutic target is the new frontier with huge potential for positive public health implications.

  11. Different effects of continuous and intermittent patterns of growth hormone administration on lipoprotein levels in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Lemming, Lone; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    1998-01-01

    with acromegaly. Studies in rats have demonstrated differential effects of constant and intermittent GH patterns on levels of certain lipoproteins. The aim of the present studies was to describe the impact of intermittent and continuous patterns of GH delivery to GHD patients on serum levels of Lp(a) and other...

  12. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiu Cheng

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.

  13. Sublethal Effects of Diesel on Total Protein Levels and Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    were handpicked at the Eagle Cement area of the New Calabar River and subjected to different levels ... groups when compared to the control in both the muscle and the viscera of the periwinkle. ... In Nigeria, oil industry operations are both offshore and onshore. ... This acts as a means of assessing the hazard or potential ...

  14. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  15. Characteristics of human hypo- and hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, M B; Beynen, A C

    1987-03-01

    The characteristics of people whose serum cholesterol level is unusually susceptible to consumption of cholesterol were investigated. Thirty-two volunteers from the general population of Wageningen, the Netherlands, each participated in three controlled dietary trials in 1982. A low-cholesterol diet was fed during the first half and a high-cholesterol diet during the second half of each trial, and the change (response) of serum cholesterol was measured. The responses in the three trials were averaged to give each subject's mean responsiveness. Fecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites were measured in the second trial, and body cholesterol synthesis was calculated. Responsiveness showed a positive correlation with serum high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2) cholesterol (r = 0.41, p less than 0.05) and with serum total cholesterol level on a high-cholesterol diet (r = 0.31, p = 0.09). A negative relation was found with habitual cholesterol consumption (r = -0.62, p less than 0.01), with body mass index (r = -0.50, p less than 0.01), and with the rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r = -0.40, p less than 0.05), but not with the reaction of endogenous cholesterol synthesis rate to an increased intake of cholesterol. No relation was found with age, sex, total caloric needs, or the ratio of primary to secondary fecal steroids. Upon multiple regression analysis, only habitual cholesterol intake and serum total and HDL2 cholesterol levels contributed significantly to the explanation of variance in responsiveness. Thus, a low habitual cholesterol intake, a high serum HDL2 cholesterol level, or a low body weight do not make one less susceptible to dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Comparison of calculated versus directly-measured low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: An evaluation of ten formulas for an HIV-positive population in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osegbe, Ifeyinwa; Ugonabo, Martin; Chukwuka, Chinwe; Meka, Ijeoma; Nwosu, Nnamdi

    2017-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) is a modifiable risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, therefore needs to be assessed and monitored. Direct homogeneous assays and various formulas exist to determine LDLC. We aimed to compare the directly measured LDL (dLDLC) with ten formulas for estimating LDLC. This was a 2-year retrospective study of fasting lipid profile results obtained from HIV-positive patients attending an outpatient clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, using homogeneous direct assays. Estimated LDLC was determined using ten formulas. Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and linear regression were performed. Statistical significance was P < 0.05. Three thousand four hundred and eighty-two lipid results with mean ± standard deviation (SD) dLDLC of 2.1 ± 1.1 mmol/L were included in this study. There was a strong, positive correlation between Friedewald's LDLC and dLDLC n = 3412, r = 0.84, P < 0.001, but linear regression demonstrated a proportional bias P = 0.005. Ahmadi's equation showed the worst correlation n = 3482, r = 0.35, P < 0.001, but when applied to samples with triglyceride (TG) <1.13 mmol/L (100 mg/dl), the correlation showed a strong, positive relationship n = 1395, r = 0.80, P < 0.001, and no proportional bias P = 0.86. Teerankanchana's equation was the only formula that showed no difference between its LDLC and dLDLC ( n = 3482, P = 0.056). It also demonstrated strong, positive correlation ( n = 3482, r = 0.84, P < 0.001) and had a mean difference ± SD of -0.68 ± 0.63. Teerankanchana's formula showed good correlation and minimal bias with dLDLC at all TG levels. Moreover, linear regression showed no difference in the two. It seems to be the most suitable formula for estimating LDLC in our HIV-positive population.

  17. Causes of failure to achieve the low density lipoprotein cholesterol therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk controlled in Lipid and Vascular Risk Units. EROMOT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Clotilde; Plana, Núria; Arnau, Anna; Matas, Laia; Mauri, Marta; Vila, Àlex; Vila, Lluís; Soler, Cristina; Montesinos, Jesús; Masana, Lluís; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Determination of the level of achievement of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk treated in Lipid Units, as well as the causes of non-achievement. Multicentre retrospective observational study that included patients over 18 years with high and very high vascular risk, according to the criteria of the 2012 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, referred consecutively to Lipid Units between January and June 2012 and with follow-up two years after the first visit. The study included a total of 243 patients from 16 lipid units. The mean age was 52.2 years (SD 13.7), of whom 62.6% were males, and 40.3% of them were very high risk. At the first visit, 86.8% (25.1% in combination) and 95.0% (47.3% in combination) in the second visit (P<.001) were treated with lipid-lowering treatment. The therapeutic target was achieved by 28% (95 CI: 22.4-34.1). As regards the causes of non-achievement, 24.6% were related to the medication (10.3% maximum tolerated dose and 10.9% due to the appearance of adverse effects), 43.4% due to the physician (19.4% by inertia, 13.7% considering that target already reached), and 46.9% due to the patient, highlighting the therapeutic non-compliance (31,4%). LDL-C targets were achieved in about one-third of patients. The low adherence of the patient, followed by medical inertia are the most frequent causes that can explain these results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Niemann-pick type C1 (NPC1) overexpression alters cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, E E; Srivastava, K; Traub, L M; Schaffer, J E; Ory, D S

    2000-12-08

    The Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein is a key participant in intracellular trafficking of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, but its role in regulation of sterol homeostasis is not well understood. To characterize further the function of NPC1, we generated stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines overexpressing the human NPC1 protein (CHO/NPC1). NPC1 overexpression increases the rate of trafficking of low density lipoprotein cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum and the rate of delivery of endosomal cholesterol to the plasma membrane (PM). CHO/NPC1 cells exhibit a 1.5-fold increase in total cellular cholesterol and up to a 2.9-fold increase in PM cholesterol. This increase in PM cholesterol is closely paralleled by a 3-fold increase in de novo cholesterol synthesis. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis results in marked redistribution of PM cholesterol to intracellular sites, suggesting an unsuspected role for NPC1 in internalization of PM cholesterol. Despite elevated total cellular cholesterol, CHO/NPC1 cells exhibit increased cholesterol synthesis, which may be attributable to both resistance to oxysterol suppression of sterol-regulated gene expression and to reduced endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol levels under basal conditions. Taken together, these studies provide important new insights into the role of NPC1 in the determination of the levels and distribution of cellular cholesterol.

  19. Increased oxidizability of low-density lipoproteins in hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, T.; Demacker, P. N.; Kastelein, J. J.; Stalenhoef, A. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    Hypothyroidism leads to an increase of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Oxidation of LDL particles changes their intrinsic properties, thereby enhancing the development of atherosclerosis. T4 has three specific binding sites on apolipoprotein B; furthermore it inhibits LDL

  20. Effects of low-dose simvastatin on the distribution of plasma cholesterol and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in three ultra-centrifugally separated low-density lipoprotein subfractions: 12- month, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yasuhiko; Michishita, Ichiro; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Shigematsu, Hiroshi

    2010-10-27

    The effects of statins on the distribution of oxidized LDL in plasma LDL subfractions have not been well defined. Effects of 12-month treatment with low-dose simvastatin on the distribution of cholesterol and oxidized LDL in 3 ultracentrifugally separated plasma LDL subfractions were compared in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Simvastatin was administered to 30 hypercholesterolemic subjects for 12 months at an initial dose of 5 mg/day, which was increased to 20 mg/day via 10mg/day to decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol (C) lower than 130 mg/dL. Simvastatin dose was fixed after 3 months of treatment. The amounts of cholesterol and oxidized LDL in 3 ultracentrifugally separated plasma LDL subfractions were compared between 0 and 12 months of treatment. The distribution of ox-LDL skewed to denser LDL fractions, compared with cholesterol in plasma LDL subfractions. Plasma cholesterol in low-density LDL, medium-density LDL and high-density LDL decreased significantly by 31%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (pLDL was decreased from 70 U/L to 56 U/L in medium-density LDL (p=0.042). Oxidized LDL in low-density LDL and high-density LDL did not change significantly after 12 months of treatment. Treatment with low-dose simvastatin decreased plasma cholesterol in 3 LDL subfractions and oxidized LDL in medium-density LDL. The decrease of oxidized LDL seemed to be not due to the decrease of cholesterol in plasma LDL subfractions because the decreasing patterns of cholesterol and ox-LDL were different in 3 LDL subfractions.

  1. Genetics of Lipid and Lipoprotein Disorders and Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S; Hegele, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Plasma lipids, namely cholesterol and triglyceride, and lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein, serve numerous physiological roles. Perturbed levels of these traits underlie monogenic dyslipidemias, a diverse group of multisystem disorders. We are on the verge of having a relatively complete picture of the human dyslipidemias and their components. Recent advances in genetics of plasma lipids and lipoproteins include the following: (1) expanding the range of genes causing monogenic dyslipidemias, particularly elevated LDL cholesterol; (2) appreciating the role of polygenic effects in such traits as familial hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia; (3) accumulating a list of common variants that determine plasma lipids and lipoproteins; (4) applying exome sequencing to identify collections of rare variants determining plasma lipids and lipoproteins that via Mendelian randomization have also implicated gene products such as NPC1L1 , APOC3 , LDLR , APOA5 , and ANGPTL4 as causal for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; and (5) using naturally occurring genetic variation to identify new drug targets, including inhibitors of apolipoprotein (apo) C-III, apo(a), ANGPTL3, and ANGPTL4. Here, we compile this disparate range of data linking human genetic variation to plasma lipids and lipoproteins, providing a "one stop shop" for the interested reader.

  2. Fasting Lipoprotein Lipase Protein Levels Can Predict a Postmeal Increment of Triglyceride Levels in Fasting Normohypertriglyceridemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazunori; Sakane, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    Although a postprandial increment in triglyceride (TG) levels is considered to be a risk factor for atherogenesis, tests (e.g., fat load) to assess postprandial changes in TG levels cannot be easily applied to clinical practice. Therefore, fasting markers that predict postprandial TG states are needed to be developed. One current candidate is lipoprotein lipase (LPL) protein, a molecule that hydrides TGs. This study investigated whether fasting LPL levels could predict postprandial TG levels. A total of 17 subjects (11 men, 6 women, mean age 52 ± 11 years) with normotriglyceridemia during fasting underwent the meal test. Several fasting parameters, including LPL, were measured for the area under the curve of postprandial TGs (AUC-TG). The subjects' mean fasting TG level was 1.30 mmol/l, and their mean LPL level was 41.6 ng/ml. The subjects' TG levels increased after loading (they peaked after two postprandial hours). Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that fasting TG levels were a predictor of the AUC-TG. In addition, fasting LPL mass levels were found to be a predictor of the AUC-TG (β = 0.65, P fasting TG levels. Fasting LPL levels may be useful to predict postprandial TG increment in this population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Long-term safety and efficacy of a cholesterol-lowering diet in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol : Seven-year results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obarzanek, E; Kimm, SYS; Barton, BA; Van Horn, L; Kwiterovich, PO; Simons-Morton, DG; Hunsberger, SA; Lasser, NL; Robson, AM; Franklin, FA; Lauer, RM; Stevens, VJ; Friedman, LA; Dorgan, JF; Greenlick, MR

    Objective. Diets reduced in fat and cholesterol are recommended for children over 2 years of age, yet long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. This study tests the long-term efficacy and safety of a cholesterol-lowering dietary intervention in children. Methods. Six hundred sixty-three children 8

  4. Platelet activating factor-acylhydrolase (PAF-ase) activity is higher in serum of men than women and is related to levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, R.S.; Howell, S.E.; Wardlow, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    PAF-ase is a specific serum enzyme that inactivates PAF by hydrolyzing acetate from the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. A reproducible PAF-ase activity assay was developed. A unit is based on the amount of serum required to release 3.61 +/- 0.042 pm 3 H-acetate from 10 pm 3 H-labeled PAF after incubation for 1 hr at 37 0 C. Assays on two single reference serums repeated 7 days were 0.63 +/- 0.013 U and 1.33 +/- 0.031 U. Serum from 20 normal men and 20 normal premenopausal women had significantly different (p = <0.001) levels of 1.32 +/- 0.072 U and 0.97 +/- 0.051 U respectively. They previously reported that PAF-ase is associated with B-lipoprotein. Therefore, total cholesterol (TC), LDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were determined on these 40 serums. Regression analysis revealed PAF-ase units were correlated with LDL (r = 0.740; p = < 0.001) and, parenthetically, with the TC (r = 0.620; p = < 0.001) but not with HDL. These correlations were similar for men and women. Thus, serum PAF-ase was partially controlled by serum LDL levels and the higher PAF-ase levels in serum from men were due in part to higher (p = < 0.01) LDL levels in men (147.6 +/- 6.9 mg/dl) as contrasted to women (119.0 +/- 7.6 mg/dl). PAF is a potent inflammatory, bronchoconstrictive and hypotensive agent. These data indicate that sex and serum LDL levels of subjects must be considered during future studies of the role of PAF vs PAF-ase in different disease states

  5. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Age-Related Lipids and Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Lavie, Carl J.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. Objectives This study sought to assess the longitudinal, aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults, and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 (mean 3.5) health examinations between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Results Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until the mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p lipoproteins in young to middle-aged men than in older men. Conclusions Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men, and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. PMID:25975472

  6. The effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on age-related lipids and lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F; Lavie, Carl J; Hardin, James W; Blair, Steven N

    2015-05-19

    Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. This study sought to assess the longitudinal aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 health examinations (mean 3.5 examinations) between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until age mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p lipoproteins in young to middle-age men than in older men. Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipoprotein(a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Kamstrup, Pia R; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are no recommendations in guidelines on measuring lipoprotein(a) in the fasting or nonfasting state, or on the influence of inflammation. We tested the hypotheses that lipoprotein(a) levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake, and to inflammation. Also, we...... tested whether normal food intake or inflammation influenced lipoprotein(a)'s ability to predict ischemic heart disease. METHODS: We studied 34 829 individuals from the Danish general population using the Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study. RESULTS: Lipoprotein......(a) levels did not change in response to normal food intake: median fasting levels were 17.3 mg/dL, while median levels at 3-4 h since last meal were 19.4 mg/dL(p = 0.38). Lipoprotein(a) levels increased minimally with increasing levels of C-reactive protein(CRP): median lipoprotein(a) levels at CRP

  8. Status of non-HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol among subjects with and without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sikandar Hayat; Asif, Naveed; Ijaz, Aamir; Manzoor, Syed Mohsin; Niazi, Najumusaquib Khan; Fazal, Nadeem

    2018-04-01

    To to compare non-high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among subjects with or without metabolic syndrome, glycation status and nephropathic changes. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out from Dec 21, 2015, to Nov 15, 2016, at the department of pathology and medicine PNS HAFEEZ and department of chemical pathology and clinical endocrinology (AFIP), and comprised patients of either gender visiting the out-patient department for routine screening. They were evaluated for anthropometric indices, blood pressure and sampled for lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, insulin, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Subjects were segregated based upon presence (Group1) or absence (Group2) of metabolic syndrome based upon criteria of National Cholesterol Education Programme and the International Diabetes Federation. Differences in high and low density lipoprotein cholesterols were calculated between the groups. Of the 229 subjects, 120(52.4%) were women and 109(47.6%) were men. Overall, there were 107(46.7%) subjects in Group 1, and 122(53.3%) in Group 2. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly different between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome as per both the study criteria (p<0.05 each). . Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  10. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  11. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  12. Effect of Effective Microorganisms on Growth Parameters and Serum Cholesterol Levels in Broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondmeneh, E.; Adey, S.; Tadelle, D.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different administration methods of effective microorganisms (EM®) on the performance and serum cholesterol level of broilers at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Uniform weight of mixed sex day-old-broilers of cobb-500 strain (n =

  13. Changes in levels of serum beta-carotene, vitamin A and cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were assessed for serum vitamin A, β - carotene and total cholesterol levels with their matched control (n = 20). The mean age and standard deviation of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients was 34.75± 6.57 while the mean age and standard deviation for controls was ...

  14. Increased serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ghaneei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated serum levels of oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (oxLDL have been found in type 2 and in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has common features with type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxLDL in women with GDM compared to normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ninety-two subjects were randomly allocated to either GDM (n=46 or control (n=46 groups matched for age, body mass index and parity from March 2013 to March 2014. GDM was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria at 24-26 weeks of gestation. OxLDL was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were applied for analyzing the data by using SPSS version 17. Results: Compared to the controls, significantly higher oxLDL levels were found in the GDM group (17.16 ± 3.71 U/L vs. 8.77 ± 1.84 U/L, respectively, p < 0.001. No significant correlations were found between oxLDL and age and BMI of the patients in the groups. Conclusion: Our study found significant increase of oxLDL in GDM emphasizing the role of short-term hyperglycemia in the formation of oxLDL during GDM. The importance of aptly diagnosis of GDM in maternal health may also be concluded.

  15. Impact of lipoprotein(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) isoform size on risk of coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopewell, J. C.; Seedorf, U.; Farrall, M.; Parish, S.; Kyriakou, T.; Goel, A.; Hamsten, A.; Collins, R.; Watkins, H.; Clarke, R.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.

    Objectives. Observational and genetic studies have shown that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and apolipoprotein( a) [apo(a)] isoform size are both associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but the relative independence of these risk factors remains unclear. Clarification of this uncertainty

  16. Lipoprotein metabolism in familial hypercholesterolemia: Serial assessment using a one-step ultracentrifugation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Tada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is well known that familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a common inherited disorder that can markedly elevate the level of plasma LDL cholesterol. However, little data exists regarding the clinical impact of the plasma triglyceride (TG-rich lipoprotein fraction, including VLDL and IDL, in FH. Thus, we assessed the hypothesis that the mutations in the LDL receptor modulate lipoprotein metabolism other than the LDL fraction. Design and methods: We investigated plasma lipoprotein with a one-step ultracentrifugation method for 146 controls (mean age=61.4±17.1 yr, mean LDL cholesterol=92.7±61.2 mg/dl, 213 heterozygous mutation-determined FH subjects (mean age=46.0±18.0 yr, mean LDL cholesterol=225.1±61.2 mg/dl, and 16 homozygous/compound heterozygous mutation-determined FH subjects (mean age=26.9±17.1 yr, mean LDL cholesterol=428.6±86.1 mg/dl. In addition, we evaluated cholesterol/TG ratio in each lipoprotein fraction separated by ultracentrifugation. Results: In addition to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, VLDL cholesterol (19.5±10.4, 25.2±19.3, 29.5±21.4 mg/dl, respectively and IDL cholesterol (8.3±3.7, 16.8±11.5, 40.0±37.3 mg/dl, respectively exhibited a tri-model distribution according to their status in LDL receptor mutation(s. Moreover, the ratios of cholesterol/TG of each lipoprotein fraction increased significantly in heterozygous FH and homozygous/compound heterozygous FH groups, compared with that of controls, suggesting that the abnormality in LDL receptor modulates the quality as well as the quantity of each lipoprotein fraction. Conclusions: Our results indicate that cholesterol in TG-rich lipoproteins, including VLDL and IDL, are significantly higher in FH subjects, revealing a tri-modal distribution according to the number of LDL receptor mutations. Keywords: LDL cholesterol, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Ultracentrifugation, Lipoprotein

  17. Circulating Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels Independently Predict 10-Year Progression of Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis: A Community-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shen; Zhao, Dong; Qi, Yue; Wang, Wei; Wang, Miao; Sun, Jiayi; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan; Liu, Jing

    2018-03-07

    To investigate the association between circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and to examine whether this link is independent of other low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-related parameters. Totally, 804 subjects who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline completed risk factor surveys and carotid ultrasound measurements in 2002 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was performed to examine the association between baseline serum ox-LDL levels and the 10-year risk of progression of carotid atherosclerosis which was defined as the development of at least one new plaque in a previously plaque-free carotid segment at re-examination. The mean age of the subjects was 58.6±7.7 years at baseline and 43.3% were men. A total of 504 (62.7%) subjects had carotid plaque progression at re-examination. Subjects in the intermediate and highest tertiles of ox-LDL had a significantly higher adjusted risk of atherosclerosis progression than those in the lowest tertile [relative risk (95% confidence interval) 1.17 (1.01-1.34) for the intermediate tertile and 1.23 (1.07-1.42) for the highest tertile]. This association was independent of baseline levels of LDL-C, total LDL particle number, and small LDL particle number. This study demonstrates that serum ox-LDL levels predict 10-year progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Moreover, this effect is independent of the cholesterol content, the number, and the size of LDL particles.

  18. ANALYSIS OF BILIARY CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN IRON-DEFICIENT PATIENTS OPERATED FOR GALLSTONE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kannan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gallstone disease is a common gastrointestinal problem in day-to-day practice. The old concept that a typical gallstone sufferer is fat, fertile, flatulent female of 50. This is partially true as the disease has been found in women soon after their first delivery who are thin and underweight and in males also. Conditions that favour the formation of cholesterol gallstones are super saturation of bile with cholesterol, kinetically favourable nucleation and presence of cholesterol crystals in the gallbladder long enough to agglomerate into a stone. Recent studies have defined the role of trace elements (Fe, Ca, Zn and Cu and defective pH in the formation of gallstones. The aim of the study is to determine the association of iron deficiency in super saturation of bile. This cross-sectional study of 50 patients was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. Biliary cholesterol and serum cholesterol were compared in iron deficient and non-iron deficient patients having gallstones. A low serum iron level is a factor in bile super saturation with respect to cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. 50 patients suffering from cholelithiasis confirmed by USG were divided into two groups based on serum iron values. Group A consists of patients with normal serum iron (non-anaemic and Group B of patients with less than normal serum iron (anaemic. RESULTS Serum total cholesterol of the patients of cholelithiasis was not different among groups categorised based on serum iron levels. There were no significant variations in the serum cholesterol contents of both the groups. Also, there was no significant variation of the above parameter in the male and female patients. CONCLUSION Though, it is difficult to draw a causal

  19. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  20. Stimulation of cholesteryl ester synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages by cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins from the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, T.; Yokode, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Narumiya, S.; Kawai, C.

    1986-01-01

    Cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit induced marked cholesteryl ester accumulation in mouse peritoneal macrophages. This WHHL rabbit, an animal model of human familial hypercholesterolemia, has severe hypercholesterolemia, cutaneous xanthomas, and fulminant atherosclerosis due to the deficiency of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. When incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages, the VLDL from WHHL rabbit (WHHL-VLDL) stimulated cholesteryl [ 14 C]oleate synthesis 124-fold more than did VLDL from the normal Japanese White rabbit (control-VLDL). The enhancement in cholesteryl ester synthesis and accumulation of WHHL-VLDL was due to the presence of a high affinity binding receptor site on the macrophage cell surface that mediated the uptake and lysosomal degradation of WHHL-VLDL. Competition studies showed that the uptake and degradation of 125 I-WHHL-VLDL was inhibited by unlabeled excess WHHL-VLDL and beta-migrating VLDL (beta-VLDL), but not LDL. Furthermore, the degradation of WHHL-VLDL was not blocked by either fucoidin, polyinosinic acid, or polyguanylic acid, potent inhibitors of the acetylated (acetyl)-LDL binding site, or by acetyl-LDL. These results suggest that macrophages possess a high affinity receptor that recognizes the cholesterol-rich VLDL present in the plasma of the WHHL rabbit and that the receptor which mediates ingestion of WHHL-VLDL seems to be the same as that for beta-VLDL and leads to cholesteryl ester deposition within macrophages. Thus, the uptake of the cholesterol-rich VLDL from the WHHL rabbit by macrophages in vivo may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the WHHL rabbit

  1. Prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors and screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults, United States, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklina, Elena V; Yoon, Paula W; Keenan, Nora L

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have reported low rates of screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults in the United States. Although recommendations for screening young adults without risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) differ, all guidelines recommend screening adults with CHD, CHD equivalents, or 1 or more CHD risk factors. This study examined national prevalence of CHD risk factors and compliance with the cholesterol screening guidelines among young adults. National estimates were obtained using results for 2,587 young adults (men aged 20 to 35 years; women aged 20 to 45 years) from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We defined high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as levels higher than the goal specific for each CHD risk category outlined in the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. About 59% of young adults had CHD or CHD equivalents, or 1 or more of the following CHD risk factors: family history of early CHD, smoking, hypertension, or obesity. In our study, the overall screening rate in this population was less than 50%. Moreover, no significant difference in screening rates between young adults with no risk factors and their counterparts with 1 or more risk factors was found even after adjustment for sociodemographic and health care factors. Approximately 65% of young adults with CHD or CHD equivalents, 26% of young adults with 2 or more risk factors, 12% of young adults with 1 risk factor, and 7% with no risk factor had a high level of LDL-C. CHD risk factors are common in young adults but do not appear to alter screening rates. Improvement of risk assessment and management for cardiovascular disease among young adults is warranted.

  2. Food frequency consumption and lipoproteins serum levels in the population of an urban area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornés Nélida Schmid

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between food group consumption frequency and serum lipoprotein levels among adults. METHODS: The observations were made during a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of men and women over 20 years old living in Cotia county, S. Paulo, Brazil. Data on food frequency consumption, serum lipids, and other covariates were available for 1,045 adults. Multivariate analyses adjusted by age, gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, educational level, family income, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs and dairy foods were each positively and significantly correlated with LDL-C, whereas the intake of vegetables and fruits showed an inverse correlation. Daily consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs, and dairy foods were associated with 16.6 mg/dl, 14.5 mg/dl, 11.1 mg/dl, 5.8 mg/dl, and 4.6 mg/dl increase in blood LDL-C, respectively. Increases of daily consumption of fruit and vegetables were associated with 5.2 mg/dl and 5.5 mg/dl decreases in LDL-C, respectively. Alcohol beverage consumption showed a significant positive correlation with HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary habits in the study population seem to contribute substantially to the variation in blood LDL and HDL concentrations. Substantially CHD risk reduction could be achieved with dietary changes.

  3. LCAT, HDL Cholesterol and Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study of HDL Cholesterol in 54,500 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Ali Qayyum, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    , S208T (rs4986970, allele frequency 4%), associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both the CCHS and the CGPS was used to study causality of HDL cholesterol using instrumental variable analysis.Results:Epidemiologically, in the CCHS, a 13% (0.21 mmol/liter) decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol levels...... was associated with an 18% increase in risk of MI. S208T associated with a 13% (0.21 mmol/liter) decrease in HDL cholesterol levels but not with increased risk of MI or other ischemic end points. The causal odds ratio for MI for a 50% reduction in plasma HDL cholesterol due to S208T genotype in both studies......Background:Epidemiologically, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels associate inversely with risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Whether this is a causal relation is unclear.Methods:We studied 10,281 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) and 50,523 participants...

  4. [Effectiveness of a nutritional education program in lowering blood cholesterol levels in a public health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, M; Yamaguchi, T

    1993-06-01

    An educational program for persons found to have high blood cholesterol during health examinations at the Nerima Public Health Center was begun in April, 1989. This program was differed from the usual program in two areas. First, new educational material was developed consisting of a check list of 30 items to assess eating patterns. By checking these items, participants could gain an understanding of what they should change in their eating behavior. Secondly, the table of restricted foods was not used. Participants were advised to achieve healthy eating patterns and followed up with a nutritional consultation that was held after three months, at which time they were interviewed regarding compliance and had their blood cholesterol levels measured. The effectiveness of the new educational program and the relationship between achievement of healthy eating patterns and reduction in blood cholesterol levels were analyzed. The main results were as follows: 1) In subjects (n = 79) who received the new education program in 1989-1990, serum cholesterol levels showed significant reduction, as compared with controls (n = 38) who received the usual education program in 1988-1989. 2) Subjects were divided into three groups according to their changes in serum cholesterol levels,--normalized, improved and unimproved--and the number of items complied with were counted for analysis. The mean score of compliance was highest in the normalized group with significant difference between the normalized and the unimproved groups. 3) The items of the high compliance score in the normalized group were in order of high score "to decrease high-fat meats", "to decrease cakes", "to choose lean meats and poultry without skin" and "to eat vegetables at every meal".

  5. The effects of date consumption on serumic levels of glucose, lipids and lipoproteins in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an important problem amongst human and animals. In veterinary medicine too, diabetes mellitus occurs in many animals particularly household pets. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of date consumption on serumic levels of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and HDL in rats suffering from experimental diabetes mellitus. Thirty male wistar rats with the age of 8 weeks and mean body weight of 200±20 gr were selected and divided into 5 groups so that there were 6 rats per group. The groups consisted of day one healthy control, final day healthy control, healthy treatment consuming date, diabetic treatment consuming date and diabetic control group. Diabetic treatment and control groups received 100 mg/kg of alloxan subcutaneously to create experimental diabetes. The two healthy control groups also received equal amounts of normal saline solution subcutaneously. The injections were repeated a week later in all groups. After observing the diabetes symptoms including polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria and hyperglycemia in groups that were given alloxan, feeding of healthy and diabetic treatment groups with equal ratio of date and pellet was initiated. Final day healthy control group and diabetic control group were fed only with pellet. The groups were fed for 10 days following the start of diabetes symptoms. Blood samples were collected from all groups on day 10. Evaluation of the serumic levels of glucose, cholesterol and LDL revealed statistically significant increase in diabetic control group in comparison with the healthy control groups and also in healthy and  diabetic treatment groups consuming date as compared with diabetic control and healthy groups (p

  6. Lipoprotein glomerulopathy treated with LDL-apheresis (Heparin-induced Extracorporeal Lipoprotein Precipitation system: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivasi Paolo

    2009-12-01

    , we believe that renal damage expressed by proteinuria correlates to the levels of lipids and, furthermore, the treatment with HELP-apheresis, by lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, may be considered as a therapeutic option in synergy with pharmacological treatment in the treatment of lipoprotein glomerulopathy.

  7. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.

    1997-01-01

    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  8. Melanocortin signaling in the CNS directly regulates circulating cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Tilve, Diego; Hofmann, Susanna M; Basford, Joshua; Nogueiras, Ruben; Pfluger, Paul T; Patterson, James T; Grant, Erin; Wilson-Perez, Hilary E; Granholm, Norman A; Arnold, Myrtha; Trevaskis, James L; Butler, Andrew A; Davidson, William S; Woods, Stephen C; Benoit, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol circulates in the blood in association with triglycerides and other lipids, and elevated blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol carries a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood is thought to be beneficial. Circulating cholesterol is the balance among dietary cholesterol absorption, hepatic synthesis and secretion, and the metabolism of lipoproteins by various tissues. We found that the CNS is also an impo...

  9. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  10. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willer, C. J.; Schmidt, E. M.; Sengupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individ...... of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.......Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188......,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry...

  11. Break the fast? Update on patient preparation for cholesterol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-10-01

    To provide an update on the clinical usefulness of nonfasting versus fasting lipid testing to improve patient compliance, patient safety, and clinical assessment in cholesterol testing. Recommendations are identified as supported by good, fair, and poor (conflicting or insufficient) evidence, according to the classifications adopted by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Screening for dyslipidemia as a risk factor for coronary artery disease and management of lipid-lowering medications are key parts of primary care. Recent evidence has questioned the fasting requirement for lipid testing. In population-based studies, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol all varied by an average of 2% with fasting status. For routine screening, nonfasting cholesterol measurement is now a reasonable alternative to a fasting cholesterol measurement. For patients with diabetes, the fasting requirement might be an important safety issue because of problems with hypoglycemia. For the monitoring of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients taking lipid-lowering medications, fasting becomes more important. Fasting for routine lipid level determinations is largely unnecessary and unlikely to affect patient clinical risk stratification, while nonfasting measurement might improve patient compliance and safety. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  12. Postprandial Hyperlipidemia and Remnant Lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2017-02-01

    Fasting hypertriglyceridemia is positively associated with the morbidity of coronary heart disease (CHD), and postprandial (non-fasting) hypertriglyceridemia is also correlated with the risk status for CHD, which is related to the increase in chylomicron (CM) remnant lipoproteins produced from the intestine. CM remnant particles, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, are highly atherogenic and act by enhancing systemic inflammation, platelet activation, coagulation, thrombus formation, and macrophage foam cell formation. The cholesterol levels of remnant lipoproteins significantly correlate with small, dense LDL; impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and CHD prevalence. We have developed an assay of apolipoprotein (apo)B-48 levels to evaluate the accumulation of CM remnants. Fasting apoB-48 levels correlate with the morbidity of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, type III hyperlipoproteinemia, the metabolic syndrome, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease, and IGT. Fasting apoB-48 levels also correlate with carotid intima-media thickening and CHD prevalence, and a high apoB-48 level is a significant predictor of CHD risk, independent of the fasting TG level. Diet interventions, such as dietary fibers, polyphenols, medium-chain fatty acids, diacylglycerol, and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ameliorate postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, moreover, drugs for dyslipidemia (n-3 PUFA, statins, fibrates or ezetimibe) and diabetes concerning incretins (dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitor or glucagon like peptide-1 analogue) may improve postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Since the accumulation of CM remnants correlates to impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and atherosclerotic cardiovascular events, further studies are required to investigate the characteristics, physiological activities, and functions of CM remnants for the development of new interventions to reduce atherogenicity.

  13. Atorvastatin affects low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol relations with apolipoprotein B in type 2 diabetes mellitus : modification by triglycerides and cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Zwang, Louwerens; Huisman, Menno V.; Banga, Jan Dirk; Sluiter, Wim. J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objectives: Non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B are proposed as treatment targets. The extent to which statin therapy affects relationships of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with apoB was examined in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analyses were performed in 217 hypertriglyceridaemic type 2

  14. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Influence of folic acid, pyridoxal phosphate and cobalamin on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels and the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to ex-vivo oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, N; Feussner, A; Hailer, S; Spengel, F A; Keller, C; Wolfram, G

    1999-10-15

    Mild hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. In-vitro studies have shown that autooxidation of homocyst(e)ine is accompanied by the generation of oxygen radicals. This may lead to oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and promote atherosclerotic vascular lesions. In male patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease we determined fasting and post methionine load homocyst(e)ine levels by high performance liquid chromatography and the susceptibility of their LDL particles to ex-vivo oxidation by continously measuring the conjugated diene production induced by incubation with copper ions. Oxidation resistance (expressed as lag time), maximal oxidation rate, and extent of oxidation (expressed of total diene production) of LDL from patients with normal or mildly elevated homocyst(e)ine levels did not differ significantly. Folic acid, pyridoxal phosphate and cobalamin supplementation significantly decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in hyperhomocyst(e)inaemic patients. This went along with a significant decrease in the extent of LDL oxidation and additionally increased HDL-cholesterol levels. The clinical relevance of these findings for the long-term course of atherosclerotic vascular disorders has to be determined by intervention studies.

  16. LDL Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1 Regulates Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Lillis

    Full Text Available Within the circulation, cholesterol is transported by lipoprotein particles and is taken up by cells when these particles associate with cellular receptors. In macrophages, excessive lipoprotein particle uptake leads to foam cell formation, which is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Currently, mechanisms responsible for foam cell formation are incompletely understood. To date, several macrophage receptors have been identified that contribute to the uptake of modified forms of lipoproteins leading to foam cell formation, but the in vivo contribution of the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 to this process is not known [corrected]. To investigate the role of LRP1 in cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, we generated mice with a selective deletion of LRP1 in macrophages on an LDL receptor (LDLR-deficient background (macLRP1-/-. After feeding mice a high fat diet for 11 weeks, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Lrp+/+ mice contained significantly higher levels of total cholesterol than those from macLRP1-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that this was due to increased levels of cholesterol esters. Interestingly, macLRP1-/- mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels resulting from accumulation of large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in the circulation. This increase did not result from an increase in hepatic VLDL biosynthesis, but rather results from a defect in catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in macLRP1-/- mice. These studies reveal an important in vivo contribution of macrophage LRP1 to cholesterol homeostasis.

  17. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Lipoprotein (a Levels among Asian Indian and Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein (a [Lp(a] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD in Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW. There are known racial/ethnic differences in Lp(a levels, and the association of Lp(a with CVD outcomes has not been examined in Asian Americans in the USA. Objective. We hypothesized that Lp(a levels would differ in Asian Indians and Chinese Americans when compared to NHW and that the relationship between Lp(a and CVD outcomes would be different in these Asian racial/ethnic subgroups when compared to NHW. Methods. We studied the outpatient electronic health records of 2022 NHW, 295 Asian Indians, and 151 Chinese adults age ≥18 y in Northern California in whom Lp(a levels were assessed during routine clinical care from 2001 to 2008, excluding those who had received prescriptions for niacin (14.6%. Nonparametric methods were used to compare median Lp(a levels. Significance was assessed at the P<.0001 level to account for multiple comparisons. CVD outcomes were defined as ischemic heart disease (IHD (265 events, stroke (122, or peripheral vascular disease (PVD (87. We used logistic regression to determine the relationship between Lp(a and CVD outcomes. Results. Both Asian Indians (36 nmol/L and NHW (29 nmol/L had higher median Lp(a levels than Chinese (22 nmol/L, P≤.0001 and P=.0032. When stratified by sex, the differences in median Lp(a between these groups persisted in the 1761 men (AI v CH: P=.001, NHW v CH: P=.0018 but were not statistically significant in the 1130 women (AI v CH: P=.0402, NHW v CH: P=.0761. Asian Indians (OR=2.0 and Chinese (OR=4.8 exhibited a trend towards greater risk of IHD with high Lp(a levels than NHW (OR=1.4, but no relationship was statistically significant. Conclusion. Asian Indian and NHW men have higher Lp(a values than Chinese men, with a trend toward, similar associations in women. High Lp(a may be more strongly associated with IHD in Asian Indians and Chinese, although we did

  18. Effects of obesity and body fat distribution on lipids and lipoproteins in nondiabetic American Indians: The Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Hannah, J; Gray, R S; Jablonski, K A; Henderson, J A; Robbins, D C; Lee, E T; Welty, T K; Howard, B V

    2000-09-01

    To examine the relationship between obesity and lipoprotein profiles and compare the effects of total obesity and central adiposity on lipids/lipoproteins in American Indians. Participants were 773 nondiabetic American Indian women and 739 men aged 45 to 74 years participating in the Strong Heart Study. Total obesity was estimated using body mass index (BMI). Central obesity was measured as waist circumference. Lipoprotein measures included triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Partial and canonical correlation analyses were used to examine the associations between obesity and lipids/ lipoproteins. Women were more obese than men in Arizona (median BMI 32.1 vs. 29.2 kg/m2) and South Dakota and North Dakota (28.3 vs. 28.0 kg/m2), but there was no sex difference in waist circumference. Men had higher apoB and lower apoAI levels than did women. In women, when adjusted for center, gender, and age, BMI was significantly related to HDL cholesterol (r = -0.24, p HDL cholesterol (r = -0.23, p correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, p correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = -0.35, p HDL cholesterol decreased with waist circumference (r = -0.36, p correlation analysis, waist circumference received a greater weight (0.86) than did BMI (0.17) in women. However, the canonical weights were similar for waist (0.46) and BMI (0.56) in men. Only HDL cholesterol (-1.02) carried greater weight in women, whereas in men, triglycerides (0.50), and HDL cholesterol (-0.64) carried a large amount of weight. All the correlation coefficients between BMI, waist circumference, and the first canonical variable of lipids/lipoproteins or between the individual lipid/lipoprotein variables and the first canonical variable of obesity were smaller in women than in men. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol showed clinically meaningful changes with BMI and waist circumference in men. All

  19. Triglycerides/High density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as a cardiometabolic risk marker in children and adolescents from Mérida city, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Miguel; Briceño, Yajaira; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Zerpa, Yajaira; Camacho, Nolis; Paoli, Mariela

    2018-02-01

    To determine the behavior of the triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL) as a cardiometabolic risk marker in children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela. A total of 1292 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years who attended educational institutions in the Libertador Municipality were enrolled into this study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure values were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels were measured. The TG/HDL ratio, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI indexes were calculated. Subjects were categorized as with and without cardiometabolic risk based on the presence or absence of 2or more risk factors. Cut-off points for the TG/HDL ratio were determined by constructing ROC curves. Significantly higher mean TG/HDL ratios were found in pubertal (2.2 ± 1.7) as compared to prepubertal subjects (1.8 ± 1.5; P=.001), with no sex differences. Two or more risk factors were found in 14.7% (n=192) of the participants, in whom TG/HDL ratios were significantly higher as compared to those with no risk (3.5±2.9 versus 1.6±0.8 in prepubertal and 4.1 ± 3.5 versus 1.8 ± 0.9 in pubertal subjects; P=.0001). According to cardiometabolic risk, cut-off points for the TG/HDL ratio of 1.8 and 2.5 were found for prepubertal and pubertal children respectively. These cut-off points showed risks (odds ratio) higher than 2.5 for conditions such as metabolic syndrome, elevated non-HDL-C, abdominal obesity, and elevated HOMA-IR. In this sample of children and adolescents, an elevated TG/HDLc ratio was found to be a good marker for predicting cardiometabolic risk. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex specific response in cholesterol level in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after long-term exposure of difenoconazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Xiyan; Wang, Kai; Chai, Tingting; Zhu, Lizhen; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Pang, Sen; Wang, Chengju; Li, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Difenoconazole is a widely used triazole fungicide, its extensive application may potentially cause toxic effects on non-target organisms. To investigate the effect of difenoconazole on cholesterol content and related mechanism, adult zebrafish were exposed to environmental related dosage (0.1, 10 and 500 μg/L) difenoconazole. The body weight and hepatic total cholesterol (TCHO) level was tested at 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure (dpe). The expressions of eight cholesterol synthesis genes and one cholesterol metabolism gene were assessed via Quantitative PCR method. The significant decrease of TCHO level in male zebrafish liver was observed at 15 and 30 dpe, which was accompanied by apparent hepatic cholesterol