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Sample records for liouville equation leon

  1. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints

  2. Dressing symmetry of the uniformization solution of Liouville equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianmin.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, the relations between monodromy group and dressing group for Liouville equation in uniformization theorem are discussed. The representation of monodromy transformation, acting on the chiral components of the solution of Liouville equation, is obtained. The non-trivial exchange algebra for monodromy transformation is calculated. (author). 14 refs

  3. Liouville equation of relativistic charged fermion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Renchuan; Zhu Dongpei; Huang Zhuoran; Ko Che-ming

    1991-01-01

    As a form of density martrix, the Wigner function is the distribution in quantum phase space. It is a 2 X 2 matrix function when one uses it to describe the non-relativistic fermion. While describing the relativistic fermion, it is usually represented by 4 x 4 matrix function. In this paper authors obtain a Wigner function for the relativistic fermion in the form of 2 x 2 matrix, and the Liouville equation satisfied by the Wigner function. this equivalent to the Dirac equation of changed fermion in QED. The equation is also equivalent to the Dirac equation in the Walecka model applied to the intermediate energy nuclear collision while the nucleon is coupled to the vector meson only (or taking mean field approximation for the scalar meson). Authors prove that the 2 x 2 Wigner function completely describes the quantum system just the same as the relativistic fermion wave function. All the information about the observables can be obtained with above Wigner function

  4. Theory of a higher-order Sturm-Liouville equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, Vladimir

    1997-01-01

    This book develops a detailed theory of a generalized Sturm-Liouville Equation, which includes conditions of solvability, classes of uniqueness, positivity properties of solutions and Green's functions, asymptotic properties of solutions at infinity. Of independent interest, the higher-order Sturm-Liouville equation also proved to have important applications to differential equations with operator coefficients and elliptic boundary value problems for domains with non-smooth boundaries. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in ordinary and partial differential equations, and is accessible with a standard undergraduate course in real analysis.

  5. On the solution of the Liouville equation over a rectangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Arthurs

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for integral equations are used to derive pointwise bounds for the solution of a boundary value problem for the nonlinear Liouville partial differential equation over a rectangle. Several test calculations are performed and the resulting solutions are more accurate than those obtained previously by other methods.

  6. Minimal Liouville gravity correlation numbers from Douglas string equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belavin, Alexander; Dubrovin, Boris; Mukhametzhanov, Baur

    2014-01-01

    We continue the study of (q,p) Minimal Liouville Gravity with the help of Douglas string equation. We generalize the results of http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(91)90548-Chttp://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/42/30/304004, where Lee-Yang series (2,2s+1) was studied, to (3,3s+p 0 ) Minimal Liouville Gravity, where p 0 =1,2. We demonstrate that there exist such coordinates τ m,n on the space of the perturbed Minimal Liouville Gravity theories, in which the partition function of the theory is determined by the Douglas string equation. The coordinates τ m,n are related in a non-linear fashion to the natural coupling constants λ m,n of the perturbations of Minimal Lioville Gravity by the physical operators O m,n . We find this relation from the requirement that the correlation numbers in Minimal Liouville Gravity must satisfy the conformal and fusion selection rules. After fixing this relation we compute three- and four-point correlation numbers when they are not zero. The results are in agreement with the direct calculations in Minimal Liouville Gravity available in the literature http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.66.2051http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11232-005-0003-3http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11232-006-0075-8

  7. A hierarchy of Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xixiang [College of Science, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China)], E-mail: xixiang_xu@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-05-12

    Based on a discrete four-by-four matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of Lax integrable lattice equations with two potentials is derived. Two Hamiltonian forms are constructed for each lattice equation in the resulting hierarchy by means of the discrete variational identity. A strong symmetry operator of the resulting hierarchy is given. Finally, it is shown that the resulting lattice equations are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems.

  8. Liouville equation with boundary conditions derived from classical strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnelius, R.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown in terms of the classical string theory that a breaking of the Weyl invariance necessarily requires the Liouville equation for the variable phi=1n rho, where rho is the variable that appears in the conformal gauge gsub(α#betta#)=rhoetasub(α#betta#). Appropriate boundary conditions on phi for open and closed strings are then derived. (orig.)

  9. Liouville supersymmetrical equation for a quantum case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leznov, A.N.; Khrushev, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    The relation between coupling constants of interacting nonlinear scalar and spinor fields was established which leads to finite series of perturbation theory for the dynamical variable esup(-phi). In the classical limit h/2π→0 the system under consideration turns out to be described by supersymmetric Luiville equation

  10. Liouville and Painleve equations and Yang--Mills strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saclioglu, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Stringlike solutions of the self-dual Yang--Mills equations (dimensionally reduced to R 2 ) are sought. A multistring Ansatz results in the sinh--Gordon and Liouville equations. According to a general theorem, the solutions must be either real and singular and have infinite action, or complex and nonsingular, with zero action. In the Liouville case, explicit arbitrarily separated n-string solutions of both classes are given. The magnetic flux for these solutions is found to be the Chern class of a Kaehler manifold, and it consequently assumes quantized values 4πn/e. The axisymmetric version of the sinh--Gordon is solved by the third Painleve transcendent P 3 , using the results on P 3 by Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. B 13, 316 (1976)] and McCoy et al. [J. Math. Phys. 18, 10 (1977)]. The axisymmetric case can be cast into the Ernst equation framework for the generation of further solutions. In the Appendix, the Euclideanized Ernst equation is shown to give self-dual Gibbons--Hawking gravitational instantons

  11. Minimal Liouville gravity on the torus via the Douglas string equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spodyneiko, Lev

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we assume that the partition function in minimal Liouville gravity (MLG) obeys the Douglas string equation. This conjecture makes it possible to compute the torus correlation numbers in (3,p) MLG. We perform this calculation using also the resonance relations between the coupling constants in the KdV frame and in the Liouville frame. We obtain explicit expressions for the torus partition function and for the one- and two-point correlation numbers. (paper)

  12. Liouville's equation and radiative acceleration in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examines thoroughly the general motion of a material charged particle in the intense radiation field of a static spherically symmetric compact object with spherical emitting surface outside the Schwarzschild radius. Such a test particle will be pulled in by the gravitational attraction of the compact object and pushed out by the radiation pressure force, therefore the types of trajectory admitted will depend the gravitational field, the radiation field and the particle cross-section. The presence of a strong gravitational field demands a fully general relativistic treatment of the problem. This type of calculation is interesting not only as a formal problem in general relativity but also since it has important astrophysical implications, for example, application to astrophysical discs and jets. In chapter 1 we review the classical radiation force problem and outline the transition to a fully general relativistic scenario. We discuss the method for obtaining the radiation pressure force and calculating the particle trajectories. We review previous work in this area and outline the aims of the thesis. Then we consider some astrophysical applications and discuss how realistic our calculations are. In chapter 2 we give an introduction and overview of differential geometry as this is necessary for an accurate description of tensors on a curved manifold. Then we review the general theory of relativity and in particular obtain the Schwarzschild metric describing a static spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime. Chapter 3 deals with test particle motion through a curved spacetime. Liouville's equation describes the statistical distribution in phase space of a collection of test particles and is based upon a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamical system - this material also relies heavily upon the concepts of differential geometry introduced in chapter 2. In particular we are interested in photon transport and find the general solutions for some symmetric

  13. Bargmann Symmetry Constraint for a Family of Liouville Integrable Differential-Difference Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    A family of integrable differential-difference equations is derived from a new matrix spectral problem. The Hamiltonian forms of obtained differential-difference equations are constructed. The Liouville integrability for the obtained integrable family is proved. Then, Bargmann symmetry constraint of the obtained integrable family is presented by binary nonliearization method of Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs. Under this Bargmann symmetry constraints, an integrable symplectic map and a sequences of completely integrable finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems in Liouville sense are worked out, and every integrable differential-difference equations in the obtained family is factored by the integrable symplectic map and a completely integrable finite-dimensional Hamiltonian system. (general)

  14. A novel scheme for Liouville's equation with a discontinuous Hamiltonian and applications to geometrical optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lith, van B.S.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; IJzerman, W.L.; Tukker, T.W.

    2015-01-01

    We compute numerical solutions of Liouville's equation with a discontinuous Hamiltonian. We assume that the underlying Hamiltonian system has a well-defined behaviour even when the Hamiltonian is discontinuous. In the case of geometrical optics such a discontinuity yields the familiar Snell's law or

  15. Higher equations of motion in N=2 superconformal Liouville field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Changrim; Stanishkov, Marian; Stoilov, Michail

    2011-01-01

    We present an infinite set of higher equations of motion in N=2 supersymmetric Liouville field theory. They are in one to one correspondence with the degenerate representations and are enumerated in addition to the U(1) charge ω by the positive integers m or (m,n) respectively. We check that in the classical limit these equations hold as relations among the classical fields.

  16. Cauchy problem for a parabolic equation with Bessel operator and Riemann–Liouville partial derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima G. Khushtova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Cauchy problem for a parabolic equation with Bessel operator and with Riemann–Liouville partial derivative is considered. The representation of the solution is obtained in terms of integral transform with Wright function in the kernel. It is shown that when this equation becomes the fractional diffusion equation, obtained solution becomes the solution of Cauchy problem for the corresponding equation. The uniqueness of the solution in the class of functions that satisfy the analogue of Tikhonov condition is proved.

  17. Analysis of the Forward-Backward Trajectory Solution for the Mixed Quantum-Classical Liouville Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Kapral, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Mixed quantum-classical methods provide powerful algorithms for the simulation of quantum processes in large and complex systems. The forward-backward trajectory solution of the mixed quantum-classical Liouville equation in the mapping basis [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A507 (2012)] is one such scheme. It simulates the dynamics via the propagation of forward and backward trajectories of quantum coherent state variables, and the propagation of bath trajectories on a mean-field potential determined j...

  18. Remarks on the Liouville type results for the compressible Navier–Stokes equations in RN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Dongho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we prove Liouville type result for the stationary solutions to the compressible Navier–Stokes equations (NS) and the compressible Navier–Stokes–Poisson (NSP) equations and in R N , N ≥ 2. Assuming suitable integrability and the uniform boundedness conditions for the solutions we are led to the conclusion that v = 0. In the case of (NS) we deduce that the similar integrability conditions imply v = 0 and ρ = constant on R N . This shows that if we impose the the non-vacuum boundary condition at spatial infinity for (NS), v → 0 and ρ → ρ ∞ > 0, then v = 0, ρ = ρ ∞ are the solutions

  19. Quantum kinetic field theory in curved spacetime: Covariant Wigner function and Liouville-Vlasov equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta, E.; Habib, S.; Hu, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    We consider quantum fields in an external potential and show how, by using the Fourier transform on propagators, one can obtain the mass-shell constraint conditions and the Liouville-Vlasov equation for the Wigner distribution function. We then consider the Hadamard function G 1 (x 1 ,x 2 ) of a real, free, scalar field in curved space. We postulate a form for the Fourier transform F/sup (//sup Q//sup )/(X,k) of the propagator with respect to the difference variable x = x 1 -x 2 on a Riemann normal coordinate centered at Q. We show that F/sup (//sup Q//sup )/ is the result of applying a certain Q-dependent operator on a covariant Wigner function F. We derive from the wave equations for G 1 a covariant equation for the distribution function and show its consistency. We seek solutions to the set of Liouville-Vlasov equations for the vacuum and nonvacuum cases up to the third adiabatic order. Finally we apply this method to calculate the Hadamard function in the Einstein universe. We show that the covariant Wigner function can incorporate certain relevant global properties of the background spacetime. Covariant Wigner functions and Liouville-Vlasov equations are also derived for free fermions in curved spacetime. The method presented here can serve as a basis for constructing quantum kinetic theories in curved spacetime or for near-uniform systems under quasiequilibrium conditions. It can also be useful to the development of a transport theory of quantum fields for the investigation of grand unification and post-Planckian quantum processes in the early Universe

  20. Effect of trapping on transport coherence III: Dissipation in the stochastic Liouville equation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barvik, I [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Polasek, M [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics; Herman, P [Pedagogical Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1995-08-01

    We used the formal stochastic Liouville equations within Haken-Strobl-Reineker parametrization for the description of the influence of the bath on the memory functions entering the GME for a dimer and a linear trimer with a trap (here modeled as a sink). The often used inclusion of the noncoherent regime in the MF by an exponentially damped prefactor (after Kenkre`s prescription) does not hold for finite systems. The analytical form of the MF is changed more pronouncely and the influence of the sink in the center of the trimer runs parallel with the influence of the bath in destroying the coherence. (author). 60 refs.

  1. The Liouville equation for flavour evolution of neutrinos and neutrino wave packets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Rasmus Sloth Lundkvist; Smirnov, Alexei Yu., E-mail: rasmus@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: smirnov@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    We consider several aspects related to the form, derivation and applications of the Liouville equation (LE) for flavour evolution of neutrinos. To take into account the quantum nature of neutrinos we derive the evolution equation for the matrix of densities using wave packets instead of Wigner functions. The obtained equation differs from the standard LE by an additional term which is proportional to the difference of group velocities. We show that this term describes loss of the propagation coherence in the system. In absence of momentum changing collisions, the LE can be reduced to a single derivative equation over a trajectory coordinate. Additional time and spatial dependence may stem from initial (production) conditions. The transition from single neutrino evolution to the evolution of a neutrino gas is considered.

  2. A trick loop algebra and a corresponding Liouville integrable hierarchy of evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufeng; Xu Xixiang

    2004-01-01

    A subalgebra of loop algebra A-bar 2 is first constructed, which has its own special feature. It follows that a new Liouville integrable hierarchy of evolution equations is obtained, possessing a tri-Hamiltonian structure, which is proved by us in this paper. Especially, three symplectic operators are constructed directly from recurrence relations. The conjugate operator of a recurrence operator is a hereditary symmetry. As reduction cases of the hierarchy presented in this paper, the celebrated MKdV equation and heat-conduction equation are engendered, respectively. Therefore, we call the hierarchy a generalized MKdV-H system. At last, a high-dimension loop algebra G-bar is constructed by making use of a proper scalar transformation. As a result, a type expanding integrable model of the MKdV-H system is given

  3. Kinetics of subdiffusion-assisted reactions: non-Markovian stochastic Liouville equation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shushin, A I

    2005-01-01

    Anomalous specific features of the kinetics of subdiffusion-assisted bimolecular reactions (time-dependence, dependence on parameters of systems, etc) are analysed in detail with the use of the non-Markovian stochastic Liouville equation (SLE), which has been recently derived within the continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) approach. In the CTRW approach, subdiffusive motion of particles is modelled by jumps whose onset probability distribution function is of a long-tailed form. The non-Markovian SLE allows for rigorous describing of some peculiarities of these reactions; for example, very slow long-time behaviour of the kinetics, non-analytical dependence of the reaction rate on the reactivity of particles, strong manifestation of fluctuation kinetics showing itself in very slowly decreasing behaviour of the kinetics at very long times, etc

  4. Sinh-Gordon, cosh-Gordon, and Liouville equations for strings and multistrings in constant curvature spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.L.; Sanchez, N.

    1996-01-01

    We find that the fundamental quadratic form of classical string propagation in (2+1)-dimensional constant curvature spacetimes solves the sinh-Gordon equation, the cosh-Gordon equation, or the Liouville equation. We show that in both de Sitter and anti endash de Sitter spacetimes (as well as in the 2+1 black hole anti endash de Sitter spacetime), all three equations must be included to cover the generic string dynamics. The generic properties of the string dynamics are directly extracted from the properties of these three equations and their associated potentials (irrespective of any solution). These results complete and generalize earlier discussions on this topic (until now, only the sinh-Gordon sector in de Sitter spacetime was known). We also construct new classes of multistring solutions, in terms of elliptic functions, to all three equations in both de Sitter and anti endash de Sitter spacetimes. Our results can be straightforwardly generalized to constant curvature spacetimes of arbitrary dimension, by replacing the sinh-Gordon equation, the cosh-Gordon equation, and the Liouville equation by their higher dimensional generalizations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Applications of exact traveling wave solutions of Modified Liouville and the Symmetric Regularized Long Wave equations via two new techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dianchen; Seadawy, Aly R.; Ali, Asghar

    2018-06-01

    In this current work, we employ novel methods to find the exact travelling wave solutions of Modified Liouville equation and the Symmetric Regularized Long Wave equation, which are called extended simple equation and exp(-Ψ(ξ))-expansion methods. By assigning the different values to the parameters, different types of the solitary wave solutions are derived from the exact traveling wave solutions, which shows the efficiency and precision of our methods. Some solutions have been represented by graphical. The obtained results have several applications in physical science.

  6. The G′G-expansion method using modified Riemann–Liouville derivative for some space-time fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bekir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fractional partial differential equations are defined by modified Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative. With the help of fractional derivative and traveling wave transformation, these equations can be converted into the nonlinear nonfractional ordinary differential equations. Then G′G-expansion method is applied to obtain exact solutions of the space-time fractional Burgers equation, the space-time fractional KdV-Burgers equation and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. These results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple in performing a solution to the fractional partial differential equation.

  7. Elliptic and solitary wave solutions for Bogoyavlenskii equations system, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M.A. Khater

    Full Text Available In this article and for the first time, we introduce and describe Khater method which is a new technique for solving nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs.. We apply this method for each of the following models Bogoyavlenskii equation, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation. Khater method is very powerful, Effective, felicitous and fabulous method to get exact and solitary wave solution of (PDEs.. Not only just like that but it considers too one of the general methods for solving that kind of equations since it involves some methods as we will see in our discuss of the results. We make a comparison between the results of this new method and another method. Keywords: Bogoyavlenskii equations system, Couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system, Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation, Khater method, Traveling wave solutions, Solitary wave solutions

  8. Projected interaction picture of field operators and memory superoperators. A master equation for the single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, H.

    1983-11-01

    The projection operator method of Zwanzig and Feshbach is used to construct the time-dependent field operators in the interaction picture. The formula developed to describe the time dependence involves time-ordered cosine and sine projected evolution (memory) superoperators, from which a master equation for the interaction-picture single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space is derived. (author)

  9. Extending the D’alembert solution to space–time Modified Riemann–Liouville fractional wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinho, Cresus F.L.; Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In the realm of complexity, it is argued that adequate modeling of TeV-physics demands an approach based on fractal operators and fractional calculus (FC). Non-local theories and memory effects are connected to complexity and the FC. The non-differentiable nature of the microscopic dynamics may be connected with time scales. Based on the Modified Riemann–Liouville definition of fractional derivatives, we have worked out explicit solutions to a fractional wave equation with suitable initial conditions to carefully understand the time evolution of classical fields with a fractional dynamics. First, by considering space–time partial fractional derivatives of the same order in time and space, a generalized fractional D’alembertian is introduced and by means of a transformation of variables to light-cone coordinates, an explicit analytical solution is obtained. To address the situation of different orders in the time and space derivatives, we adopt different approaches, as it will become clear throughout this paper. Aspects connected to Lorentz symmetry are analyzed in both approaches.

  10. Liouville master equation for multielectron dynamics: Neutralization of highly charged ions near a LiF surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, Ludger; Reinhold, Carlos O.; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdoerfer, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    We present a simulation of the neutralization of highly charged ions in front of a lithium fluoride surface including the close-collision regime above the surface. The present approach employs a Monte Carlo solution of the Liouville master equation for the joint probability density of the ionic motion and the electronic population of the projectile and the target surface. It includes single as well as double particle-hole (de)excitation processes and incorporates electron correlation effects through the conditional dynamics of population strings. The input in terms of elementary one- and two-electron transfer rates is determined from classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations as well as quantum-mechanical Auger calculations. For slow projectiles and normal incidence, the ionic motion depends sensitively on the interplay between image acceleration towards the surface and repulsion by an ensemble of positive hole charges in the surface ('trampoline effect'). For Ne 10+ we find that image acceleration is dominant and no collective backscattering high above the surface takes place. For grazing incidence, our simulation delineates the pathways to complete neutralization. In accordance with recent experimental observations, most ions are reflected as neutral or even as singly charged negative particles, irrespective of the charge state of the incoming ions

  11. A novel scheme for Liouville's equation with a discontinuous Hamiltonian and applications to geometrical optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, B.S.; ten Thije Boonkkamp, J.H.M.; IJzerman, W.L.; Tukker, T.W.

    A novel scheme is developed that computes numerical solutions of Liouville’s equation with a discontinuous Hamiltonian. It is assumed that the underlying Hamiltonian system has well-defined behaviour even when the Hamiltonian is discontinuous. In the case of geometrical optics such a discontinuity

  12. Periodic Sturm-Liouville problems related to two Riccati equations of constant coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khmelnytskaya, K.V.; Rosu, H.C.; Gonzalez, A.

    2010-01-01

    We consider two closely related Riccati equations of constant parameters whose particular solutions are used to construct the corresponding class of supersymmetrically coupled second-order differential equations. We solve analytically these parametric periodic problems along the whole real axis. Next, the analytically solved model is used as a case study for a powerful numerical approach that is employed here for the first time in the investigation of the energy band structure of periodic not necessarily regular potentials. The approach is based on the well-known self-matching procedure of James (1949) and implements the spectral parameter power series solutions introduced by Kravchenko (2008). We obtain additionally an efficient series representation of the Hill discriminant based on Kravchenko's series.

  13. A new generalized algebra method and its application in the (2 + 1) dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yujie; Liu Shutian; Zhang Hongqing

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, some types of general solutions of a first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with six degree are given and a new generalized algebra method is presented to find more exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations. As an application of the method and the solutions of this equation, we choose the (2 + 1) dimensional Boiti Leon Pempinelli equation to illustrate the validity and advantages of the method. As a consequence, more new types and general solutions are found which include rational solutions and irrational solutions and so on. The new method can also be applied to other nonlinear differential equations in mathematical physics

  14. Non-Equilibrium Liouville and Wigner Equations: Moment Methods and Long-Time Approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon F. Álvarez-Estrada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We treat the non-equilibrium evolution of an open one-particle statistical system, subject to a potential and to an external “heat bath” (hb with negligible dissipation. For the classical equilibrium Boltzmann distribution, Wc,eq, a non-equilibrium three-term hierarchy for moments fulfills Hermiticity, which allows one to justify an approximate long-time thermalization. That gives partial dynamical support to Boltzmann’s Wc,eq, out of the set of classical stationary distributions, Wc;st, also investigated here, for which neither Hermiticity nor that thermalization hold, in general. For closed classical many-particle systems without hb (by using Wc,eq, the long-time approximate thermalization for three-term hierarchies is justified and yields an approximate Lyapunov function and an arrow of time. The largest part of the work treats an open quantum one-particle system through the non-equilibrium Wigner function, W. Weq for a repulsive finite square well is reported. W’s (< 0 in various cases are assumed to be quasi-definite functionals regarding their dependences on momentum (q. That yields orthogonal polynomials, HQ,n(q, for Weq (and for stationary Wst, non-equilibrium moments, Wn, of W and hierarchies. For the first excited state of the harmonic oscillator, its stationary Wst is a quasi-definite functional, and the orthogonal polynomials and three-term hierarchy are studied. In general, the non-equilibrium quantum hierarchies (associated with Weq for the Wn’s are not three-term ones. As an illustration, we outline a non-equilibrium four-term hierarchy and its solution in terms of generalized operator continued fractions. Such structures also allow one to formulate long-time approximations, but make it more difficult to justify thermalization. For large thermal and de Broglie wavelengths, the dominant Weq and a non-equilibrium equation for W are reported: the non-equilibrium hierarchy could plausibly be a three-term one and possibly not

  15. Comparison between the Variational Iteration Method and the Homotopy Perturbation Method for the Sturm-Liouville Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Darzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied the variational iteration method and the homotopy perturbation method to solve Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue and boundary value problems. The main advantage of these methods is the flexibility to give approximate and exact solutions to both linear and nonlinear problems without linearization or discretization. The results show that both methods are simple and effective.

  16. Comparison between the Variational Iteration Method and the Homotopy Perturbation Method for the Sturm-Liouville Differential Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Darzi R; Neamaty A

    2010-01-01

    We applied the variational iteration method and the homotopy perturbation method to solve Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue and boundary value problems. The main advantage of these methods is the flexibility to give approximate and exact solutions to both linear and nonlinear problems without linearization or discretization. The results show that both methods are simple and effective.

  17. Inverse eigenvalue problems for Sturm-Liouville equations with spectral parameter linearly contained in one of the boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Guliyev, Namig J.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Inverse problems of recovering the coefficients of Sturm–Liouville problems with the eigenvalue parameter linearly contained in one of the boundary conditions are studied: 1) from the sequences of eigenvalues and norming constants; 2) from two spectra. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of these inverse problems are obtained.

  18. Efficient numerical simulation of non-integer-order space-fractional reaction-diffusion equation via the Riemann-Liouville operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Kolade M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we are concerned with the solution of non-integer space-fractional reaction-diffusion equations with the Riemann-Liouville space-fractional derivative in high dimensions. We approximate the Riemann-Liouville derivative with the Fourier transform method and advance the resulting system in time with any time-stepping solver. In the numerical experiments, we expect the travelling wave to arise from the given initial condition on the computational domain (-∞, ∞), which we terminate in the numerical experiments with a large but truncated value of L. It is necessary to choose L large enough to allow the waves to have enough space to distribute. Experimental results in high dimensions on the space-fractional reaction-diffusion models with applications to biological models (Fisher and Allen-Cahn equations) are considered. Simulation results reveal that fractional reaction-diffusion equations can give rise to a range of physical phenomena when compared to non-integer-order cases. As a result, most meaningful and practical situations are found to be modelled with the concept of fractional calculus.

  19. Liouville's theorem and phase-space cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.L.; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of Liouville's theorem and its consequences for conservative dynamical systems. A formal proof of Liouville's theorem is given. The Boltzmann equation is derived, and the collisionless Boltzmann equation is shown to be rigorously true for a continuous medium. The Fokker-Planck equation is derived. Discussion is given as to when the various equations are applicable and, in particular, under what circumstances phase space cooling may occur

  20. Exact solution of super Liouville model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanying; Zhao Liu; Zhen Yi

    2000-01-01

    Using Leznov-Saveliev algebraic analysis and Drinfeld-Sokolov construction, the authors obtained the explicit solutions to the super Liouville system in super covariant form and component form. The explicit solution in component form reduces naturally into the Egnchi-Hanson instanton solution of the usual Liouville equation if all the Grassmann odd components are set equal to zero

  1. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew E-mail: jask@ift.uniwroc.pl

    2004-08-30

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory.

  2. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2004-08-01

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory.

  3. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2004-01-01

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory

  4. Super-Liouville — double Liouville correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2014-05-01

    The AGT motivated relation between the tensor product of the = 1 super-Liouville field theory with the imaginary free fermion (SL) and a certain projected tensor product of the real and the imaginary Liouville field theories (LL) is analyzed. Using conformal field theory techniques we give a complete proof of the equivalence in the NS sector. It is shown that the SL-LL correspondence is based on the equivalence of chiral objects including suitably chosen chiral structure constants of all the three Liouville theories involved.

  5. Super-Liouville — double Liouville correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The AGT motivated relation between the tensor product of the N=1 super-Liouville field theory with the imaginary free fermion (SL) and a certain projected tensor product of the real and the imaginary Liouville field theories (LL) is analyzed. Using conformal field theory techniques we give a complete proof of the equivalence in the NS sector. It is shown that the SL-LL correspondence is based on the equivalence of chiral objects including suitably chosen chiral structure constants of all the three Liouville theories involved.

  6. Super-Liouville — double Liouville correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,W. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Jaskólski, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław,pl. M. Borna 1, 95-204 Wrocław (Poland)

    2014-05-27

    The AGT motivated relation between the tensor product of the N=1 super-Liouville field theory with the imaginary free fermion (SL) and a certain projected tensor product of the real and the imaginary Liouville field theories (LL) is analyzed. Using conformal field theory techniques we give a complete proof of the equivalence in the NS sector. It is shown that the SL-LL correspondence is based on the equivalence of chiral objects including suitably chosen chiral structure constants of all the three Liouville theories involved.

  7. H3+-WZNW correlators from Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribault, Sylvain; Teschner, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    We prove that arbitrary correlation functions of the H 3 + -WZNW model on a sphere have a simple expression in terms of Liouville theory correlation functions. This is based on the correspondence between the KZ and BPZ equations, and on relations between the structure constants of Liouville theory and the H 3 + -WZNW model. In the critical level limit, these results imply a direct link between eigenvectors of the Gaudin hamiltonians and the problem of uniformization of Riemann surfaces. We also present an expression for correlation functions of the SL(2)/U(1) gauged WZNW model in terms of correlation functions in Liouville theory

  8. Geometric Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new geometric formulation of Liouville gravity based on the area preserving diffeo-morphism is given and a possible alternative to reinterpret Liouville gravity is suggested, namely, a scalar field coupled to two-dimensional gravity with a curvature constraint

  9. Noncritical String Liouville Theory and Geometric Bootstrap Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    The applications of the existing Liouville theories for the description of the longitudinal dynamics of noncritical Nambu-Goto string are analyzed. We show that the recently developed DOZZ solution to the Liouville theory leads to the cut singularities in tree string amplitudes. We propose a new version of the Polyakov geometric approach to Liouville theory and formulate its basic consistency condition — the geometric bootstrap equation. Also in this approach the tree amplitudes develop cut singularities.

  10. Liouvilles's imaginary shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomerus, Volker; Suchanek, Paulina; Univ. of Wroclaw

    2012-10-01

    N=1 super Liouville field theory is one of the simplest non-rational conformal field theories. It possesses various important extensions and interesting applications, e.g. to the AGT relation with 4D gauge theory or the construction of the OSP(1 vertical stroke 2) WZW model. In both setups, the N=1 Liouville field is accompanied by an additional free fermion. Recently, Belavin et al. suggested a bosonization of the product theory in terms of two bosonic Liouville fields. While one of these Liouville fields is standard, the second turns out to be imaginary (or time-like). We extend the proposal to the R sector and perform extensive checks based on detailed comparison of 3-point functions involving several super-conformal primaries and descendants. On the basis of such strong evidence we sketch a number of interesting potential applications of this intriguing bozonization.

  11. Sturm-Liouville operators and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marchenko, Vladimir A

    2011-01-01

    The spectral theory of Sturm-Liouville operators is a classical domain of analysis, comprising a wide variety of problems. Besides the basic results on the structure of the spectrum and the eigenfunction expansion of regular and singular Sturm-Liouville problems, it is in this domain that one-dimensional quantum scattering theory, inverse spectral problems, and the surprising connections of the theory with nonlinear evolution equations first become related. The main goal of this book is to show what can be achieved with the aid of transformation operators in spectral theory as well as in their

  12. Defects and permutation branes in the Liouville field theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkissian, Gor

    2009-01-01

    The defects and permutation branes for the Liouville field theory are considered. By exploiting cluster condition, equations satisfied by permutation branes and defects reflection amplitudes are obtained. It is shown that two types of solutions exist, discrete and continuous families.......The defects and permutation branes for the Liouville field theory are considered. By exploiting cluster condition, equations satisfied by permutation branes and defects reflection amplitudes are obtained. It is shown that two types of solutions exist, discrete and continuous families....

  13. Two- and three-point functions in Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, H.; Otto, H.J.

    1994-04-01

    Based on our generalization of the Goulian-Li continuation in the power of the 2D cosmological term we construct the two and three-point correlation functions for Liouville exponentials with generic real coefficients. As a strong argument in favour of the procedure we prove the Liouville equation of motion on the level of three-point functions. The analytical structure of the correlation functions as well as some of its consequences for string theory are discussed. This includes a conjecture on the mass shell condition for excitations of noncritical strings. We also make a comment concerning the correlation functions of the Liouville field itself. (orig.)

  14. Connections of the Liouville model and XXZ spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddeev, Ludvig D.; Tirkkonen, Olav

    1995-02-01

    The quantum theory of the Liouville model with imaginary field is considered using the Quantum Inverse Scattering Method. An integrable structure with non-trivial spectral-parameter dependence is developed for lattice Liouville theory by scaling the L-matrix of lattice sine-Gordon theory. This L-matrix yields Bethe ansatz equations for Liouville theory, by the methods of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using the string picture of excited Bethe states, the lattice Liouville Bethe equations are mapped to the corresponding spin- {1}/{2} XXZ chain equations. The well developed theory of finite-size corrections in spin chains is used to deduce the conformal properties of the lattice Liouville Bethe states. The unitary series of conformal field theories emerge for Liouville couplings of the form γ = πν/( ν + 1), corresponding to root of unity XXZ anisotropies. The Bethe states give the full spectrum of the corresponding unitary conformal field theory, with the primary states in the Kač table parameterized by a string length K, and the remnant of the chain length mod ( ν + 1).

  15. Connections of the Liouville model and XXZ spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faddeev, L.D.; Tirkkonen, O.

    1995-01-01

    The quantum theory of the Liouville model with imaginary field is considered using the Quantum Inverse Scattering Method. An integrable structure with non-trivial spectral-parameter dependence is developed for lattice Liouville theory by scaling the L-matrix of lattice sine-Gordon theory. This L-matrix yields Bethe ansatz equations for Liouville theory, by the methods of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using the string picture of excited Bethe states, the lattice Liouville Bethe equations are mapped to the corresponding spin-1/2 XXZ chain equations. The well developed theory of finite-size corrections in spin chains is used to deduce the conformal properties of the lattice Liouville Bethe states. The unitary series of conformal field theories emerge for Liouville couplings of the form γ= πν/(ν+1), corresponding to root of unity XXZ anisotropies. The Bethe states give the full spectrum of the corresponding unitary conformal field theory, with the primary states in the Kac table parameterized by a string length K, and the remnant of the chain length mod (ν+1). (orig.)

  16. Liouville's theorem and the method of the inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Its, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    An approach to the investigation of the Zakharov-Shabat equations is developed. This approach is based on a classical theorem of Liouville and is the synthesis of ''finite-zone'' integration, the matrix Riemann problem method and the theory of isomonodromy deformations of differential equations. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by developing ''dressing procedures'' for the Bullough-Dodd equation

  17. On Multi-Point Liouville Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrinkamar, S.; Rajabi, A. A.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2013-01-01

    In many cases, the classical or semi-classical Liouville field theory appears in the form of Fuchsian or Riemann differential equations whose solutions cannot be simply found, or at least require a comprehensive knowledge on analytical techniques of differential equations of mathematical physics. Here, instead of other cumbersome methodologies such as treating with the Heun functions, we use the quasi-exact ansatz approach and thereby solve the so-called resulting two- and three-point differential equations in a very simple manner. We apply the approach to two recent papers in the field. (author)

  18. Brany Liouville inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nikolaos; Nanopoulos, Dimitri; Sakharov, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    We present a specific model for cosmological inflation driven by the Liouville field in a non-critical supersymmetric string framework, in which the departure from criticality is due to open strings stretched between two moving Type-II 5-branes. We use WMAP and other data on fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background to fix the parameters of the model, such as the relative separation and velocity of the 5-branes, respecting also the constraints imposed by data on light propagation from distant gamma-ray bursters. The model also suggests a small, relaxing component in the present vacuum energy that may accommodate the breaking of supersymmetry

  19. Sturm--Liouville eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    The viewpoint is taken that Sturn--Liouville problem is specified and the problem of computing one or more of the eigenvalues and possibly the corresponding eigenfunctions is presented for solution. The procedure follows the construction of a computer code, although such a code is not constructed, intended to solve Sturn--Liouville eigenvalue problems whether singular or nonsingular

  20. Integrability of Liouville system on high genus Riemann surface: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixin; Gao Hongbo

    1992-01-01

    By using the theory of uniformization of Riemann-surfaces, we study properties of the Liouville equation and its general solution on a Riemann surface of genus g>1. After obtaining Hamiltonian formalism in terms of free fields and calculating classical exchange matrices, we prove the classical integrability of Liouville system on high genus Riemann surface

  1. Discontinuous Sturm-Liouville Problems with Eigenvalue Dependent Boundary Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirov, R. Kh., E-mail: emirov@cumhuriyet.edu.tr; Ozkan, A. S., E-mail: sozkan@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Department of Mathematics Faculty of Art and Science (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    In this study, an inverse problem for Sturm-Liouville differential operators with discontinuities is studied when an eigenparameter appears not only in the differential equation but it also appears in the boundary condition. Uniqueness theorems of inverse problems according to the Prüfer angle, the Weyl function and two different eigenvalues sets are proved.

  2. An efficient method for solving fractional Sturm-Liouville problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mdallal, Qasem M.

    2009-01-01

    The numerical approximation of the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions of the fractional Sturm-Liouville problems, in which the second order derivative is replaced by a fractional derivative, is considered. The present results can be implemented on the numerical solution of the fractional diffusion-wave equation. The results show the simplicity and efficiency of the numerical method.

  3. Similarities of discrete and continuous Sturm-Liouville problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghanbari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a study on the analogous properties of discrete and continuous Sturm-Liouville problems arising in matrix analysis and differential equations, respectively. Green's functions in both cases have analogous expressions in terms of the spectral data. Most of the results associated to inverse problems in both cases are identical. In particular, in both cases Weyl's m-function determines the Sturm-Liouville operators uniquely. Moreover, the well known Rayleigh-Ritz Theorem in linear algebra can be proved by using the concept of Green's function in discrete case.

  4. Existence and Nonexistence of Positive Solutions for Coupled Riemann-Liouville Fractional Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Henderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and nonexistence of positive solutions for a system of nonlinear Riemann-Liouville fractional differential equations with two parameters, subject to coupled integral boundary conditions.

  5. Generalized Bilinear Differential Operators, Binary Bell Polynomials, and Exact Periodic Wave Solution of Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhe Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce how to obtain the bilinear form and the exact periodic wave solutions of a class of (2+1-dimensional nonlinear integrable differential equations directly and quickly with the help of the generalized Dp-operators, binary Bell polynomials, and a general Riemann theta function in terms of the Hirota method. As applications, we solve the periodic wave solution of BLMP equation and it can be reduced to soliton solution via asymptotic analysis when the value of p is 5.

  6. Topological strings from Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, N.; Li, M.

    1991-01-01

    We study constrained SU(2) WZW models, which realize a class of two-dimensional conformal field theories. We show that they give rise to topological gravity coupled to the topological minimal models when they are coupled to Liouville gravity. (orig.)

  7. Spectral theory of Sturm-Liouville differential operators: proceedings of the 1984 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H.G.; Zettl, A. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the workshop which was held at Argonne during the period May 14 through June 15, 1984. The report contains 22 articles, authored or co-authored by the participants in the workshop. Topics covered at the workshop included the asymptotics of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions; qualitative and quantitative aspects of Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems with discrete and continuous spectra; polar, indefinite, and nonselfadjoint Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems; and systems of differential equations of Sturm-Liouville type.

  8. The many faces of the quantum Liouville exponentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Jean-Loup; Schnittger, Jens

    1994-01-01

    First, it is proven that the three main operator approaches to the quantum Liouville exponentials—that is the one of Gervais-Neveu (more recently developed further by Gervais), Braaten-Curtright-Ghandour-Thorn, and Otto-Weigt—are equivalent since they are related by simple basis transformations in the Fock space of the free field depending upon the zero-mode only. Second, the GN-G expressions for quantum Liouville exponentials, where the U q( sl(2)) quantum-group structure is manifest, are shown to be given by q-binomial sums over powers of the chiral fields in the J = {1}/{2} representation. Third, the Liouville exponentials are expressed as operator tau functions, whose chiral expansion exhibits a q Gauss decomposition, which is the direct quantum analogue of the classical solution of Leznov and Saveliev. It involves q exponentials of quantum-group generators with group "parameters" equal to chiral components of the quantum metric. Fourth, we point out that the OPE of the J = {1}/{2} Liouville exponential provides the quantum version of the Hirota bilinear equation.

  9. Liouville action in cone gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    The effective action of the conformally invariant field theory in the curved background space is considered in the light cone gauge. The effective potential in the classical background stress is defined as the Legendre transform of the Liouville action. This potential is tightly connected with the sl(2) current algebra. The series of the covariant differential operators is constructed and the anomalies of their determinants are reduced to this effective potential. 7 refs

  10. Liouville gravity on bordered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskolski, Z.

    1991-11-01

    The functional quantization of the Liouville gravity on bordered surfaces in the conformal gauge is developed. It was shown that the geometrical interpretation of the Polyakov path integral as a sum over bordered surfaces uniquely determines the boundary conditions for the fields involved. The gravitational scaling dimensions of boundary and bulk operators and the critical exponents are derived. In particular, the boundary Hausdorff dimension is calculated. (author). 21 refs

  11. Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation in Quantum Liouville Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Valenti

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform of the density matrix ρ(z,y,t = ψ∗(z,tψ(y,t. We find again that the variances of x and v obtained by using ρ(z, y,t are respectively equal to the variances of X^ and P^ calculated in ψ(x,t. Finally we introduce the matrix ∥Ann′(t∥ and we show that a generic square-integrable function g(x,v,t can be written as Fourier transform of a density matrix, provided that the matrix ∥Ann′(t∥ is diagonalizable.

  12. Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukker, Nadav; Teschner, Joerg

    2009-10-01

    We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S 4 - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)

  13. Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)

  14. Liouvilles's imaginary shadow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Suchanek, Paulina [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2012-10-15

    N=1 super Liouville field theory is one of the simplest non-rational conformal field theories. It possesses various important extensions and interesting applications, e.g. to the AGT relation with 4D gauge theory or the construction of the OSP(1 vertical stroke 2) WZW model. In both setups, the N=1 Liouville field is accompanied by an additional free fermion. Recently, Belavin et al. suggested a bosonization of the product theory in terms of two bosonic Liouville fields. While one of these Liouville fields is standard, the second turns out to be imaginary (or time-like). We extend the proposal to the R sector and perform extensive checks based on detailed comparison of 3-point functions involving several super-conformal primaries and descendants. On the basis of such strong evidence we sketch a number of interesting potential applications of this intriguing bozonization.

  15. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: One bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators

  16. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2006-11-01

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: One bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  17. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: one bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  18. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek [Physikalisches Institut, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, W. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)]. E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.pl

    2006-11-27

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: One bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  19. Nonadiabatic dynamics in the semiclassical Liouville representation: Locality, transformation theory, and the energy budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Craig C., E-mail: cmartens@uci.edu

    2016-12-20

    In this paper, we revisit the semiclassical Liouville approach to describing molecular dynamics with electronic transitions using classical trajectories. Key features of the formalism are highlighted. The locality in phase space and presence of nonclassical terms in the generalized Liouville equations are emphasized and discussed in light of trajectory surface hopping methodology. The representation dependence of the coupled semiclassical Liouville equations in the diabatic and adiabatic bases are discussed and new results for the transformation theory of the Wigner functions representing the corresponding density matrix elements given. We show that the diagonal energies of the state populations are not conserved during electronic transitions, as energy is stored in the electronic coherence. We discuss the implications of this observation for the validity of imposing strict energy conservation in trajectory based methods for simulating nonadiabatic processes.

  20. A Lax integrable hierarchy, bi-Hamiltonian structure and finite-dimensional Liouville integrable involutive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Tiecheng; Chen Xiaohong; Chen Dengyuan

    2004-01-01

    An eigenvalue problem and the associated new Lax integrable hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are presented in this paper. As two reductions, the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equations and the generalized mKdV equations are obtained. Zero curvature representation and bi-Hamiltonian structure are established for the whole hierarchy based on a pair of Hamiltonian operators (Lenard's operators), and it is shown that the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations is integrable in Liouville's sense. Thus the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations has infinitely many commuting symmetries and conservation laws. Moreover the eigenvalue problem is nonlinearized as a finite-dimensional completely integrable system under the Bargmann constraint between the potentials and the eigenvalue functions. Finally finite-dimensional Liouville integrable system are found, and the involutive solutions of the hierarchy of equations are given. In particular, the involutive solutions are developed for the system of generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equations

  1. Green's functions and trace formulas for generalized Sturm-Liouville problems related by Darboux transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2010-01-01

    We study Green's functions of the generalized Sturm-Liouville problems that are related to each other by Darboux -equivalently, supersymmetrical - transformations. We establish an explicit relation between the corresponding Green's functions and derive a simple formula for their trace. The class of equations considered here includes the conventional Schroedinger equation and generalizations, such as for position-dependent mass and with linearly energy-dependent potential, as well as the stationary Fokker-Planck equation.

  2. Accurate high-lying eigenvalues of Schroedinger and Sturm-Liouville problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanden Berghe, G.; Van Daele, M.; De Meyer, H.

    1994-01-01

    A modified difference and a Numerov-like scheme have been introduced in a shooting algorithm for the determination of the (higher-lying) eigenvalues of Schroedinger equations and Sturm-Liouville problems. Some numerical experiments are introduced. Time measurements have been performed. The proposed algorithms are compared with other previously introduced shooting schemes. The structure of the eigenvalue error is discussed. ((orig.))

  3. Touching random surfaces and Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebanov, I.R.

    1995-01-01

    Large N matrix models modified by terms of the form g(TrΦ n ) 2 generate random surfaces which touch at isolated points. Matrix model results indicate that, as g is increased to a special value g t , the string susceptibility exponent suddenly jumps from its conventional value γ to γ/(γ-1). We study this effect in Liouville gravity and attribute it to a change of the interaction term from Oe α + φ for g t to Oe α - φ for g=g t (α + and α - are the two roots of the conformal invariance condition for the Liouville dressing of a matter operator O). Thus, the new critical behavior is explained by the unconventional branch of Liouville dressing in the action

  4. Liouville quantum gravity on complex tori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, François [Institut de Physique Théorique, CNRS, URA 2306, CEA, IPhT, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rhodes, Rémi [Université Paris-Est Marne la Vallée, LAMA, Champs sur Marne (France); Vargas, Vincent [ENS Paris, DMA, 45 rue d’Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we construct Liouville Quantum Field Theory (LQFT) on the toroidal topology in the spirit of the 1981 seminal work by Polyakov [Phys. Lett. B 103, 207 (1981)]. Our approach follows the construction carried out by the authors together with Kupiainen in the case of the Riemann sphere [“Liouville quantum gravity on the Riemann sphere,” e-print arXiv:1410.7318]. The difference is here that the moduli space for complex tori is non-trivial. Modular properties of LQFT are thus investigated. This allows us to integrate the LQFT on complex tori over the moduli space, to compute the law of the random Liouville modulus, therefore recovering (and extending) formulae obtained by physicists, and make conjectures about the relationship with random planar maps of genus one, eventually weighted by a conformal field theory and conformally embedded onto the torus.

  5. The Sturm-Liouville spectrum problem: quartic oscillator case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voros, Andre.

    1982-11-01

    The Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem given by the steady-state Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics is considered on the real axis. There are, however, exact expressions available only for a harmonic oscillator (the Hermite equation); consequently, semi-classical asymptotic methods (in powers of the Planck's constant), which yield very good approximations, have been much studied analytically and as regards their relationships to geometrical optics. These methods relate the asymptotic form of the spectrum to the closed orbits of the Hamiltonian vector field of the function H(p,q) = p 2 + V(q) in the phase space R 2 . We seek to show that these supposedly approximate methods are in fact an exact way of solving the problem. The quartic oscillator, with V(q) = q 4 , is used as an example [fr

  6. Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

  7. Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek, E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.p [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Jaskolski, Zbigniew, E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Suchanek, Paulina, E-mail: paulina@ift.uni.wroc.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-02-22

    The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

  8. Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina

    2010-02-01

    The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

  9. Sturm-Liouville BVPs with Caratheodory nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Benmezai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the existence and multiplicity of solutions for several classes of Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems having Caratheodory nonlinearities. Many results existing in the literature for such boundary value problems in the continuous framework will find in this work their extensions to the Caratheodory setting.

  10. Quasi-equilibria in reduced Liouville spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Meghan E; Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Emsley, Lyndon

    2012-06-14

    The quasi-equilibrium behaviour of isolated nuclear spin systems in full and reduced Liouville spaces is discussed. We focus in particular on the reduced Liouville spaces used in the low-order correlations in Liouville space (LCL) simulation method, a restricted-spin-space approach to efficiently modelling the dynamics of large networks of strongly coupled spins. General numerical methods for the calculation of quasi-equilibrium expectation values of observables in Liouville space are presented. In particular, we treat the cases of a time-independent Hamiltonian, a time-periodic Hamiltonian (with and without stroboscopic sampling) and powder averaging. These quasi-equilibrium calculation methods are applied to the example case of spin diffusion in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. We show that there are marked differences between the quasi-equilibrium behaviour of spin systems in the full and reduced spaces. These differences are particularly interesting in the time-periodic-Hamiltonian case, where simulations carried out in the reduced space demonstrate ergodic behaviour even for small spins systems (as few as five homonuclei). The implications of this ergodic property on the success of the LCL method in modelling the dynamics of spin diffusion in magic-angle spinning experiments of powders is discussed.

  11. Correlation functions in unitary minimal Liouville gravity and Frobenius manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belavin, V. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Theoretical Physics, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-10

    We continue to study minimal Liouville gravity (MLG) using a dual approach based on the idea that the MLG partition function is related to the tau function of the A{sub q} integrable hierarchy via the resonance transformations, which are in turn fixed by conformal selection rules. One of the main problems in this approach is to choose the solution of the Douglas string equation that is relevant for MLG. The appropriate solution was recently found using connection with the Frobenius manifolds. We use this solution to investigate three- and four-point correlators in the unitary MLG models. We find an agreement with the results of the original approach in the region of the parameters where both methods are applicable. In addition, we find that only part of the selection rules can be satisfied using the resonance transformations. The physical meaning of the nonzero correlators, which before coupling to Liouville gravity are forbidden by the selection rules, and also the modification of the dual formulation that takes this effect into account remains to be found.

  12. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MHRL

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. (A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone). ©Sierra Leone Journal .... was used to. She seemed to have had a change of mind after ingesting.

  13. A Liouville integrable hierarchy, symmetry constraint, new finite-dimensional integrable systems, involutive solution and expanding integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yepeng; Chen Dengyuan

    2006-01-01

    A new spectral problem and the associated integrable hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are presented in this paper. It is shown that the hierarchy is completely integrable in the Liouville sense and possesses bi-Hamiltonian structure. An explicit symmetry constraint is proposed for the Lax pairs and the adjoint Lax pairs of the hierarchy. Moreover, the corresponding Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs are nonlinearized into a hierarchy of commutative, new finite-dimensional completely integrable Hamiltonian systems in the Liouville sense. Further, an involutive representation of solution of each equation in the hierarchy is given. Finally, expanding integrable models of the hierarchy are constructed by using a new Loop algebra

  14. On matrix fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Kılıçman; Wasan Ajeel Ahmood

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objec...

  15. Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Piaţek, Marcin

    2005-09-01

    Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere.

  16. Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of WrocIaw, pl. M. Borna, 950-204 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Piatek, Marcin [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of WrocIaw, pl. M. Borna, 950-204 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: piatek@ift.uni.wroc.pl

    2005-09-26

    Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere.

  17. Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew; Piatek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere

  18. Unitarity relations in c=1 Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors consider the S-matrix of c = 1 Liouville theory with vanishing cosmological constant. The authors examine some of the constraints imposed by unitarity. These completely determine (N,2) amplitudes at tree level in terms of the (N,1) amplitudes when the plus tachyon momenta take generic values. A surprising feature of the matrix model results is the lack of particle creation branch cuts in the higher genus amplitudes. In fact, the authors show that the naive field theory limit of Liouville theory would predict such branch cuts. However, unitarity in the full string theory ensures that such cuts do not appear in genus one (N,1) amplitudes. The authors conclude with some comments about the genus one (N,2) amplitudes

  19. L-1 constraint in Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study recursion relations among the amplitudes which involve discrete states in c = 1 Liouville gravity on the sphere. The authors find that the spin J = 1/2 discrete state gives rise to the L -1 type recursion relation. Multiple point correlation functions are determined recursively from fewer point functions by this recursion relation. The authors further point out that the analogs of J = 1/2 state exist in c -1 type recursion relation

  20. African Journals Online: Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical ...

  1. A Note on Upper Tail Behavior of Liouville Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family of Liouville copulas is defined as the survival copulas of multivariate Liouville distributions, and it covers the Archimedean copulas constructed by Williamson’s d-transform. Liouville copulas provide a very wide range of dependence ranging from positive to negative dependence in the upper tails, and they can be useful in modeling tail risks. In this article, we study the upper tail behavior of Liouville copulas through their upper tail orders. Tail orders of a more general scale mixture model that covers Liouville distributions is first derived, and then tail order functions and tail order density functions of Liouville copulas are derived. Concrete examples are given after the main results.

  2. Liouville theory with a central charge less than one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribault, Sylvain [CEA Saclay, Institut de Physique Théorique,F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Santachiara, Raoul [LPTMS, Université Paris Sud,15 rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay (France)

    2015-08-21

    We determine the spectrum and correlation functions of Liouville theory with a central charge less than (or equal) one. This completes the definition of Liouville theory for all complex values of the central charge. The spectrum is always spacelike, and there is no consistent timelike Liouville theory. We also study the non-analytic conformal field theories that exist at rational values of the central charge. Our claims are supported by numerical checks of crossing symmetry. We provide Python code for computing Virasoro conformal blocks, and correlation functions in Liouville theory and (generalized) minimal models.

  3. Comments on fusion matrix in N=1 super Liouville field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmik Poghosyan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We study several aspects of the N=1 super Liouville theory. We show that certain elements of the fusion matrix in the Neveu–Schwarz sector are related to the structure constants according to the same rules which we observe in rational conformal field theory. We collect some evidences that these relations should hold also in the Ramond sector. Using them the Cardy–Lewellen equation for defects is studied, and defects are constructed.

  4. dimensional Nizhnik–Novikov–Veselov equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-22

    Mar 22, 2017 ... order differential equations with modified Riemann–Liouville derivatives into integer-order differential equations, ... tered in a variety of scientific and engineering fields ... devoted to the advanced calculus can be easily applied.

  5. Some mathematical aspects of the Sturm-Liouville expansion with special reference to the nucleon-nucleus potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.M.; Gareev, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    Different convergence properties of the Sturm-Liouville expansion are investigated with particular attention to the case of states which satisfy Schroedinger-like equations with a fixed energy and different depths of a potential, particulary of the Woods-Saxon used in nuclear physics

  6. Existence and Solution-representation of IVP for LFDE with Generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives and $n$ terms

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Myong-Ha; Ri, Guk-Chol; O, Hyong-Chol

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the existence and representation of solution to an initial value problem for the general multi-term linear fractional differential equation with generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives and constant coefficients by using operational calculus of Mikusinski's type. We prove that the initial value problem has the solution of if and only if some initial values should be zero.

  7. Structure constants in the N=1 super-Liouville field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poghossian, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The symmetry algebra of N=1 super-Liouville field theory in two dimensions is the infinite-dimensional N=1 superconformal algebra, which allows one to prove that correlation functions containing degenerated fields obey some partial linear differential equations. In the special case of four-point function, including a primary field degenerated at the first level, these differential equations can be solved via hypergeometric functions. Taking into account mutual locality properties of fields and investigating s- and t-channel singularities we obtain some functional relations for three-point correlation functions. Solving this functional equations we obtain three-point functions in both Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond sectors. (orig.)

  8. Symmetry-adapted Liouville space. Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temme, F.P.

    1990-01-01

    In examining nuclear spin dynamics of NMR spin clusters in density operator/generalized torque formalisms over vertical strokekqv>> operator bases of Liouville space, it is necessary to consider the symmetry mappings and carrier spaces under a specialized group for such (k i = 1) nuclear spin clusters. The SU2 X S n group provides the essential mappings and the form of H carrier space, which allows one to: (a) draw comparisons with Hilbert space duality, and (b) outline the form of the Coleman-Kotani genealogical hierarchy under induced S n -symmetry. (orig.)

  9. A Modified Groundwater Flow Model Using the Space Time Riemann-Liouville Fractional Derivatives Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of uncertainty in groundwater hydrology is of great importance as it is known to result in misleading output when neglected or not properly accounted for. In this paper we examine this effect in groundwater flow models. To achieve this, we first introduce the uncertainties functions u as function of time and space. The function u accounts for the lack of knowledge or variability of the geological formations in which flow occur (aquifer in time and space. We next make use of Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives that were introduced by Kobelev and Romano in 2000 and its approximation to modify the standard version of groundwater flow equation. Some properties of the modified Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative approximation are presented. The classical model for groundwater flow, in the case of density-independent flow in a uniform homogeneous aquifer is reformulated by replacing the classical derivative by the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives approximations. The modified equation is solved via the technique of green function and the variational iteration method.

  10. Bosonic Liouville string theory in conformal gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnittger, J.

    1990-01-01

    The object of the present thesis are the so-called Liouville theories as possibilities for the consistent formulation of string theories beyond the critical dimension. First we discuss the general framework for the quantum theory and explain common properties and differences of different approaches. These considerations lead us to the main demand of the thesis, the formulation of a unified quantum theory for open and closed strings. Of central importance is thereby the construction of the field operator for the Weyl degree of freedom on a suitably defined Hilbert space, so that also in the quantum theory locality and Hermiticity of the Energy-Momentum tensor are respected. In the study of the allowed ground states of the Hilbert space an interesting particularity in comparison to the structure of usual conformal field theories comes across, the importance and consequences of which we intensively study. In the last section we enter the consistence of the theory on the 1-loop level and come then to the final consideration, where we indicate some still open questions of the Liouville theory. (orig.) [de

  11. Charles François Sturm and Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper; Mingarelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of Sturm's works on differential equations, in particular Sturm-Liouville theory. The historical connection to Sturm's theorem about real roots of polynomials is established......An analysis of Sturm's works on differential equations, in particular Sturm-Liouville theory. The historical connection to Sturm's theorem about real roots of polynomials is established...

  12. Global solar radiation in Sierra Leone (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaquoi, J.G.M.

    1987-09-01

    A correlation equation of the Angstrom type has been developed to predict the monthly average daily global solar irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Measurements of the global insolation have been compared with those predicted using the equation. A good agreement (greater than 95% in most cases) was observed between the measured values and the predicted ones. (author). 15 refs, 2 tabs

  13. The Solution Construction of Heterotic Super-Liouville Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zhen, Yi

    2001-12-01

    We investigate the heterotic super-Liouville model on the base of the basic Lie super-algebra Osp(1|2).Using the super extension of Leznov-Saveliev analysis and Drinfeld-Sokolov linear system, we construct the explicit solution of the heterotic super-Liouville system in component form. We also show that the solutions are local and periodic by calculating the exchange relation of the solution. Finally starting from the action of heterotic super-Liouville model, we obtain the conserved current and conserved charge which possessed the BRST properties.

  14. An inverse Sturm–Liouville problem with a fractional derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti; Rundell, William

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate an inverse problem of recovering the potential term in a fractional Sturm-Liouville problem from one spectrum. The qualitative behaviors of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are discussed, and numerical

  15. The exchange algebra for Liouville theory on punctured Riemann sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianmin; Sheng Zhengmao

    1991-11-01

    We consider in this paper the classical Liouville field theory on the Riemann sphere with n punctures. In terms of the uniformization theorem of Riemann surface, we show explicitly the classical exchange algebra (CEA) for the chiral components of the Liouville fields. We find that the matrice which dominate the CEA is related to the symmetry of the Lie group SL(n) in a nontrivial manner with n>3. (author). 10 refs

  16. Liouville theory and uniformization of four-punctured sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    Few years ago Zamolodchikov and Zamolodchikov proposed an expression for the 4-point classical Liouville action in terms of the 3-point actions and the classical conformal block. In this paper we develop a method of calculating the uniformizing map and the uniformizing group from the classical Liouville action on n-punctured sphere and discuss the consequences of Zamolodchikovs conjecture for an explicit construction of the uniformizing map and the uniformizing group for the sphere with four ...

  17. Symmetric duality for left and right Riemann–Liouville and Caputo fractional differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabet Abdeljawad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A discrete version of the symmetric duality of Caputo–Torres, to relate left and right Riemann–Liouville and Caputo fractional differences, is considered. As a corollary, we provide an evidence to the fact that in case of right fractional differences, one has to mix between nabla and delta operators. As an application, we derive right fractional summation by parts formulas and left fractional difference Euler–Lagrange equations for discrete fractional variational problems whose Lagrangians depend on right fractional differences.

  18. Spectral inversion of an indefinite Sturm-Liouville problem due to Richardson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanley, Paul E

    2009-01-01

    We study an indefinite Sturm-Liouville problem due to Richardson whose complicated eigenvalue dependence on a parameter has been a puzzle for decades. In atomic physics a process exists that inverts the usual Schroedinger situation of an energy eigenvalue depending on a coupling parameter into the so-called Sturmian problem where the coupling parameter becomes the eigenvalue which then depends on the energy. We observe that the Richardson equation is of the Sturmian type. This means that the Richardson and its related Schroedinger eigenvalue functions are inverses of each other and that the Richardson spectrum is therefore no longer a puzzle

  19. On the singular Sturm-Liouville problems that have the same spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulsen, Tuba [Department of Mathematics, Firat University, 23119, Elazig (Turkey); Ulusoy, Ismail [Department of Mathematics, Adiyaman University, 02040,Adiyaman (Turkey)

    2016-06-08

    The problem of efficaciously constucting the potential q (x) and the numbers h and H was solved in [1]. Trubowitz [2] investigated the isospectrality problem which have the same spectrum with other same type of problems. Then Jodeit and Levitan [3] considered this problem with a different approach, based on transmutation operators and integral equation. In this work, we discussed this problem for singular Sturm-Liouville operator and obtained some important formulas for the number H, the potential q (x) and the norming constants α{sub n}.

  20. Finite-dimensional Liouville integrable Hamiltonian systems generated from Lax pairs of a bi-Hamiltonian soliton hierarchy by symmetry constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukure, Solomon

    2018-04-01

    We construct finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems by means of symmetry constraints from the Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs of a bi-Hamiltonian hierarchy of soliton equations associated with the 3-dimensional special linear Lie algebra, and discuss the Liouville integrability of these systems based on the existence of sufficiently many integrals of motion.

  1. Inequalities among eigenvalues of Sturm–Liouville problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Q

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There are well-known inequalities among the eigenvalues of Sturm–Liouville problems with periodic, semi-periodic, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. In this paper, for an arbitrary coupled self-adjoint boundary condition, we identify two separated boundary conditions corresponding to the Dirichlet and Neumann conditions in the classical case, and establish analogous inequalities. It is also well-known that the lowest periodic eigenvalue is simple; here we prove a similar result for the general case. Moreover, we show that the algebraic and geometric multiplicities of the eigenvalues of self-adjoint regular Sturm–Liouville problems with coupled boundary conditions are the same. An important step in our approach is to obtain a representation of the fundamental solutions for sufficiently negative values of the spectral parameter. Our approach yields the existence and boundedness from below of the eigenvalues of arbitrary self-adjoint regular Sturm–Liouville problems without using operator theory.

  2. Dynamics and constraints of the Dissipative Liouville Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Basilakos, Spyros; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Plionis, Manolis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we investigate the properties of the FLRW flat cosmological models in which the cosmic expansion of the Universe is affected by a dilaton dark energy (Liouville scenario). In particular, we perform a detailed study of these models in the light of the latest cosmological data, which serves to illustrate the phenomenological viability of the new dark energy paradigm as a serious alternative to the traditional scalar field approaches. By performing a joint likelihood analysis of the recent supernovae type Ia data (SNIa), the differential ages of passively evolving galaxies, and the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) traced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we put tight constraints on the main cosmological parameters. Furthermore, we study the linear matter fluctuation field of the above Liouville cosmological models. In this framework, we compare the observed growth rate of clustering measured from the optical galaxies with those predicted by the current Liouville models. Performing vari...

  3. A covariant canonical description of Liouville field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, G.; Spence, B.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents a new parametrisation of the space of solutions of Liouville field theory on a cylinder. In this parametrisation, the solutions are well-defined and manifestly real functions over all space-time and all of parameter space. It is shown that the resulting covariant phase space of the Liouville theory is diffeomorphic to the Hamiltonian one, and to the space of initial data of the theory. The Poisson brackets are derived and shown to be those of the co-tangent bundle of the loop group of the real line. Using Hamiltonian reduction, it is shown that this covariant phase space formulation of Liouville theory may also be obtained from the covariant phase space formulation of the Wess-Zumino-Witten model. 19 refs

  4. H+3 WZNW model from Liouville field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikida, Yasuaki; Schomerus, Volker

    2007-01-01

    There exists an intriguing relation between genus zero correlation functions in the H + 3 WZNW model and in Liouville field theory. We provide a path integral derivation of the correspondence and then use our new approach to generalize the relation to surfaces of arbitrary genus g. In particular we determine the correlation functions of N primary fields in the WZNW model explicitly through Liouville correlators with N+2g-2 additional insertions of certain degenerate fields. The paper concludes with a list of interesting further extensions and a few comments on the relation to the geometric Langlands program

  5. Liouville theory and uniformization of four-punctured sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2006-08-01

    A few years ago Zamolodchikov and Zamolodchikov proposed an expression for the four-point classical Liouville action in terms of the three-point actions and the classical conformal block [Nucl. Phys. B 477, 577 (1996)]. In this paper we develop a method of calculating the uniformizing map and the uniformizing group from the classical Liouville action on n-punctured sphere and discuss the consequences of Zamolodchikovs conjecture for an explicit construction of the uniformizing map and the uniformizing group for the sphere with four punctures.

  6. The local structure of a Liouville vector field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciriza, E.

    1990-05-01

    In this work we investigate the local structure of a Liouville vector field ξ of a Kaehler manifold (P,Ω) which vanishes on an isotropic submanifold Q of P. Some of the eigenvalues of its linear part at the singular points are zero and the remaining ones are in resonance. We show that there is a C 1 -smooth linearizing conjugation between the Liouville vector field ξ and its linear part. To do this we construct Darboux coordinates adapted to the unstable foliation which is provided by the Centre Manifold Theorem. We then apply recent linearization results due to G. Sell. (author). 11 refs

  7. The Interaction of Physics, Mechanics and Mathematics in Joseph Liouville's Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Som for mange af hans samtidige var fysik og mekanik en stor inspirationskilde for Liouville's matematiske forskning. Laplaces tilgang til fysik var oprindelsen til Liouvilles teori om differentiation af vilkårlig orden, Kelvins elektrostatiske forskning var oprindelsen til Liouvilles sætning om ...

  8. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  9. Riemann-Hilbert treatment of Liouville theory on the torus: the general case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    We extend the previous treatment of Liouville theory on the torus to the general case in which the distribution of charges is not necessarily symmetric. This requires the concept of Fuchsian differential equation on Riemann surfaces. We show through a group theoretic argument that the Heun parameter and a weight constant are sufficient to satisfy all monodromy conditions. We then apply the technique of differential equations on a Riemann surface to the two-point function on the torus in which one source is arbitrary and the other small. As a byproduct, we give in terms of quadratures the exact Green function on the square and on the rhombus with opening angle 2π/6 in the background of the field generated by an arbitrary charge.

  10. Quantization of bosonic closed strings and the Liouville model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paycha, S.

    1988-01-01

    The author shows that by means of a reasonable interpretation of the Lebesgue measure describing the partition function the quantization of closed bosonic strings described by compact surfaces of genus p>1 can be related to that of the Liouville model. (HSI)

  11. Selfadjointness of the Liouville operator for infinite classical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchioro, C [Camerino Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica; Pellegrinotti, A [Rome Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica; Pulvirenti, M [Ancona Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica

    1978-02-01

    We study some properties of the time evolution of an infinite one dimensional hard core system with singular two body interaction. We show that the Liouville operator is essentially antiselfadjoint an the algebra of local observables. Some consequences of this result are also discussed.

  12. Selfadjointness of the Liouville operator for infinite classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioro, C.; Pellegrinotti, A.; Pulvirenti, M.

    1978-01-01

    We study some properties of the time evolution of an infinite one dimensional hard core system with singular two body interaction. We show that the Liouville operator is essentially antiselfadjoint an the algebra of local observables. Some consequences of this result are also discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Weyl transforms associated with the Riemann-Liouville operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Hamadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For the Riemann-Liouville transform ℛα, α∈ℝ+, associated with singular partial differential operators, we define and study the Weyl transforms Wσ connected with ℛα, where σ is a symbol in Sm, m∈ℝ. We give criteria in terms of σ for boundedness and compactness of the transform Wσ.

  14. Weyl and Riemann-Liouville multifractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S C; Teo, L P

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers two new multifractional stochastic processes, namely the Weyl multifractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Riemann-Liouville multifractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Basic properties of these processes such as locally self-similar property and Hausdorff dimension are studied. The relationship between the multifractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes and the corresponding multifractional Brownian motions is established

  15. Brief comments on Jackiw-Teitelboim gravity coupled to Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giribet, Gaston E

    2003-06-07

    The Jackiw-Teitelboim gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant coupled to Liouville theory is considered as a non-critical string on d dimensional flat spacetime. In terms of this interpretation of the model as a consistent string theory, it is discussed as to how the presence of a cosmological constant leads one to consider additional constraints on the parameters of the theory, even though the conformal anomaly is independent of the cosmological constant. The constraints agree with the necessary conditions required to ensure that the tachyon field turns out to be a primary prelogarithmic operator within the context of the worldsheet conformal field theory. Thus, the linearized tachyon field equation allows one to impose the diagonal condition for the interaction term. We analyse the neutralization of the Liouville mode induced by the coupling to the Jackiw-Teitelboim Lagrangian. The standard free field prescription leads one to obtain explicit expressions for three-point functions for the case of vanishing cosmological constant in terms of a product of Shapiro-Virasoro integrals; this fact is a consequence of the mentioned neutralization effect.

  16. Fractional differential equation with the fuzzy initial condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Arshad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the existence and uniqueness of the solution for a class of fractional differential equation with fuzzy initial value. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Riemann-Liouville sense.

  17. Symmetry properties of fractional diffusion equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, R K; Kasatkin, A A; Lukashchuk, S Yu [Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Karl Marx strausse 12, Ufa (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gazizov@mail.rb.ru, E-mail: alexei_kasatkin@mail.ru, E-mail: lsu@mail.rb.ru

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, nonlinear anomalous diffusion equations with time fractional derivatives (Riemann-Liouville and Caputo) of the order of 0-2 are considered. Lie point symmetries of these equations are investigated and compared. Examples of using the obtained symmetries for constructing exact solutions of the equations under consideration are presented.

  18. H+3 WZNW model from Liouville field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikida, Y.; Schomerus, V.

    2007-06-01

    There exists an intriguing relation between genus zero correlation functions in the H + 3 WZNW model and in Liouville field theory. This was found by Ribault and Teschner based in part on earlier ideas by Stoyanovsky. We provide a path integral derivation of the correspondence and then use our new approach to generalize the relation to surfaces of arbitrary genus g. In particular we determine the correlation functions of N primary fields in the WZNW model explicitly through Liouville correlators with N+2g-2 additional insertions of certain degenerate fields. The paper concludes with a list of interesting further extensions and a few comments on the relation to the geometric Langlands program. (orig.)

  19. Covariant currents in N=2 super-Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, J.; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Based on a path-integral prescription for anomaly calculation, we analyze an effective theory of the two-dimensional N=2 supergravity, i.e. N=2 super-Liouville theory. We calculate the anomalies associated with the BRST supercurrent and the ghost-number supercurrent. From those expressions of anomalies, we construct covariant BRST and ghost-number supercurrents in the effective theory. We then show that the (super-)coordinate BRST current algebra forms a superfield extension of the topological conformal algebra for an arbitrary type of conformal matter or, in terms of the string theory, for an arbitrary number of space-time dimensions. This fact is in great contrast with N=0 and N=1 (super-)Liouville theory, where the topological algebra singles out a particular value of dimensions. Our observation suggests a topological nature of the two-dimensional N=2 supergravity as a quantum theory. (orig.)

  20. On matrix fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objective of this article is to discuss the Laplace transform method based on operational matrices of fractional derivatives for solving several kinds of linear fractional differential equations. Moreover, we present the operational matrices of fractional derivatives with Laplace transform in many applications of various engineering systems as control system. We present the analytical technique for solving fractional-order, multi-term fractional differential equation. In other words, we propose an efficient algorithm for solving fractional matrix equation.

  1. Extended Riemann-Liouville type fractional derivative operator with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a class of new extended forms of the beta function, Gauss hypergeometric function and Appell-Lauricella hypergeometric functions by means of the modified Bessel function of the third kind. Some typical generating relations for these extended hypergeometric functions are obtained by defining the extension of the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative operator. Their connections with elementary functions and Fox’s H-function are also presented.

  2. Adomian decomposition method for nonlinear Sturm-Liouville problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennur Somali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Adomian decomposition method is applied to the nonlinear Sturm-Liouville problem-y" + y(tp=λy(t, y(t > 0, t ∈ I = (0, 1, y(0 = y(1 = 0, where p > 1 is a constant and λ > 0 is an eigenvalue parameter. Also, the eigenvalues and the behavior of eigenfuctions of the problem are demonstrated.

  3. An inverse Sturm–Liouville problem with a fractional derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate an inverse problem of recovering the potential term in a fractional Sturm-Liouville problem from one spectrum. The qualitative behaviors of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are discussed, and numerical reconstructions of the potential with a Newton method from finite spectral data are presented. Surprisingly, it allows very satisfactory reconstructions for both smooth and discontinuous potentials, provided that the order . α∈. (1,. 2) of fractional derivative is sufficiently away from 2. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  4. A Liouville type theorem for Lane-Emden systems involving the fractional Laplacian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaas, Alexander; Xia, Aliang

    2016-08-01

    We establish a Liouville type theorem for the fractional Lane-Emden system: {(-Δ)αu=vqin  RN,(-Δ)αv=upin  RN, where α \\in (0,1) , N>2α and p, q are positive real numbers and in an appropriate new range. To prove our result we will use the local realization of fractional Laplacian, which can be constructed as a Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator of a degenerate elliptic equation in the spirit of Caffarelli and Silvestre (2007 Commun. PDE 32 1245-60). Our proof is based on a monotonicity argument for suitable transformed functions and the method of moving planes in a half infinite cylinder ({IR}× S+N , where S+N is the half unit sphere in {{{R}}N+1} ) based on maximum principles which are obtained by barrier functions and a coupling argument using a fractional Sobolev trace inequality.

  5. The unbounded solution of a periodic mixed Sturm–Liouville problem in an infinite strip for the Laplacian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Elsheikh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The unbounded solution, at the points where the boundary conditions change, for a mixed Sturm–Liouville problem of the Dirichlet–Neumann type can be obtained using the method of the integral equation formulation. Since this formulation is usually reduced to an infinite algebraic system in which the unknowns are the Fourier coefficients of the unknown unbounded entity, a study of ℓp-solutions imposes itself concerning the influence of the truncation on such systems. This study is achieved and the well-known theorem on the ℓ2-solutions of the infinite algebraic systems is generalized.

  6. Local p-Adic Differential Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der; Taelman, Lenny

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies divergence in solutions of p-adic linear local differential equations. Such divergence is related to the notion of p-adic Liouville numbers. Also, the influence of the divergence on the differential Galois groups of such differential equations is explored. A complete result is

  7. Oscillation theory of linear differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Došlý, Ondřej

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2000), s. 329-343 ISSN 0044-8753 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/98/0677 Keywords : discrete oscillation theory %Sturm-Liouville equation%Riccati equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Leon Knopoff (1926-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Jackson, David; Gilbert, Freeman

    2011-06-01

    Leon Knopoff died at his home in Sherman Oaks, Calif., on 20 January 2011 at the age of 85. A man of wide-ranging talents, he had the rare distinction of being simultaneously a professor of physics, a professor of geophysics, and a research musicologist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). As an undergraduate he studied electrical engineering and obtained his Ph.D. in physics and mathematics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in 1949. He was recruited to the Institute of Geophysics (now the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics) at UCLA in 1950 by Louis Slichter, where he became a professor of geophysics in 1957 and of geophysics and physics in 1961. He became a research musicologist in the UCLA Institute of Ethnomusicology soon after it was formed in 1960. Other appointments included faculty positions at Miami University in Ohio (1948-1950) and Caltech (1962-1963) and visiting appointments at Cambridge, Karlsruhe, Harvard, Santiago, Trieste, and Venice.

  9. Schramm-Loewner evolution and Liouville quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplantier, Bertrand; Sheffield, Scott

    2011-09-23

    We show that when two boundary arcs of a Liouville quantum gravity random surface are conformally welded to each other (in a boundary length-preserving way) the resulting interface is a random curve called the Schramm-Loewner evolution. We also develop a theory of quantum fractal measures (consistent with the Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolochikov relation) and analyze their evolution under conformal welding maps related to Schramm-Loewner evolution. As an application, we construct quantum length and boundary intersection measures on the Schramm-Loewner evolution curve itself.

  10. Quantum-statistical kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, D.; Schoeller, H.

    1989-01-01

    Considering a homogeneous normal quantum fluid consisting of identical interacting fermions or bosons, the authors derive an exact quantum-statistical generalized kinetic equation with a collision operator given as explicit cluster series where exchange effects are included through renormalized Liouville operators. This new result is obtained by applying a recently developed superoperator formalism (Liouville operators, cluster expansions, symmetrized projectors, P q -rule, etc.) to nonequilibrium systems described by a density operator ρ(t) which obeys the von Neumann equation. By means of this formalism a factorization theorem is proven (being essential for obtaining closed equations), and partial resummations (leading to renormalized quantities) are performed. As an illustrative application, the quantum-statistical versions (including exchange effects due to Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein statistics) of the homogeneous Boltzmann (binary collisions) and Choh-Uhlenbeck (triple collisions) equations are derived

  11. Classical and quantum Liouville theory on the Riemann sphere with n>3 punctures (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianmin; Sheng Zhengmao; Wang Zhonghua

    1992-02-01

    We study the Classical and Quantum Liouville theory on the Riemann sphere with n>3 punctures. We get the quantum exchange algebra relations between the chiral components in the Liouville theory from our assumption on the principle of quantization. (author). 5 refs

  12. Exact solutions of time-fractional heat conduction equation by the fractional complex transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zheng-Biao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fractional Complex Transform is extended to solve exactly time-fractional differential equations with the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. How to incorporate suitable boundary/initial conditions is also discussed.

  13. WKB analysis of PT-symmetric Sturm–Liouville problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M; Jones, Hugh F

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians have considered the Schrödinger eigenvalue problem on an infinite domain. This paper examines the consequences of imposing the boundary conditions on a finite domain. As is the case with regular Hermitian Sturm–Liouville problems, the eigenvalues of the PT-symmetric Sturm–Liouville problem grow like n 2 for large n. However, the novelty is that a PT eigenvalue problem on a finite domain typically exhibits a sequence of critical points at which pairs of eigenvalues cease to be real and become complex conjugates of one another. For the potentials considered here this sequence of critical points is associated with a turning point on the imaginary axis in the complex plane. WKB analysis is used to calculate the asymptotic behaviours of the real eigenvalues and the locations of the critical points. The method turns out to be surprisingly accurate even at low energies. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  14. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  15. A plea for unity, by Leon Lederman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-03-15

    Last November saw the 30th anniversary of the discovery of the antiproton using the Bevatron at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (then called the Radiation Laboratory). Fermilab Director Leon Lederman was in sparkling form at the banquet, where in his inimitable way he made an impassioned plea for scientific unity in these difficult times.

  16. A plea for unity, by Leon Lederman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Last November saw the 30th anniversary of the discovery of the antiproton using the Bevatron at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (then called the Radiation Laboratory). Fermilab Director Leon Lederman was in sparkling form at the banquet, where in his inimitable way he made an impassioned plea for scientific unity in these difficult times

  17. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  18. Rebellion and Agrarian Tensions in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.; Richards, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which customary governance in Sierra Leone can be held responsible for an increasingly unstable two-class agrarian society. A case is made for regarding the civil war (1991–2002) as being an eruption of long-term, entrenched agrarian tensions exacerbated by chiefly

  19. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research (SLJBR) publishes papers in all ... An original article should give sufficient detail of experimental procedures for .... For references cited in a paper which has been accepted for publication but not ...

  20. Rice genetic resources in postwar Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakanda, R.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the

  1. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biotechnology in relation to Medicine, ...

  2. Measuring work engagement among community health workers in Sierra Leone: Validating the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vallières, Frédérique; McAuliffe, Eilish; Hyland, Philip; Galligan, Marie; Ghee, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the concept of volunteer work engagement in a sample of 334 community health workers in Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Structural equation modelling was used to validate both the 9-item and the 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and UWES-17, respectively). Results assessing the UWES-17 invalidated the three-factor structure within this cohort of community health workers, as high correlations were found between latent factors. Findings for the validity of the UWE...

  3. Isomonodromic tau-functions from Liouville conformal blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorgov, N.; Lisovyy, O.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this note is to show that the Riemann-Hilbert problem to find multivalued analytic functions with SL(2,C)-valued monodromy on Riemann surfaces of genus zero with n punctures can be solved by taking suitable linear combinations of the conformal blocks of Liouville theory at c=1. This implies a similar representation for the isomonodromic tau-function. In the case n=4 we thereby get a proof of the relation between tau-functions and conformal blocks discovered in O. Gamayun, N. Iorgov, and O. Lisovyy (2012). We briefly discuss a possible application of our results to the study of relations between certain N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories and conformal field theory.

  4. A quantum group approach to cL > 1 Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takashi.

    1995-03-01

    A candidate of c L > 1 Liouville gravity is studied via infinite dimensional representations of U q sl(2, C) with q at a root of unity. We show that vertex operators in this Liouville theory are factorized into classical vertex operators and those which are constructed from finite dimensional representations of U q sl(2, C). Expressions of correlation functions and transition amplitudes are presented. We discuss about our results and find an intimate relation between our quantization of the Liouville theory and the geometric quantization of moduli space of Riemann surfaces. An interpretation of quantum space-time is also given within this formulation. (author)

  5. An asymptotic formula for Weyl solutions of the dirac equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misyura, T.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the spectral analysis of differential operators and its applications an important role is played by the investigation of the behavior of the Weyl solutions of the corresponding equations when the spectral parameter tends to infinity. Elsewhere an exact asymptotic formula for the Weyl solutions of a large class of Sturm-Liouville equations has been obtained. A decisve role in the proof of this formula has been the semiboundedness property of the corresponding Sturm-Liouville operators. In this paper an analogous formula is obtained for the Weyl solutions of the Dirac equations

  6. Macroeconomic costs of the unmet burden of surgical disease in Sierra Leone: a retrospective economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Caris E; Quaife, Matthew; Kamara, Thaim B; Lavy, Christopher B D; Leather, Andy J M; Bolkan, Håkon A

    2018-03-14

    The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that low/middle-income countries will lose an estimated cumulative loss of US$12.3 trillion from gross domestic product (GDP) due to the unmet burden of surgical disease. However, no country-specific data currently exist. We aimed to estimate the costs to the Sierra Leone economy from death and disability which may have been averted by surgical care. We used estimates of total, met and unmet need from two main sources-a cluster randomised, cross-sectional, countrywide survey and a retrospective, nationwide study on surgery in Sierra Leone. We calculated estimated disability-adjusted life years from morbidity and mortality for the estimated unmet burden and modelled the likely economic impact using three different methods-gross national income per capita, lifetime earnings foregone and value of a statistical life. In 2012, estimated, discounted lifetime losses to the Sierra Leone economy from the unmet burden of surgical disease was between US$1.1 and US$3.8 billion, depending on the economic method used. These lifetime losses equate to between 23% and 100% of the annual GDP for Sierra Leone. 80% of economic losses were due to mortality. The incremental losses averted by scale up of surgical provision to the Lancet Commission target of 80% were calculated to be between US$360 million and US$2.9 billion. There is a large economic loss from the unmet need for surgical care in Sierra Leone. There is an immediate need for massive investment to counteract ongoing economic losses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he

  8. Difference equations theory, applications and advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Mickens, Ronald E

    2015-01-01

    THE DIFFERENCE CALCULUS GENESIS OF DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS DEFINITIONS DERIVATION OF DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS THEOREM OPERATORS ∆ AND E ELEMENTARY DIFFERENCE OPERATORS FACTORIAL POLYNOMIALS OPERATOR ∆−1 AND THE SUM CALCULUS FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS INTRODUCTION GENERAL LINEAR EQUATION CONTINUED FRACTIONS A GENERAL FIRST-ORDER EQUATION: GEOMETRICAL METHODS A GENERAL FIRST-ORDER EQUATION: EXPANSION TECHNIQUES LINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONSINTRODUCTION LINEARLY INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONS FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS FOR HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONSINHOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS SECOND-ORDER EQUATIONS STURM-LIOUVILLE DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS LINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS INTRODUCTION HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS CONSTRUCTION OF A DIFFERENCE EQUATION HAVING SPECIFIED SOLUTIONS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINEAR DIFFERENCE AND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS INHOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS: METHOD OF UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS INHOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS: OPERATOR METHODS z-TRANSFORM METHOD SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS LINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENCE EQUATI...

  9. Exact solutions of space-time fractional EW and modified EW equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, Alper

    2017-01-01

    The bright soliton solutions and singular solutions are constructed for the space-time fractional EW and the space-time fractional modified EW (MEW) equations. Both equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations by the use of fractional complex transform (FCT) and properties of modified Riemann–Liouville derivative. Then, various ansatz method are implemented to construct the solutions for both equations.

  10. Hardy inequality and properties of the quasilinear Sturm-Liouville problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábek, P.; Kufner, Alois

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2007), s. 125-138 ISSN 1120-6330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Hardy inequality * weighted spaces * Sturm-Liouville problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Analysis of geometric phase effects in the quantum-classical Liouville formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Kapral, Raymond; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2014-02-28

    We analyze two approaches to the quantum-classical Liouville (QCL) formalism that differ in the order of two operations: Wigner transformation and projection onto adiabatic electronic states. The analysis is carried out on a two-dimensional linear vibronic model where geometric phase (GP) effects arising from a conical intersection profoundly affect nuclear dynamics. We find that the Wigner-then-Adiabatic (WA) QCL approach captures GP effects, whereas the Adiabatic-then-Wigner (AW) QCL approach does not. Moreover, the Wigner transform in AW-QCL leads to an ill-defined Fourier transform of double-valued functions. The double-valued character of these functions stems from the nontrivial GP of adiabatic electronic states in the presence of a conical intersection. In contrast, WA-QCL avoids this issue by starting with the Wigner transform of single-valued quantities of the full problem. As a consequence, GP effects in WA-QCL can be associated with a dynamical term in the corresponding equation of motion. Since the WA-QCL approach uses solely the adiabatic potentials and non-adiabatic derivative couplings as an input, our results indicate that WA-QCL can capture GP effects in two-state crossing problems using first-principles electronic structure calculations without prior diabatization or introduction of explicit phase factors.

  12. Analysis of geometric phase effects in the quantum-classical Liouville formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G.; Izmaylov, Artur F. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Kapral, Raymond [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2014-02-28

    We analyze two approaches to the quantum-classical Liouville (QCL) formalism that differ in the order of two operations: Wigner transformation and projection onto adiabatic electronic states. The analysis is carried out on a two-dimensional linear vibronic model where geometric phase (GP) effects arising from a conical intersection profoundly affect nuclear dynamics. We find that the Wigner-then-Adiabatic (WA) QCL approach captures GP effects, whereas the Adiabatic-then-Wigner (AW) QCL approach does not. Moreover, the Wigner transform in AW-QCL leads to an ill-defined Fourier transform of double-valued functions. The double-valued character of these functions stems from the nontrivial GP of adiabatic electronic states in the presence of a conical intersection. In contrast, WA-QCL avoids this issue by starting with the Wigner transform of single-valued quantities of the full problem. As a consequence, GP effects in WA-QCL can be associated with a dynamical term in the corresponding equation of motion. Since the WA-QCL approach uses solely the adiabatic potentials and non-adiabatic derivative couplings as an input, our results indicate that WA-QCL can capture GP effects in two-state crossing problems using first-principles electronic structure calculations without prior diabatization or introduction of explicit phase factors.

  13. Synchronization of chaotic systems involving fractional operators of Liouville-Caputo type with variable-order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Torres, L.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Valtierra-Rodríguez, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a state-observer-based approach to synchronize variable-order fractional (VOF) chaotic systems. In particular, this work is focused on complete synchronization with a so-called unidirectional master-slave topology. The master is described by a dynamical system in state-space representation whereas the slave is described by a state observer. The slave is composed of a master copy and a correction term which in turn is constituted of an estimation error and an appropriate gain that assures the synchronization. The differential equations of the VOF chaotic system are described by the Liouville-Caputo and Atangana-Baleanu-Caputo derivatives. Numerical simulations involving the synchronization of Rössler oscillators, Chua's systems and multi-scrolls are studied. The simulations show that different chaotic behaviors can be obtained if different smooths functions defined in the interval (0 , 1 ] are used as the variable order of the fractional derivatives. Furthermore, simulations show that the VOF chaotic systems can be synchronized.

  14. Geometric properties of static Einstein-Maxwell dilaton horizons with a Liouville potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2011-01-01

    We study nondegenerate and degenerate (extremal) Killing horizons of arbitrary geometry and topology within the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton model with a Liouville potential (the EMdL model) in d-dimensional (d≥4) static space-times. Using Israel's description of a static space-time, we construct the EMdL equations and the space-time curvature invariants: the Ricci scalar, the square of the Ricci tensor, and the Kretschmann scalar. Assuming that space-time metric functions and the model fields are real analytic functions in the vicinity of a space-time horizon, we study the behavior of the space-time metric and the fields near the horizon and derive relations between the space-time curvature invariants calculated on the horizon and geometric invariants of the horizon surface. The derived relations generalize similar relations known for horizons of static four- and five-dimensional vacuum and four-dimensional electrovacuum space-times. Our analysis shows that all the extremal horizon surfaces are Einstein spaces. We present the necessary conditions for the existence of static extremal horizons within the EMdL model.

  15. Essay on Fractional Riemann-Liouville Integral Operator versus Mikusinski’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the representation of the fractional Riemann-Liouville integral by using the Mikusinski operators. The Mikusinski operators discussed in the paper may yet provide a new view to describe and study the fractional Riemann-Liouville integral operator. The present result may be useful for applying the Mikusinski operational calculus to the study of fractional calculus in mathematics and to the theory of filters of fractional order in engineering.

  16. [Leon Daraszkiewicz and his monograph on hebephrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Leon Daraszkiewicz (1866-1931) was a Polish psychiatrist, a pupil and co-worker of E. Kraepelin and V. Tsiz on the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia), the author of highly regarded monograph on hebephrenia (1891). In his work on the basis of over 20 case histories, he described a natural history of hebephrenia and his own views on its aetiology and prognosis. Hebephrenia as described by Daraszkiewicz, served as a clinical model for the Kraepelinian concept of dementia praecox. In the article, the life and career of Daraszkiewicz is covered, with particular emphasis on the role of his doctoral dissertation on hebephrenia in the history of the concept of schizophrenia.

  17. The Mathematical Works of Leon Battista Alberti

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Kim; Wassell, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Leon Battista Alberti was an outstanding polymath of the fifteenth century, alongside Piero della Francesca and before Leonardo da Vinci. While his contributions to architecture and the visual arts are well known and available in good English editions, and much of his literary and social writings are also available in English, his mathematical works are not well represented in readily available, accessible English editions have remained accessible only to specialists. The four treatises included here - Ludi matematici, De Componendis Cifris, Elementi di pittura and De lunularum quadratura - ar

  18. Deformed type 0A matrix model and super-Liouville theory for fermionic black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Changrim; Kim, Chanju; Park, Jaemo; Suyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2006-01-01

    We consider a c-circumflex = 1 model in the fermionic black hole background. For this purpose we consider a model which contains both the N 1 and the N = 2 super-Liouville interactions. We propose that this model is dual to a recently proposed type 0A matrix quantum mechanics model with vortex deformations. We support our conjecture by showing that non-perturbative corrections to the free energy computed by both the matrix model and the super-Liouville theories agree exactly by treating the N = 2 interaction as a small perturbation. We also show that a two-point function on sphere calculated from the deformed type 0A matrix model is consistent with that of the N = 2 super-Liouville theory when the N = 1 interaction becomes small. This duality between the matrix model and super-Liouville theories leads to a conjecture for arbitrary n-point correlation functions of the N = 1 super-Liouville theory on the sphere

  19. A procedure to construct exact solutions of nonlinear fractional differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Özkan; Cevikel, Adem C

    2014-01-01

    We use the fractional transformation to convert the nonlinear partial fractional differential equations with the nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The Exp-function method is extended to solve fractional partial differential equations in the sense of the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. We apply the Exp-function method to the time fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver equation, the space fractional Burgers equation, and the time fractional fmKdV equation. As a result, we obtain some new exact solutions.

  20. A quantum group approach to c{sub L} > 1 Liouville gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takashi

    1995-03-01

    A candidate of c{sub L} > 1 Liouville gravity is studied via infinite dimensional representations of U{sub q}sl(2, C) with q at a root of unity. We show that vertex operators in this Liouville theory are factorized into classical vertex operators and those which are constructed from finite dimensional representations of U{sub q}sl(2, C). Expressions of correlation functions and transition amplitudes are presented. We discuss about our results and find an intimate relation between our quantization of the Liouville theory and the geometric quantization of moduli space of Riemann surfaces. An interpretation of quantum space-time is also given within this formulation. (author).

  1. Mining in Castille and Leon. La mineria en Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Coal mining is the principal activity of the regions in which the reserves are located and an irreplaceable source of short-term profit and employment. In Leon and Palencia are found the only recoverable reserves of bituminous coal and anthracite which can contribute to Spain's energy requirements from now until such time as new energy sources put an end to current energy shortages. 5 figs.

  2. Projected treatment capacity needs in sierra leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard A; MacDonald, Emily; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-30

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa requires immediate and sustained input from the international community in order to curb transmission. The CDC has produced a model that indicates that to end the outbreak by pushing the reproductive number below one, 25% of the patients must be placed in an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETC) and 45% must be isolated in community settings in which risk of disease transmission is reduced and safe burials are provided. In order to provide firmer targets for the international response in Sierra Leone, we estimated the national and international personnel and treatment capacity that may be required to reach these percentages. We developed a compartmental SEIR model that was fitted to WHO data and local data allowing the reproductive number to change every 8 weeks to forecast the progression of the EVD epidemic in Sierra Leone. We used the previously estimated 2.5x correction factor estimated by the CDC to correct for underreporting. Number of personnel required to provide treatment for the predicted number of cases was estimated using UNMEER and UN OCHA requests for resources required to meet the CDC target of 70% isolation. As of today (2014-12-04), we estimate that there are 810 (95% CI=646 to 973) EVD active cases in treatment, with an additional 3751 (95% CI=2778 to 4723) EVD cases unreported and untreated. To reach the CDC targets today, we need 1140 (95% CI=894 to 1387) cases in ETCs and 2052 (95% CI=1608 to 2496) at home or in a community setting with a reduced risk for disease transmission. In 28 days (2015-01-01), we will need 1309 (95% CI=804 to 1814) EVD cases in ETCs and 2356 (95% CI=1447 to 3266) EVD cases at reduced risk of transmission. If the current transmission rate is not reduced, up to 3183 personnel in total will be required in 56 days (2015-01-29) to operate ETCs according to our model. The current outbreak will require massive input from the international community in order to curb the

  3. Finite elements for partial differential equations: An introductory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Succi, S.

    1988-03-01

    After presentation of the basic ideas behind the theory of the Finite Element Method, the application of the method to three equations of particular interest in Physics and Engineering is discussed in some detail, namely, a one-dimensional Sturm-Liouville problem, a two-dimensional linear Fokker-Planck equation and a two-dimensional nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation. 6 refs, 8 figs

  4. Exp-function method for solving fractional partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Exp-function method to fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative based on nonlinear fractional complex transformation. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply it to the space-time fractional Fokas equation and the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

  5. A New Fractional Projective Riccati Equation Method for Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new fractional projective Riccati equation method is proposed to establish exact solutions for fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann—Liouville derivative. This method can be seen as the fractional version of the known projective Riccati equation method. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply this method to solve the space-time fractional Whitham—Broer—Kaup (WBK) equations and the nonlinear fractional Sharma—Tasso—Olever (STO) equation, and as a result, some new exact solutions for them are obtained. (general)

  6. Assessing unmet anaesthesia need in Sierra Leone: a secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, Connaught Hospital Freetown, Sierra Leone. 3. Department of .... need, is a key part of planning for increasing surgical capacity. Limitations. As noted by Groen et al24 this data .... Emergency and surgery services of ...

  7. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    university hospital in southern Sierra Leone, a total of 66 (4.71±2.52) victims reported having been bitten by snakes in 11 ... social, economic, psychological and health impacts of snakebite ..... Epidemiological profile of snakebite cases from.

  8. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone ... disability associated with venomous snakebites result in lasting .... 1Mean ± Standard Error. 95% Confidence Limit. Community. Self. Reported.

  9. British Military Intervention into Sierra Leone: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberson, Walter G

    2007-01-01

    .... The successful British intervention led to the defeat of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and final peace accords, restored order to a failed state, and allowed the democratic restoration of the government of Sierra Leone...

  10. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zackary Suleiman

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone ... Case Study ... Peri-operative management of patients with significant cardio-respiratory disease ... contribute to patient safety by preventing any.

  11. Quantization of the Hitchin moduli spaces, Liouville theory, and the geometric Langlands correspondence I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teschner, J.

    2010-05-01

    It was in particular recently argued that the gauge theory in the presence of a certain one-parameter deformation can at low energies effectively be described in terms the quantization of an algebraically integrable system, which is canonically associated to this theory. It seems, however, that the deeper reasons for this relationship between a two- and a fourdimensional theory remain to be understood. A clue in this direction may be seen in the fact that the instanton partition functions which represent the building blocks of the partition functions are obtained by specializing a two-parameter family Z(a,ε 1 ,ε 2 ;q) of instanton partition functions. These functions were identified with the conformal blocks of Liouville theory. This indicates that the relationship between certain gauge theories and Liouville theory involves in particular a two-parametric deformation of the algebraically integrable model associated to the gauge theories on R 4 which ultimately produces Liouville theory as a result. One of my intentions in this paper is to clarify in which sense this point of view is correct. Another piece of motivation comes from relations between fourdimensional gauge theories and the geometric Langlands correspondence. The author feels that the mentioned relations between gauge theory and conformal field theory offer new clues in this regard. It is therefore my second main aim to clarify the relations between the quantization of the Hitchin system, the geometric Langlands correspondence and the Liouville conformal field theory. (orig.)

  12. The Sturm-Liouville inverse spectral problem with boundary conditions depending on the spectral parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van der Mee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the complete version including proofs of the results announced in [van der Mee C., Pivovarchik V.: A Sturm-Liouville spectral problem with boundary conditions depending on the spectral parameter. Funct. Anal. Appl. 36 (2002, 315–317 [Funkts. Anal. Prilozh. 36 (2002, 74–77 (Russian

  13. Quantization of the Hitchin moduli spaces, Liouville theory, and the geometric Langlands correspondence I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2010-05-15

    It was in particular recently argued that the gauge theory in the presence of a certain one-parameter deformation can at low energies effectively be described in terms the quantization of an algebraically integrable system, which is canonically associated to this theory. It seems, however, that the deeper reasons for this relationship between a two- and a fourdimensional theory remain to be understood. A clue in this direction may be seen in the fact that the instanton partition functions which represent the building blocks of the partition functions are obtained by specializing a two-parameter family Z(a,{epsilon}{sub 1},{epsilon}{sub 2};q) of instanton partition functions. These functions were identified with the conformal blocks of Liouville theory. This indicates that the relationship between certain gauge theories and Liouville theory involves in particular a two-parametric deformation of the algebraically integrable model associated to the gauge theories on R{sup 4} which ultimately produces Liouville theory as a result. One of my intentions in this paper is to clarify in which sense this point of view is correct. Another piece of motivation comes from relations between fourdimensional gauge theories and the geometric Langlands correspondence. The author feels that the mentioned relations between gauge theory and conformal field theory offer new clues in this regard. It is therefore my second main aim to clarify the relations between the quantization of the Hitchin system, the geometric Langlands correspondence and the Liouville conformal field theory. (orig.)

  14. Half-linear Sturm-Liouville problem with weights: asymptotic behavior of eigenfunctions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábek, P.; Kufner, Alois; Kuliev, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1 (2014), s. 148-154 ISSN 0081-5438 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Sturm-Liouville problem * spectral problems * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.302, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS008154381401009X

  15. Determination of a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation using a fractional derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabadal, J.; Vilhena, M.T.; Segatto, C.F.; Pazos, R.P.Ruben Panta.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we construct a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation rewritten in integral form which is expressed in terms of a fractional derivative of the angular flux. We determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of the Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. We report numerical simulations

  16. Determination of a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation using a fractional derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabadal, J. E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br; Vilhena, M.T. E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br; Segatto, C.F. E-mail: cynthia@mat.ufrgs.br; Pazos, R.P.Ruben Panta. E-mail: rpp@mat.pucrgs.br

    2002-07-01

    In this work we construct a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation rewritten in integral form which is expressed in terms of a fractional derivative of the angular flux. We determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of the Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. We report numerical simulations.

  17. On the method of inverse scattering problem and Baecklund transformations for supersymmetric equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichian, M.; Kulish, P. P.

    1978-04-01

    Supersymmetric Liouville and sine-Gordon equations are studied. We write down for these models the system of linear equations for which the method of inverse scattering problem should be applicable. Expressions for an infinite set of conserved currents are explicitly given. Supersymmetric Baecklund transformations and generalized conservation laws are constructed. (author)

  18. A Discrete Spectral Problem and Related Hierarchy of Discrete Hamiltonian Lattice Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xixiang; Cao Weili

    2007-01-01

    Staring from a discrete matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of lattice soliton equations is presented though discrete zero curvature representation. The resulting lattice soliton equations possess non-local Lax pairs. The Hamiltonian structures are established for the resulting hierarchy by the discrete trace identity. Liouville integrability of resulting hierarchy is demonstrated.

  19. Operator product expansion in Liouville field theory and Seiberg-type transitions in log-correlated random energy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiangyu; Le Doussal, Pierre; Rosso, Alberto; Santachiara, Raoul

    2018-04-01

    We study transitions in log-correlated random energy models (logREMs) that are related to the violation of a Seiberg bound in Liouville field theory (LFT): the binding transition and the termination point transition (a.k.a., pre-freezing). By means of LFT-logREM mapping, replica symmetry breaking and traveling-wave equation techniques, we unify both transitions in a two-parameter diagram, which describes the free-energy large deviations of logREMs with a deterministic background log potential, or equivalently, the joint moments of the free energy and Gibbs measure in logREMs without background potential. Under the LFT-logREM mapping, the transitions correspond to the competition of discrete and continuous terms in a four-point correlation function. Our results provide a statistical interpretation of a peculiar nonlocality of the operator product expansion in LFT. The results are rederived by a traveling-wave equation calculation, which shows that the features of LFT responsible for the transitions are reproduced in a simple model of diffusion with absorption. We examine also the problem by a replica symmetry breaking analysis. It complements the previous methods and reveals a rich large deviation structure of the free energy of logREMs with a deterministic background log potential. Many results are verified in the integrable circular logREM, by a replica-Coulomb gas integral approach. The related problem of common length (overlap) distribution is also considered. We provide a traveling-wave equation derivation of the LFT predictions announced in a precedent work.

  20. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume X.- Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora and Salamanca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 41 refs

  1. Fractional analysis for nonlinear electrical transmission line and nonlinear Schroedinger equations with incomplete sub-equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendzi-Donfack, Emmanuel; Nguenang, Jean Pierre; Nana, Laurent

    2018-02-01

    We use the fractional complex transform with the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative operator to establish the exact and generalized solutions of two fractional partial differential equations. We determine the solutions of fractional nonlinear electrical transmission lines (NETL) and the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation with the Kerr law nonlinearity term. The solutions are obtained for the parameters in the range (0<α≤1) of the derivative operator and we found the traditional solutions for the limiting case of α =1. We show that according to the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative, the solutions found can describe physical systems with memory effect, transient effects in electrical systems and nonlinear transmission lines, and other systems such as optical fiber.

  2. Lax Pairs for Discrete Integrable Equations via Darboux Transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ce-Wen; Zhang Guang-Yao

    2012-01-01

    A method is developed to construct discrete Lax pairs using Darboux transformations. More kinds of Lax pairs are found for some newly appeared discrete integrable equations, including the H1, the special H3 and the Q1 models in the Adler—Bobenko—Suris list and the closely related discrete and semi-discrete pKdV, pMKdV, SG and Liouville equations. (general)

  3. New Solutions of Three Nonlinear Space- and Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations in Mathematical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Ruo-Xia; Wang Wei; Chen Ting-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the widely used ansätz method and starting from the modified Riemann—Liouville derivative together with a fractional complex transformation that can be utilized to transform nonlinear fractional partial differential equations to nonlinear ordinary differential equations, new types of exact traveling wave solutions to three important nonlinear space- and time-fractional partial differential equations are obtained simultaneously in terms of solutions of a Riccati equation. The results are new and first reported in this paper. (general)

  4. Fractional Complex Transform and exp-Function Methods for Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bekir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exp-function method is presented for finding the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional equations. New solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. We apply the exp-function method to both the nonlinear time and space fractional differential equations. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

  5. Exact solutions of nonlinear fractional differential equations by (G′/G)-expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir Ahmet; Güner Özkan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the fractional complex transform and the (G′/G)-expansion method to study the nonlinear fractional differential equations and find the exact solutions. The fractional complex transform is proposed to convert a partial fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modified Riemann—Liouville derivative into its ordinary differential equation. It is shown that the considered transform and method are very efficient and powerful in solving wide classes of nonlinear fractional order equations

  6. Exact Solutions of Fractional Burgers and Cahn-Hilliard Equations Using Extended Fractional Riccati Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general fractional Riccati equation and with Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative to an extended fractional Riccati expansion method for solving the time fractional Burgers equation and the space-time fractional Cahn-Hilliard equation, the exact solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions and trigonometric functions are obtained. The obtained results show that the presented method is effective and appropriate for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  7. H{sup +}{sub 3} WZNW model from Liouville field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikida, Y.; Schomerus, V.

    2007-06-15

    There exists an intriguing relation between genus zero correlation functions in the H{sup +}{sub 3} WZNW model and in Liouville field theory. This was found by Ribault and Teschner based in part on earlier ideas by Stoyanovsky. We provide a path integral derivation of the correspondence and then use our new approach to generalize the relation to surfaces of arbitrary genus g. In particular we determine the correlation functions of N primary fields in the WZNW model explicitly through Liouville correlators with N+2g-2 additional insertions of certain degenerate fields. The paper concludes with a list of interesting further extensions and a few comments on the relation to the geometric Langlands program. (orig.)

  8. Sectors of solutions and minimal energies in classical Liouville theories for strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.; Kihlberg, A.; Marnelius, R.

    1984-01-01

    All classical solutions of the Liouville theory for strings having finite stable minimum energies are calculated explicitly together with their minimal energies. Our treatment automatically includes the set of natural solitonlike singularities described by Jorjadze, Pogrebkov, and Polivanov. Since the number of such singularities is preserved in time, a sector of solutions is not only characterized by its boundary conditions but also by its number of singularities. Thus, e.g., the Liouville theory with periodic boundary conditions has three different sectors of solutions with stable minimal energies containing zero, one, and two singularities. (Solutions with more singularities have no stable minimum energy.) It is argued that singular solutions do not make the string singular and therefore may be included in the string quantization

  9. Memoria sobre el papel de Liouville en la historia de las funciones elípticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Solanilla Chavarro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge las principales conclusiones de una investigación sobre las contribuciones de J. Liouville a la teoría contemporánea de las funciones elípticas. Cubre la mayor parte de los resultados de una colaboración entre el grupo SUMMA del Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Universidad de Medellín y el grupo Mat del Departamento de Matemáticas y Estadística de la Universidad del Tolima. El proyecto ha sido financiado parcialmente por la Vicerrectoría de Investigaciones de la Universidad de Medellín y la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad del Tolima. Comienza con una descripción de la circunstancia histórica de Liouville, luego de la emergencia del concepto moderno de función elíptica en los trabajos de Abel y Jacobi. Después se discuten ciertos pormenores de las Leçons impartidas por el célebre matemático francés en el año de 1847. Ellos cubren el teorema que hemos llamado de Liouville-Borchardt, las proposiciones fundamentales sobre el número de ceros de las funciones meromorfas doblemente periódicas y los resultados sobre la relación entre los ceros y los polos. Al final, se esbozan importantes conclusiones sobre el legado de Liouville a la teoría de las funciones elípticas de hoy.

  10. The Euler anomaly and scale factors in Liouville/Toda CFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, Aswin [Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin,2515 Speedway Stop C1608, Austin, TX 78712-1197 (United States)

    2014-04-22

    The role played by the Euler anomaly in the dictionary relating sphere partition functions of four dimensional theories of class S and two dimensional non rational CFTs is clarified. On the two dimensional side, this involves a careful treatment of scale factors in Liouville/Toda correlators. Using ideas from tinkertoy constructions for Gaiotto duality, a framework is proposed for evaluating these scale factors. The representation theory of Weyl groups plays a critical role in this framework.

  11. Online learning of a Dirichlet process mixture of Beta-Liouville distributions via variational inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wentao; Bouguila, Nizar

    2013-11-01

    A large class of problems can be formulated in terms of the clustering process. Mixture models are an increasingly important tool in statistical pattern recognition and for analyzing and clustering complex data. Two challenging aspects that should be addressed when considering mixture models are how to choose between a set of plausible models and how to estimate the model's parameters. In this paper, we address both problems simultaneously within a unified online nonparametric Bayesian framework that we develop to learn a Dirichlet process mixture of Beta-Liouville distributions (i.e., an infinite Beta-Liouville mixture model). The proposed infinite model is used for the online modeling and clustering of proportional data for which the Beta-Liouville mixture has been shown to be effective. We propose a principled approach for approximating the intractable model's posterior distribution by a tractable one-which we develop-such that all the involved mixture's parameters can be estimated simultaneously and effectively in a closed form. This is done through variational inference that enjoys important advantages, such as handling of unobserved attributes and preventing under or overfitting; we explain that in detail. The effectiveness of the proposed work is evaluated on three challenging real applications, namely facial expression recognition, behavior modeling and recognition, and dynamic textures clustering.

  12. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  13. Review on mathematical basis for thermal conduction equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D. G.; Kim, H. M

    2007-10-15

    In the view point of thermal conductivity measurement technology, It is very useful to understand mathematical theory of thermal conduction equation in order to evaluation of measurement data and to solve diverse technical problem in measurement. To approach this mathematical theory, thermal conduction equation is derived by Fourier thermal conduction law. Since thermal conduction equation depends on the Lapacian operator basically, mathematical meaning of Lapalacian and various diffusion equation including Laplacian have been studied. Stum-Liouville problem and Bessel function were studied in this report to understand analytical solution of various diffusion equation.

  14. Review on mathematical basis for thermal conduction equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D. G.; Kim, H. M.

    2007-10-01

    In the view point of thermal conductivity measurement technology, It is very useful to understand mathematical theory of thermal conduction equation in order to evaluation of measurement data and to solve diverse technical problem in measurement. To approach this mathematical theory, thermal conduction equation is derived by Fourier thermal conduction law. Since thermal conduction equation depends on the Lapacian operator basically, mathematical meaning of Lapalacian and various diffusion equation including Laplacian have been studied. Stum-Liouville problem and Bessel function were studied in this report to understand analytical solution of various diffusion equation

  15. Lie symmetry analysis, conservation laws and exact solutions of the seventh-order time fractional Sawada–Kotera–Ito equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Yaşar

    Full Text Available In this paper Lie symmetry analysis of the seventh-order time fractional Sawada–Kotera–Ito (FSKI equation with Riemann–Liouville derivative is performed. Using the Lie point symmetries of FSKI equation, it is shown that it can be transformed into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation of fractional order with a new dependent variable. In the reduced equation the derivative is in Erdelyi–Kober sense. Furthermore, adapting the Ibragimov’s nonlocal conservation method to time fractional partial differential equations, we obtain conservation laws of the underlying equation. In addition, we construct some exact travelling wave solutions for the FSKI equation using the sub-equation method. Keywords: Fractional Sawada–Kotera–Ito equation, Lie symmetry, Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative, Conservation laws, Exact solutions

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus, Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F; Loroño-Pino, María A; Marlenee, Nicole L; Díaz, Francisco J; González-Rojas, José I; Obregón-Martínez, Nelson; Chiu-García, Jorge A; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry J

    2004-07-01

    West Nile virus RNA was detected in brain tissue from a horse that died in June 2003 in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the premembrane and envelope genes showed that the virus was most closely related to West Nile virus isolates collected in Texas in 2002.

  17. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...

  18. Interview met Leon Deben: van tegenstellingen leer je het meeste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepen, A.; Huisman, C.

    2008-01-01

    Wat in de jaren zeventig begonnen is als Sociologie van bouwen en wonen is uitgegroeid tot Stadssociologie. Leon Deben heeft het medeopgebouwd. Hij nam onlangs afscheid van de universiteit met een rede over de openbare ruimte. "Het centrale bestuur van de stad is druk met de waan van de dag en dan

  19. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...

  20. Last Research Board Meeting for Leon Van Hove

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Leon Van Hove chaired the meeting for the last time, the end of the year being also the end of his term as Research Director General. The place was as usual the 6th floor conference room at the Main Building. The photo shows Sergio Fubini, Claude Bovet, Erwin Gabathuler, Volker Soergel, Leslie Camilleri, Jurg May, Mike Crowley-Milling

  1. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on…

  2. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    recommendations to the health sector of Sierra Leone for it prevention. This retrospective .... pressure. 27% of the population is exposed to 3 to. 5 of these risk factors. According to .... Many studies have identified foot ulcer as the most common ...

  3. Military Interventions in Sierra Leone: Lessons from a Failed State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Larry J; Reese, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    This study by Larry J. Woods and Colonel Timothy R. Reese analyzes the massive turmoil afflicting the nation of Sierra Leone, 1993-2002, and the efforts by a variety of outside forces to bring lasting stability to that small country...

  4. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  5. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  6. On the solution set for a class of sequential fractional differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Mustafa, Octavian G; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2010-01-01

    We establish here that under some simple restrictions on the functional coefficient a(t) the solution set of the fractional differential equation ( 0 D α t x)' + a(t)x = 0 splits between eventually small and eventually large solutions as t → +∞, where 0 D α t designates the Riemann-Liouville derivative of the order α in (0, 1).

  7. Decomposition of a hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    The generalized Hamiltonian structures for a hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are established with the aid of the trace identity. Using the nonlinearization approach, the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations is decomposed into a class of new finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. The generating function of integrals and their generator are presented, based on which the finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems are proved to be completely integrable in the Liouville sense. As an application, solutions for the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are reduced to solving the compatible Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations

  8. A bifurcation result for Sturm-Liouville problems with a set-valued term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Hetzer

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available It is established in this note that $-(ku''+g(cdot,uin mu F(cdot,u$, $u'(0=0=u'(1$, has a multiple bifurcation point at $ (0, 0}$ in the sense that infinitely many continua meet at $(0,0$. $F$ is a ``set-valued representation'' of a function with jump discontinuities along the line segment $[0,1]imes{0}$. The proof relies on a Sturm-Liouville version of Rabinowitz's bifurcation theorem and an approximation procedure.

  9. Duality and the Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov relation in Liouville quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplantier, Bertrand; Sheffield, Scott

    2009-04-17

    We present a (mathematically rigorous) probabilistic and geometrical proof of the Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov relation between scaling exponents in a Euclidean planar domain D and in Liouville quantum gravity. It uses the properly regularized quantum area measure dmicro_{gamma}=epsilon;{gamma;{2}/2}e;{gammah_{epsilon}(z)}dz, where dz is the Lebesgue measure on D, gamma is a real parameter, 02 is shown to be related to the quantum measure dmu_{gamma;{'}}, gamma;{'}<2, by the fundamental duality gammagamma;{'}=4.

  10. A Liouville Problem for the Stationary Fractional Navier-Stokes-Poisson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Xiao, J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper deals with a Liouville problem for the stationary fractional Navier-Stokes-Poisson system whose special case k=0 covers the compressible and incompressible time-independent fractional Navier-Stokes systems in R^{N≥2} . An essential difficulty raises from the fractional Laplacian, which is a non-local operator and thus makes the local analysis unsuitable. To overcome the difficulty, we utilize a recently-introduced extension-method in Wang and Xiao (Commun Contemp Math 18(6):1650019, 2016) which develops Caffarelli-Silvestre's technique in Caffarelli and Silvestre (Commun Partial Diff Equ 32:1245-1260, 2007).

  11. Distance measurement and wave dispersion in a Liouville-string approach to quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1997-01-01

    Within a Liouville approach to non-critical string theory, we discuss space-time foam effects on the propagation of low-energy particles. We find an induced frequency-dependent dispersion in the propagation of a wave packet, and observe that this would affect the outcome of measurements involving low-energy particles as probes. In particular, the maximum possible order of magnitude of the space-time foam effects would give rise to an error in the measurement of distance comparable to that independently obtained in some recent heuristic quantum-gravity analyses. We also briefly compare these error estimates with the precision of astrophysical measurements.

  12. Path integral Liouville dynamics: Applications to infrared spectra of OH, water, ammonia, and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Path integral Liouville dynamics (PILD) is applied to vibrational dynamics of several simple but representative realistic molecular systems (OH, water, ammonia, and methane). The dipole-derivative autocorrelation function is employed to obtain the infrared spectrum as a function of temperature and isotopic substitution. Comparison to the exact vibrational frequency shows that PILD produces a reasonably accurate peak position with a relatively small full width at half maximum. PILD offers a potentially useful trajectory-based quantum dynamics approach to compute vibrational spectra of molecular systems

  13. Existence of a coupled system of fractional differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Rabha W.; Siri, Zailan

    2015-01-01

    We manage the existence and uniqueness of a fractional coupled system containing Schrödinger equations. Such a system appears in quantum mechanics. We confirm that the fractional system under consideration admits a global solution in appropriate functional spaces. The solution is shown to be unique. The method is based on analytic technique of the fixed point theory. The fractional differential operator is considered from the virtue of the Riemann-Liouville differential operator

  14. Existence of a coupled system of fractional differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Rabha W. [Multimedia unit, Department of Computer System and Technology Faculty of Computer Science & IT, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Siri, Zailan [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    We manage the existence and uniqueness of a fractional coupled system containing Schrödinger equations. Such a system appears in quantum mechanics. We confirm that the fractional system under consideration admits a global solution in appropriate functional spaces. The solution is shown to be unique. The method is based on analytic technique of the fixed point theory. The fractional differential operator is considered from the virtue of the Riemann-Liouville differential operator.

  15. Distribution of energy levels of quantum free particle on the Liouville surface and trace formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, P.M.; Kosygin, D.V.; Sinai, Y.G.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the Weyl asymptotic formula [{E n ≤R 2 }=Area Q.R 2 /(4π)+n(R), for eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on a two-dimensional torus Q with a Liouville metric which is in a sense the most general case of an integrable metric. We prove that if the surface Q is non-degenerate then the remainder term n(R) has the form n(R)=R 1/2 θ(R), where θ(R) is an almost periodic function of the Besicovitch class B 1 , and the Fourier amplitudes and the Fourier frequencies of θ(R) can be expressed via lengths of closed geodesics on Q and other simple geometric characteristics of these geodesics. We prove then that if the surface Q is generic then the limit distribution of θ(R) has a density p(t), which is an entire function of t possessing an asymptotics on a real line, logp(t)∝-C ± t 4 as t→±∞. An explicit expression for the Fourier transform of p(t) via Fourier amplitudes of θ(R) is also given. We obtain the analogue of the Guillemin-Duistermaat trace formula for the Liouville surfaces and discuss its accuracy. (orig.)

  16. A simple finite element method for boundary value problems with a Riemann–Liouville derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti; Lazarov, Raytcho; Lu, Xiliang; Zhou, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We consider a boundary value problem involving a Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order α∈(3/2,2) on the unit interval (0,1). The standard Galerkin finite element approximation converges slowly due to the presence of singularity term xα-1 in the solution representation. In this work, we develop a simple technique, by transforming it into a second-order two-point boundary value problem with nonlocal low order terms, whose solution can reconstruct directly the solution to the original problem. The stability of the variational formulation, and the optimal regularity pickup of the solution are analyzed. A novel Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear or quadratic finite elements is developed, and L2(D) error estimates are provided. The approach is then applied to the corresponding fractional Sturm-Liouville problem, and error estimates of the eigenvalue approximations are given. Extensive numerical results fully confirm our theoretical study.

  17. A simple finite element method for boundary value problems with a Riemann–Liouville derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2016-02-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We consider a boundary value problem involving a Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order α∈(3/2,2) on the unit interval (0,1). The standard Galerkin finite element approximation converges slowly due to the presence of singularity term xα-1 in the solution representation. In this work, we develop a simple technique, by transforming it into a second-order two-point boundary value problem with nonlocal low order terms, whose solution can reconstruct directly the solution to the original problem. The stability of the variational formulation, and the optimal regularity pickup of the solution are analyzed. A novel Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear or quadratic finite elements is developed, and L2(D) error estimates are provided. The approach is then applied to the corresponding fractional Sturm-Liouville problem, and error estimates of the eigenvalue approximations are given. Extensive numerical results fully confirm our theoretical study.

  18. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Background The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. Findings The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV ...

  19. Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Weiler, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary are reported, a West-African river in the tropics. Because of the typical change between rainy season in the sommer months and dry season in winter time the research work has been adapted to these semi-annual changes. The collected data and results are given and discussed under this aspect of the seasonal fluctuations. (orig.) [de

  20. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  1. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  2. From nonlinear Schrödinger hierarchy to some (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear pseudodifferential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Du, Dianlou

    2010-08-01

    The Poisson structure on CN×RN is introduced to give the Hamiltonian system associated with a spectral problem which yields the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) hierarchy. The Hamiltonian system is proven to be Liouville integrable. Some (2+1)-dimensional equations including NLS equation, Kadomtesev-Petviashvili I (KPI) equation, coupled KPI equation, and modified Kadomtesev-Petviashvili (mKP) equation, are decomposed into Hamilton flows via the NLS hierarchy. The algebraic curve, Abel-Jacobi coordinates, and Riemann-Jacobi inversion are used to obtain the algebrogeometric solutions of these equations.

  3. From nonlinear Schroedinger hierarchy to some (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear pseudodifferential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiao; Du Dianlou

    2010-01-01

    The Poisson structure on C N xR N is introduced to give the Hamiltonian system associated with a spectral problem which yields the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) hierarchy. The Hamiltonian system is proven to be Liouville integrable. Some (2+1)-dimensional equations including NLS equation, Kadomtesev-Petviashvili I (KPI) equation, coupled KPI equation, and modified Kadomtesev-Petviashvili (mKP) equation, are decomposed into Hamilton flows via the NLS hierarchy. The algebraic curve, Abel-Jacobi coordinates, and Riemann-Jacobi inversion are used to obtain the algebrogeometric solutions of these equations.

  4. Two-dimensional nonlinear equations of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Supersymmetric generalization of two-dimensional nonlinear dynamical equations of gauge theories is presented. The nontrivial dynamics of a physical system in the supersymmetry and supergravity theories for (2+2)-dimensions is described by the integrable embeddings of Vsub(2/2) superspace into the flat enveloping superspace Rsub(N/M), supplied with the structure of a Lie superalgebra. An equation is derived which describes a supersymmetric generalization of the two-dimensional Toda lattice. It contains both super-Liouville and Sinh-Gordon equations

  5. Periodicity and positivity of a class of fractional differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rabha W; Ahmad, M Z; Mohammed, M Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Fractional differential equations have been discussed in this study. We utilize the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus to implement it within the generalization of the well known class of differential equations. The Rayleigh differential equation has been generalized of fractional second order. The existence of periodic and positive outcome is established in a new method. The solution is described in a fractional periodic Sobolev space. Positivity of outcomes is considered under certain requirements. We develop and extend some recent works. An example is constructed.

  6. RTEMS SMP and MTAPI for Efficient Multi-Core Space Applications on LEON3/LEON4 Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, Daniel; Hellstrom, Daniel; Sherrill, Joel; Bloom, Gedare; Patte, Mathieu; Zulianello, Marco

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the final result of an European Space Agency (ESA) activity aimed at improving the software support for LEON processors used in SMP configurations. One of the benefits of using a multicore system in a SMP configuration is that in many instances it is possible to better utilize the available processing resources by load balancing between cores. This however comes with the cost of having to synchronize operations between cores, leading to increased complexity. While in an AMP system one can use multiple instances of operating systems that are only uni-processor capable, a SMP system requires the operating system to be written to support multicore systems. In this activity we have improved and extended the SMP support of the RTEMS real-time operating system and ensured that it fully supports the multicore capable LEON processors. The targeted hardware in the activity has been the GR712RC, a dual-core core LEON3FT processor, and the functional prototype of ESA's Next Generation Multiprocessor (NGMP), a quad core LEON4 processor. The final version of the NGMP is now available as a product under the name GR740. An implementation of the Multicore Task Management API (MTAPI) has been developed as part of this activity to aid in the parallelization of applications for RTEMS SMP. It allows for simplified development of parallel applications using the task-based programming model. An existing space application, the Gaia Video Processing Unit, has been ported to RTEMS SMP using the MTAPI implementation to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of multicore processors for space payload software. The activity is funded by ESA under contract 4000108560/13/NL/JK. Gedare Bloom is supported in part by NSF CNS-0934725.

  7. Symposium on mine safety in Castille and Leon. Jornadas de debate sobre seguridad minera en Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Although the Integral Plan for Mine Safety (PISM), sponsored and organised by the Advisory Council for Industry, Energy and Work of Castille and Leon does not provide a permanent solution, its second stage will still be implemented. The Integral refers to the various aspects in the complete cycle of mine safety including inspection of installations and work done, safety training, analysis of accidents, study of occupational diseases, setting up of bodies responsible for safety within a firm, rescue teams, etc.

  8. The Schrödinger Equation, the Zero-Point Electromagnetic Radiation, and the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, H. M.; Kamimura, A.; Barreto, G. A.

    2016-04-01

    A Schrödinger type equation for a mathematical probability amplitude Ψ( x, t) is derived from the generalized phase space Liouville equation valid for the motion of a microscopic particle, with mass M and charge e, moving in a potential V( x). The particle phase space probability density is denoted Q( x, p, t), and the entire system is immersed in the "vacuum" zero-point electromagnetic radiation. We show, in the first part of the paper, that the generalized Liouville equation is reduced to a simpler Liouville equation in the equilibrium limit where the small radiative corrections cancel each other approximately. This leads us to a simpler Liouville equation that will facilitate the calculations in the second part of the paper. Within this second part, we address ourselves to the following task: Since the Schrödinger equation depends on hbar , and the zero-point electromagnetic spectral distribution, given by ρ 0{(ω )} = hbar ω 3/2 π 2 c3, also depends on hbar , it is interesting to verify the possible dynamical connection between ρ 0( ω) and the Schrödinger equation. We shall prove that the Planck's constant, present in the momentum operator of the Schrödinger equation, is deeply related with the ubiquitous zero-point electromagnetic radiation with spectral distribution ρ 0( ω). For simplicity, we do not use the hypothesis of the existence of the L. de Broglie matter-waves. The implications of our study for the standard interpretation of the photoelectric effect are discussed by considering the main characteristics of the phenomenon. We also mention, briefly, the effects of the zero-point radiation in the tunneling phenomenon and the Compton's effect.

  9. THE NEW SOLUTION OF TIME FRACTIONAL WAVE EQUATION WITH CONFORMABLE FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE DEFINITION

    OpenAIRE

    Çenesiz, Yücel; Kurt, Ali

    2015-01-01

    – In this paper, we used new fractional derivative definition, the conformable fractional derivative, for solving two and three dimensional time fractional wave equation. This definition is simple and very effective in the solution procedures of the fractional differential equations that have complicated solutions with classical fractional derivative definitions like Caputo, Riemann-Liouville and etc. The results show that conformable fractional derivative definition is usable and convenient ...

  10. q-fractional calculus and equations

    CERN Document Server

    Annaby, Mahmoud H

    2012-01-01

    This nine-chapter monograph introduces a rigorous investigation of q-difference operators in standard and fractional settings. It starts with elementary calculus of q-differences and integration of Jackson’s type before turning to q-difference equations. The existence and uniqueness theorems are derived using successive approximations, leading to systems of equations with retarded arguments. Regular  q-Sturm–Liouville theory is also introduced; Green’s function is constructed and the eigenfunction expansion theorem is given. The monograph also discusses some integral equations of Volterra and Abel type, as introductory material for the study of fractional q-calculi. Hence fractional q-calculi of the types Riemann–Liouville; Grünwald–Letnikov;  Caputo;  Erdélyi–Kober and Weyl are defined analytically. Fractional q-Leibniz rules with applications  in q-series are  also obtained with rigorous proofs of the formal  results of  Al-Salam-Verma, which remained unproved for decades. In working ...

  11. Bulk-boundary correlators in the hermitian matrix model and minimal Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Ishiki, Goro; Rim, Chaiho

    2012-01-01

    We construct the one matrix model (MM) correlators corresponding to the general bulk-boundary correlation numbers of the minimal Liouville gravity (LG) on the disc. To find agreement between both discrete and continuous approach, we investigate the resonance transformation mixing boundary and bulk couplings. It leads to consider two sectors, depending on whether the matter part of the LG correlator is vanishing due to the fusion rules. In the vanishing case, we determine the explicit transformation of the boundary couplings at the first order in bulk couplings. In the non-vanishing case, no bulk-boundary resonance is involved and only the first order of pure boundary resonances have to be considered. Those are encoded in the matrix polynomials determined in our previous paper. We checked the agreement for the bulk-boundary correlators of MM and LG in several non-trivial cases. In this process, we developed an alternative method to derive the boundary resonance encoding polynomials.

  12. A Numerical method for solving a class of fractional Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed I. Syam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to both theoretical and numerical studies of eigenvalues of regular fractional $2\\alpha $-order Sturm-Liouville problem where $\\frac{1}{2}< \\alpha \\leq 1$. In this paper, we implement the reproducing kernel method RKM to approximate the eigenvalues. To find the eigenvalues, we force the approximate solution produced by the RKM satisfy the boundary condition at $x=1$. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the present algorithm. In addition, we prove the existence of the eigenfunctions of the proposed problem. Uniformly convergence of the approximate eigenfunctions produced by the RKM to the exact eigenfunctions is proven.

  13. Riemann-Liouville integrals of fractional order and extended KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Masaru; Nakamula, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    An attempt to formulate the extensions of the KP hierarchy by introducing fractional-order pseudo-differential operators is given. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a system analogous to the supersymmetric extensions of the KP hierarchy is obtained. Unlike the supersymmetric extensions, no Grassmannian variable appears in the hierarchy considered here. More general hierarchies constructed by the 1/Nth-order pseudo-differential operators, their integrability and the reduction procedure are also investigated. In addition to finding the new extensions of the KP hierarchy, a brief introduction to the Riemann-Liouville integral is provided to yield a candidate for the fractional-order pseudo-differential operators

  14. An anisotropic standing wave braneworld and associated Sturm-Liouville problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto

    2012-01-01

    We present a consistent derivation of the recently proposed 5D anisotropic standing wave braneworld generated by gravity coupled to a phantom-like scalar field. We explicitly solve the corresponding junction conditions, a fact that enables us to give a physical interpretation to the anisotropic energy-momentum tensor components of the brane. So matter on the brane represents an oscillating fluid which emits anisotropic waves into the bulk. We also analyze the Sturm-Liouville problem associated with the correct localization condition of the transverse to the brane metric and scalar fields. It is shown that this condition restricts the physically meaningful space of solutions for the localization of the fluctuations of the model. (paper)

  15. D-branes in N=2 Liouville theory and its mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, Dan; Pakman, Ari; Troost, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We study D-branes in the mirror pair N=2 Liouville/supersymmetric SL(2,R)/U(1) coset superconformal field theories. We build D0-, D1- and D2-branes, on the basis of the boundary state construction for the H 3 + conformal field theory. We also construct D0-branes in an orbifold that rotates the angular direction of the cigar. We show how the poles of correlators associated to localized states and bulk interactions naturally decouple in the one-point functions of localized and extended branes. We stress the role played in the analysis of D-brane spectra by primaries in SL(2,R)/U(1) which are descendents of the parent theory

  16. Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)

  17. Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, D.; Teschner, J.

    2012-03-01

    Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S 4 . (orig.)

  18. Curriculum Diversification Re-examined--A Case Study of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cream A. H.

    This paper deals with a case study of secondary curriculum diversification as a vocationalization strategy in Sierra Leone. It explores diversification issues from four crucial standpoints that are distinct but highly interrelated. First, diversification is dealt with as a policy that was adopted and actively pursued by Sierra Leone for over a…

  19. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  20. Modeling the 2014 Ebola Virus Epidemic - Agent-Based Simulations, Temporal Analysis and Future Predictions for Liberia and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siettos, Constantinos; Anastassopoulou, Cleo; Russo, Lucia; Grigoras, Christos; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-03-09

    We developed an agent-based model to investigate the epidemic dynamics of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia and Sierra Leone from May 27 to December 21, 2014. The dynamics of the agent-based simulator evolve on small-world transmission networks of sizes equal to the population of each country, with adjustable densities to account for the effects of public health intervention policies and individual behavioral responses to the evolving epidemic. Based on time series of the official case counts from the World Health Organization (WHO), we provide estimates for key epidemiological variables by employing the so-called Equation-Free approach. The underlying transmission networks were characterized by rather random structures in the two countries with densities decreasing by ~19% from the early (May 27-early August) to the last period (mid October-December 21). Our estimates for the values of key epidemiological variables, such as the mean time to death, recovery and the case fatality rate, are very close to the ones reported by the WHO Ebola response team during the early period of the epidemic (until September 14) that were calculated based on clinical data. Specifically, regarding the effective reproductive number Re, our analysis suggests that until mid October, Re was above 2.3 in both countries; from mid October to December 21, Re dropped well below unity in Liberia, indicating a saturation of the epidemic, while in Sierra Leone it was around 1.9, indicating an ongoing epidemic. Accordingly, a ten-week projection from December 21 estimated that the epidemic will fade out in Liberia in early March; in contrast, our results flashed a note of caution for Sierra Leone since the cumulative number of cases could reach as high as 18,000, and the number of deaths might exceed 5,000, by early March 2015. However, by processing the reported data of the very last period (December 21, 2014-January 18, 2015), we obtained more optimistic estimates indicative of a remission of

  1. Implementation of Safeguards and Non-Proliferation in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Leone under the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements (CSAs) has enacted the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (NSRP) Act 2012 and has given numerous powers to the Authority to implement the above mentioned act fully. The NSRP Act 2012 established the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Authority which among other things to regulate, control and supervise the acquisition, importation, exportation, use, transportation and disposal of radioactive sources and devices emitting Ionizing Radiation. The Authority is bounded by law to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the application of Safeguards Agreement and any protocol thereto between Sierra Leone and the International Atomic Energy Agency including conducting inspections and providing any assistance or information required by designated IAEA inspectors in the fulfillment of their responsibilities pursuant to Section 5, Subsection 2, Article xvi of the NSRP Act 2012. The Authority is also granted powers to adopt all necessary measures including a system of licensing to control the export, re-export, transit and transhipment of any nuclear material, equipment or technology in order to protect the safety and security of Sierra Leone. The Regulatory Authority has established departments for the control of nuclear materials: One of which is The Regulatory Control Department; responsible for Inspections, Authorization and Enforcement actions for all radiation sources and nuclear materials. The Authority has been conducting inspections regularly on various facilities ranging from medical radiation generating equipment to industrial radiography sources. The methodology to be used is the issuance of the standard IAEA checklist which is consistent with the Regulatory Authority’s documents for inspection of sources and is in line with the General Safety Requirements(GSR)Part III. The expected outcomes would be increasing training of regulatory authority’s staff, the procurement of

  2. REMEDIATION OF LEON WATER FLOOD, BUTLER COUNTY, KANSAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Korphage; Kelly Kindscher; Bruce G. Langhus

    2001-11-26

    The Leon Water Flood site has undergone one season of soil amendments and growth of specialized plants meant to colonize and accelerate the remediation of the salt-impacted site. The researchers characterized the impacted soil as to chemistry, added soil amendments, and planted several species of seedlings, and seeded the scarred areas. After the first growing season, the surface soil was again characterized and groundcover was also characterized. While plant growth was quite meager across the area, soil chemistry did improve over most of the two scars.

  3. Novel Retinal Lesion in Ebola Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Paul J; Scott, Janet T; Baxter, Julia M; Parkes, Craig K; Dwivedi, Rahul; Czanner, Gabriela; Vandy, Matthew J; Momorie, Fayiah; Fornah, Alimamy D; Komba, Patrick; Richards, Jade; Sahr, Foday; Beare, Nicholas A V; Semple, Malcolm G

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a case-control study in Freetown, Sierra Leone, to investigate ocular signs in Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors. A total of 82 EVD survivors with ocular symptoms and 105 controls from asymptomatic civilian and military personnel and symptomatic eye clinic attendees underwent ophthalmic examination, including widefield retinal imaging. Snellen visual acuity was Ebola virus, permitting cataract surgery. A novel retinal lesion following the anatomic distribution of the optic nerve axons occurred in 14.6% (97.5% CI 7.1%-25.6%) of EVD survivors and no controls, suggesting neuronal transmission as a route of ocular entry.

  4. Nuevo Leon during the Independence of Texas, 1835-1836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel González Quiroga

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new-born Mexican Republic suffered one of its strongest shocks in 1836, during the Texas War. The impact of this conflict in the neighbouring state of Nuevo Leon is the main subject of this work, which also describes the situation of Mexico and its army, as well as the state's reaction towards the centralist shift — Texas' main argument  for splitting from Mexico. The study of the separation of Texas, widely reviewed in Mexican historiography, is enriched through the viewpoint of one of the most affected states.

  5. Bäcklund transformation of fractional Riccati equation and its applications to nonlinear fractional partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, the fractional derivatives in the sense of modified Riemann–Liouville derivative and the Bäcklund transformation of fractional Riccati equation are employed for constructing the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. The power of this manageable method is presented by applying it to several examples. This approach can also be applied to other nonlinear fractional differential equations. -- Highlights: ► Backlund transformation of fractional Riccati equation is presented. ► A new method for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations is proposed. ► Three important fractional differential equations are solved successfully. ► Some new exact solutions of the fractional differential equations are obtained.

  6. Ordinary differential equations a graduate text

    CERN Document Server

    Bhamra, K S

    2015-01-01

    ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS: A Graduate Text presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to ODEs for graduate and postgraduate students. The systematic organized text on differential inequalities, Gronwall's inequality, Nagumo's theorems, Osgood's criteria and applications of different equations of first order is dealt with in a greater depth. The book discusses qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Strum - Liouville problems, Green's function, integral equations, Laplace transform and is supported by a number of worked-out examples in each lesson to make the concepts clear. A lot of stress on stability theory is laid down, especially on Lyapunov and Poincare stability theory. A numerous figures in various lessons (in particular lessons dealing with stability theory) have been added to clarify the key concepts in DE theory. Nonlinear oscillation in conservative systems and Hamiltonian systems highlights basic nature of the systems considered. Perturbation techniques lesson deals in fairly d...

  7. Fractional Number Operator and Associated Fractional Diffusion Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rguigui, Hafedh

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the fractional number operator as an analog of the finite-dimensional fractional Laplacian. An important relation with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is given. Using a semigroup approach, the solution of the Cauchy problem associated to the fractional number operator is presented. By means of the Mittag-Leffler function and the Laplace transform, we give the solution of the Caputo time fractional diffusion equation and Riemann-Liouville time fractional diffusion equation in infinite dimensions associated to the fractional number operator.

  8. WASH activities at two Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Mallow

    Full Text Available The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention control (IPC protocols.We conducted a retrospective cohort study by analyzing WASH/IPC activity data routinely recorded on paper forms or white boards at ETUs during the outbreak and later merged into a database from two IMC-run ETUs in Sierra Leone between December 2014 and December 2015.The IMC WASH/IPC database contains data from over 369 days. Our results highlight parameters key to designing and maintaining an ETU. High concentration chlorine solution usage was highly correlated with both daily patient occupancy and high-risk zone staff entries; low concentration chlorine usage was less well explained by these measures. There is high demand for laundering and disinfecting of personal protective equipment (PPE on a daily basis and approximately 1 (0-4 piece of PPE is damaged each day.Lack of standardization in the type and format of data collected at ETUs made constructing the WASH/IPC database difficult. However, the data presented here may help inform humanitarian response operations in future epidemics.

  9. Laryngologist Leon Zamenhof--brother of Dr. Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, Andrzej; Sulkowska, Mariola; Musiatowicz, Marcin; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2009-06-01

    To reconstruct the biography of the Polish otorhinolaryngologist Leon Zamenhof (1875-1934), a brother of Ludwik Zamenhof, who is famous for invention of the international language Esperanto. Biographical information was collected from pre-World War II resources. Zamenhof developed several important new forms of treatment to help the hearing impaired. Zamenhof was especially interested in the education of deaf children and the therapy necessary to facilitate their integration into society. His significant achievements were a phonetic method of therapy for the hearing impaired and an automatic device for ear insufflation that was considered indispensable in the management of pyorrhea. In addition, Zamenhof initiated various forms of social support among physicians within the medical community of Warsaw, Poland; made health care available to children with hearing impairments; and organized a Jewish school for deaf children. Zamenhof tried to change public attitudes toward deafness, working to promote the integration of the deaf into wider society. He also translated Polish literature into Esperanto. With similar aims to his brother Ludwik, Leon Zamenhof strived to enhance and broaden communication among people who could not hear and to persuade people to change their attitudes about deafness.

  10. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Regional plan throughout sectional bioenergy of Castilla y Leon (PBCYL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Ayuste, R.; Diez, S.; Munoz, M. (Ente Regional de la Energia de Castilla y Leon, Leon (Spain))

    2009-07-01

    The Bioenergy Action Plan of Castilla y Leon (BAPCyL) is a tool of the Regional Government to set up measures for supporting the bioenergy sector. The plan has been elaborated by experts in energy, agriculture, woodlands, residues and economy from the Junta de castilla y Leon (the region government). The BAPCyL designers for 2020, according to European Union: Mobilize local biomass (1.600 ktep). Reach an electrical power of 260 MWe. provide heating for 250.000 people. Substitution of 10% of fossil fuels used in transport. It proposes a strategy with 50 measures and 100 specific actions, from the raw material to the final consumer: Resources: Plan of Mobilization Wood to increase the offer of the resource. Regional Energy crops Program. Complete the use of biogas from dumps. Improve the management of farmer, agricultures and agroofood residues. Inventory all organic residues available. Boost the associations of biomass producers. Users: Planning big projects. Biomass boilers for public buildings. RTDI in equipment, technology and process. Cross measures: Advising for SMEes and professional training. Biomass handbooks. Promotional campaigns. Standardization of biofuels. Regional Observatory for the bioenergy. (orig.)

  12. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume X.- Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora and Salamanca; Base de datos de propiedades edafologicas de los suelos espanoles. volumen X. Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora y Salamanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  13. On the almost everywhere convergence of the eigenfunction expansions from Liouville classes L_1^\\alpha ({T^N})

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Anvarjon; Materneh, Ehab; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    2017-09-01

    The relevance of waves in quantum mechanics naturally implies that the decomposition of arbitrary wave packets in terms of monochromatic waves plays an important role in applications of the theory. When eigenfunction expansions does not converge, then the expansions of the functions with certain smoothness should be considered. Such functions gained prominence primarily through their application in quantum mechanics. In this work we study the almost everywhere convergence of the eigenfunction expansions from Liouville classes L_p^α ({T^N}), related to the self-adjoint extension of the Laplace operator in torus TN . The sufficient conditions for summability is obtained using the modified Poisson formula. Isomorphism properties of the elliptic differential operators is applied in order to obtain estimation for the Fourier series of the functions from the classes of Liouville L_p^α .

  14. Fractional dynamic calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Svetlin G

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogically organized, this monograph introduces fractional calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales in relation to mathematical physics applications and problems. Beginning with the definitions of forward and backward jump operators, the book builds from Stefan Hilger’s basic theories on time scales and examines recent developments within the field of fractional calculus and fractional equations. Useful tools are provided for solving differential and integral equations as well as various problems involving special functions of mathematical physics and their extensions and generalizations in one and more variables. Much discussion is devoted to Riemann-Liouville fractional dynamic equations and Caputo fractional dynamic equations.  Intended for use in the field and designed for students without an extensive mathematical background, this book is suitable for graduate courses and researchers looking for an introduction to fractional dynamic calculus and equations on time scales. .

  15. CIME course on Control of Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Alabau-Boussouira, Fatiha; Glass, Olivier; Le Rousseau, Jérôme; Zuazua, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The term “control theory” refers to the body of results - theoretical, numerical and algorithmic - which have been developed to influence the evolution of the state of a given system in order to meet a prescribed performance criterion. Systems of interest to control theory may be of very different natures. This monograph is concerned with models that can be described by partial differential equations of evolution. It contains five major contributions and is connected to the CIME Course on Control of Partial Differential Equations that took place in Cetraro (CS, Italy), July 19 - 23, 2010.  Specifically, it covers the stabilization of evolution equations, control of the Liouville equation, control in fluid mechanics, control and numerics for the wave equation, and Carleman estimates for elliptic and parabolic equations with application to control. We are confident this work will provide an authoritative reference work for all scientists who are interested in this field, representing at the same time a fri...

  16. Expansions with respect to squares, symplectic and Poisson structures associated with the Sturm-Liouville problem. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkad'ev, V.A.; Pogrebkov, A.K.; Polivanov, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of tangent vector is made more precise to meet the specific nature of the Sturm-Liouville problem, and on this basis a Poisson bracket that is modified compared with the Gardner form by special boundary terms is derived from the Zakharov-Faddeev symplectic form. This bracket is nondegenerate, and in it the variables of the discrete and continuous spectra are separated

  17. Lie symmetry analysis and conservation laws for the time fractional fourth-order evolution equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study Lie symmetry analysis and conservation laws for the time fractional nonlinear fourth-order evolution equation. Using the method of Lie point symmetry, we provide the associated vector fields, and derive the similarity reductions of the equation, respectively. The method can be applied wisely and efficiently to get the reduced fractional ordinary differential equations based on the similarity reductions. Finally, by using the nonlinear self-adjointness method and Riemann-Liouville time-fractional derivative operator as well as Euler-Lagrange operator, the conservation laws of the equation are obtained.

  18. Exact Solutions for Fractional Differential-Difference Equations by an Extended Riccati Sub-ODE Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an extended Riccati sub-ODE method is proposed to establish new exact solutions for fractional differential-difference equations in the sense of modified Riemann—Liouville derivative. By a fractional complex transformation, a given fractional differential-difference equation can be turned into another differential-difference equation of integer order. The validity of the method is illustrated by applying it to solve the fractional Hybrid lattice equation and the fractional relativistic Toda lattice system. As a result, some new exact solutions including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions are established. (general)

  19. Measuring work engagement among community health workers in Sierra Leone: Validating the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Vallières

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the concept of volunteer work engagement in a sample of 334 community health workers in Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Structural equation modelling was used to validate both the 9-item and the 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and UWES-17, respectively. Results assessing the UWES-17 invalidated the three-factor structure within this cohort of community health workers, as high correlations were found between latent factors. Findings for the validity of the UWES-9 were largely consistent with those of the UWES-17. Model fit for the UWES-9 were generally equivalent for the one-factor, three-factor, and bifactor solutions, however the three-factor model was once again rejected due to high factor correlations. Based on these results, the current sample provides evidence that work engagement is best represented as a unidimensional construct in this context. Findings are considered alongside previous research to offer support for the utilization of the shortened UWES-9 in this context, as it appears to provide a good representation of work engagement and possess a parsimonious unidimensional scoring scheme.

  20. Calculating the Price for Derivative Financial Assets of Bessel Processes Using the Sturm-Liouville Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtnyak Ivan V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we apply the spectral theory to find the price for derivatives of financial assets assuming that the processes described are Markov processes and such that can be considered in the Hilbert space L^2 using the Sturm-Liouville theory. Bessel diffusion processes are used in studying Asian options. We consider the financial flows generated by the Bessel diffusions by expressing them in terms of the system of Bessel functions of the first kind, provided that they take into account the linear combination of the flow and its spatial derivative. Such expression enables calculating the size of the market portfolio and provides a measure of the amount of internal volatility in the market at any given moment, allows investigating the dynamics of the equity market. The expansion of the Green function in terms of the system of Bessel functions is expressed by an analytic formula that is convenient in calculating the volume of financial flows. All assumptions are natural, result in analytic formulas that are consistent with the empirical data and, when applied in practice, adequately reflect the processes in equity markets.

  1. Physics-based models for measurement correlations: application to an inverse Sturm–Liouville problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Ren Kui

    2009-01-01

    In many inverse problems, the measurement operator, which maps objects of interest to available measurements, is a smoothing (regularizing) operator. Its inverse is therefore unbounded and as a consequence, only the low-frequency component of the object of interest is accessible from inevitably noisy measurements. In many inverse problems however, the neglected high-frequency component may significantly affect the measured data. Using simple scaling arguments, we characterize the influence of the high-frequency component. We then consider situations where the correlation function of such an influence may be estimated by asymptotic expansions, for instance as a random corrector in homogenization theory. This allows us to consistently eliminate the high-frequency component and derive a closed form, more accurate, inverse problem for the low-frequency component of the object of interest. We present the asymptotic expression of the correlation matrix of the eigenvalues in a Sturm–Liouville problem with unknown potential. We propose an iterative algorithm for the reconstruction of the potential from knowledge of the eigenvalues and show that using the approximate correlation matrix significantly improves the reconstructions

  2. Development of a Pediatric Ebola Predictive Score, Sierra Leone1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Kevin; Naveed, Asad; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohamed Boie; Baion, David E.; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia; Williamson, Elizabeth; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2018-01-01

    We compared children who were positive for Ebola virus disease (EVD) with those who were negative to derive a pediatric EVD predictor (PEP) score. We collected data on all children <13 years of age admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in Sierra Leone during August 2014–March 2015 and performed multivariable logistic regression. Among 1,054 children, 309 (29%) were EVD positive and 697 (66%) EVD negative, with 48 (5%) missing. Contact history, conjunctivitis, and age were the strongest positive predictors for EVD. The PEP score had an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.80. A PEP score of 7/10 was 92% specific and 44% sensitive; 3/10 was 30% specific, 94% sensitive. The PEP score could correctly classify 79%–90% of children and could be used to facilitate triage into risk categories, depending on the sensitivity or specificity required. PMID:29350145

  3. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  4. Ravenscar Computational Model compliant AADL Simulation on LEON2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Varona-Gómez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AADL has been proposed for designing and analyzing SW and HW architectures for real-time mission-critical embedded systems. Although the Behavioral Annex improves its simulation semantics, AADL is a language for analyzing architectures and not for simulating them. AADS-T is an AADL simulation tool that supports the performance analysis of the AADL specification throughout the refinement process from the initial system architecture until the complete, detailed application and execution platform are developed. In this way, AADS-T enables the verification of the initial timing constraints during the complete design process. In this paper we focus on the compatibility of AADS-T with the Ravenscar Computational Model (RCM as part of the TASTE toolset. Its flexibility enables AADS-T to support different processors. In this work we have focused on performing the simulation on a LEON2 processor.

  5. Knowledge of breast cancer in women in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHEE Shepherd

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has been described as one of the life-threatening diseases affecting women and is a major problem in women’s health issues. The unrecorded number of cases of breast lumps and breast cancer observed in women in Sierra Leone prompted the researcher to organize a “Breast Week” during which 1 200 women were educated on breast cancer and the importance of breast health. This research is a follow up of the “Breast Week” which was organized in Freetown, Sierra Leone The specific objective of this study was to assess whether the knowledge and teachings given to the women who participated in this project was fully understood. A sample size of 120 women (10% who participated in the “Breast Week” was obtained through systematic sampling. A quantitative approach was adopted and a structured interview schedule guided the data collection process. The data were processed through use of SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Texts from open ended questions were categorized and frequency counts were applied to the data. It was found that the majority (96.6% of the women had some knowledge of breast cancer. They linked breast cancer to the signs and symptoms associated with it and were able to describe the disease as one that kills women if not promptly detected and/or treated appropriately. Findings indicate that the majority of the women are aware of the dangers of the disease and had knowledge of someone who had died of breast cancer (59.2%. An assessment of the effectiveness of knowledge on breast cancer showed that these women could identify breast cancer as a disease that affects women and may cause death if not detected on time.

  6. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered

  7. On the solution of fractional evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbas, Anatoly A; Pierantozzi, Teresa; Trujillo, Juan J; Vazquez, Luis

    2004-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the solution of the bi-fractional differential equation ( C D α t u)(t, x) = λ( L D β x u)(t, x) (t>0, -∞ 0 and λ ≠ 0, with the initial conditions lim x→±∞ u(t,x) = 0 u(0+,x)=g(x). Here ( C D α t u)(t, x) is the partial derivative coinciding with the Caputo fractional derivative for 0 L D β x u)(t, x)) is the Liouville partial fractional derivative ( L D β t u)(t, x)) of order β > 0. The Laplace and Fourier transforms are applied to solve the above problem in closed form. The fundamental solution of these problems is established and its moments are calculated. The special case α = 1/2 and β = 1 is presented, and its application is given to obtain the Dirac-type decomposition for the ordinary diffusion equation

  8. Hadamard-type fractional differential equations, inclusions and inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ntouyas, Sotiris K; Tariboon, Jessada

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent development of fractional differential equations, integro-differential equations, and inclusions and inequalities involving the Hadamard derivative and integral. Through a comprehensive study based in part on their recent research, the authors address the issues related to initial and boundary value problems involving Hadamard type differential equations and inclusions as well as their functional counterparts. The book covers fundamental concepts of multivalued analysis and introduces a new class of mixed initial value problems involving the Hadamard derivative and Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals. In later chapters, the authors discuss nonlinear Langevin equations as well as coupled systems of Langevin equations with fractional integral conditions. Focused and thorough, this book is a useful resource for readers and researchers interested in the area of fractional calculus.

  9. Rebuilding after emergency: Revamping agricultural research in Sierra Leone after civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo; Workneh, Sindu; Rhodes, Edward; Sutherland, John

    2009-01-01

    "The civil war in Sierra Leone, caused by a mix of political, social, and economic factors, had a huge impact on the overall economy in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector in particular. The agricultural research system of Sierra Leone was severely affected by the civil war. Research infrastructure was destroyed, laboratories were damaged and abandoned, and well-trained researchers and scientists fled from the country. With the cessation of hostilities in 2002, the gover...

  10. Periodic Solutions and S-Asymptotically Periodic Solutions to Fractional Evolution Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Mu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions, S-asymptotically periodic solutions, and other types of bounded solutions for some fractional evolution equations with the Weyl-Liouville fractional derivative defined for periodic functions. Applying Fourier transform we give reasonable definitions of mild solutions. Then we accurately estimate the spectral radius of resolvent operator and obtain some existence and uniqueness results.

  11. Homotopy decomposition method for solving one-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuasad, Salah; Hashim, Ishak

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present the homotopy decomposition method with a modified definition of beta fractional derivative for the first time to find exact solution of one-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation. In this method, the solution takes the form of a convergent series with easily computable terms. The exact solution obtained by the proposed method is compared with the exact solution obtained by using fractional variational homotopy perturbation iteration method via a modified Riemann-Liouville derivative.

  12. Exact traveling wave solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-like equations by applying Exp-function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have computed new exact traveling wave solutions, including complex solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-Like equations, occurring in physical sciences and engineering, by applying Exp-function method. The method is blended with fractional complex transformation and modified Riemann-Liouville fractional order operator. Our obtained solutions are verified by substituting back into their corresponding equations. To the best of our knowledge, no other technique has been reported to cope with the said fractional order nonlinear problems combined with variety of exact solutions. Graphically, fractional order solution curves are shown to be strongly related to each other and most importantly, tend to fixate on their integer order solution curve. Our solutions comprise high frequencies and very small amplitude of the wave responses. Keywords: Exp-function method, New exact traveling wave solutions, Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative, Fractional complex transformation, Fractional order Boussinesq-like equations, Symbolic computation

  13. Exact Solutions of the Space Time Fractional Symmetric Regularized Long Wave Equation Using Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Güner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the functional variable method, exp-function method, and (G′/G-expansion method to establish the exact solutions of the nonlinear fractional partial differential equation (NLFPDE in the sense of the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are obtained. The results show that these methods are very effective and powerful mathematical tools for solving nonlinear fractional equations arising in mathematical physics. As a result, these methods can also be applied to other nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  14. Exact solutions of fractional mBBM equation and coupled system of fractional Boussinesq-Burgers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javeed, Shumaila; Saif, Summaya; Waheed, Asif; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2018-06-01

    The new exact solutions of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) are established by adopting first integral method (FIM). The Riemann-Liouville (R-L) derivative and the local conformable derivative definitions are used to deal with the fractional order derivatives. The proposed method is applied to get exact solutions for space-time fractional modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (mBBM) equation and coupled time-fractional Boussinesq-Burgers equation. The suggested technique is easily applicable and effectual which can be implemented successfully to obtain the solutions for different types of nonlinear FPDEs.

  15. Reduced equations of motion for quantum systems driven by diffusive Markov processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarovar, Mohan; Grace, Matthew D

    2012-09-28

    The expansion of a stochastic Liouville equation for the coupled evolution of a quantum system and an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process into a hierarchy of coupled differential equations is a useful technique that simplifies the simulation of stochastically driven quantum systems. We expand the applicability of this technique by completely characterizing the class of diffusive Markov processes for which a useful hierarchy of equations can be derived. The expansion of this technique enables the examination of quantum systems driven by non-Gaussian stochastic processes with bounded range. We present an application of this extended technique by simulating Stark-tuned Förster resonance transfer in Rydberg atoms with nonperturbative position fluctuations.

  16. The improved fractional sub-equation method and its applications to the space–time fractional differential equations in fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shimin; Mei, Liquan; Li, Ying; Sun, Youfa

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a new general ansätz, the improved fractional sub-equation method is proposed to construct analytical solutions of nonlinear evolution equations involving Jumarie's modified Riemann–Liouville derivative. By means of this method, the space–time fractional Whitham–Broer–Kaup and generalized Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV equations are successfully solved. The obtained results show that the proposed method is quite effective, promising and convenient for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations. -- Highlights: ► We propose a novel method for nonlinear fractional differential equations. ► Two important fractional differential equations in fluid mechanics are solved successfully. ► Some new exact solutions of the fractional differential equations are obtained. ► These solutions will advance the understanding of nonlinear physical phenomena.

  17. A biomass energy flow chart for Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoo-Gottfried, K.; Hall, D.O.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial above-ground biomass production and utilisation in Sierra Leone was analysed for the years 1984/5 to 1990/1. The total production of biomass energy was estimated at an annual average of 131 PJ (39% from agriculture, 51% from forestry and 10% from livestock). Of the 117 PJ produced from agricultural and forestry operations, 37 PJ was harvested as firewood and burnt (10.9 GJ or 0.72 t wood per capita per year, supplying 80% of the country's energy), 12 PJ was harvested for food, 66 PJ was unutilised crop and forestry residues, 3 PJ was harvested crop residues for use directly as fuel, and 2 PJ was harvested and used for industrial purposes and not for fuel. Livestock produced wastes with an energy content of 13 PJ of which only 0.1 PJ was collected and used for fuel. Thus 54 PJ (41%) of the 131 PJ of biomass energy produced annually was actually utilised while 49 PJ remained as unused agricultural residues and dung, and a further 27 PJ was unused forestry residues. The total amount of biomass (fuelwood, residues and dung) used directly to provide energy, mostly in households, was estimated at 40 PJ (11.8 GJ per capita per year of 0.79 t fuelwood equivalent). Direct biomass energy utilisation in agroindustry (0.4 PJ) was negligible in comparison. Two assessments of Sierra Leone's biomass standing stock and MAI (mean annual increment) were examined in order to assess the sustainability of various biomass use scenarios. Large differences were found between the MAI of the two assessments, making it difficult to predict sustainability of biomass production and use. The estimation of total standing stock varied between 227 and 366 Mt and the estimation of MAI varied between 15 and 70 Mt. Analysis of the availability and use of the biomass resource is crucial if biomass energy is to be used on a sustainable basis. A software package has been developed and is available to draft biomass flow charts but further work is needed to incorporate social and economic

  18. On the solutions of fractional reaction-diffusion equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdev Singh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain the solution of a fractional reaction-diffusion equation associated with the generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative as the time derivative and Riesz-Feller fractional derivative as the space-derivative. The results are derived by the application of the Laplace and Fourier transforms in compact and elegant form in terms of Mittag-Leffler function and H-function. The results obtained here are of general nature and include the results investigated earlier by many authors.

  19. A new hierarchy of generalized derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equations, its bi-Hamiltonian structure and finite-dimensional involutive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.; Zhang, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an isospectral problem and one associated with a new hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are presented. As a reduction, a representative system of new generalized derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equations in the hierarchy is given. It is shown that the hierarchy possesses bi-Hamiltonian structures by using the trace identity method and is Liouville integrable. The spectral problem is non linearized as a finite-dimensional completely integrable Hamiltonian system under a constraint between the potentials and spectral functions. Finally, the involutive solutions of the hierarchy of equations are obtained. In particular, the involutive solutions of the system of new generalized derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equations are developed

  20. Lie symmetry analysis, exact solutions and conservation laws for the time fractional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the Lie symmetry analysis, exact solutions and conservation laws (Cls) to the time fractional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera (CDGDK) equation with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The time fractional CDGDK is reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of fractional order. New exact traveling wave solutions for the time fractional CDGDK are obtained by fractional sub-equation method. In the reduced equation, the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober (EK) sense. Ibragimov's nonlocal conservation method is applied to construct Cls for time fractional CDGDK.

  1. Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbachev, D V; Ivanov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type, are established. They generalize quadrature formulae involving zeros of Bessel functions, which were first designed by Frappier and Olivier. Bessel quadratures correspond to the Fourier-Hankel integral transform. Some other examples, connected with the Jacobi integral transform, Fourier series in Jacobi orthogonal polynomials and the general Sturm-Liouville problem with regular weight are also given. Bibliography: 39 titles

  2. [Metabolic syndrome prevalence in teenagers of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Villareal, Velia Margarita; López Alvarenga, Juan C; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (SM) and its components in teenagers from the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico (AMM). A transversal research involving 254 teenage students from 10 to 19 years old. To research investigated their personal characteristics, anthropometrics measures, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol HDL. The SM definition was adapted from the one suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII). The SM prevalence was 9.4 % (IC95%: 5.8 to 13.0), there was not a difference between the sexes. The prevalence among each SM component was: 24.4% for high triglycerides, 20.1% for abdominal obesity, 19.0% for cholesterol of lipoproteins of a high density (HDL-c) low, 11.4 % for high glucose and for high blood pressure (9.1% diastolic and 5.9% systolic). The prevalent SM phenotypes were corporal mass (IMC) (OR = 4.93, IC95%: 2.26, 10.73) and the IMC interaction of the teenager with a family history of obesity (OR = 1.37, IC95%: 1.0, 1.87). It was observed that those with a family history of diabetes type 2 only experienced a marginal effect. The SM prevalence in teenagers from AMM is high it was an alarming situation if it continues into adulthood. The existence of obesity in relatives of the first and second grade, altogether with teenager IMC are important prediction factors of SM.

  3. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  4. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  5. The multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette–Johnson (GJ) equation hierarchy and its super-integrable coupling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun; Zhang Hongqing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a set of multicomponent matrix Lie algebra, which is used to construct a new loop algebra à M . By using the Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multicomponent equation hierarchy is generated, which possesses the Hamiltonian structure. As its reduction cases, the multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette–Johnson (GJ) hierarchy is given. Finally, the super-integrable coupling system of multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional GJ hierarchy is established through enlarging the spectral problem

  6. Evaluation of the Leon3 soft-core processor within a Xilinx radiation-hardened field-programmable gate array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the work done to evaluate the performance of the Leon3 soft-core processor in a radiation environment while instantiated in a radiation-hardened static random-access memory based field-programmable gate array. This evaluation will look at the differences between two soft-core processors: the open-source Leon3 core and the fault-tolerant Leon3 core. Radiation testing of these two cores was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron facility and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The results of these tests are included within the report along with designs intended to improve the mitigation of the open-source Leon3. The test setup used for evaluating both versions of the Leon3 is also included within this document.

  7. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz T Paweska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD cases.The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14% tested positive for Ebola virus RNA.The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  8. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-06-01

    In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  9. Bayesian inference in an extended SEIR model with nonparametric disease transmission rate: an application to the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasso, Gianluca; Lambert, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    SummaryThe 2014 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone is analyzed using a susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) epidemic compartmental model. The discrete time-stochastic model for the epidemic evolution is coupled to a set of ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics of the expected proportions of subjects in each epidemic state. The unknown parameters are estimated in a Bayesian framework by combining data on the number of new (laboratory confirmed) Ebola cases reported by the Ministry of Health and prior distributions for the transition rates elicited using information collected by the WHO during the follow-up of specific Ebola cases. The time-varying disease transmission rate is modeled in a flexible way using penalized B-splines. Our framework represents a valuable stochastic tool for the study of an epidemic dynamic even when only irregularly observed and possibly aggregated data are available. Simulations and the analysis of the 2014 Sierra Leone Ebola data highlight the merits of the proposed methodology. In particular, the flexible modeling of the disease transmission rate makes the estimation of the effective reproduction number robust to the misspecification of the initial epidemic states and to underreporting of the infectious cases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. On the fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics—Nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation and the formula for entropy production rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author presents an overview on his own research works. More than ten years ago, we proposed a new fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics in place of the present Liouville equation. That is the stochastic velocity type’s Langevin equation in 6N dimensional phase space or its equivalent Liouville diffusion equation. This equation is time-reversed asymmetrical. It shows that the form of motion of particles in statistical thermodynamic systems has the drift-diffusion duality, and the law of motion of statistical thermodynamics is expressed by a superposition of both the law of dynamics and the stochastic velocity and possesses both determinism and probability. Hence it is different from the law of motion of particles in dynamical systems. The stochastic diffusion motion of the particles is the microscopic origin of macroscopic irreversibility. Starting from this fundamental equation the BBGKY diffusion equation hierarchy, the Boltzmann collision diffusion equation, the hydrodynamic equations such as the mass drift-diffusion equation, the Navier-Stokes equation and the thermal conductivity equation have been derived and presented here. What is more important, we first constructed a nonlinear evolution equation of nonequilibrium entropy density in 6N, 6 and 3 dimensional phase space, predicted the existence of entropy diffusion. This entropy evolution equation plays a leading role in nonequilibrium entropy theory, it reveals that the time rate of change of nonequilibrium entropy density originates together from its drift, diffusion and production in space. From this evolution equation, we presented a formula for entropy production rate (i.e. the law of entropy increase) in 6N and 6 dimensional phase space, proved that internal attractive force in nonequilibrium system can result in entropy decrease while internal repulsive force leads to another entropy increase, and derived a common expression for this entropy decrease rate or

  11. Existence of 2m-1 Positive Solutions for Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problems with Linear Functional Boundary Conditions on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Leggett-Williams fixed theorem, we establish the existence of multiple positive solutions for second-order nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems with linear functional boundary conditions. One explicit example with singularity is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.

  12. From statistic mechanic outside equilibrium to transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.

    1995-01-01

    This lecture notes give a synthetic view on the foundations of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. The purpose is to establish the transport equations satisfied by the relevant variables, starting from the microscopic dynamics. The Liouville representation is introduced, and a projection associates with any density operator , for given choice of relevant observables, a reduced density operator. An exact integral-differential equation for the relevant variables is thereby derived. A short-memory approximation then yields the transport equations. A relevant entropy which characterizes the coarseness of the description is associated with each level of description. As an illustration, the classical gas, with its three levels of description and with the Chapman-Enskog method, is discussed. (author). 3 figs., 5 refs

  13. Positive solutions for system of 2n-th order Sturm–Liouville ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Applied Mathematics, Andhra University,. Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. 2Department of Mathematics, Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering for Women ... boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations.

  14. Hamiltonian structures and integrability for a discrete coupled KdV-type equation hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haiqiong; Zhu Zuonong; Zhang Jingli

    2011-01-01

    Coupled Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) systems have many important physical applications. By considering a 4 × 4 spectral problem, we derive a discrete coupled KdV-type equation hierarchy. Our hierarchy includes the coupled Volterra system proposed by Lou et al. (e-print arXiv: 0711.0420) as the first member which is a discrete version of the coupled KdV equation. We also investigate the integrability in the Liouville sense and the multi-Hamiltonian structures for the obtained hierarchy. (authors)

  15. Periodicity computation of generalized mathematical biology problems involving delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Mohammed, M; Ibrahim, Rabha W; Ahmad, M Z

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a low initial population model. Our aim is to study the periodicity computation of this model by using neutral differential equations, which are recognized in various studies including biology. We generalize the neutral Rayleigh equation for the third-order by exploiting the model of fractional calculus, in particular the Riemann-Liouville differential operator. We establish the existence and uniqueness of a periodic computational outcome. The technique depends on the continuation theorem of the coincidence degree theory. Besides, an example is presented to demonstrate the finding.

  16. Exact Solutions of the Time Fractional BBM-Burger Equation by Novel (G′/G-Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakeel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional derivatives are used in the sense modified Riemann-Liouville to obtain exact solutions for BBM-Burger equation of fractional order. This equation can be converted into an ordinary differential equation by using a persistent fractional complex transform and, as a result, hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions are attained. The performance of the method is reliable, useful, and gives newer general exact solutions with more free parameters than the existing methods. Numerical results coupled with the graphical representation completely reveal the trustworthiness of the method.

  17. Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2007-01-01

    where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.

  18. arXiv Bose enhancement, the Liouville effective action and the high multiplicity tail in p-A collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kovner, Alex

    In the framework of dense-dilute CGC approach we study fluctuations in the multiplicity of produced particles in p-A collisions. We show that the leading effect that drives the fluctuations is the Bose enhancement of gluons in the proton wave function. We explicitly calculate the moment generating function that resums the effects of Bose enhancement. We show that it can be understood in terms of the Liouville effective action for the composite field which is identified with the fluctuating density, or saturation momentum of the proton. The resulting probability distribution turns out to be very close to the gamma-distribution. We also calculate the first correction to this distribution which is due to pairwise Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations of produced gluons.

  19. Exact Solution of Space-Time Fractional Coupled EW and Coupled MEW Equations Using Modified Kudryashov Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raslan, K. R.; Ali, Khalid K.; EL-Danaf, Talaat S.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we established a traveling wave solution by using modified Kudryashov method for the space-time fractional nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is used to obtain the exact solutions for different types of the space-time fractional nonlinear partial differential equations such as, the space-time fractional coupled equal width wave equation (CEWE) and the space-time fractional coupled modified equal width wave equation (CMEW), which are the important soliton equations. Both equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations by the use of fractional complex transform and properties of modified Riemann–Liouville derivative. We plot the exact solutions for these equations at different time levels. (paper)

  20. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 5, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Two Artemisinin-Based Combinations in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria among Children Under ... The Use of Mobile Electronic Devices for Public Health Data Collection and Syndromic Surveillance at the Republic Of Sierra Leone Armed Forces · EMAIL FREE ...

  1. Criminologia, Antropologia e Medicina Legal. Um personagem central: Leonídio Ribeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Gutman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresentação da trajetória de Leonídio Ribeiro, em especial a sua abordagem do homossexualismo como representativa das concepções fundantes do campo da criminologia nas primeiras décadas do século XX no Brasil.

  2. Child mental health in Sierra Leone : A survey and exploratory qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoder, H.N.C.; Tol, W.A.; Reis, R.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study complements the growing amount of research on the psychosocial impact of war on children in Sierra Leone by examining local perceptions of child mental health, formal and informal care systems, help-seeking behaviour and stigma. Methods The study combined: (1) a nationwide

  3. Binational Teacher Development: Teacher Ambassador Exchange Program, New Mexico, USA and Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Mary Jean

    The report describes the rationale for and history of an exchange program for Nuevo Leon (Mexico) and New Mexico bilingual education teachers. The program evolved from the need to help Spanish-speaking students maintain their own language and culture while in the United States. New Mexico's state policy concerning language-minority children and…

  4. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  5. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  6. The Role of Religion During and After the Civil War in Sierra Leone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil wars in Africa are renowned for their strong religious elements, with religion being used for different purposes and in different capacities. Sierra Leone's civil war (1991-2002), known also as the “rebel war,” had significant religious dimensions. The warring factions used religion for their gain. Beyond that, Muslim and ...

  7. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  8. Looming Over the Nation, Uneasy with the Folks: Locating Mike de Leon in Philippine Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick F. Campos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article draws on filmic, popular, and scholarly references in order to trace how Mike de Leon and his films have been regarded, since his landmark entrance into Philippine cinema as director, up to the present. Specifically, it locates De Leon within the subtly shifting discourse of nationalist film scholarship and historicizing, and discusses how he and his films are written about, identified, associated or networked with other filmmakers and films, or utilized in discourses about the Philippines, Philippine cinema, or Philippine culture.The article locates De Leon as (1 an insider of Philippine cinema history, (2 an outsider of the commercial film industry, and (3 a hero of the mythic Golden Age of the National Cinema. It also maps out his filmography within the nationalist agenda; appraises what filmmakers, commentators, and scholars have articulated about his films; and analyzes the thematic and stylistic trajectories of his later works. Finally, it discusses how De Leon is being written into today’s discourse of Philippine cinema.

  9. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  10. Genotypic anomaly in ebola virus strains circulating in magazine wharf Area, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); P. Pertile; C. Cancedda; K. Dierberg; I. Wurie; A. Kamara; D. Kargbo; S.L. Caddy; A. Arias; L. Thorne; J. Lu; U. Jah; I. Goodfellow; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone was a focus of ongoing Ebola virus transmission from late June 2015. Viral genomes linked to this area contain a series of 13 T to C substitutions in a 150 base pair intergenic region downstream of viral protein 40 open reading frame,

  11. commercial drinking water quality and safety in bo city, sierra leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research ... These include 6 water sources and the production facilities for 10 brands of machine-filled factory-produced water sachets as well as the 10 sources and finished samples for ... Workers at all of these facilities were also interviewed about their knowledge and practices.

  12. Exact solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempielli system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y H; Zheng, C L

    2008-01-01

    The object reduction approach is applied to the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempielli system using a special conditional similarity reduction. Abundant exact solutions of this system, including the hyperboloid function solutions, the trigonometric function solutions and a rational function solution, are obtained

  13. Developmental Differences in Motor Task Integration: A Test of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, John I.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the ability of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators to predict the minimum age or maturational level at which integration of a motor task could be achieved. Subjects were 114 elementary school children ranging in age from 5 to 12. (Author/MP)

  14. The Violence of Peace and the Role of Education: Insights from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario; Higgins, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Research on peacebuilding has mushroomed over the last decade and there is a growing interest in the role of education in supporting peacebuilding processes. This paper engages with these debates, UN peacebuilding activities and the location of education initiatives therein, through a case study of Sierra Leone. In the first part, we explore the…

  15. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  16. Learning Curve Characteristics for Caesarean Section Among Associate Clinicians : A Prospective Study from Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalewijn, B.P.; van Duinen, A.; Koroma, A. P.; Rijken, M. J.; Elhassein, M.; Bolkan, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In response to the high maternal mortality ratio, Sierra Leone has adopted an associate clinician postgraduate surgical task-sharing training programme. Little is known about learning curve characteristics for caesarean sections among associate clinicians. The aim of this study is to

  17. Converts to human rights? Popular debate about war and justice in rural central Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, S.; Richards, P.

    2002-01-01

    Internationally, war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) is regarded as an instance of violent conflict driven by economic factors (attempts to control the mining of alluvial diamonds). Fieldwork (2000-01) in rural areas recovering from war suggests a very different picture. War victims and combatants from

  18. Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa.

  19. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  20. Scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone: A prospective cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Sarah; Begum, Hashina; Friedman, Howard S; James, Chris D

    2017-12-01

    Family planning is commonly regarded as a highly cost-effective health intervention with wider social and economic benefits. Yet use of family planning services in Sierra Leone is currently low and 25.0% of married women have an unmet need for contraception. This study aims to estimate the costs and benefits of scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone. Using the OneHealth Tool, two scenarios of scaling up family planning coverage to currently married women in Sierra Leone over 2013-2035 were assessed and compared to a 'no-change' counterfactual. Our costing included direct costs of drugs, supplies and personnel time, programme costs and a share of health facility overhead costs. To monetise the benefits, we projected the cost savings of the government providing five essential social services - primary education, child immunisation, malaria prevention, maternal health services and improved drinking water - in the scale-up scenarios compared to the counterfactual. The total population, estimated at 6.1 million in 2013, is projected to reach 8.3 million by 2035 in the high scenario compared to a counterfactual of 9.6 million. We estimate that by 2035, there will be 1400 fewer maternal deaths and 700 fewer infant deaths in the high scenario compared to the counterfactual. Our modelling suggests that total costs of the family planning programme in Sierra Leone will increase from US$4.2 million in 2013 to US$10.6 million a year by 2035 in the high scenario. For every dollar spent on family planning, Sierra Leone is estimated to save US$2.10 in expenditure on the five selected social sector services over the period. There is a strong investment case for scaling up family planning services in Sierra Leone. The ambitious scale-up scenarios have historical precedent in other sub-Saharan African countries, but the extent to which they will be achieved depends on a commitment from both the government and donors to strengthening Sierra Leone's health system post-Ebola.

  1. Solution of Differential Equations with Polynomial Coefficients with the Aid of an Analytic Continuation of Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Morita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a series of papers, we discussed the solution of Laplace’s differential equation (DE by using fractional calculus, operational calculus in the framework of distribution theory, and Laplace transform. The solutions of Kummer’s DE, which are expressed by the confluent hypergeometric functions, are obtained with the aid of the analytic continuation (AC of Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative (fD and the distribution theory in the space D′R or the AC of Laplace transform. We now obtain the solutions of the hypergeometric DE, which are expressed by the hypergeometric functions, with the aid of the AC of Riemann–Liouville fD, and the distribution theory in the space D′r,R, which is introduced in this paper, or by the term-by-term inverse Laplace transform of AC of Laplace transform of the solution expressed by a series.

  2. Wigner transformation in curved space-time and the curvature correction of the Vlasov equation for semiclassical gravitating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.

    1985-01-01

    A covariant generalization of the Wigner transformation of quantum equations is proposed for gravitating many-particle systems, which modifies the Einstein-Liouville equations for the coupled gravity-matter problem by inclusion of quantum effects of the matter moving in its self-consistent classical gravitational field, in order to extend their realm of validity to higher particle densities. The corrections of the Vlasov equation (Liouville equation in one-particle phase space) are exhibited as combined effects of quantum mechanics and the curvature of space-time arranged in a semiclassical expansion in powers of h 2 , the first-order term of which is explicitly calculated. It is linear in the Riemann tensor and in its gradient; the Riemann tensor occurs in a similar position as the tensor of the Yang-Mills field strength in a corresponding Vlasov equation for systems with local gauge invariance in the purely classical limit. The performance of the Wigner transformation is based on expressing the equation of motion for the two-point function of the Klein-Gordon field, in particular the Beltrami operator, in terms of a midpoint and a distance vector covariantly defined for the two points. This implies the calculation of deviations of the geodesic between these points, the standard concept of which has to be refined to include infinitesimal variations of the second order. A differential equation for the second-order deviation is established

  3. New numerical approximation for solving fractional delay differential equations of variable order using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Aguilar, C. J.; Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Martínez, V. M.; Romero-Ugalde, H. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we approximate the solution of fractional differential equations with delay using a new approach based on artificial neural networks. We consider fractional differential equations of variable order with the Mittag-Leffler kernel in the Liouville-Caputo sense. With this new neural network approach, an approximate solution of the fractional delay differential equation is obtained. Synaptic weights are optimized using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The neural network effectiveness and applicability were validated by solving different types of fractional delay differential equations, linear systems with delay, nonlinear systems with delay and a system of differential equations, for instance, the Newton-Leipnik oscillator. The solution of the neural network was compared with the analytical solutions and the numerical simulations obtained through the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton method. To show the effectiveness of the proposed neural network, different performance indices were calculated.

  4. Quality improvement in emergency service delivery: Assessment of knowledge and skills amongst emergency nurses at Connaught Hospital, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedda Bøe Nyhus

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified key aspects of emergency nursing speciality training to be developed through theoretical and skill-based education provided by the nursing schools and hospital clinical facilities in Sierra Leone.

  5. Nobel Prize winning physicist to speak at Rensselaer Nov. 20 Leon Lederman to discuss pre college science education

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Leon Lederman, Nobel Prize-winner, will offer some radical ideas for improving pre-college science education when he delivers the annual Robert Resnick Lecture at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Russell Sage Laboratory (1/2 page).

  6. On the completeness of systems of eigenfunctions of the Sturm-Liouville operator with a potential depending on the spectral parameter and a nonlinear problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidkov, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    First, the eigenvalue problem on the segment [0,1] for the Sturm-Liouville operator with a potential depending on the spectral parameter with the zero Dirichlet boundary conditions is considered. For this problem, under some hypotheses on the potential, it is proved that the necessary and sufficient condition for an arbitrary system of eigenfunctions, possessing a unique function with n roots in the interval (0,1) for an arbitrary non-negative integer number n, being complete in the space L 2 (0,1) is the linear independence of the functions from this system in the space L 2 (0,1). Then, this result is applied to the investigation of an eigenvalue problem for a nonlinear operator on the Sturm-Liouville type. For this problem, the completeness of the system of its eigenfunctions in the space L 2 (0,1) is proved. (author). 12 refs

  7. Recomendaciones de Liderazgo para los Dueños de Pymes Familiares Exportadoras y no Exportadoras en Nuevo Leon

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eloisa Treviño Ayala; Paula Villalpando Cadena; David Fernando Lozano Treviño; Jose Nicolas Barragan Codina

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this document is to state the importance that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) exporting and non-exporting have, as well as family businesses in Mexico´s economy and specifically in the state of Nuevo Leon. It establishes certain family SMEs, exporting and non-exporting, characteristics to take into consideration by Nuevo Leon leaders that seek success under the determinant of profits. It also locates qualities, from our stand point, classic and contemporaries, re...

  8. Estudio de enriquecimiento nutricional de dos especies de Leones marinos (Otaria flavescens y Zalophus californianus) en Aquanatura (Benidorm)

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens García, Inés

    2016-01-01

    El enriquecimiento ambiental es un método de reducir el estrés y los comportamientos inadecuados de animales en cautiverio, ayudando a su vez a aumentar el bienestar de estos. En este trabajo se pretende realizar un estudio de enriquecimiento nutricional de dos leones marinos de California (Zalophus Californianus) y dos leones marinos de la Patagonia (Otaria flavescens). Así, se ha estudiado el comportamiento de los cuatro individuos sobre un dispensador de alimento nuevo para ellos, midiendo...

  9. Landsat-Derived Estimates of Mangrove Extents in the Sierra Leone Coastal Landscape Complex during 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinki; Trzaska, Sylwia; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2017-12-21

    This study provides the first assessment of decadal changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone. While significant advances have been made in mangrove mapping using remote sensing, no study has documented long-term changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone-one of the most vulnerable countries in West Africa. Such understanding is critical for devising regional management strategies that can support local livelihoods. We utilize multi-date Landsat data and cloud computational techniques to quantify spatiotemporal changes in land cover, with focus on mangrove ecosystems, for 1990-2016 along the coast of Sierra Leone. We specifically focus on four estuaries-Scarcies, Sierra Leone, Yawri Bay, and Sherbro. We relied on the k-means approach for an unsupervised classification, and validated the classified map from 2016 using ground truth data collected from Sentinel-2 and high-resolution images and during field research (accuracy: 95%). Our findings indicate that the Scarcies river estuary witnessed the greatest mangrove loss since 1990 (45%), while the Sierra Leone river estuary experienced mangrove gain over the last 26 years (22%). Overall, the Sierra Leone coast lost 25% of its mangroves between 1990 and 2016, with the lowest coverage in 2000, during the period of civil war (1991-2002). However, natural mangrove dynamics, as supported by field observations, indicate the potential for regeneration and sustainability under carefully constructed management strategies.

  10. [Adverse reactions to mosquito bites in scholars from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique López, María Amelia; González Díaz, Sandra N; Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Sedó Mejía, Giovanni A; Canseco Villarreal, José Ignacio; Gómez Retamoza, Ernesto Antonio; Padrón López, Olga Magdalena; Cruz Moreno, Miguel Angel; Cisneros Salazar, Guillermo Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Allergic reactions to insect bites are a global problem, the true incidence and prevalence of morbidity from adverse reactions to mosquito bites are unknown. To describe the adverse reactions to mosquito bites in school-age children of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. A cross-sectional descriptive study was made via a randomized application of questionnaires to children from public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. A total of 11 public schools randomly selected were included in the study. One thousand questionnaires were submitted, of which 506 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 55% were females. Seventy-six percent referred adverse reactions to mosquito bites, itching (75%) and rash (72%) being the most frequent ones, in the last 12 months. Adverse reactions to mosquito bites occur frequently. Early detection is important to establish a prompt treatment.

  11. Innovation diffusion and development in a Third World setting: the cooperative movement in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus); Schneider, R.; Harvey, M.E.; Riddell, J.B.

    1979-09-01

    The interface between innovation diffusion and economic development and social change in Third World settings is investigated. The paper first presents a conceptual framework linking diffusion processes and development and then exemplifies a portion of that framework by examining the diffusion of agricultural cooperatives in Sierra Leone from 1948 through 1967. Attention is then turned to elements of the historical development of a cooperative movement in Sierra Leone which are important for understanding the processes underlying that diffusion. The temporal and spatial patterns of diffusion are discussed and the statistical analyses that assess (1) which variables provide a basis for distinguishing political units with cooperatives from those without, and (2) which variables account for the differences in the time at which cooperatives were established are examined. The findings are integrated with the theory presented. 41 references.

  12. Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pussemier, L.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco. Pepper protection trials against collar and root rot have been undertaken under laboratory and culture conditions using Aliette (80 % of phosethylaluminium and Ridomil M 58 (10 % of metalaxyl associated to 48 % of maneb. It has been proved that, contrary to Ridomil M 58, Aliette does not protect the hostplant when the Phytophthora capsici (Leon zoospores are used as inoculum. But both fongicides are active when inoculating with a mycelian suspension. Trials undertaken under plastic glasshouses confirmed the laboratory results both with an artificial inoculation and with a natural one on contaminated soil. Only Ridomil M 58 provides satisfactory protection during the first weeks after the treatment. When disease propagation conditions are particularly favorable (permanent presence of an active inoculum source, the protection given by repeated Ridomil M 58 applications gradually disappears after a few weeks.

  13. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco

  14. Distance, accessibility and costs. Decision-making during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Treacy

    Full Text Available Sierra Leone has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality have included initiatives to encourage more women to deliver at health facilities. Despite the introduction of the free health care initiative for pregnant women, many women still continue to deliver at home, with few having access to a skilled birth attendant. In addition, inequalities between rural and urban areas in accessing and utilising health facilities persist. Further insight into how and why women make decisions around childbirth will help guide future plans and initiatives in improving maternal health in Sierra Leone. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions and decision-making processes of women and their communities during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone.Data were collected through seven focus group discussions and 22 in-depth interviews with recently pregnant women and their community members in two rural villages. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. Findings revealed that decision-making processes during childbirth are dynamic, intricate and need to be understood within the broader social context that they take place. Factors such as distance and lack of transport, perceived negative behaviour of hospital staff, direct and indirect financial obstacles, as well as the position of women in society all interact and influence how and what decisions are made.Pregnant women face multiple interacting vulnerabilities that influence their healthcare-seeking decisions during pregnancy and childbirth. Future initiatives to improve access and utilisation of safe healthcare services for pregnant women need to be based on adequate knowledge of structural constraints and health inequities that affect women in rural Sierra Leone.

  15. Improving access to surgery in a developing country: experience from a surgical collaboration in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Adam L; Kamara, Thaim B; Groen, Reinou S; Fadlu-Deen, Betsy D; Doah, Kisito S; Kingham, T Peter

    2010-01-01

    Although surgery is increasingly recognized as an essential component of primary health care, there has been little documentation of surgical programs in low- and middle-income countries. Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) is a New York-based organization with a mission to save lives in developing countries by improving surgical care. This article highlights the surgical program in Sierra Leone as a possible model to improve access to surgery. An SOS team conducted a needs assessment of surgical capacity in Sierra Leone in February 2008. Interventions were then developed and programs were implemented. A follow-up assessment was conducted in December 2009, which included interviews of key Sierra Leone hospital personnel and a review of operating room log books. Based on an initial needs assessment, a program was developed that included training, salary support, and the provision of surgical supplies and equipment. Two 3-day workshops were conducted for a total of 44 health workers, salary support given to over 100 staff, and 2 containers of supplies and equipment were donated. Access to surgery, as measured by the number of major operations at Connaught Hospital, increased from 460 cases in 2007 to 768 cases in 2009. The SOS program in Sierra Leone highlights a method for improving access to surgery that incorporates an initial needs assessment with minimal external support and local staff collaboration. The program functions as a catalyst by providing training, salary support, and supplies. The beneficial results of the program can then be used to advocate for additional resources for surgery from policy makers. This model could be beneficial in other resource-poor countries in which improved access to surgery is desired. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Geoheritage value of the UNESCO site at Leon Viejo and Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Navarro, Martha; Espinoza, Eveling; Delgado, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    The Momotombo volcano has a special place in the history of Nicaragua. It is perfectly visible from the Capital, Managua, and from the major city of Leon. The old capital "Leon Viejo", founded in 1524 was abandoned in 1610, after a series of earthquakes and some major eruptions from Momotombo. The site was subsequently covered by Momotombo ash. A major geothermal power plant stands at the base of the volcano. Momotombo had been dormant for a hundred years, but had maintained high fumarole temperatures (900°C), indicating magma had been close to the surface for decades. In recent years, seismic activity has increased around the volcano. In December 2015, after a short ash eruption phase the volcano erupted lava, then a string of Vulcanian explosions. The volcano is now in a phase of small Vulcanian explosions and degassing. The Leon Viejo World Heritage site is at risk to mainly ash fall from the volcano, but the abandonment of the old city was primarily due to earthquakes. Additional risks come from high rainfall during hurricanes. There is an obvious link between the cultural site (inscribed under UNESCO cultural criteria) and the geological environment. First, the reactivation of Momotombo volcano makes it more important to revise the hazard of the site. At the same time, Leon Viejo can provide a portal for outreach related to the volcano and for geological risk in general. To maximise this, we provide a geosite inventory of the main features of Momotombo, and it's environs, that can be used as the first base for such studies. The volcano was visited by many adventure tourists before the 2015/2016 eruption, but is out of bounds at present. Alternative routes, around the volcano could be made, to adapt to the new situation and to show to visitors more of the geodiversity of this fascinating volcano-tectonic and cultural area.

  17. MODE OF PRODUCTION ANS EDUCATION: QUESTIONS ON THE MODE OF LIFE: A CONTRIBUTION OF LEON TROTSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celi Zulke Taffarel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The text addresses the importance of consideration of the contribution of Leon Trotsky - when you look at the issue of mode of life resulting from the general production of existence - to think clearly articulate an educational proposal for the construction of socialist history project. The need to think the human based on the question of cultural activists, on the fight for a policy of cultural formation.

  18. Method for the determination of the dominant eigenvalue of the neutron transport equation in a slab using fractional derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperotto, Fabiola Aiub; Segatto, Cynthia Feijo; Zabadal, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we determine the dominant eigenvalue of the one-dimensional neutron transport equation in a slab constructing an integral form for the neutron transport equation which is the expressed in terms of fractional derivative of the angular flux. Equating the fractional derivative of the angular flux to the integrate equation, we determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. Once known the angular flux the dominant eigenvalue is calculated solving a transcendental equation resulting from the application of the boundary conditions. We report the methodology applied, for comparison with available results in literature. (author)

  19. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard; Kamara, Idrissa; Wei, Qiang; Liang, Mi-Fang; Wu, Gui-Zhen; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-06-23

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV detection since 11 March 2015. Complete management and program documents were created for the SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab, and it was divided into four zones (the green, yellow, brown, and red zones) based on the risk assessment. Different types of safe and appropriate personnel protection equipment (PPE) are used in different zones of the laboratory, and it fully meets the Biosafety Level 3 laboratory standards of the World Health Organization. Good preparedness, comprehensive risk assessment and operation documents, appropriate PPE, effective monitoring and intensive training, together with well-designed and reasonable laboratory sectioning are essential for guaranteeing biosafety.

  20. Experiences of providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone--the local staff's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Lina; Ahlström, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, West Africa, there are many people with disabilities in need of rehabilitation services after a long civil war. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of prosthetic and orthotic service delivery in Sierra Leone from the local staff's perspective. Fifteen prosthetic and orthotic technicians working at all the rehabilitation centres providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to latent content analysis. One main theme emerged: sense of inability to deliver high-quality prosthetic and orthotic services. This main theme was generated from eight sub-themes: Desire for professional development; appraisals of work satisfaction and norms; patients neglected by family; limited access to the prosthetic and orthotic services available; problems with materials and machines; low public awareness concerning disabilities; marginalisation in society and low priority on the part of government. The findings illustrated traditional beliefs about the causes of disability and that the public's attitude needs to change to include and value people with disabilities. Support from international organisations was considered necessary as well as educating more prosthetic and orthotic staff to a higher level.

  1. Mental health care during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Stania; Walder, Anna; Duncan, Jennifer; Kabbedijk, Antoinet; Hughes, Peter; Muana, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Reported levels of mental health and psychosocial problems rose during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone. As part of the emergency response, existing plans to create mental health units within the existing hospital framework were brought forward. A nurse-led mental health and psychosocial support service, with an inpatient liaison service and an outpatient clinic, was set up at the largest government hospital in the country. One mental health nurse trained general nurses in psychological first aid, case identification and referral pathways. Health-care staff attended mental well-being workshops on coping with stigma and stress. Mental health service provision in Sierra Leone is poor, with one specialist psychiatric hospital to serve the population of 7 million. From March 2015 to February 2016, 143 patients were seen at the clinic; 20 had survived or had relatives affected by Ebola virus disease. Half the patients (71) had mild distress or depression, anxiety disorders and grief or social problems, while 30 patients presented with psychosis requiring medication. Fourteen non-specialist nurses received mental health awareness training. Over 100 physicians, nurses and auxiliary staff participated in well-being workshops. A nurse-led approach within a non-specialist setting was a successful model for delivering mental health and psychosocial support services during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone. Strong leadership and partnerships were essential for establishing a successful service. Lack of affordable psychotropic medications, limited human resources and weak social welfare structures remain challenges.

  2. Ground State Solutions for a Class of Fractional Differential Equations with Dirichlet Boundary Value Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply the method of the Nehari manifold to study the fractional differential equation (d/dt((1/2 0Dt-β(u′(t+(1/2 tDT-β(u′(t=  f(t,u(t, a.e. t∈[0,T], and u0=uT=0, where  0Dt-β, tDT-β are the left and right Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals of order 0≤β<1, respectively. We prove the existence of a ground state solution of the boundary value problem.

  3. Asymptotic integration of some nonlinear differential equations with fractional time derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Agarwal, Ravi P; Mustafa, Octavian G; Cosulschi, Mirel

    2011-01-01

    We establish that, under some simple integral conditions regarding the nonlinearity, the (1 + α)-order fractional differential equation 0 D α t (x') + f(t, x) = 0, t > 0, has a solution x element of C([0,+∞),R) intersection C 1 ((0,+∞),R), with lim t→0 [t 1-α x'(t)] element of R, which can be expanded asymptotically as a + bt α + O(t α-1 ) when t → +∞ for given real numbers a, b. Our arguments are based on fixed point theory. Here, 0 D α t designates the Riemann-Liouville derivative of order α in (0, 1).

  4. Existence theory for sequential fractional differential equations with anti-periodic type boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqlan Mohammed H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop the existence theory for sequential fractional differential equations involving Liouville-Caputo fractional derivative equipped with anti-periodic type (non-separated and nonlocal integral boundary conditions. Several existence criteria depending on the nonlinearity involved in the problems are presented by means of a variety of tools of the fixed point theory. The applicability of the results is shown with the aid of examples. Our results are not only new in the given configuration but also yield some new special cases for specific choices of parameters involved in the problems.

  5. Bright and dark soliton solutions for some nonlinear fractional differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guner, Ozkan; Bekir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new approach, namely ansatz method, for solving fractional differential equations based on a fractional complex transform and apply it to the nonlinear partial space–time fractional modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney (mBBM) equation, the time fractional mKdV equation and the nonlinear fractional Zoomeron equation which gives rise to some new exact solutions. The physical parameters in the soliton solutions: amplitude, inverse width, free parameters and velocity are obtained as functions of the dependent model coefficients. This method is suitable and more powerful for solving other kinds of nonlinear fractional PDEs arising in mathematical physics. Since the fractional derivatives are described in the modified Riemann–Liouville sense. (paper)

  6. On the solution of fractional evolution equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbas, Anatoly A [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Belarusian State University, 220050 Minsk (Belarus); Pierantozzi, Teresa [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Trujillo, Juan J [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de la Laguna, 38271 La Laguna-Tenerife (Spain); Vazquez, Luis [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-03-05

    This paper is devoted to the solution of the bi-fractional differential equation ({sup C}D{sup {alpha}}{sub t}u)(t, x) = {lambda}({sup L}D{sup {beta}}{sub x}u)(t, x) (t>0, -{infinity} 0 and {lambda} {ne} 0, with the initial conditions lim{sub x{yields}}{sub {+-}}{sub {infinity}} u(t,x) = 0 u(0+,x)=g(x). Here ({sup C}D{sup {alpha}}{sub t}u)(t, x) is the partial derivative coinciding with the Caputo fractional derivative for 0 < {alpha} < 1 and with the usual derivative for {alpha} = 1, while ({sup L}D{sup {beta}}{sub x}u)(t, x)) is the Liouville partial fractional derivative ({sup L}D{sup {beta}}{sub t}u)(t, x)) of order {beta} > 0. The Laplace and Fourier transforms are applied to solve the above problem in closed form. The fundamental solution of these problems is established and its moments are calculated. The special case {alpha} = 1/2 and {beta} = 1 is presented, and its application is given to obtain the Dirac-type decomposition for the ordinary diffusion equation.

  7. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, FG

    2013-01-01

    Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and diff

  8. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Viorel

    2016-01-01

    This textbook is a comprehensive treatment of ordinary differential equations, concisely presenting basic and essential results in a rigorous manner. Including various examples from physics, mechanics, natural sciences, engineering and automatic theory, Differential Equations is a bridge between the abstract theory of differential equations and applied systems theory. Particular attention is given to the existence and uniqueness of the Cauchy problem, linear differential systems, stability theory and applications to first-order partial differential equations. Upper undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics and systems theory with a background in advanced calculus will find this book particularly useful. Supplementary topics are covered in an appendix enabling the book to be completely self-contained.

  9. Lie symmetry analysis, explicit solutions and conservation laws for the space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the symmetry analysis, explicit solutions, convergence analysis, and conservation laws (Cls) for two different space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of fractional order using their Lie point symmetries. In the reduced equations, the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober (EK) sense, power series technique is applied to derive an explicit solutions for the reduced fractional ODEs. The convergence of the obtained power series solutions is also presented. Moreover, the new conservation theorem and the generalization of the Noether operators are developed to construct the nonlocal Cls for the equations . Some interesting figures for the obtained explicit solutions are presented.

  10. Territorial identity and landscape. Evolution morphology of nuclei in Castilla y Leon; Identidad territorial y paisaje. Evolucion morfologica de los nucleos en Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Pedrosa, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to study the physical and socioeconomic transformations of rural settlements belonging to the Spanish region of Castile and Leon, throughout the second half of the 20th century. The evolution of urban form is analyzed, using a geographical information system (GIS) and calculating several shape metrics, and is then related to historical demographical data. The results are meant to show the effects of functional specialization, caused by the integration of rural regions in global economic hierarchies, on settlement structures and patterns. Gradual loss of the traditional features of Castilian villages, such as urban compactness and integration in the landscape, due to the disappearance or neglect of vernacular architecture and the construction of new industrial infrastructures, poses a risk for future place-based development policies. It is deemed necessary to preserve local identity and avoid destruction or degradation of the traditional heritage for revitalizing these territories. (Author)

  11. On the Similarity of Sturm-Liouville Operators with Non-Hermitian Boundary Conditions to Self-Adjoint and Normal Operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Siegl, Petr; Železný, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 255-281 ISSN 1661-8254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA MŠk LC527; GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD202/08/H072 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Sturm-Liouville operators * non-symmetric Robin boundary conditions * similarity to normal or self-adjoint operators * discrete spectral operator * complex symmetric operator * PT-symmetry * metric operator * C operator * Hilbert- Schmidt operators Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2014

  12. Time-nonlocal kinetic equations, jerk and hyperjerk in plasmas and solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2018-06-01

    The simulation and analysis of nonlocal effects in fluids and plasmas is an inherently complicated problem due to the massive breadth of physics required to describe the nonlocal dynamics. This is a multi-physics problem that draws upon various miscellaneous fields, such as electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. In this paper we strive to focus on one narrow but motivating mathematical way: the derivation of nonlocal plasma-fluid equations from a generalized nonlocal Liouville derivative operator motivated from Suykens's nonlocal arguments. The paper aims to provide a guideline toward modeling nonlocal effects occurring in plasma-fluid systems by means of a generalized nonlocal Boltzmann equation. The generalized nonlocal equations of fluid dynamics are derived and their implications in plasma-fluid systems are addressed, discussed and analyzed. Three main topics were discussed: Landau damping in plasma electrodynamics, ideal MHD and solar wind. A number of features were revealed, analyzed and confronted with recent research results and observations.

  13. Khater method for nonlinear Sharma Tasso-Olever (STO) equation of fractional order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Sadaf; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef; Khan, Umar; Ahmed, Naveed

    In this work, we have implemented a direct method, known as Khater method to establish exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order. Number of solutions provided by this method is greater than other traditional methods. Exact solutions of nonlinear fractional order Sharma Tasso-Olever (STO) equation are expressed in terms of kink, travelling wave, periodic and solitary wave solutions. Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative and Fractional complex transform have been used for compatibility with fractional order sense. Solutions have been graphically simulated for understanding the physical aspects and importance of the method. A comparative discussion between our established results and the results obtained by existing ones is also presented. Our results clearly reveal that the proposed method is an effective, powerful and straightforward technique to work out new solutions of various types of differential equations of non-integer order in the fields of applied sciences and engineering.

  14. Clinical illness and outcomes in patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Goba, Augustine; Gbakie, Michael; Gire, Stephen K; Colubri, Andres; Sealfon, Rachel S G; Kanneh, Lansana; Moigboi, Alex; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Moses, Lina M; Brown, Bethany L; Andersen, Kristian G; Winnicki, Sarah; Schaffner, Stephen F; Park, Daniel J; Yozwiak, Nathan L; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Kargbo, David; Jalloh, Simbirie; Fonnie, Mbalu; Sinnah, Vandi; French, Issa; Kovoma, Alice; Kamara, Fatima K; Tucker, Veronica; Konuwa, Edwin; Sellu, Josephine; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Kanneh, Franklyn; Saffa, Sidiki; Massally, James L B; Boisen, Matt L; Branco, Luis M; Vandi, Mohamed A; Grant, Donald S; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M; Fletcher, Thomas E; Fowler, Robert A; Bausch, Daniel G; Sabeti, Pardis C; Khan, S Humarr; Garry, Robert F

    2014-11-27

    Limited clinical and laboratory data are available on patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone, which had an existing infrastructure for research regarding viral hemorrhagic fever, has received and cared for patients with EVD since the beginning of the outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014. We reviewed available epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory records of patients in whom EVD was diagnosed between May 25 and June 18, 2014. We used quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays to assess the load of Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) in a subgroup of patients. Of 106 patients in whom EVD was diagnosed, 87 had a known outcome, and 44 had detailed clinical information available. The incubation period was estimated to be 6 to 12 days, and the case fatality rate was 74%. Common findings at presentation included fever (in 89% of the patients), headache (in 80%), weakness (in 66%), dizziness (in 60%), diarrhea (in 51%), abdominal pain (in 40%), and vomiting (in 34%). Clinical and laboratory factors at presentation that were associated with a fatal outcome included fever, weakness, dizziness, diarrhea, and elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients under the age of 21 years had a lower case fatality rate than those over the age of 45 years (57% vs. 94%, P=0.03), and patients presenting with fewer than 100,000 EBOV copies per milliliter had a lower case fatality rate than those with 10 million EBOV copies per milliliter or more (33% vs. 94%, P=0.003). Bleeding occurred in only 1 patient. The incubation period and case fatality rate among patients with EVD in Sierra Leone are similar to those observed elsewhere in the 2014 outbreak and in previous outbreaks. Although bleeding was an infrequent finding, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal manifestations were common. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and

  15. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-García, C.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232Th-series, 238U-series, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg-1) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238U and 234U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210Pb activities. Results were verified by 137Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento - Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234U/overflow="scroll">238U and 238U/overflow="scroll">226Ra in sediments have values between 0.9-1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232Th/overflow="scroll">238U, 228Ra/overflow="scroll">226Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  16. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Renteria-Villalobos, M. [Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecología Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Periferico Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31410, Chihuahua (Mexico); García-Tenorio, R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Group, University of Seville, ETS Arquitectura, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  17. Retention of health workers in rural Sierra Leone: findings from life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurie, Haja R; Samai, Mohamed; Witter, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Sierra Leone has faced a shortage and maldistribution of staff in its post-conflict period. This long-standing challenge is now exacerbated by the systemic shock and damage wrought by Ebola. This study aimed to investigate the importance of different motivation factors in rural areas in Sierra Leone and thus to contribute to better decisions on financial and non-financial incentive packages, here and in similar contexts. This article is based on participatory life histories, conducted in 2013 with 23 health workers (doctors, nurses, midwives and Community Health Officers) in four regions of Sierra Leone who had worked in the sector since 2000. Although the interviews covered a wide range of themes, here we present findings on motivating and demotivating factors for staff, especially those in rural areas, based on thematic analysis of transcripts. Rural health workers face particular challenges, some of which stem from the difficult terrain, which add to common disadvantages of rural living (poor social amenities, etc.). Poor working conditions, emotional and financial costs of separation from families, limited access to training, longer working hours (due to staff shortages) and the inability to earn from other sources make working in rural areas less attractive. Moreover, rules on rotation which should protect staff from being left too long in rural areas are not reported to be respected. By contrast, poor management had more resonance in urban areas, with reports of poor delegation, favouritism and a lack of autonomy for staff. Tensions within the team over unclear roles and absenteeism are also significant demotivating factors in general. This study provides important policy-focused insights into motivation of health workers and can contribute towards building a resilient and responsive health system, incorporating the priorities and needs of health workers. Their voices and experiences should be taken into account as the post-Ebola landscape is shaped.

  18. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232 Th-series, 238 U-series, 40 K and 137 Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg −1 ) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238 U and 234 U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210 Pb activities. Results were verified by 137 Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238 U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234 U/ 238 U and 238 U/ 226 Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232 Th/ 238 U, 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs

  19. Medical Officers in Sierra Leone: Surgical Training Opportunities, Challenges and Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Lucy; Leather, Andrew; George, Peter Matthew; Kamara, Thaim Bay

    2018-02-05

    The critical shortage of human resources for healthcare falls most heavily on sub-Saharan nations such as Sierra Leone, where such workforce deficits have grave impacts on its burden of surgical disease. An important aspect in retention and development of the workforce is training. This study focuses on postgraduate surgical training (formal and short course) and perceptions of opportunities, challenges and aspirations, in a country where more than half of surgical procedures are performed by medical officers. The study presents findings from 12 in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with medical officers by the primary investigator in Sierra Leone between April and June 2017. Each interview was transcribed alongside an introspective reflexive journal to acknowledge and account for researcher biases. Two interviewees had accessed postgraduate surgical training and 10 (83%) had accessed short course surgically relevant training. The number of short courses accessed grew higher the more recently the medical officers had graduated. Supervision, short length and international standards were the most appreciated aspects of short training courses. Some medical officers perceived the formal postgraduate surgical training programme to be ill-equipped, doubting its credibility. This demotivated some from applying. Training is an essential aspect of developing an adequate surgical workforce. Faith must be restored in the capabilities of Sierra Leone's Ministry of Health and Sanitation to provide adequate and sustainable training. This study advocates for the use of short courses to restore this faith and the expansion of postgraduate surgical training to the districts through developing a regional teaching complex to provide short courses and eventually formal postgraduate training in the future. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE JURIST AND ECONOMIST GHEORGHE N. LEON IN THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The economical-financial problems have always constituted a challenge far all the decisional factors at the state level and not only, thus the financial sciences which also aim to regulate the relationships to create, assign and use the financial funds of the state and of the public institutions, destined to satisfy the social-economical needs of the society recorded a great doctrinal interest. Thus, a series of jurists and economists had understand the necessity and opportunity of knowledge in the domain of financial science, of the financial law, taking into consideration the fact that the difficulties which they have met at those times obliged them to take the responsibility to make every simple citizen and every person with political or administrative responsibility by the state understand the problems of public administration. In approaching the given subject I have chosen to use some of the methods of scientific research, respectively: the historical method (financial science being presented succinct through the process of its evolution along the years, interpretation methods and a combination of quality and quantity approach, namely the method of analyzing archive documents and the studies of professor Gheorghe N. Leon. In these contexts have asserted and developed himself in the university and political environment, Gheorghe N. Leon, having a rich activity of intellectual creation, approaching in his works the complex aspects of the science of financial law. Thus, starting with the rules and principles of this domain, Gheorghe N. Leon had realized a veritable incursion in the history of finances and in the theory of taxation, public and budgetary credit. Analyzing a part of his scientific works, we can affirm that a personality with such a complex structure, like Gheorghe N. Leon is hard to define, but surely, through the prism of his works and through his long-lasting and rich scientific activity, his name can be mentioned among the

  1. Maternal health, war, and religious tradition: authoritative knowledge in Pujehun District, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambai, A; MacCormack, C

    1996-06-01

    In Sierra Leone constraints to ideal maternal health require a primary health care approach that includes collaboration with traditional midwives. They are authoritative figures embedded within local political structures and a powerful women's religion. The local causes of maternal risk are described, including civil war and refugee camp life. Traditional midwives provide vital services in the camp, are respected for their social status, and learn additional skills. Biomedical and traditional systems of authoritative knowledge, based on different kinds of legitimacy to heal, are in a complementary relationship.

  2. The Ebola virus disease outbreak and the mineral sectors of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Menzie, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The mineral sector plays a key role in the economies of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The onset of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in early 2014, together with changes in mineral market conditions, raised questions regarding the status of mining operations and of mineral development and exploration projects in all three countries. Mineral projects were the underpinnings of World Bank short-term forecasts of increases in gross domestic product (GDP) for all three countries and were expected to be the basis of future economic growth. The significant delay or cancellation of these projects could result in a major economic setback for all three countries.

  3. Detection of a typhus group Rickettsia in Amblyomma ticks in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Sanchez, Aaron; Bouyer, Donald H; Alcantara-Rodriguez, Virginia; Mafra, Claudio; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Whitworth, Ted; Popov, Vsevolod L; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Walker, David H

    2005-12-01

    The state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico has had outbreaks of typhus group rickettsiosis, most recently recognized in 1997. Evaluation of the sera of 345 patients with a dengue-like illness revealed that 25.5% had antibodies reactive with typhus group rickettsiae and 16% had antibodies to Rickettsia parkeri. Rickettsiae were detected by PCR and shell-vial isolations in the field-collected Amblyomma ticks. Molecular characterization by DNA sequence analysis of the gltA, ompB, and 17-kDa gene identified the organisms to be R. prowazekii.

  4. Characterization of the dengue outbreak in Nuevo Leon state, Mexico, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc-Galindo, D; Gloria-Herrera, U; Rincón-Herrera, U; Ramos-Jiménez, J; Garcia-Luna, S; Arellanos-Soto, D; Mendoza-Tavera, N; Tavitas-Aguilar, I; Garcia-Garcia, E; Galindo-Galindo, E; Villarreal-Perez, J; Fernandez-Salas, I; Santiago, G A; Muñoz-Jordan, J; Rivas-Estilla, A M

    2015-04-01

    We studied serotypes circulating dengue virus (DENV) cases, entomological Breteau index, rain-fall index and epidemiology of groups affected during the 2010 outbreak in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. From 2,271 positive cases, 94% were dengue classic and 6% dengue hemorrhagic fever; DENV1 was mainly isolated (99%) (Central-American lineage of American-African-genotype). We found correlation between two environmental phenomena (Increment of rainfall and vector-indexes) (p ≤ 0.05) with epidemiological, clinical and risk of DENV-1 ongoing transmission.

  5. Review: Leon N. Cooper's Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research-specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness?

  6. Post acquisition business synergies of a foreign affiliate. Case study of companies in Nuevo Leon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cabeza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will explain the importance of creating synergies after having acquired foreign affiliates. Interviews were conducted to executives of four of the most important manufacturing companies in Nuevo Leon, which have been involved in the international acquisition process of foreign affiliates. Also presented are 10 areas where synergies may be obtained after having acquired a foreign affiliate, in accordance with (Marin and Ketelhohn, 2008 economies of size at corporate headquarters, greater opportunities for professional development, corporate image, interdivisional transactions, vertical integration, economies of scale and/or scope, coordination of skills, learning center, leverage of intangible assets and unleashing of skills.

  7. DMA Controller for LEON3 SoC:s Using AMBA

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Emelie

    2013-01-01

    A DMA Controller can offload a processor tremendously. A memory copy operation can be initiated by the processor and while the processor executes others tasks the memory copy can be fulfilled by the DMA Controller. An implementation of a DMA Controller for use in LEON3 SoC:s has been made during this master thesis. Problems that occurred while designing a controller of this type concerned AMBA buses, data transfers, alignment and interrupt handling. The DMA Controller supports AMBA and is att...

  8. La razón y el absurdo en la obra de Leon Battista Alberti

    OpenAIRE

    Sverlij, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Uno de los rasgos más destacados de la producción de Leon Battista Alberti (1404- 1472) es la formulación de dos visiones del mundo simultáneas y contradictorias. El “paradigma de la razón”, que nutre sus tratados sobre la pintura, la escultura y la arquitectura se contradice e interactúa con el “paradigma de lo absurdo”, que da entidad a sus trabajos literarios, fundamentalmente su narración latina, Momus sive de Principe, y sus Intercenales. Si en Momus y las Intercenales predomina el carác...

  9. Recomendaciones de Liderazgo para los Dueños de Pymes Familiares Exportadoras y no Exportadoras en Nuevo Leon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eloisa Treviño Ayala

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this document is to state the importance that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs exporting and non-exporting have, as well as family businesses in Mexico´s economy and specifically in the state of Nuevo Leon. It establishes certain family SMEs, exporting and non-exporting, characteristics to take into consideration by Nuevo Leon leaders that seek success under the determinant of profits. It also locates qualities, from our stand point, classic and contemporaries, recommended for managers and administrators of this type of companies.

  10. Bernoulli's Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    regarding nature of forces hold equally for liquids, even though the ... particle. Figure A. A fluid particle is a very small imaginary blob of fluid, here shown sche- matically in .... picture gives important information about the flow field. ... Bernoulli's equation is derived assuming ideal flow, .... weight acting in the flow direction S is.

  11. Relativistic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1986-01-01

    Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs

  12. Lyapunov stability and poisson structure of the thermal TDHF and RPA equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Veneroni, M.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal TDHF equation is analyzed in the Liouville representation of quantum mechanics, where the matrix elements of the single-particle (s.p) density ρ behave as classical dynamical variables. By introducing the Lie--Poisson bracket associated with the unitary group of the s.p. Hilbert space, we show that TDHF has a Hamiltonian, but non-canonical, classical form. Within this Poisson structure, either the s.p. energy or the s.p. grand potential Ω(ρ) act as a Hamilton function. The Lyapunov stability of both the TDHF and RPA equations around a HF state then follows, since the HF approximation for thermal equilibrium is determined by minimizing Ω(ρ). The RPA matrix in the Liouville space is expressed as the product of the Poisson tensor with the HF stability matrix, interpreted as a metric tensor generated by the entropy. This factorization displays the roles of the energy and entropy terms arising from Ω(ρ) in the RPA dynamics, and it helps to construct the RPA modes. Several extensions are considered. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  13. Lyapunov stability and Poisson structure of the thermal TDHF and RPA equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneroni, M.; Balian, R.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal TDHF equation is analyzed in the Liouville representation of quantum mechanics, where the matrix elements of the single-particle (s.p.) density ρ behave as classical dynamical variables. By introducing the Lie-Poisson bracket associated with the unitary group of the s.p. Hilbert space, we show that TDHF has a hamiltonian, but non-canonical, classical form. Within this Poisson structure, either the s.p. energy or the s.p. grand potential Ω(ρ) act as a Hamilton function. The Lyapunov stability of both the TDHF and RPA equations around a HF state then follows, since the HF approximation for thermal equilibrium is determined by minimizing Ω(ρ). The RPA matrix in the Liouville space is expressed as the product of the Poisson tensor with the HF stability matrix, interpreted as a metric tensor generated by the entropy. This factorization displays the roles of the energy and entropy terms arising from Ω(ρ) in the RPA dynamics, and it helps to construct the RPA modes. Several extensions are considered

  14. SLIPM - a MAPLE package for numerical solution of Sturm-Liouville partial problems based on a continuous analog of Newton's method. II. Program realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzynin, I.V.; Puzynina, T.P.; Tkhak, V.Ch.

    2010-01-01

    SLIPM (Sturm-LIouville Problem in MAPLE) is a program complex written in the language of the computer algebras system MAPLE. It consists of the main program SLIPM.mw and of some procedures. It is intended for a numerical solution with the help of the continuous analog of Newton's method (CANM) of Sturm-Liouville partial problems, i.e. for calculating some eigenvalue of linear second-order differential operator and a corresponding eigenfunction satisfying homogeneous boundary conditions of the general type. SLIPM is the development of the program complexes SLIP1 and SLIPH4 written in the Fortran language. It is added by two new ways of calculating the initial value of iterative parameter τ 0 , by a procedure for calculating a higher precision solution (eigenvalue and corresponding eigenfunction) with the help of Richardson's extrapolation method, by graphical visualization procedures of intermediate and final results of the iterative process and by saving of the results on a disk file. The descriptions of the procedures purposes and their parameters are given

  15. Structure-preserving algorithms for the Duffing equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang Tieqiang; Mei Fengxiang; Xie Jiafang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the dissipative and the forced terms of the Duffing equation are considered as the perturbations of nonlinear Hamiltonian equations and the perturbational effect is indicated by parameter ε. Firstly, based on the gradient-Hamiltonian decomposition theory of vector fields, by using splitting methods, this paper constructs structure-preserving algorithms (SPAs) for the Duffing equation. Then, according to the Liouville formula, it proves that the Jacobian matrix determinants of the SPAs are equal to that of the exact flow of the Duffing equation. However, considering the explicit Runge–Kutta methods, this paper finds that there is an error term of order p+1 for the Jacobian matrix determinants. The volume evolution law of a given region in phase space is discussed for different algorithms, respectively. As a result, the sum of Lyapunov exponents is exactly invariable for the SPAs proposed in this paper. Finally, through numerical experiments, relative norm errors and absolute energy errors of phase trajectories of the SPAs and the Heun method (a second-order Runge–Kutta method) are compared. Computational results illustrate that the SPAs are evidently better than the Heun method when ε is small or equal to zero. (general)

  16. Application of fractional derivative with exponential law to bi-fractional-order wave equation with frictional memory kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuahutenango-Barro, B.; Taneco-Hernández, M. A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Analytical solutions of the wave equation with bi-fractional-order and frictional memory kernel of Mittag-Leffler type are obtained via Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in the Liouville-Caputo sense. Through the method of separation of variables and Laplace transform method we derive closed-form solutions and establish fundamental solutions. Special cases with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions and nonhomogeneous initial conditions, as well as for the external force are considered. Numerical simulations of the special solutions were done and novel behaviors are obtained.

  17. On the structure of the master equation for a two-level system coupled to a thermal bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Inés

    2015-04-01

    We derive a master equation from the exact stochastic Liouville-von-Neumann (SLN) equation (Stockburger and Grabert 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 170407). The latter depends on two correlated noises and describes exactly the dynamics of an oscillator (which can be either harmonic or present an anharmonicity) coupled to an environment at thermal equilibrium. The newly derived master equation is obtained by performing analytically the average over different noise trajectories. It is found to have a complex hierarchical structure that might be helpful to explain the convergence problems occurring when performing numerically the stochastic average of trajectories given by the SLN equation (Koch et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 230402, Koch 2010 PhD thesis Fakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften der Technischen Universitat Dresden).

  18. Control of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: vaccine development and our Ebola project in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Since December 2013, West Africa has experienced the worst Ebola virus outbreak in recorded history. Of the 28,639 cases reported to the World Health Organization as of March 2016, nearly half (14,124) occurred in Sierra Leone. With a case fatality rate of approximately 40%, this outbreak has claimed the lives of 11,316 individuals. No FDA-approved vaccines or drugs are available to prevent or treat Ebola virus infection. Experimental vaccines and therapies are being developed; however, their safety and efficacy are still being evaluated. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop control measures to prevent or limit future Ebola virus outbreaks.Previously, we developed a replication-defective Ebola virus that lacks the coding region for the essential viral transcription activator VP30 (Ebola ΔVP30 virus). Here, we evaluated the vaccine efficacy of Ebola ΔVP30 virus in a non-human primate model and describe our collaborative Ebola project in Sierra Leone.

  19. Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Are nature reserves the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican state of Nuevo Leon, located in the northeastern portion of the country, currently has 26 state and three federal nature reserves covering approximately 4.5% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to conservation purposes. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity proposed 12 new terrestrial reserves for Nuevo Leon. The new reserves, if established, would increase the proportion of protected lands in the state to almost 24% of the state's land area. We compiled a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and ecological features to examine how well the existing and proposed reserves incorporated the major biological and physical features of the state. The existing reserves are located primarily in regions with elevations > 1,000-1,500 m, on less productive soils, and are dominated by pine and oak forest cover types. As a result, the state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately under represented in the current reserve system. The new reserves would expand the protection of biophysical resources throughout the state. However, the inclusion of important resources in the low elevation coastal lands would still be limited.

  20. Treatment Seeking and Ebola Community Care Centers in Sierra Leone: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Simone E; O'Reilly, Marion; Frith-Powell, Jack; Umar Kargbo, Alpha; Byrne, Daniel; Niederberger, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Ebola Treatment Units were able to provide only 60% of necessary treatment beds in Sierra Leone. As a result, the Government of Sierra Leone decided to construct Community Care Centers. These were intended to increase treatment-seeking behavior and reduce the community-level spread of Ebola by facilitating access to care closer to communities. Through qualitative data collection in 3 districts, this study seeks to understand the perceived impact that proximity to such Centers had on treatment-seeking behavior. Feedback from community members and Community Health Volunteers indicates that proximity to treatment reduced fears, especially those arising from the use of ambulances, lack of familiarity with medical Centers, and loss of contact with family members taken for treatment. Participants report that having a Center close to their home enables them to walk to treatment and witness survivors being discharged. Living close to Centers also enables communities to be involved in their design and daily operation, helping to build trust in them as acceptable treatment facilities. Further research is required to understand the appropriate design, operation, and epidemiological impact of Centers. Further investigation should incorporate the effect of an outbreak's severity and the stage (duration) of the outbreak on potential acceptance of Centers.

  1. Training peers to treat Ebola centre workers with anxiety and depression in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Samantha; Hunter, Elaine Catherine Margaret; Cole, Charles L; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Greenberg, Neil; Rubin, G James; Beck, Alison

    2018-03-01

    Following the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, the UK Department for International Development funded South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) to develop a psychological intervention that ex-Ebola Treatment Centre (ETC) staff could be trained to deliver to their peers to improve mental health in Sierra Leone. The two key aims were to assess the feasibility of training a national team to deliver a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based group intervention, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the overall intervention within this population. UK clinicians travelled to Sierra Leone to train a small team of ex-ETC staff in a three-phased CBT-based intervention. Standardised clinical measures, as well as bespoke measures, were applied with participants through the intervention to assess changes in mental health symptomology, and the effectiveness of the intervention. The results found improvements across all factors of mental health in the bespoke measure from phase 1 to phase 3. Additionally, the majority of standardised clinical measures showed improvements between phase 2 and the start of phase 3, and pre- and post-phase 3. Overall, the findings suggest that it is possible to train staff from ETCs to deliver effective CBT interventions to peers. The implications of these results are discussed, including suggestions for future research and clinical intervention implementation within this population. The limitations of this research are also addressed.

  2. Factors Underlying Ebola Virus Infection Among Health Workers, Kenema, Sierra Leone, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Mikiko; Pringle, Kimberly; Ramsay, Andrew; Brett-Major, David M; Fowler, Robert A; French, Issa; Vandi, Mohamed; Sellu, Josephine; Pratt, Christian; Saidu, Josephine; Shindo, Nahoko; Bausch, Daniel G

    2016-08-15

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) in health workers (HWs) has been a major challenge during the 2014-2015 outbreak. We examined factors associated with Ebola virus exposure and mortality in HWs in Kenema District, Sierra Leone. We analyzed data from the Sierra Leone National Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Database, contact tracing records, Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) staff and Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) rosters, and burial logs. From May 2014 through January 2015, 600 cases of EVD originated in Kenema District, including 92 (15%) HWs, 66 (72%) of whom worked at KGH. Among KGH medical staff and international volunteers, 18 of 62 (29%) who worked in the ETU developed EVD, compared with 48 of 83 (58%) who worked elsewhere in the hospital. Thirteen percent of HWs with EVD reported contact with EVD patients, while 27% reported contact with other infected HWs. The number of HW EVD cases at KGH declined roughly 1 month after implementation of a new triage system at KGH and the opening of a second ETU within the district. The case fatality ratio for HWs and non-HWs with EVD was 69% and 74%, respectively. The cluster of HW EVD cases in Kenema District is one of the largest ever reported. Most HWs with EVD had potential virus exposure both inside and outside of hospitals. Prevention measures for HWs must address a spectrum of infection risks in both formal and informal care settings as well as in the community. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  3. Technical efficiency of primary health units in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the study reported in this paper were to (i estimate the technical efficiency of samples of community health centres (CHCs, community health posts (CHPs and maternal and child health posts (MCHPs in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone, (ii estimate the output increases needed to make inefficient MCHPs, CHCs and CHPs efficient, and (iii explore strategies for increasing technical efficiency of these institutions. Methods This study applies the data envelopment analysis (DEA approach to analyse technical efficiency of random samples of 36 MCHPs, 22 CHCs and 21 CHPs using input and output data for 2008. Results The findings indicate that 77.8% of the MCHPs, 59.1% of the CHCs and 66.7% of the CHPs were variable returns to scale technically inefficient. The average variable returns to scale technical efficiency was 68.2% (SD = 27.2 among the MCHPs, 69.2% (SD = 33.2 among the CHCs and 59% (SD = 34.7 among the CHPs. Conclusion This study reveals significant technical inefficiencies in the use of health system resources among peripheral health units in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone. There is need to strengthen national and district health information systems to routinely track the quantities and prices of resources injected into the health care systems and health service outcomes (indicators of coverage, quality and health status to facilitate regular efficiency analyses.

  4. [Effects of reforestation on tree pollen sensitization in inhabitants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Gómez, Samuel; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Amaro-Vivian, Laura Elizabeth; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has implications for health, ecology and society. Urban green areas are a key element in the planning of cities, promoting citizen interaction with the environment, as well as health. Lack of planning and design of these areas as well as the selection of ornamental trees can be a trigger of pollen allergy in the surrounding population. Reforestation is among the programs implemented by the government that have an impact on allergy. Environmental reforestation programs do not take into account the allergenic potential of some species. In the last 4 years, the government of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, has planted nearly 18,000 Quercus species trees, in addition to an unknown number of Fraxinus species trees that are listed as tree species with high pollen production. To identify changes in tree pollen sensitization, based on environmental reforestation programs. A retrospective and descriptive study was done in which positive skin prick tests to pollen from trees in the interval of 2010-2014 were analyzed, correlating between tree species used for reforestation and increased sensitivity to the former. A statistically significant increase in pollen sensitization to species with which Nuevo Leon was reforested was found, along with a decrease in sensitization to the species that were not reforested. Reforestation contributes to some extent to the change in the pattern of positive skin tests and may result in more frequent exacerbations of respiratory diseases. It is an activity that should always be regulated and assisted by experts in the according field.

  5. Study of the Wall Paintings of the Cenador Del Leon in the Real Alcazar of Seville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robador, Maria Dolores; Mancera, Inmaculada; Perez-Maqueda, Rafael; Albardonedo, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The paintings on the walls of the Cenador del Leon located in the gardens of the Real Alcazar in Seville next to the Pabellon de Carlos V in the Jardin Ingles area have been studied. The components of the wall paintings cross-sections, which were prepared using small samples taken from the walls of Cenador del Leon, were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The cross-sections of the collected samples indicated that the paint layer is well adhered to the preparation layer without any discontinuity, and only one carbonation layer exists at the top of the sequence of layers. These data suggest that the paint was applied on a fresco surface, and therefore, the adopted technique was fresco. Based on the different elements detected by EDX analysis of the cross-sections, the detected pigments included iron oxides accompanied by clay minerals (or earths) in the red pink, golden yellow and yellow colours, blue smelt for the blue colour and basic copper chloride (atacamite) for the green colour. In one sample, the particles were composed of Ba and S from barium sulphate and Ti and O from rutile titanium oxide due to a modern pigment.

  6. The Biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon; Central electrica de biogas de bioenergia de Nuevo Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Saldana M, Jaime L [Sistemas de Energia Internacional S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon represents, in all the national territory, the first experience on the advantage of biogas emitted by the sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy. Therefore, one of the specific objectives of this paper is the one of diffusion and reproduction of the same one in other cities of Mexico and Latin America. The project is framed within the world-wide policies on the control of emissions for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases (GEG) and its impact in the global climatic change. The gas emitted by the trash sanitary landfills, commonly known as biogas, is a gas mixture derived from the decomposition of the organic matter of the municipal trash by microorganisms in anaerobic conditions. Biogas generated in the sanitary landfills has a methane content of 55% and a 35% of carbon dioxide. The balance 10% is made up of water steam, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfur and other gases in minimum amounts. [Spanish] La Central Electrica de Biogas de Bioenergia de Nuevo Leon representa, en todo el territorio nacional, la primera experiencia sobre el aprovechamiento del biogas emitido por los rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica. Por esta razon, uno de los objetivos especificos de este trabajo es la de difusion y reproduccion del mismo en otras ciudades de Mexico y Latinoamerica. El proyecto esta enmarcado dentro de las politicas mundiales sobre el control de emisiones para la reduccion de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y su impacto en el cambio climatico global. El gas emitido por la basura dispuesta en los rellenos sanitarios, comunmente conocido como biogas, es una mezcla de gases derivado de la descompensacion de la materia organica de la basura municipal por microorganismos en condiciones anaerobias. El biogas generado en los rellenos sanitarios tiene un contenido de metano del 55% y un 35% de bioxido de carbono. El 10% restante se compone de vapor

  7. Learning Styles and Attitudes toward Online Education in Four Universities in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Monarrez, Patricia; Korniejczuk, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find the relation-ship between the predominant learning styles among university online students and their attitude toward online education. Data were collected from 385 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs from four universities in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Significant effects of…

  8. A generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation with finite-band solutions and a soliton-equation hierarchy with an arbitrary parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufeng; Tam, Honwah; Feng Binlu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation is obtained. → The generalized AKNS vector fields are established. → The finite-band solution of the g-ZS equation is obtained. → By using a Lie algebra presented in the paper, a new soliton hierarchy with an arbitrary parameter is worked out. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation (g-ZS equation), which is an isospectral problem, is introduced by using a loop algebra G ∼ . From the stationary zero curvature equation we define the Lenard gradients {g j } and the corresponding generalized AKNS (g-AKNS) vector fields {X j } and X k flows. Employing the nonlinearization method, we obtain the generalized Zhakharov-Shabat Bargmann (g-ZS-B) system and prove that it is Liouville integrable by introducing elliptic coordinates and evolution equations. The explicit relations of the X k flows and the polynomial integrals {H k } are established. Finally, we obtain the finite-band solutions of the g-ZS equation via the Abel-Jacobian coordinates. In addition, a soliton hierarchy and its Hamiltonian structure with an arbitrary parameter k are derived.

  9. Potential Exposure to Ebola Virus from Body Fluids due to Ambulance Compartment Permeability in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan L; Nguyen, Duong T; Idriss, Barrie; Bennett, Sarah; Dunn, Angela; Martin, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Prehospital care, including patient transport, is integral in the patient care process during the Ebola response. Transporting ill persons from the community to Ebola care facilities can stop community spread. Vehicles used for patient transport in infectious disease outbreaks should be evaluated for adequate infection prevention and control. An ambulance driver in Sierra Leone attributed his Ebola infection to exposure to body fluids that leaked from the patient compartment to the driver cabin of the ambulance. A convenience sample of 14 vehicles used to transport patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola in Sierra Leone were assessed. The walls separating the patient compartment and driver cabin in these vehicles were evaluated for structural integrity and potential pathways for body fluid leakage. Ambulance drivers and other staff were asked to describe their cleaning and decontamination practices. Ambulance construction and design standards from the National Fire Protection Association, US General Services Administration, and European Committee on Standardization (CEN) were reviewed. Many vehicles used by ambulance staff in Sierra Leone were not traditional ambulances, but were pick-up trucks or sport-utility vehicles that had been assembled or modified for patient transport. The wall separating the patient compartment and driver cabin in many vehicles did not have a waterproof seal around the edges. Staff responsible for cleaning and disinfection did not thoroughly clean bulk body fluids with disposable towels before disinfection of the patient compartment. Pressure from chlorine sprayers used in the decontamination process may have pushed body fluids from the patient compartment into the driver cabin through gaps around the wall. Ambulance design standards do not require a waterproof seal between the patient compartment and driver cabin. Sealing the wall by tightening or replacing existing bolts is recommended, followed by caulking of all seams with a

  10. Differential Equations Compatible with KZ Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, G.; Markov, Y.; Tarasov, V.; Varchenko, A.

    2000-01-01

    We define a system of 'dynamical' differential equations compatible with the KZ differential equations. The KZ differential equations are associated to a complex simple Lie algebra g. These are equations on a function of n complex variables z i taking values in the tensor product of n finite dimensional g-modules. The KZ equations depend on the 'dual' variable in the Cartan subalgebra of g. The dynamical differential equations are differential equations with respect to the dual variable. We prove that the standard hypergeometric solutions of the KZ equations also satisfy the dynamical equations. As an application we give a new determinant formula for the coordinates of a basis of hypergeometric solutions

  11. Topological Galois theory solvability and unsolvability of equations in finite terms

    CERN Document Server

    Khovanskii, Askold

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a detailed and largely self-contained description of various classical and new results on solvability and unsolvability of equations in explicit form. In particular, it offers a complete exposition of the relatively new area of topological Galois theory, initiated by the author. Applications of Galois theory to solvability of algebraic equations by radicals, basics of Picard–Vessiot theory, and Liouville's results on the class of functions representable by quadratures are also discussed. A unique feature of this book is that recent results are presented in the same elementary manner as classical Galois theory, which will make the book useful and interesting to readers with varied backgrounds in mathematics, from undergraduate students to researchers. In this English-language edition, extra material has been added (Appendices A–D), the last two of which were written jointly with Yura Burda.

  12. Global health business: the production and performativity of statistics in Sierra Leone and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    The global push for health statistics and electronic digital health information systems is about more than tracking health incidence and prevalence. It is also experienced on the ground as means to develop and maintain particular norms of health business, knowledge, and decision- and profit-making that are not innocent. Statistics make possible audit and accountability logics that undergird the management of health at a distance and that are increasingly necessary to the business of health. Health statistics are inextricable from their social milieus, yet as business artifacts they operate as if they are freely formed, objectively originated, and accurate. This article explicates health statistics as cultural forms and shows how they have been produced and performed in two very different countries: Sierra Leone and Germany. In both familiar and surprising ways, this article shows how statistics and their pursuit organize and discipline human behavior, constitute subject positions, and reify existing relations of power.

  13. Generalized symmetries of an 𝓝 = 1 supersymmetric Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yong; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Liang, Zu-Feng; Lou, Sen-Yue

    2015-05-01

    The formal series symmetry approach (FSSA), a quite powerful and straightforward method to establish infinitely many generalized symmetries of classical integrable systems, has been successfully extended in the supersymmetric framework to explore series of infinitely many generalized symmetries for supersymmetric systems. Taking the 𝒩 = 1 supersymmetric Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli system as a concrete example, it is shown that the application of the extended FSSA to this supersymmetric system leads to a set of infinitely many generalized symmetries with an arbitrary function f (t). Some interesting special cases of symmetry algebras are presented, including a limit case f (t) = 1 related to the commutativity of higher order generalized symmetries. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275123, 11175092, 11475052, and 11435005), the Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things, China (Grant No. ZF1213), and the Talent Fund and K CWong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  14. Education Programs in Post-Conflict Environments: a Review from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Barrios-Tao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Education should be considered as one of the mechanisms for governments and nations to succeed in a post-conflict process. The purpose of this Review Article is twofold: to explain the importance of education in a post-conflict setting, and to describe a few strategies that post-conflict societies have implemented. In terms of research design, a multiple case study approach has been implemented. The paper reviews a unique topic with specific reference to education plans implemented in post-conflict societies such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Africa. Each of them has experienced violent conflicts and has used education as a tool to succeed in their post-conflict process. In sum, there are several educational programs that involve children, young people, survivors, parents, teachers, and local communities as well as curriculums focused on teaching of cultural values and technical skills to improve the quality of life in a post-conflict setting.

  15. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Sierra Leone, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $1.1 million of Agency support received, Sierra Leone ranks 70th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Almost equal shares of the assistance during the past ten years have been provided in the form of equipment (40%) and expert services (37%), while the share of the training component was 23%. The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (96%), the remaining 4% was made available through assistance in kind. During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: nuclear medicine (52%), general atomic energy development (25%) and agriculture (23%)

  16. Evaluation of the benefits and risks of introducing Ebola community care centers, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Adam J; Camacho, Anton; Checchi, Francesco; Waldman, Ron; Grais, Rebecca F; Cabrol, Jean-Clement; Briand, Sylvie; Baguelin, Marc; Flasche, Stefan; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2015-03-01

    In some parts of western Africa, Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) have reached capacity. Unless capacity is rapidly scaled up, the chance to avoid a generalized Ebola epidemic will soon diminish. The World Health Organization and partners are considering additional Ebola patient care options, including community care centers (CCCs), small, lightly staffed units that could be used to isolate patients outside the home and get them into care sooner than otherwise possible. Using a transmission model, we evaluated the benefits and risks of introducing CCCs into Sierra Leone's Western Area, where most ETCs are at capacity. We found that use of CCCs could lead to a decline in cases, even if virus transmission occurs between CCC patients and the community. However, to prevent CCC amplification of the epidemic, the risk of Ebola virus-negative persons being exposed to virus within CCCs would have to be offset by a reduction in community transmission resulting from CCC use.

  17. Pesticide residues in orange fruit from citrus orchards in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Jacobo, Angela; Alcantar-Rosales, Victor Manuel; Alonso-Segura, Diana; Heras-Ramírez, Maria; Elizarragaz-De La Rosa, Dalau; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia; Gaspar-Ramirez, Octavio

    2017-09-01

    Some international organisations established maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food to protect human health. Mexico lacks regulations in this matter, affecting national and international trade from agroindustry. The aim of this study was to diagnose pesticide residues in oranges from Nuevo Leon, México, in citrus orchards. In May 2014, 100 orange fruit samples were taken randomly from orchards and subjected to analysis for 93 pesticides at residual level by GC/QQQ-MS and LCQ-TOF-MS. Results showed the presence of 15 pesticide residues in the samples. The comparison of the residual levels of pesticides found in orange samples among the MRLs allowed by USA, EU and Japanese regulations demonstrated that all samples were below MRLs issued by USA and Japan. Some orange samples were above MRLs issued by the EU. This provides a basis to establish strategies in order to satisfy International Standards to protect human health and encourage Food Safety in Mexico.

  18. The life and work of Leon Henkin essays on his contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Sain, Ildikó; Alonso, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book on the life and works of Leon Henkin (1921–2006), an extraordinary scientist and excellent teacher whose writings became influential right from the beginning of his career with his doctoral thesis on “The completeness of formal systems” under the direction of Alonzo Church. Upon the invitation of Alfred Tarski, Henkin joined the Group in Logic and the Methodology of Science in the Department of Mathematics at the University of California Berkeley in 1953. He stayed with the group until his retirement in 1991. This edited volume includes both foundational material and a logic perspective. Algebraic logic, model theory, type theory, completeness theorems, philosophical and foundational studies are among the topics covered, as well as mathematical education. The work discusses Henkin’s intellectual development, his relation to his predecessors and contemporaries, and his impact on the recent development of mathematical logic. It offers a valuable reference work for researcher...

  19. Territorial identity and landscape. Evolution morphology of nuclei in Castilla y Leon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Pedrosa, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to study the physical and socioeconomic transformations of rural settlements belonging to the Spanish region of Castile and Leon, throughout the second half of the 20th century. The evolution of urban form is analyzed, using a geographical information system (GIS) and calculating several shape metrics, and is then related to historical demographical data. The results are meant to show the effects of functional specialization, caused by the integration of rural regions in global economic hierarchies, on settlement structures and patterns. Gradual loss of the traditional features of Castilian villages, such as urban compactness and integration in the landscape, due to the disappearance or neglect of vernacular architecture and the construction of new industrial infrastructures, poses a risk for future place-based development policies. It is deemed necessary to preserve local identity and avoid destruction or degradation of the traditional heritage for revitalizing these territories. (Author)

  20. Crop-Specific EU Aid and Smallholder Food Security in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Saravia-Matus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the viability of promoting crop-specific programs as a mean to improve smallholder net farm income and food security. The case study explores the relevance of European Union Stabilisation of Export Earnings (STABEX funds in supporting Sierra Leone’s agricultural development agenda. By analysing the drivers of food security for a number of targeted smallholders in the two most important agricultural zones of Sierra Leone, it is possible to compare the suitability of crop-specific support (in rice, cocoa and coffee versus general aid programs (public infrastructure, on and off farm diversification opportunities, sustainable practices, access to productive assets, etc.. The results indicate that crop diversification strategies are widespread and closely related to risk minimisation and enhanced food security among smallholders. Similarly, crop-specific programs mainly focusing on commercialisation tend to overlook important constraints associated to self-consumption and productivity.

  1. EL UTILITARISMO DE JEREMY BENTHAM ¿FUNDAMENTO DE LA TEORÍA DE LEON WALRAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída-Sofía Rivera-Sotelo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto cuestiona el utilitarismo de Jeremy Bentham como fundamento de la teoría marginalista walrasiana. La problemática se aborda a través de un análisis comparativo del pensamiento de Jeremy Bentham y de Leon Walras en tres áreas centrales: sus visiones de la sociedad y el objetivo social, sus aproximaciones teóricas y metodológicas en relación directa con sus respectivas teorías de la sociedad, y el lugar del principio de utilidad en el marco de las teorías generales de sociedad. El escrito contribuye a un debate vigente sobre los fundamentos filosóficos de la teoría de la elección racional y a deshomogenizar el pensamiento de los padres del marginalismo.

  2. Cosmogenic helium and volatile-rich fluid in Sierra leone alluvial diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConville, P.; Reynolds, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Pursuant to the discovery elsewhere of cosmogenic 10 Be in alluvial diamond fragments from Zaire, noble gas measurements were made on two identical splits of a finely powdered, harshly acid-washed sample derived from selected (for clarity) fragments of a single alluvial diamond from Sierra Leone (sample LJA → L4 and L5). Essentially identical results were obtained for both splits. Isotopic ratios for Ar, Kr, and Xe were atmospheric and their elemental abundances were high relative to published data, owing to shock implantation in the crushing as verified in a supplementary experiment. No neon was detected above blank level. 3 He was exceptionally abundant, 4 He exceptionally depleted, possibly from the acid wash, and the ratio 3 He/ 4 He almost unprecedentedly high at an R/R a value of 246 ± 16. The results support the hypothesis that excess 3 He in diamonds is cosmogenic, although a cosmic-ray exposure of 5, 35, or (impossibly) 152 Ma for cyclic gardening of the sample to a maximum depth of 0, 4.6 m, or 20 m, respectively, is required. Troublesome for the cosmogenic hypothesis is a sample from very deep in the Finsch mine, South Africa, found by Zadnik et al (1987) to have an R/R a value of 1,000. This paper includes histograms of noble gas data published prior to mid-1988 for diamonds of known provenance. The Sierra Leone diamond studied in the supplementary experiment belongs to a distinct population of 40* Ar-rich diamonds consisting mostly of cubic diamonds for Zaire

  3. Context matters: community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Brennan, Robert T

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics - social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth - in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in postconflict Sierra Leone. A total of 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively covaried with youths' externalizing and internalizing scores - indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p mental health outcomes was nonsignificant (p > .05). This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the postconflict social context plays in shaping the mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a 4-year period of follow-up. These results underscore the importance of the postconflict social environment and the need to develop postconflict interventions that address community-level processes in addition to the needs

  4. Effects of Reforestation on Tree Pollen Sensitization in Inhabitants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Palma-Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change has implications for health, ecology and society. Urban green areas are a key element in the planning of citie, promoting citizen interaction with the environment, as well as health. Lack of planning and design of these areas as well as the selection of ornamental trees can be a trigger of pollen allergy in the surrounding population. Reforestation is among the programs implemented by the government that have an impact on allergy. Environmental reforestation programs do not take into account the allergenic potential of some spe- cies. In the last 4 years, the government of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, has planted nearly 18,000 Quercus species trees, in addition to an unknown number of Fraxinus species trees that are listed as tree species with high pollen production. Objective: To identify changes in tree pollen sensitization, based on environmental reforestation programs. Material and method: A retrospective and descriptive study was done in which positive skin prick tests to pollen from trees in the interval of 2010-2014 were analyzed, correlating between tree species used for reforestation and increased sensitivity to the former. Results: A statistically signi cant increase in pollen sensitization to species with which Nuevo Leon was reforested was found, along with a decrease in sensitization to the species that were not reforested. Conclusion: Reforestation contributes to some extent to the change in the pattern of positive skin tests and may result in more frequent exac- erbations of respiratory diseases. It is an activity that should always be regulated and assisted by experts in the according eld.

  5. Herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter Bai; Kamara, Halimatu; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Steel, Amie; Wardle, Jon

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence, determinants and pattern of herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in Freetown. We conducted a cross-sectional study among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown, Sierra Leone between August and October 2016. We analyzed the data using SPSS version 24. We used Chi-square, Fisher exact two-tailed test and regression analysis for data analysis. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of 260 study participants, over half (n = 148, 56.9%) reported using herbal medicine for the treatment of hypertension alone or together with comorbid condition(s). The most commonly used herbal medicine among users were honey (n = 89, 33.3%), moringa (n = 80, 30.0%) and garlic (n = 73, 27.3%). No significant difference existed between users and non-users of herbal medicine with regards to socio-demographic and health-related factors. The majority (n = 241, 92.7%) of respondents considered herbal medicine beneficial if it was recommended by a healthcare provider yet 85.1% (n = 126) did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their health care provider. There is a high use of herbal medicines among hypertensive patients in Freetown, Sierra Leone. It is essential for healthcare providers to take heed of the findings of this study and routinely ask their patients about their herbal medicine use status. Such practice will provide the opportunity to discuss the benefits and risks of herbal medicine use with the aim of maximizing patient desired therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glikman : maadeafääri süüdistust ei pruugi tulla / Leon Glikman ; interv. Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Glikman, Leon, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu vandeadvokaat Leon Glikmaniga, kelle büroo kaitseb maadevahetusega seotud kriminaalasjas kahtlustatavaid Toomas Annust ja Andres Sarrit. Intervjuu sissejuhatus puudutab tööandjate keskliidu oktoobris 2007 koostatud pöördumist peaministri poole

  7. Transformed number states from a generalized Bogoliubov transformation and their relationships to the eigenstates of the Kossakowski-Lindblad equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, B A

    2011-01-01

    We use a generalized Bogoliubov transformation to construct a set of transformed occupation number states of the harmonic oscillator in the Liouville space. General expressions for the expansion coefficients of these states in the bare number basis are obtained and the properties of these states investigated. The transformation is non-dynamical in nature and divides the transformed basis into disconnected correlation subspaces under the transformation. The basis is complete and orthonormal. Elements of the basis are in general mixed states, and the state with the lowest number indices is the thermal vacuum. Since the Kossakowski-Lindblad (KL) equation remains form invariant under the same transformation, the transformation parameter can be identified to the thermal parameter of the master equation. The transformed states then acquire thermal property through this connection. We also work out the explicit expressions of the transformation matrices between the transformed states and the eigenstates of the KL equation for different temperatures.

  8. Spectral transform and solvability of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degasperis, A.

    1979-01-01

    These lectures deal with an exciting development of the last decade, namely the resolving method based on the spectral transform which can be considered as an extension of the Fourier analysis to nonlinear evolution equations. Since many important physical phenomena are modeled by nonlinear partial wave equations this method is certainly a major breakthrough in mathematical physics. We follow the approach, introduced by Calogero, which generalizes the usual Wronskian relations for solutions of a Sturm-Liouville problem. Its application to the multichannel Schroedinger problem will be the subject of these lectures. We will focus upon dynamical systems described at time t by a multicomponent field depending on one space coordinate only. After recalling the Fourier technique for linear evolution equations we introduce the spectral transform method taking the integral equations of potential scattering as an example. The second part contains all the basic functional relationships between the fields and their spectral transforms as derived from the Wronskian approach. In the third part we discuss a particular class of solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, solitons, which are considered by many physicists as a first step towards an elementary particle theory, because of their particle-like behaviour. The effect of the polarization time-dependence on the motion of the soliton is studied by means of the corresponding spectral transform, leading to new concepts such as the 'boomeron' and the 'trappon'. The rich dynamic structure is illustrated by a brief report on the main results of boomeron-boomeron and boomeron-trappon collisions. In the final section we discuss further results concerning important properties of the solutions of basic nonlinear equations. We introduce the Baecklund transform for the special case of scalar fields and demonstrate how it can be used to generate multisoliton solutions and how the conservation laws are obtained. (HJ)

  9. A family of integrable differential–difference equations, its bi-Hamiltonian structure and binary nonlinearization of the Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We deduce a family of integrable differential–difference equations. ► We present a discrete Hamiltonian operator involving two arbitrary real parameters. ► We establish the bi-Hamiltonian structure for obtained integrable family. ► Liouvolle integrability of the obtained family is demonstrated. ► Every equation in obtained family is factored through the binary nonlinearization. - Abstract: A family of integrable differential–difference equations is derived by the method of Lax pairs. A discrete Hamiltonian operator involving two arbitrary real parameters is introduced. When the parameters are suitably selected, a pair of discrete Hamiltonian operators is presented. Bi-Hamiltonian structure of obtained family is established by discrete trace identity. Then, Liouville integrability for the obtained family is proved. Ultimately, through the binary nonlinearization of the Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs, every differential–difference equation in obtained family is factored by an integrable symplectic map and a finite-dimensional integrable system in Liouville sense.

  10. Understanding the Causes of Civil Wars in Post-Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa. Case study: Sierra Leone and the Role of women in the Search for Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Sesay, Adama

    2013-01-01

    It is widely understood or assumed among scholars like Thomas Weiss, that civil wars in Africa are mainly wars for natural resources. This statement needs careful evaluation, and it is for this reason that this study will use Weiss`s theories on the causes of wars in sub-Sahara Africa as a background for understanding the Sierra Leone conflict. In addition, as the title implies, this paper further aims to investigate the war in Sierra Leone and most...

  11. Extended rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence

  12. The validity of quantum-classical multi-channel diffusion equations describing interlevel transitions in the condensed phase. The adiabatic representation

    CERN Document Server

    Basilevsky, M V

    2002-01-01

    We develop an approach for derivation of quantum-classical relaxation equations for a two-channel problem. The treatment is based on the adiabatic channel wavefunctions and the system-bath coupling is modelled as a bilinear interaction in momentum representation. In the quantum-classical limit we obtain Liouville equations with the relaxation operator containing diffusion terms diagonal in Liouvillian space and the off-diagonal part which is responsible for thermal interlevel transitions. The high-frequency interlevel quantum beats are fully taken into account in this relaxation term. In the framework of the present formulation and as a consequence of the momentum-dependent interaction the Smoluchovsky diffusion limit can be reached without invoking Fokker-Planck equations as an intermediate step. The inherent property of equations so obtained is that the partial rates of interlevel transitions obey the principle of detailed balance. This result could not be gained in earlier treatments of the two-level diffu...

  13. Store Type and Demographic Influence on the Availability and Price of Healthful Foods, Leon County, Florida, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Angela F.; Lee, Jung Sun; Rigby, Samantha; Kurtz, Hilda; Johnson, Mary Ann; Betterley, Connie; Park, Sohyun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The availability of healthful foods varies by neighborhood. We examined the availability and price of more healthful foods by store type, neighborhood income level, and racial composition in a community with high rates of diet-related illness and death. Methods We used the modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores to conduct this cross-sectional study in 2008. We surveyed 73 stores (29% supermarkets, 11% grocery stores, and 60% convenience stores) in Leon County, F...

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Syphilis Infections Among Military Personnel in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    sponses (n=10). 3.5. Factors Associated with Syphilis Status Syphilis seropositivity was increased by older age , HIV in- fection and the...multiple sexual partnerships in the same week and HIV testing outside of military facilities (pɘ.05). Increasing age , positive HIV status and rural...population (15-49 years of age ) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the

  15. Interface between the biophysical environment in informal settlements and poverty in developing countries : the case for Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, William Lewis

    2005-01-01

    The socio-economic problems of developing countries, especially Sub-Saharan African cities are the result of rapid growth, increasing poverty, unequal distribution of resources, civil conflicts and poor governance. These problems have been exacerbated by perennial incidence of civil wars. In Sierra Leone, eleven years of protracted civil war has exacerbated the problems of rural-urban migration, increased poverty, dislocation of urban governance, severe unemployment and lost in...

  16. A study of natural recovery in an aquatic ecosystem affected by mining: the Rodrigatos stream (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacal, M.; Herrero, T.; Rodriguez, V.; Alberruche, E.; Vadillo, L.

    2009-01-01

    This work takes place into the Bierzo Region, located in northeast of the province of Leon (Spain). In this area numerous open-pit and underground coal mines exist. Some of them are still in activity but almost have been abandoned. In any case, mining implies the presence of coal adits, spoil dumps, tailing dams, and coal-washing plants at the river bank. Most of them persist when mining have finished. (Author)

  17. New analytical exact solutions of time fractional KdV-KZK equation by Kudryashov methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Saha, Ray

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, new exact solutions of the time fractional KdV-Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KdV-KZK) equation are obtained by the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method respectively. For this purpose, the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative is used to convert the nonlinear time fractional KdV-KZK equation into the nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In the present analysis, the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method are both used successively to compute the analytical solutions of the time fractional KdV-KZK equation. As a result, new exact solutions involving the symmetrical Fibonacci function, hyperbolic function and exponential function are obtained for the first time. The methods under consideration are reliable and efficient, and can be used as an alternative to establish new exact solutions of different types of fractional differential equations arising from mathematical physics. The obtained results are exhibited graphically in order to demonstrate the efficiencies and applicabilities of these proposed methods of solving the nonlinear time fractional KdV-KZK equation.

  18. New analytical exact solutions of time fractional KdV–KZK equation by Kudryashov methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Ray, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, new exact solutions of the time fractional KdV–Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KdV–KZK) equation are obtained by the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method respectively. For this purpose, the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative is used to convert the nonlinear time fractional KdV–KZK equation into the nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In the present analysis, the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method are both used successively to compute the analytical solutions of the time fractional KdV–KZK equation. As a result, new exact solutions involving the symmetrical Fibonacci function, hyperbolic function and exponential function are obtained for the first time. The methods under consideration are reliable and efficient, and can be used as an alternative to establish new exact solutions of different types of fractional differential equations arising from mathematical physics. The obtained results are exhibited graphically in order to demonstrate the efficiencies and applicabilities of these proposed methods of solving the nonlinear time fractional KdV–KZK equation. (paper)

  19. High resolution biostratigraphy of Oligo-Miocene Leon and Chama Formations: An integrated approach for sequence stratigraphy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittelli, R.; Rull, V. (Maraven S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    Based on foraminiferal and palynological high resolution studies, a set of Sequence Boundaries (SB) and Maximum Flooding Surfaces (MSF) were identified for the Venezuelan Northwestern Andean Foothills Leon and Chama formations. Changes in abundance patterns of forminifera palynomorphs, in faunal/floral composition and distribution, together with quantitative studies of particulate organic matter allowed picking SB 30, 21 and 15.5 (very low values of fossil abundance and faunal discontinuities, recognized by a rapid stratigraphic change in biofacies and faunal assemblage and the associated mineralogical contents) and MFS 18.5, 16, and 15 (abundant fossils). The Leon Formation represents coastal plain and swamp deposits with some minor fluctuations in the seawater level. The top of the Leon Formation shaly unit is bounded by SB 30, according to Hag B.U. et al (version 1992), marked by a decrease in fossil abundance. An increase in faunal/floral content close to the top of the section coincides with the MFS 18.5. The upper part of the formation is marked by a sandy unit with SB 16.5, characterized again by a decrease in fossil abundance at its top. The Chama Formation was deposited in a transitional environment, with minor seawater level fluctuations. Climate type was tropical humid, with seasonal precipitations, except at the Early Miocene arid or semiarid phase. Mangrove and rain forest vegetation dominated throughout the Early to Middle Miocene. MFS 16 was picked on the basis of a high abundance of microforams and glauconite.

  20. Population mobility reductions associated with travel restrictions during the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone: use of mobile phone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, Corey M; Wesolowski, Amy; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Tatem, Andrew J; Wetter, Erik; Lu, Xin; Power, Daniel; Weidman-Grunewald, Elaine; Ramos, Sergio; Moritz, Simon; Buckee, Caroline O; Bengtsson, Linus

    2018-06-26

    Travel restrictions were implementeded on an unprecedented scale in 2015 in Sierra Leone to contain and eliminate Ebola virus disease. However, the impact of epidemic travel restrictions on mobility itself remains difficult to measure with traditional methods. New 'big data' approaches using mobile phone data can provide, in near real-time, the type of information needed to guide and evaluate control measures. We analysed anonymous mobile phone call detail records (CDRs) from a leading operator in Sierra Leone between 20 March and 1 July in 2015. We used an anomaly detection algorithm to assess changes in travel during a national 'stay at home' lockdown from 27 to 29 March. To measure the magnitude of these changes and to assess effect modification by region and historical Ebola burden, we performed a time series analysis and a crossover analysis. Routinely collected mobile phone data revealed a dramatic reduction in human mobility during a 3-day lockdown in Sierra Leone. The number of individuals relocating between chiefdoms decreased by 31% within 15 km, by 46% for 15-30 km and by 76% for distances greater than 30 km. This effect was highly heterogeneous in space, with higher impact in regions with higher Ebola incidence. Travel quickly returned to normal patterns after the restrictions were lifted. The effects of travel restrictions on mobility can be large, targeted and measurable in near real-time. With appropriate anonymization protocols, mobile phone data should play a central role in guiding and monitoring interventions for epidemic containment.

  1. Diamonds, a resource curse? The case of Kono District in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sigismond Ayodele

    Using an actor-oriented approach to political ecology integrated with theory on the social production of scale, this dissertation examines the extent to which diamond exploitation constitutes a resource curse in Sierra Leone, with Kono District as a case-study. It uses social survey methods and remote sensing analysis of Landsat images to (1) evaluate the role of Sierra Leone's diamonds in economic development from a historical lens, (2) examine the extent to which a weak regulatory state apparatus makes a rich diamond endowment more of a curse than a blessing, (3) determine whether geographically diffuse and remotely-located diamonds are more a liability than an asset, and (4) assess whether environmental conditions are worse in diamond than in non-diamond chiefdoms. Results of the study showed that the contribution of diamonds to national economic growth declined precipitously following the politicization of diamonds and growing informalization of mining under the leadership of Siaka Stevens. Growing disenchantment combined with grievances over access to diamond resources and rights, culminating in a civil war fuelled by conflict diamonds. Findings indicated that actors capitalized on a weak regulatory state to fulfill their agendas. Illicit diamond exploitation was mainly driven by corruption, economic constraints and perverse economic incentives. Preferential land allocation to industrial mining following World Bank Group-directed national mining policy reforms and the weakness of the state in ensuring companies' adherence to mining clauses precipitated corporation-community conflicts. Study findings showed that the resource curse was acute on diggers who received less than 1 a day unlike their South American counterparts who made at least 7 daily. Results from the study demonstrate that the spatiality of diamonds also contributed to the resource curse. Illicit diamond mining was more acute in remotely located mining sites than in extractive sites closer to

  2. The quality of free antenatal and delivery services in Northern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroma, Manso M; Kamara, Samuel S; Bangura, Evelyn A; Kamara, Mohamed A; Lokossou, Virgil; Keita, Namoudou

    2017-07-12

    The number of maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be overwhelmingly high. In West Africa, Sierra Leone leads the list, with the highest maternal mortality ratio. In 2010, financial barriers were removed as an incentive for more women to use available antenatal, delivery and postnatal services. Few published studies have examined the quality of free antenatal services and access to emergency obstetric care in Sierra Leone. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in all 97 peripheral health facilities and three hospitals in Bombali District, Northern Region. One hundred antenatal care providers were interviewed, 276 observations were made and 486 pregnant women were interviewed. We assessed the adequacy of antenatal and delivery services provided using national standards. The distance was calculated between each facility providing delivery services and the nearest comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEOC) facility, and the proportion of facilities in a chiefdom within 15 km of each CEOC facility was also calculated. A thematic map was developed to show inequities. The quality of services was poor. Based on national standards, only 27% of women were examined, 2% were screened on their first antenatal visit and 47% received interventions as recommended. Although 94% of facilities provided delivery services, a minority had delivery rooms (40%), delivery kits (42%) or portable water (46%). Skilled attendants supervised 35% of deliveries, and in only 35% of these were processes adequately documented. None of the five basic emergency obstetric care facilities were fully compliant with national standards, and the central and northernmost parts of the district had the least access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care. The health sector needs to monitor the quality of antenatal interventions in addition to measuring coverage. The quality of delivery services is compromised by poor infrastructure, inadequate skilled staff, stock-outs of

  3. Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 7th Symposium on differential geometry and differential equations (DD7) held at the Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin, China, in 1986. Most of the contributions are original research papers on topics including elliptic equations, hyperbolic equations, evolution equations, non-linear equations from differential geometry and mechanics, micro-local analysis.

  4. Nise da Silveira, Fernando Diniz e Leon Hirszman: política, sociedade e arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Melo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda o processo de construção do filme Imagens do Inconsciente, mais especificamente do episódio Em Busca do Espaço Cotidiano, sobre Fernando Diniz e sua produção pictórica. O encontro entre a psiquiatra Nise da Silveira e o cineasta Leon Hirszman está marcado pela não dissociação de política, sociedade e arte. O trabalho terapêutico e de reabilitação psicossocial desenvolvido por Nise da Silveira tem como característica o estabelecimento de importantes conexões com o campo das artes, possibilitando o diálogo com toda a sociedade. Esse trabalho de transformação cultural e de mentalidades fez com que fosse questionada a exclusão social dos chamados doentes mentais e transformada a política de assistência no campo da saúde mental no Brasil.

  5. The etiology of Ebola virus disease-like illnesses in Ebola virusnegative patients from Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Gang; Chen, Wei-Wei; Li, Lei; Ji, Dong; Ji, Ying-Jie; Li, Chen; Gao, Xu-Dong; Wang, Li-Fu; Zhao, Min; Duan, Xue-Zhang; Duan, Hui-Juan

    2016-05-10

    During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, less than half of EVD-suspected cases were laboratory tested as Ebola virus (EBOV)-negative, but disease identity remained unknown. In this study we investigated the etiology of EVD-like illnesses in EBOV-negative cases. From November 13, 2014 to March 16, 2015, EVD-suspected patients were admitted to Jui Government Hospital and assessed for EBOV infection by real-time PCR. Of 278 EBOV negative patients, 223 (80.21%), 142 (51.08%), 123 (44.24%), 114 (41.01%), 59 (21.22%), 35 (12.59%), and 12 (4.32%) reported fever, headache, joint pain, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhage, respectively. Furthermore, 121 (43.52%), 44 (15.83%), 36 (12.95%), 33 (11.87%), 23 (8.27%), 10 (3.60%) patients were diagnosed as infection with malaria, HIV, Lassa fever, tuberculosis, yellow fever, and pneumonia, respectively. No significant differences in clinical features and symptoms were found between non-EVD and EVD patients. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to explore the etiology of EVD-like illnesses in uninfected patients in Sierra Leone, highlighting the importance of accurate diagnosis to EVD confirmation.

  6. Short Report: Serological Evidence of Under-Reported Dengue Circulation in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime M de Araújo Lobo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is thought to have emerged from a sylvatic cycle in Africa but has since become adapted to an urban-centric transmission cycle. These urban areas include villages in West Africa where DENV is not often routinely considered for patients presenting with febrile illnesses, as other endemic diseases (malaria, Lassa fever, e.g. present with similar non-specific symptoms. Thus, dengue is likely under diagnosed in the region. These plaque reduction neutralization test-50 (PRNT50 screening results of patients presenting with fevers of unknown origin (FUO at a clinic in Kenema, Sierra Leone indicate that all four serotypes of DENV likely circulate in areas surrounding Kenema. Using a more conservative PRNT80 cut-off value, our results still indicate the presence of antibody to all four serotypes in the region. Identifying alternate etiologies of FUOs in this region will assist clinicians in plan-of-care decisions as well as follow-up priorities. This is particularly relevant given the Ebola outbreak in the region, where diagnosis has a range of downstream effects ranging from correct allocation of medical resources, appropriate isolation of patients, and ultimately, a better informed public health sector.

  7. Traffic related deaths in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: causes and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Rissa, Carlos; Santos-Guzmán, Jesús; Esquivel-Guzmán, Adol; Mock, Charles N

    2008-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on mortality due to motor vehicle accidents was studied. During the first semester of 2003, a sample of 243 fatality victims of traffic-related accidents and their blood alcohol levels were analyzed in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The age-adjusted mortality rate for traffic accidents was 8.9/100000 pop. (13.2 for males and 3.21 for females, per 100000). Fatal accidents were more common in the Metropolitan Area (MA). Fatalities were four times greater in males and the mean age was 34.7+/-18.2 years. Blood alcohol was detected in almost half of the victims who were drivers of the vehicles; the other cases of fatalities may be associated with road/car condition, weather and other factors. Alcohol intoxication levels were primarily associated with male drivers ages 16 to 45 (p=0.029); levels increased with age. In females, alcohol played a lesser role, affecting mostly ages 31 to 45 y (p=0.055).

  8. [Prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in veterinary medicine students from Monterey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Monsiváis Toscano, Gina; Gallardo Martínez, Gabriela; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Galindo Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    The reported prevalence of allergic systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom occur in up to 3.3% and large local reactions occur in 17% in the general population. To investigate the prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in a group of veterinary medicine students from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A transverse and observational study was done with 64 students of veterinary medicine. We conducted a questionnaire about the students' history of insect allergy and atopy. Skin test with allergenic extracts of bee and ant were practiced to all subjects. We performed aeroallergen skin prick test to the subjets with suspected atopy. Students age ranged from 17 to 25 years (mean 20.2) and 37 were males. Twenty students (31.3%) had clinical history of atopy and positive skin tests to aeroallergens. On the other hand, 5 students (7.8%), including 2 atopic, had suffered large local reactions, but none of them had suffered systemic reactions. Bee and ant skin tests were positive in 15.6% and 31.3% of the students respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy between atopic and non atopic subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the frequency of atopy in subjects with positive skin tests for bee and ant was 50%. The prevalence of large local reactions and hymenoptera sensitization found in this group was similar to that found in other epidemiologic studies.

  9. Diamonds and development: A critical analysis of stereotypes about mineworkers in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D’Angelo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the Sierra Leone’s diamond mines have been the focus of an intense debate among analysts and experts of the development. Two main interrelated issues have been at stake in this debate: first, to understand the economic and political reasons that had supported the civil war from 1991 to 2002 and, second, to understand how to convert a potential “conflict commodity” in a resource for peace and prosperity. In this paper, I intend to highlight some recurring stereotypes of this debate. In particular, I will focus on a constellation of representations that depict the artisanal miners either as workers poorly organized and prone to irrational economic behavior, or as workers subjected to forms of exploitation akin to slavery. Based on fieldwork conducted in the diamond mining areas of Sierra Leone (2007-2011, this article intends to analyze the main forms of working organization and distribution of earnings among the miners. By challenging some stereotypes characterizing the development discourse, my aim is to show the cultural complexity and the historical density of the practices through which the miners face the risks and uncertainties of their job.

  10. Hiperplasia linfoide de íleon terminal, presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Fajardo Ochoa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un adolescente masculino de 16 años de edad que acudió a la consulta por dolor abdominal recurrente, localizado en la fosa ilíaca derecha, el cual había recibido tratamiento sintomático con antiespasmódicos y antiparasitarios sin lograr mejoría del dolor, por lo que fue remitido a la consulta de Gastroenterología donde se le realizaron exámenes complementarios que evidenciaron la existencia de una patología en el íleon terminal, se remitió al Instituto de Gastroenterología, donde se le realizó una colonoscopia y se le diagnosticó una hiperplasia linfoide severa de Ileon terminal que con el tratamiento higiénico dietético, se logró disminuir la frecuencia y la intensidad del dolor, sin embargo en las colonoscopías evolutivas se observó un incremento en la intensidad y la extensión de la hiperplasia por lo que se le indicaron exámenes endoscópicos e histológicos cada seis meses, llama la atención que a pesar de la severidad del cuadro, nunca se ha observado ningún episodio de sangrado digestivo que es la forma de presentación más frecuente de esta entidad

  11. Morphological characterization of lentil (lens culinaris medik.) landraces from castilla y leon, spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, K.; Arif, M.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of plant genetic resources has a significant impact on their possible future use in lentil breeding programs and also, in the activity of germplasm collections. In this work we have characterized 27 lentil landraces from the region of Castilla and Leon (plateau in Northern Spain), existing among them two different morphological groups according to the characteristics of the seeds (Macrosperma and Microsperma). Fifteen morpho-agronomical characters were measured for data collection. A principal components analysis allowed the definition of the 5 factors which explain 83.7% of the cumulative variance. The first factor explains 25.3% of total variation and it is related to seed production. We performed a cluster analysis obtaining 5 groups, each one defined by the average values of the employed characters. 37.0% of landraces were included in group 5, characterized by a high mean of the harvest index (38.4) and also a high mean value (74.4) for the number of pods. To study the seeds we used a correspondence analysis 6 dimensions which explained the 80.9% of the variance were chosen. Two cluster analysis were carried out using the coordinates of the aforementioned analysis. The aim of this work was to study the morphological variability of these populations and to discover the relationship among them. (author)

  12. Genotypic differences in yield formation, phosphorus utilization and nitrogen fixation by cowpeas in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amara, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Available phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (NP) generally occur in very low amounts in soils of the tropics and subtropics. Under such conditions, most crops would require the addition of N and P fertilizer. This is not possible for small-scale farmers who cannot afford or have limited access to fertilizers, and therefore depend on low-input cropping systems. The selection of cultivars adapted to low soil nutrient conditions would sustain the production levels of subsistence farmers. Experiments were therefore conducted over a five-year period to identify cowpea cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency and nitrogen fixation. Two of such cultivars-IT86D-1010 and IT86D-719 have been identified. Root morphological characteristics such as root length, root fineness and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are responsible for high P uptake and use efficiency. Multilocational testing of the cultivars showed that they cannot do well in areas with low rainfall. They have been distributed to farmers through the extension services for large scale production in southern Sierra Leone. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Sequelae and Other Conditions in Ebola Virus Disease Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Vandy, Alren O; Stretch, Rebecca; Otieno, David; Prajapati, Mukesh; Calderon, Mauricio; Vandi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    We rapidly assessed the health of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Kenema, Sierra Leone, by reviewing medical charts of all patients attending the Survivor Clinic of Kenema Government Hospital. Data were abstracted on signs and symptoms at every attendance. As of November 2015, a total of 621 attendances by 115 survivors with laboratory-confirmed EVD were made to the Survivor Clinic. Most (60.9%) survivors were women. Survivors' median age was 28 years (range 0.25-70 years). Survivors attended the clinic a median of 5 times (range 1-21 times) each, and the median time from EVD discharge to attendance was 261 days (range 4-504 days). The most commonly reported signs and symptoms among the 621 attendances were headache (63.1%), fever (61.7%), and myalgia (43.3%). Because health needs of EVD survivors are complex, rapid chart reviews at survivor clinics should be repeated regularly to assess the extent of illness and prioritize service delivery.

  14. Genotypic differences in yield formation, phosphorus utilization and nitrogen fixation by cowpeas in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amara, D S [Sierra Leone Univ., Njala Univ. College, Freetown (Sierra Leone). Dept. of Soil Science; Suale, D S [Institute of Agricultural Research, Freetown (Sierra Leone)

    1996-07-01

    Available phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (NP) generally occur in very low amounts in soils of the tropics and subtropics. Under such conditions, most crops would require the addition of N and P fertilizer. This is not possible for small-scale farmers who cannot afford or have limited access to fertilizers, and therefore depend on low-input cropping systems. The selection of cultivars adapted to low soil nutrient conditions would sustain the production levels of subsistence farmers. Experiments were therefore conducted over a five-year period to identify cowpea cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency and nitrogen fixation. Two of such cultivars-IT86D-1010 and IT86D-719 have been identified. Root morphological characteristics such as root length, root fineness and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are responsible for high P uptake and use efficiency. Multilocational testing of the cultivars showed that they cannot do well in areas with low rainfall. They have been distributed to farmers through the extension services for large scale production in southern Sierra Leone. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs.

  15. Non-adherence to standard treatment guidelines in a rural paediatric hospital in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruycker, M; Van den Bergh, R; Dahmane, A; Khogali, M; Schiavetti, B; Nzomukunda, Y; Alders, P; Allaouna, M; Cloquet, C; Enarson, D A; Satyarayanan, S; Magbity, E; Zachariah, R

    2013-06-21

    A rural paediatric hospital in Bo, Sierra Leone. To assess the level of adherence to standard treatment guidelines among clinicians prescribing treatment for children admitted with a diagnosis of malaria and/or lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), and determine the association between (non) adherence and hospital outcomes, given that non-rational use of medicines is a serious global problem. Secondary analysis of routine programme data. Data were collected for 865 children admitted with an entry diagnosis of malaria and 690 children with LRTI during the period January to April 2011; some patients were classified in both categories. Non-adherence to guidelines comprised use of non-standard drug regimens, dosage variations, non-standard frequency of administration and treatment duration. Cumulative non-adherence to guidelines for LRTI cases was 86%. For malaria, this involved 12% of patients. Potentially harmful non-adherence was significantly associated with an unfavourable hospital outcome, both for malaria and for LRTI cases. Overall non-adherence to standard treatment guidelines by clinicians in a routine hospital setting is very high and influences hospital outcomes. This study advocates for the implementation of routine measures to monitor and improve rational drug use and the quality of clinical care in such hospitals.

  16. Synoptic patterns associated with wildfires caused by lightning in Castile and Leon, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. García-Ortega

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula presents the highest number of wildfires in Europe. In the NW of Spain in particular, wildfires are the natural risk with the greatest economic impact in this region. Wildfires caused by lightning are closely related to the triggering of convective phenomena. The prediction of thunderstorms is a very complex task because these weather events have a local character and are highly dependent on mesoscale atmospheric conditions. The development of convective storms is directly linked to the existence of a synoptic environment favoring convection. The aim of this study is to classify the atmospheric patterns that provide favorable environments for the occurrence of wildfires caused by lightning in the region of Castile and Leon, Spain. The database used for the study contains 376 wildfire days from the period 1987–2006. NCEP data reanalysis has been used. The atmospheric fields used to characterise each day were: geopotential heights and temperatures at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, relative humidity and the horizontal wind at 850 hPa. A Principal Component Analysis in T-mode followed by a Cluster Analysis resulted in a classification of wildfire days into five clusters. The characteristics of these clusters were analysed and described, focusing particularly on the study of those wildfire days in which more than one wildfire was detected. In these cases the main feature observed was the intensification of the disturbance typical of the cluster to which the wildfire belongs.

  17. Using evidence to strengthen accountability for health financing in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbie, Sowo A; Le Voir, Rosanna; Tom-Kargbo, Joanna; Yilla, Mohamed Drissa; Kamara, Abu Bakarr; Nam, Sara L

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, the government of Sierra Leone cut the national budget allocation to the health sector. Civil society organizations planned a nationwide health budget advocacy campaign, coinciding with the 2012 general elections, to hold future leaders to account on financing for women's and children's health. As part of the campaign, Evidence for Action produced district health budget tracking scorecards. The scorecards presented Ministry of Finance data on the allocation and disbursement of health funds in each district. The data were communicated using simple, non-technical language so that citizens could understand the key messages and take action. A total of 5600 scorecards were shared at district electoral forums attended by political candidates, community members, and health activists. Since the election, the proportion of the total government budget allocated to health increased from 7.4% in 2012 to 11.2% in 2014. However, transforming politicians' commitments and pledges into implementation has been challenging, confirming that accountability is a long-term process. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Updated comparison of groundwater flow model results and isotopic data in the Leon Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Northwest of Mexico City, the study area is located in the State of Guanajuato. Leon Valley has covered with groundwater its demand of water, estimated in 20.6 cubic meters per second. The constant increase of population and economic activities in the region, mainly in cities and automobile factories, has also a constant growth in water needs. Related extraction rate has produced an average decrease of approximately 1.0 m per year over the past two decades. This suggests that the present management of the groundwater should be checked. Management of groundwater in the study area involves the possibility of producing environmental impacts by extraction. This vital resource under stress becomes necessary studying its hydrogeological functioning to achieve scientific management of groundwater in the Valley. This research was based on the analysis and integration of existing information and the field generated by the authors. On the base of updated concepts like the geological structure of the area, the hydraulic parameters and the composition of deuterium-delta and delta-oxygen -18, this research has new results. This information has been fully analyzed by applying a groundwater flow model with particle tracking: the result has also a similar result in terms of travel time and paths derived from isotopic data.

  19. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XI.- Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid and Avila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Palencia. Valladolid and Avila of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 41 refs

  20. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria and Segovia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Burgos, Soria and Segovia of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 36 refs

  1. Equating error in observed-score equating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, error in equating observed scores on two versions of a test is defined as the difference between the transformations that equate the quantiles of their distributions in the sample and population of test takers. But it is argued that if the goal of equating is to adjust the scores of

  2. Critical comparison between equation of motion-Green's function methods and configuration interaction methods: analysis of methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, K.F.; Herman, M.F.; Yeager, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A description is provided of the common conceptual origins of many-body equations of motion and Green's function methods in Liouville operator formulations of the quantum mechanics of atomic and molecular electronic structure. Numerical evidence is provided to show the inadequacies of the traditional strictly perturbative approaches to these methods. Nonperturbative methods are introduced by analogy with techniques developed for handling large configuration interaction calculations and by evaluating individual matrix elements to higher accuracy. The important role of higher excitations is exhibited by the numerical calculations, and explicit comparisons are made between converged equations of motion and configuration interaction calculations for systems where a fundamental theorem requires the equality of the energy differences produced by these different approaches. (Auth.)

  3. Comment on “Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic Lagrangian density in fractional form” [J. Math. Phys. 53, 033505 (2012)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabei, Eqab M.; Al-Jamel, A.; Widyan, H.; Baleanu, D.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper, Jaradat et al. [J. Math. Phys. 53, 033505 (2012)] have presented the fractional form of the electromagnetic Lagrangian density within the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. They claimed that the Agrawal procedure [O. P. Agrawal, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 272, 368 (2002)] is used to obtain Maxwell's equations in the fractional form, and the Hamilton's equations of motion together with the conserved quantities obtained from fractional Noether's theorem are reported. In this comment, we draw the attention that there are some serious steps of the procedure used in their work are not applicable even though their final results are correct. Their work should have been done based on a formulation as reported by Baleanu and Muslih [Phys. Scr. 72, 119 (2005)

  4. Exact traveling wave solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-like equations by applying Exp-function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah; Ellahi, Rahmat; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef; Khan, Umar

    2018-03-01

    We have computed new exact traveling wave solutions, including complex solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-Like equations, occurring in physical sciences and engineering, by applying Exp-function method. The method is blended with fractional complex transformation and modified Riemann-Liouville fractional order operator. Our obtained solutions are verified by substituting back into their corresponding equations. To the best of our knowledge, no other technique has been reported to cope with the said fractional order nonlinear problems combined with variety of exact solutions. Graphically, fractional order solution curves are shown to be strongly related to each other and most importantly, tend to fixate on their integer order solution curve. Our solutions comprise high frequencies and very small amplitude of the wave responses.

  5. An algebraic fractional order differentiator for a class of signals satisfying a linear differential equation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Da-Yan; Tian, Yang; Boutat, Driss; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at designing a digital fractional order differentiator for a class of signals satisfying a linear differential equation to estimate fractional derivatives with an arbitrary order in noisy case, where the input can be unknown or known with noises. Firstly, an integer order differentiator for the input is constructed using a truncated Jacobi orthogonal series expansion. Then, a new algebraic formula for the Riemann-Liouville derivative is derived, which is enlightened by the algebraic parametric method. Secondly, a digital fractional order differentiator is proposed using a numerical integration method in discrete noisy case. Then, the noise error contribution is analyzed, where an error bound useful for the selection of the design parameter is provided. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the accuracy and the robustness of the proposed fractional order differentiator.

  6. An algebraic fractional order differentiator for a class of signals satisfying a linear differential equation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Da-Yan

    2015-04-30

    This paper aims at designing a digital fractional order differentiator for a class of signals satisfying a linear differential equation to estimate fractional derivatives with an arbitrary order in noisy case, where the input can be unknown or known with noises. Firstly, an integer order differentiator for the input is constructed using a truncated Jacobi orthogonal series expansion. Then, a new algebraic formula for the Riemann-Liouville derivative is derived, which is enlightened by the algebraic parametric method. Secondly, a digital fractional order differentiator is proposed using a numerical integration method in discrete noisy case. Then, the noise error contribution is analyzed, where an error bound useful for the selection of the design parameter is provided. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the accuracy and the robustness of the proposed fractional order differentiator.

  7. The Positive Properties of Green’s Function for Fractional Differential Equations and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the properties of Green’s function for the nonlinear fractional differential equation boundary value problem: D0+αu(t+f(t,u(t+e(t=0,0Liouville derivative. Here our nonlinearity f may be singular at u=0. As applications of Green’s function, we give some multiple positive solutions for singular boundary value problems by means of Schauder fixed-point theorem.

  8. Error Analysis of a Finite Element Method for the Space-Fractional Parabolic Equation

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti; Lazarov, Raytcho; Pasciak, Joseph; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics We consider an initial boundary value problem for a one-dimensional fractional-order parabolic equation with a space fractional derivative of Riemann-Liouville type and order α ∈ (1, 2). We study a spatial semidiscrete scheme using the standard Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear finite elements, as well as fully discrete schemes based on the backward Euler method and the Crank-Nicolson method. Error estimates in the L2(D)- and Hα/2 (D)-norm are derived for the semidiscrete scheme and in the L2(D)-norm for the fully discrete schemes. These estimates cover both smooth and nonsmooth initial data and are expressed directly in terms of the smoothness of the initial data. Extensive numerical results are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  9. Existence of solution for a general fractional advection-dispersion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Ledesma, César E.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we consider the existence of solution to the following fractional advection-dispersion equation -d/dt ( p {_{-∞}}It^{β }(u'(t)) + q {t}I_{∞}^{β }(u'(t))) + b(t)u = f(t, u(t)),t\\in R where β \\in (0,1) , _{-∞}It^{β } and tI_{∞}^{β } denote left and right Liouville-Weyl fractional integrals of order β respectively, 0continuous functions. Due to the general assumption on the constant p and q, the problem (0.1) does not have a variational structure. Despite that, here we study it performing variational methods, combining with an iterative technique, and give an existence criteria of solution for the problem (0.1) under suitable assumptions.

  10. An integrable (2+1)-dimensional Toda equation with two discrete variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Cewen; Cao Jianli

    2007-01-01

    An integrable (2+1)-dimensional Toda equation with two discrete variables is presented from the compatible condition of a Lax triad composed of the ZS-AKNS (Zakharov, Shabat; Ablowitz, Kaup, Newell, Segur) eigenvalue problem and two discrete spectral problems. Through the nonlinearization technique, the Lax triad is transformed into a Hamiltonian system and two symplectic maps, respectively, which are integrable in the Liouville sense, sharing the same set of integrals, functionally independent and involutive with each other. In the Jacobi variety of the associated algebraic curve, both the continuous and the discrete flows are straightened out by the Abel-Jacobi coordinates, and are integrated by quadratures. An explicit algebraic-geometric solution in the original variable is obtained by the Riemann-Jacobi inversion

  11. On Analytical Solutions of the Fractional Differential Equation with Uncertainty: Application to the Basset Problem

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    Soheil Salahshour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply the concept of Caputo’s H-differentiability, constructed based on the generalized Hukuhara difference, to solve the fuzzy fractional differential equation (FFDE with uncertainty. This is in contrast to conventional solutions that either require a quantity of fractional derivatives of unknown solution at the initial point (Riemann–Liouville or a solution with increasing length of their support (Hukuhara difference. Then, in order to solve the FFDE analytically, we introduce the fuzzy Laplace transform of the Caputo H-derivative. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited research devoted to the analytical methods to solve the FFDE under the fuzzy Caputo fractional differentiability. An analytical solution is presented to confirm the capability of the proposed method.

  12. The harmonic oscillator and the position dependent mass Schroedinger equation: isospectral partners and factorization operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Ovando, G.; Pena, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important scientific contributions of Professor Marcos Moshinsky has been his study on the harmonic oscillator in quantum theory vis a vis the standard Schroedinger equation with constant mass [1]. However, a simple description of the motion of a particle interacting with an external environment such as happen in compositionally graded alloys consist of replacing the mass by the so-called effective mass that is in general variable and dependent on position. Therefore, honoring in memoriam Marcos Moshinsky, in this work we consider the position-dependent mass Schrodinger equations (PDMSE) for the harmonic oscillator potential model as former potential as well as with equi-spaced spectrum solutions, i.e. harmonic oscillator isospectral partners. To that purpose, the point canonical transformation method to convert a general second order differential equation (DE), of Sturm-Liouville type, into a Schroedinger-like standard equation is applied to the PDMSE. In that case, the former potential associated to the PDMSE and the potential involved in the Schroedinger-like standard equation are related through a Riccati-type relationship that includes the equivalent of the Witten superpotential to determine the exactly solvable positions-dependent mass distribution (PDMD)m(x). Even though the proposed approach is exemplified with the harmonic oscillator potential, the procedure is general and can be straightforwardly applied to other DEs.

  13. On the equation of transport for cosmic-ray particles in the interplanetary region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.; Gleeson, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    Two new alternative derivations of the equation of transport for cosmic-ray particles in the interplanetary region are provided. Both derivations are carried out by using particle position r and time t in a frame of reference fixed in the solar system, and the particle momentum p' is specified relative to a local frame of reference moving with the solar wind. The first derivation is carried out by writing down a continuity equation for the cosmic rays, taking into account particle streaming and energy changes, and subsequently deriving the streaming and energy change terms in this equation. The momentum change term in the continuity equation, previously considered to be due to the adiabatic deceleration of particles in the expanding magnetic fields carried by the solar wing, appears in the present analysis as a dynamic effect in which the Lorentz force on the particle does not appear explicitly. An alternative derivation based on the ensemble averaged Liouville equation for charged particles in the stochastic interplanetary magnetic field using (r,p',t) as independent coordinates is also given. The latter derivation confirms the momentum change interpretation of the first derivation. A new derivation of the adiabatic rate as a combination of inverse-Fermi and betatron deceleration processes is also provided. (Auth.)

  14. A Liouville-operator derived measure-preserving integrator for molecular dynamics simulations in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckerman, Mark E; Alejandre, Jose; Lopez-Rendon, Roberto; Jochim, Andrea L; Martyna, Glenn J

    2006-01-01

    The constant-pressure, constant-temperature (NPT) molecular dynamics approach is re-examined from the viewpoint of deriving a new measure-preserving reversible geometric integrator for the equations of motion. The underlying concepts of non-Hamiltonian phase-space analysis, measure-preserving integrators and the symplectic property for Hamiltonian systems are briefly reviewed. In addition, current measure-preserving schemes for the constant-volume, constant-temperature ensemble are also reviewed. A new geometric integrator for the NPT method is presented, is shown to preserve the correct phase-space volume element and is demonstrated to perform well in realistic examples. Finally, a multiple time-step version of the integrator is presented for treating systems with motion on several time scales

  15. Relationships of daily mortality and hospital admissions to air pollution in Castilla-Leon, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pablo, F.; Lopez, A.; Rivas Soriano, L.; Tomas, C. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)]. E-mail: fpd123@usal.es; Diego, L.; Gonzalez, M. [Instituto Regional de Salud Publica, SACYL Castilla-Leon (Spain); Barrueco, M. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    We examined the possible relationships between pollutant concentrations and mortality at seven different locations of Castilla-Leon, Spain, and the relationships between such concentration levels and emergency admissions (morbidity) at four hospitals in the region, taking into account the possible masking effect of other atmospheric variables. The study was based on daily mortality and morbidity data from 1995 to 1997 (ICD-9 codes: 390-459 cardiovascular; 460-519 respiratory; 520-579 digestive causes); moreover, data for meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, atmospheric pressure and wind velocity) and air pollution data (SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2} and CO) were used. A minimum set of weather and pollutant predictors was selected using forward inclusion stepwise linear regression methods and these were used to produce a multivariate model of the different causes of mortality and morbidity. For the whole period, the mortality attributable to cardiovascular causes had an incidence higher than the mortality due to respiratory and digestive causes. The frequency distributions corresponding to the different diseases as classified by ages revealed that the population older than 69 is the most affected, the proportion of cardiovascular disease related deaths in this age sector being 7-fold higher than for the rest of the groups. Mortality and morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular-related diseases showed a high correlation coefficient with temperature, solar radiation and ozone, and in general significant correlations were also seen with SO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Se analizan las posibles relaciones existentes entre la mortalidad de la poblacion, el numero de admisiones hospitalarias (morbilidad) y los niveles de concentracion de contaminantes medidos en siete localidades y cuatro hospitales de Castilla-Leon, Espana, respectivamente, teniendo en cuenta el posible efecto de enmascaramiento que ejercen las variables

  16. Successful Control of Ebola Virus Disease: Analysis of Service Based Data from Rural Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokuge, Kamalini; Caleo, Grazia; Greig, Jane; Duncombe, Jennifer; McWilliam, Nicholas; Squire, James; Lamin, Manjo; Veltus, Emily; Wolz, Anja; Kobinger, Gary; de la Vega, Marc-Antoine; Gbabai, Osman; Nabieu, Sao; Lamin, Mohammed; Kremer, Ronald; Danis, Kostas; Banks, Emily; Glass, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    The scale and geographical distribution of the current outbreak in West Africa raised doubts as to the effectiveness of established methods of control. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was first detected in Sierra Leone in May 2014 in Kailahun district. Despite high case numbers elsewhere in the country, transmission was eliminated in the district by December 2014. We describe interventions underpinning successful EVD control in Kailahun and implications for EVD control in other areas. Internal service data and published reports from response agencies were analysed to describe the structure and type of response activities, EVD case numbers and epidemic characteristics. This included daily national situation reports and District-level data and reports of the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) patient data and internal epidemiological reports. We used EVD case definitions provided by the World Health Organisation over the course of the outbreak. Characteristics assessed included level of response activities and epidemiological features such as reported exposure (funeral-related or not), time interval between onset of illness and admission to the EVD Management Centre (EMC), work-related exposures (health worker or not) and mortality. We compared these characteristics between two time periods--June to July (the early period of response), and August to December (when coverage and quality of response had improved). A stochastic model was used to predict case numbers per generation with different numbers of beds and a varying percentage of community cases detected. There were 652 probable/confirmed EVD cases from June-December 2014 in Kailahun. An EMC providing patient care opened in June. By August 2014 an integrated detection, treatment, and prevention strategy was in place across the district catchment zone. From June-July to August-December 2014 surveillance and contact tracing staff increased from 1.0 to 8.8 per confirmed

  17. Successful Control of Ebola Virus Disease: Analysis of Service Based Data from Rural Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalini Lokuge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The scale and geographical distribution of the current outbreak in West Africa raised doubts as to the effectiveness of established methods of control. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD was first detected in Sierra Leone in May 2014 in Kailahun district. Despite high case numbers elsewhere in the country, transmission was eliminated in the district by December 2014. We describe interventions underpinning successful EVD control in Kailahun and implications for EVD control in other areas.Internal service data and published reports from response agencies were analysed to describe the structure and type of response activities, EVD case numbers and epidemic characteristics. This included daily national situation reports and District-level data and reports of the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF patient data and internal epidemiological reports. We used EVD case definitions provided by the World Health Organisation over the course of the outbreak. Characteristics assessed included level of response activities and epidemiological features such as reported exposure (funeral-related or not, time interval between onset of illness and admission to the EVD Management Centre (EMC, work-related exposures (health worker or not and mortality. We compared these characteristics between two time periods--June to July (the early period of response, and August to December (when coverage and quality of response had improved. A stochastic model was used to predict case numbers per generation with different numbers of beds and a varying percentage of community cases detected.There were 652 probable/confirmed EVD cases from June-December 2014 in Kailahun. An EMC providing patient care opened in June. By August 2014 an integrated detection, treatment, and prevention strategy was in place across the district catchment zone. From June-July to August-December 2014 surveillance and contact tracing staff increased from 1.0 to 8.8 per

  18. Factors Associated with HIV Prevalence and HIV Testing in Sierra Leone: Findings from the 2008 Demographic Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Brima

    Full Text Available The Sierra Leone Demographic Health Survey 2008 found an HIV prevalence of 1.5%. This study investigates associations with HIV infection and HIV testing.Households were selected using stratified multi-stage sampling. In all selected households women aged 15-49 were eligible. In every second household men aged 15-59 were also eligible. Participants were asked to consent for anonymous HIV testing. All participants interviewed and tested were analysed. Multiple logistic regression identified associations with HIV infection, undiagnosed infection and with ever having a voluntary HIV test among sexually active participants.Of 7495 invited 86% (6,475 agreed to an interview and HIV test. Among 96 HIV positive participants, 78% had never taken a voluntary HIV test so were unaware of their serostatus, and 86% were sexually active in the last 12 months among whom 96% did not use a condom at last intercourse. 11% of all participants had previously voluntarily tested. Among women who had tested, 60% did so in antenatal care. We found that those living in an urban area, and those previously married, were more likely to be HIV infected. Voluntary HIV testing was more common in those aged 25-44, living in an urban area, females, having secondary or higher education, having first sexual intercourse at age 17 years or older, and using condoms at last sex. Although 82% of men and 69% of women had heard of HIV, only 35% and 29% respectively had heard of antiretroviral therapy.The HIV prevalence in Sierra Leone has been stable. HIV testing, however, is uncommon and most infected individuals are unaware of their serostatus. This could allow the epidemic to escalate as individuals with undiagnosed infection are unlikely to change their behaviour or access treatment. Improving knowledge and increasing testing need to remain central to HIV prevention interventions in Sierra Leone.

  19. Alteration mineral mapping for iron prospecting using ETM+ data, Tonkolili iron field, northern Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansaray, Lamin R.; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Zhimin

    2013-10-01

    The Tonkolili iron field in northern Sierra Leone has the largest known iron ore deposit in Africa. It occurs in a greenstone belt in an Achaean granitic basement. This study focused mainly on mapping areas with iron-oxide and hydroxyl bearing minerals, and identifying potential areas for haematite mineralization and banded iron formations (BIFs) in Tonkolili. The predominant mineral assemblage at the surface (laterite duricrust) of this iron field is haematitegoethite- limonite ±magnetite. The mineralization occurs in quartzitic banded ironstones, layered amphibolites, granites, schists and hornblendites. In this study, Crosta techniques were applied on Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data to enhance areas with alteration minerals and target potential areas of haematite and BIF units in the Tonkolili iron field. Synthetic analysis shows that alteration zones mapped herein are consistent with the already discovered magnetite BIFs in Tonkolili. Based on the overlaps of the simplified geological map and the remote sensing-based alteration mineral maps obtained in this study, three new haematite prospects were inferred within, and one new haematite prospect was inferred outside the tenement boundary of the Tonkolili exploration license. As the primary iron mineral in Tonkolili is magnetite, the study concludes that, these haematite prospects could also be underlain by magnetite BIFs. This study also concludes that, the application of Crosta techniques on ETM+ data is effective not only in mapping iron-oxide and hydroxyl alterations but can also provide a basis for inferring areas of potential iron resources in Algoma-type banded iron formations (BIFs), such as those in the Tonkolili field.

  20. The Potential of Women’s Organization for Rural Development in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Tenneh Dick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are among the preferred outlets women use both to voice societal prejudices against them and to showcase their potential for rural/community development. There is an increasing advocacy for gender equality, women’s empowerment and the integration of women folks into the socio-economic, political and cultural fabrics of society. Girl-child education and women-based capacity building programs such as micro-finance, entrepreneurship, political activism, etc. have surfaced prominently on these women’s empowerment efforts. In this study, a questionnaire-driven survey is conducted in two districts in southern Sierra Leone. The survey covers 36 influential women in 36 town-level communities in the country. The study analyzes the personal and organization characteristics of the women in relation to social perceptions and rural/community development. A large percent of the women surveyed are educated, married and belong to social organizations. In addition to other social/development organizations, women’s organizations are also present in each of the surveyed communities. Most of the women organizations are local in nature and operate entirely on funds raised from within the local communities. This display of organizational ability of the surveyed rural women shows a significant perceptional shift towards recognizing women folks as productive counterparts in our societies. This trend also psychologically strengthens the women community to take on tangible responsibilities that were ones meant for men only. The analysis also shows that rural women hold managerial and other administrative positions in the organizations which are strongly oriented towards various forms of rural/community development. This is a significant positive deviation from the traditional perception which has unduly confined the women folks to the backyard for centuries now. This trend not only has the potential of benefiting the millions more women languishing in

  1. Where there is no psychiatrist: A mental health programme in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Alonso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. For most low- and middle-income countries, mental health remains a neglected area, despite the recognised burden associated with neuropsychiatric conditions and the inextricable link to other public health priorities. Objectives. To describe the results of a free outpatient mental health programme delivered by non-specialist health workers in Makeni, Sierra Leone between July 2008 and May 2012.  Methods. A nurse and two counsellors completed an 8-week training course focused on the identification and management of seven priority conditions: psychosis, bipolar disorder, depression, mental disorders due to medical conditions, developmental and behavioural disorders, alcohol and drug use disorders, and dementia. The World Health Organization recommendations on basic mental healthcare packages were followed to establish treatment for each condition.  Results. A total of 549 patients was assessed and diagnosed as suffering from psychotic disorders (n=295, 53.7%, manic episodes (n=69, 12.5%, depressive episodes (n=53, 9.6%, drug use disorders (n=182, 33.1%, dementia (n=30, 5.4%, mental disorders due to medical conditions (n=39, 7.1%, and developmental disorders (n=46, 8.3%. Of these, 417 patients received pharmacological therapy and 70.7% were rated as much or very much improved. Of those who could not be offered medication, 93.4% dropped out of the programme after the first visit.  Conclusions. The identification and treatment of mental disorders must be considered an urgent public health priority in low- and middle-income countries. Trained primary health workers can deliver safe and effective treatment for mental disorders as a feasible alternative to ease the scarcity of mental health specialists in developing countries.

  2. Community involvement in constructing village health buildings in Uganda and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M

    1995-11-01

    Three public health projects in Uganda and Sierra Leone are used to illustrate a new approach to construction of health buildings in villages. Emphasis is placed on community involvement. The health projects were comprehensive and relied on health education, employment of local village health workers, and establishment of village health committees. The objective of community involvement was described as encouragement of people to change their own diets and living conditions. This approach to primary health care is considered to be a strong basis for sustainable social development. Each of the three communities initiated the building projects slightly differently. There was a range of structures: traditional meeting halls, simple rooms with imported materials and a pit latrine, new buildings combining local and imported materials and labor, new nontraditional buildings, rehabilitated existing nontraditional buildings with imported labor and materials, and temporary mobile clinics. Community involvement was at different levels. All three projects were the result of a combined effort of national governments or mission hospitals, nongovernmental organizations, and the host community. The following should be considered before beginning construction: a suitable site, appropriate staff accommodation, the likely motivation of the host community, seasonality, local materials available, availability of skilled labor, and design. A plan of work during construction should include a building design, site supervision, transportation of local and non-local materials, unskilled labor, and skilled labor. Village health committees with or without government help would be responsible for maintenance of buildings after construction. A key feature of this approach is the assessment of the community's ability and capacity to contribute.

  3. Effects of Large-Scale Acquisition on Food Insecurity in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis Tambang Yengoh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent phenomenon of large-scale acquisition of land for a variety of investment purposes has raised deep concerns over the food security, livelihood and socio-economic development of communities in many regions of the developing world. This study set out to investigate the food security outcomes of land acquisitions in northern Sierra Leone. Using a mixture of quantitative and qualitative research methods, the study measures the severity of food insecurity and hunger, compares the situation of food security before and after the onset of operations of a land investing company, analyzes the food security implications of producing own food versus depending on wage labour for household food needs, and evaluates initiatives put in place by the land investing company to mitigate its food insecurity footprint. Results show an increase in the severity of food insecurity and hunger. Household income from agricultural production has fallen. Employment by the land investing company is limited in terms of the number of people it employs relative to the population of communities in which it operates. Also, wages from employment by the company cannot meet the staple food needs of its employees. The programme that has been put in place by the company to mitigate its food insecurity footprint is failing because of a host of reasons that relate to organization and power relations. In conclusion, rural people are better off producing their own food than depending on the corporate structure of land investment companies. Governments should provide an enabling framework to accommodate this food security need, both in land investment operations that are ongoing and in those that are yet to operate.

  4. Reductions in inpatient mortality following interventions to improve emergency hospital care in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The demand for high quality hospital care for children in low resource countries is not being met. This paper describes a number of strategies to improve emergency care at a children's hospital and evaluates the impact of these on inpatient mortality. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of improving emergency care is estimated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A team of local and international staff developed a plan to improve emergency care for children arriving at The Ola During Children's Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Following focus group discussions, five priority areas were identified to improve emergency care; staff training, hospital layout, staff allocation, medical equipment, and medical record keeping. A team of international volunteers worked with local staff for six months to design and implement improvements in these five priority areas. The improvements were evaluated collectively rather than individually. Before the intervention, the inpatient mortality rate was 12.4%. After the intervention this improved to 5.9%. The relative risk of dying was 47% (95% CI 0.369-0.607 lower after the intervention. The estimated number of lives saved in the first two months after the intervention was 103. The total cost of the intervention was USD 29 714, the estimated cost per death averted was USD 148. There are two main limitation of the study. Firstly, the brevity of the study and secondly, the assumed homogeneity of the clinical cases that presented to the hospital before and after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstarted a signficant reductuion in inpatient mortality rate after an intervention to improve emergency hospital care If the findings of this paper could be reproduced in a larger more rigorous study, improving the quality of care in hospitals would be a very cost effective strategy to save children's lives in low resource settings.

  5. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors were tested in order to assess participants’ ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing

  6. Radiological data on building stones from a Spanish region. Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Neves, L. [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. Ciencias da Terra; Pereira, D.; Peinado, M.; Armenteros, I. [Salamanca Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Geologia

    2013-07-01

    As construction and building material, natural stone has a great potential to promote the commercial activities of certain European regions. Such is the case of Castilla y Leon in Spain, where many different rocks, ranging from sedimentary to metamorphic and igneous, are commercialized for building purposes. However, to be able to compete in a market subject to an economic crisis, highly exacerbated in the construction sector, and to compete with the lower prices offered by emerging countries, the issue would be to make the Spanish offer more attractive. Here we propose a complete characterization of rocks regarding their radiological properties, which are related to their mineralogy and geochemistry. Rocks emit natural radioactivity, and the presence of Rn and its decay products in dwellings has become an important issue in North America and Europe owing to its relationship with the carcinogenic effects of this gas. Although most of the studied rocks comply with the I parameter proposed in the European Norm 112 for Radiological Protection (accepted value I ≤ 1; average for sedimentary rock: I = 0.22, SD 0.14; average for metamorphic rocks: I = 0.70, SD 0.48; average for igneous rock: I = 0.86, SD 0.22), the inclusion of a proper radiological characterization in the list of characteristics would guarantee quality and safety in their use in comparison with products lacking this information. Some natural stones have been demonized for the potential exhalation of natural radioactivity, and the different parameters used should be addressed in a more systematic way.

  7. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umiltà, Maria Allessandra; Wood, Rachel; Loffredo, Francesca; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors) were tested in order to assess participants' ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing in later life.

  8. Diversity of inland valleys and opportunities for agricultural development in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Ronald Dossou-Yovo

    Full Text Available Inland valleys are becoming increasingly important agricultural production areas for rural households in sub-Saharan Africa due to their relative high and secure water availability and soil fertility. In addition, inland valleys are important as water buffer and biodiversity hot spots and they provide local communities with forest, forage, and fishing resources. As different inland-valley ecosystem functions may conflict with agricultural objectives, indiscriminate development should be avoided. This study aims to analyze the diversity of inland valleys in Sierra Leone and to develop guidelines for more precise interventions. Land use, biophysical and socio-economic data were analyzed on 257 inland valleys using spatial and multivariate techniques. Five cluster groups of inland valleys were identified: (i semi-permanently flooded with high soil organic carbon (4.2% and moderate available phosphorus (10.2 ppm, mostly under natural vegetation; (ii semi-permanently flooded with low soil organic carbon (1.5% and very low available phosphorus (3.1 ppm, abandoned by farmers; (iii seasonally flooded with moderate soil organic carbon (3.1% and low available phosphorus (8.3 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced without fertilizer application for household consumption and market; (iv well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.8% and moderate available phosphorus (10.0 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced with fertilizer application for household consumption and market; and (v well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.6% and moderate available phosphorus (11 ppm, used for household consumption without fertilizer application. Soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, hydrological regime, physical accessibility and market opportunity were the major factors affecting agricultural intensification of inland valleys. Opening up the areas in which inland valleys occur through improved roads and

  9. A behavioral intervention for war-affected youth in Sierra Leone: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M; Brennan, Robert T; Weisz, John R; Hansen, Nathan B

    2014-12-01

    Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15-24 years) in Sierra Leone. War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI); http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT

  10. [Western area surge for controlling Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Sierra Leone and evaluation of its effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Wenyi; Chen, Zeliang; Chang, Guohui; Tian, Shuguang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Chao

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the Western Area Surge (WAS) program in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone, and to analyze its implementing effect. The subject of this study was 3,813 laboratory confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) cases reported in Sierra Leone from November 19, 2014 through January 27, 2015, a period before and after the implementation of the WAS program. To analyze and make conclusions according to the working experience of China Mobile Laboratory Reponses Team in the fight of Ebola outbreak, using WHO published EHF case definition to make diagnosis and compare the number of bed numbers, confirmed EHF cases, samples tested, and positive rates before and after implementation of WAS program. From the implementation of WAS program on 17th December 2014 to half a month later, the total numbers of Ebola holding and treatment centers increased from 640 to 960, six additional laboratories were established. On January, 2015, another two laboratories from America and The Netherlands were established. The numbers of samples tested one month before and after WAS program were 7,891 and 9,783, respectively, with an increase of 24.0 percent, while the positive rate of Ebola virus decreased from 22.2% (1,752/7,891) to 11.0% (1,077/9,783). The positive rate of blood samples decreased from 39.6% (248/626) in the month before WAS program to 27.4% (131/478) (χ2=17.93, P<0.001) in the mother after WAS program, the positive rate of blood samples 22.7% (103/454) to 10% (62/609) (χ2=31.03, P<0.001), accordingly. After 3 weeks of WAS program, in addition to Western Area, another four hotspots in Sierra Leone had also reported a significant decrease of the numbers of confirmed EVD cases. Forty-two days after implementation of WAS program, the daily number of laboratory confirmed EHF cases decreased from 63 to 10. WAS program played a vital role in controlling the EHF outbreak rapidly in Sierra Leone. It could also provide guidance for the control similar large infectious diseases

  11. [Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in pig livers destined for human consumption in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú-Martínez, Marco Antonio; Roig-Sagués, Artur Xavier; Cedillo-Rosales, Sibilina; Zamora-Ávila, Diana Elisa; Avalos-Ramírez, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    Molecular detection of HEV in pig livers destined for human consumption in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 87 livers were collected from pigs slaughtered in TIF and 40 livers from butchers. A 212 pb fragment of HEV ORF2 gene was amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR. 19.54% (17) of tif's and 22.5% (9) of butcher's livers were positive for HEV. Sequencing of the amplified products showed a 94%-95% homology with the sequences reported for genotype 3. Our results indicate that HEV is circulating in swine herds in the state, constituting a probable source of contamination of pig meat products.

  12. Effectiveness of spinosad and temephos for the control of mosquito larvae at a tire dump in Allende, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Robledo, Argentina A; Martínez-Perales, Juan F; Rodríguez-Castro, Violeta A; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto

    2011-12-01

    The effectiveness of spinosad and temephos for the control of mosquito larvae was evaluated in a tire dump in Allende, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Three groups of 12 to 17 tires located in tree shade were utilized for this study. After the larvicides were applied, samples were collected weekly from 7 randomly chosen tires. The data showed a significant difference between the larvicides and control. Under the conditions of the present study, the effectiveness of spinosad against mosquito larvae was similar to that of temephos, both being effective for up to 91 days postapplication. In addition, spinosad allowed the establishment of the mosquito predator Toxorhynchites sp.

  13. Evaluating the use of cell phone messaging for community Ebola syndromic surveillance in high risked settings in Southern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kangbai; Mohamed, Koroma

    2015-09-01

    Most underdeveloped countries do not meet core disease outbreak surveillance because of the lack of human resources, laboratory and infrastructural facilities. The use of cell phone technology for disease outbreak syndromic surveillance is a new phenomenon in Sierra Leone despite its successes in other developing countries like Sri Lanka. In this study we set to evaluate the effectiveness of using cell phone technology for Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in a high risked community in Sierra Leone. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using cell phone messaging (text and calls) for community Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in high risked community in southern Sierra Leone. All cell phone syndromic surveillance data used for this study was reported as cell phone alert messages-texts and voice calls; by the Moyamba District Health Management Team for both Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and mortalities. We conducted a longitudinal data analysis of the monthly cumulative confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever cases and mortalities collected by both the traditional sentinel and community cell phone syndromic surveillance from August 2014 to October 2014. A total of 129 and 49 Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and confirmed cases respectively were recorded using the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alert system by the Moyamba District Health Management Team in October 2014. The average number of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspects and confirmed cases for October 2014 were 4.16 (Std.dev 3.76) and 1.58 (Std.dev 1.43) respectively. Thirty-four percent (n=76) of the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alerts that were followed-up within 24 hours reported Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect cases while 65.92% (n=147) reported mortality. Our study suggests some form of underreporting by the traditional sentinel Ebola hemorrhagic fever disease surveillance system in Moyamba District southern Sierra Leone for August

  14. Gestión del agua subterránea en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones de Tandil (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Corina Iris; Jacinto, Guillermina; Ruiz de Galarreta, Alejandro; Banda Noriega, Roxana

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen y analizan los actores y modos de explotación y uso involucrados en la gestión del recurso hídrico subterráneo en un barrio periférico de Tandil -Cerro Los Leones- (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina), que carece de servicios de agua potable y cloacas. Estudios previos demostraron contaminación química y bacteriológica del agua que pone en riesgo la salud de la población. Se caracterizan los modos de uso y explotación del agua, señalando importantes deficiencias...

  15. Una Nueva aproximación al De re aedificatoria de Leon Battista Alberti: los conocimientos constructivos y sus fuentes.

    OpenAIRE

    Onecha Pérez, Ana Belen

    2012-01-01

    El De re aedificatoria, segundo tratado conocido de arquitectura en la historia y escrito entre 1443 y 1452 por Leon Battista Alberti, es uno de los textos arquitectónicos más estudiados. La época histórica a la que pertenece, el renacimiento; los lazos que lo ligan a épocas pasadas esplendorosas; la teoría expuesta sobre las proporciones, derivada de los estándares greco-romanos; y el interés por el personaje que lo escribió, han sido los grandes enfoques a través de las cuale...

  16. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  17. Handbook of integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Polyanin, Andrei D

    2008-01-01

    This handbook contains over 2,500 integral equations with solutions as well as analytical and numerical methods for solving linear and nonlinear equations. It explores Volterra, Fredholm, WienerHopf, Hammerstein, Uryson, and other equations that arise in mathematics, physics, engineering, the sciences, and economics. This second edition includes new chapters on mixed multidimensional equations and methods of integral equations for ODEs and PDEs, along with over 400 new equations with exact solutions. With many examples added for illustrative purposes, it presents new material on Volterra, Fredholm, singular, hypersingular, dual, and nonlinear integral equations, integral transforms, and special functions.

  18. Charge exchange of muons in gases: I. Kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1983-06-01

    Kinetic equations for the spin density operators of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic states of the positive muon are obtained for the description of the slowing-down process encountered when high energy muons thermalize in a single component gas. The motion of this two species system is generated by the Liouville superoperators associated with the diamagnetic and paramagnetic spin Hamiltonians and by time-dependent rate superoperators which depict the probabilities per collision that an electron is captured or lost. These rates are translational averages of the appropriate Boltzmann collision operators. That is, they are momentum and position integrals of the product of either the electron capture or loss total cross section with the single particle translational density operators for the muon (or muonium) and a gas particle. These rates are time dependent because the muon (or muonium) translational density operator is time dependent. The initial amplitudes and phases of the observed thermal spin polarization in μSR experiments are then obtained in terms of the spin density operators emerging from the stopping regime

  19. Charge exchange of muons in gases. Kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Kinetic equations for the spin-density operators of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic states of the positive muon are obtained for the description of the slowing-down process encountered when high-energy muons thermalize in a single-component gas. The motion of this two-species system is generated by the Liouville superoperators associated with the diamagnetic and paramagnetic spin Hamiltonians and by time-dependent rate superoperators which depict the probabilities per collision that an electron is captured or lost. These rates are translational averages of the appropriate Boltzmann collision operators. That is, they are momentum and position integrals of the product of either the electron capture or loss total cross section with the single-particle translational density operators for the muon (or muonium) and a gas particle. These rates are time dependent because the muon (or muonium) translational density operator is time dependent. The initial amplitudes and phases of the observed thermal spin polarization in muon-spin-rotation (μSR) experiments are then obtained in terms of the spin-density operators emerging from the stopping regime

  20. Positive solutions of fractional differential equations with derivative terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the existence of positive solutions for nonlinear fractional differential equation whose nonlinearity contains the first-order derivative, $$displaylines{ D_{0^+}^{alpha}u(t+f(t,u(t,u'(t=0,quad tin (0,1,; n-14 $ $(ninmathbb{N}$, $D_{0^+}^{alpha}$ is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order $alpha$ and $f(t,u,u':[0,1] imes [0,inftyimes(-infty,+infty o [0,infty$ satisfies the Caratheodory type condition. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of at least one or two positive solutions by using the nonlinear alternative of the Leray-Schauder type and Krasnosel'skii's fixed point theorem. In addition, several other sufficient conditions are established for the existence of at least triple, n or 2n-1 positive solutions. Two examples are given to illustrate our theoretical results.