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Sample records for linseed oil penetrated

  1. Quality characteristics of edible linseed oil

    M. NYKTER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review the quality properties of linseed oil for food uses are discussed as well as factors affecting this quality. Linseed oil has a favourable fatty acid composition with a high linolenic acid content. Linseed oil contains nearly 60% á-linolenic acid, compared with 25% for plant oils generally. The content of linolenic acid and omega-3 fatty acids is reported to be high in linseed grown in northern latitudes. The composition of fatty acids, especially unsaturated fatty acids, reported in different studies varies considerably for linseed oil. This variation depends mainly on differences in the examined varieties and industrial processing treatments. The fatty acid composition leads also to some problems, rancidity probably being the most challenging. Some information has been published concerning oxidation and taste, whereas only a few studies have focused on colour or microbiological quality. Rancidity negatively affects the taste and odour of the oil. There are available a few studies on effects of storage on composition of linseed oil. In general, storage and heat promote auto-oxidation of fats, as well as decrease the amounts of tocopherols and vitamin E in linseed oil. Several methods are available to promote the quality of the oil, including agronomic methods and methods of breeding as well as chemical, biotechnological and microbiological methods. Time of harvesting and weather conditions affect the quality and yield of the oil.;

  2. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    Motawie, A.M.; Ismail, E.A.; Mazroua, A.M.; Abd EI Aziem, M.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H 2 O 2 . Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H 1 NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  3. Comparison between fish and linseed oils administered orally for ...

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two sources of omega 3 and 6, fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO), orally administered, alone or in combination, for treating experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Seven animals ...

  4. EB curing of oxidative-polymerized linseed oil

    Ju Xuecheng; Ha Hongfei

    2000-01-01

    The properties of EB curing coating films, which were determined by the structure of oxidative-polymerized linseed oil, were as following: good gloss, low hardness, better flexibility and impact resistance, low glass transition temperature and bad adhesion on tinplate. Oxidative-polymerized linseed oil could be used with other compositions not only as oligomer, but also as functional monomer to improve the properties of coating films of composite systems. Both absorbed dose sand Cobaltous naphthenate had little influence on the properties of these coating films

  5. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    Raudsepp, P.; Brüggemann, D.A.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Andersen, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during storage

  6. The influence of feed supplementation with linseed oil and linseed extrudate on fatty acid profile in goat yoghurt drinks

    Markéta Borková

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed composition is one of the most influential factors affecting fatty acid profile of milk products. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of linseed oil and linseed extrudate supplementation on fatty acid composition of goat prebiotic and probiotic yogurt drinks. Thirty six White Shorthaired dairy goats at the beginning of their third lactation period were divided into two experimental and one control group, each comprising twelve animals. Goats in the experimental groups were given either 55 mL/day of linseed oil or 120 g/day of linseed extrudate over a three week period. The results suggest that feed supplementation with linseed oil and linseed extrudate caused considerable changes in fatty acid profile of goat yoghurt drinks. The most important nutritional change which was observed was increased n-3 fatty acid content (P<0.001 and decreased saturated fatty acid content (P<0.001. α-linolenic acid was significantly elevated (P<0.001 in both groups (in particular in goats which feed was supplemented with linseed oil.

  7. Improvement for oil content in linseed by irradiation

    Sinha, S.K.; Srivastava, S.; Prasad, P.R.; Haider, Z.A. (Tirhut Coll. of Agriculture, Dholi, Bihar (India))

    1981-11-01

    A comparison of various doses of X-rays on linseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) indicated that isolates with high yield and oil content could be obtained with 40, 50 and 60 kR doses in 'NP 5' and with 30 kR in 'T 397' varieties.

  8. Improvement for oil content in linseed by irradiation

    Sinha, S.K.; Srivastava, S.; Prasad, P.R.; Haider, Z.A.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of various doses of X-rays on linseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) indicated that isolates with high yield and oil content could be obtained with 40, 50 and 60 kR doses in 'NP 5' and with 30 kR in 'T 397' varieties. (author)

  9. Extruded linseed and linseed oil as alternative to soybean meal and soybean oil in diets for fattening lambs

    Anna Caputi Jambrenghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal and soybean oil respectively with extruded linseed and linseed oil on the productive performances and meat quality traits in lambs slaughtered at 90 days. Lambs weaned at 40 days were divided into 3 groups (N.=10 fed ad libitum for 6 weeks as follows: C (control, commercial feed containing soybean meal and soybean oil; LO (feed containing linseed oil instead of soybean oil; EL (feed containing extruded linseed. Meat quality traits were evaluated on the Longissimus lumborum (Ll and Semimembranosus (Sm muscles. The lambs’ growth performances and the slaughtering and sectioning data did not differ between groups. The redness of meat was significantly higher (P<0.05 for the LO and EL groups compared to the control for both the muscles tested. Ll meat samples of the EL group showed a greater cooking loss compared to LO (P<0.01 and to the control (P<0.05. The amount of linoleic acid in raw Ll meat samples was significantly (P<0.01 lower in both LO and EL groups with respect to control. The concentration of α-linolenic acid was significantly (P<0.01 higher in the EL group and this positively affected the total content of ω3 as well as the ω6/ω3 ratio.

  10. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  11. Linseed oil increases HDL3 cholesterol and decreases blood pressure in patients diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    Skoczyńska, Anna H; Gluza, Ewa; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Skoczyńska, Marta

    2018-04-24

    Linseed oil has cardio-protective effects. However, its antihypertensive action has not yet been well characterized. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of short-term dietary supplementation with linseed oil on blood pressure (BP) and lipid metabolism in patients with mild hypercholesterolemia. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effect of linseed oil on nitric oxide pathway and selected serum trace metals. 150 volunteers: 43 men (49.9±11.5 years) and 107 women (53.2±10.3 years), diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia, were assessed prospectively for BP and lipids' levels, before and after lipid-lowering diet plus linseed oil supplementation at a dose of 15 ml daily for 4 weeks (study groups) or 4-weekly lipid-lowering diet (control group). The multivariate logistic regression analysis model was used to determine the effect of linseed oil on BP after adjustment for age, gender, height, body weight, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption. The supplementation with linseed oil significantly decreased LDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, and increased HDL- and HDL₃- cholesterol levels. Additionally, linseed oil decreased diastolic BP in men (CI:-6.0;-1.1, poil reduced (poil consumption was associated with a decrease in mean BP (aOR 3.85, 95%CI 1.32-11.33). Our findings confirm the benefit of short-term linseed oil use in mild hypercholesterolemia, in particular in patients with increased blood pressure.

  12. Fatty acid profile of eggs of semi-heavy layers fed feeds containing linseed oil

    JG Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs by adding oils to the diets has been extensively studied. This experiment aimed at evaluating possible changes in the fatty acid profile of the eggs of layers fed diets supplemented with linseed and soybean oils. The experiment was performed using 192 29 week-old laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, into six treatments with four replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (no vegetable oil and diets including 2% of vegetable oil. Linseed oil replaced 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% soybean oil in the diets, corresponding to 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of linseed oil in the diet. A pool of two egg yolks from each treatment was submitted to lipid extraction and fatty acid methylation, and subsequent gas chromatography (GC analysis to detect seven fatty acids. Saturated (myristic and palmitic fatty acids concentration was affected by lipid dietary source, with the lowest concentration in birds were fed feeds containing linseed oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA concentration in the eggs was influenced by different levels of linseed oil inclusion. Linoleic acid egg content increased when linseed oil was used on diet as compared to the control diet. Linseed oil was considered an excellent source of linolenic acid incorporation in the eggs.

  13. [Inhibition of Linseed Oil Autooxidation by Essential Oils and Extracts from Spice Plants].

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Kiseleva, V I; Medvedeva, I B; Semenova, M G

    2015-01-01

    Clove bud essential oil, extracts from ginger, pimento and black pepper, or ascorbyl palmytate were studied as natural antioxidants for the inhibition of autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in linseed oil. Different methods were used to estimate antioxidant efficiency. These methods are based on the following parameters: peroxide values; peroxide concentration; content of degradation products of unsaturated fatty acid peroxides, which acted with thiobarbituric acid; diene conjugate content; the content of volatile compounds that formed as products of unsaturated fatty acid peroxide degradation; and the composition of methyl esters of fatty acids in samples of oxidized linseed oil.

  14. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  15. MWCNTs-Reinforced Epoxidized Linseed Oil Plasticized Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite and Its Electroactive Shape Memory Behaviour

    Alam, Javed; Alam, Manawwer; Raja, Mohan; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Dass, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    A novel electroactive shape memory polymer nanocomposite of epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was prepared by a combination of solution blending, solvent cast technique, and hydraulic hot press moulding. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was first plasticized by epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) in order to overcome the major limitations of PLA, such as high brittleness, low toughness, and low tensile elongation. Then, MWCNTs were inc...

  16. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    Raudsepp, Piret; Brüggemann, Dagmar A.; Lenferink, Aufried

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during...... showed radicals are formed in the aqueous phase with the same rate independent of the lipids. This was also reflected in decay of α-tocopherol during storage being similar in MCT and LSO mayonnaises, but being stable in mixed oil mayonnaise and mixed mayonnaise. Results suggest that other effects than...

  17. Analysis of the electrical characteristic of linseed oil films exposed to humidity

    Palummo, Lucrezia [Rome University Tor Vergata, Physic Department, Rome (Italy); Bearzotti, Andrea [IMM-CNR, Area di Ricerca di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Linseed oil is a material widely used in various applications as a protecting layer for surfaces in industry, in scientific research, for medical use, and finally for artistic purpose. This natural origins substance has a particular application as a protective and smoothing layer on phenolic-melaminic laminate electrodes on Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors used in various particle physic experiments. In such electronic applications where linseed oil could be exposed to water vapours, an electrical characterization should result useful for having an overall control of the process involving the oil. In this paper, we studied the electrical behaviour towards relative humidity variations of linseed oil films deposited on interdigitated metal electrodes. Moreover, I/V characterisation both in air and vacuum, current vs. temperature and relative humidity was performed. (orig.)

  18. Soybean oil and linseed oil supplementation affect profiles of ruminal microorganisms in dairy cows.

    Yang, S L; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Hu, Z Y; Li, D; Wei, H Y; Zhou, L Y; Loor, J J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ruminal microorganisms and fermentation parameters due to dietary supplementation of soybean and linseed oil alone or in combination. Four dietary treatments were tested in a Latin square designed experiment using four primiparous rumen-cannulated dairy cows. Treatments were control (C, 60 : 40 forage to concentrate) or C with 4% soybean oil (S), 4% linseed oil (L) or 2% soybean oil plus 2% linseed oil (SL) in a 4 × 4 Latin square with four periods of 21 days. Forage and concentrate mixtures were fed at 0800 and 2000 h daily. Ruminal fluid was collected every 2 h over a 12-h period on day 19 of each experimental period and pH was measured immediately. Samples were prepared for analyses of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) by GLC and ammonia. Counts of total and individual bacterial groups (cellulolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic bacteria and total viable bacteria) were performed using the roll-tube technique, and protozoa counts were measured via microscopy in ruminal fluid collected at 0, 4 and 8 h after the morning feeding. Content of ruminal digesta was obtained via the rumen cannula before the morning feeding and used immediately for DNA extraction and quantity of specific bacterial species was obtained using real- time PCR. Ruminal pH did not differ but total VFA (110 v. 105 mmol/l) were lower (P ruminal NH3-N (4.4 v. 5.6 mmol/l) was greater (P ruminal fluid was substantially lower (P ruminal microorganisms, except proteolytic bacteria, are highly susceptible to dietary unsaturated fatty acids supplementation, particularly when linolenic acid rich oils were fed. Dietary oil effects on ruminal fermentation parameters seemed associated with the profile of ruminal microorganisms.

  19. An ESR study of the spectra of paint pigments in 'drying' linseed oil

    Slogett, R.; Troup, G.; Hutton, D.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Since previous ESR work on the identification of RAW paint pigments, mainly mineral, looked promising, we decided to examine the spectra when the pigments were applied, in oil, to a non-reactive, microwave transparent polymer. The polymer used shows no significant ESR signals in the range 2000-4000 gauss at ∼9.1 GHz and room temperature. The oil used is Winsor and Newton Drying Linseed Oil, and contains 'manganese driers'. The spectrum of the pure liquid oil is shown, as well as that of the dried oil on the substrate. Many of the pigment spectra shown are so strong that not a trace of the oil Mn(2+) can be seen at the pigment concentrations used. The effect of the linseed oil on modern synthetic indigo, an organic pigment still available made from plants, is also shown. ESR still looks to be a useful supplementary technique for paint pigment identification

  20. Study of the Thermal Polymerization of Linseed and Passion Fruit Oils

    Lopes, R. V. V.; Loureiro, N. P. D.; Fonseca, P. S.; Macedo, J. L.; Santos, M. L.; Sales, M. J.

    2008-08-01

    Researches involving ecofriendliness materials are growing up, as well as, a current interest in developing materials from inexpensive and renewable resources. Vegetable oils show a number of excellent properties, which could be utilized to produce valuable polymeric materials. In this work is described the synthesis of polymeric materials from linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) and passion fruit oil (Passiflora edulis) and their characterization by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy. The TG curve shows that those polymeric materials present two stages of decomposition. DSC plots of the vegetable oils showed some endothermic and exothermic transitions which are not present in the DSC curves corresponding to oil-based polymers. The Raman spectra of the polymers indicate declining of absorbance in the region of C = C stretching (˜1600 cm-1). This absorption was used to estimate the degree of polymerization (79% and 67.5% for linseed and passion fruit oils, respectively)

  1. Dietary linseed oil and selenate affect the concentration of fatty acids in selected tissues of sheep

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 9 (2012), s. 389-401 ISSN 1212-1819 Grant - others:State Committee for Scientific Research(PL) 3PO6Z 034 22 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : selenium * linseed oil * fatty acid Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2012

  2. Effect of the linseed oil surface treatment on the performance of resistive plate chambers

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Arena, V.; Bonomi, G.; Braj, A.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    1997-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of several bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPCs) without the linseed oil treatment of the internal electrodes will be presented. Efficiency, collected charge and cluster size distributions will be compared to the ones of a standard oiled RPC. Currents and single rate are the quantities most affected by the surface treatment of the electrodes beyond the optical/mechanical properties. A factor 4 less in currents and at least a factor 10 less in single rate is achieved using standard oiled RPCs operated in streamer mode. (orig.)

  3. Role of plant growth regulators on oil yield and biodiesel production of linseed (linum usitatissimum l)

    Faizanullah, A.; Bano, A.; Nosheen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to compare the effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. kinetin (K), chlorocholine chloride (CCC) and salicylic acid (SA) on seed yield, oil content and oil quality of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L) cv. Chandni with a new perspective to biodiesel production. The growth regulators (10-6M) were applied as seed soaking for 10 h prior to cultivation. Kinetin significantly increased the number of capsules/plant, seed number/capsule, 1000 seed weight and total seed yield (kg/h). The growth regulators increased the seed oil content maximum being in kinetin and CCC treatments. Kinetin and CCC significantly decreased the oil acid value, free fatty acid content (% oleic acid) and increased the pH of oil. Nevertheless, SA significantly decreased the oil specific gravity and did not alter the pH. Only kinetin significantly increased the oil iodine value. The oil extracted from seeds of kinetin and CCC treated plants showed maximum conversion (% w/w) to methyl esters/biodiesel after transesterification. It can be inferred that PGRs can be utilized successfully for improving the biodiesel yield of linseed. (author)

  4. The evaluation of the healing proprieties of pumpkin and linseed oils on deep second-degree burns in rats.

    Bardaa, Sana; Moalla, Dorsaf; Ben Khedir, Sameh; Rebai, Tarek; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been recognized as useful remedies for primary health care. Accordingly, Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae) (pumpkin) and Linum usitatissimum (L.) Griesb. (Linaceae) (linseed) which have extracted oil with prominent pharmacological properties are investigated as possible burn healing treatments. The present study assesses the healing potential of pumpkin and linseed extracted oils on rats. Uniform deep second-degree burns were induced on the dorsum of 24 rats, randomly divided into four groups. The burns were measured, photographed, and topically treated with saline solution, "Cytol Centella®", pumpkin, and linseed-extracted oils (0.52 µl/mm(2) of oil) each 2 d (up until day 33). Post-burning of the 33rd day, biopsies were histologically assessed. At the end of the experiment, the rat groups treated with linseed, pumpkin oils, and "Cytol Centella®" had higher percentage of wound contraction (98.68, 96.71, and 92.54%, respectively) than the control group (58.38%). Wound biopsies from rats treated with extracted oils showed the best tissue regeneration proprieties as compared with the other groups. The histomorphometric analysis of biopsies revealed that linseed oil could significantly stimulate angiogenesis (55.6% ± 7.25). The pumpkin oil, and Cytol Centella® could significantly increase the collagen production 64.9% ± 5.94, and 61.2% ± 7.36, respectively. Overall, our study has given for the first time scientific evidence of the healing efficiency of pumpkin and linseed oils on burn-wounds.

  5. Effect of feeding soybean, linseed oil and different forms of ...

    ... redox and immune status of turkey hens. The experiment was carried out on 480 turkey hens, type BIG 6, which were divided into four groups. Birds in Group I (control) received soybean oil and synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate in their feed mixture. Group II received soybean oil and natural RRR-d-alpha-tocopherol.

  6. Use of thermal desorption gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry for the comparison of identified and unidentified odor active compounds emitted from building products containing linseed oil

    Clausen, P. A.; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Larsen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The emission of odor active volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a floor oil based on linseed oil, the linseed oil itself and a low-odor linseed oil was investigated by thermal desorption gas chromatography combined with olfactometry and mass spectrometry (TD-GC-O/MS). The oils were applied...... to filters and conditioned in the micro emission cell, FLEC, for 1-3 days at ambient temperature, an air exchange rate of 26.9 h-1 and a 30% relative humidity. These conditions resulted in dynamic headspace concentrations and composition of the odor active VOCs that may be similar to real indoor setting...

  7. MWCNTs-reinforced epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid nanocomposite and its electroactive shape memory behaviour.

    Alam, Javed; Alam, Manawwer; Raja, Mohan; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy

    2014-10-31

    A novel electroactive shape memory polymer nanocomposite of epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was prepared by a combination of solution blending, solvent cast technique, and hydraulic hot press moulding. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was first plasticized by epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) in order to overcome the major limitations of PLA, such as high brittleness, low toughness, and low tensile elongation. Then, MWCNTs were incorporated into the ELO plasticized PLA matrix at three different loadings (2, 3 and 5 wt. %), with the aim of making the resulting nanocomposites electrically conductive. The addition of ELO decreased glass transition temperature, and increased the elongation and thermal degradability of PLA, as shown in the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile test, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe surface morphology, topography, and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the nanocomposite. Finally, the electroactive-shape memory effect (electroactive-SME) in the resulting nanocomposite was investigated by a fold-deploy "U"-shape bending test. As per the results, the addition of both ELO and MWCNTs to PLA matrix seemed to enhance its overall properties with a great deal of potential in improved shape memory. The 3 wt. % MWCNTs-reinforced nanocomposite system, which showed 95% shape recovery within 45 s at 40 DC voltage, is expected to be used as a preferential polymeric nanocomposite material in various actuators, sensors and deployable devices.

  8. MWCNTs-Reinforced Epoxidized Linseed Oil Plasticized Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite and Its Electroactive Shape Memory Behaviour

    Javed Alam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel electroactive shape memory polymer nanocomposite of epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs was prepared by a combination of solution blending, solvent cast technique, and hydraulic hot press moulding. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA was first plasticized by epoxidized linseed oil (ELO in order to overcome the major limitations of PLA, such as high brittleness, low toughness, and low tensile elongation. Then, MWCNTs were incorporated into the ELO plasticized PLA matrix at three different loadings (2, 3 and 5 wt. %, with the aim of making the resulting nanocomposites electrically conductive. The addition of ELO decreased glass transition temperature, and increased the elongation and thermal degradability of PLA, as shown in the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, tensile test, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to observe surface morphology, topography, and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the nanocomposite. Finally, the electroactive-shape memory effect (electroactive-SME in the resulting nanocomposite was investigated by a fold-deploy “U”-shape bending test. As per the results, the addition of both ELO and MWCNTs to PLA matrix seemed to enhance its overall properties with a great deal of potential in improved shape memory. The 3 wt. % MWCNTs-reinforced nanocomposite system, which showed 95% shape recovery within 45 s at 40 DC voltage, is expected to be used as a preferential polymeric nanocomposite material in various actuators, sensors and deployable devices.

  9. Maternal Intake of Fish Oil but not of Linseed Oil Reduces the Antibody Response in Neonatal Mice

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, T. M. R.; Porsgaard, Trine

    2011-01-01

    Dietary levels of n-3 PUFA are believed to influence the immune system. The importance of the source of n-3 PUFA is debated. This study addressed how the content and source of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet influenced tissue FA composition and the immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice pups....... From the day of conception and throughout lactation, dams were fed diets containing 4% fat from linseed oil (LSO), fish oil (FO) or a n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (DEF). Pups were injected with OVA within 24 h of birth and sacrificed at weaning (day 21). Overall, the content of n-3 PUFA in milk, liver...

  10. Lime-based mortars with linseed oil: sodium chloride resistance assessment and characterization of the degraded material

    Nunes, Cristiana Lara; Slížková, Zuzana; Janotová, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2013), s. 411-427 ISSN 0369-8963 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV008 Keywords : linseed oil * lime * metakaolin * durability Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2013 http://www.periodicodimineralogia.it/index.php/mineralogia/issue/view/14/showToc

  11. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  12. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay.

    Prevc, Tjaša; Levart, Alenka; Cigić, Irena Kralj; Salobir, Janez; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Cigić, Blaž

    2015-08-13

    The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP) of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  13. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay

    Tjaša Prevc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  14. Synthesis of novel octyl sinapate to enhance antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil mixture.

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Rabiej, Dobrochna; Krzemiński, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Lipophilisation allows the formation of new functionalised antioxidants having beneficial properties compared to natural hydrophilic phenolic acids. Therefore, this work focused on the synthesis of lipophilic antioxidants, such as a new octyl sinapate, octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate using the modified Fischer esterification of selected hydroxycinnamic acids with 1-octanol. The lipophilic octyl sinapate was obtained for the first time with satisfactory yield (83%) after purification by column chromatography. The identity of the synthesised phenolipids was confirmed by chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. Antioxidant capacity of phenolipids was determined by DPPH (IC 50  = 35.87-52.24 μg mL -1 ) and ABTS (IC 50  = 39.45-48.72 μg mL -1 ) methods and compared with IC 50 values (7.37-35.30 μg mL -1 and 7.55-41.67 μg mL -1 , respectively) for well known antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil enriched with the purified esters was about two to 30 times higher in comparison with a non-supplemented oil. The novel octyl sinapate as well as octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate have antioxidant properties and lipophilic character, therefore they may be added to vegetable oils as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Development of penetrant materials from used oil

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Azhar Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of experiment to produce penetrant for nondestructive testing using used engine oil. The used engine oil was obtained from motor vehicle. It was mixed with kerosene at several mix proportion. The penetrability of these mixing were measured and compared with the penetrant available on the market. The results of measurement were explained and discussed. (author)

  16. New insights into the ageing of linseed oil paint binder: a qualitative and quantitative analytical study.

    Ilaria Bonaduce

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical investigation of paint reconstructions prepared with linseed oil that have undergone typical 19th century treatments in preparation for painting. The oil was mechanically extracted from the same seed lot, which was then processed by various methods: water washing, heat treatments, and the addition of driers, with and without heat. A modern process lead white (Dutch source, Schoonhoven and a commercially available vine black were used as pigments. The reconstructions were prepared in 1999, and naturally aged from then onwards. We compared thermogravimetric analysis (TG, which yields macromolecular information, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and direct exposure mass spectrometry (DEMS, which both provide molecular information. The study enabled us to quantitatively demonstrate, for the first time, that the parameters used to identify drying oils are deeply influenced by the history of the paint. In particular, here we show that the ratio between the relative amounts of palmitic and stearic acid (P/S, which is used as an index for differentiating between drying oils, is extremely dependent on the pigments present and the age of the paint. Moreover the study revealed that neither the P/S parameter nor the ratios between the relative amounts of the various dicarboxylic acids (azelaic over suberic and azelaic over sebacic can be used to trace the sorts of pre-treatment undergone by the oil investigated in this study. The final results represent an important milestone for the scientific community working in the field, highlighting that further research is still necessary to solve the identification of drying oils in works of art.

  17. Altered gene expression of epigenetic modifying enzymes in response to dietary supplementation with linseed oil.

    Li, Ran; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M

    2017-05-01

    Recently we showed that 5% linseed oil (LSO) and 5% safflower oil (SFO) supplementation of cow's diets reduced milk fat yield by 30·38 and 32·42% respectively, accompanied by differential expression of genes and regulation by microRNAs (miRNA). This research communication addresses the hypothesis that epigenetic regulation could be involved in the observed milk fat reduction. Thus, this study investigated the gene expression pattern of major epigenetic modifying enzymes in response to dietary supplementation with LSO or SFO. Twenty-six Canadian Holstein cows in mid lactation were randomly assigned to two groups (13/group) and fed a control diet for 28 d (day -28 to -1) (control period- CP) followed by a treatment period (TP) (control diet supplemented with 5% LSO (LSO treatment) or 5% SFO (SFO treatment) of 28 d (day +1 to +28). After treatment, cows in the two groups were returned to the control diet for another 28 d (day +29 to +56) (post treatment period-PTP). Milk samples were collected on day -1 (CP), +7, +28 (TP) and +56 (PTP) for RNA isolation and measurement of the expression of thirteen epigenetic modifying genes including two DNA methytrasferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A), four histone acetylases (HAT1, KAT2A, KAT5 and CREBBP), five histone deacetylases (HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, SIRT1 and SIRT2) and two histone methytransferases (EHMT2 and PRMT1) by qPCR. Linseed oil supplementation significantly repressed the expression of EHMT2, HDAC2 and HDAC3 on day +7 (P < 0·05) and KAT2A and SIRT2 on day +28 (P < 0·05) as compared with the control period (day -1) while SFO had no effect. When LSO was withdrawn, the expression of some of the genes increased slightly but did not reach control (day -1) levels at the end of the PTP. Our study demonstrated a significant role of LSO in the epigenetic regulation of fatty acid synthesis as compared to SFO. The effect of LSO may be related to its higher degree of unsaturation and might represent a different regulatory mechanism which

  18. Effect of a Semisolid Formulation of Linum usitatissimum L. (Linseed Oil on the Repair of Skin Wounds

    Eryvelton de Souza Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a semisolid formulation of linseed oil, SSFLO (1%, 5%, or 10% or in natura linseed oil on skin wounds of rats. We used wound models, incisional and excisional, to evaluate, respectively, the contraction/reepithelialization of the wound and resistance to mechanical traction. The groups (n=6 treated with SSFLO (1% or 5% began the process of reepithelialization, to a significant extent (P<.05, on the sixth day, when compared to the petroleum jelly control group. On 14th day for the groups treated with SSFLO (1% or 5%, 100% reepithelialization was found, while in the petroleum jelly control group, this was only 33.33%. Our study showed that topical administration of SSFLO (1% or 5% in excisional wounds allowed reepithelialization in 100% of treated animals. Therefore, a therapeutic potential of linseed oil, when used at low concentrations in the solid pharmaceutical formulations, is suggested for the process of dermal repair.

  19. Multilayer emulsions as a strategy for linseed oil and α-lipoic acid micro-encapsulation: study on preparation and in vitro characterization.

    Huang, Juan; Wang, Qiang; Li, Tong; Xia, Nan; Xia, Qiang

    2018-01-04

    Linseed oil and α-lipoic acid are bioactive ingredients, which play an important role in human nutrition and health. However, their application in functional foods is limited because of their instabilities and poor solubilities in hydrophilic matrices. Multilayer emulsions are particularly useful to protect encapsulated bioactive ingredients. The aim of this study was to fabricate multilayer emulsions by a high-pressure homogenization method to encapsulate linseed oil and α-lipoic acid simultaneously. Tween 20 and lecithin were used as surfactants to stabilize the oil droplets of primary emulsions. Multilayer emulsions were produced by using an electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition process of lecithin-chitosan membranes. Thermal treatment exhibited that chitosan encapsulation could improve the thermal stability of primary emulsions. During in vitro digestion, it was found that chitosan encapsulation had little effect on the lipolysis of linseed oil and bioaccessibility of α-lipoic acid. The oxidation stability of linseed oil in multilayer emulsions was improved effectively by chitosan encapsulation and α-lipoic acid. Chitosan encapsulation could inhibit the degradation of α-lipoic acid. A physical stability study indicated that multilayer emulsions had good centrifugal, dilution and storage stabilities. Multilayer emulsion is an effective delivery system to incorporate linseed oil and α-lipoic acid into functional foods and beverages. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Polymerization of Oriental Lacquer (Urushi with Epoxidized Linseed Oil as a New Reactive Diluent

    Takahisa Ishimura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid lacquer (HBL paint prepared by combining a natural kurome lacquer (KL paint and an amino silane reagent, for example, N-(2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (AATES, produced a polymerized film faster than the KL paint alone. However, the viscosity of the HBL paint was too viscous for easy handling. Addition of 10 wt% of an epoxidized linseed oil, ELO-6, with 6.4 mol% epoxidation as a reactive diluent to the HBL paint decreased the viscosity by 1/2 from 25476 mPa·s to 12841 mPa·s and improved the ease of coatability. The polymerization mechanism was elucidated by NMR measurements of extracts from the resulting polymerization films, suggesting that amino groups in the HBL paint reacted with epoxy groups of ELO-6 in the lacquer matrix, and then the complex reacted with double bonds of the urushiol side-chain by autooxidation and cross-linking reactions to give a hard polymerized film with a high quality of color and gloss. These results indicate that the addition of ELO-6 improved the polymerizability of both KL and HBL paints without decreasing the quality of the resulting films.

  1. Linseed oil and DGAT1 K232A polymorphism: Effects on methane emission, energy and nitrogen metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen microbial composition of Holstein-Friesian cows

    Gastelen, van S.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Edwards, J.E.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Hettinga, K.A.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Smidt, H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH4 and H2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal

  2. Molecular dynamics of palmitic acid and lead palmitate in cross-linked linseed oil films: Implications from deuterium magnetic resonance for lead soap formation in traditional oil paintings.

    Catalano, Jaclyn; Murphy, Anna; Yao, Yao; Zumbulyadis, Nicholas; Centeno, Silvia A; Dybowski, Cecil

    2018-02-01

    Many oil paintings, dating from the 15th century to the present, are affected by the formation of heavy-metal carboxylates (soaps) that alter the structural integrity and appearance of the works. Through transport phenomena not yet understood, free fatty acids formed from oils used as binders migrate through the paint film and react with heavy-metal ions that are constituents of pigments and/or driers, forming metal carboxylates. The local molecular dynamics of fatty acids and metal carboxylates are factors influencing material transport in these systems. We report temperature-dependent 2 H NMR spectra of palmitic acid and lead palmitate as pure materials, in cross-linked linseed oil films, and in a lead white linseed oil paint film as part of our broader research into metal soap formation. Local dynamics at the α carbon, at the terminal methyl group, and at the middle of the fatty acid chain were observed in specifically deuterated materials. Changes in the dynamic behavior with temperature were observed by the appearance of two species, a solid-like material and a liquid-like material. The relative amounts of the two phases and their deuterium NMR parameters indicate that the amount of liquid-like material and the local dynamics at that site increase with temperature. At the three locations along the chain and at all temperatures, there is a larger percentage of acyl chains of both palmitic acid and lead palmitate that are "mobile" or liquid-like in linseed oil films than there are in the pure materials. However, the percentage of liquid-like species is decreased in a lead white paint film, as compared to a linseed oil matrix. In addition, these experiments indicate that there is a larger percentage of liquid-like acyl chains of palmitic acid than of lead palmitate under identical conditions in these model paint systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality traits and intramuscular fatty acid profiles

    Pitunart Noosen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality trait and intramuscular fatty acid (FA profiles. All steers were fed 14% CP concentrate. The treatments included: (1 7 kg/d concentrate; (2 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d palm oil (PO; (3 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 100 g/d PO and 100 g/d linseed oil (LSO; and (4 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d LSO. The animals in the treatment 1 were fed ad libitum rice straw (RS, whereas the animals in other treatments were fed ad libitum fresh grass (FG. Dietary treatments had no effect on nutrient intake while oil supplement decreased dry matter intake (DMI. Inclusion of LSO did not negatively affect carcass quality, but increasing amount of LSO supplement increased the n-3 fatty acids and lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in beef

  4. On-farm evaluation of seed yield and oil quality of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in inland areas of Tuscany, Central Italy

    Luciana G. Angelini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional oilseed crops, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., may represent valuable alternative crops in cropping systems dominated by cereals, due to their adaptability to poor soils and to their high economic value related to the interesting quality of the oil, which is being increasingly appreciated by consumers and industry. The aim of this study was to test the adaptability of linseed to the inland marginal areas of Tuscany, and to explore the levels of crop yield and oil quality which can be achieved in hilly and lowland environments. For three years (2011-2014, experimental open fields (1- 5 ha each were established and monitored in six commercial farms located in the inland countryside of Pisa province, Tuscany, Central Italy. The effect of environment (hilly and plain areas was assessed in terms of yield and yield components as well as oil content and composition. Interestingly, seed yield and biomass production were very stable over years in the two areas of cultivation, irrespectively of yearly differences in weather conditions. As expected, higher yields were obtained in plain than in hilly areas. Regarding oil composition, oil extracted from linseed grown in plain environments was richer in linolenic acid, while, oppositely, both oleic and linoleic acids were more abundant in oil from hilly areas. Definitively, our results demonstrated that linseed might be a valuable alternative to cereal crops for marginal lands of Tuscany and, more in general, of Central Italy.

  5. Conjugated fatty acids and methane production by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil alone or mixed with fish oil and/or malate.

    Li, Xiang Z; Gao, Qing S; Yan, Chang G; Choi, Seong H; Shin, Jong S; Song, Man K

    2015-08-01

    We hypothesized that manipulating metabolism with fish oil and malate as a hydrogen acceptor would affect the biohydrogenation process of α-linolenic acid by rumen microbes. This study was to examine the effect of fish oil and/or malate on the production of conjugated fatty acids and methane (CH4 ) by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil. Linseed oil (LO), LO with fish oil (LO-FO), LO with malate (LO-MA), or LO with fish oil and malate (LO-FO-MA) was added to diluted rumen fluid, respectively. The LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased pH and propionate concentration compared to the other treatments. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA reduced CH4 production compared to LO. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased the contents of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and c9,t11,c15-conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) compared to LO. The content of malate was rapidly reduced while that of lactate was reduced in LO-MA and LO-FO-MA from 3 h incubation time. The fold change of the quantity of methanogen related to total bacteria was decreased at both 3 h and 6 h incubation times in all treatments compared to the control. Overall data indicate that supplementation of combined malate and/or fish oil when incubated with linseed oil, could depress methane generation and increase production of propionate, CLA and CLnA under the conditions of the current in vitro study. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Chemical Properties Of Olive And Linseed Oils During The Storage Period

    Farag, M.D.H.; Eweida, M.H.T.; Ali, H.E.; Refai, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of edible oil is usually determined in term of its quality constants and the change in these constants would affect the quality of the oil. Evaluation of gamma irradiation and storage period effects on olive and linseed oils was studied. The studied changes in the chemical properties for these oils were free fatty acid, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid, iodine value and saponification value. The applied irradiation doses were 4, 6 and 8 kGy while the dose rate was 3.529 kGy/h at the time of experimentation. The non-irradiated oil samples were used as controls. The irradiated oil samples showed that free fatty acid, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid were increased and the iodine value was decreased with increasing the doses of radiation and storage period while the saponification value did not change by changing the applied radiation doses. The statistical analysis of the data exhibited that there were non-significant effects in irradiated oils during the storage period. However, the values of chemical properties of non-irradiated and irradiated oil samples were still within the normal limits of edible oils recommended by the Egyptian Standard Specifications (2005 a, b)

  7. Microencapsulation of Epoxidized Linseed Oil Liquid Cross-Linker in Poly(N-vinyl-pyrrolidone): Optimization by a Design-of-Experiments Approach

    Senatore, D.; Laven, J.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; La Camera, D.; With, de G.

    2010-01-01

    A liquid cross-linker, epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), was encapsulated in a plastic with a high glass transition temperature (poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone); PVP). The process parameters of the spray-drying employed were optimized by a Design-of-Experiments (DoE) approach. Three factors concerning both

  8. Short communication: Feeding linseed oil to dairy goats with competent reticular groove reflex greatly increases n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Carrión Pardo, D; Núñez Sánchez, N; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-01-01

    A crossover experiment was designed to compare the effects of 2 ways of feeding linseed oil on milk fat fatty acid (FA) composition. Ten lactating goats, trained to keep competent their inborn reticular groove reflex, received a daily dose of linseed oil (38 g/d) either with their solid (concentrate) feed (CON) or emulsified in skim milk and bottle-fed (BOT). Two groups of 5 goats received alternative and successively each of the treatments in two 15-d periods. α-Linolenic acid in milk fat rose up to 13.7% in the BOT versus 1.34% in the CON treatment. The n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was significantly reduced in goats receiving bottle-fed linseed oil (1.49 vs. 0.49). Contents of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates of dietary unsaturated FA were high in milk fat of goats under the CON treatment but low in those in the BOT treatment. These results point to a clear rumen bypass of the bottle-fed linseed oil. This strategy allows obtaining milk fat naturally very rich in n-3 FA and very low in trans FA. Translating this approach into practical farm conditions could enable farmers to produce milk enriched in specific FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical and morphological characterization of novel vinyl plastisols with epoxidized linseed oil as natural-based plasticizer

    Fenollar, O.; Balart, R.; Sanchez-Nacher, L.; Garcia-Sanoguera, D.; Boronat, T.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) is one of the most commonly used plastics in the current market due to its low cost and versatility in processing, combined with its satisfactory physical and chemical properties. However, there is an important problem associated to the use of plasticized PVC. This problem is regarding to the toxicity of the most common plasticized used like DOP, DEHP, DINP, due to its possible migration. This problem limits the use of the plasticized PVC in the industry. In this work we have used epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) as a non toxic plasticizer for PVC. This type of natural oil is characterized by acting as both plasticizer and stabilizer of PVC. With this purpose, ELO have been added to PVC. The processing conditions (temperature and time of curing) are vital to determine the final properties of the material. A study of the processing conditions shows the adequate temperature and time to achieve the optimum properties.

  10. In situ surface treatment of nanocrystalline MFe2O4 (M = Co, Mg, Mn, Ni) spinel ferrites using linseed oil

    Gherca, Daniel; Cornei, Nicoleta; Mentré, Olivier; Kabbour, Houria; Daviero-Minaud, Sylvie; Pui, Aurel

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis by coprecipitation method of MFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles using linseed oil as the in-situ surfactant. The decomposition process of the precursors and the formation process of MFe 2 O 4 were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The crystal structure and surface morphology were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The results demonstrate that the surface of MFe 2 O 4 with a diameter in the range 5–13 nm, is activated with hydrophilic groups of the surfactant which coat them and enhance the stability. Magnetic properties are discussed.

  11. Structurally modified pectin for targeted lipid antioxidant capacity in linseed/sunflower oil-in-water emulsions.

    Celus, Miete; Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Kyomugasho, Clare; Maes, Ine; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-02-15

    The present work explored the lipid antioxidant capacity of citrus pectin addition to 5%(w/v) linseed/sunflower oil emulsions stabilized with 0.5%(w/v) Tween 80, as affected by pectin molecular characteristics. The peroxide formation in the emulsions, containing tailored pectin structures, was studied during two weeks of storage at 35°C. Low demethylesterified pectin (≤33%) exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than high demethylesterified pectin (≥58%), probably due to its higher chelating capacity of pro-oxidative metal ions (Fe 2+ ), whereas the distribution pattern of methylesters along the pectin chain only slightly affected the antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, pectin addition to the emulsions caused emulsion destabilization probably due to depletion or bridging effect, independent of the pectin structural characteristics. These results evidence the potential of structurally modified citrus pectin as a natural antioxidant in emulsions. However, optimal conditions for emulsion stability should be carefully selected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Self-Healing Coatings Based on Linseed Oil as Autonomous Repairing Agent for Corrosion Resistance

    Karan Thanawala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years corrosion-resistant self-healing coatings have witnessed strong growth and their successful laboratory design and synthesis categorises them in the family of smart/multi-functional materials. Among various approaches for achieving self-healing, microcapsule embedment through the material matrix is the main one for self-healing ability in coatings. The present work focuses on optimizing the process parameters for developing microcapsules by in-situ polymerization of linseed oil as core and urea-formaldehyde as shell material. Characteristics of these microcapsules with respect to change in processing parameters such as stirring rate and reaction time were studied by using optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The effectiveness of these microcapsules in coatings was characterized by studying their adhesion, performance, and mechanical properties.

  13. In situ surface treatment of nanocrystalline MFe2O4 (M = Co, Mg, Mn, Ni) spinel ferrites using linseed oil

    Gherca, Daniel; Cornei, Nicoleta; Mentré, Olivier; Kabbour, Houria; Daviero-Minaud, Sylvie; Pui, Aurel

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the synthesis by coprecipitation method of MFe2O4 nanoparticles using linseed oil as the in-situ surfactant. The decomposition process of the precursors and the formation process of MFe2O4 were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The crystal structure and surface morphology were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The results demonstrate that the surface of MFe2O4 with a diameter in the range 5-13 nm, is activated with hydrophilic groups of the surfactant which coat them and enhance the stability. Magnetic properties are discussed.

  14. Conductive Polymeric Composites Based on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Linseed Oil Functionalized and Cross-Linked with Diacetylenes from Propargyl Alcohol

    Alejandro Ramírez-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacetylene-functionalized epoxidized linseed oil (DAELO matrix was synthesized in order to improve the dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs without the necessity of some chemical or physical modification of them. That fact was evidenced by the low critical concentration of DAELO-based composites in comparison (1.0 wt% MWCNTs with the epoxidized linseed oil- (ELO- based composites (5 wt% MWCNTs. For this, both series of composites were prepared by the ultrasonic dispersion method using the same conditions of solvent, dilution, and sonication time. It was shown that, tailoring the polymer matrix with groups rich in nonpolar electric density, as diacetylene, and capable of interacting by van der Waals forces, it is possible to improve the dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs without necessity of some modification knowing that those treatments usually affect lowering their electrical properties.

  15. Effect of dietary linseed oil and Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves supplementation on fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbits

    Tina Trebušak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of natural antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative stress induced by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in rabbit diets. Forty-eight SIKA rabbits (24 male, 24 female were penned individually and after a 5-d adaptation period divided into 4 homogeneous groups (2.58±0.3 kg. The CONT– group received a diet with 60 g/kg palm fat, while the other 3 groups received a diet with 60 g/kg linseed oil which was either unsupplemented (CONT+ or supplemented with 10 g/kg of Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI or 10 g/kg of olive leaves (OLIVE. Rabbits were euthanised at 102 d of age, 22 d after the start of the experiment. Live weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate were recorded. The fatty acid composition of back (M. longissimus dorsi and hind leg muscle (thigh muscle, adipose tissue (abdominal fat and liver were determined. To evaluate the oxidative status of rabbits, the malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in the plasma, liver and both muscles was measured. DNA damage in the leukocytes was measured. Linseed oil addition increased the PUFA ratio and decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids in all tissues (P<0.001, with no detrimental effect on productive performance of rabbits compared to palm fat. Linseed oil also reduced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in all tissues (P<0.001. However, linseed oil addition increased the oxidative stress by increasing MDA concentrations in the liver and muscles (P<0.001, but did not affect the plasma MDA concentrations and the extent of DNA damage in the blood leukocytes compared to palm fat. Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver compared to CONT+ (P=0.059, with no effect of Ganoderma lucidum.

  16. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  17. Effect of Linseed Oil Dietary Supplementation on Fatty Acid Composition and Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Growing Goats

    M. Ebrahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO containing high α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, namely, high LO (HLO, low LO (LLO, and without LO as the control group (CON on the fatty acid (FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα, PPAR-γ, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue was increased (P<0.01 by increasing the LO in the diet, suggesting that the FA from HLO might have escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed HLO diets had lower proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, CLA cis-9 trans-11, and C20:4n-6 and higher proportions of C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than animals fed the CON diets, resulting in a decreased n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR in the tissue. In addition, feeding the HLO diet upregulated the expression of PPAR-γ (P<0.05 but downregulated the expression of SCD (P<0.05 in the adipose tissue. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely incorporated in the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA.

  18. The reactivity of linseed and soybean oil with different epoxidation degree towards vinyl acetate and impact of the resulting copolymer on the wood durability

    M. Jebrane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (LO and soybean oil (SO were in–situ epoxidized with peracetic acid to produce different degree of epoxidized LO and epoxidized SO. For comparison purpose, commercial epoxidized linseed oil (ELO® and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO® were also included in the study. The effect of epoxidation degree on the copolymerization reaction between epoxidized oils and vinyl acetate (VAc was investigated. Results showed that a copolymer can be formed between VAc and epoxidized LO with high epoxy content, while no reaction occurred between VAc and SO or its epoxidized derivatives. As the most reactive monomer among the studied oils, the epoxidized LO with highest epoxy content (i.e. ELO® was mixed with VAc and then impregnated into the wood using three different ELO®/VAc formulations either as solution or as emulsions. After curing, the impact of the resulting copolymer issued from the three tested formulations on the wood durability was evaluated. Results showed that the formulation comprising VAc, ELO®, H2O, K2S2O8 and alkaline emulsifier (Formulation 3 can significantly improve wood’s durability against white rot- (Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana. Treated wood of 8% weight percentage gain (WPG was sufficient to ensure decay resistance against the test fungi with less than 5% mass loss.

  19. The Structural and Functional Capacity of Ruminal and Cecal Microbiota in Growing Cattle Was Unaffected by Dietary Supplementation of Linseed Oil and Nitrate

    Popova, Milka; McGovern, Emily; McCabe, Matthew S.; Martin, Cécile; Doreau, Michel; Arbre, Marie; Meale, Sarah J.; Morgavi, Diego P.; Waters, Sinéad M.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms in the digestive tract of ruminants differ in their functionality and ability to use feed constituents. While cecal microbiota play an important role in post-rumen fermentation of residual substrates undigested in the rumen, limited knowledge exists regarding its structure and function. In this trial we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions and on the structure of ruminal and cecal microbiota of growing bulls. Animals were allocated to either a CTL (control) or LINNIT (CTL supplemented with 1.9% linseed and 1.0% nitrates) diet. Methane emissions were measured using the GreenFeed system. Microbial diversity was assessed using amplicon sequencing of microbial genomic DNA. Additionally, total RNA was extracted from ruminal contents and functional mcrA and mtt genes were targeted in amplicon sequencing approach to explore the diversity of functional gene expression in methanogens. LINNIT had no effect on methane yield (g/kg DMI) even though it decreased methane production by 9% (g/day; P ruminants. There was a parallel between the lack of effect of LINNIT on ruminal and cecal microbial community structure and functions on one side and methane emission changes on the other. These results suggest that the sequencing strategy used here to study microbial diversity and function accurately reflected the absence of effect on methane phenotypes in bulls treated with linseed plus nitrate. PMID:28596764

  20. Effect of the supplementation linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut into a high fat diet on the fatty acid profile of pigs

    Matej Brestenský

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study it was evaluated the effect of the addition of linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut added to a high fat (HF diet on the content of fatty acids (FAs in musculuss longissimus dorsi (MLD of pigs. A 5d with adaptation period was followed by a 70 d experimental period, during which the pigs were fed with a HF basal diet. The HF basal diet which served as a control (group CG was supplemented either with linseed oil (group LG or with inulin and horse chestnut (group IG. All of the pigs were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and samples of MLD were taken for FA analysis. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in MLD of the LG group was 58 % and 61 % higher (P˂0.05 compared to CG and IG groups, respectively. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was 0.03 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 0.07 in LG treatment. These FAs were not detected in CG and IG. The ratio of MUFA and PUFA n-6/n-3 in the MLD was the lowest (P˂0.05 in the LG (8.84 compared to CG (14.07 or IG (14.74 groups, representing a difference of 31.2%. The n-3/saturated FA ratio was highest (P˂0.05 in LG group (0.04 when compared to CG and IG groups (0.02. The supplementation of linseed oil, into the HF diet resulted in a higher concentration of α-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA and lower ratio of n-6/n-3 FA in MLD. Inulin and horse chestnut had no effect on FA profile of MLD.

  1. Deep sequencing shows microRNA involvement in bovine mammary gland adaptation to diets supplemented with linseed oil or safflower oil.

    Li, Ran; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Ammah, Adolf A; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M

    2015-10-30

    Bovine milk fat composition is responsive to dietary manipulation providing an avenue to modify the content of fatty acids and especially some specific unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) isomers of benefit to human health. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression but their specific roles in bovine mammary gland lipogenesis are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the expression pattern of miRNAs following mammary gland adaptation to dietary supplementation with 5 % linseed or safflower oil using next generation RNA-sequencing. Twenty-four Canadian Holstein dairy cows (twelve per treatment) in mid lactation were fed a control diet (total mixed ration of corn:grass silages) for 28 days followed by a treatment period (control diet supplemented with 5 % linseed or safflower oil) of 28 days. Milk samples were collected weekly for fat and individual fatty acid determination. RNA from mammary gland biopsies harvested on day-14 (control period) and on days +7 and +28 (treatment period) from six randomly selected cows per treatment was subjected to small RNA sequencing. Milk fat percentage decreased significantly (P safflower oil treatments, respectively. Seven miRNAs including six up-regulated (bta-miR-199c, miR-199a-3p, miR-98, miR-378, miR-148b and miR-21-5p) and one down-regulated (bta-miR-200a) were found to be regulated (P < 0.05) by both treatments, and thus considered core differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs. The gene targets of core DE miRNAs have functions related to gene expression and general cellular metabolism (P < 0.05) and are enriched in four pathways of lipid metabolism (3-phosphoinositide biosynthesis, 3-phosphoinositide degradation, D-myo-inisitol-5-phosphate metabolism and the superpathway of inositol phosphate compounds). Our results suggest that DE miRNAs in this study might be important regulators of bovine mammary lipogenesis and metabolism. The novel miRNAs identified in this study will further enrich the bovine miRNome repertoire

  2. Effect of dietary fish oil supplements alone or in combination with sunflower and linseed oil on ruminal lipid metabolism and bacterial populations in lactating cows.

    Kairenius, P; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Muetzel, S; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Wallace, R J; Shingfield, K J

    2018-04-01

    Fish oil (FO) alters ruminal biohydrogenation causing trans fatty acid (FA) intermediates to accumulate, but the effects of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA supply on ruminal long-chain FA metabolism and microbial communities in cattle fed FO are not well established. Four cows fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of FO alone or in combination with plant oils high in 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 on rumen microbial ecology and flow of FA at the omasum. Treatments comprised a basal grass silage-based diet containing no additional oil (control) or supplements of FO (200 g/d) or FO (200 g/d) plus 500 g/d of sunflower oil (SFO) or linseed oil (LFO). Flow of FA was determined using the omasal sampling technique. The relative abundance of key biohydrogenating bacteria was assessed by quantitative PCR on 16S rRNA genes in omasal digesta. Fish oil-supplemented treatments increased the amounts of trans-18:1, trans-18:2, and 20- to 22-carbon polyunsaturated FA escaping the rumen. Relative to the control, oil supplements had no effect on the amount of 18:0 leaving the rumen, but LFO decreased the flow of 18:0 at the omasum compared with SFO. Both SFO and LFO increased trans-18:1 relative to FO, whereas LFO resulted in the highest trans-18:2 and 20- to 22-carbon FA flow. Supplements of FO plus plant oils shifted biohydrogenation toward trans-10 18:1 formation. Compared with FO alone, the ruminal metabolism of 22:6n-3 in the rumen of lactating cows is more extensive on diets containing higher amounts of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA. However, the biohydrogenation of 22:5n-3 was less extensive in LFO than SFO, but showed no difference between FO and diets containing plant oils. Ruminal outflow of 20:5n-3 was not altered when plant oils were added to FO. Alterations in the amount of intermediates at the omasum or ruminal biohydrogenation pathways were not accompanied by major changes in analyzed bacterial populations

  3. Skin Penetration Enhancement by Natural Oils for Dihydroquercetin Delivery.

    Čižinauskas, Vytis; Elie, Nicolas; Brunelle, Alain; Briedis, Vitalis

    2017-09-12

    Natural oils are commonly used in topical pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, stabilizers or solubility enhancers. They are presented as safe and inert components, mainly used for formulation purposes. It is confirmed that natural oils can affect the skin penetration of various substances. Fatty acids are mainly responsible for this effect. Current understanding lacks reliable scientific data on penetration of natural oils into the skin and their skin penetration enhancement potential. In the current study, fatty acid content analysis was used to determine the principal fatty acids in soybean, olive, avocado, sea-buckthorn pulp, raspberry seed and coconut oils. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry bioimaging was used to determine the distribution of these fatty acids in human skin ex vivo after application of the oils. Skin penetration enhancement ratios were determined for a perspective antioxidant compound dihydroquercetin. The results demonstrated skin penetration of fatty acids from all oils tested. Only soybean and olive oils significantly increased the skin distribution of dihydroquercetin and can be used as skin penetration enhancers. However, no correlation can be determined between the fatty acids' composition and skin penetration enhancement using currently available methodological approaches. This indicates that potential chemical penetration enhancement should be evaluated during formulation of topically applied products containing natural oils.

  4. The effect of maleinized linseed oil (MLO) on mechanical performance of poly(lactic acid)-thermoplastic starch (PLA-TPS) blends.

    Ferri, J M; Garcia-Garcia, D; Sánchez-Nacher, L; Fenollar, O; Balart, R

    2016-08-20

    In this work, poly(lactic acid), PLA and thermoplastic starch, TPS blends (with a fixed content of 30wt.% TPS) were prepared by melt extrusion process to increase the low ductile properties of PLA. The TPS used contains an aliphatic/aromatic biodegradable polyester (AAPE) that provides good resistance to aging and moisture. This blend provides slightly improved ductile properties with an increase in elongation at break of 21.5% but phase separation is observed due to the lack of strong interactions between the two polymers. Small amounts of maleinized linseed oil (MLO) can positively contribute to improve the ductile properties of these blends by a combined plasticizing-compatibilizing effect. The elongation at break increases over 160% with the only addition of 6phr MLO. One of the evidence of the plasticizing-compatibilizing effect provided by MLO is the change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) with a decrease of about 10°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) of PLA-TPS blends with varying amounts of maleinized linseed oil also suggests an increase in compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Yield, SDG lignan, cadmium, lead, oil and protein contents of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. cultivated in trials and at different farm conditions in the south-western part of Finland

    Marketta Saastamoinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed varieties were studied in variety trials and under farm conditions in south-western Finland in the years 2007−2010. The variation in yield, oil, protein, SDG lignan, cadmium and lead contents were studied in 8 oil and 2 fibre linseed varieties. Genotypic, environmental and genotype x environment interaction variance estimates were calculated. Fibre varieties ‘Belinka’ and ‘Martta’ had higher protein and lower oil contents than oil linseed varieties.The SDG lignan contents of linseed varieties varied between 3635−9560 mg kg-1. Rather high genotypic variance was found in yield, oil, protein and SDG lignan contents. Variety ‘Laser’ had lower SDG lignan content. ‘Abacus’, ‘Helmi’ and ‘Martta’ had the highest SDG lignan contents. Variation in cadmium and lead contents were caused by environmental effects. The highest cadmium contents, 0.82−1.69 mg kg-1, were found in soils fertilized by wastewater sludge about 20 years ago and at fields with low bottom soil pH (4.1−4.5.

  6. Some studies on the composition and surface properties of oil bodies from the seed cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and linseed (Linum ustatissimum).

    Slack, C R; Bertaud, W S; Shaw, B D; Holland, R; Browse, J; Wright, H

    1980-01-01

    1. The average oil-body diameter in intact cells of developing linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) cotyledons was similar (about 1.4 micrometer), and there was little change in size after oil bodies were isolated and repeatedly washed. 2. The glycerolipid composition of washed oil bodies from both developing and mature cotyledons of the two species was similar; oil bodies from ten different batches of cotyledons contained 4.3 +/- 0.16 mumol of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine and 25.2 +/- 1.7 mumol of diacylglycerol per 1000 mumol of triacylglycerol. During four successive washings of a once-washed oil-body preparation, the proportion of diacylglycerol to triacylglycerol remained constant and that of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine to triacylglycerol decreased by only 20%. 3. The protein content of thrice-washed oil bodies from the two species was similar, about 2.4% of the weight of glycerolipids, and appeared to be independent of the stage of cotyledon maturity. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated that the protein of purified oil bodies from the two species consisted mainly of only four polypeptides and that two of the polypeptides from each species had apparent mol.wts. of 17500 and 15500. Similar patterns of polypeptides were obtained after the hydrolysis of the 15500-mol.wt. polypeptides from linseed and safflower oil bodies by Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, whereas the proteolysis of the 17500-mol.wt. polypeptides from the two species produced different patterns of polypeptides. 4. The 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine in oil-body preparations was hydrolysed about 85% by bee-venom phospholipase A2 without any apparent coalescence of the oil bodies. Incubation with lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus caused rapid coalescence of the oil bodies, and this lipase appeared to initially hydrolyse diacylglycerols in preference to triacylglycerol. 5. Oil bodies from both species were almost completely dispersed in suspensions of

  7. Dietary fish oil replacement by linseed oil: Effect on growth, nutrient utilization, tissue fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) fingerlings.

    Nayak, Madhusmita; Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Samanta, Mrinal; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33.3%, 50%, 66.7% and 100% LO. Final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, SGR decreased linearly (p0.05) affect the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and whole body proximate composition. Furthermore, enhanced level of LO increased α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) in muscle and liver. To understand the molecular mechanism of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase (Δ6 fad) cDNA and investigated its expression in various organs/tissues following replacement of FO with LO in the diet. The full-length Δ6 fad cDNA was 2056bp encoding 444 amino acids and was widely expressed in various organs/tissues. Replacement of FO with LO increased the expression of Δ6 fad mRNA in liver, muscle and intestine but no significant difference was found in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits on their productive performances, carcass traits and fresh and cooked meat quality.

    Matics, Zs; Cullere, M; Szín, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Szabó, A; Fébel, H; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, Zs

    2017-08-01

    The present experiment tested a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits. The basal diet (B) contained 3% sunflower oil, while it was substituted with 3% linseed oil in the experimental feed (S). The selenium (Se) content of the two diets was 0.10 vs. 0.46 mg/kg. Rabbits were fed with B diet from the age of 18 days. One group was fed with the B diet until 11 weeks of age (group B), whereas the experimental groups were fed with S diet for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks (groups S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively), before slaughtering (11 weeks of age). Live performance and carcass traits of rabbits, fatty acid (FA) profile and selenium content of their hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were considered in this study. In addition, the effect of two different cooking methods on the nutritional value of the enriched HL meat was also assessed. The tested dietary supplementation only minimally affected the live performance and carcass traits of rabbits. The S supplementation significantly reduced the Σ n-6 FA and increased the Σ n-3 FA of the HL meat and LTL meat, compared to the B diet (p meat and LTL meat of S fed rabbits were significantly enriched in Se reaching a twofold increase in both meat cuts (p meat. The heat treatment affected cooking loss, Se and vitamin E contents as well as the oxidative status of the HL meat (p < 0.001), with the different cooking methods providing different results. In addition, even if the beneficial C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 decreased with cooking, the n-6/n-3 ratio remained unaffected. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of pork as influenced by duration and time of dietary linseed or fish oil supplementation.

    Haak, L; De Smet, S; Fremaut, D; Van Walleghem, K; Raes, K

    2008-06-01

    In this experiment, the effect of duration and time of feeding n-3 PUFA sources on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was investigated. Linseed (L) and fish oil (F), rich in alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA and DHA), respectively, were supplied equivalent to a level of 1.2% oil (as fed), either during the whole fattening period or only during the first (P1; 8 wk) or second (P2; 6 to 9 wk until slaughter) fattening phase. All diets were based on barley, wheat, and soybean meal and were fed ad libitum. Crossbred pigs (n = 154; Topigs 40 x Piétrain) were randomly allotted to the 7 feeding groups. In the basal diet (B), only animal fat was used as the supplementary fat source. Three dietary groups were supplied the same fatty acid source during both fattening phases (i.e., group BB, LL, and FF). For the other 4 dietary groups, the fatty acid source was switched after the first phase (groups BL, BF, LF, and FL; the first and second letter indicating the diet in P1 and P2, respectively). Twelve animals per feeding group were selected based on average live BW. The LT was analyzed for fatty acid composition; lipid stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and color stability (a* value, % of myoglobin pigments) were determined on the LT after illuminated chill storage for up to 8 d. The alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid incorporation was independent of the duration of linseed feeding (1.24, 0.54, and 0.75% of total fatty acids, respectively, for group LL). Supplying fish oil during both phases resulted in the greatest EPA and DHA proportions (1.37 and 1.02% of total fatty acids; P fish oil was administered during P2 compared with P1 (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on meat ultimate pH and drip loss or on lipid or color oxidation.

  10. Production of TNF-α, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by macrophages from mice with paracoccidioidomycosis that were fed a linseed oil-enriched diet

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA can modulate the immune system and their primary effect is on macrophage function. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb. Macrophages are the main defence against this pathogen and have microbicidal activity that is dependent on interferon-Γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α. These cytokines stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, leading to the death of the fungus. To study the effect of n-3 PUFA on the host immune response during experimental PCM, macrophages that were obtained from animals infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched by linseed (LIN oil were cultured and challenged with the fungus in vitro. The macrophage function was analysed based on the concentrations of TNF-α, NO and H2O2. LIN oil seems to influence the production of TNF-α during the development of disease. A diet enriched with LIN oil influences the microbicidal activity of the macrophages by inducing the production of cytokines and metabolites such as NO and H2O2, predominantly in the chronic phase of infection.

  11. Production of TNF-α, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by macrophages from mice with paracoccidioidomycosis that were fed a linseed oil-enriched diet.

    Sargi, Sheisa Cyléia; Dalalio, Márcia Machado de Oliveira; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Bezerra, Rafael Campos; Perini, João Ângelo de Lima; Stevanato, Flávia Braidotti; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2012-05-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can modulate the immune system and their primary effect is on macrophage function. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb). Macrophages are the main defence against this pathogen and have microbicidal activity that is dependent on interferon-Γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. These cytokines stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), leading to the death of the fungus. To study the effect of n-3 PUFA on the host immune response during experimental PCM, macrophages that were obtained from animals infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched by linseed (LIN) oil were cultured and challenged with the fungus in vitro. The macrophage function was analysed based on the concentrations of TNF-α, NO and H₂O₂. LIN oil seems to influence the production of TNF-α during the development of disease. A diet enriched with LIN oil influences the microbicidal activity of the macrophages by inducing the production of cytokines and metabolites such as NO and H₂O₂, predominantly in the chronic phase of infection.

  12. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  13. Temperature Increase Negatively Affects the Fatty Acid Bioconversion Capacity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Linseed Oil-Based Diet.

    Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account.

  14. Selenite and selenate affect the fatty acid profile in in vitro incubated ovine ruminal fluid containing linseed oil

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 7 (2013), s. 328-341 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : vegetable oil * selenium * biohydrogenation * bacterial isomerization Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.871, year: 2013

  15. Linseed oil and DGAT1 K232A polymorphism: Effects on methane emission, energy and nitrogen metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen microbial composition of Holstein-Friesian cows.

    van Gastelen, S; Visker, M H P W; Edwards, J E; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Bovenhuis, H; Smidt, H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-11-01

    Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH 4 and H 2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was investigated. Twenty-four lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (i.e., 12 with DGAT1 KK genotype and 12 with DGAT1 AA genotype) were fed 2 diets in a crossover design: a control diet and a linseed oil diet (LSO) with a difference of 22 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in fat content between the 2 diets. Both diets consisted of 40% corn silage, 30% grass silage, and 30% concentrates (DM basis). Apparent digestibility, lactation performance, N and energy balance, and CH 4 emission were measured in climate respiration chambers, and rumen fluid samples were collected using the oral stomach tube technique. No linseed oil by DGAT1 interactions were observed for digestibility, milk production and composition, energy and N balance, CH 4 and H 2 emissions, and rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations. The DGAT1 KK genotype was associated with a lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, and with a higher milk fat and protein content, and proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat compared with the DGAT1 AA genotype, whereas the fat- and protein-corrected milk yield was unaffected by DGAT1. Also, DGAT1 did not affect nutrient digestibility, CH 4 or H 2 emission, ruminal fermentation or ruminal archaeal and bacterial concentrations. Rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was also unaffected in terms of the whole community, whereas at the genus level the relative abundances of some bacterial genera were found to be affected by DGAT1. The DGAT1 KK genotype was associated with a lower metabolizability (i.e., ratio of metabolizable to gross energy intake), and with a tendency for a lower milk N efficiency compared

  16. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  17. Effect of lyophilized water extracts of Melissa officinalis on the stability of algae and linseed oil-in-water emulsion to be used as a functional ingredient in meat products.

    de Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2010-06-01

    Previous work pointed out the possibility to enhance the nutritional value of meat products using long chain omega-3 PUFA enriched emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions elaborated with a mixture of algae and linseed oils (15:10) in order to be used as functional ingredient were stabilized with BHA (butylhydroxyanisol) or with a lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm). The lipid profile of the oil mixture showed a high amount of DHA (31.7%), oleic (25.4%) and alpha-linolenic acid (12.7%) resulting in a very low omega-6/omega-3 ratio (0.12). The lyophilized extract of M. officinalis showed a high antioxidant activity (being 62ppm of the lyophilized water extract of Melissa equivalent to 200ppm of BHA, using the DPPH assay as reference), and high total phenolic content. Studying the oxidation process in the emulsions during 15days at room temperature, it could be concluded that this extract was as efficient as BHA in order to control the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptome adaptation of the bovine mammary gland to diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids shows greater impact of linseed oil over safflower oil on gene expression and metabolic pathways.

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Li, Ran; Ammah, Adolf A; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zhao, Xin

    2016-02-09

    Nutritional strategies can decrease saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and increase health beneficial fatty acids (FAs) in bovine milk. The pathways/genes involved in these processes are not properly defined. Next-generation RNA-sequencing was used to investigate the bovine mammary gland transcriptome following supplemental feeding with 5% linseed oil (LSO) or 5% safflower oil (SFO). Holstein cows in mid-lactation were fed a control diet for 28 days (control period) followed by supplementation with 5% LSO (12 cows) or 5% SFO (12 cows) for 28 days (treatment period). Milk and mammary gland biopsies were sampled on days-14 (control period), +7 and +28 (treatment period). Milk was used to measure fat(FP)/protein(PP) percentages and individual FAs while RNA was subjected to sequencing. Milk FP was decreased by 30.38% (LSO) or 32.42% (SFO) while PP was unaffected (LSO) or increased (SFO). Several beneficial FAs were increased by LSO (C18:1n11t, CLA:10t12c, CLA:9c11t, C20:3n3, C20:5n3, C22:5n3) and SFO (C18:1n11t, CLA:10t12c, C20:1c11, C20:2, C20:3n3) while several SFAs (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C24:0) were decreased by both treatments (P < 0.05). 1006 (460 up- and 546 down-regulated) and 199 (127 up- and 72 down-regulated) genes were significantly differentially regulated (DE) by LSO and SFO, respectively. Top regulated genes (≥ 2 fold change) by both treatments (FBP2, UCP2, TIEG2, ANGPTL4, ALDH1L2) are potential candidate genes for milk fat traits. Involvement of SCP2, PDK4, NQO1, F2RL1, DBI, CPT1A, CNTFR, CALB1, ACADVL, SPTLC3, PIK3CG, PIGZ, ADORA2B, TRIB3, HPGD, IGFBP2 and TXN in FA/lipid metabolism in dairy cows is being reported for the first time. Functional analysis indicated similar and different top enriched functions for DE genes. DE genes were predicted to significantly decrease synthesis of FA/lipid by both treatments and FA metabolism by LSO. Top canonical pathways associated with DE genes of both treatments might be involved in lipid

  19. Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    three natural oils (eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil) would affect the skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid when applied topically in relevant concentrations. An experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells mounted with human breast or abdominal skin...

  20. Percutaneous penetration enhancement effect of essential oil of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq. on Chinese herbal components with different lipophilicity

    Jingyan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: Mint oil at proper concentration could effectively facilitate percutaneous penetration of both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and exhibit higher efficiency for moderate hydrophilic drugs. Mechanisms of penetration enhancement by mint oil could be explained with saturation solubility, SC/vehicle partition coefficient and the secondary structure change of SC.

  1. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea

    Jun Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs as penetration enhancers (PEs to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil >> Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05. The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05. In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea.

  2. Influence of soil parameters on depth of oil waste penetration

    Rychlicki Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A measurement post for testing propagation of hydrocarbon contamination in a model of a near-surface soil layer and its remediation, are characterized in the paper. Generalized results of laboratory observations require meeting similarity criteria of the laboratory and actual processes. These requirements were used when designing the measurement post. A successful attempt to match a theoretical model describing oil products filtration necessitates certain conditions, e.g. homogeneity of the physical model of soil and characteristic of the course of the analyzed processes.

  3. [Resorption of hydrocyanic acid from linseed].

    Schulz, V; Löffler, A; Gheorghiu, T

    1983-01-01

    Resorption of hydrocyanic acid after ingestion of linseed was investigated in 20 healthy volunteers and 5 patients. The persons investigated took a single dose of 30 g or of 100 g of linseed or they received throughout several weeks 15 g. t.i.d. One volunteer also took for purposes of comparison bitter almonds or potassium cyanide. Before, during and after the periods of ingestion plasma levels of hydrocyanic acid and of thiocyanate were normal. During long-term trials urinary excretion of thiocyanate was monitored regularly. Intake of linseed even in extremely high dosages never caused significant rises of plasma thiocyanate levels; this, however, was the case after intake of bitter almonds or potassium cyanide. Thus, it can be excluded, that intoxication by hydrocyanic acid can be caused by linseed. Long-term intake of linseed however, raised plasma levels of thiocyanate significantly; at the same time urinary excretion of thiocyanate increased.

  4. Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications.

    Petry, T; Bury, D; Fautz, R; Hauser, M; Huber, B; Markowetz, A; Mishra, S; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Teichert, T

    2017-10-05

    Mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic products, also referred to as "personal care products" outside the European Union, are mixtures of predominantly saturated hydrocarbons consisting of straight-chain, branched and ring structures with carbon chain lengths greater than C16. They are used in skin and lip care cosmetic products due to their excellent skin tolerance as well as their high protecting and cleansing performance and broad viscosity options. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects of mineral oils and waxes from dermal application of cosmetics. In order to be able to assess the risk for the consumer the dermal penetration potential of these ingredients has to be evaluated. The scope and objective of this review are to identify and summarize publicly available literature on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. A total of 13 in vivo (human, animal) and in vitro studies investigating the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes has been identified and analysed. The majority of the substances were dermally adsorbed to the stratum corneum and only a minor fraction reached deeper skin layers. Overall, there is no evidence from the various studies that mineral oils and waxes are percutaneously absorbed and become systemically available. Thus, given the absence of dermal uptake, mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products do not present a risk to the health of the consumer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Variation in penetration of submicrometric particles through electrostatic filtering facepieces during exposure to paraffin oil aerosol.

    Plebani, Carmela; Listrani, Stefano; Tranfo, Giovanna; Tombolini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Several studies show the increase of penetration through electrostatic filters during exposure to an aerosol flow, because of particle deposition on filter fibers. We studied the effect of increasing loads of paraffin oil aerosol on the penetration of selected particle sizes through an electrostatic filtering facepiece. FFP2 facepieces were exposed for 8 hr to a flow rate of 95.0 ± 0.5 L/min of polydisperse paraffin aerosol at 20.0 ± 0.5 mg/m(3). The penetration of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (DEHS) monodisperse neutralized aerosols, with selected particle size in the 0.03-0.40 μm range, was measured immediately prior to the start of the paraffin aerosol loading and at 1, 4, and 8 hr after the start of paraffin aerosol loading. Penetration through isopropanol-treated facepieces not oil paraffin loaded was also measured to evaluate facepiece behavior when electrostatic capture mechanisms are practically absent. During exposure to paraffin aerosol, DEHS penetration gradually increased for all aerosol sizes, and the most penetrating particle size (0.05 μm at the beginning of exposure) shifted slightly to larger diameters. After the isopropanol treatment, the higher penetration value was 0.30 μm. In addition to an increased penetration during paraffin loading at a given particle size, the relative degree of increase was greater as the particle size increased. Penetration value measured after 8 hr for 0.03-μm particles was on average 1.6 times the initial value, whereas it was about 8 times for 0.40-μm particles. This behavior, as well evidenced in the measurements of isopropanol-treated facepieces, can be attributed to the increasing action in particle capture of the electrostatic forces (Coulomb and polarization), which depend strictly on the diameter and electrical charge of neutralized aerosol particles. With reference to electrostatic filtering facepieces as personal protective equipment, results suggest the importance of complying with the manufacturer

  6. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  7. Yield and quality of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. under different planting conditions

    Tomáš Středa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was on the basis of the field experiment in two different agroclimatic localities, two planting options (low and high input and during three years find out the seed yield, seed oil content and composition of fatty acid in linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum L., variety Lola (LinolaTM. By the help of standard laboratory analyses for paint parameter evaluation judge suitability of using the oil for painting industry. Linseed yield varied from 0.29 t.ha–1 to 2.35 t.ha–1. Statistical significant differences (P = 0.01 were found out for localities, years and planting options. Average seed oil content varied from 36.6% to 44.0%. Influence of locality was not significant, influence of year and planting option to seed oil content was highly significant (P = 0.01. Content of linoleic acid in oil was influenced mainly by locality and planting option and varied from 75.86% to 76.78%. Laboratory painting-technological evaluation of oils and alkyd resin experimental sample made for suitability of using low linolenic oil of linseed, variety Lola for production of non-yellowing alkyds and enamels.

  8. Toxicidad oral a 60 días del aceite de sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. y linaza (Linum usitatissimum L. y determinación de la dosis letal 50 en roedores Oral toxicity at 60-days of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L. and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., and determination of lethal dose 50 in rodents

    Arilmi Gorriti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la toxicidad oral a 60 días y determinar la dosis letal 50 (DL 50 de los aceites crudos de sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. y linaza (Linum ussitatisimum en ratas Holtzman y en ratones cepa Balb C57, respectivamente. Materiales y métodos. Para la evaluación de la toxicidad oral a dosis repetida por 60 días se utilizó 24 ratas macho Holtzman divididos en tres grupos de ocho cada uno, los grupos fueron: solución salina fisiológica 4 mL/kg (SSF, aceite de sacha inchi 0,5 mL/kg (SI05 y aceite de linaza 0,5 mL/kg (L05, durante el experimento se controló semanalmente el peso corporal y signos de toxicidad en los grupos investigados, así como colesterol total, HDL, triglicéridos, glucosa, urea, TGP y fosfatasa alcalina a los 30 y 60 días de iniciado el experimento. Para la evaluación de la DL50 se usó ratones macho cepa Balb C57 en grupos de diez animales, se administró por vía oral dosis crecientes de aceites crudos hasta alcanzar 1 mL/kg (37 g/kg; Resultados. Los parámetros séricos en las ratas indican que no existe toxicidad alguna a los 60 días y que la administración de los aceites disminuyeron los niveles de colesterol, triglicéridos e incrementaron el HDL con respecto al grupo control. La DL50 muestra que los aceites crudos de sacha inchi y linaza presentan dosis por encima de los 37 g/kg de masa corporal. Conclusiones. Los aceites de sacha inchi y linaza son inocuos a 60 días y presentan una DL50 por encima de los 37 g/kg de animal.Objectives. To evaluate the oral toxicity at 60 days and to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD 50 of raw sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. and linseed (Linum ussitatisimum oils in Holtzman rats and mice of the strain Balb C57 respectively. Materials and methods. For the evaluation of the oral toxicity of repeated doses for 60 days, 24 male Holtzman rats were used, divided in three groups of 8 each, the groups were: physiologic saline solution 4 mL/kg (FSS, sacha inchi oil

  9. Efeito do óleo de linhaça e do óleo de amendoim sobre a vulcanização da borracha natural (NR. parte II: modelo detalhado Effect of linseed oil and peanut oil upon natural rubber (NR vulcanization. part II: detailed model

    Alexandre Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da substituição total ou parcial do ácido esteárico por óleos vegetais de linhaça e amendoim foi investigado em composições de borracha natural (NR. Um sistema de vulcanização convencional foi escolhido e os estudos cinéticos foram conduzidos nas temperaturas de 160 ºC, 170 ºC e 180 ºC. O modelo cinético detalhado permitiu estudar os diferentes estágios da vulcanização e verificar que na etapa de formação do precursor de ligações cruzadas (A → B houve diferenças significativas entre o ácido esteárico e os óleos vegetais. Tal resultado foi devido à presença expressiva de ácidos graxos insaturados na composição química dos óleos de linhaça e de amendoim (principalmente, os ácidos oléico e linolênico, o que facilitou a ocorrência de reações laterais inesperadas e, consequentemente, diminuiu o rendimento final de ligações cruzadas nos vulcanizados.The effect of the total or partial replacement of stearic acid with vegetable oils of linseed and peanut has been investigated in natural rubber (NR compositions. A conventional vulcanization system has been chosen and kinetic studies have been done in the temperatures of 160 ºC, 170 ºC and 180 ºC. The detailed kinetic model has allowed studying the different stages of vulcanization and verifying that in the formation of the crosslink precursor (A → B there were significant differences between stearic acid and the vegetable oils. This result has been attributed to the high concentration of unsaturated fat acids in the chemical composition of the vegetable oils (mainly, oleic and linolenic acids, which allowed unexpected side reactions and, consequently, diminished the final yield of crosslinking in the vulcanizates.

  10. Elucidation of penetration enhancement mechanism of Emu oil using FTIR microspectroscopy at EMIRA laboratory of SESAME synchrotron

    Mansour, Randa S. H.; Sallam, Alsayed A.; Hamdan, Imad I.; Khalil, Enam A.; Yousef, Ibraheem

    2017-10-01

    It has been proposed that Emu oil possesses skin permeation-enhancing effect. This study aimed to address its possible penetration enhancement mechanism(s) using IR microscopy, in accordance with LPP theory. The penetration of Emu oil through the layers of human skin was accomplished by monitoring oil-IR characteristic feature at 3006 cm- 1. The unsaturated components of Emu oil accumulated at about 270 μm depth of skin surface. The interaction of Emu oil with lipid and protein constituents of SC was investigated in comparison with a commonly used enhancer, IPM. Inter-sample spectral differences were identified using PCA and linked with possible enhancement mechanisms. Emu oil treatment caused a change in the slope of the right contour of amide I band of the protein spectral range. This was also clear in the second derivative spectra where the emergence of a new shoulder at higher frequency was evident, suggesting disorganization of keratin α-helix structure. This effect could be a result of disruption of some hydrogen bonds in which amide Cdbnd O and Nsbnd H groups of keratin are involved. The low intensity of the emerged shoulder is also in agreement with formation of weaker hydrogen bonds. IPM did not affect the protein component. No conclusions regarding the effect of penetration enhancers on the SC lipids were obtained. This was due to the overlap of the endogenous (skin) and exogenous (oil) CH stretching and scissoring frequencies. The SC carbonyl stretching peak disappeared as a result of IPM treatment which may reflect some degree of lipid extraction.

  11. Genotypical and environmental variability of fibre productivity and quality of linseed genotypes with a view to oil and short fibre utilization. Final report; Genotypische und umweltbedingte Variabilitaet der Faserleistung und -qualitaet von Oelleingenotypen im Hinblick auf die Nutzung von Oel und Kurzfaser. Abschlussbericht

    Diepenbrock, W.; Rennebaum, H.; Grimm, E.

    1999-10-01

    Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) was analyzed for combined utilization of oil and fibres. Effects of genotypical variabilities and environmental factors were investigated in field experiments in two sites (Dikopshof, Etzdorf) for three years (1995-1997). A comparison of selected genotypes showed that there is no genotype which combines the characteristics of high oil yield, long stem and good fibre characteristics. Of the eleven genotypes tested, eight were found to be suited, with restrictions, for double use and for further cultivation. [German] Im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit steht die Evaluierung von Oellein (Linum usitatissimum L.) im Hinblick auf eine kombinierte Nutzung von Oel und Fasern. Oekonomische Vorteile werden aufgrund eines wachsenden Bedarfs an Pflanzenfasern, insbesondere ausserhalb textiler Verarbeitungslinien erwartet. Zur Pruefung genotypischer Variabilitaeten und dem Einfluss von Umweltfaktoren auf Ertrag, Ertragskomponenten und Faserqualitaet wurden Feldversuche an zwei Standorten (Dikopshof, Etzdorf) ueber drei Jahre (1995-1997) angelegt. Der Vergleich ausgewaehlter Genotypen zeigt, dass ein ausgesprochener Doppelnutzungstyp nicht vorliegt. Es fehlen Genotypen mit der Merkmalskomibnation: hoher Oelertrag, langer technischer Stengel und vorteilhafte Fasereigenschaften. Aus einer Gruppe von elf umfassend geprueften Genotypen sind acht mit Einschraenkungen fuer eine Doppelnutzung geeignet. Diese Genotypen kommen zugleich fuer eine pflanzenzuechterische Bearbeitung in Frage. (orig.)

  12. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils; Propriedades termicas e eletricas de polimeros produzidos a partir do oleato de metila e amostras de biodiesel do oleo de girassol e oleo de linhaca

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  13. A New Way to Calculate Flow Pressure for Low Permeability Oil Well with Partially Penetrating Fracture

    Xiong Ping

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the validity of the previous models on calculating flow pressure for oil well with partially perforating fracture, a new physical model that obeys the actual heterogeneous reservoir characteristics was built. Different conditions, including reservoir with impermeable top and bottom borders or the reservoir top which has constant pressure, were considered. Through dimensionless transformation, Laplace transformation, Fourier cosine transformation, separation of variables, and other mathematical methods, the analytical solution of Laplace domain was obtained. By using Stephenson numerical methods, the numerical solution pressure in a real domain was obtained. The results of this method agree with the numerical simulations, suggesting that this new method is reliable. The following sensitivity analysis showed that the pressure dynamic linear flow curve can be divided into four flow streams of early linear flow, midradial flow, advanced spherical flow, and border controlling flow. Fracture length controls the early linear flow. Permeability anisotropy significantly affects the midradial flow. The degree of penetration and fracture orientation dominantly affect the late spherical flow. The boundary conditions and reservoir boundary width mainly affect the border controlling flow. The method can be used to determine the optimal degree of opening shot, vertical permeability, and other useful parameters, providing theoretical guidance for reservoir engineering analysis.

  14. Essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. and its main components used as transdermal penetration enhancers: a comparative study.

    Lan, Yi; Li, Hui; Chen, Yan-yan; Zhang, Ye-wen; Liu, Na; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Our previous studies had confirmed that the essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Z. bungeanum oil) could effectively enhance the percutaneous permeation of drug molecules as a natural transdermal penetration enhancer. The aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the skin penetration enhancement effect of Z. bungeanum oil and its main components on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) active components. Toxicities of Z. bungeanum oil and three selected terpene compounds (terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) in epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) and dermal fibroblast (CCC-ESF-1) cell lines were measured using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Five model drugs in TCM external preparations, namely osthole (OT), tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), ferulic acid (FA), puerarin (PR), and geniposide (GP), which were selected based on their lipophilicity denoted by logKo/w, were tested using in vitro permeation studies in which vertical Franz diffusion cells and rat abdominal skin were employed. The secondary structure changes of skin stratum corneum (SC) and drug thermodynamic activities were investigated to understand their mechanisms of action using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and saturation solubility studies, respectively. It was found that Z. bungeanum oil showed lower toxicities in both HaCaT cells and CCC-ESF-1 cells compared with three terpene compounds used alone. The enhancement permeation capacities by all tested agents were in the following increasing order: terpinen-4-ol≈1,8-cineoleoil. The mechanisms of permeation enhancement suggested that these enhancers promoted the skin permeation of drugs mainly by affecting SC lipids. These results indicated that Z. bungeanum oil exhibited better performance in enhancing the skin permeation of active components in TCM preparations.

  15. Fast pyrolysis of linseed. Product yields and compositions

    Acikgoz, C.; Onay, O.; Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Iki Eylul Campus, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    Fixed-bed fast pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) to determine particularly the effect of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the pyrolysis product yields and their compositions. The maximum oil yield of 57.7wt.% was obtained at a final pyrolysis temperature of 550C, particle size range 0.6mmoil showed that it can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock, with a calorific value of 38.45MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH{sub 1.64}O{sub 0.11}N{sub 0.03}.

  16. Transport behavior of n-alkane penetrants into castor oil based polyurethane-polyester nonwoven fabric composites

    Satheesh Kumar, M.N.; Manjula, K.S.; Siddaramaiah

    2007-01-01

    Castor oil based polyurethane (PU)-polyester nonwoven fabric composites were fabricated by impregnating the polyester nonwoven fabric in a composition containing castor oil and diisocyanate. Composites were fabricated with two different isocyanates such as toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Transport behavior of n-alkane penetrants (pentane, hexane and heptane) into both PUs and PU-polyester nonwoven fabric composites were studied. Sorption studies were carried out at different temperatures. From the sorption results, the diffusion (D) and permeation (P) coefficients of penetrants have been calculated. Significant increase in the diffusion and permeation coefficients was observed with increase in the temperature of sorption experiments. Drastical reduction in diffusion and permeation coefficients was noticed in the composites compared to neat PUs. Attempts were made to estimate the empirical parameters like n, which suggests the mode of transport and K is a constant depends on the structural characteristics of the composite in addition to its interaction with penetrants. The temperature dependence of the transport coefficients has been used to estimate the activation energy parameter for diffusion (E D ) and permeation (E P ) processes from Arrhenius plots. Furthermore, the sorption results have been interpreted in terms of the thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS)

  17. Oil type and cross-linking influence growth of Aureobasidium melanogenum on vegetable oils as a single carbon source.

    Peeters, Loes H M; Huinink, Hendrik P; Voogt, Benjamin; Adan, Olaf C G

    2018-03-12

    Aureobasidium melanogenum is the main fungus found in a spontaneously formed biofilm on a oil-treated wood. This dark colored biofilm functions as a protective coating. To better understand biofilm formation, in this study A. melanogenum was cultured on olive oil and raw linseed oil. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were measured. The results show that A. melanogenum is able to grow on linseed oil and olive oil as a single carbon source. The fungus produces the enzyme lipase to convert the oil into fatty acids and glycerol. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were equal on linseed oil and olive oil. The fungus was not able to grow on severe cross-linked linseed oil, meaning that the degree of cross-linking of the oil is important for growth of A. melanogenum. Dark coloring of the colony was seen on linseed oil, which might be a stress response on the presence of autoxidation products in linseed oil. The colony on olive oil showed delayed melanin production indicating an inhibitory effect of olive oil on melanin production. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Nitrogen and dry matter dynamics in linseed as affected by the nitrogen level and genotype in a Mediterranean environment

    Dordas, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Linseed or oilseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of edible and industrial vegetable oil and is grown widely in temperate regions around the world. Nitrogen, one of the most important nutrients for linseed, is often applied for higher yield and better quality. However, the effects of N level on dry matter and N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation have not yet been identified in linseed. A two-year field study was therefore conducted to determine the effects of N level on dry matter, N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation of three linseed cultivars (Livia, Lirina, Creola) grown in a Mediterranean environment under rain-fed conditions. It was found that N fertilization increased biomass at anthesis by an average of 47% and at maturity by an average of 38%, compared with the control. N fertilization increased the dry matter partitioning in leaves + flowers and stems at anthesis, and also in leaves + capsule vegetative components, stems, and seeds at maturity. Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, growing season, and by the interaction between growing season and N treatment. In addition, N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts of the plant to the seed. Moreover, the N uptake by seeds was more affected by the seed yield and less affected by the seed N concentration. The present study indicates that N fertilization affects dry matter and N translocation in linseed. -- Highlights: ► Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, year, and their interaction. ► HI was affected by N fertilization while NHI was not. ► N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts to the seed.

  19. Development of basic populations of plant species suitable for the production of fatty acids, especially considering linseed, false flax and poppy

    Seehuber, R.; Dambroth, M.

    1987-01-01

    Seed yields, oil contents and oil yields from experiments conducted over a four year period and at five locations are presented for linseed (linum usitatissimum), false flax (Camelina sativa) and oilseed poppy (Papaver somniferum). The influence of year and location on the yields was very high, but oil contents have been relatively stable. The highest oil yields in kg/ha as mean for four years were for linseed 898, for false flax 892 and for poppy 901. Yields and oil contents of winter false flax were slightly higher than in summer false flax. The variability in the collections of plant genetic resources of the presented crops is demonstrated at the example of the frequency distributions of plant height. First results of yield trials of crossing progenies in false flax and poppy show the large possibilities of increasing seed yields. (orig.)

  20. Flash pyrolysis of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) for production of liquid fuels

    Acikgoz, C. [Department of Chemical Technology, Bilecik Higher Vocational School, GueluembeCampus, Anadolu University, 11030 Bilecik (Turkey); Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, iki Eyluel Campus, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    Flash pyrolysis experiments of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) were performed in a tubular transport reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the yields of products were investigated with the sweep gas flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}. The temperature of pyrolysis and particle size were varied in the ranges 400-700 C and 0.6 mm < D{sub p} < 1.25 mm, 1.25 mm < D{sub p} < 1.8 mm, D{sub p} > 1.8 mm, respectively. The maximum oil yield of 68.8% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 C, and the particle size of D{sub p} > 1.8 mm. The char and liquid product were analyzed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. In particular, the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques ({sup 1}H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC). The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from linseed can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  1. Effect of Biofertilizers Application on the Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Lines

    B. Motalebizadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of bio-fertilizers on the yield and yield components of flax lines, a study was conducted during 2010 growing season at the Agricultural Research Station of Saatlo in Urmia. A split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with four replications was performed in this study. Main factor (a consisted of fertilizer application form (a1 = control without nitrogen fertilizer, a2 = nitrogen fertilizer, a3 = nitroxin + N, a4 = phosphate barvar 2 + N, and a5 = nitroxin + phosphate barvar 2 + N and sub factor (b consisted of five lines of oily flax (b1 = 97-26, b2 = 97-14, b3 = 97-3, b4 = 97-21, b5 = 97-19. Quantitative and qualitative traits such as number of sub stems, leaf weight, capsule weight per main stem and sub stems, seed yield, oil and protein content were calculated or estimated. Results showed that the main factor (fertilizer form had significant effect (at α=0.01 probability level on all the parameters which have been studied in this experiment. Sub factor (linseed lines and interaction between the two factors had statistically significant effects on all traits. The highest seed yield (4781 kg h-1 and the highest seed oil content (36.5% were obtained from applying nitroxin + phosphateye barvare 2 + N on 97-14 and 97-3 lines. Results showed that using of Nitroxin and Phosphateye barvare 2 biofertilizers could be effective in increasing grain yield of linseed. Therefore, application of Nitroxin and Phosphateye barvare 2 biofertilizers could be used to improve soil physio-chemical properties and to increase quantitative and qualitative yield parameters of linseed.

  2. Detection of Oil Palm Root Penetration by Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformed Ganoderma boninense, Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein.

    Govender, Nisha; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2017-04-01

    A highly efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Ganoderma boninense was developed to facilitate observation of the early stage infection of basal stem rot (BSR). The method was proven amenable to different explants (basidiospore, protoplast, and mycelium) of G. boninense. The transformation efficiency was highest (62%) under a treatment combination of protoplast explant and Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, with successful expression of an hyg marker gene and gus-gfp fusion gene under the control of heterologous p416 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Optimal transformation conditions included a 1:100 Agrobacterium/explant ratio, induction of Agrobacterium virulence genes in the presence of 250 μm acetosyringone, co-cultivation at 22°C for 2 days on nitrocellulose membrane overlaid on an induction medium, and regeneration of transformants on potato glucose agar prepared with 0.6 M sucrose and 20 mM phosphate buffer. Evaluated transformants were able to infect root tissues of oil palm plantlets with needle-like microhyphae during the penetration event. The availability of this model pathogen system for BSR may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenicity factors associated with G. boninense penetration into oil palm roots.

  3. Measurement of Fog Oil Penetration into Model Underground Burrow and Hollow Tree Nest Cavities

    Guelta, Mark A; Balbach, Harold E

    2007-01-01

    .... On installations where troop readiness training is conducted, an important component of realistic troop readiness training is the generation of obscurant material and the conduct of maneuvers under obscurant cover. Fog oil (FO...

  4. Germination and vigor of linseed seeds under different conditions of light, temperature and water stress

    Raquel Stefanello

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., cultivated from seeds, is one of the oldest plants domesticated by humans and is popularly used as a medicine. It can be used as the raw material to produce oil and bran because it has high lipids content, fiber and proteins. Based on the economic potential of this species and the need for more information about its physiology, the goal of this study was to analyze the effects of light, temperature and water stress on the germination and vigor of linseed seeds. In experiment I the seeds were sown on paper at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC in the presence and absence of light. In experiment II, the seeds were placed on paper germitest soaked in solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 at osmotic potentials corresponding to zero, -0.10, -0.20, -0.30, -0.40, -0.50 and -0.60 MPa. To evaluate the physiological potential, the following tests were made: germination, first germination count, length and dry mass of seedlings, and water stress. It was found that the highest percentages of germination and vigor occurred at a constant temperature of 20 °C, both in the presence and absence of light. The reduction of the osmotic potential of the substrate promoted a significant decrease in the germination and vigor of the linseed seeds. Osmotic potentials equal or less than -0.30 MPa were harmful to germination and there was no normal seedling development starting at -0.50 MPa.

  5. [Effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption in vitro of Chuanxiong and penetration mechanism of skin blood flow].

    Zhu, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Jing; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yu, Ya-Ting; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hong-Ning

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption in vitro of Chuanxiong, and to investigate the possible penetration mechanism of their essential oil from the perspective of skin blood perfusion changes. Transdermal tests were performed in vitro with excised mice skin by improved Franz diffusion cells. The cumulative penetration amounts of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong were determined by HPLC to investigate the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal permeation properties of Chuanxiong. Simultaneously, the skin blood flows were determined by laser flow doppler. The results showed that the cumulative penetration amount of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong was (8.13±0.76) μg•cm⁻² in 24 h, and was (48.91±4.87), (57.80±2.86), (63.34±4.56), (54.17±4.40), (62.52±7.79) μg•cm⁻² respectively in Azone group, Frankincense essential oil group, Myrrh essential oil, frankincense and myrrh singly extracted essential oil mixture group, and frankincense and myrrh mixed extraction essential oil group. The enhancement ratios of each essential oil groups were 7.68, 8.26, 7.26, 8.28, which were slightly greater than 6.55 in Azone group. In addition, as compared with the conditions before treatment, there were significant differences and obvious increasing trend in blood flow of rats in Frankincense essential oil group, Myrrh essential oil group, frankincense and myrrh singly extracted essential oil mixture group, and frankincense and myrrh mixed extraction essential oil group when were dosed at 10, 20, 30, 10 min respectively, indicating that the skin blood flows were increased under the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil to a certain extent. Thus, Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil had certain effect on promoting permeability of Chuanxiong both before and after drug combination, and may promote the elimination of drugs from epidermis to dermal capillaries through increase of

  6. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN; SEMAGHIUL BIRGHILA; ANCA DUMBRAVA

    2018-01-01

    We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value) and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index). The best combination for sunflower oil was with coc...

  7. Effects of some biostimulators on yield and seed viability of linseed

    Jevđović Radosav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the application of some biostimulators on the yield and quality of linseed oil on humogley and chernozem. Tested fl ax cultivar Mira was produced in the Institute for Medicinal Plant Research ‘Dr Josif Pančić’ from Belgrade. EPIN EKSTRA and CIRKON were applied as biostimulators. The seed yield, germination energy (GE and total germination (TG were investigated. The higher average yield was achieved on the chernozem type of soil. A variant with the application of EPIN EKSTRA biostimulator gave the highest yield on both soil types. A variant with the application of CIRKON biostimulator gave slightly higher yield than the control, on both soil types. The highest germination energy and total germination were achieved in the variant with the application biostimulator EPIN EKSTRA.

  8. Development of linseed oil-free bakelite resistive plate chambers

    Biswas, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bose, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Saha, S.; Viyogi, Y.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we would like to present a few characteristics of the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) made of a particular grade of bakelite paper laminates (P-120, NEMA LI-1989 Grade XXX), produced and commercially available in India. This particular grade is used for high voltage insulation in humid conditions. The chambers are tested with cosmic rays in the streamer mode using argon, tetrafluroethane and isobutane in 34:59:7 mixing ratio. In the first set of detectors made with such grade, a thin coating of silicone fluid on the inner surfaces of the bakelite was found to be necessary for operation of the detector. Those silicone coated RPCs were found to give satisfactory performance with stable efficiency of >90% continuously for a long period as reported earlier. Results of the crosstalk measurement of these silicone coated RPC will be presented in this paper. Very recently RPCs made with the same grade of bakelite but having better surface finish are found to give equivalent performance even without any coating inside. Preliminary results of this type of RPCs are also being presented.

  9. Fatty acid composition and natural antioxidant capacity of ten Serbian linseed cultivars

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about nutritional characteristics of linseed cultivars from some specific geographical area or country is scarce. For that very reason, following paper is presenting fatty acid (FA compositions and antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble (ACL components of ten native linseed cultivars from Serbia. These characteristics can be interesting, especially due to the increasing trend of linseed usage in human diet. Presented results show that there were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences between linseed kernels in FA composition. Negative correlation was found between FA C18:0 and α-linolenic acid (ALA. The cultivar with the highest ACL value was No. 10 (342.66 μmol trolox/kg d.m., meaning that it had very strong protection against oxidation of polyunsaturated FAs. Nevertheless, correlation between ACL and polyunsaturated FA content in cultivars was not statistically significant (p=0.84. ACL of the samples did not depend on FA composition of linseed, but it might depend on characteristics of a specific cultivar. The aforementioned results show potential usage in storage of linseeds or its products, while FA composition of linseed kernels might be one of criteria for authentication of linseed origin, and can be of great help in future selection of the cultivars, depending on purpose of linseed production.

  10. Vegetable oil based liquid nanocomposite dielectric

    Leon Chetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically smaller dielectric materials would improve the optimisation of space for power systems. Development of nanotechnology provides an effective way to improve the performances of insulating oils used in power system applications. In this research study, we focused on the development of nanomodified vegetable oils to be used in power transformers. Higher conduction currents were observed in virgin linseed oil than in virgin castor oil. However, for both virgin linseed and virgin castor oil, the DC conduction current increased approximately linearly with the applied DC voltage. In nanomodified linseed oil, the characteristic curve showed two distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage and a saturation region (at slightly higher voltage. Conversely, in nanomodified castor oil, the characteristic curve showed three distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage, a saturation region (at intermediate applied voltage and an exponential growth region (at higher applied voltage. The nanomodified linseed oil exhibited a better dielectric performance than the nanomodified castor oil. Overall, the addition of nanodielectrics to vegetable oils decreased the dielectric performance of the vegetable oils. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the pre-breakdown phenomenon in liquid nanocomposite dielectrics.

  11. Yield potential of a radiation induced early-dwarf mutant in linseed

    Nayar, G.G.

    1975-01-01

    An early maturing dwarf mutant, TL-1 was isolated in the high yielding linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) wariety Neelum following seed irradiation with 50 kR gamma rays. The yield components of the mutant have been evaluated for its productivity in the M 7 generation. TL-1 is compact and significantly short in height (41.8 +- 2.71 cm) as compared to Neelum (79.2 +- 3.08 cm). In flowering the mutant is 30 days earlier than the parent under Trombay conditions. TL-1 and Neelum did not differ significantly in their mean number of primary branches. Although the mean seed yield per plant is lower, in 1000 seed weight the mutant is markedly superior to the parent. The oil content in TL-1 is significantly higher by 3.5 percent points than Neelum and its oil is lighter in colour. By growing more plants per unit area with reduced spacing, the yield potential of TL-1 was considerably increased. The productivity of oil per hectare per day of TL-1 was higher than Neelum. (author)

  12. An Investigation of Consolidants Penetration in Wood. Part 2: FTIR Spectroscopy

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available FTIR spectroscopy was used in this work for studying the penetration of some consolidants frequentlyused in old wood conservation into test pieces of sound spruce wood (Picea abies wood. Thin microsections(30-60 μm of control and treated wood were analysed in reflectance mode using an ATR system. Theconsolidation products investigated were Paraloid B72, bee wax, a mixture of bee wax / linseed oil and twotypes of paraffins. These products presented FTIR spectra with characteristic common and specific bands,allowing their identification in the treated wood with no impediments coming from their colour, transparencyor the percent of cell lumena filling. The treatment of wood with these products brought about alterations ofthe spectra aspect by the appearance or intensification of some characteristic bands and the modification ofthe ratio between the areas of some characteristic absorption bands so that a qualitative and semiquantitativeevaluation of the presence and penetration depth and distribution of these consolidationproducts in wood was possible, proving the adopted method as valuable and useful for further research inthis field.

  13. Cd translocation into generative organs of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Becher, M.; Woerner, A.; Schubert, S. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    Linseed is able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in generative organs, the dietary critical value of 0.3 {mu}g Cd/g seed often being exceeded. Differences between genotypes of linseed in this respect, however, have been observed but the underlying mechanisms responsible for these differences are unknown. The aim of the present work was to identify these mechanisms by studying the Cd accumulation of the linseed genotypes Antares and McGregor which differ in their ability to accumulate Cd in the seeds. Cultivar Antares is a high and cv. McGregor is low Cd accumulator which was confirmed in a pot experiment. It was found that the differences between these genotypes were Cd-specific and were caused neither by single seed weight nor by Cd translocation into the shoot. The distribution pattern of Cd within mature capsules between the pericarp and the seeds differed from that of Ca which was used as a phloem-immobile reference ion. From these results we conclude that Cd was translocated from the pericarp into the seeds via the phloem. This conclusion was supported by direct Cd determination in collected phloem sap from linseed stems. As sources of seed-Cd we identified the pericarps of capsules and the leaves. The genotype differences concerning the Cd concentrations in the seeds may be explained in terms of differences in phloem translocation of Cd. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oellein vermag Cd in betraechtlichen Konzentrationen in den Samen zu akkumulieren. Aus diesem Grund wird der Grenzwert fuer Diaetlein von 0,3 {mu}g/g Samen im Anbau haeufig ueberschritten. Es gibt jedoch genotypische Unterschiede, deren zugrundeliegende Mechanismen nicht bekannt sind. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit bestand darin, diese Mechanismen an den Oelleinsorten Antares und McGregor zu untersuchen. Antares akkumuliert grosse, McGregor hingegen geringe Mengen Cd in den Samen. Diese Beobachtungen konnten in einem Gefaessversuch bestaetigt werden. Es wurde gezeigt, dass die

  14. Performance and Emission Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Linseed Biodiesel Blends

    M. M. Tunio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The core object of this study is to examine the suitability of linseeds for biodiesel production. The performance of an engine at different proportions of linseed blends with petro-diesel and the amount of emissions rate were investigated. Initially, linseed biodiesel was produced through transesterification process, and then it was mixed with petro-diesel fuel (D100 blends at volumetric ratios of 10% (LB10, 20% (LB20, and 30% (LB30. The properties of linseed biodiesel and its blends were investigated and compared with petro-diesel properties with reference to ASTM standards. It has been observed that the fuel properties of produced biodiesel are within ASTM permissible limits. The specific fuel consumption (SFC of LB10 blend has been found lesser compared to LB20 and LB30. SFC of D100 is slightly less than that of all the blends. The brake thermal efficiency (BTE of LB30 is greater than that of pure diesel D100 at maximum load and greater than that of LB10 and LB20. The heat dissipation rate in all linseed blends is found to have been less than that of D100. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and NOx emissions of linseed blends are mostly lower in comparison with D100’s. Among all blends, LB10 was found more suitable alternative fuel for diesel engines and can be blended with petro diesel without engine modifications. It can be concluded that cultivation and production of linseed in Pakistan is very promising, therefore, it is recommended that proper exploitation and use of linseed for energy production may be encouraged through pertinent agencies of Pakistan.

  15. Effect of microwave heating on content of cyanogenic glycosides in linseed

    Ivanov Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Linseed is a good source of linoleic (LA, 18:2, n-6 and especially α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3, ω6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, which are essential because mammals, and therefore humans, cannot endogenously synthesize them and must adopt them exogenously from dietary sources. In spite of its high nutritive value, linseed has not been effectively exploited in animal feeding, due to the fact that it contains antinutritive components, which are cyanogenic glycosides (CG and antivitamin B6 (linatine. CGs are a major limitation in application of linseed and its meal in animal nutrition. The objective of the study was to investigate effect of microwave heat treatment on the content of hydrogen cyanide, and consequently cyanogenic glycosides in linseed. Operating frequency of microwave oven was 2450 mHz, and working power was 240W, 400W, 560W and 800W. Samples were treated for 0, 3, 6 and 10 minutes for every working power. When microwave power of 560 W and 800 W was used for 6 min and longer, linseed samples were burned and damaged, therefore these treatments should not be used. Minimal time of heating with microwave power of 400W, which would provide reduction of HCN content under allowed limits (250 mg/kg of linseed, was determined graphically using three-dimensional contour plot graph and it was 290 s (4 minutes and 50 s. This regime is recommended for treating linseed before usage as a feed compound.

  16. Biological efficiency of component crops in different geometrical patterns of wheat-linseed intercropping

    Nazir, M. S.; Saeed, M.; Khan, I.; Ghaffar, A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment to determine the biological efficiency and agro-economic relationships of component crops in wheat-linseed intercropping under different geometrical patterns, was conducted on sandy-clay loam soil at Faisalabad (Pakistan). Wheat was sown in 100-cm spaced 4, 6, 8, and 10 row strips and was intercropped with three rows of linseed. The component crops were also grown alone in 30-cm spaced single row. Wheat grain yield was reduced by 25.6%, 19.2%, 14.7% and 11.9% by intercropping linseed in wheat grown in the pattern of 4, 6 and 10-row strips, respectively. However, at the cost of this much reduction in wheat yield, linseed gave an additional yields of 516, 412, 335 kg/ha in the respective patterns which resulted in yield advantages of 41%, 31%, 29% and 27%, respectively over sole cropping of wheat. Intercropping also generated higher net monetary gain/ha (Rs. 12378-12826) than monocropped wheat (Rs. 11034) and linseed (Rs. 4249). (author)

  17. Analysis of linseed (Linum usitatissiumum L. plant branching as related to variability and interdependence of traits

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching process of two linseed cultivars ('Hungarian Gold' and 'Opal' was analysed each year of vegetation between 1999 and 2002 characterised by different weather course. The estimation included also the extent and variability of selected morphological traits and structural traits. as well as correlation between them. On the basis of biometric measurements the hierarchy of plant shoots has been established within a plant, and four plant groups were distinguished: 1-. 2-, 3- and 4-shoot plants. It was demonstrated that the intensity of linseed branching depended mainly on young plant planting density and, to a certain extent also the weather conditions in April and May. In the years when the weather course favoured vegetation. between 23 and 40% plants per stand were branched. Beside increasing its productivity linseed branching may also inhibit a development of secondary weed infestation of the canopy. Similar plant groups with analogous shoot hierarchy formed in both linseed cultivars. Bio social position of shoot on a plant determined the extent of its traits. A dominance of the maiii shoot over lateral shoots was marked, especially concerning the number of seed vessels. Particularly big prevalence of the main shoot over lateral ones was visible in 3- and 4-9hoot plants. Lateral shoots had greater variability of morphological traits, especially concerning the number of seed vessels per shoot. Linear, exponential and power interdependencies between traits of linseed cultivars were also revealed.

  18. Effects of dietary oil sources and calcium : phosphorus levels on ...

    The study investigated the effects of varying dietary calcium (Ca) levels and sources of oil on performance of broiler chickens. A total of 378 one-day-old birds were fed 6% palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) in combination with three levels of Ca, 1%, 1.25% and 1.5%, for six weeks in a 3 x 3 factorial ...

  19. Volatiles in raw and cooked meat from lambs fed olive cake and linseed.

    Gravador, R S; Serra, A; Luciano, G; Pennisi, P; Vasta, V; Mele, M; Pauselli, M; Priolo, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding olive cake and linseed to lambs on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in raw and cooked meat. Four groups of eight male Appenninica lambs each were fed: conventional cereal-based concentrates (diet C), concentrates containing 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis of rolled linseed (diet L), concentrates containing 35% DM of stoned olive cake (diet OC), or concentrates containing both rolled linseed (10% DM) and stoned olive cake (17% DM; diet OCL). The longissimus dorsi muscle of each lamb was sampled at slaughter and was subjected to VOC profiling through the use of SPME-GC-MS. In the raw meat, the concentration of 3-methylpentanoic acid was higher in treatment C as compared with treatments L, OC and OCL (Pcooked meat the amount of 1-pentanol was higher in treatment C than in treatment OC (Plamb meat.

  20. Study of Penetration Technology

    1976-11-01

    srecimens fabricated at the AFATL, AISI-01 oil quenched bar stock was used. Three of the projectiles used in the Eglin penetration experiments are shown...in the Mathema- tical Laboratory at Eglin AFB, is essencially a fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method for solving simultaneous differential...C9G. VEL. X-COMPo (M4/5): d!10. I oil 140. 107. 82. RmCC~kr’ED TIME OF MAXIftjM/MINIM94U COIL VOLTAGE tSI MAX 0040 A 55 *.03J04A 0 0 05ji6 .000634 MIN

  1. Fatty acid profile in meat of culling ewes in different feedlot periods fed diets containing levels of inclusion of linseed

    Ana Claudia Radis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Linseed plays an important role in animal nutrition as it contains long-chain fatty acids in its composition, which, once absorbed, are incorporated into meat and milk. For evaluate the concentration of fatty acids in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of culling ewes fed diets containing levels of inclusion of linseed, 88 culling ewes were used with an average initial body weight of 37.65 ± 6.98 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with 12 treatments. Treatments consisted of the interaction between levels of linseed (0, 5, 10, and 15% and days in feedlot (30, 45, and 60. The most present fatty acids in the composition of the muscle L. dorsi were palmitic (27.32 g 100 g-1 and stearic (17.77 g 100 g-1. Saturated acids remained at low levels as the animals were fed greater levels of linseed, demonstrating the importance of introducing quality foods in animal feeding. Oleic acid was the most present monounsaturated fatty acid, with 40 g 100 g-1. Palmitoleic and elaidic fatty acids increased linearly as the linseed inclusion in the diet was increased. Polyunsaturated acids increased with the presence of linseed in the diet. For the linolenic acid (C18: 3n3, the best result was with inclusion of 10% of linseed in the total diet. All groups of animals that received linseed obtained better n6:n3 ratios, which varied from 1.81 to 4.14. The higher CLA values obtained in this study are related to the higher amounts of inclusion of linseed in the sheep diet, varying from 1.15 to 5.72 g 100 g-1. It is recommended culling ewes supplemented with inclusion of 10% linseed, for 60 days in feedlot, because they comprise a larger number of favorable traits regarding to the profile fatty acids of Longissimus dorsi.

  2. Linseed fibre – effect on composite flour properties and cereal products quality

    Marie Hrušková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour was fortified by 2.5 or 5.0 wt. per cent of linseed fibre, gained from seeds of golden flax varieties Amon and Raciol and brown one Recital (granulation 500 - 700 m, prepared from 2015 harvest. Technological quality of six flour composites was described analytically by Falling Number and Zeleny sedimentation test. Both screening methods shown a little impact on amylases activity and protein quality, respectively. Rheological tests included the farinograph, the extensigraph and the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA proofs. Additions of brown and yellow flax fibre significantly increased farinograph water absorption and shortened dough stability, somewhat stronger by addition of brown linseed fibre. Extensigraph curves course depended on dough resting time, higher differences between wheat control and flour composites were observed after 60 min dough resting. Linseed fibre supported dough extensibility, and energy as area under curve significantly decreased about 7 - 18%, mainly due to increasing alternative material portion in dough. In general, fibre is characterised as hydrophilic material, and pasting profiles of flour composites confirmed this experience. During dough leavening, tested samples were differentiated according to maturograph dough resistance; optimal leavening time of wheat-linseed fibre dough was shorter than control. Regardless described modifications in dough machinability, specific volumes of bread buns were similar though whole sample set. A weak worsening of buns vaulting reflected a partial dilution of dough gluten skeleton. Cut-off biscuits were characterised by gradually lowering spread ratio, correspondingly to elevated dough elasticity. Laboratory prepared elbow-pasta have the same cooking time as the control (8.0 min, and data variation could not be attributed to linseed fibre or addition level. All three cereal products were found to have acceptable sensory profiles. PCA method verified partial lowering of

  3. Fertigation of stillage in the culture of brown and golden linseed ...

    In Brazil, the stillage is mainly used in fertigation of sugarcane plantations, however, little is known about its effect on the nutritional supplementation and irrigation cultivation of linseed. Because of the shortage of work in the area, the present study aimed to evaluate the development of the culture of brown and golden ...

  4. Knowledge Systems and Value Chain Integration: The Case of Linseed Production in Ethiopia

    Chagwiza, Clarietta; Muradian, Roldan; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study uses data from a sample of 150 oilseed farming households from Arsi Robe, Ethiopia, to assess the impact of different knowledge bases (education, training and experience) and their interactions on linseed productivity. Methodology: A multiple regression analysis was employed to assess the combined effect of the knowledge bases,…

  5. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats

    Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.; Jørgensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit...

  6. The effects of the interaction of various oil types and rates on the ...

    Owner

    i.e., oil type and rate, on the mycelial wet and dry weights of L. squarrosulus and P. ... 1.5 g yeast extract ... from the weight of the experimental filter paper plus the mycelium. The filter .... linseed, wheat germ, olive and soybean oils respectively.

  7. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    Arne Astrup

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  8. Combination of Analytical and Chemometric Methods as a Useful Tool for the Characterization of Extra Virgin Argan Oil and Other Edible Virgin Oils. Role of Polyphenols and Tocopherols.

    Rueda, Ascensión; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez, Rafael; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Seiquer, Isabel; Lara, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of phenolic profile and tocopherol fractions in conjunction with chemometrics techniques were used for the accurate characterization of extra virgin argan oil and eight other edible vegetable virgin oils (olive, soybean, wheat germ, walnut, almond, sesame, avocado, and linseed) and to establish similarities among them. Phenolic profile and tocopherols were determined by HPLC coupled with diode-array and fluorescence detectors, respectively. Multivariate factor analysis (MFA) and linear correlations were applied. Significant negative correlations were found between tocopherols and some of the polyphenols identified, but more intensely (P tocopherol and oleuropein, pinoresinol, and luteolin. MFA revealed that tocopherols, especially γ-fraction, most strongly influenced the oil characterization. Among the phenolic compounds, syringic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, oleuropein, pinoresinol, and luteolin also contributed to the discrimination of the oils. According to the variables analyzed in the present study, argan oil presented the greatest similarity with walnut oil, followed by sesame and linseed oils. Olive, avocado, and almond oils showed close similarities.

  9. Growth performance and fatty acid profiles of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from Limousin and Charolais heifers fed extruded linseed

    Bartoň, L.; Marounek, Milan; Kudrna, V.; Bureš, D.; Zahrádková, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, 3 (2007), 517-523 ISSN 0309-1740 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : heifers * linseed * fatty acids Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 2.006, year: 2007

  10. Effects of feeding whole linseed on ruminal fatty acid composition and microbial population in goats

    Kamaleldin Abuelfatah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of whole linseed, as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, on ruminal fatty acid composition and microbial population in the goat. Twenty-four crossbred Boer goats were assigned to 3 dietary treatments: L0 (control, L10 and L20 containing 0, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The ruminal pH and concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA were not affected by dietary treatments. The feeding of L10 and L20 diets produced higher (P < 0.05 molar proportions of acetate and lower (P < 0.05 molar proportions of butyrate and valerate than the L0 diet. Molar proportions of myristic acid (C14:0 and palmitic acid (C16:0 were lower (P < 0.05 in the rumen of goats offered L10 and L20 diets than the control diet. However, stearic acid (C18:0, vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, C18:2 trans-10, cis-12 and α-lenolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 were higher (P < 0.05 in the rumen of goats fed L10 and L20 than L0. Both inclusion levels of linseed in the diet (L10 and L20 reduced the ruminal total bacteria, methanogens, and protozoa compared with L0 (P < 0.05. The effect of the dietary treatments on cellulolytic bacteria, varied between the individual species. Both inclusion levels of linseed resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes, and Rumunococus flavefaciens compared with L0, with no significant difference between the groups fed linseed diets. The population of Rumunococus albus was not affected by the different dietary treatments. It was concluded that inclusion of whole linseed in the diet of goats could increase the concentration of PUFA in the rumen, and decrease the population of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens, methanogens and protozoa in rumen liquid of goats.

  11. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  12. Modification of the lipid profile and antioxidant status of the blood plasma of turkey hens fed mixtures with raw or extruded linseed.

    Czech, A; Ognik, K; Laszewska, M; Cholewińska, E; Stępniowska, A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the most beneficial proportion of raw linseed in complete feed mixtures for turkey hens on the basis of lipid and redox indicators in the blood. In experiment 1, the turkey hens received the complete mixture with 2%, 4% or 6% linseed. On the basis of the results obtained in experiment 1, we selected the most effective proportion of linseed, which was given to the birds in the group receiving a 4% linseed additive. In experiment 2, the birds were fed mixtures with a 4% addition of raw or extruded linseed. The use of 4% raw linseed was found to improve production effects (improvement of weight gain, and lower feed conversion ratios), while extruded linseed in the diet of turkey hens did not affect growth performance. The use of linseed (4% and 6%) as a feed component for turkey hens led to an increase in indicators of antioxidant potential, that is the total antioxidant potential of the plasma, vitamins E and C, bilirubin and creatinine. A benefit resulting from the use of linseed, particularly in the amounts of 2% and 4% was a marked improvement in lipid indicators in the blood. The reduced percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (n-3) following the use of extruded linseed resulted in a decrease in lipid peroxidation (lower content of malondialdehyde, superoxide and vitamins C and E in the blood). The most effective dose and form of linseed in the diet of turkey hens is 4% raw linseed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Genetic characterization of a core collection of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) suitable for association mapping studies and evidence of divergent selection between fiber and linseed types.

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Diederichsen, Axel; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-05-06

    Flax is valued for its fiber, seed oil and nutraceuticals. Recently, the fiber industry has invested in the development of products made from linseed stems, making it a dual purpose crop. Simultaneous targeting of genomic regions controlling stem fiber and seed quality traits could enable the development of dual purpose cultivars. However, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns necessary for association mapping (AM) have not yet been assessed in flax because genomic resources have only recently been developed. We characterized 407 globally distributed flax accessions using 448 microsatellite markers. The data was analyzed to assess the suitability of this core collection for AM. Genomic scans to identify candidate genes selected during the divergent breeding process of fiber flax and linseed were conducted using the whole genome shotgun sequence of flax. Combined genetic structure analysis assigned all accessions to two major groups with six sub-groups. Population differentiation was weak between the major groups (F(ST) = 0.094) and for most of the pairwise comparisons among sub-groups. The molecular coancestry analysis indicated weak relatedness (mean = 0.287) for most individual pairs. Abundant genetic diversity was observed in the total panel (5.32 alleles per locus), and some sub-groups showed a high proportion of private alleles. The average genome-wide LD (r²) was 0.036, with a relatively fast decay of 1.5 cM. Genomic scans between fiber flax and linseed identified candidate genes involved in cell-wall biogenesis/modification, xylem identity and fatty acid biosynthesis congruent with genes previously identified in flax and other plant species. Based on the abundant genetic diversity, weak population structure and relatedness and relatively fast LD decay, we concluded that this core collection is suitable for AM studies targeting multiple agronomic and quality traits aiming at the improvement of flax as a

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index. The best combination for sunflower oil was with coconut oil (lower acidity, higher stability to autoxidation. For a supplementary improvement of properties, especially for the preservation of oils and oil blends, we tested the lovage (Levisticum officinale extract as additive. The obtained additivated mixtures demonstrated better quality characteristics, which recommend them for the human consumption.

  15. A facile and efficient strategy for the fabrication of porous linseed gum/cellulose superabsorbent hydrogels for water conservation.

    Zhang, Hao; Luan, Qian; Huang, Qingde; Tang, Hu; Huang, Fenghong; Li, Wenlin; Wan, Chuyun; Liu, Changsheng; Xu, Jiqu; Guo, Pingmei; Zhou, Qi

    2017-02-10

    The linseed gum/cellulose composite hydrogels were successfully fabricated by mixing cellulose and linseed gum solutions dissolved in the NaOH/urea aqueous system and cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. The morphology and structure of the composite hydrogels were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling ratio and water retention properties were investigated. The results revealed that linseed gum mainly contributed to water adsorption, whereas the cellulose acted as a backbone to strengthen the porous structure. This work provided a simple way to prepare cellulose-based superabsorbent hydrogels, which could be potentially applied as an effective water conservation material in agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Market penetration of ethanol

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  17. Hygienic quality of stem fractions of mechanically processed fibre hemp and linseed

    H-R. KYMÄLÄINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bast fibre is the most important fraction of bast fibre plants for technical products, i.e. thermal insulations and packaging materials. The hygienic quality of the various fractions of bast fibre plants is of interest in thermal insulations, because it may affect the quality of indoor air. Packaging materials may be associated e.g. with foodstuffs, which highlights the importance of hygienic quality. The aim of this study was to screen the hygienic quality, determined as microbial content, of mechanically fractionated fibre hemp and linseed plants harvested in the autumn before frost, after early frost and in spring. In addition, the possible correlation between microbes and ash was investigated. Two plant species, fibre hemp and linseed were studied. The plants were cultivated in Siuntio in southern Finland during the years 2002 and 2003, harvested in autumn or in spring and mechanically fractionated. The microbial contents of the fractions were examined by measuring the total number of microbes using Hygicult® growing slides. The microbial content of fractions of fibre hemp and linseed varied between 103 and 109 cfu/gdw. The fibre of hemp harvested after early frost or in spring had the lowest amount of moulds, but during winter and spring the amounts of bacteria and yeasts increased in hemp. Mechanically separated fibre and shive contained less microbes than the stalk. Ash contents of all examined samples of stems and stem fractions varied between 1% and 14%. The fibre after fractionating had a lower ash content (2.3–3.3% than that of stems (4.4–6.9% harvested in the autumn. The ash content of stem and shive decreased to 1.6% during winter, the ash content of fibre being even somewhat lower (0.9%. No correlation was observed between the contents of microbes and ash.;

  18. Hydrophobic lime based mortars with linseed oil: Characterization and durability assessment

    Nunes, Cristiana Lara; Slížková, Zuzana

    61-62, July-August (2014), s. 28-39 ISSN 0008-8846 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV008 Keywords : durability * transport properties * metakaolin * mortar Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.864, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008884614000738

  19. Effect of applying soybean and linseed oil and different forms of ...

    Katarzyna

    2014-10-29

    Oct 29, 2014 ... At the end of the ninth, eleventh and fifteenth weeks of life, blood was .... tocopherol) in a dose of 25 mg/kg (1 - 9 wk of life) and 22.5 mg/kg (10 ..... A measure of the antioxidative status of the body is the balance or ... of CAT is usually observed as a result of the generation of high ... He, X.Y. & Guo, Y., 2007.

  20. Antioxidant effect of flaxseed and sesame oil against radiotoxicity

    Manju Lata; Srivastav, P.; Patni, S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation has become an integral part of modern life necessitates a safe and cost effective radioprotector. Common nutritional plants such as flaxseed and sesame are rich of lignin and may prove efficient antioxidants. The lignin like secoisolericiresinonal and pinoresinol found in flaxseed oil and sesame are reported to have strong antioxidant property. Cyclophosphamide induced in decline in the level of GSH, GSH-Px and alkaline phosphate was also significantly averted by flaxseed and sesame oil in mice blood. The high antioxidative properties of sesame appear to be related ligans, such as sesamol, sesamolinol. The mice have been administered with flaxseed oil and sesame oil for fifteen days, before an acute dose of radiation (5 Gy at a dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min). Both the herbs have been found to check the level of lipid peroxidation and protein degradation induces by radiation in mice brain. The survivability in terms of life span showed much better picture in sesame oil pretreated irradiated mice in comparison to linseed oil pretreated irradiated mice. Statistically analyzed survival data produced a dose reduction factor (DRF) equals to 1.41 for flaxseed oil and 1.45 for sesame oil. The result indicates that sesame oil provide a better protection in comparison to linseed oil. Since flaxseed and sesame oil have demonstrated excellent antioxidative effect against radiation, it would further pave way to the formulation of medicine against radiation and several radiomimetic drug induce toxicity. (author)

  1. Oils

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  2. Scientific opinion: Assessment of a decontamination process for hydrocyanic acid in linseed intended for use in animal feed

    Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Petersen, Annette; Rose, Martin; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Vleminckx, Christiane; Vollmer, Günter; Wallace, Heather; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Metzler, Manfred; Colombo, Paolo; Hogstrand, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for the enzymatic treatment and subsequent heating of linseed, in order to reduce the amount of hydrocyanic acid

  3. Present state of breeding of oil crops. Stand der Zuechtung von Oelpflanzen

    Friedt, W. (Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung)

    1992-04-01

    Different oil crops are characterized by specific fatty acid patterns. For example, rapeseed (Brassica napus) is naturally rich in erucic acid (C22:1), traditional genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) contain high levels of linoleic acid (C18:2) in their seed oil, and linseed (oilflax, Linum usitatissimum L.) oil is normally rich in linolenic acid (C18:3). Extreme modifications of these ''natural'' fatty acid patterns are possible by breeding. Impressive examples are, (1) the elimination of erucic acid from rapeseed oil, which made it possible to use this vegetable oil for human consumption, (2) the development of sunflower cultivars with high oleic acid, and (3) the selection of linseed mutants with extremely low linolenic acid contents. However, the yield potential of these ''alternative'' genotypes is usually lower than that of those which are predominantly used for oil production: i.e., ''normal'' (high-linolenic) linseed, ''normal'' (high-linoleic) sunflower, and ''0/00'' (low-erucic and low-glucosinolate) rapeseed cultivars. Even in these cases, the yield potential of modern varieties is not completely exhaused. Further improvements of plant production systems can help to improve both, the economical yield and the ecological acceptability of agricultural production of vegetable oils. (orig.)

  4. Selected element contents formation in linseed plants (Linum usitatissimum L. depending on the phase of development and plant part

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A single factor (variety strict field experiment was carried out in 1999-2000 at the experimental station of the Department of Plant Production, Agricultural University of Krakow located at Prusy near Cracow to study the changes in selected macro-and microelement concentrations in the top parts of linseed and the uptake of these elements during vegetation at the characteristic phases of development, including also the plant parts, i.e. leaves, stems, seeds and straw. On the basis of obtained results it was demonstrated that microelement contents in the linseed top parts changed considerably with the plant growth. The levels of Cr, Zn,Cd, Fe and Mn were highest at budding, while Cr, Pb, Fe and Mn levels were lowest at full maturity phase. Linseed grown in the area unpolluted with trace elements did not reveal the ability to accumulate excessive amounts of Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe and Mn, undesired from the usefulness for consumption point of view. Cadmium, irrespective of the examined stage of plant development, revealed high capacity for an excessive accumulation in the top parts. The contents and reciprocal ratios of macroelements in plants changed variously with their growth. The highest Na and K contents were noticed at budding phase, Ca at vegetative stage (arborescent and Mg at the initial budding. The widest Ca:P ratio and K:(Ca+Mg ratio occurred at budding, whereas K:Na ratio at full maturity phase. Linseed accumulated macro- and microele ments in the yield at various rates. Among the analysed elements Cd, Zn and Ni were taken up proportionally to increasing yields of linseed top part biomass.

  5. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  6. Oils

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  7. Estimation of the biomass of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a linseed field

    Olsson, P.A.; Thingstrup, I.; Jakobsen, I.

    1999-01-01

    -organisms was estimated 28, 51 and 72 d after sowing based on amounts of certain fatty acids extracted from the soil. Dazomet application strongly suppressed colonisation of the linseed roots by AM fungi throughout the experiment. In plots with no dazomet application, root colonisation by the AM fungi increased from...... that the biomass of the extraradical mycelium of AM fungi was about 10 times as high as the biomass of intraradical mycelium and that the extraradical mycelium constituted the largest fraction of the soil microbial biomass. Dazomet application also decreased the biomass of saprophytic fungi in the soil...... harvests 1 to 3 as judged both from microscopical estimates and from quantitative analysis of the AM fungal indicative fatty acid 16.1 omega 5. These methods also revealed that AM formation was reduced in P-fertilised plots. The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) 16:1 omega 5 decreased in dazomet-treated soil...

  8. Conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and other biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat of cows fed raw or extruded linseed.

    Akraim, F; Nicot, M C; Juaneda, P; Enjalbert, F

    2007-07-01

    Thirty lactating dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design to investigate the effects of a raw or extruded blend of linseed and wheat bran (70:30) on plasma and milk fatty-acids (FA). Linseed diets, containing 16.6% linseed blend on a dry-matter basis, decreased milk yield and protein percentage. They decreased the proportions of FA with less than 18 carbons in plasma and milk and resulted in cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 proportions that were more than three and four times higher in plasma and milk, respectively, whereas cis-9, cis-12 18:2 proportions were decreased by 10-15%. The cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid was not detected in the milk of control cows, but was over 0.15% of total FA in the milk fat of linseed-supplemented cows. Similarly, linseed increased plasma and milk proportions of all biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in plasma and milk, including the main isomer of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11 18:2, except trans-4 18:1 and cis-11, trans-15 18:2 in plasma lipids. In milk fat, compared with raw linseed, extruded linseed further reduced 6:0-16:0 even-chain FA, did not significantly affect the proportions of 18:0, cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, cis-12 18:2, tended to increase cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3, and resulted in an additional increase in the proportions of most BH intermediates. It was concluded that linseed addition can improve the proportion of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids, and that extrusion further increases the proportions of intermediates of ruminal BH in milk fat.

  9. Linseed plus nitrate in the diet for fattening bulls: effects on methane emission, animal health and residues in offal.

    Doreau, M; Arbre, M; Popova, M; Rochette, Y; Martin, C

    2018-03-01

    The combination of linseed and nitrate is known to decrease enteric methane emission in dairy cows but few studies have been carried out in fattening cattle for animal liveweight gain, enteric methane emission, animal health and presence of residues in beef products. To address this gap, 16 young bulls received a control (C) diet between weaning at 9 months and 14 months, then were split into two groups of eight balanced on feed intake, BW gain and methane emission to receive either the C diet or a diet moderately supplemented with extruded linseed and calcium nitrate (LN) for 2 months before being slaughtered. On a dry matter (DM) basis, the C diet contained 70% baled grass silage and 30% concentrate mainly made of maize, wheat and rapeseed meal. In the LN diet, rapeseed meal and a fraction of cereals were replaced by 35% extruded linseed and 6% calcium nitrate; linseed fatty acids and nitrate supply in the LN diet were 1.9% and 1.0%, respectively. Methane emission was measured continuously using the GreenFeed system. Methaemoglobin was determined every week in peripheral blood from bulls receiving the LN diet. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were determined in rumen, liver and tongue sampled at slaughter. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for LN diet (P=0.10). Body weight gain was lower for LN diet (P=0.01; 1.60 and 1.26 kg/day for C and LN diet, respectively). Daily methane emission was 9% lower (Pmethane yield did not differ between diets (24.1 and 23.2 g/kg DM intake for C and LN diet, respectively, P=0.34). Methaemoglobin was under the limit of detection (methane yield and impaired bull liveweight gain but without adverse effects for animal health and food safety.

  10. Effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk yield, milk quality and lipid metabolism of dairy cows

    N. Brogna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in an experimental trial to study the effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk production, milk quality and fatty acid (FA percentages of milk fat and total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. Control cows were fed a corn silage based total mixed ration (TMR while treated animals also received 700g/head/d of extruded linseed supplementation. Feed intake was similar between groups. Milk yields was tendentially greater for cows fed extruded linseed. Milk urea content (P<0.05 were reduced by treatment. Results showed a significant increase n-3 FA concentration (particularly alpha linolenic acid and a significant reduction of n-6/n-3 FA ratio in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids (P<0.001; moreover a reduction trend (P<0.1 of arachidonic acid concentrations was observed in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. At last, treatment enhanced milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA percentage (P<0.05.

  11. Contribution of linseed intake to urine and serum enterolignan levels in German females: a randomised controlled intervention trial.

    Knust, U; Spiegelhalder, B; Strowitzki, T; Owen, R W

    2006-07-01

    Linseeds are a rich source of lignans, secondary plant substances which are suggested to possess chemopreventive effects inter alia with regard to breast cancer. In a randomised controlled trial 40 German women were informed about "5-a-day" and encouraged to increase their dietary intake of fruit and vegetables. Moreover 19 participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group supplemented with ground linseeds (20 g/d) over a 2-month period. Before and after intervention, urine and blood samples were collected after an overnight fast. Analysis was by intention-to-treat and the outcome parameters of interest were enterolignan concentrations. After linseed supplementation, enterolignan concentrations (mean) measured as their glucuronides by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) in serum (122 nmol/l) as well as in urine (72 micromol/l) showed a significant increase (P<0.01) compared to pre-intervention values (47 nmol/l and 29 micromol/l). In the control group enterolignan levels were raised slightly but did not reach significance. Serum and urinary enterolignans of the whole collective showed a good pairwise correlation.

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectra of drying oils treated by irradiation.

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Qin; Artz, William E; Padua, Graciela W

    2008-05-14

    Drying oils, such as linseed oil and tung oil, have the potential as coating materials to improve barrier properties of biobased packaging films. Oil drying is a chemical reaction in which polyunsaturated fatty acids undergo autoxidation. During drying, oils polymerize and form water-resistant films. However, drying rates tend to be too slow for practical applications. Metal driers are used in the paint industry to accelerate drying, but often driers are not safe for food contact. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on the oxidation or drying rate of drying oils. The effect of irradiation dose on the drying rate of linseed and tung oils was monitored by FTIR spectroscopy. The peak at 3010 cm (-1) was found to be a useful index of oxidation rate. The decrease in peak intensity with time was fitted with exponential functions of the form Abs = Abs 0 exp (- t/ k), where Abs 0 is the initial absorbance and 1/ k is the rate constant for the oxidation process. Values for k were 9.91 ( R (2) = 0.98), 6.59 ( R (2) = 0.95)n and 6.44 ( R (2) = 0.97) for radiation levels of 0, 50, and 100 kGy, respectively. The k values suggested that the oxidation rate increased as the radiation dose increased from 0 to 50 kGy. A further increase to 100 kGy had only a limited effect.

  13. Biplot Approach for Identification of Heterotic Crosses in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Anu Rastogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, among nonedible oilseed crops, linseed is a commercial crop having tremendous economic and industrial importance. The seed production is low due to limited resources, so the development of high-yielding lines with desirable characters is urgently needed. In the present study seven parents' half diallel data was subjected to biplot analysis to identify the heterotic crosses, genetically similar parents, and to study their interrelationship. Parent Sln-Ys with A-79 and A-03 with A-79 for capsules per plant and seed yield, parent Mukta with Sln-Ys and Mukta with BAU-45 for seeds per capsule, and parents Mukta, A-103, A-79 and A-94 for test weight had lowest correlation. Parent B [Mukta] and F [A-79] were good general combiner for all the traits. The crosses F [A-79]  ×  A [Sln-Ys] and D [A-03]  ×  F [A-79] for capsules per plant, test weight and seed yield per plant, cross D [A-03]  ×  A [Sln-Ys] for capsules per plant and test weight and cross D [A-03]  ×  F [A-79] for test weight and seed yield per plant were heterotic. None of the crosses were heterotic for seeds per capsule.

  14. Linseed hydrogel-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial and wound-dressing applications.

    Haseeb, Muhammad Tahir; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Abbas, Khawar; Youssif, Bahaa Gm; Bashir, Sajid; Yuk, Soon Hong; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Polysaccharides are being extensively employed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having diverse morphology and applications. Herein, we present a novel and green synthesis of Ag NPs without using any physical reaction conditions. Linseed hydrogel (LSH) was used as a template to reduce Ag + to Ag 0 . AgNO 3 (10, 20, and 30 mmol) solutions were mixed with LSH suspension in deionized water and exposed to diffused sunlight. Reaction was monitored by noting the change in the color of reaction mixture up to 10 h. Ag NPs showed characteristic ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) absorptions from 410 to 437 nm in the case of sunlight and 397-410 nm in the case of temperature study. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed the formation of spherical Ag NPs in the range of 10-35 nm. Face-centered cubic array of Ag NPs was confirmed by characteristic diffraction peaks in powder X-ray diffraction spectrum. Ag NPs were stored in LSH thin films, and UV/Vis spectra recorded after 6 months indicated that Ag NPs retained their texture over the storage period. Significant antimicrobial activity was observed when microbial cultures (bacteria and fungi) were exposed to the synthesized Ag NPs. Wound-healing studies revealed that Ag NP-impregnated LSH thin films could have potential applications as an antimicrobial dressing in wound management procedures.

  15. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    Agarwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  16. Penetration testing with Perl

    Berdeaux, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  17. penetrating abdominal trauma

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  18. Barrier penetration database

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  19. Fate of 15N-labelled urea as affected by organic amendments and oils applied to rice

    Singh, G.R.; Singh, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possibility of using 2 organic compounds (p-benzoquinone and catechol), 2 oils (neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) oil) and 3 polyphenolic plant residues, viz. catechu (Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd.), babul acacia (Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Del. sub.indica (Benth.) Brenan, syn. A. arabica (Lamk.) Willd.) and yellow myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz.) when applied with 15 N-tagged urea to observe their effectiveness in decreasing N losses. (author). 8 refs

  20. Study on Penetration Characteristics of Tungsten Cylindrical Penetrator

    Jo, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Shin; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Woon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The design of missile require extremely small warheads that must be highly efficient and lethal. The penetration characteristics of each penetrator and the total number of penetrators on the warhead are obvious key factors that influence warhead lethality. The design of the penetrator shape and size are directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. The design of the penetrator L/D was directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. L and D are the length and the diameter of the projectile, respectively. The AUTODYN-3a code was used to study the effect of penetrator penetration. The objective of numerical analysis was to determine the penetration characteristics of penetrator produced by hypervelocity impacts under different initial conditions such as initial velocity, obliquity angle and L/D of penetrator. The residual velocity and residual mass were decreased with increasing initial impact velocity under L/D{<=}4.

  1. Penetration portion shielding structure

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  2. Catalytic behaviors of Co{sup II} and Mn{sup II} compounds bearing α-Diimine ligands for oxidative polymerization or drying oils

    Lima, Gilvan E.S.; Nunes, Everton V.; Dantas, Roberta C.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P., E-mail: simoni.plentz@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceió, AL (Brazil). Grupo de Catálise e Reatividade Química; Simone, Carlos A. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), São Carlos, USP, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Física

    2018-05-01

    The oxidative polymerization of linseed oil was investigated comparing the classical catalysts cobalt(II) 2-ethylhexanoate and manganese(II) 2-ethylhexanoate and their derivatives modified by the presence of chelating nitrogen ligands, i.e., 2,2’-bipyridyl, 2-(acetyl-2,6-diisopropylphenylimine)- pyridine and [N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imine]acenaphthoquinone. The suitable stoichiometries between the two precursor complexes with the three ligands were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. All complexes were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, and one complex was characterized also by X-ray diffraction. The apparent kinetic constants of oxidative polymerization of linseed oil was determined, for each catalytic system, via the periodic measurements of the oil viscosity during the oxidation reaction. The results indicated that the modifications of the classical two complexes with the chelating nitrogen ligands improved the catalytic efficiency at least to the manganese complex. (author)

  3. Characterization of constituents, quality and stability of pomegranate seed oil (Punica granatum L.

    Illana Louise Pereira de MELO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to characterize pomegranate seed oil and evaluate its quality and stability parameters against those of linseed oil. The profile of fatty acids and phytosterols and the content of tocopherols were analyzed by gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The quality of both oils was assessed as recommended by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS and stability was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, β-carotene bleaching (coupled oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid and Rancimat® assays. While α-linolenic acid (52% was the most abundant fatty acid in linseed oil (LO, punicic acid (55% was highest in pomegranate seed oil (PSO. Tocopherols and phytosterols (175 and 539 mg/100 g, respectively were greater in PSO than in LO (51 and 328 mg/100 g, respectively. Both oils met quality standards. The β-carotene bleaching and the DPPH assays showed greater oxidative stability for PSO than for LO. The Rancimat® method, on the other hand, indicated low stability for both oils.

  4. Comparison of physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. to drought and salt stress and salicylic acid foliar application

    Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in drought and salinity stress conditions and salicylic acid foliar application, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completly randomized design with three replications in Yasouj university in 2015. Treatments including different levels of salinity and drought with similar osmotic potentials (-2, -4, -7 and -9 bar in 8 levels and a control treatment were applied in Hoagland solution. Second factor was salicylic acid foliar application in 2 levels (0 and 0.5 mM. Salinity and drought applied using sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol 6000, respectively. The results showed that leaf protein content, catalase activity, total chlorophyll and carotenoid significantly decreased compared to control by increasing salinity and drought levels, however salicylic acid could prevent this trend.  Proline soluble sugars and malodealdehide content significantly increased compared to control by increasing salinity and drought. However salicylic acid could not prevent this trend. Shoot and root dry weights significantly decreased in salinity and drought stress treatments, compared to control and salicylic acid could prevent this decrease. Generally regarded to the most of the measured traits, impact of drought was more than salinity and salicylic acid could compensate the stress impacts on linseed.

  5. Vertical distribution of the root system of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. and legumes in pure and mixed sowing

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Root competition for below-ground resources between edible plants may provide for long-term sustainability of agriculture systems. Intercropping can be more productive than a pure crop due to taking advantage of the morphological differences between species. In pure cropping, all biophysical interactions between plants occur through soil conditions. In intercropping, competition for water and nutrients is of major importance, but if the roots of one species occupy the zone just underneath the roots of the other crop, they can better use the resources of the root zone of the crop. The root system demonstrates a high degree of plasticity in its development in response to local heterogeneity of the soil profile and plant density. This study aimed at determining: (i the morphological characteristics of the root systems of linseed, pea and vetch depending on the method of sowing; (ii the root distribution in various soil types and at different soil profile depths (0–15 cm, 15–30 cm. Two three-year field experiments were conducted on two soil types in south Poland: soil A – Luvic Phaeozem (s1 and soil B – Eutric Cambisol (s2. These results show that linseed was more aggressive toward both legumes in mixture, but it produced lower yield compared to pure cropping. The environmental stress of plants in mixtures increased the relative weight of roots, which resulted in decreasing the root-shoot ratio (RSR.

  6. Prophylactic effect of flaxseed and sesame oils against radiotoxicity

    Patni, Shikha; Lata, Manju; Gaur, Ajay; Bhatia, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The use of radiation has become an integral part of modern life. Interest has been generated to develop potential drug of plant origin for the modification of radiation toxicity. Common nutritional plants such as flaxseed and sesame are rich of lignan and may prove efficient antioxidants. The lignan like secoisolericiresinol and pinoresinol found in flaxseed and sesame are reported to have strong antioxidant nature. Cyclophosphamide induced decline in the level of GSH, GSH-Px and alkaline phosphatase was also significantly averted by flaxseed oil in mice blood. The high antioxidative properties of sesame appear to be related to lignans, such as sesamol, sesamolinol, pinoresinol, p1 and sesaminol. The mice have been administered with flaxseed oil and sesame oil for fifteen days, before an acute dose of radiation (5 Gy at a dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min). Both the herbs have been found to check the level of lipid peroxidation and protein degradation induced by radiation in mice brain. The survivability in terms of life span showed much better picture in sesame oil pretreated irradiated mice in comparison to linseed oil pretreated irradiated mice. Statistically analyzed survival data produced a dose reduction factor (DRF) = 1.41 for flaxseed oil and 1.45 for sesame oil. The results indicate that sesame oil provide a better protection in comparison to linseed oil. Since flaxseed and sesame oil have demonstrated excellent antioxidative effect against radiation, it would further pave way to the formulation of medicine against radiation and several radiomimetic drug induced toxicity

  7. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Perdok, H.B.; Newbold, J.R.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1,

  8. Effects of forage type, forage to concentrate ratio, and crushed linseed supplementation on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows

    Sterk, A.R.; Johansson, B.E.O.; Taweel, H.Z.H.; Murphy, M.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of an increasing proportion of crushed linseed (CL) in combination with varying forage type (grass or corn silage) and forage to concentrate ratio (F:C), and their interactions on milk fatty acid (FA) profile of high-producing dairy cows was studied using a 3-factor Box-Behnken design.

  9. Ground penetrating radar

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  10. Skull penetrating wound

    Gonzalez Orlandi, Yvei; Junco Martin, Reinel; Rojas Manresa, Jorge; Duboy Limonta, Victor; Matos Herrera, Omar; Saez Corvo, Yunet

    2011-01-01

    The cranioencephalic trauma is common in the emergence centers to care for patients with multiple traumata and it becames in a health problem in many countries. Skull penetrating trauma is located in a special place due to its low frequency. In present paper a case of male patient aged 52 severely skull-injured with penetrating wound caused by a cold steel that remained introduced into the left frontotemporal region. After an imaging study the emergence surgical treatment was applied and patient evolves adequately after 25 days of hospitalization. Nowadays, she is under rehabilitation treatment due to a residual right hemiparesis.(author)

  11. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of 60 Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3

  12. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  13. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  14. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  15. Oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from vegetable oils having different degrees of unsaturation

    Pantoja, Samantha Siqueira; Conceição, Leyvison Rafael V. da; Costa, Carlos E.F. da; Zamian, José R.; Rocha Filho, Geraldo N. da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We obtained biodiesel from açai, cupuaçu, passion fruit and linseed oil. • Determined the properties of biodiesel, such as kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and oxidative stability. • Evaluated the influence of antioxidants on biodiesel. • The PG antioxidant was more efficient than BHA and TBHQ for the açaí biodiesel. - Abstract: In the present paper, methyl esters were obtained from the transesterification of cupuaçu fat lipids (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) (K. Schum.), açaí (Euterpe oleracea), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oils, using a basic catalyst. The triglycerides were characterized by their fatty acid composition, and the biodiesels were characterized according to standard methods. The critical properties, such as the cold filter plugging point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability, of the biodiesels were studied. The influence of butyl-hydroxyanisole (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants on the açaí, passion fruit and linseed biodiesels was evaluated at concentrations from 500 to 4000 ppm. PG was found to be the most efficient antioxidant for the studied biodiesels

  16. Effects of feeding rapeseed oil, soybean oil, or linseed oil on stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression in the mammary gland of dairy cows

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.A.; Taweel, H.Z.H.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an important enzyme in the bovine mammary gland, and it introduces a double bond at the ¿(9) location of primarily myristoyl-, palmitoyl-, and stearoyl-CoA. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of various fatty acids (FA) typically present in

  17. Effect of supplementation with linseed or a blend of aromatic spices and time on feed on fatty acid composition, meat quality and consumer liking of meat from lambs fed dehydrated alfalfa or corn.

    Realini, C E; Bianchi, G; Bentancur, O; Garibotto, G

    2017-05-01

    Cross-bred lambs (n=72) were fed finishing diets using a factorial arrangement of treatments: BASAL DIET (alfalfa pellets or corn), SUPPLEMENT (none, linseed or aromatic spices), TIME ON FEED (41 or 83days). Carcass and meat quality traits, fatty acid composition, color stability and consumer liking were determined. Feeding alfalfa improved sensory ratings and fatty acid composition of lamb. However, corn or longer alfalfa feeding would be recommended if heavier and fatter carcasses are sought. Consumer liking and fatty acid composition of lamb were improved with addition of spices and linseed, respectively. But additional antioxidant strategies should be considered to delay meat color deterioration during storage if lambs are fed corn-linseed for 83days. Although alfalfa basal diet and linseed supplementation improved fatty acid composition, feeding the basal diets for at least 41days resulted in low n-3 fatty acid concentrations in muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibody tumor penetration

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  19. Python penetration testing essentials

    Mohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Python programmer or a security researcher who has basic knowledge of Python programming and want to learn about penetration testing with the help of Python, this book is ideal for you. Even if you are new to the field of ethical hacking, this book can help you find the vulnerabilities in your system so that you are ready to tackle any kind of attack or intrusion.

  20. Vehicle and enhancer effects on human skin penetration of aminophylline from cream formulations: evaluation in vivo.

    Wang, Lai-Hao; Wang, Chia-Chen; Kuo, Su-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The effects of four essential oils (rosemary, ylang, lilacin, and peppermint oils), and three plant oils (jojoba oil, corn germ oil, and olive oil) on the permeation of aminophylline were studied using human skin. The permeation effects of these oils were compared with those of three chemical penetration enhancers. Although all oils enhanced the permeation of aminophylline, their effects were less than that of ethanol. Jojoba oil was found to be the most active, causing about a 32% peak height decrease of N-H bending absorbances in comparison with the control, while peppermint, lilacin, rosemary, and ylang oils caused 28%, 24%, 18%, and 12% peak height decreases, respectively. Microemulsions containing 10% jojoba oil and 30% corn germ oil were found to be superior vehicles for the percutaneous absorption of aminophylline. Comparision with results obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography shows good agreement.

  1. Delimitacion del periodo critico de competencia de malezas en el cultivo de lino (Linum usitatissimum Determination of the critical period of weed competition in linseed (Linum usitatissimum

    R.A. Barreyro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La planta de lino oleaginoso es especialmente sensible a la competencia con malezas, que limita el rendimiento potencial. El objetivo de este trabajo fue delimitar el período crítico de competencia del lino con una comunidad natural de malezas. Se realizó una experiencia de campo durante 1993, 1994 y 1995 en La Plata, Argentina. Los tratamientos consistieron en mantener el lino con y sin presencia de malezas en distintas etapas de su desarrollo. La comunidad de malezas fue evaluada en su composición y producción de materia seca y el cultivo en su rendimiento en semillas y componentes. El período crítico se delimitó entre los 30 y 80 días después de la siembra. En este período, la disminución de rendimiento de lino respecto del testigo sin malezas fue superior al 10%. La disminución de rendimiento del cultivo totalmente enmalezado fue del 79% respecto del desmalezado todo el ciclo. Fue afectado el número de semillas por planta ya que su definición está incluida en el período delimitado. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que las alternativas de control deben considerar el período crítico y también propiciar su utilización en modelos de predicción.Linseed plant is especially sensitive to weed competition, which limits its potential yield. The aim of this work was to determine the critical period of linseed competition with a natural weed community. A field experiment was carried out in 1993, 1994 and 1995 in La Plata, Argentina. Treatments consisted of keeping linseed with and without weeds at different stages of development. Weed composition and dry biomass, and linseed yield and its components were evaluated. The critical period of competition was determined, starting at 30 days and ending 80 days after crop seeding. Linseed yield decrease was greater than 10% during the critical period of competition,when compared to the check plot kept without competition. The maximum yield decrease of the check plot kept totally weeded

  2. Penetrating ureteral trauma

    Gustavo P. Fraga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in managing ureteral trauma, focusing on the importance of early diagnosis, correct treatment, and the impact of associated injuries on the management and morbid-mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to December 2002, 1487 laparotomies for abdominal trauma were performed and 20 patients with ureteral lesions were identified, all of them secondary to penetrating injury. Medical charts were analyzed as well as information about trauma mechanisms, diagnostic routine, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: All patients were men. Mean age was 27 years. The mechanisms of injury were gunshot wounds in 18 cases (90% and stab wounds in two (10%. All penetrating abdominal injuries had primary indication of laparotomy, and neither excretory urography nor computed tomography were used in any case before surgery. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intra-operatively in 17 cases (85%. Two ureteral injuries (10% were initially missed. All patients had associated injuries. The treatment was dictated by the location, extension and time necessary to identify the injury. The overall incidence of complications was 55%. The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, Abdominal Trauma Index > 25, Injury Severity Score > 25 and colon injuries were associated to a high complication rate, however, there was no statistically significant difference. There were no mortalities in this group. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of ureteral injuries. A thorough exploration of all retroperitoneal hematoma after penetrating trauma should be an accurate method of diagnosis; even though it failed in 10% of our cases.

  3. Deep penetration calculations

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  4. Oil analysis in machine diagnostics

    Vaehaeoja, P.

    2006-07-01

    spilled into the soil during use and in accident situations, and they can migrate to groundwater layers. Biodegradation of oils can remove them from the soil or water completely or at least diminish the amount of harmful substances. An automatic, respirometric BOD OxiTop method was used to evaluate the biodegradability of various oils in water and soil media. The biodegradation of certain bio and mineral hydraulic oils was evaluated in groundwater, where bio oils usually biodegraded more effectively than mineral oils. The use of oils in machines weakened especially the biodegradability of bio oils. Biodegradability of bio oils was also studied in standard conditions of OECD 301 F and bio oils usually biodegraded moderately good in these conditions. The biodegradation of forestry chain oils and wood preservative oils was evaluated in forest soils. Linseed oil biodegraded moderately, but certain experimental wood preservatives biodegraded more effectively. Widely used creosote oil biodegraded in a lesser degree. Rapeseed oil-based chain oils biodegraded more effectively than corresponding tall oil. (orig.)

  5. Whole extruded linseed in the diet of dairy ewes during early lactation: effect on the fatty acid composition of milk and cheese

    P. Secchiari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In a long term supplementation trial (10 weeks, the effects of the inclusion of whole extruded linseed in the diet of dairy ewes on milk and cheese fatty acid composition were evaluated. Two groups of 24 Sarda ewes in early lactation were randomly assigned to control concentrate (800 g/d concentrate, C or whole extruded linseed concentrate (L, 700 g/d, with 30% of extruded linseed, Omega-Lin®. Results showed that, after 2 weeks on the L diet, the milk content of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, including rumenic acid (RA, vaccenic acid (VA and alfa-linolenic acid (ALA increased sharply compared to C group, reaching the highest levels after 7-8 weeks (3.06, 7.31 and 2.31 g/100 g milk fat for RA, VA and ALA, respectively. During the last 2 weeks of the experimental period, when pasture was included in the diet of both groups, the content of the above fatty acids slightly decreased in milk from L group, whereas in milk from C group increased. Nevertheless, the average content of these fatty acids in milk from L group remained significantly higher than that of milk from C group. Compared with the control, the L diet resulted in a significant reduction (-17% in the concentration of saturated fatty acid in milk. The fatty acid content of the cheese obtained from milk of the two groups reflected the milk fatty acid composition. The inclusion of extruded linseed in the diet of dairy ewes improved the nutraceutical properties of milk and cheese, but further researches are needed in order to better understand the relationship between basal diet and lipid supplementation in dairy ewes.

  6. Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Distribution of N-3 Fatty Acids in Goat Tissues Fed Different Levels of Whole Linseed

    Zakaria, Md. Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  7. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  8. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  9. Water Pollution and Treatments Part II: Utilization of Agricultural Wastes to Remove Petroleum Oils From Refineries Pollutants Present in Waste Water

    Ali, N.A.; El-Emary, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Several natural agricultural wastes, of lignocellulose nature, such as Nile flower plant (ward El-Nil), milled green leaves, sugar cane wastes, palm tree leaves (carina), milled cotton stems, milled linseed stems, fine sawdust, coarse sawdust and palm tree cover were dried and then crushed to suitable size to be evaluated and utilized as adsorbents to remove oils floating or suspended in the waste water effluents from refineries and petroleum installations. The parameters investigated include effect of adsorbent type (adsorptive efficiency), adsorbate (type and concentration), mixing time, salinity of the water, adsorbent ratio to treated water, temperature, ph and stirring. Two different Egyptian crude oils varying in their properties and several refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil and lubricating oil were employed in this work in addition to the skimmed oil from the skim basin separator. Most of the agricultural wastes proved to be very effective in adsorbing oils from waste water effluents.

  10. Effect of dietary supplement of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth performance and carcass trait of Vanaraja chicken

    Punita Kumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, performance index (PI, and carcass characteristics in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 42 days on Vanaraja strain of broiler birds. Different dietary supplement such as sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal and coriander seed meal were used in the basal diet. All day-old 150 male chicks were individually weighed and distributed into five groups having 30 birds in each. Each group was further sub-divided into triplicates having 10 birds in each. Group T1served as control and rest groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 as treatment groups. Birds in T1 group were fed basal ration only, however, T2 , T3, T4 and T5 groups were fed basal ration mixed with 2.5% sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal, and coriander seed meal individually, respectively. Results: Broilers supplemented with herbs/spices showed improvement in growth attributes and carcass characteristics. Broilers fed with herbs at the rate of 2.5% had higher feed intake except sugar beet and coriander seed meal fed group. The body weight and weight gain was also significantly (p0.05 affected. Average giblet percentage of all supplemented groups were significantly (p<0.05 higher than control and was found to be highest in neem leaf meal fed group. Average by-product percentage was found to be highest in linseed fed group. Conclusion: Various herbs such as sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander seed meals affected the growth performance, and carcass trait showed positive inclination toward supplemented groups in broilers. The exact mode of action of these herbs/spices is still not clear, however, one or more numbers of active compounds present in these supplements may be responsible.

  11. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  12. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly

  13. A selection and seed-grower are a substantial factor of increase to the productivity of oil-bearing cultures

    В. В. Кириченко

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of oilseeds in Ukraine, including sunflower, soybean, winter and spring rape, mustard, linseed, sesame, spring false flax, safflower. Presented research-based elements of the technology of cultivation. Described seed of oilseeds. Named most promising varieties of these crops. Disclosed their productive and qualitative potential. The above varietal structure of oilseeds in the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine for years. In order to ensure stable population of oil and food, which include oil, and for the implementation of programs related to soil fertility, scientifically grounded recommended area of oilseeds in Ukraine for 2013–2015 years, ha.

  14. Evaluation of nicotinamide microemulsion on the skin penetration enhancement.

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Boonthongchuay, Chalida; Wongpoowarak, Wibul; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study purposed to evaluate a microemulsion containing nicotinamide for its characteristics, stability, and skin penetration and retention comparing with a solution of nicotinamide in 2:1 mixture of water and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The microemulsion system was composed of 1:1 mixture of Span80 and Tween80 as a surfactant mixture, isopropyl palmitate (IPP) as an oil phase, and 2:1 mixture of water and IPA as an aqueous phase. Nicotinamide microemulsion was prepared by dissolving the active in the aqueous phase before simply mixing with the other components. It was determined for its characteristics and stability under various conditions. The skin penetration and retention studies of nicotinamide microemulsion and solution were performed by modified Franz diffusion cells, using newborn pig skin as the membrane. The results showed that nicotinamide microemulsion could be obtained as clear yellowish liquid, was water-in-oil (w/o) type, possessed Newtonian flow, and exhibited physicochemical stability when kept at 4 °C and room temperature (≈30 ± 2 °C) during 3 months. From the skin penetration data, the microemulsion could enhance the skin penetration of nicotinamide comparing with the solution. Additionally, nicotinamide microemulsion could provide much higher amount of skin retention than that of skin penetration, resulting in suitability for a cosmeceutical product.

  15. A new analytical method for quantification of olive and palm oil in blends with other vegetable edible oils based on the chromatographic fingerprints from the methyl-transesterified fraction.

    Jiménez-Carvelo, Ana M; González-Casado, Antonio; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis

    2017-03-01

    A new analytical method for the quantification of olive oil and palm oil in blends with other vegetable edible oils (canola, safflower, corn, peanut, seeds, grapeseed, linseed, sesame and soybean) using normal phase liquid chromatography, and applying chemometric tools was developed. The procedure for obtaining of chromatographic fingerprint from the methyl-transesterified fraction from each blend is described. The multivariate quantification methods used were Partial Least Square-Regression (PLS-R) and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The quantification results were evaluated by several parameters as the Root Mean Square Error of Validation (RMSEV), Mean Absolute Error of Validation (MAEV) and Median Absolute Error of Validation (MdAEV). It has to be highlighted that the new proposed analytical method, the chromatographic analysis takes only eight minutes and the results obtained showed the potential of this method and allowed quantification of mixtures of olive oil and palm oil with other vegetable oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of pumpkin seed cake and extruded linseed on milk production and milk fatty acid profile in Alpine goats.

    Klir, Z; Castro-Montoya, J M; Novoselec, J; Molkentin, J; Domacinovic, M; Mioc, B; Dickhoefer, U; Antunovic, Z

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of substituting pumpkin seed cake (PSC) or extruded linseed (ELS) for soya bean meal in goats' diets on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acids profile of milk fat. In total, 28 dairy goats were divided into three groups. They were fed with concentrate mixtures containing soya bean meal (Control; n=9), ELS (n=10) or PSC (n=9) as main protein sources in the trial lasting 75 days. Addition of ELS or PSC did not influence milk yield and milk gross composition in contrast to fatty acid profile compared with Control. Supplementation of ELS resulted in greater branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and total n-3 fatty acids compared with Control and PSC (PLA, C18:2n-6; 2.10 and 2.28 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) proportions compared with Control (2.80 g/100 g fatty acids; PLA/ALA ratio (3.81 v. 7.44 or 6.92, respectively; Psoya bean meal with ELS in hay-based diets may increase beneficial n-3 fatty acids and BCFA accompanied by lowering LA/ALA ratio and increased C18:0. Pumpkin seed cake completely substituted soya bean meal in the diet of dairy goats without any decrease in milk production or sharp changes in fatty acid profile that may have a commercial or a human health relevancy.

  17. Improving Mechanical Properties of Thermoset Biocomposites by Fiber Coating or Organic Oil Addition

    Truc T. Ngo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different thermoset biocomposite systems are experimented in this study with the hope to improve their mechanical properties. Fiberglass and hemp, in form of fabrics, are used to reinforce the thermoset polymer matrix, which includes a traditional epoxy resin and a linseed oil-based bioresin (UVL. The fiber/polymer matrix interface is modified using two different approaches: adding a plant-based oil (pine or linseed to the polymer matrix or coating the fibers with 3-(aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES prior to integrating them into the polymer matrix. Epoxy resin is cured using an amine-based initiator, whereas UVL resin is cured under ultraviolet light. Results show that hemp fibers with APTES prime coat used in either epoxy or UVL matrix exhibit some potential improvements in the composite’s mechanical properties including tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and ductility. It is also found that adding oil to the epoxy matrix reinforced with fiberglass mostly improves the material’s modulus of elasticity while maintaining its tensile strength and ductility. However, adding oil to the epoxy matrix reinforced with hemp doubles the material’s ductility while slightly reducing its tensile strength and modulus of elasticity.

  18. Vegetable oil-derived epoxy monomers and polymer blends: A comparative study with review

    T. P. Schuman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS and linseed oil (EGL have been synthesized to have higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than epoxidized soybean oil (ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO. The EGS and ESO, for comparison, were used neat and in blends with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA. Thermosetting resins were fabricated with the epoxy monomers and either BF3 catalyst or anhydride. The curing behaviors, glass transition temperatures, crosslink densities and mechanical properties were tested. The results indicated that polymer glass transition temperatures were mostly a function of oxirane content with additional influence of glycidyl versus internal oxirane reactivity, pendant chain content, and chemical structure and presence of saturated components. EGS provided better compatibility with DGEBA, improved intermolecular crosslinking and glass transition temperature, and yielded mechanically stronger polymerized materials than materials obtained using ESO. Other benefits of the EGS resin blend systems were significantly reduced viscosities compared to either DGEBA or ESO-blended DGEBA counterparts. Therefore, EGS that is derived from renewable sources has improved potential for fabrication of structural and structurally complex epoxy composites, e.g., by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding.

  19. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  20. Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions

    Sanjay Mohite

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel resources are being depleted day by day and its use affects the environment adversely. Renewable energy is one of the alternate for sustainable development and biodiesel is one of the suitable alternate which can replace the diesel. The major hurdles in the successful commercialization of biodiesel are high feedstock cost and conversion technology to reduce viscosity. The choice of raw material and biodiesel production method must depend upon techno-economical view. There are some specific regions for different types of oil availability. It is therefore required to produce biodiesel from the mixture of oils to fulfill the requirements of energy demand in a particular country according to its suitability and availability of feedstock. Karanja and Linseed crops  are abundantly available in India. Biodiesel was produced from a mixture of Karanja and Linseed oils by alkaline transesterification. In this experimental study, biodiesel blends of 10%, 20% and 30% were used with diesel in a diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm with varying brake powers (loads from 0.5 kW to 3.5kW to evaluate brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption,  brake specific energy consumption, exhaust gas temperature, mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency, air fuel ratio and smoke opacity. They were compared with diesel and found satisfactory. BTE was found to be  28.76% for B10 at 3.5kW load.  Smoke opacity was also found to be reduced with all blends. Smoke opacity was found to be reduced up to 10.23% for B10 biodiesel blend as compared to that of diesel at 3.5kW. Experimental investigation  has revealed that  biodiesel produced from a mixture of Karanja and Linseed oils can be successfully used in diesel engines without any engine modification  and B10 was found to be an optimum biodiesel blend in terms of brake thermal efficiency. Article History: Received April 14th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted

  1. [Filtering facepieces: effect of oily aerosol load on penetration through the filtering material].

    Plebani, Carmela; Listrani, S; Di Luigi, M

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic filters are widely used in applications requiring high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop. However various studies showed that the penetration through electrostatic filters increases during exposure to an aerosol flow. This study investigates the effects of prolonged exposure to an oily aerosol on the penetration through filtering facepieces available on the market. Some samples of FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3 filtering facepieces were exposed for 8 hours consecutively to a paraffin oil polydisperse aerosol. At the end of the exposure about 830 mg of paraffin oil were deposited in the facepiece. All the examined facepieces showed penetration values that increased with paraffin oil load while pressure drop values were substantially the same before and after exposure. The measured maximum penetration values did not exceed the maximum penetration values allowed by the European technical standards, except in one case. According to the literature, 830 mg of oil load in a facepiece is not feasible in workplaces over an eight- hour shift. However, the trend of the penetration versus exposure mass suggests that if the load increases, the penetration may exceed the maximum allowed values. For comparison a mechanical filter was also studied. This showed an initial pressure drop higher than FFP2 filtering facepieces characterized by comparable penetration values. During exposure the pressure drop virtually doubled while penetration did not change. The increase in penetration with no increase in pressure drop in the analyzed facepieces indicates that it is necessary to comply with the information supplied by the manufacturer that restricts their use to a single shift.

  2. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  3. The Effect of Bacteria Penetration on Chalk Permeability

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    number of B. licheniformis was detected on the effluent compared with P. putida. However, in the experiment with B. licheniformis mainly spores were detected in the effluent. The core permeability decreased rapidly during injection of bacteria and a starvation period of 12 days did not allow......Bacteria selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery. Bacteria can plug the water-bearing zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. It is known that the bacteria can penetrate deeply...... into reservoirs, however, a complete understanding of the penetration behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where the pore throat sizes are almost comparable with the sizes of bacteria vegetative cells. This study investigates the penetration of bacteria into chalk. Two bacteria types...

  4. Capillaric penetration of etchant solution into swift heavy ion-irradiated silicone rubber

    Fink, D.; Mueller, M.

    2000-01-01

    There is growing evidence that etchants penetrate into latent ion tracks in polymers from the very beginning, i.e., even during the so-called 'incubation time' when no visible etchant attack is observed. The model of capillaric penetration of viscous liquids into sponge-like matter agrees with experimental values both in their parametric dependence as in the absolute values. Our experiments are based on LiOH etching of both pristine and swift heavy ion-irradiated silicone rubber foils. About five times more etchant penetrates into irradiated than into pristine silicone rubber. The overall etchant penetration is highest in tracks parallel to the surface normal, and decreases with increasing ion track tilt angle towards the surface normal. The etchant penetration into the tracks proceeds relatively slowly with an effective viscosity comparable to that of heavy machine oil. When swelling starts to predominate, the maximum etchant penetration depth comes to saturation, with the total etchant uptake even decreasing

  5. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  6. Europa Kinetic Ice Penetrator (EKIP)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity...

  7. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Eugenia Giannini; Antonia Moropoulou; Zacharias Maroulis; Glykeria Siouti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach ...

  8. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  10. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    Henna, Phillip H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is

  11. Effect of surfactants on the penetration of 14C-glyphosate in Cyperus rotundus in Pakistani agroclimatic conditions

    Jamil Qureshi, M.; Anwarul Haq; Uzma Maqbool

    1998-01-01

    The penetration of 14 C-glyphosate was studied in Cyperus rotundus with three nonionic surfactants. Among the three surfactants Synperonic A20 was more effective than A2 and A7 in enhancing penetration of glyphosate 24 hours after treatment both in dry and wet seasons. The addition of diesel oil to Synperonic A20 further increased penetration of glyphosate in both seasons. (author)

  12. Preparation of microcapsules containing different contents of different kinds of oils by a segregative coacervation method and their characterization

    LIDIJA B. PETROVIĆ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation of different oils was performed using a segregative coacervation method. In order to microencapsulate, 20 % oil-in-water (O/W emulsions were prepared in a continuous phase consisting of a 1 % mixture of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC/sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC mass ratio (0.7/0.3 and various concentrations (0, 0.35 and 1 % of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS. Various interactions between the components occur in the continuous phase of emulsions, which influence the structure and properties of the adsorption layer around the oil droplets. The formed HPMC/SDS complexes in the presence of NaCMC molecules undergo segregative phase separation and form a coacervate which adsorbs onto the oil droplets, forming the wall of the microcapsules. Sunflower oil, pumpkin seed oil and a mixture of sunflower and linseed oil were used as the core material. Microcapsules in the solid form were obtained by spray drying the emulsions. The stability of the emulsions, the particle size and particle size distribution of the emulsions and suspensions of microcapsules and the oil content of the microcapsules were determined. The influence of the oil kind on the properties of the microcapsules was also investigated. It was found that at 0.35 % SDS, a coacervate layer around the oil droplets forms a stabile, compact microcapsules wall, which prevents oil extraction. The kind of oil influences the properties of the emulsions and microcapsules, which is important in the selection of oils for microencapsulation by this method.

  13. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  14. Penetration shielding applications of CYLSEC

    Dexheimer, D.T.; Hathaway, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of penetration and discontinuity shielding is necessary to meet 10CFR20 regulations for ensuring personnel exposures are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Historically, those shielding evaluations have been done to some degree on all projects. However, many early plants used conservative methods due to lack of an economical computer code, resulting in costly penetration shielding programs. With the increased industry interest in cost effectively reducing personnel exposures to meet ALARA regulations and with the development of the CYLSEC gamma transport computer code at Bechtel, a comprehensive effort was initiated to reduce penetration and discontinuity shielding but still provide a prudent degree of protection for plant personnel from radiation streaming. This effort was more comprehensive than previous programs due to advances in shielding analysis technology and increased interest in controlling project costs while maintaining personnel exposures ALARA. Methodology and resulting cost savings are discussed

  15. Aspects of resistance of flax and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini = Aspecten van de resistentie in vezel- en olievlas (Linum usitatissimum) tegen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini

    Kroes, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the thesis aspects have been described of the flax and linseed interaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini, the causal agent of flax wilt. Two in vitro tests were established to screen for resistance, to investigate race specificity

  16. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  17. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Soressa M. Kitessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  18. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-22

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  19. Research progress on application of linseed cake (meal) in livestock and poultry feed%亚麻仁饼(粕)在畜禽饲料应用中的研究进展

    金鑫燕; 荆秀芳; 吴海玥; 郝力壮; 常禧; 赵婷静

    2017-01-01

    In order to systematically understand the research status of linseed cake (meal) as animal feed at home and abroad,as well as investigate effective utilization of linseed cake (meal) and other by-products of linseed as animal feed in the future,research progress of linseed cake (meal) as animal feed is reviewed based on classification and origin of Chinese linseed,ingredients and nutritional value of linseed cake (meal),toxic and harmful substances,and linseed cake research progress of ruminant animals,pigs,poultry at home and abroad.Linseed cake (meal) is rich in protein.Its crude protein and lysine content are relatively less than soybean meal,peanut meal and cottonseed meal.It is better feed when it is mixed with other high lysine protein feed.Because of its hydrocyanic acid toxicity,its proportion in feed is limited.Therefore,the maximal proportion in pig and ruminant diet are 8%-10% and 20%,respectively.Its optimal proportion in poultry feed is remained to be investigated.Decreasing hydrocyanic acid toxicity in linseed cake (meal) and collocation ratio of cake are research emphasis in the future.Linseed cake (meal),which is rich in linolenic acid,can be applied to improve the value of animal product.%为系统了解亚麻仁饼(粕)在国内外畜禽饲料中的研究现状以及今后亚麻仁饼(粕)及其他亚麻副产品在畜禽饲料中的有效利用,对我国亚麻分型及产地、亚麻仁饼(粕)的饲料成分、营养价值、有毒有害物质以及在国内外反刍动物、猪和家禽饲料中的研究进展进行综述.亚麻仁饼(粕)是营养丰富的畜禽蛋白饲料原料,其粗蛋白质及赖氨酸含量相对大豆粕、棉籽粕、菜籽粕、花生仁粕较低,适合与其他含赖氨酸高的蛋白质饲料混合搭配饲喂;但因氢氰酸毒性限制了其饲料中用量,猪日粮中最高适宜用量8%~10%,反刍动物日粮中可增加至20%,家禽饲料中的适宜饲喂量还有待继续研究.亚麻仁饼(

  20. Elastic behavior of MFI-type zeolites: Compressibility of H-ZSM-5 in penetrating and non-penetrating media

    Quartieri, Simona; Montagna, Gabriele; Arletti, Rossella; Vezzalini, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    The elastic behavior of H-ZSM-5 was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, using both silicone oil (s.o.) and (16:3:1) methanol:ethanol:water (m.e.w.) as 'non-penetrating' and 'penetrating' pressure transmitting media, respectively. From P amb to 6.2 GPa the volume reduction observed in s.o. is 16.6%. This testifies that H-ZSM-5 is one of the most flexible microporous materials up to now compressed in s.o. Volume reduction observed in m.e.w. up to 7.6 GPa is 14.6%. A strong increase in the total electron number of the extraframework system, due to the penetration of water/alcohol molecules in the pores, is observed in m.e.w. This effect is the largest up to now observed in zeolites undergoing this phenomenon without cell volume expansion. The higher compressibility in s.o. than in m.e.w. can be ascribed to the penetration of the extra-water/alcohol molecules, which stiffen the structure and contrast the channel deformations. - Graphical abstract: High-pressure behavior of H-ZSM-5 compressed in (16:3:1) methanol:ethanol:water: (a) projection of the structure along the [0 1 0] direction at P amb , 2 GPa and after pressure release to original ambient conditions (P amb (rev)), and (b) P-dependence of the extraframework content expressed as total number of electrons (gray square represents the number of the extraframework electrons at P amb after decompression). Highlights: → X-ray powder diffraction study of H-ZSM-5 compressibility. → H-ZSM-5 is one of the softest porous material compressed in silicon oil. → Penetration of additional water/alcohol molecules upon compression in m.e.w. → Extra molecules contribute to stiffen the structure and to contrast HP effects.

  1. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  2. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  3. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry

  4. Import market penetration in services

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1991-01-01

    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  5. Biotechnology in breeding of industrial oil crops - the present status and future prospects

    Friedt, W.

    1988-02-01

    With increasing 'overproduction' of food supplies it is frequently emphasized now that agricultural production of industrial 'non-food' raw materials should be intensified. Many adapted crop plants are already available for producing various kinds of natural materials. Particularly the large group of oil-crops could be used even more widely for providing vegetable oils. The example of rape-seed (Brassica Napus) clearly demonstrates that the composition of vegetable oil can be completely reconstructed according to the wishes of manufacturers or consumers, even by conventional breeding methods. Rapid and efficient breeding is expected by application of modern 'biotechnology'. Where variation for a character like oil-quality is limited within a crop plnt, a wide range of alien wild species is available for broadening genetic variation of plants like rapeseed, sunflower (Helianthus annuus) or linseed (flax, Linum usitatissimum). Exploration of such 'new' genetic variation is nowadays facilitated by in vitro embryo culture or cell (protoplast)-fusion techniques. Such biotechniques can help to overcome crossing barriers between species (genus Brassica). In other important oilcrops like linseed or sunflower, biotechniques can now be applied profitably. Protoplasts can be regenerated in Linum, so that asexual interspecific hybrids can principally be produced in that way. Alien species of sunflower and lineseed show a wide range of variation regarding agronomically important characters, particularly of oil composition and disease resistance. This alien genetic variation can be used for breeding new disease resistant oil-crop cultivars. Other techniques, like the 'haploidy-method' can help to accelerate a breeding programme, ultimately leading to a homozygous line or cultivar.

  6. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (pcooking procedure. Compared with raw products, cooked samples had higher (pcooked, the PUFA levels in the medium-fat/improved sample containing the oil bulking system ranged between 1.4 and 1.6g/100g (0.47-0.51 from n-3 PUFAs), with EPA+DHA concentrations of around 75mg/100g. Konjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [Professor WU Zhongchao's experience of penetration needling].

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yu

    2016-08-12

    Professor WU Zhongchao has unique application of penetration needling in clinical treatment. Professor WU applies penetration needling along meridians, and the methods of penetration needling include self-meridian penetration, exterior-interior meridian penetration, identical-name meridian penetration, different meridian penetration. The meridian differentiation is performed according to different TCM syndromes, locations and natures of diseases and acupoint nature, so as to make a comprehensive assessment. The qi movement during acupuncture is focused. In addition, attention is paid on anatomy and long-needle penetration; the sequence and direction of acupuncture is essential, and the reinforcing and reducing methods have great originality, presented with holding, waiting, pressing and vibrating. Based on classical acupoint, the acupoint of penetration needling is flexible, forming unique combination of acupoints.

  8. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae: growth and thermal tolerance

    A.K. Ikeda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish using 72 juvenile freshwater angelfish, coming from phase I and maintained in 12 aquaria climatized chamber. The temperature was reduced 1ºC per day, until the observation of 100% fish mortality. Phase III, it was studied the heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish employing an identical procedure to phase II, but with a daily increase of 1ºC. Significant differences (P>0.05 were not observed for any parameters evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that the type of vegetable oil (canola, linseed, olive and soybean used as a diet supplement did not affect the productive performance, nor the tolerance to cold and heat, of juvenile freshwater angelfish.

  9. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  10. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  11. Comparison of the generation of oil by the extraction and the hydropyrolysis of biomass

    O. Onay; A.F. Gaines; O.M. Kockar; M. Adams; T.R. Tyagi; C.E. Snape [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

    2006-02-01

    This paper discusses the maximisation of the yields of useful bio-oils generated from seeds and nut-shells both by extraction and by hydropyrolysis. The formation and the composition of the bio-oils are also discussed. Powdered (<0.25 mm diameter) Rapeseed, Linseed and Safflower seed and Hazel nut and Walnut shells, that is, fresh precursors of liptinite, have been characterised by their elemental analyses, infra-red and NMR spectra. Bio-oils obtained both by extraction and by slow hydropyrolysis to 520{sup o}C at moderate pressure in the presence of ammonium dioxydithiomolybdate have been compared by the same analyses and by gas chromatography. Consistent with previous work (Hardy JA. A greener future with biodiesel. Green Chem 2001 G56-G57), extraction of the seeds with organic solvents, including Diesel oil, gave yields of up to 40% together with an uninteresting residue. However, subsequent saponification of the residues gave further yields of oil. Hydropyrolysis removed oxygen from the seeds as water and as oxides of carbon to generate bio-oil in yields of up to 75%. Whereas little oil could be extracted from the nut-shells, hydropyrolysis gave oil yields of {approximately} 40%. Some char was also formed, suggesting that optimisation of the hydropyrolysis might give even larger yields of oil. 25 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  13. A drop penetration method to measure powder blend wettability.

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Zhanjie; Muzzio, Fernando; Drazer, German; Callegari, Gerardo

    2018-03-01

    Water wettability of pharmaceutical blends affects important quality attributes of final products. We investigate the wetting properties of a pharmaceutical blend lubricated with Magnesium Stearate (MgSt) as a function of the mechanical shear strain applied to the blend. We measure the penetration dynamics of sessile drops deposited on slightly compressed powder beds. We consider a blend composed of 9% Acetaminophen 90% Lactose and 1% MgSt by weight. Comparing the penetration time of water and a reference liquid Polydimethylsiloxane (silicon oil) we obtain an effective cosine of the contact angle with water, based on a recently developed drop penetration method. We repeat the experiments for blends exposed to increasing levels of shear strain and demonstrate a significant decrease in water wettability (decrease in the cosine of the contact angle). The results are consistent with the development of a hydrophobic film coating the powder particles as a result of the increased shear strain. Finally, we show that, as expected dissolution times increase with the level of shear strain. Therefore, the proposed drop penetration method could be used to directly assess the state of lubrication of a pharmaceutical blend and act as a quality control on powder blend attributes before the blend is tableted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  15. Study of physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoap

    Soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoaps, which was synthesized from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil, was investigated. Greases were prepared using a mixture of lithium soap and triethanolammonium polysoap. Grease properties investigated were: hardness, using cone penetration procedure (AS...

  16. Effects of oils on plants

    Baker, J M

    1970-01-01

    Oils vary in their toxicity according to the content of low-boiling compounds, unsaturated compounds, aromatics, and acids. The higher the concentration of these constituents, the more toxic the oil. After penetrating into a plant, the oil may travel in the intercellular spaces and possibly also in the vascular system. Cell membranes are damaged by penetration of hydrocarbon molecules, leading to leakage of cell contents, and oil may enter the cells. Oils reduce the transpiration rate, probably by blocking the stomata and intercellular spaces. This may also be the reason for the reduction of the photosynthesis which occurs, though there are other possible explanations of this - such as disruption of chloroplast membranes and inhibition caused by accumulation of end-products. The effects of oils on respiration are variable, but an increase of respiration rate often occurs, possibly due to mitochondrial damage resulting in an uncoupling effect. Oils inhibit translocation probably by physical interference. The severity of the above effects depends on the constituents and amount of the oil, on the environmental conditions, and on the species of plant involved. 88 references, 3 tables.

  17. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  18. Penetrating radiation: applications at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Watson, Scott; Hunter, James; Morris, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Los Alamos has used penetrating radiography extensively throughout its history dating back to the Manhattan Project where imaging dense, imploding objects was the subject of intense interest. This interest continues today as major facilities like DARHT1 have become the mainstay of the US Stockpile Stewardship Program2 and the cornerstone of nuclear weapons certification. Meanwhile, emerging threats to national security from cargo containers and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have invigorated inspection efforts using muon tomography, and compact x-ray radiography. Additionally, unusual environmental threats, like those from underwater oil spills and nuclear power plant accidents, have caused renewed interest in fielding radiography in severe operating conditions. We review the history of penetrating radiography at Los Alamos and survey technologies as presently applied to these important problems.

  19. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  20. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  1. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  2. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  3. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  4. Radiation studies in linseed

    Kumar, V.; Haque, M.F.; Srivastava, S.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray treatment of varieties of lineseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) in M 1 generation affected all the characters except seedling emergence and days to flowering. Vegetative characters like plant height, and number of primary and secondary branches were not affected as much as the reproductive characters like number of capsules/plant and number of seeds/capsule. The most affected character was pollen fertility, though there appeared to be scope for the use of still higher doses of X-ray (more than 100 kr) for creating wider variability. (author)

  5. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  6. Penetration Enhancement Effect of Turpentine Oil on Transdermal ...

    1Department of Pain Medicine, 2Department of Gastroenterology, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Radiology,. 5Department of Orthopedic, Linzi People's ... not only drug flux but also analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in rats. ... chronic pain and inflammation management in. SCI, arthritis and other related ...

  7. Penetration Enhancement Effect of Turpentine Oil on Transdermal ...

    inflammation drastically affect the quality of life after SCI. ... inhibitors may reduce spinal cord ischemic injury. [11]. Various .... Healthy male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were used ..... Guy RH. Transdermal science and technology an update.

  8. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  9. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    Faily, Shamal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C.

    2015-01-01

    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  10. Palm Oil

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  11. Diesel oil

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  12. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing essentials

    Alamanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted at information security professionals, penetration testers and network/system administrators who want to get started with wireless penetration testing. No prior experience with Kali Linux and wireless penetration testing is required, but familiarity with Linux and basic networking concepts is recommended.

  13. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  14. Oil spills

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. [Inhibition of oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by essential oils].

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Vorobjeva, A K; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from 16 various spice plants were studied as natural antioxidants for the inhibition of autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids methyl esters isolated from linseed oil. The content of methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenoate after 1, 2, and 4 months of autooxidation were used as criteria to estimate the antioxidant efficiencies of essential oils. In 4 months, 92% of the methyl linolenoate and 79% of the methyl linoleate were oxidized in a control sample of a model system. It was found that the most effective antioxidants were essential oils from clove bud, cinnamon leaves, and oregano. They inhibited autooxidation of methyl linolenoate by 76–85%. The antioxidant properties of these essential oils were due to phenols— eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol. Essential oil from coriander did not contain phenols, but it inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 38%. Essential oils from thyme, savory, mace, lemon, and tea tree inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 17–24%. The other essential oils had no antioxidant properties.

  16. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for Detection of Underground Objects

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Kamal Shah Shamsuddin; Wan Zainal Abidin; Awang Sarfarudin Awang Putra

    2011-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) utilizes an electromagnetic microwave that is transmitted into the matter under investigation. Any objects with different dielectric properties from the medium of the matter under investigation will reflect the waves and will be picked up by the receivers embedded in the antenna. We have applied GPR in various application such as concrete inspection, underground utility detection, grave detection, archaeology, oil contamination of soil, soil layer thickness measurement and etc. This paper will give general findings of the application of GPR to provide solutions to the industry and public. The results of the GPR surveys will be discussed. (author)

  17. One input-class and two input-class classifications for differentiating olive oil from other edible vegetable oils by use of the normal-phase liquid chromatography fingerprint of the methyl-transesterified fraction.

    Jiménez-Carvelo, Ana M; Pérez-Castaño, Estefanía; González-Casado, Antonio; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis

    2017-04-15

    A new method for differentiation of olive oil (independently of the quality category) from other vegetable oils (canola, safflower, corn, peanut, seeds, grapeseed, palm, linseed, sesame and soybean) has been developed. The analytical procedure for chromatographic fingerprinting of the methyl-transesterified fraction of each vegetable oil, using normal-phase liquid chromatography, is described and the chemometric strategies applied and discussed. Some chemometric methods, such as k-nearest neighbours (kNN), partial least squared-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), support vector machine classification analysis (SVM-C), and soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA), were applied to build classification models. Performance of the classification was evaluated and ranked using several classification quality metrics. The discriminant analysis, based on the use of one input-class, (plus a dummy class) was applied for the first time in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oil Spills

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  19. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON JATROPHA OIL METHYL ESTER

    Doddayaraganalu Amasegoda Dhananjaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as jatropha oil, linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, karanji oil, etc., are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have reasonable energy content. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has combustion characteristics similar to petroleum diesel. The current paper reports a study carried out to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester and its blend B20 (80% petroleum diesel and 20% jatropha oil methyl ester and diesel fuel on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injections, water cooled diesel engine. This study gives the comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, smoke opacity, HC, NOx, ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, and peak heat release rates. The engine performance in terms of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of blend B20 fuel operation was observed and compared with jatropha oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel fuel for injection timing of 20° bTDC, 23° bTDC and 26° bTDC at injection opening pressure of 220 bar.

  20. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  1. Web penetration testing with Kali Linux

    Muniz, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux contains various penetration testing methods using BackTrack that will be used by the reader. It contains clear step-by-step instructions with lot of screenshots. It is written in an easy to understand language which will further simplify the understanding for the user.""Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux"" is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning how to become a penetration tester. It will also help the users who are new to Kali Linux and want to learn the features and differences in Kali versus Backtrack, and seasoned penetration testers

  2. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  3. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  4. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  5. Penetration testing with Raspberry Pi

    Muniz, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    If you are looking for a low budget, small form-factor remotely accessible hacking tool, then the concepts in this book are ideal for you. If you are a penetration tester who wants to save on travel costs by placing a low-cost node on a target network, you will save thousands by using the methods covered in this book. You do not have to be a skilled hacker or programmer to use this book. It will be beneficial to have some networking experience; however, it is not required to follow the concepts covered in this book.

  6. Correlation Between Cone Penetration Rate And Measured Cone Penetration Parameters In Silty Soils

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows, how a change in cone penetration rate affects the cone penetration measurements, hence the cone resistance, pore pressure, and sleeve friction in silty soil. The standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s, and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while...... drained penetration occurs in sand. When lowering the penetration rate, the soil pore water starts to dissipate and a change in the drainage condition is seen. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in a drainage condition that could be undrained......, partially or fully drained. However, lowering the penetration rate in silty soils has a great significance because of the soil permeability, and only a small change in penetration rate will result in changed cone penetration measurements. In this paper, analyses will be done on data from 15 field cone...

  7. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  8. Impregnation of bio-oil from small diameter pine into wood for moisture resistance

    Thomas J. Robinson; Brian K. Via; Oladiran Fasina; Sushil Adhikari; Emily Carter

    2011-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis oil consists of hundreds of complex compounds, many of which are phenolic-based and exhibit hydrophobic properties. Southern yellow pine was impregnated with a pyrolysis oil-based penetrant using both a high pressure and vacuum impregnation systems, with no significant differences in retention levels. Penetrant concentrations ranging from 5-50% pyrolysis...

  9. Effect of including whole linseed and vitamin E in the diet of young bulls slaughtered at two fat covers on the sensory quality of beef packaged in two different packaging systems.

    Albertí, Pere; Campo, María M; Beriain, María J; Ripoll, Guillermo; Sañudo, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    Forty-six Pirenaica young bulls, slaughtered at two levels of fatness (3 and 4 mm), were used to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 50 g kg -1 linseed alone or with 200 IU vitamin E kg -1 in the concentrate and of the meat packaging system (vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)) on the beef sensory quality. The inclusion of linseed or supplementation with vitamin E in the concentrate induced no significant differences in the main meat sensory scores and overall appraisal except under MAP, where small differences due to concentrate ingredients were found in juiciness and metallic flavor intensity. Extending the display time up to 4 or 8 days in high-oxygen MAP had detrimental effects on sensory attributes. Meat from animals with 4 mm fat cover depth were rated more tender and juicy, less fibrous and with a higher intensity of beef flavor and rancid odor than meat from 3 mm fat cover bulls when both samples were vacuum packaged. The inclusion of 50 g kg -1 linseed in the concentrate fed to bulls had no detrimental effect on the beef sensory quality. The vacuum-packaged meat of bulls slaughtered at 4 mm fat cover was rated higher on sensory analysis than that at 3 mm fat cover. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langston, William L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilio, Lorena I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  11. Effect of fast pyrolysis bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch on bitumen properties

    Poh, Chia Chin; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Raman, Noor Azah Abdul; Shukry, Nurul Athma Mohd; Warid, Muhammad Naqiuddin Mohd; Satar, Mohd Khairul Idham Mohd; Ros Ismail, Che; Asmah Hassan, Sitti; Mashros, Nordiana

    2018-04-01

    Bitumen shortage has triggered the exploration of another alternative waste material that can be blended with conventional bitumen. This study presents the performance of pyrolysis bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) as an alternative binder in modified bitumen mixtures. The palm oil EFB was first pyrolyzed using auger pyrolyzer to extract the bio-oil. Conventional bitumen 80/100 penetration grade was used as a control sample and compared with samples that were modified with different percentages, i.e., 5% and 10%, of pyrolysis EFB bio-oil. The physical and rheological properties of the control and modified bitumen samples were investigated using penetration, softening point, viscosity and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests. Results showed that the addition of EFB bio-oil softened the bitumen with high penetration and a reduction in softening point, penetration index, and viscosity. However, the DSR results showed a comparable rutting resistance between the bitumen samples containing EFB bio-oil and virgin bitumen with a failure temperature achieved greater than 64°C.

  12. Effect of ultrasonic intensity and frequency on oil/heavy-oil recovery from different wettability rocks

    Naderi, K.; Babadagli, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This study identified the mechanisms that are responsible for additional oil recovery that is often observed following an earthquake. It focused on the theory that harmonics of low frequency waves create high frequency waves as they penetrate into rock formations. A series of experiments were conducted on oil-wet rocks with high oil viscosities. The objective was to better understand how ultrasonic energy affects oil recovery at core and pore scale. Cylindrical sandstone cores were placed in imbibition cells to examine how the presence of initial water saturation can affect recovery, and how the recovery changes for different oil viscosities. An increase in oil recovery was observed with ultrasonic energy in all cases. The additional recovery with ultrasonic energy lessened as the oil viscosity increased. Ultrasonic intensity and frequency were shown to be critical to the performance, which is important since ultrasonic waves have limited penetration into porous medium. This is a key disadvantage for commercializing this promising process for well stimulation. Therefore, the authors designed a set-up to measure the ultrasonic energy penetration capacity in different media, notably air, water and slurry. The set-up could identify which types of reservoirs are most suitable for ultrasonic application. Imbibition experiments revealed that ultrasonic radiation increases recovery, and is much more significant in oil wet cases, where initial water saturation facilitate oil recovery. Higher frequency showed a higher rate of recovery compared to lower frequency, but the ultimate recovery was not changed substantially. 46 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs.

  13. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  14. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  15. Varieties of cognitive penetration in visual perception.

    Vetter, Petra; Newen, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Is our perceptual experience a veridical representation of the world or is it a product of our beliefs and past experiences? Cognitive penetration describes the influence of higher level cognitive factors on perceptual experience and has been a debated topic in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Here, we focus on visual perception, particularly early vision, and how it is affected by contextual expectations and memorized cognitive contents. We argue for cognitive penetration based on recent empirical evidence demonstrating contextual and top-down influences on early visual processes. On the basis of a perceptual model, we propose different types of cognitive penetration depending on the processing level on which the penetration happens and depending on where the penetrating influence comes from. Our proposal has two consequences: (1) the traditional controversy on whether cognitive penetration occurs or not is ill posed, and (2) a clear-cut perception-cognition boundary cannot be maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    . In order to predict the systemic risk of dermally absorbed chemicals and to enable agencies to set safety standards, data is needed on the rates of percutaneous penetration of important chemicals. Standardization of in vitro tests and comparison of their results with the in vivo data could produce...... internationally accepted penetration rates and/or absorption percentages very useful for regulatory toxicology. The work of the Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup of EC Dermal Exposure Network has been focussed on the standardization and validation of in vitro experiments, necessary to obtain internationally...... accepted penetration rates for regulatory purposes. The members of the Subgroup analyzed the guidelines on percutaneous penetration in vitro studies presented by various organizations and suggested a standardization of in vitro models for percutaneous penetration taking into account their individual...

  17. Ethical hacking and penetration testing guide

    Baloch, Rafay

    2014-01-01

    Requiring no prior hacking experience, Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Guide supplies a complete introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test, or ethical hack, from beginning to end. You will learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern-day hacking tools, which are required to complete a penetration test. The book covers a wide range of tools, including Backtrack Linux, Google reconnaissance, MetaGooFil, dig, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Fast Track Autopwn, Netcat, and Hacker Defender rootkit. Supplying a simple and clean explanation of how to effectively utilize these tools, it details a four-step methodology for conducting an effective penetration test or hack.Providing an accessible introduction to penetration testing and hacking, the book supplies you with a fundamental understanding of offensive security. After completing the book you will be prepared to take on in-depth and advanced topics in hacking and penetration testing. The book walks you through each ...

  18. Initial response of a rock penetrator

    Longcope, D.B.; Grady, D.E.

    1977-12-01

    An analysis based on elastic rod theory is given for the early-time axisymmetric response of pointed penetrators. Results of measurements by laser interferometry of the back surface particle velocity of laboratory scale penetrators impacted by sandstone targets are presented. Values of the initial pressure on the penetrator tip are determined which give good agreement between the analytical and experimental results. These initial tip pressures are found to be approximated by the stress-particle velocity Hugoniot for the target material

  19. Effects of organic plant oils and role of oxidation on nutrient utilization in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Lund, I; Dalsgaard, J; Jacobsen, C; Hansen, J H; Holm, J; Jokumsen, A

    2013-03-01

    Producing organic fish diets requires that the use of both fishmeal and fish oil (FO) be minimized and replaced by sustainable, organic sources. The purpose of the present study was to replace FO with organic oils and evaluate the effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily specific growth rate (SGR) and nutrient digestibility in diets in which fishmeal protein was partly substituted by organic plant protein concentrates. It is prohibited to add antioxidants to organic oils, and therefore the effects of force-oxidizing the oils (including FO) on feed intake and nutrient digestibility was furthermore examined. Four organic oils with either a relatively high or low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids were considered: linseed oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and grapeseed oil. Substituting FO with organic oils did not affect feed intake (P > 0.05), FCR or SGR (P > 0.05) despite very different dietary fatty acid profiles. All organic plant oils had a positive effect on apparent lipid digestibility compared with the FO diet (P digestibility of other macronutrients when compared with the FO diet (P > 0.05). Organic vegetable oils did not undergo auto-oxidation as opposed to the FO, and the FO diet consequently had a significantly negative effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. Feed intake was not affected by oxidation of any oils. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that it is possible to fully substitute FO with plant-based organic oils without negatively affecting nutrient digestibility and growth performance. Furthermore, plant-based organic oils are less likely to oxidize than FOs, prolonging the shelf life of such organic diets.

  20. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical

  1. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  2. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Oil Spills

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  4. Influence of jet thrust on penetrator penetration when studying the structure of space object blanket

    N. A. Fedorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the calculation-and-theory-based research results to examine the possibility for using the jet thrust impulse to increase a penetration depth of high-velocity penetrator modules. Such devices can be used for studies of Earth surface layer composition, and in the nearest future for other Solar system bodies too. Research equipment (sensors and different instruments is housed inside a metal body of the penetrator with a sharpened nose that decreases drag force in soil. It was assumed, that this penetrator is additionally equipped with the pulse jet engine, which is fired at a certain stage of penetrator motion into target.The penetrator is considered as a rigid body of variable mass, which is subjected to drag force and reactive force applied at the moment the engine fires. A drag force was represented with a binomial empirical law, and penetrator nose part was considered to be conical. The jet thrust force was supposed to be constant during its application time. It was in accordance with assumption that mass flow and flow rate of solid propellant combustion products were constant. The amount of propellant in the penetrator was characterized by Tsiolkovsky number Z, which specifies the ratio between the fuel mass and the penetrator structure mass with no fuel.The system of equations to describe the penetrator dynamics was given in dimensionless form using the values aligned with penetration of an equivalent inert penetrator as the time and penetration depth scales. Penetration dynamics of penetrator represented in this form allowed to eliminate the influence of penetrator initial mass and its cross-section diameter on the solution results. The lack of such dependency is convenient for comparing the calculation results since they hold for penetrators of various initial masses and cross-sections.To calculate the penetration a lunar regolith was taken as a soil material. Calculations were carried out for initial velocities of

  5. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  6. Time of erythema onset after application of methyl nicotinate ointments as response parameter: influence of penetration kinetics and enhancing agents.

    Remane, Y; Leopold, C S

    2006-01-01

    The time of erythema onset may be used as a response parameter for quantification of the cutaneous erythema response induced by methyl nicotinate. The vehicles light mineral oil (LMO; test) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT; standard) were compared with regard to the pharmacodynamic response. Moreover, the influence of penetration enhancers on the time of erythema onset was investigated under zero order penetration kinetics. The enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and three different glycerides in different concentrations were added to MCT as a standard vehicle. All preparations were applied to the forearms of volunteers under infinite dose conditions at different thermodynamic drug activity levels (0.2-3.2% of the saturation level) and different drug concentrations (0.051-0.816%), respectively. Different penetration kinetics do not influence data of erythema onset, as these data are comparable to those obtained under finite dose conditions (first order penetration kinetics). With regard to the penetration enhancers, a significantly enhanced penetration of methyl nicotinate could be observed only for diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and dimethyl sulfoxide. However, no significant difference between light mineral oil and MCT could be found with regard to penetration enhancement. The time of erythema onset is an easy and efficient parameter for quantification of the pharmacodynamic response caused by nicotinates.

  7. Oil price, biofuels and food supply

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Mevel, Simon; Shrestha, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    The price of oil could play a significant role in influencing the expansion of biofuels, but this issue has yet to be fully investigated in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, this study analyzes the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply. The study shows that a 65% increase in oil price in 2020 from the 2009 level would increase the global biofuel penetration to 5.4% in 2020 from 2.4% in 2009. If oil prices rise 150% from their 2009 levels by 2020, the resulting penetration of biofuels would be 9%, which is higher than that would be caused by current mandates and targets introduced in more than forty countries around the world. The study also shows that aggregate agricultural output drops due to an oil price increase, but the drop is small in major biofuel producing countries as the expansion of biofuels would partially offset the negative impacts of the oil price increase on agricultural outputs. An increase in oil price would reduce global food supply through direct impacts as well as through the diversion of food commodities and cropland towards the production of biofuels. - Highlights: ► A global CGE model to analyze impacts of oil price on biofuels and food supply. ► Global biofuel penetration increases from 2.4% (2009) to 5.4% (2020) in baseline. ► A 150% rise of oil price boosts biofuels more than current mandates and targets do. ► Biofuels partially offset drops in agricultural outputs caused by oil price rise. ► Biofuels as well as oil price rise negatively affect global food supply.

  8. Identification and functional analysis of two alternatively spliced transcripts of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) in linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Tianbao; Song, Xiaxia; Zhang, Jianping; Dang, Zhanhai; Pei, Xinwu; Long, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a popular phenomenon in different types of plants. It can produce alternative spliced transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. Previous studies have shown that one transcription factor, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), which encodes an important component in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, is subjected to alternative splicing in both mono- and dicotyledons. In the current study, we identified two homologs of ABI3 in the genome of linseed flax. We screened two alternatively spliced flax LuABI3 transcripts, LuABI3-2 and LuABI3-3, and one normal flax LuABI3 transcript, LuABI3-1. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the alternatively spliced transcripts, LuABI3-3, retained a 6 bp intron. RNA accumulation analysis showed that all three transcripts were expressed during seed development, while subcellular localization and transgene experiments showed that LuABI3-3 had no biological function. The two normal transcripts, LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2, are the important functional isoforms in flax and play significant roles in the ABA regulatory pathway during seed development, germination, and maturation.

  9. Identification and functional analysis of two alternatively spliced transcripts of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3 in linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L..

    Yanyan Wang

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a popular phenomenon in different types of plants. It can produce alternative spliced transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. Previous studies have shown that one transcription factor, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3, which encodes an important component in abscisic acid (ABA signaling, is subjected to alternative splicing in both mono- and dicotyledons. In the current study, we identified two homologs of ABI3 in the genome of linseed flax. We screened two alternatively spliced flax LuABI3 transcripts, LuABI3-2 and LuABI3-3, and one normal flax LuABI3 transcript, LuABI3-1. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the alternatively spliced transcripts, LuABI3-3, retained a 6 bp intron. RNA accumulation analysis showed that all three transcripts were expressed during seed development, while subcellular localization and transgene experiments showed that LuABI3-3 had no biological function. The two normal transcripts, LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2, are the important functional isoforms in flax and play significant roles in the ABA regulatory pathway during seed development, germination, and maturation.

  10. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic energy penetrators must posses the best possible combination of hardness, stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness characteristics to be effective against modern armor systems. Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. Du and tungsten perform abut the same against semi-infinite targets, and DU outperforms tungsten penetrators in oblique, spaced array targets, but because of environmental and subsequent cost concerns, effort has focused on improving the performance of tungsten penetrators over the last few years. However, despite recent improvements in material properties, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms at the leading edge of the penetrator during the penetration process-DU alloys tend to shear band and sharpen as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom and blunt. As a first step to determine whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review of the fabrication, high strain-rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on material properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed

  11. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,

  12. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  13. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  14. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  15. Chemical Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery ...

    for transdermal administration. The permeation of drug through skin can be enhanced by both chemical penetration enhancement and physical methods. In this review, we have discussed the chemical penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanisms of action.

  16. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M. [University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Melvin [National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  17. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Alexander, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  18. Transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C

    Velpandian T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to estimate transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C (MMC to Tenon′s tissue following application over the intact conjunctiva before routine trabeculectomy. Settings and Design: Institution-based case series. Materials and Methods: In 41 eyes of 41 patients, MMC (0.4 mg/ml for 3 min was applied over the intact conjunctiva before beginning trabeculectomy. Tenon′s capsule directly beneath the site of application was excised during trabeculectomy and was homogenized, centrifuged and MMC concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using stata0 8.0 version software (STATA Corporation, Houston, TX, USA. In this study, P -values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The average weight of the sample of Tenon′s tissue excised was 5.51 ± 4.42 mg (range: 0.9-17.1 and the average estimated MMC concentration found to be present in Tenon′s tissue using HPLC was 18.67 ± 32.36 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue (range: 0.38-197.05 x 10−6 . In 36 of the 41 patients (87.80%, the MMC concentration reached above 2 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue concentration required to inhibit human conjunctival fibroblasts. Conclusions: Mitomycin C does permeate into the subconjunctival tissue after supraconjunctival application for 3 min. Application of MMC over the conjunctiva may be a useful alternative to subconjunctival or subscleral application during routine trabeculectomy and as an adjunct for failing blebs.

  19. A vegetable oil feeding history affects digestibility and intestinal fatty acid uptake in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Geurden, Inge; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Olsen, Rolf-Erik; Sundell, Kristina S

    2009-04-01

    Future expansion of aquaculture relies on the use of alternatives to fish oil in fish feed. This study examined to what extent the nature of the feed oil affects intestinal lipid uptake properties in rainbow trout. The fish were fed a diet containing fish (FO), rapeseed (RO) or linseed (LO) oil for 8 weeks after which absorptive properties were assessed. Differences in digestibility due to feed oil history were measured using diet FO with an indigestible marker. Intestinal integrity, paracellular permeability, in vitro transepithelial fatty acid transport (3H-18:3n-3 and 14C-16:0) and their incorporation into intestinal epithelia were compared using Ussing chambers. Feed oil history did not affect the triacylglycerol/phosphatidylcholine ratio (TAG/PC) of the newly synthesized lipids in the segments. The lower TAG/PC ratio with 16:0 (2:1) than with 18:3 (10:1) showed the preferential incorporation of 16:0 into polar lipids. The FO-feeding history decreased permeability and increased transepithelial resistance of the intestinal segments. Transepithelial passage rates of 18:3n-3 were higher when pre-fed LO compared to RO or FO. Similarly, pre-feeding LO increased apparent lipid and fatty acid digestibilities compared to RO or FO. These results demonstrate that the absorptive intestinal functions in fish can be altered by the feed oil history and that the effect remains after a return to a standard fish oil diet.

  20. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  1. Oil risk in oil stocks

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  2. Miniature Ground Penetrating Radar, CRUX GPR

    Kim, Soon Sam; Carnes, Steven R.; Haldemann, Albert F.; Ulmer, Christopher T.; Ng, Eddie; Arcone, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA instrument development programs (PIDDP 2000-2002, MIPD 2003-2005, ESR and T, 2005) we have been developing miniature ground penetrating radars (GPR) for use in mapping subsurface stratigraphy from planetary rovers for Mars and lunar applications. The Mars GPR is for deeper penetration (up to 50 m depth) into the Martian subsurface at moderate resolution (0.5 m) for a geological characterization. As a part of the CRUX (Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer) instrument suite, the CRUX GPR is optimized for a lunar prospecting application. It will have shallower penetration (5 m depth) with higher resolution (10 cm) for construction operations including ISRU (in-situ resource utilization).

  3. Development of coring, consolidating, subterrene penetrators

    Murphy, H.D.; Neudecker, J.W.; Cort, G.E.; Turner, W.C.; McFarland, R.D.; Griggs, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    Coring penetrators offer two advantages over full face-melting penetrators, i.e., formation of larger boreholes with no increase in power and the production of glass-lined, structurally undisturbed cores which can be recovered with conventional core-retrieval systems. These cores are of significant value in geological exploratory drilling programs. The initial design details and fabrication features of a 114-mm-diam coring penetrator are discussed; significant factors for design optimization are also presented. Results of laboratory testing are reported and compared with performance predictions, and an initial field trial is described

  4. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  5. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  6. Experimental Study of Bacterial Penetration into Chalk Rock: Mechanisms and Effect on Permeability

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery, as bacteria can plug the water-swept zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. However, complete understanding of the penetration...... behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where characteristic pore throat sizes are comparable with the sizes of bacterial cells. In this study, two bacterial strains, Bacillus licheniformis 421 (spore-forming) and Pseudomonas putida K12 (non-spore forming) were used to investigate...... the penetration of bacteria into chalk and its effect on permeability reduction. The core plugs were produced from Stevns Klint outcrop with low permeability (2–4 mD) and with pore sizes comparable to bacterial sizes. Both types of bacteria were able to penetrate and to be transported through the cores to some...

  7. A Mass Loss Penetration Model to Investigate the Dynamic Response of a Projectile Penetrating Concrete considering Mass Abrasion

    NianSong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the dynamic response of a projectile penetrating concrete is conducted. The evolutional process of projectile mass loss and the effect of mass loss on penetration resistance are investigated using theoretical methods. A projectile penetration model considering projectile mass loss is established in three stages, namely, cratering phase, mass loss penetration phase, and remainder rigid projectile penetration phase.

  8. Penetration, distribution and kinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in human skin in vitro

    Weber, L.W.D.; Rozman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro penetration of 3 H-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) into human cadaver skin was studied at concentrations of 65 and 6.5 ng TCDD per cm 2 of skin surface. Vehicles used were acetone to simulate exposure to TCDD as a dry material, and mineral oil to simulate exposure to TCDD in an oily medium. Penetration was performed for 30, 100, 300, and 1000 min in improved Franz cells. Skin was used either intact, or with stripped horny layer. Skin was sectioned along its natural layers and radioactivity determined in epidermis and dermis. TCDD did not readily penetrate into human skin in vitro. The vehicle of exposure to TCDD played an important role in dermal penetration. The rapidly evaporating acetone allowed TCDD to penetrate deeply into the loose surface lamellae of the horny layer, but then appeared to be poorly available for further penetration. Mineral oil as the vehicle showed its penetration even more. The stratum corneum acted as a protective barrier, as its removal increased the amount of TCDD absorbed into layers of the skin. Hourly rates of adsorption of TCDD per unit area of skin were calculated in two ways: a worst case scenario where TCDD absorbed into any layer of skin including the stratum corneum and a physiological approach where only that amount of TCDD was considered absorbed which had penetrated beyond the epidermis. Under worst case scenario conditions the stratum corneum appeared to mediate dermal absorption of TCDD. This was, however, not the case with the physiological approach. There was a consistent relationship between concentration of TCDD applied and concentration of TCDD found in skin. Also, a clear-cut correlation was found between the amount of TCDD that penetrated and the time of exposure. (orig./MG)

  9. Market Penetration Simulation of Hydrogen Powered Vehicles in Korea

    Eunju Jun; Yong Hoon, Jeong; Soon Heung, Chang

    2006-01-01

    As oil price being boosted, hydrogen has been considered to be a strong candidate for the future energy carrier along with electricity. Although hydrogen can be produced by many energy sources, carbon-free sources such as nuclear and renewable energy may be ideal ones due to their environmental friendliness. For the analysis of hydrogen economy, the cost and market penetration of various end-use technologies are the most important factors in production and consumer side, respectively. Particularly, hydrogen powered vehicle is getting more interests as fuel cell technologies are developed. In this paper, the hydrogen powered vehicle penetration into the transportation market is simulated. A system dynamic code, Vensim, was utilized to simulate the dynamics in the transportation, assuming various types of vehicle such as gasoline, hybrid electricity and hydrogen powered. Market shares of each vehicle are predicted by using currently available data. The result showed that hydrogen era will not be bright as we think. To reach the era of hydrogen fuel cell cost should be reduced dramatically. And if the hydrogen cost which includes both operating and capital cost reaches to a $0.16 per kilometer, hydrogen portion can be a 50 percent in the transportation sector. However, if strong policy or subsidy can be given, the result will be changed. [1] (authors)

  10. The penetration of aerosols through fine orifices

    Marshall, I.A.; Latham, L.J.; Ball, M.H.E.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1991-07-01

    A novel experimental technique has been extended to study the migration of gas-borne glass microspheres in the size range from about 1 to 15 μm volume equivalent diameter through orifices with bores and thicknesses in the range from 2 to 100 μm and 12.7 to 509 μm respectively. The penetration of these particles was significant with all orifices greater than 10 μm bore at a constant driving pressure of 100 kPa. However, few particles penetrated the 5 μm bore orifice, while virtually no particles penetrated the 2 μm bore orifice. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the orifices were very similar to that of the upstream aerosol except when significant attenuation occurred. (author)

  11. Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications

  12. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  13. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  14. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing beginner's guide

    Ramachandran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    If you are a security professional, pentester, or anyone interested in getting to grips with wireless penetration testing, this is the book for you. Some familiarity with Kali Linux and wireless concepts is beneficial.

  15. Penetration testing protecting networks and systems

    Henry, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a preparation guide for the CPTE examination, yet is also a general reference for experienced penetration testers, ethical hackers, auditors, security personnel and anyone else involved in the security of an organization's computer systems.

  16. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  17. Low Force Penetration of Icy Regolith

    Mantovani, J. G.; Galloway, G. M.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A percussive cone penetrometer measures the strength of granular material by using percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the material. A percussive cone penetrometer was used in this study to penetrate a regolith ice mixture by breaking up ice and decompacting the regolith. As compared to a static cone penetrometer, percussion allows low reaction forces to push a penetrometer probe tip more easily into dry regolith in a low gravity environment from a planetary surface rover or a landed spacecraft. A percussive cone penetrates icy regolith at ice concentrations that a static cone cannot penetrate. In this study, the percussive penetrator was able to penetrate material under 65 N of down-force which could not be penetrated using a static cone under full body weight. This paper discusses using a percussive cone penetrometer to discern changes in the concentration of water-ice in a mixture of lunar regolith simulant and ice to a depth of one meter. The rate of penetration was found to be a function of the ice content and was not significantly affected by the down-force. The test results demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in a reduced gravity environment. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy regolith, and there is some risk of the probe tip becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted. It is also shown that a percussive cone penetrometer could be used to prospect for water ice in regolith at concentrations as high as 8 by weight.

  18. Oil-walnut hull fracs score in Saskatchewan

    Pamenter, C B

    1967-02-01

    The fracturing of wells using crude oil and walnut shells was recently introduced in SE. Saskatchewan with remarkable success. This workover treatment showed an ability to penetrate deeply into the low capacity Mississippian carbonates, and to raise production rates by as much as 400% without affecting the acceptable oil/ water ratios. Two case histories are included that indicate some of the conditions under which the treatment can be of value. The monthly oil and water production is tabulated for each of these cases.

  19. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  20. Reconditioning of soils degraded through oil contamination using bacteria relating to thiosphaera

    Sakhno, T.V.; Kurashov, V.M.; Kolesnik, A.A.; Morozkin, A.I.; Gavrilov, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    Bio-preparations based on aerobic bacteria are conventionally used to decontaminate soils of oil. There is a problem of no effect in oil decomposing by using conventional bio-preparations in soils where the depth of oil penetration into the soil exceeds 60 cm in the case of oil outflow. At deep oil penetration into the soil, the efficiency of oil biodegradation with aerobic hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms is limited by the factor of oxygen accessibility (oxygen limit). We used Thiosphaera pantotropha as a mono-culture and together with a culture of Pseudomonas putida to solve this problem. Pseudomonas putida being aerobes decompose oil effectively at oil concentration up to 25 g of oil in 1 kg of soil and at the depth of oil penetration into the soil up to 25-30 cm. At a deeper level of soil, the activity of Pseudomonas putida falls because of oxygen limit. At the depth of 60 cm and deeper, Pseudomonas putida stop oxidize and decompose oil because of the limited oxygen accessibility. Bacteria of Thiosphaera pantotropha being elective anaerobes decompose oil both in the presence and in the absence of oxygen, and at low concentrations of oxygen insufficient for vital functions of obligate aerobic species of bacteria. Thus, bacteria of Thiosphaera pantotropha decompose hydrocarbons independently on the depth of oil penetration into the soil. Due to special features of their metabolism, bacteria of Thiosphaera pantotropha can realize their vital functions and decompose hydrocarbons at high oil concentrations in soils at which conventionally used bio-preparations can not be effective. We found out that Thiosphaera decompose sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds in oil which are chemically and thermally stable and can be hardly decomposed, and possess extremely poisonous properties, as well. The use of microorganisms of Thiosphaera pantotropha allows to purify soils polluted with oil and oil products. The results obtained are applied to the cleaning of

  1. Lavender oil

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  2. Petroleum Oils

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  3. Effect of dietary incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich oil sources on fatty acid profile, keeping quality and sensory attributes of broiler chicken meat

    Sridhar Kalakuntla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary replacement of commonly used vegetable oil (sunflower oil, SFO with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA rich oil sources on broiler chicken performance, carcass yield, meat fatty acid composition, keeping quality and sensory attributes of meat. In the current experiment, 300 day-old Krishibro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 5 dietary groups (50 replicates with 6 chicks in each prepared by replacing SFO (2% and 3% of diet during starter and finisher periods, respectively with n-3 PUFA rich soybean oil (SO, mustard oil (MO, linseed oil (LO or fish oil (FO on weight basis. Variation in oil sources had no influence (P > 0.05 on performance and carcass yield. Supplementation of MO, LO or FO significantly (P < 0.01 increased the n-3 PUFA, lowered the n-6 PUFA deposition and n-6:n-3 ratio in breast and thigh without affecting the organoleptic characters (appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability of meat. However, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances concentration in meat was increased (P < 0.01 with LO and FO supplementation compared with SFO. It is concluded that, dietary incorporation of MO, LO or FO at 2% and 3% levels during starter and finisher phase can enrich broiler chicken meat with n-3 PUFA without affecting the bird's performance and sensory characters of meat.

  4. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. However, despite improvements in mechanical properties in recent years, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms- DU alloys tend to shear band as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom. As a first step to determining whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review and summary of the available information was performed. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the formulation, high strain- rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on mechanical properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed. Penetration data and models for penetration mechanisms (in particular shear banding) are also presented, as well as the applicability of these models and their salient features

  5. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    Iskander, Magued

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  6. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  7. Genotoxicity of diesel engine emissions during combustion of vegetable oils, mineral oil, and their blends; Gentoxizitaet von Dieselmotoremissionen bei Verbrennung von Pflanzenoelen, Mineraloeldiesel und deren Mischkraftstoffen

    Buenger, Joern

    2013-07-09

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils and that blends of diesel fuel and vegetable oil are mutagenic. Three different vegetable oils (linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; rapeseed oil, RO), blends of 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel fuel (B20) and 50% vegetable oil and 50% diesel fuel (B50) as well as common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy duty diesel engine. The exhaust was investigated for particle emissions and its mutagenic effect in comparison to emissions of DF. The engine was operated using European Stationary Cycle. Particle mass was determined gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison to DF it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by PO which was scarcely above DF. B50 revealed the lowest amount of TPM while B20 reached as high as DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. B50 showed higher mutagenic potential than B20. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. Vegetable oil blends seem to be less mutagenic than the pure oils with a shifted maximum compared to blends with biodiesel and DF. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. And

  8. Oil biodegradation

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  9. Photoacoustic Analysis of the Penetration Kinetics of Cordia verbenacea DC in Human Skin

    Carvalho, S. S.; Barja, P. R.

    2012-11-01

    Phonophoresis consists of the utilization of ultrasound radiation associated to pharmacological agents in order to enhance transdermal penetration of applied drugs. It is a widely employed resource in physiotherapy practice, normally associated with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as Acheflan. This drug was developed in Brazil from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea DC, a native plant of the Brazilian southern coast. In previous studies, the photoacoustic (PA) technique proved effective in the study of the penetration kinetics of topically applied products and in the evaluation of drug delivery after phonophoresis application. The present work aimed to evaluate the penetration kinetics of Acheflan in human skin, employing in vivo PA measurements after massage application or phonophoresis application. Ten volunteers (aged between 18 and 30 years) took part in the study. Time evolution of the PA signal was fitted to a Boltzmann curve, S-shaped. After statistical analysis, PA measurements have shown drug penetration for both application forms, but drug delivery was more evident after phonophoresis application, with a characteristic penetration time of less than 15 min for the stratum corneum.

  10. Deformation analysis of shallow penetration in clay

    Sagaseta, C.; Whittle, A. J.; Santagata, M.

    1997-10-01

    A new method of analysis is described for estimating the deformations and strains caused by shallow undrained penetration of piles and caissons in clay. The formulation combines previous analyses for steady, deep penetration, with methods used to compute soil deformations due to near-surface ground loss, and is referred to as the Shallow Strain Path Method (SSPM). Complete analytical solutions for the velocity and strain rates are given for a planar wall, an axisymmetric, closed-ended pile and unplugged, open-ended pile geometries. In these examples, the analyses consider a single source penetrating through the soil at a constant rate, generating a family of penetrometers with rounded tips, referred to as simple wall, pile and tube geometries. Soil deformations and strains are obtained by integrating the velocity and strain rates along the particle paths.The transition from shallow to deep penetration is analysed in detail. Shallow penetration causes heave at the ground surface, while settlements occur only in a thin veneer of material adjacent to the shaft and in a bulb-shaped region around the tip. The size of this region increases with the embedment depth. Deformations inside an open-ended pile/caisson are affected significantly by details of the simple tube wall geometry.

  11. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    Dimkov, T.; van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    Penetration tests on IT systems are sometimes coupled with physical penetration tests and social engineering. In physical penetration tests where social engineering is allowed, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not

  12. Opportunities for high wind energy penetration

    Tande, J.O.; Hansen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is today a mature technology, which at windy locations, is economically competitive to conventional power generation technologies. This and growing global environmental concerns have led governments to encourage and plan for wind energy development, a typical aim being 10% of electricity...... consumption. The successful operation of the three major power systems of Cape Verde, with a total wind energy penetration of about 15% since December 1994, demonstrates that power systems can be operated with high penetration of wind energy by adding simple control and monitoring systems only. Thorough...... analyses conclude that expanding to even above 15% wind energy penetration in the Cape Verde power systems is economical. Worldwide, numerous locations with favorable wind conditions and power systems similar to the Capeverdean provide good opportunities for installing wind farms and achieving high wind...

  13. WAPTT - Web Application Penetration Testing Tool

    DURIC, Z.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications vulnerabilities allow attackers to perform malicious actions that range from gaining unauthorized account access to obtaining sensitive data. The number of reported web application vulnerabilities in last decade is increasing dramatically. The most of vulnerabilities result from improper input validation and sanitization. The most important of these vulnerabilities based on improper input validation and sanitization are: SQL injection (SQLI, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS and Buffer Overflow (BOF. In order to address these vulnerabilities we designed and developed the WAPTT (Web Application Penetration Testing Tool tool - web application penetration testing tool. Unlike other web application penetration testing tools, this tool is modular, and can be easily extended by end-user. In order to improve efficiency of SQLI vulnerability detection, WAPTT uses an efficient algorithm for page similarity detection. The proposed tool showed promising results as compared to six well-known web application scanners in detecting various web application vulnerabilities.

  14. Penetrating power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging

    Roberta Guilizzoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of revealing the presence and identifying the nature of conductive targets is of central interest in many fields, including security, medicine, industry, archaeology and geophysics. In many applications, these targets are shielded by external materials and thus cannot be directly accessed. Hence, interrogation techniques are required that allow penetration through the shielding materials, in order for the target to be identified. Electromagnetic interrogation techniques represent a powerful solution to this challenge, as they enable penetration through conductive shields. In this work, we demonstrate the power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging to penetrate through metallic shields (1.5-mm-thick and image targets (having conductivities σ ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm−1 concealed behind them.

  15. Wireless Network Penetration Testing and Security Auditing

    Wang Shao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE802.11 wireless wireless networks have security issues that are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Due to using radio to transport data, attackers can bypass firewalls, sniff sensitive information, intercept packets and send malicious packets. Security auditing and penetration testing is expected to ensure wireless networks security. The contributions of this work are analyzed the vulnerability and types of attacks pertaining to IEEE 802.11 WLAN, performed well known attacks in a laboratory environment to conduct penetration tests to confirm whether our wireless network is hackable or not. WAIDPS is configured as auditing tool to view wireless attacks, such as WEP/WPA/WPA2 cracking, rouge access points, denial of service attack. WAIDPS is designed to detect wireless intrusion with additional features. Penetration testing and auditing will mitigate the risk and threatening to protect WALN.

  16. Penetrating chest injury: A miraculous life salvage

    Santosh B Dalavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual penetrating chest injury was caused by high velocity road traffic accident. An 18-year-old had a four wheeler accident and was brought in emergency department with a ′bamboo′ stick on the left side chest exiting through back. After the stabilization of vital parameters, an inter-costal tube drainage was done on the left side. Except the minor brochopleural fistula which healed by 10 th day, his recovery was uneventful. The outcome was consistent with current aggressive management of penetrating chest injuries. Management of penetrating chest injury involving pulmonary trauma is based on three principles. One is stabilization of hemodynamics of patient with proper clinical evaluation. Second, a mere intercostal tube drainage sufficient for majority of the cases. Third, post-operative active as well as passive physiotherapy is necessary for speedy recovery.

  17. Development Of The Nuclear Optical Penetration

    Inoue, K.; Koike, K.; Imada, Y.

    1984-10-01

    We have developed the nuclear optical penetration to be incorporated in the wall penetration of the shell to introduce a data transmission system using optical fibers into a nuclear power plant with a pressurized water reactor. Radiation-induced coloration in optical glass seriously affects transmission characteristics of optical fibers, whereas it has been revealed that the pure-silica core optical fiber without any dopant in the core has wide applicability in radiation fields thanks to its very low radiation-induced attenuation. The wall penetration of the shell should have airtightness and resistivity to heat, vibration, and pressure, let alone radiation, excellent enough to be invariable in data transmission efficiency even when subjected to severe environmental tests. The sealing modules of this newly developed nuclear optical penetration are hermetically sealed. The gap between the optical fiber rod (100 pm in core diameter and 5 mm in rod diameter) and stainless steel tube is sealed with lamingted glass layer. As the result of He gas leakage test, high airtightness of less than 10 cc/sec was achieved. No thermal deformation of the core was caused by sealing with laminated glass layer, nor was observed transmission loss. Then the sealiing modules were subjected to the irradiation test using 60 Co gamma ray exposure of 2 x 10 rads. Though silica glass layer supporting the fiber rod and sealing glass portion turned blackish purple, transparency of the fiber was not affected. Only less than 0.5 dB of connecting loss was observed at the connecting point with the optical fiber cable. The sealing modules were also found to have resistivity to vibration and pressure as excellent as that of existing nuclear electric penetrations. We expect the nuclear optical fiber penetration will be much effective in improving reliability of data transmission systems using optical fibers in radiation fields.

  18. HMO penetration: has it hurt public hospitals?

    Clement, J P; Grazier, K L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration within the public hospitals' market area affects the financial performance and viability of these institutions, relative to private hospitals. Hospital- and market-specific measures are examined in a fully interacted model of over 2,300 hospitals in 321 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in 1995. Although hospitals located in markets with higher HMO penetration have lower financial performance as reflected in revenues, expenses and operating margin, public hospitals are not more disadvantaged than other hospitals by managed care.

  19. Operational experience of extreme wind penetrations

    Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal); Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pestana, Rui [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the operational experience from the Portuguese Power System during the 2009/2010 winter months when record wind penerations were observed: the instantaneous wind power penetration peaked at 70% of consumption during no-load periods and the wind energy accounted for more than 50% of the energy consumed for a large period. The regulation measures taken by the TSO are presented in the paper, together with the additional reserves operated for added system security. Information on the overall power system behavior under such extreme long-term wind power penetrations will also be addressed. (org.)

  20. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi; Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  1. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi, E-mail: jaherrero5@hotmail.com [Unidade de Gestao Clinica (UGC) de Diagnostico por Imagem - Hosppital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilha (Spain); Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe [Unit of Radiodiagnosis - Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Merced, Osuna, Sevilha (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  2. Roentgenologic image of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer

    Strunin, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    When studying a series of aimed roentgenograms in patients with peptic ulcer a gas bubble of irregular spherical configuration or two-layer niche were determined near the bulb medial contour. Gas bubble was from 0.5-0.7 to 3.5 cm in diameter. In such cases penetrating ulcers were determined in operations. Along with other signs gas bubble symptom, sometimes two-layer signs may be used for timely and exact roentgenological diagnosis of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer in peptic ulcer disease

  3. Fractal measures in a deep penetration problem

    Murthy, K.P.N.; Indira, R.; John, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the Monte Carlo simulation of a deep penetration problem the parameter, say b in the importance function must be assigned a value b' such that variance is minimum. If b b' the sample mean is still not reliable; but the sample fluctuations would be small and misleading, though the actual fluctuations are quite large. This is because the distribution of transmission has a tail which becomes prominent when b > b'. Considering a model deep penetration problem, and employing exact enumeration techniques, it is shown that in the limit of large biasing the long tailed distribution to the transmission is multifractal. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  4. Generic Penetration of the SSRI Market.

    Cascade, Elisa F; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the penetration of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the US market and the implications for patient out-of-pocket expense. The data suggest that generic penetration into the SSRI market has grown from approximately nine percent in 2000, the year that the patent for Prozac((R)) expired, to 72 percent in 2007. For December, 2007, the difference in patient out-of-pocket expense for branded vs. generic agents was, on average, $55.42 for patients paying by cash (i.e., they had no prescription drug insurance) and $22.39 for patients with insurance coverage.

  5. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin

    2010-02-01

    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury.

  6. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum); Efeitos da radiacao ionizante de cobalto-60 nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas sensoriais e microbiolgicas de paes com adicao de linhaca (Linum usitatissimum)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of {sup 60}Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3

  7. Hydrocarbon oils

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  8. Oil crises

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  9. The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Broiler Chickens Breast

    Dragoş-Sorin Fota

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the vegetable oils added to the combined fodder can significantly modify the fatty acids profile in broiler food, through its redirection even the fatty acids profile of carcasses can be modified through enrichment in certain fatty acids and obtaining functional foods. Therefore an experiment was conduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder in which 2% of different fat sources have been incorporated (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. After the 42 days growth period, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA, DPA, DHA, ∑ SFA, ∑ MUFA, ∑ PUFA of the chicken from the experimental groups, were determined. Fatty acids were determined using gascromatography. The data obtained after statistic processing and interpretation have highlighted the fact that, concerning the fatty acids profile in the chickens breast, we can observe variations of the determined fatty acids content, what shows us that they can be influenced through dietary factors, but there quantity being determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.

  10. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for the mapping of near surface tree roots is demonstrated. GPR enables tree roots to be mapped in a non-destructive and cost-effective manner and is therefore a useful prospecting...

  11. Penetration and haptenation of p-phenylenediamine

    Pot, Laura M.; Scheitza, Simone M.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Bloemeke, Brunhilde; Blomeke, B.

    Although p-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been recognized as an extreme sensitizer for many years, the exact mechanism of sensitization has not been elucidated yet. Penetration and the ability to bind to proteins are the first two hurdles that an allergen has to overcome to be able to sensitize. This

  12. Mechanical behaviour of pressure vessel head penetrations

    Faidy, C.; Ternon, F.; Vagner, J.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1994-01-01

    After leaks on Bugey 3 penetrations EdF and Framatome have started a study on the stress corrosion phenomenon of Inconel 600. In this paper, limited to the mechanical aspect, we present an estimation of in service stresses, the experimental program on mockup for visualize the surface stress and the noxiousness of potential cracks. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  13. Standard Penetration Test and Relative Density

    1971-02-01

    Se OPSeS Debido a que el agua subterranea granclemente influve la resistencia a suelo, se establecio una relacion empirica entre el nurmero de golpes...de laboratorio ejecutados con un penetr6metro est’tico pequeno. INTRODUCTION One of the main problems encountered in subsoil e’xploration is in situ

  14. Penetration of electronic beams in ionizing media

    Martiarena, M.L.; Zanete, D.H.; Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    It is studied the penetration of an electron beam in an ionizable medium by means of a generalized kinetic equation. This equation is related to elastic collisions, processes of creation and destruction of particles. By integrating numerically the transport equation, it can be evaluated the relative effects of all the processes involved in the evolution of the system. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  15. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine

    Scholtanus, Johannes D.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M.

    Objectives: Amalgam restorations are replaced by adhesively placed composite resin restorations at an increasing rate. After the removal of amalgam dentine often shows marked dark discoloration that is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from overlying amalgams. it is questioned

  16. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine.

    Scholtanus, J.D.; Ozcan, M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Amalgam restorations are replaced by adhesively placed composite resin restorations at an increasing rate. After the removal of amalgam dentine often shows marked dark discoloration that is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from overlying amalgams. It is questioned

  17. Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer

    Madrazo, B.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease

  18. Reduced penetrance in human inherited disease

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... tant role in cellular senescence, tumorigenesis and in several diseases including type ... between epigenetic DNA modifications and human life span has also been shown .... penetrance mutation that is age dependent especially when compared with the ..... on healthy aging and longevity. Immunity Aging ...

  19. An Experimental Model for Market Penetration.

    Caren, William L.

    1987-01-01

    A plan for college market penetration that has been successful in increasing the applicant pool for one institution is outlined and discussed. It includes development of performance objectives, a schedule, a promotional plan, market survey, and promotional activities including alumni, media, and other community resources. (MSE)

  20. STYLET PENETRATION BEHAVIOURS OF FOUR Cicadulina ...

    ACSS

    Feeding from phloem cells, overall probing and probe mean (the average time per probe) were higher ... Key Words: Cicadulina spp., electrical penetration graph, MSV, Zea mays .... wire and alligator clip clamped to the stem of the .... á All measures are in minutes except for frequency of probing; - Main effect not significant.

  1. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    experiences, literature data and guidelines already in existence. During the meetings of Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup they presented a number of short papers of up to date information on the key issues. The objective was to focus the existing knowledge and the gaps in the knowledge in the field...

  2. Penetration of albendazole sulphoxide into hydatid cysts.

    Morris, D L; Chinnery, J B; Georgiou, G; Stamatakis, G; Golematis, B

    1987-01-01

    The penetration of albendazole sulphoxide, the principal metabolite of albendazole into hydatid cysts (E granulosus) was measured by means of in vitro animal and clinical studies. The drug freely diffuses across the parasitic membranes. Cyst/serum concentrations of 22% were achieved in patients, longer pre-operative therapy produced higher concentrations.

  3. Oil pollution

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  4. The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Made Easy

    Engebretson, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing serves as an introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test or perform an ethical hack. You learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern day hacking tools; which are required to complete a penetration test. Tool coverage will include, Backtrack Linux, Google, Whois, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Netcat, Netbus, and more. A simple and clean explanation of how to utilize these tools will allow you  to gain a solid understanding of each of the four phases and prepare them to take on more in-depth texts and topi

  5. Radon penetration of concrete slab cracks, joints, pipe penetrations, and sealants

    Nielson, KK; Rogers, VC; Holt, RB; Pugh, TD; Grondzik, WA; deMeijer, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Radon movement through 12 test slabs with different cracks, pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, sealants, and tensile stresses characterized the importance of these anomalous structural domains, Diffusive and advective radon transport were measured with steady-state air pressure

  6. Enhancement of percutaneous penetration of aniline and o-toluidine in vitro using skin barrier creams.

    Korinth, Gintautas; Lüersen, Lars; Schaller, Karl Heinz; Angerer, Jürgen; Drexler, Hans

    2008-04-01

    Aniline (ANI) and the human carcinogen o-toluidine (OT) are released at the workplace during the production and processing of rubber. Recently, we showed in rubber industry workers that a frequent use of skin barrier creams (SBC) increased the internal exposure of ANI and OT. In the present study, diffusion cells were used to investigate the effects of two SBC and one skin care cream (SCC) on percutaneous penetration of neat ANI and OT as well as of OT from a mixture with a workplace specific lubricant. The experiments were carried out with untreated and with skin creams treated human skin. A considerable percutaneous penetration enhancement of test compounds was observed for treated skin compared with untreated skin; the highest enhancement (mean factors 6.2-12.3) was found for SBC (based on oil in water emulsion) treated skin. The lowest penetration enhancement showed SCC treated skin (mean factors 4.2-9.7). The in vitro data support our findings in workers that the percutaneous absorption of aromatic amines significantly increases in presence of skin creams. The efficacy of skin creams to protect the percutaneous penetration of aromatic amines is not confirmed by our own experiments.

  7. Effect of penetration modifiers on the dermal and transdermal delivery of drugs and cosmetic active ingredients.

    Otto, A; Wiechers, J W; Kelly, C L; Hadgraft, J; du Plessis, J

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effect of 2 penetration modifiers, dimethyl isosorbide (DMI) and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME) on the skin delivery of hydroquinone (HQ), salicylic acid (SA) and octadecenedioic acid (DIOIC) was investigated. Ten percent DMI and DGME were separately formulated into oil-in-water emulsions containing 1.8% HQ, SA and DIOIC, respectively. Skin delivery and the flux across split-thickness human skin of the active ingredients were determined using Franz diffusion cells. An emulsion with 10% water incorporated instead of the water-soluble penetration modifiers served as a control. The study showed that neither 10% DMI nor 10% DGME significantly enhanced the skin permeation of the various lipophilic active ingredients or the uptake into the skin. It was hypothesized that the addition of the penetration modifiers to the emulsions not only enhanced the solubility of the various active ingredients in the skin but also in the formulation, resulting in a reduced thermodynamic activity and hence a weaker driving force for penetration. Therefore, the effect of DMI and DGME on the solubility of the active ingredients in the skin was counteracted by a simultaneous reduction in the thermodynamic activity in the formulation. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. seed oil

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  9. The penetrating depth analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard Chang’e-3 rover

    Xing, Shu-Guo; Su, Yan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Ding, Chun-Yu; Li, Chun-Lai

    2017-04-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) has successfully been used to acquire a large amount of scientific data during its in-situ detection. The analysis of penetrating depth can help to determine whether the target is within the effective detection range and contribute to distinguishing useful echoes from noise. First, this study introduces two traditional methods, both based on a radar transmission equation, to calculate the penetrating depth. The only difference between the two methods is that the first method adopts system calibration parameters given in the calibration report and the second one uses high-voltage-off radar data. However, some prior knowledge and assumptions are needed in the radar equation and the accuracy of assumptions will directly influence the final results. Therefore, a new method termed the Correlation Coefficient Method (CCM) is provided in this study, which is only based on radar data without any a priori assumptions. The CCM can obtain the penetrating depth according to the different correlation between reflected echoes and noise. To be exact, there is a strong correlation in the useful reflected echoes and a random correlation in the noise between adjacent data traces. In addition, this method can acquire a variable penetrating depth along the profile of the rover, but only one single depth value can be obtained from traditional methods. Through a simulation, the CCM has been verified as an effective method to obtain penetration depth. The comparisons and analysis of the calculation results of these three methods are also implemented in this study. Finally, results show that the ultimate penetrating depth of Channel 1 and the estimated penetrating depth of Channel 2 range from 136.9 m to 165.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=6.6) and from 13.0 m to 17.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=2.3), respectively.

  10. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Brand, Martin; Grieve, Andrew

    2013-11-18

    Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient class I evidence to support the use of a single pre-operative broad spectrum antibiotic dose, with aerobic and anaerobic cover, and continuation (up to 24 hours) only in the event of a hollow viscus perforation found at exploratory laparotomy. To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antibiotics administered for penetrating abdominal injuries for the reduction of the incidence of septic complications, such as septicaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections. Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 12 of 12), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) and PubMed. Searches were last conducted in January 2013. All randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma versus no

  11. The contemporary management of penetrating splenic injury.

    Berg, Regan J; Inaba, Kenji; Okoye, Obi; Pasley, Jason; Teixeira, Pedro G; Esparza, Michael; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-09-01

    Selective non-operative management (NOM) is standard of care for clinically stable patients with blunt splenic trauma and expectant management approaches are increasingly utilised in penetrating abdominal trauma, including in the setting of solid organ injury. Despite this evolution of clinical practice, little is known about the safety and efficacy of NOM in penetrating splenic injury. Trauma registry and medical record review identified all consecutive patients presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center with penetrating splenic injury between January 2001 and December 2011. Associated injuries, incidence and nature of operative intervention, local and systemic complications and mortality were determined. During the study period, 225 patients experienced penetrating splenic trauma. The majority (187/225, 83%) underwent emergent laparotomy. Thirty-eight clinically stable patients underwent a deliberate trial of NOM and 24/38 (63%) were ultimately managed without laparotomy. Amongst patients failing NOM, 3/14 (21%) underwent splenectomy while an additional 6/14 (42%) had splenorrhaphy. Hollow viscus injury (HVI) occurred in 21% of all patients failing NOM. Forty percent of all NOM patients had diaphragmatic injury (DI). All patients undergoing delayed laparotomy for HVI or a splenic procedure presented symptomatically within 24h of the initial injury. No deaths occurred in patients undergoing NOM. Although the vast majority of penetrating splenic trauma requires urgent operative management, a group of patients does present without haemodynamic instability, peritonitis or radiologic evidence of hollow viscus injury. Management of these patients is complicated as over half may remain clinically stable and can avoid laparotomy, making them potential candidates for a trial of NOM. HVI is responsible for NOM failure in up to a fifth of these cases and typically presents within 24h of injury. Delayed laparotomy, within this limited time period, did not appear to increase

  12. Aureobasidium melanogenum: a native of dark biofinishes on oil treated wood.

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Elke J; Houbraken, Jos A M P; Meijer, Martin; Adan, Olaf C G; Samson, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The genus Aureobasidium, which is known as a wood staining mould, has been detected on oil treated woods in the specific stain formation called biofinish. This biofinish is used to develop a new protective, self-healing and decorative biotreatment for wood. In order to understand and control biofinish formation on oil treated wood, the occurrence of different Aureobasidium species on various wood surfaces was studied. Phenotypic variability within Aureobasidium strains presented limitations of morphological identification of Aureobasidium species. PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of ITS and RPB2 were used to identify the culturable Aureobasidium species composition in mould stained wood surfaces with and without a biofinish. The analysed isolates showed that several Aureobasidium species were present and that Aureobasidium melanogenum was predominantly detected, regardless of the presence of a biofinish and the type of substrate. A. melanogenum was detected on wood samples exposed in the Netherlands, Cameroon, South Africa, Australia and Norway. ITS-specific PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of DNA extracted from biofinish samples confirmed results of the culturing based method: A. melanogenum is predominant within the Aureobasidium population of biofinishes on pine sapwood treated with raw linseed oil and the outdoor placement in the Netherlands.

  13. Production of vegetable oil blends and structured lipids and their effect on wound healing

    Juliana Neves Rodrigues Ract

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two oil blends (sunflower/canola oils 85/15 (BL1 and canola/linseed oils 70/30 (BL2, were prepared and enzymatically interesterified to be applied to surgically-induced wounds in rats. Following surgery, the animals were submitted to the Treatment with Physiological Saline (TPS (control group, Blends (TBL, and Structured Lipids (TSL. The control group (TPS received physiological saline solution for 15 days. In TBL, BL1 was administered during the inflammation phase (days 0-3 and BL2 in the tissue formation and remodeling phase (days 4-15. In TSL, Structured Lipid 1 (SL1 and Structured Lipid 2 (SL2 were used instead of BL1 and BL2, respectively. The aim of this study was to compare wound closure evolution among rats treated with the blends or structured lipids versus control rats treated with physiological saline. The wound healing process was evaluated by measuring the wound areas along the treatments and the concentrations of cytokines. An increase in the areas of wounds treated with the blends and structured lipids in the inflammatory phase was observed, followed by a steeper closure curve compared to wounds treated with physiological saline. The changes observed during the inflammatory phase suggest a potential therapeutic application in cutaneous wound healing which should be further investigated.

  14. Properties of composite laminates based on basalt fibers with epoxidized vegetable oils

    Samper, M.D.; Petrucci, R.; Sanchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.; Kenny, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New environmentally friendly composites from biobased epoxies and basalt fibers. • Improved performance with conventional silane treatment on basalt fabrics. • Composites with excellent appearance due to basalt shiny brown color. • Potential applications as substitute of glass fiber reinforced composites in engineering design. • Processing with conventional resin transfer molding (RTM) techniques. - Abstract: This paper deals with the development of polymeric materials derived from epoxidized vegetable oils which have been used in the manufacture of laminated composite materials with basalt fabrics. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) were used as biobased matrices. The basalt fabrics were modified with amino-silane and glycidyl-silane to increase fiber–matrix interactions. The curing behavior of both resins was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheometry (OR). The evaluation of mechanical properties was made by tensile, flexural and Charpy tests. The extent of the fiber–matrix interactions among interface was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results revealed that surface modification of basalt fibers with glycidyl-silane clearly improves the mechanical properties of the composites. The use of the ELO resin as matrix for composite laminates improved substantially the mechanical performance compared to composites made with ESBO

  15. Translocation of Cell Penetrating Peptide Engrafted Nanoparticles Across Skin Layers

    Patlolla, Ram R; Desai, Pinaki; Belay, Kalayu; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the ability of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to translocate the lipid payload into the skin layers. Fluorescent dye (DID-oil) encapsulated nano lipid crystal nanoparticles (FNLCN) were prepared using Compritol, Miglyol and DOGS-NTA-Ni lipids by hot melt homogenization technique. The FNLCN surface was coated with TAT peptide (FNLCNT) or control YKA peptide (FNLCNY) and in vitro rat skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Observation of lateral skin sections obtained using cryotome with a confocal microscope demonstrated that skin permeation of FNLCNT was time dependent and after 24 h, fluorescence was observed upto a depth of 120 µm which was localized in the hair follicles and epidermis. In case of FNLCN and FNLCNY formulations fluorescence was mainly observed in the hair follicles. This observation was further supported by confocal Raman spectroscopy where higher fluorescence signal intensity was observed at 80 and 120 µm depth with FNLCNT treated skin and intensity of fluorescence peaks was in the ratio of 2:1:1 and 5:3:1 for FNLCNT, FNLCN, and FNLCNY treated skin sections, respectively. Furthermore, replacement of DID-oil with celecoxib (Cxb), a model lipophilic drug showed similar results and after 24 h, the CXBNT formulation increased the Cxb concentration in SC by 3 and 6 fold and in epidermis by 2 and 3 fold as compared to CXBN and CXBNY formulations respectively. Our results strongly suggest that CPP can translocate nanoparticles with their payloads into deeper skin layers. PMID:20413152

  16. Effect of biosurfactants on crude oil desorption and mobilization in a soil system

    Kuyukina, M.S.; Ivshina, I.B. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm (Russian Federation). Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms; Makarov, S.O.; Litvinenko, L.V. [Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Cunningham, C.J. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre; Philp, J.C. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Sciences

    2005-02-01

    Microbially produced biosurfactants were studied to enhance crude oil desorption and mobilization in model soil column systems. The ability of biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber to remove the oil from the soil core was 1.4-2.3 times greater than that of a synthetic surfactant of suitable properties, Tween 60. Biosurfactant-enhanced oil mobilization was temperature-related, and it was slower at 15{sup o}C than at 22-28{sup o}C. Mathematical modelling using a one-dimensional filtration model was applied to simulate the process of oil penetration through a soil column in the presence of (bio)surfactants. A strong positive correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.99) was found between surfactant penetration through oil-contaminated soil and oil removal activity. Biosurfactant was less adsorbed to soil components than synthetic surfactant, thus rapidly penetrating through the soil column and effectively removing 65-82% of crude oil. Chemical analysis showed that crude oil removed by biosurfactant contained a lower proportion of high-molecular-weight paraffins and asphaltenes, the most nonbiodegradable compounds, compared to initial oil composition. This result suggests that oil mobilized by biosurfactants could be easily biodegraded by soil bacteria. Rhodococcus biosurfactants can be used for in situ remediation of oil-contaminated soils. (author)

  17. Containment penetration design criteria and implementation

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    A rational design criteria is presented which serves as a basis for the design and analysis of containment piping penetrations. The criteria includes the effect of temperature as well as mechanical loads for the full range of plant conditions. With this criteria various penetration flued head designs have been compared and optimization achieved. Sleeve wall dimensions and containment loads have been determined without reference to piping configuration. An interaction theory which allows the implementation of the criteria for the determination of design loads and minimum sleeve wall thickness. The interaction theory developed applies to elastic-perfectly plastic cylinders (pipes and sleeves) and accounts for the simultaneous load resultants of transverse shear force, bending moment, torsional moment, and axial force in addition to internal pipe pressure. Application of the theory developed to the determination of sleeve thickness and containment design loads is presented in detail. (Auth.)

  18. Ureteric transection secondary to penetrating handlebar injury

    K.P. Debbink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ureteric trauma is rare, occurring in <1% of all traumas. We present a unique case of a 13 year old female who sustained a penetrating abdominal injury from a bicycle handlebar. Upon initial examination there was herniation of bowel through the abdominal wound, so exploratory laparotomy was performed. A serosal injury of the colon and bleeding mesenteric veins were encountered; the retroperitoneum was not explored at that time. Postoperative course was remarkable for a doubling of the serum creatinine, increasing abdominal distention and pain. Computed tomography on postoperative day five demonstrated a large amount of intra-abdominal fluid. The patient was taken for re-exploration. The left ureter was found to be completely transected. It was repaired over a double-J stent. This case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of ureteric injury. Keywords: Ureter, Bicycle, Handlebar, Penetrating

  19. Corrosion and protection of uranium alloy penetrators

    Weirick, L.J.; Johnson, H.R.; Dini, J.W.

    1975-06-01

    Penetrators made from either a U--3/4 percent Ti alloy or a U--3/4 percent Mo--3/4 percent Zr--3/4 percent Nb--1/2 percent Ti alloy (''Quad'') corrode mildly in moist air, significantly in moist nitrogen, and severely in salt fog. Adequate protection was provided in moist air and nitrogen by coating with electroplated nickel, electroplated nickel and zinc with a chromate finish, and galvanized zinc with a chromate finish. In salt fog, electroplated nickel offered only temporary protection whereas galvanized zinc and electroplated nickel-zinc provided long-lasting protection. The resistance of uncoated penetrators was affected variously by dissimilar metal couplings. Aluminum protected the Quad alloy and adversely affected the U--3/4 percent Ti alloy, whereas steel enhanced localized corrosion in both. (U.S.)

  20. Eddy current testing with high penetration

    Becker, R.; Kroening, M.

    1999-01-01

    The low-frequency eddy current testing method is used when penetration into very deep layers is required. The achievable penetration depth is determined among other parameters by the lowest testing frequency that can be realised together with the eddy current sensor. When using inductive sensors, the measuring effect declines proportional to the lowering frequency (induction effect). Further reduction of testing frequency requires other types of sensors, as e.g. the GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), which achieves a constant measuring sensitivity down to the steady field. The multi-frequency eddy current testing method MFEC 3 of IZFP described here can be operated using three different scanning frequencies at a time. Two variants of eddy current probes are used in this case. Both have an inductive winding at their emitters, of the type of a measuring probe. The receiver end is either also an inductive winding, or a magnetic field-responsive resistance (GMR). (orig./CB) [de

  1. Large scale wind power penetration in Denmark

    Karnøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    he Danish electricity generating system prepared to adopt nuclear power in the 1970s, yet has become the world's front runner in wind power with a national plan for 50% wind power penetration by 2020. This paper deploys a sociotechnical perspective to explain the historical transformation...... of "networks of power" via the interactions of politics, the techno-physics of electrons, and the market setting. The Danish case is about how an assemblage of new agencies has reorganized and reshaped society by building a new sociotechnical network. This has rendered developments highly unpredictable...... and highly experimental. The transformation process can be followed through the way successive technical engineering reports have represented the challenges associated with the penetration of wind power. The iteration shows how novel technical phenomena emerge and are assimilated, and how new engineering...

  2. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  3. Standardization of penetrating radiation testing system

    Wiley, P.A.; Aronson, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Standardization is provided to control system gain of a penetrating radiation testing system by periodically inspecting a reference object in the same manner as the product samples so as to generate a stabilization signal which is compared to a reference signal. The difference, if any, between the stabilization signal and the reference signal is integrated and the integrated signal is used to correct the gain of the system

  4. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  5. Intrauterine Devices Penetrated and Migrated: CT Findings

    Mejia Restrepo, Jorge; Lopez, Juan Esteban; Aldana Sepulveda, Natalia; Ruiz Zabaleta, Tania; Mazzaro Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine devices have been used for over 40 years, and they constitute the most widely accepted method of contraception among women because of the low rates of complications and low cost. Although uncommon, with the growing use of multidetector CT penetrated and migrated intrauterine devices have become a more common incidental finding. In some cases, intrauterine devices migrate to adjacent viscera, in particular the bladder and bowel and may give rise to symptoms. Consequently tomographic localization and characterization are essential for treatment planning.

  6. Models of fast-electron penetration

    Perry, D.J.; Raisis, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce multiple scattering models of charged-particle penetration which are based on the previous analyses of Yang and Perry. Our development removes the main limitations of the Fermi-Eyges approach while retaining its considerable potential as a theory which is useful for applied work. We illustrate key predictions with sample calculations that are of particular interest in therapeutic applications, 5-20 MeV electrons incident on water. 8 refs., 5 figs

  7. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Karadağ, Demet; Doner, Egemen; Adapınar, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  8. AN In vitro ASSESSMENT OF SUPPLEMENTARY EFFECT OF CONCENTRATES CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF GROUND LINSEED (Linum usitatissimum TO HOUSEHOLD WASTES ON ORGANIC MATTER DEGRADABILITY, SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS, MICROBIAL PROTEIN, METABOLIZABLE ENERGY AND RELATIVE FEED VALUES

    Tegene Negesse

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to assess effect of level of linseed inclusion in feeds on nutritive value, an in vitro OM digestibility (IVOMD, total short chain fatty acids (SCFA:mMol l-1, microbial crude protein (MCP:g kg-1 DM, metabolizable energy (MEruminants:MJ kg-1 DM and relative feed values (RFV of household wastes=HW (Areke-Atela=AA, carrot peels=CaP, cabbage leaf=Cle, cabbage leftover=Clef, onion leaf=OL, onion peels=OP, potato peels=PP, Tela-Atela=TA supplemented with linseed (LS containing concentrates=LSC1…LSC5 (39.32, 37.32, 35.32, 33.32, 31.32% noug cake + 58.99% wheat bran + 1.69% salt + 0, 2, 4, 6, 8% LS, as fed basis were estimated via an in vitro gas trial. HWs were mixed with LSC (LSC-HW at 3:1 ratio. Samples were incubated in-vitro with rumen fluid in duplicate and readings recorded at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. LSC-HW mixtures had higher CP, IVDMD, IVOMD, ME and SCFA, MCP and RFV than those of HWs alone. IVDMD and IVOMD of the LSC-HW improved with increasing LS levels, mostly at 2 and 4%LSC; but at higher concentrations they declined.  AA, TA had high IVOMD. However, IVDMD of AA (with the lowest IVDMD was much more influenced than TA (with highest IVDMD by LS levels. Clef had lowest and AA and TA highest ME. SCFA increased over incubation periods and with increasing levels of LS, in Clef improvement (from 0.25 to 0.61 mMol l-1 was significant but in AA (from 0.69 to 0.72 mMol l-1 moderate. Mixing HWs with LSC gave best results at 2%LSC.

  9. Penetrating spinal injuries and their management

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society′s recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case.

  10. Spanish RPV head penetrations. Regulatory status

    Figueras, J.M.; Colino, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the actual status of inspection results on the Spanish PWR RPV CRD head penetrations (CRDH's), after two years of a whole program of inspections in all affected plants. Actual situation of penetrations pertaining to ALMARAZ 1 and 2, ASCO 1 and 2 and VANDELLOS 2 NPP's show any damage in those CRDH's inspected in 1993 and 1994 (roughly 20 out of 65 CRDH's at each unit). The paper presents a summary of CRDH characteristics, inspection methods and results obtained in each plant. TRILLO NPP has a different CRDH design (KWU-SIEMENS type) and for that reason is not considered an affected plant nor has conducted any inspection up to now. JOSE CABRERA (ZORITA) NPP has shown extensive damage, both in the lower side (weldment to the vessel) and in the upper free span area, near bimetallic weldment to SS 304, in active and nonactive penetrations and also in the vent nozzle. The paper comments extensively on the CRDH materials general data, root-cause analysis and structural analysis of degraded zones, inspection results, repair actions and other additional actions applied up to now. Finally, the paper deals with the regulatory actions taken by CSN on this topic, both for those NPP's actually non affected by the IGSCC phenomenon in the RPV CRDH's and for the specific safety case of ZORITA NPP. (author)

  11. Cutaneous mucormycosis secondary to penetrative trauma.

    Zahoor, Bilal; Kent, Stephen; Wall, Daryl

    2016-07-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare but serious sequelae of penetrating trauma [1-5]. In spite of aggressive management, mortality remains high due to dissemination of infection. We completed a review of literature to determine the most optimal treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis which occurs secondary to penetrating trauma. We completed a review regarding the management of mucormycosis in trauma patients. We selected a total of 36 reports, of which 18 were case-based, for review. Surgical debridement is a primary predictor of improved outcomes in the treatment of mucormycosis [3,6,7]. Anti-fungal therapy, especially lipid soluble formulation of Amphotericin B, is helpful as an adjunct or when surgical debridement has been maximally achieved. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the impact of topical dressings; negative pressure wound therapy is helpful. An aggressive and early surgical approach, even at the expense of disfigurement, is necessary to reduce mortality in the setting of cutaneous mucormycosis that results from penetrating trauma [4,8,9]. Anti-fungal therapy and negative pressure wound therapy are formidable adjuncts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Deep penetration of light into biotissue

    Bearden, Edward D.; Wilson, James D.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Lowery, Curtis L.

    2001-07-01

    The results of a study of deep (several centimeters) light penetration into biological tissue are presented in order to estimate its significance to potentially photosensitive structures and processes including the fetal eyes. In order to accomplish this goal, samples of various tissues (fat, muscle, and uterus) from surgical patients and autopsies were examined with a double integrating sphere arrangement to determine their optical properties. The results were implemented in a Monte Carlo modeling program. Next, optical fiber probes were inserted into the uterus and abdominal wall of patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. The fibers were couples to a photomultiplier tube with intervening filters allowing measurements of light penetration at various wavelengths. To determine the feasibility of stimulation in utero, a xenon lamp and waveguide were used to transilluminate the abdomen of several labor patients. Light in the range of 630 to 670 nm where the eye sensitivity and penetration depth are well matched, will likely provide the best chance of visual stimulation. Fetal heart rate, fetal movement, and fetal magnetoencephalography (SQUID) and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed in different studies to determine if stimulation has occurred. Since internal organs and the fetus are completely dark adapted, the amount of light required to simulate in our opinion could be on the order of 10(superscript -8 Watts.

  13. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    Kouraytem, Nadia; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Marston, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  14. Penetrating chest wound of the foetus

    Albert Wandaogo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumas of the foetus caused by stabbings are rare but actually life-threatening for both the foetus and the mother. We report a case of penetrating chest wound on a baby taken from the obstetrics unit to the paediatric surgical department. His mother was assaulted by his father, a mentally sick person with no appropriate follow-up. The foetus did not show any sign of vital distress. Surgical exploration of the wound has revealed a section of the 10 th rib, a laceration of the pleura and a tearing of the diaphragm. A phrenorraphy and a pleural drainage were performed. The new-born and its mother were released from hospital after 5 days and the clinical control and X-ray checks 6 months later showed nothing abnormal. We insisted a medical, psychiatric follow-up be initiated for the father. As regards pregnant women with penetrating wounds, the mortality rate of the foetus is 80%. The odds are good for our newborn due to the mild injuries and good professional collaboration of the medical staff. Penetrating transuterine wounds of the foetus can be very serious. The health care needed should include many fields due to the mother and the foetus′ lesions extreme polymorphism. In our case, it could have prevented by a good psychiatric followed up of the offender.

  15. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    Kouraytem, N.

    2016-11-07

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  16. Oils; gas

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  17. CNS penetration of ART in HIV-infected children

    van den Hof, Malon; Blokhuis, Charlotte; Cohen, Sophie; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Pistorius, M. C. M.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2018-01-01

    Background: Paediatric data on CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected children and explore associations with neurocognitive function. Patients and methods: Antiretroviral drug levels were measured in paired

  18. Penetration Testing Curriculum Development in Practice

    Chengcheng Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As both the frequency and the severity of network breaches have increased in recent years, it is essential that cybersecurity is incorporated into the core of business operations. Evidence from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012 indicates that there is, and will continue to be, a severe shortage of cybersecurity professionals nationwide throughout the next decade. To fill this job shortage we need a workforce with strong hands-on experience in the latest technologies and software tools to catch up with the rapid evolution of network technologies. It is vital that the IT professionals possess up-to-date technical skills and think and act one step ahead of the cyber criminals who are constantly probing and exploring system vulnerabilities. There is no perfect security mechanism that can defeat all the cyber-attacks; the traditional defensive security mechanism will eventually fail to the pervasive zero-day attacks. However, there are steps to follow to reduce an organization’s vulnerability to cyber-attacks and to mitigate damages. Active security tests of the network from a cyber-criminal’s perspective can identify system vulnerabilities that may lead to future breaches. “If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. But if you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of hundred battles” (Sun, 2013. Penetration testing is a discipline within cybersecurity that focuses on identifying and exploiting the vulnerabilities of a network, eventually obtaining access to the critical business information. The pentesters, the security professionals who perform penetration testing, or ethical hackers, break the triad of information security - Confidentiality, Integrity, and Accountability (CIA - as if they were a cyber-criminal. The purpose of ethical hacking or penetration testing is to know what the “enemy” can do and then generate a

  19. Oil refineries

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  20. 40 CFR 1065.365 - Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions.

    2010-07-01

    ... fractions. 1065.365 Section 1065.365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Measurements § 1065.365 Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a FID... penetration fractions of methane, PFCH4, and ethane, PF C2H6. As detailed in this section, these penetration...

  1. Direct Detection of Oil; Case History From Iran

    Tabatabaee, S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Iran is one of the main petroleum producers and also one of the countries which experiences contemporary geophysical techniques in Middle East region. Main aim of this study is direct detection of oil hydrocarbons by a special geophysical technique. To accomplish that, FEM, TEM and IP integrated geophysical techniques were successfully applied to measure IP phase shift which might relate to existence of oil traps. Target penetration for this prospecting is about 6 kms

  2. Diffusion of radioactively tagged penetrants through rubbery polymers. II. Dependence on molecular length of penetrant

    Rhee, C.K.; Ferry, J.D.; Fetters, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    The diffusion of radioactively tagged n-hexadecane, n-dotriacontane, and a polybutadiene oligomer with molecular weight 1600 has been studied in 12 rubbery polymers. Diffusion coefficients were obtained from the theory for the thin smear method: for n-hexadecane and for n-dotriacontane (with one exception), in the form appropriate for a completely miscible polymer-penetrant pair, and for the oligomer in the form appropriate for slow entry of the pentrant across the penetrant-polymer interface. For the four flexible linear penetrants, n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, n-dotriacontane, and oligomer, the ratios of diffusion coefficients (or translational friction coefficients) are nearly the same in every polymer. It is concluded that these penetrants travel with similar segmentwise motions, although that is not the case with bulkier, more rigid penetrants. For the three normal paraffins, the friction coefficient is approximately proportional to molecular weight, but that for the oligomer is smaller than would be predicted on this basis

  3. Peppermint Oil

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  4. OIL BOND®

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  5. Mineral oil

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  6. Oil vaporizer

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  7. Oil on seawater

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  8. Multi-objective entropy evolutionary algorithm for marine oil spill detection using cosmo-skymed satellite data

    M. Marghany

    2015-01-01

    Oil spill pollution has a substantial role in damaging the marine ecosystem. Oil spill that floats on top of water, as well as decreasing the fauna populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem. In fact, oil spill is reducing the sunlight penetrates the water, limiting the photosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton. Moreover, marine mammals for instance, disclosed to oil spills their insulating capacities are reduced, and so making them more v...

  9. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

    Justin Pierce

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques, however, raises several ethical questions that centre on the integrity of the tester to maintain professional distance and uphold the profession. This paper discusses the ethics of penetration testing and presents our conceptual model and revised taxonomy.

  10. Assessing the credibility of diverting through containment penetrations

    Cooley, J.N.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A viable approach has been developed for identifying those containment penetrations in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which are credible diversion routes. The approach is based upon systematic engineering and design analyses and is applied to each type of penetration to determine which penetrations could be utilized to divert nuclear material from a reprocessing facility. The approach is described and the results of an application are discussed. In addition, the concept of credibility is developed and discussed. For a typical reprocessing plant design, the number of penetrations determined to be credible without process or piping modifications was approx. 16% of the penetrations originally identified

  11. Simulating barrier penetration during combat. Technical report

    De Laquil, P. III.

    1980-04-01

    A computer program, BARS, simulates combat between an adversary group attempting to hijack special nuclear material and escort personnel attempting to protect it. BARS is designed to investigate how various combat strategies and levels of performance affect the time required to penetrate barriers (armor, deterrent systems, etc.) against forcible entry. A Monte Carlo code, BARS uses a game theoretic approach to allocate the attacking and defending forces. Combat suppression is simulated using a stochastic state-transition model for the behavior of individuals under combat stress. The BARS program was developed as part of the overall combat modelling effort of the transportation safeguards program

  12. A medium energy neutron deep penetration experiment

    Amian, W.; Cloth, P.; Druecke, V.; Filges, D.; Paul, N.; Schaal, H.

    1986-11-01

    A deep penetration experiment conducted at the Los Alamos WNR facility's Spallation Neutron Target is compared with calculations using intra-nuclear-cascade and S N -transport codes installed at KFA-IRE. In the experiment medium energy reactions induced by neutrons between 15 MeV and about 150 MeV inside a quasi infinite slab of iron have been measured using copper foil monitors. Details of the experimental procedure and the theoretical methods are described. A comparison of absolute reaction rates for both experimentally and theoretically derived reactions is given. The present knowledge of the corresponding monitor reaction cross sections is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Income Inequality and Transnational Corporate Penetration

    Linda Beer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the positive association between national income inequality and transnational corporate penetration found previously by Bornschier and Chase-Dunn (1985 and others circa the late 1960s still holds for the mid-l980s. Both methodological and theoretical problems of earlier studies are discussed and solutions are offered. Economic development, political-institutional and regional variables are also included inthe analyses. While further research is warranted, the results provide support for a World-System/Dependency perspective in understanding income inequality cross-nationally.

  14. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  15. Hacking with Kali practical penetration testing techniques

    Broad, James

    2013-01-01

    Hacking with Kali introduces you the most current distribution of the de facto standard tool for Linux pen testing. Starting with use of the Kali live CD and progressing through installation on hard drives, thumb drives and SD cards, author James Broad walks you through creating a custom version of the Kali live distribution. You'll learn how to configure networking components, storage devices and system services such as DHCP and web services. Once you're familiar with the basic components of the software, you'll learn how to use Kali through the phases of the penetration testing lifecycle

  16. Penetration of relativistic heavy ions through matter

    Scheidenberger, C.; Geissel, H.

    1997-07-01

    New heavy-ion accelerators covering the relativistic and ultra-relativistic energy regime allow to study atomic collisions with bare and few-electron projectiles. High-resolution magnetic spectrometers are used for precise stopping-power and energy-loss straggling measurements. Refined theories beyond the Born approximation have been developed and are confirmed by experiments. This paper summarizes the large progress in the understanding of relativistic heavy-ion penetration through matter, which has been achieved in the last few years. (orig.)

  17. Penetrating the markets: biomass and commercial distribution

    Schmidl, J.

    1999-01-01

    Although biomass accounts for a significant proportion of renewable energy in Europe, its market penetration could be increased if certain barriers can be surmounted. Some of those barriers are identified and suggestions made as to how they may be overcome through improved 'distribution' in various sectors. To integrate biomass into the electricity distribution system, the commercial distribution of liquid biofuels, and in the commercial distribution of biomass in the heat sector, certain rewards and penalties could be introduced and these are discussed. The low temperature heat market is seen as very important for the further development of bioenergy in Europe. (UK)

  18. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Batistoni, Paola; Obryk, Barbara; Popovichev, Sergey; Naish, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The results of the simulations were compared against experimental data obtained using thermoluminescence detectors and activation foils.

  19. Mastering Kali Linux for advanced penetration testing

    Beggs, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the kill chain approach to penetration testing, and then focuses on using Kali Linux to provide examples of how this methodology is applied in the real world. After describing the underlying concepts, step-by-step examples are provided that use selected tools to demonstrate the techniques. If you are an IT professional or a security consultant who wants to maximize the success of your network testing using some of the advanced features of Kali Linux, then this book is for you. This book will teach you how to become an expert in the pre-engagement, management,

  20. Market penetration of natural gas in Europe

    Haas, R.; Wirl, F.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy of restricting natural gas to noble uses (directive of EEC and endorsed by the IEA) impeded gas expansion despite substantial upward revisions in the assessment of available resources. However, increasing environmental concern slowly but gradually undermines this strategy because natural gas serves as a substitute for costly abatement. This article discusses the prospect of future natural gas consumption considering economic and ecological facts as well as strategic and political considerations. In fact, we argue that inconsistent political interventions first seriously lowered gas penetration but now favor its use

  1. Kali Linux assuring security by penetration testing

    Ali, Shakeel; Allen, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Written as an interactive tutorial, this book covers the core of Kali Linux with real-world examples and step-by-step instructions to provide professional guidelines and recommendations for you. The book is designed in a simple and intuitive manner that allows you to explore the whole Kali Linux testing process or study parts of it individually.If you are an IT security professional who has a basic knowledge of Unix/Linux operating systems, including an awareness of information security factors, and want to use Kali Linux for penetration testing, then this book is for you.

  2. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  3. Aging effects on oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand

    Al-Sanad, H.A.; Ismael, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from the destruction of oil wells and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf Wa/r. A laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical properties of this material and the effect of aging on their properties. Tests included direct shear, triaxial, and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. The influence of aging was examined by testing uncontaminated sand after aging for one, three, and six months in natural environmental conditions. The results indicated increased strength and stiffness due to aging and a reduction of the oil content due to evaporation of volatile compounds. The factors that influence the depth of oil penetration in compacted sand columns were also examined including the type of oil, relative density, and the amount of fines

  4. Desempenho e características de carcaça do escargot francês (Helix aspersa maxima alimentado com rações contendo diferentes óleos vegetais Performance and carcass characteristics of “gros gris” (Helix aspersa maxima fed with different vegetable oils in diets

    Carmino Hayashi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a utilização de óleos vegetais de diferentes origens em rações no desempenho e características de carcaça do escargot francês “gros gris” (Helix aspersa maxima, 240 animais com peso inicial médio de 0,11g, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições com dez animais cada, em aquários de 12L. As rações foram formuladas de forma a diferirem quanto ao emprego (3 % da ração dos óleos de soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho. Os valores médios de peso final, conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, rendimento de carcaça, percentagem de concha e taxa de sobrevivência dos animais alimentados com as rações com os diferentes óleos não diferiram (p>0,01 entre si. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína bruta e lipídeos totais e a relação ácidos graxos poliinsaturados/ácidos graxos saturados da porção comestível dos animais submetidos as diferentes rações não foram influenciados (p>0,05. Entretanto, os animais que receberam dieta com óleo de linhaça apresentaram o melhor (p0,05 nos teores de umidade e cinza das conchas dos animais submetidos às diferentes rações. Por outro lado, os animais que receberam óleo de linhaça tiveram concha com menor (pAiming to evaluate the use of different vegetable oil sources on performance and carcass characteristics of “gros gris” (Helix aspersa maxima diets, two hundred forty snails with initial average weight of 0.11g samples were distributed in an entirely randomized design with six treatments and four replications in twelve-liter aquaria. The diets were formulated to have differences on soybean, canola, sunflower, linseed, rice and corn oil inclusion at 3% of the diet. The average final weight, feed conversion, protein efficiency rate, carcass yields, percentage of shell and survival rates were not affected (p>0.01 by the use of different oils. The moisture, ash, crud

  5. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of lambs supplemented with increasing levels of a tanniferous bush (Cistus ladanifer L.) and vegetable oils.

    Francisco, A; Dentinho, M T; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Fernandes, F; Sengo, S; Jerónimo, E; Oliveira, M A; Costa, P; Sequeira, A; Bessa, R J B; Santos-Silva, J

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary inclusion of Cistus ladanifer L. (CL) and a vegetable oil blend were evaluated on growth performance,carcass and meat quality of fifty four lambs that were assigned to 9 diets, corresponding to 3 levels of CL(50, 100 and 200 g/kg DM) and 3 levels of oil inclusion (0, 40 and 80 g/kg DM). Treatments had no effects on growth rate. Oil depressed dry matter intake (P = 0.017), carcass muscle (P = 0.041) and increased (P = 0.016) kidney knob channel fat. Chemical and physical meat quality traits were not affected by treatments. Off-flavour perception was higher for 8% of oil (P b 0.001). The level of 100 g/kg DM of CL inclusion improved meat stability after 7 days of storage. Supplementation with linseed and soybean oils (2:1) was a good approach to improve meat nutritional value from feedlot lambs, increasing total n-3 PUFA.

  6. Superoleophillic electrospun polystrene/exofoliated graphite fibre for selective removal of crude oil from water

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, Enock O.; Olorundare, F. O. Grace; Nkosi, D.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, B. B.

    2016-04-01

    During oil spills, the aquatic environment is greatly endangered because oil floats on water making the penetration of sunlight difficult therefore primary productivity is compromised, birds and aquatic organisms are totally eliminated within a short period. It is therefore essential to remove the oil from the water bodies after the spillage. This work reports on the fabrication of oil loving electrospun polystyrene-exofoliated graphite fibre with hydrophobic and oleophillic surface properties. The fibre was applied for the selective adsorption of crude oil from simulated crude oil spillage on water. The maximum oil adsorption capacity of the EPS/EG was 1.15 kg/g in 20 min while the lowest oil adsorption capacity was 0.81 kg/g in 10 min. Cheap oil adsorbent was developed with superoleophillic and superhydrophobic properties.

  7. Ultraviolet and visible light penetration of epidermis

    Eggset, G.; Kavli, G.; Volden, G.; Krokan, H.

    1984-01-01

    Light penetration in untanned skin and skin tanned with UVB (middlewave ultraviolet light) or PUVA (Psoralen photochemotherapy) was compared. Transmission at different wavelengths was measured through sheets of intact epidermis isolated by a suction blister technique. Thick epidermis was collected from a newly formed palmar friction bulla. For these studies a monochromator was used and the range of wavelengths examined was 280-700 nm. The transmission was considerably lower in tanned skin and the difference was most pronounced in the UV range. In the UVB range (290-320 nm), transmission was 13-43% for untanned epidermis, 8-12% for UVB tanned and slightly lower for PUVA tanned epidermis. At wavelengths below 325 nm only a few per cent of light penetrate through thick palmar epidermis. Both UVB and PUVA induce increased melanin content and thickening of the epidermis. Our results indicate that melanin is the most efficient protection against UVA while thickening of epidermis may be as important as the increased melanin content for the protection of living basal cells against the harmful UVB rays. (Auth)

  8. Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments

    Kelly SP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simon P Kelly, Graham MB ReevesThe Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UKPurpose: To consider the potential for ocular injury from writing implements by presenting four such cases, and to consider the incidence of such eye injuries from analysis of a national trauma database.Methods: The Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System was searched for records of eye injuries from writing instruments to provide UK estimates of such injuries. Four patients with ocular penetrating injury from pens or pencils (especially when caused by children, and examined by the authors, are described which illustrate mechanisms of injury.Results: It is estimated that around 748 ocular pen injuries and 892 ocular pencil injuries of undetermined severity occurred annually in the UK during the database surveillance period 2000–2002. No eye injuries from swords, including toy swords and fencing foils, were reported.Conclusion: Ocular perforation sometimes occur from writing instruments that are thrown in the community, especially by children. Implications for policy and prevention are discussed. Non-specialists should have a low threshold for referring patients with eye injuries if suspicious of ocular penetration, even where caused by everyday objects, such as writing instruments.Keywords: eye injury, eye, children, mechanism, writing instruments, prevention

  9. High-Penetration Photovoltaic Planning Methodologies

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-24

    The main objective of this report is to provide an overview of select U.S. utility methodologies for performing high-penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) system planning and impact studies. This report covers the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's orders related to photovoltaic (PV) power system interconnection, particularly the interconnection processes for the Large Generation Interconnection Procedures and Small Generation Interconnection Procedures. In addition, it includes U.S. state interconnection standards and procedures. The procedures used by these regulatory bodies consider the impacts of HPPV power plants on the networks. Technical interconnection requirements for HPPV voltage regulation include aspects of power monitoring, grounding, synchronization, connection to the overall distribution system, back-feeds, disconnecting means, abnormal operating conditions, and power quality. This report provides a summary of mitigation strategies to minimize the impact of HPPV. Recommendations and revisions to the standards may take place as the penetration level of renewables on the grid increases and new technologies develop in future years.

  10. Coulomb explosion of large penetrating molecular clusters

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1981-01-01

    The main purpose of these Coulomb explosion measurements is to determine what kind of structure these and other complex molecules may have and also to determine what other special phenomena may come into play as these complex molecules pass through matter. Although the first preliminary measurements involving the Coulomb explosion of these molecules was reported at this workshop last year, the results are briefly summarized before going on to the more recent measurements obtained with a completely new kind of detector system. This new image intensifier detector system, coupled with a microcomputer, has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of the Coulomb explosion of complex molecules that penetrate matter. In the future, with some additional improvements in the system, and much better statistics for most of the molecules studied to date, it is expected that much new information will be gained about the structure of many kinds of complex molecular ions including the special effects that may be encountered when these fast molecular ions penetrate matter

  11. Penetration of magnetic fields into plasmas

    Bengtson, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed plasma experiment was constructed to study the penetration of a fast-rising magnetic pulse into an initially unmagnetized, weakly ionized plasma of density 10 11 to 10 13 cm -3 . Magnetic probe data was analyzed using a magnetohydrodynamic approach to obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the penetration mechanism. In particular it is possible to obtain the local resistivity and thus the collision frequency from this data. These collision frequencies compare favorably with theoretical estimates of turbulent collision frequencies. The data indicates that sufficient energy is absorbed to heat the bulk of the plasma to temeratures in excess of 1 keV. A differential rotation of a collisionless theta-pinch column during implosion has been observed and explained by a model in which the driving mechanism is the off-diagonal element p/sub r theta/ of the pressure tensor. Rotational motion was detected by directional probes and spectroscopic techniques. Experimental data were modeled by a one-dimensional hybrid code which included ionization and charge exchange of protons with neutral H atoms

  12. Mass transfer from penetrations in waste containers

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that localized corrosion of a relatively small area of a waste container may impair the containment function to such an extent that larger releases may be possible than from the bare waste form. This would take place when a large number of holes coexist on the container while their concentration fields do not interact significantly with each other. After performing a steady state analysis of the release from a hole, it is shown that much fewer independent holes can coexist on a container surface than previously estimated. The calculated radionuclide release from multiple independent holes must be changed accordingly. Previous analyses did not proceed to a correct application of the linear superposition principle. This resulted in unacceptable physical conclusions and undue strain on the performance assessment necessary for a container licensing procedure. The paper also analyzes the steady state release from penetrations of finite length and whose concentration fields interact with one another. The predicted release from these penetrations is lower than the previously calculated release from holes of zero thickness. It is concluded here that the steady-state release from multiple holes on a waste container can not exceed the release from the bare waste form and that multiple perforations need not be a serious liability to container performance. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    Schröder, O; Munack, A; Schaak, J; Pabst, C; Schmidt, L; Bünger, J; Krahl, J

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  14. Oil-Acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    Hamersveld, E.M.S.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  15. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  16. Use of Oil-Based Mud Cutting Waste in Cement Clinker Manufacturing

    Saif Al-Dhamri, H; Black, L

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based Mud (OBM) cutting waste is generated during the process of oil well drilling. The drilled rocks are removed from deep within the drilled well and pumped to the surface. The portion removed , known at "cutting", is a mixture of rocks, mud, water and oil. Most drilling companies store this waste in open yards with no specific treatment solution. The environmental regulations in Oman specify that storage should involve isolation, to prevent penetration of the contamination to the surfa...

  17. Delineation of Oil – Polluted Sites in Ibeno LGA, Nigeria, Using Geophysical Techniques

    Ime R. Udotong; Justina I. R. Udotong; Ofonime U. M. John

    2015-01-01

    Ibeno, Nigeria hosts the operational base of Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited (MPNU), a subsidiary of ExxonMobil and the current highest oil & condensate producer in Nigeria. Besides MPNU, other oil companies operate onshore, on the continental shelf and deep offshore of the Atlantic Ocean in Ibeno, Nigeria. This study was designed to delineate oil polluted sites in Ibeno, Nigeria using geophysical methods of electrical resistivity (ER) and ground penetrating radar (GPR)...

  18. Stylet penetration of Cacopsylla pyri; an electrical penetration graph (EPG) study

    Civolani, S.; Leis, M.; Grandi, G.; Garzo, E.; Pasqualini, E.; Musacchi, S.; Chicca, M.; Castaldelli, G.; Rossie, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed information on plant penetration activities by pear psylla Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera Psyllidae) is essential to study phytoplasma transmission of “Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri” responsible of pear decline disease (PD) and to trace and evaluate resistant traits in new pear tree selections

  19. Long-rod penetration: the transition zone between rigid and hydrodynamic penetration modes

    Jian-feng Lou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-rod penetration in a wide range of velocity means that the initial impact velocity varies in a range from tens of meters per second to several kilometers per second. The long rods maintain rigid state when the impact velocity is low, the nose of rod deforms and even is blunted when the velocity gets higher, and the nose erodes and fails to lead to the consumption of long projectile when the velocity is very high due to instantaneous high pressure. That is, from low velocity to high velocity, the projectile undergoes rigid rods, deforming non-erosive rods, and erosive rods. Because of the complicated changes of the projectile, no well-established theoretical model and numerical simulation have been used to study the transition zone. Based on the analysis of penetration behavior in the transition zone, a phenomenological model to describe target resistance and a formula to calculate penetration depth in transition zone are proposed, and a method to obtain the boundary velocity of transition zone is determined. A combined theoretical analysis model for three response regions is built by analyzing the characteristics in these regions. The penetration depth predicted by this combined model is in good agreement with experimental result.

  20. Myristica oil poisoning

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  1. Purifying oils

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  2. Distilling oils

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  3. Development of a practical methodology for integrating shoreline oil-holding capacity into modeling

    Schmidt Etkin, D.; French-McCay, D.; Rowe, J.; Michel, J.; Boufadel, M.; Li, H.

    2008-01-01

    The factors that influence the behaviour of oil in the aftermath of an oil spill on water include oil type and characteristics; oil thickness on the shoreline; time until shoreline impact; timing with regards to tides; weathering during and after the spill; and nearshore wave energy. The oil behaviour also depends on the shoreline characteristics, particularly porosity and permeability. The interactions of spilled oil with sediments on beaches must be well understood in order to model the oil spill trajectory, fate and risk. The movement of oil can be most accurately simulated if the algorithm incorporates an estimate of shoreline oil retention. This paper presented a literature review of relevant shoreline oiling studies and considered the relevance of study findings for inclusion in modelling. Survey data from a detailed shoreline cleanup assessment team (SCAT) were analyzed for patterns in oil penetration and oil-holding capacity by shoreline sediment type and oil type for potential use in modelling algorithms. A theoretical beach hydraulics model was then developed for use in a stochastic spill model. Gaps in information were identified, including the manner in which wave action and other environmental variables have an impact on the dynamic processes involved in shoreline oiling. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to estimate the amount of oil held by a shoreline upon impact to allow a trajectory model to more accurately project the total spread of oil. 27 refs., 13 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Bron James E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO, driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO, soybean (SO or linseed (LO oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain

  5. Medicaid HMO penetration and its mix: did increased penetration affect physician participation in urban markets?

    Adams, E Kathleen; Herring, Bradley

    2008-02-01

    To use changes in Medicaid health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration across markets over time to test for effects on the extent of Medicaid participation among physicians and to test for differences in the effects of increased use of commercial versus Medicaid-dominant plans within the market. The nationally representative Community Tracking Study's Physician Survey for three periods (1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2000-2001) on 29,866 physicians combined with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and InterStudy data. Market-level estimates of Medicaid HMO penetration are used to test for (1) any participation in Medicaid and (2) the degree to which physicians have an "open" (i.e., nonlimited) practice accepting new Medicaid patients. Models account for physician, firm, and local characteristics, Medicaid relative payment levels adjusted for geographic variation in practice costs, and market-level fixed effects. There is a positive effect of increases in commercial Medicaid HMO penetration on the odds of accepting new Medicaid patients among all physicians, and in particular, among office-based physicians. In contrast, there is no effect, positive or negative, from expanding the penetration of Medicaid-dominant HMO plans within the market. Increases in cost-adjusted Medicaid fees, relative to Medicare levels, were associated with increases in the odds of participation and of physicians having an "open" Medicaid practice. Provider characteristics that consistently lower participation among all physicians include being older, board certified, a U.S. graduate and a solo practitioner. The effects of Medicaid HMO penetration on physician participation vary by the type of plan. If states are able to attract and retain commercial plans, participation by office-based physicians is likely to increase in a way that opens existing practices to more new Medicaid patients. Other policy variables that affect participation include the presence of a federally

  6. Oil integration

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  7. Improving Outcomes Following Penetrating Colon Wounds

    Miller, Preston R.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Croce, Martin A.; Magnotti, Louis J.; Elizabeth Pritchard, F.; Minard, Gayle; Stewart, Ronald M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction During World War II, failure to treat penetrating colon injuries with diversion could result in court martial. Based on this wartime experience, colostomy for civilian colon wounds became the standard of care for the next 4 decades. Previous work from our institution demonstrated that primary repair was the optimal management for nondestructive colon wounds. Optimal management of destructive wounds requiring resection remains controversial. To address this issue, we performed a study that demonstrated risk factors (pre or intraoperative transfusion requirement of more than 6 units of packed red blood cells, significant comorbid diseases) that were associated with a suture line failure rate of 14%, and of whom 33% died. Based on these outcomes, a clinical pathway for management of destructive colon wounds was developed. The results of the implementation of this pathway are the focus of this report. Methods Patients with penetrating colon injury were identified from the registry of a level I trauma center over a 5-year period. Records were reviewed for demographics, injury characteristics, and outcome. Patients with nondestructive injuries underwent primary repair. Patients with destructive wounds but no comorbidities or large transfusion requirement underwent resection and anastomosis, while patients with destructive wounds and significant medical illness or transfusion requirements of more than 6 units/blood received end colostomy. The current patients (CP) were compared to the previous study (PS) to determine the impact of the clinical pathway. Outcomes examined included colon related mortality and morbidity (suture line leak and abscess). Results Over a 5.5-year period, 231 patients had penetrating colon wounds. 209 survived more 24 hours and comprise the study population. Primary repair was performed on 153 (73%) patients, and 56 patients had destructive injuries (27%). Of these, 40 (71%) had resection and anastomosis and 16 (29%) had diversion

  8. NAPL detection with ground-penetrating radar (Invited)

    Bradford, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Non-polar organic compounds are common contaminants and are collectively referred to as nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs). NAPL contamination problems occur in virtually every environment on or near the earth's surface and therefore a robust suite of geophysical tools is required to accurately characterize NAPL spills and monitor their remediation. NAPLs typically have low dielectric permittivity and low electric conductivity relative to water. Thus a zone of anomalous electrical properties often occurs when NAPL displaces water in the subsurface pore space. Such electric property anomalies make it possible to detect NAPL in the subsurface using electrical or electromagnetic geophysical methods including ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The GPR signature associated with the presence of NAPL is manifest in essentially three ways. First, the decrease in dielectric permittivity results in increased EM propagation velocity. Second, the decrease in permittivity can significantly change reflectivity. Finally, electric conductivity anomalies lead to anomalous GPR signal attenuation. The conductivity anomaly may be either high or low depending on the state of NAPL degradation, but with either high or low conductivity, GPR attenuation analysis can be a useful tool for identifying contaminated-zones. Over the past 15 years I have conducted numerous modeling, laboratory, and field tests to investigate the ability to use GPR to measure NAPL induced anomalies. The emphasis of this work has been on quantitative analysis to characterize critical source zone parameters such as NAPL concentration. Often, the contaminated zones are below the conventional resolution of the GPR signal and require thin layer analysis. Through a series of field examples, I demonstrate 5 key GPR analysis tools that can help identify and quantify NAPL contaminants. These tools include 1) GPR velocity inversion from multi-fold data, 2) amplitude vs offset analysis, 3) spectral decomposition, 4) frequency

  9. The oil industry in 2007

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  10. The oil industry in 2006

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  11. Topical application of omega-3-, omega-6-, and omega-9-rich oil emulsions for cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    Ishak, Wan Maznah Wan; Katas, Haliza; Yuen, Ng Pei; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2018-04-17

    Wound healing is a physiological event that generates reconstitution and restoration of granulation tissue that ends with scar formation. As omega fatty acids are part of membrane phospholipids and participate in the inflammatory response, we investigated the effects of omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids in the form of oils on wound healing. Linseed (LO), evening primrose (EPO), and olive oils (OO) rich in omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were formulated into emulsions and were topically applied on rats with excision wounds. All omega-3-, omega-6-, and omega-9-rich oil formulations were found to accelerate wound closure compared to untreated, with significant improvement (p < 0.05) being observed at day 14. EPO induced early deposition of collagen as evaluated by Masson trichrome staining that correlated well with the hydroxyproline content assay, with the highest level at days 3 and 7. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) showed greater amount of new microvasculature formed in the EPO-treated group, while moderate improvement occurs in the LO and OO groups. EPO increased both the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors in the early stage of healing and declined at the later stage of healing. LO modulates the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine but did not affect the growth factors. In contrast, OO induced the expression of growth factors rather than proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that LO, EPO, and OO emulsions promote wound healing but they accomplish this by different mechanisms.

  12. Civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar

    Pajewski, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This book, based on Transport and Urban Development COST Action TU1208, presents the most advanced applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a civil engineering context, with documentation of instrumentation, methods, and results. It explains clearly how GPR can be employed for the surveying of critical transport infrastructure, such as roads, pavements, bridges, and tunnels, and for the sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids. Detailed attention is also devoted to use of GPR in the inspection of geological structures and of construction materials and structures, including reinforced concrete, steel reinforcing bars, and pre/post-tensioned stressing ducts. Advanced methods for solution of electromagnetic scattering problems and new data processing techniques are also presented. Readers will come to appreciate that GPR is a safe, advanced, nondestructive, and noninvasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for the inspection of composite structures and the performance of diagn...

  13. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    Eloïse Guyennet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After extraction of a wooden foreign body, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy, disorders of swallowing, contralateral III cranial nerve palsy, and trismus. Only one case of cephalic tetanus from penetrating orbital wound has been reported in literature 20 years ago. When a patient presents with an orbital wound with ophthalmoplegia and signs of anaerobic infection, cephalic tetanus should be ruled out.

  14. Penetration enhancer: monoethylether of diethylene glycol

    Koprda, V.; Kassai, Z.; Bohacik, L.; Bezek, S.; Hadcrafft, J.; Falson-Rieg, F.

    1999-01-01

    The monoethylether of diethylene glycol (Transcutol), an excellent solubilising agent, has been suggested as a penetration enhancer compatible with trans-dermal drug delivery systems. Using the abdominal skin of 5 day old rats and Franz-type diffusion cells the following topics were studied in this contribution: (1) Flux of Transcutol, labelled with [Ethyl- 14 C]-ether, across an intact skin model, (2) Changes in properties of the skin barrier after stripping with adhesive tape, and (3) Changes in flux of Transcutol when mixed with different co-solvents. The flux from pure solvent in donor compartment reached around 50 μg cm -2 hr -1 across the intact skin horny layer, whilst after 12 strips the flux increased about 200 times. In the presence of propylene glycol dipelargonate, the flux over 2 mg cm -2 hr -1 across non stripped skin was achieved. (authors)

  15. Penetrating Stab Wound of the Right Ventricle

    Onursal Buğra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 years old male patient was admitted to our emergency unit with a penetrating stab wound to the right ventricle. A stab wound to the right ventricle was found to be 3 cm in diameter. The bleeding was controlled by insertion of a Foley catheter and inflation of the balloon. The stab wound had transected distal acute marginal side ofthe right coronary artery. A successful repair was performed with the use of a foley catheter and application of the Medtronic Octopus Tissue Stabilization System. The wound was closed with pledgeted mattress sutures. The distal acute marginal side of the right coronary artery was ligated. In this presentation, the surgical intervention method was reported and followed by a discussion of emergency surgical procedures of the heart.

  16. Automatic control of oscillatory penetration apparatus

    Lucon, Peter A

    2015-01-06

    A system and method for controlling an oscillatory penetration apparatus. An embodiment is a system and method for controlling a sonic drill having a displacement and an operating range and operating at a phase difference, said sonic drill comprising a push-pull piston and eccentrics, said method comprising: operating the push-pull piston at an initial push-pull force while the eccentrics are operated at a plurality of different operating frequencies within the operating range of the sonic drill and measuring the displacement at each operating frequency; determining an efficient operating frequency for the material being drilled and operating the eccentrics at said efficient operating frequency; determining the phase difference at which the sonic drill is operating; and if the phase difference is not substantially equal to minus ninety degrees, operating the push-pull piston at another push-pull force.

  17. Fluorescent Penetrant INSPECTION—CLEANING Study Update

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used in the aviation industry and other industries for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. There is variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. Before the FPI process begins, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. From the first three phases of this project it has been found that a hot water rinse can aid in the detection process when using this nondestructive method.

  18. Market penetration of energy supply technologies

    Condap, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Techniques to incorporate the concepts of profit-induced growth and risk aversion into policy-oriented optimization models of the domestic energy sector are examined. After reviewing the pertinent market penetration literature, simple mathematical programs in which the introduction of new energy technologies is constrained primarily by the reinvestment of profits are formulated. The main results involve the convergence behavior of technology production levels under various assumptions about the form of the energy demand function. Next, profitability growth constraints are embedded in a full-scale model of U.S. energy-economy interactions. A rapidly convergent algorithm is developed to utilize optimal shadow prices in the computation of profitability for individual technologies. Allowance is made for additional policy variables such as government funding and taxation. The result is an optimal deployment schedule for current and future energy technologies which is consistent with the sector's ability to finance capacity expansion.

  19. Convective penetration in a young sun

    Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group

    2018-01-01

    To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.

  20. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-05-03

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure dur- ing the entire penetration event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  1. Forestry applications of ground-penetrating radar

    Lorenzo, H.; Perez-Gracia, V.; Novo, A.; Armesto, J.

    2010-07-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical and close-range remote sensing technique based on the use of radar pulses to obtain cross-section images of underground features. This method is characterized by the transmission of an electromagnetic short length pulse (1-2 ns), presenting a centre frequency ranging from 10 MHz to 2.5 GHz. The principles of GPR operation are based on the ability of low frequency radar waves to penetrate into a non-conductive medium, usually subsoil, but also walls, concrete or wood. Those waves are detected after suffering a reflection in electromagnetic discontinuities of the propagation medium. Therefore, this is a suitable method to study changes in those physical properties, and also to characterize different mediums and the reflective targets providing information about their physical properties. The aim of this work is to describe and demonstrate different applications of GPR in forestry, showing the obtained results together with their interpretation. Firstly, in this paper, it is illustrated how GPR is able to map shallow bedrock, subsoil stratigraphy and also to estimate shallow water table depth. Secondly, different tree trunks as well as dry timber are analyzed, evaluating the different radar data obtained in each particular case, and observing differences in their electromagnetic properties related to the GPR response. Finally, several measurements were taken in order to analyze the use of GPR to detect tree root systems using polarimetric techniques, being possible to detect medium and big size roots, together with groups of small roots. (Author) 39 refs.

  2. Neurosurgical Management of Nonmissile Penetrating Cranial Lesions.

    de Holanda, Luciano Ferreira; Pereira, Benedito Jamilson A; Holanda, Rafael Rodrigues; Neto, José Targino; de Holanda, Carlos Vanderlei M; Giudicissi Filho, Miguel; de Oliveira, Nathalia Ribeiro Cunha; de Oliveira, Jean G

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to present a case series of nonmissile penetrating (NMP) injuries and to establish a workflow for an uncommon mechanism of traumatic head injury through the analysis of each case, classification of the type of lesion, management, and outcome score at follow-up. From January 1991 to December 2008, 36,000 patients presenting with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were admitted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Antônio Targino, Campina Grande-PB, Brazil. From these patients, 11 presenting with lesions caused by NMP objects were selected. Among the 11 patients, 9 were men and 2 were women. Their ages ranged from 7 to 74 years old (mean age ± SD, 29.1 ± 22.99 years). All patients underwent neuroradiologic evaluation. The entry point was classified as natural (orbit) or artificial (skull transfixation), and we also divided the patients presenting with secondary parenchymal or vascular damage from those presenting with only lesions caused by the primary penetration into the cranium and meninges. All patients were neurosurgically treated with removal of the foreign body through craniotomy, except the patient whose object (pen) was removed without craniotomy with local anesthesia. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission was a statistically significant factor on prognosis, and any patient who presented with a GCS score of 15 evolved satisfactorily, and there were no deaths in this group of patients (P = 0.04). TBIs caused by NMP objects are unusual and caused by aggression, self-inflicted harm (in the case of psychiatric patients), and accident. The foreign body may enter into the skull through a natural hole (orbit, nose, mouth, or ear) or crosses the skull, causing a fracture and creating an artificial hole. Preoperative neuroradiologic assessment is paramount for the correct neurosurgical approach. The main prognostic factor for these patients is the GCS score at admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Topological properties of the limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph family

    Wang, Minggang; Vilela, André L. M.; Du, Ruijin; Zhao, Longfeng; Dong, Gaogao; Tian, Lixin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-05-01

    The limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph algorithm was recently introduced to map time series in complex networks. In this work, we extend this algorithm to create a directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph and an image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph. We define two algorithms and provide theoretical results on the topological properties of these graphs associated with different types of real-value series. We perform several numerical simulations to check the accuracy of our theoretical results. Finally, we present an application of the directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph to measure real-value time series irreversibility and an application of the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph that discriminates noise from chaos. We also propose a method to measure the systematic risk using the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph, and the empirical results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms.

  4. Crack growth rates in vessel head penetration materials

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Blazquez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The cracks detected in reactor vessel head penetrations in certain European plants have been attributed to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). The penetrations in question are made from Inconel 600. The susceptibility of this alloy to PWSCC has been widely studied in relation to use of this material for steam generator tubes. When the first reactor vessel head penetration cracks were detected, most of the available data on crack propagation rates were from test specimens made from steam generator tubes and tested under conditions that questioned the validity of these data for assessment of the evolution of cracks in penetrations. For this reason, the scope of the Spanish Research Project on the Inspection and Repair of PWR reactor vessel head penetrations included the acquisition of data on crack propagation rates in Inconel 600, representative of the materials used for vessel head penetrations. (authors). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  5. Oil spills

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  6. Coconut Oil

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  7. LINNAEUS OIL

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  8. Salt marsh recovery from a crude oil spill: Vegetation, oil weathering, and response

    Hoff, R.Z.; Shigenaka, G.; Henry, C.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    When a spill of Prudhoe Bay crude oil covered a fringing Salicornia virginica marsh in Fidalgo Bay, Washington (northern Puget Sound) in February 1991, response personnel used several low-impact techniques to remove oil from the marsh, and minimized access by cleanup workers. Following the response, a monitoring program was established to track marsh recovery, and to document the effectiveness of the response techniques used and their impacts on the marsh. Through monthly sampling over a 16-month period, vegetative growth was monitored and chemical degradation of remaining oil was tracked. Sampling was conducted along transects located in four areas affected in different ways by the spill, including an oiled, trampled section; an oiled, vacuumed section; and an oiled, washed, and vacuumed section. In addition, a control transect was established in an unoiled adjacent marsh. The study included both biological and chemical components. Biological measurements included percent cover of live vegetation (sampled monthly) and below-ground plant biomass (sampled at the beginning of each growing season in April 1991 and April 1992). Sediment samples included surface sediment (monthly) and core samples collected at the beginning and end of the growing seasons. Sediment samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and indicator compounds were tracked to determine rates of oil degradation. Results from 16 months of post-spill monitoring show that foot trampling was most detrimental to marsh plants, while washing with vacuuming removed the most oil and minimized adverse impacts to vegetation. Dense clay substrate helped prevent oil from penetrating the sediment, thus minimizing acute toxic effects from oil exposure to marsh plant rootstock. By the second growing season post-spill, Salicornia and other marsh plants were growing in all areas except one heavily oiled patch

  9. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  10. Effects of magnetic shear on current penetration in a tokamak

    Zhang Pengyun; Wang Long

    2001-01-01

    The penetrations of the parallel and perpendicular components of plasma currents are interrelated to each other due to the existence of magnetic shear in a tokamak configuration. Effects of the shear on the penetration of Fourier components of toroidal plasma current are analysed in a cylindrical column model. The current penetration is obviously strengthened by the shear for a bell-bike conductivity profile and low safety factor and low aspect ratio

  11. Microstructural observations on the terminal penetration of long rod projectile

    Krushna Kumbhar; P. Ponguru Senthil; A.K. Gogia

    2017-01-01

    Present study focuses on the terminal penetration of tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) long rod penetrator impacted against armour steel at an impact velocity of 1600 m/s. The residual penetrator and armour steel target recovered after the ballistic test have been characterized using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Metallurgical changes in target steel and WHA remnant have been analysed. Large shear stresses and shear localization have...

  12. Penetration Testing dan Analisis Kemanan Web Paud Dikmas

    Giffari, Abizar

    2018-01-01

    Sebuah instansi atau perusahaan tentunya mempunyai data penting yang tersimpan dalam sebuah sistem database yang kuat dan aman untuk menghindari ancaman pencurian data dari pihak luar. Untuk mengukur sejauh mana tingkat keamanan yang dibuat, diperlukan sebuah metode pengetesan yang disebut Penetration Testing. Penetration Testing memungkinkan kita untuk dapat menentukan sejauh mana tingkat keamanan sistem yang di test. Penetration Testing juga memungkinkan kita menyerang sistem layaknya attac...

  13. Conformational change of oil contaminants adhered onto crystalline alpha-alumina surface in aqueous solution

    Xie, Wenkun; Sun, Yazhou; Liu, Haitao; Fu, Hongya; Liang, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dynamic conformational change process of oil contaminations adhered onto Al-terminated α-Al_2O_3 surface in aqueous solution is given. • Effect of water penetration on the conformational change and even detachment of oil contaminants is considered. • Change of driving forces leading to the conformational change of oil contaminants is described. - Abstract: Microscopic conformational change of oil contaminants adhered onto perfect α-Al_2O_3 (0001) surface in the aqueous solution was simulated by means of detailed fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The main driving forces of the conformation change process of the oil contaminants were explored. The simulation results indicate that with submerging of the contaminated α-Al_2O_3 (0001) surface into the aqueous solution, the oil contaminants undertake an evident conformational change process. The dynamic process can be divided into several stages, including early penetration of water molecules, formation and widening of water channel, and generation of molecularly adsorbed hydration layers. Moreover, the oil contaminants on the α-Al_2O_3 surface are not fully removed from solid surface after a 10 ns relaxation, while a relatively stable oil/water/solid three-phase interface is gradually formed. Further, the residual oil contaminants are finally divided into several new ordered molecular adsorption layers. In addition, by systemically analyzing the driving forces for the conformational change of the oil contaminants, the penetration of water molecules is found to be the most important driving force. With penetrating of the water molecules, the dominating interactions controlling the conformational change of the oil contaminants have been changing over the whole simulation.

  14. Building virtual pentesting labs for advanced penetration testing

    Cardwell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-follow approach using hands-on examples, this book helps you create virtual environments for advanced penetration testing, enabling you to build a multi-layered architecture to include firewalls, IDS/IPS, web application firewalls, and endpoint protection, which is essential in the penetration testing world. If you are a penetration tester, security consultant, security test engineer, or analyst who wants to practice and perfect penetration testing skills by building virtual pen testing labs in varying industry scenarios, this is the book for you. This book is ideal if yo

  15. The market penetration of energy-efficiency programs

    Berry, L.

    1990-04-01

    The focus of this report is on one source of resource planning uncertainty: the expected market penetration of DSM (Demand Site Management) programs. Its purpose is to help refine planning assumptions and reduce uncertainty about the market penetration of utility DSM programs by: (1) investigating concepts and definitions of market penetration, (2) reviewing data that characterize patterns of variation (including ranges, averages and maximum levels) in program participation rates, (3) identifying the factors that affect participation, and (4) reviewing the structure and data requirements of models that forecast market penetration. 84 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Hacking and penetration testing with low power devices

    Polstra, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Hacking and Penetration Testing with Low Power Devices shows you how to perform penetration tests using small, low-powered devices that are easily hidden and may be battery-powered. It shows how to use an army of devices, costing less than you might spend on a laptop, from distances of a mile or more. Hacking and Penetration Testing with Low Power Devices shows how to use devices running a version of The Deck, a full-featured penetration testing and forensics Linux distribution, and can run for days or weeks on batteries due to their low power consumption. Author Philip Polstra shows how to

  17. Characterization of nuclear reactor containment penetrations. Preliminary report

    Bump, T.R.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Shackelford, M.A.; Gambhir, V.K.; McLennan, G.L.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the survey work conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on the design and details of major penetrations in 22 nuclear power plants. The survey includes all containment types and materials in current use. It also includes details of all types of penetrations (except for electrical penetration assemblies and valves) and the seals and gaskets used in them. The report provides a test matrix for testing major penetrations and for testing seals and gaskets in order to evaluate their leakage potential under severe accident conditions

  18. Prevention of serious impurity penetration into water-steam circuits

    Burgmann, F.; Bursik, A.; Flunkert, F.; Nieder, R.

    1977-01-01

    In consequence of reports from several power Plants concerning heavy damages due to penetrations of impurities into the water-steam circuit, the VGB Sub-Committee 'Water Chemistry in Thermal Power Plants' has established a working group to check-up how serious impurity penetration can be avoided. The lecture describes possible danger points. Suitable technical arrangements for the avoidance of penetrations, and possibilities for monitoring will be discussed. Penetration of impurities cannot be avoided with absolute reliability, even when the recommended arrangements and usual monitoring are realized. Additional measures for the protection of water steam circuits will be suggested. (orig.) [de

  19. Quasi-relativistic effects in barrier-penetration processes

    Anchishkin, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of a particle tunneling through the potential barrier is solved within quasi-relativistic Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the subbarrier relativistic effects give a significant addition to penetration coefficient when some relations between parameters of the barrier and mass of a tunneling particle are satisfied. For instance an account of these effects for penetration of low energy π + -mesons through Coulomb barrier of the 298 U nuclei would give the increasing of penetration coefficient to 30 percent as compared to the nonrelativistic one. Also we give the criteria under which the contribution of the ''under barrier relativism'' to penetration coefficient becomes essential. 3 refs.; 6 figs. (author)

  20. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    White, R.; Phillips, M.; Wuhrer, R.; Thomas, D.

    2003-01-01

    in layers of paints it allows. X-ray diffraction (XRD) can be used to ascertain pigments based on their crystal structure but this technique is generally ruled out due to the relatively large sample required for accurate identification. In this project techniques have been developed to examine the chemical interaction of pigments in oil paintings using the ESEM. The ultimate aim is to investigate these aging and degradation processes in situ under accelerated conditions using the controlled gas phase and temperature capabilities of this instrument. The ESEM also allows direct observation of the effects of sudden and slow changes in the relative humidity as well as the exposure to UV radiation on paint layers under controlled conditions. Other complementary techniques have been used to both characterise the pigments and linseed oils used in this work and to examine the chemical interactions in constructed paint layers. XRD has been used to characterise the dry pigments used in 19th and early 20th century oil paintings and GC-MS was used to characterize a range of linseed oils. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry have been used to study the drying kinetics of all the linseed oils used in this work on their own and in combination with pigments to establish the optimum conditions for ESEM analysis. Paint layers have been constructed using similar materials and methods as were used by oil painters in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Dry inorganic pigments of the type used in that era were obtained from an art supplier and chemical suppliers. Each pigment was ground in three types of linseed oil using the traditional muller and glass plate. These were applied in layers to glass slides to avoid influence from ground media or canvas and allowed to dry in the air and in an oven. Pigments that were known to interact strongly were placed in paint layers in direct contact with one another to encourage chemical interaction between the various pigments. In

  1. Operating methods to remove the excess of penetrant in surface. Preponderant and characteristic part of water for water washable penetrants

    Dubosc, P.

    1985-01-01

    Penetrant use for quality control, although very well known (nuclear, space industries, offshore platforms) is often poorly practiced. This is largely due to a lack of understanding by the users the way that the different components of the system (penetrants, solvents, emulsifiers, and developers) function. In this talk, we shall explain a particular characteristic that the manufacturers of reputable penetrant seek to build into their water washable penetrants. It is a viscosity curve which has the function of keeping water in a well defined form. We show why the form of the curve is crucial, which reaction between water and penetrant it corresponds to, and we deduce the practical consequences of bringing into play procedures for removing excess penetrant with or without water [fr

  2. Double ionization chamber survey meter for the separate measurement of penetrating and non-penetrating dose

    Lucas, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The full capabilities of an advanced 8-bit microprocessor have been utilized in construction of a wide range, multiplexing survey meter based on dual electrometers and ionization chambers. The ionization chambers are constructed of modular conducting and non-conducting parts in such a way that the angular dependence for measurement of beta radiation is controlled by design. Display functions for the high range instrument include logarithmic or linear analog display, digital display of rate or dose, SI or English units, optionally for either total, penetrating, or non-penetrating dose. The instrument is presently configured to operate in the range 0.1 R/hr to 50,000 R/hr in support of the requirements of Regulatory Guide 19.7

  3. The effect of chosen food oils to supplementation of last fattening pigs period on fatty acids structure in pig muscle fat and the consumption preference

    Tomáš Paradovský

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids profile in broilers feed, it is possible to influence their share in a desired structure, which can balance the n-6:n-3 ratio in food, according to the consumers needs. Flax seed to lactating goats can be used as nutritional supplement to reduce saturated fatty acids and increase polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk. A significant increase in CLA in milk was achieved by suplementation to  goats. In experiment last month of fattening group of pig in five groups of pig was fed with a basal diet, which incorporated various fats (canabis oil-2%, soybean oil-5%, linseed oil-5%, raps oil5%. The indicators (food intake, body weight gain, and the conversion were established during the experiment, and in the end, the content of essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids in pigs meat were determined. The data, analyzed and statistically interpreted. By the four experimental groups, there are, some variations of the determined fatty acids content in pectoral muscles as well as in breast skin.

  4. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  5. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields are of great interest in Ukraine. The following topics are studied by research teams, with high-level achievements all over the world: (i) Ultra-Wide Band/Short-pulse radar techniques (IRE and LLC "Transient Technologies", for more information please visit http://applied.ire.kharkov.ua/radar%20systems_their%20components%20and%20relevant%20technologies_e.html and http://viy.ua); (ii) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with stepped frequency sounding signals (IRE); (iii) Continuous-Wave (CW) radar with phase-shift keying signals (IRE); and (iv) Radio-wave interference investigation (Scientific and Technical Centre of The Subsurface Investigation, http://geophysics.ua). GPR applications are mainly in search works, for example GPR is often used to search for treasures. It is also used to identify leaks and diffusion of petroleum in soil, in storage areas, as well as for fault location of pipelines. Furthermore, GPR is used for the localization of underground utilities and for diagnostics of the technical state of hydro dams. Deeper GPR probing was performed to identify landslides in Crimea. Rescue radar with CW signal was designed in IRE to search for living people trapped under the rubble of collapsed buildings. The fourth version of this radar has been recently created, showing higher stability and noise immunity. Radio-wave interference investigation allows studying the soil down to tens of meters. It is possible to identify areas with increased conductivity (moisture) of the soil. LLC "Transient Technologies" is currently working with Shevchenko Kyiv University on a cooperation program in which the construction of a test site is one of the planned tasks. In the framework of this program, a GPR with a 300 MHz antenna was handed to the geological Faculty of the University. Employees of "Transient Technologies" held introductory lectures with a practical demonstration for students majoring in geophysics. The authors participated to GPR

  6. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-06-01

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure during the entire penetra- tion event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was 21 degrees and predom- inately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agreement was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  7. Extracting oils

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  8. A cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative with inhibitory effects on Schistosoma mansoni cercarial serine protease and penetration of mice skin by the parasite.

    Bahgat, Mahmoud; Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N; El Azzouny, Aida A; Maghraby, Amany; Ruppel, Andreas; Soliman, Wael M

    2009-01-01

    A cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative, N-phenyl-N-[1-(piperidine-1-carbonyl)cyclohexyl] benzamide (MNRC-5), was evaluated for its inhibitory effects on Schistosoma mansoni cercarial serine protease activity and cercarial penetration. MNRC-5 exerted an inhibitory effect on S. mansoni cercarial serine protease at serial concentrations of the specific chromogenic substrate Boc-Val-Leu-Gly-Arg-PNA for such enzyme family and the inhibitory coefficient (Ki) value was deduced. Moreover, topical treatment of mice tails with the most potent inhibitory concentration of MNRC-5 formulated in jojoba oil successfully blocked cercarial penetration as demonstrated by a significant reduction (75%; p jojoba oil base containing no MNRC-5. In addition, the IgM and IgG reactivities to crude S. mansoni cercarial, worm and egg antigens were generally lower in sera from treated infected mice than untreated infected mice. In conclusion, we report on a new serine protease inhibitor capable for blocking penetration of host skin by S. mansoni cercariae as measured by lowering worm burden and decrease in the levels of both IgM and IgG towards different bilharzial antigens upon topical treatment.

  9. Domestic Preparedness: Phase 2 Sarin Vapor Challenge and Corn Oil Protection Factor (PF) Testing of Commercial Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) Systems and Cartridges

    Campbell, Lee E; Lins, Ray; Pappas, Alex G

    2002-01-01

    .... Results indicate that cartridges provide complete penetration resistance against 200 mg/m3 GB challenge concentrations for 60 minutes, but that unacceptably high levels of GB vapor and corn oil...

  10. Penetration of varnishes into demineralized root dentine in vitro

    Arends, J; Duschner, H; Ruben, JL

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the penetration of three different varnishes employed in caries prevention (Duraphat(R), Fluor Protector(R) and Cervitec(R)) into demineralized dentine is quantified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results show that the varnish penetration into lesions about 85 mu m in

  11. HMO penetration and the geographic mobility of practicing physicians.

    Polsky, D; Kletke, P R; Wozniak, G D; Escarce, J J

    2000-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of changes in health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration on the probability that established patient care physicians relocated their practices or left patient care altogether. For physicians who relocated their practices, we also assessed the impact of HMO penetration on their destination choices. We found that larger increases in HMO penetration decreased the probability that medical/surgical specialists in early career stayed in patient care in the same market, but had no impact on generalists, hospital-based specialists, or mid career medical/surgical specialists. We also found that physicians who relocated their practices were much more likely to choose destination markets with the same level of HMO penetration or lower HMO penetration compared with their origin markets than they were to choose destination markets with higher HMO penetration. The largely negligible impact of changes in HMO penetration on established physicians' decisions to relocate their practices or leave patient care is consistent with high relocation and switching costs. Relocating physicians' attraction to destination markets with the same level of HMO penetration as their origin markets suggests that, while physicians' styles of medical practice may adapt to changes in market conditions, learning new practice styles is costly.

  12. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  13. Experience With The Management Of unusual Penetrating Chest ...

    The presentation shows how a victim of fall from height in the bush can sustain a penetrating chest injury on a dry stick of a shrub. Applications on the principles of management of penetrating chest injury is needed despite the grotesque clinical appearance. [Jnl College of Medicine Vol.7(1) 2002: 40-42] ...

  14. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    During a penetration test on the physical security of an organization, if social engineering is used, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not done properly can upset the employees, violate their privacy or damage

  15. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  16. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  17. Replica scale modelling of long rod tank penetrators

    Diederen, A.M.; Hoeneveld, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments and simulations have been conducted using scale size tungsten alloy penetrators at ordnance velocity against an oblique plate array consisting of an inert sandwich and a base armour. The penetrators are made from 2 types of tungsten alloy with different tensile strength. Two scale sizes

  18. Penetrating abdominal injuries in adults seen at two teaching ...

    Objective: To determine the pattern and management outcome of penetrating abdominal injuries (PAI) in the two main teaching hospitals in Ghana. Study Design: A prospective ... Conclusion: Stab wounds are the main penetrating abdominal injuries seen mostly among young male adults in Ghana. Management was by a ...

  19. The Impact of IPv6 on Penetration Testing

    Ottow, Christiaan; van Vliet, Frank; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Pras, Aiko

    In this paper we discuss the impact the use of IPv6 has on remote penetration testing of servers and web applications. Several modifications to the penetration testing process are proposed to accommodate IPv6. Among these modifications are ways of performing fragmentation attacks, host discovery and

  20. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory (extended version)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,