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Sample records for linoleic acids reduce

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (C17H31COOH) (CAS Reg. No. 60-33-3)), a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.5...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5065 Linoleic acid. (a) Product. Linoleic acid prepared from edible fats and oils and free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  4. Linoleic acid-menthyl ester reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nao; Yamano, Naomi; Sakata, Kotaro; Arao, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nagao, Toshihiro; Shimada, Yuji; Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of linoleic acid-menthyl ester (LAME) on lipid metabolism were assessed in HepG2 cells. It is well known that high level of apolipoprotein (apo) B100 in the serum is risk for atherosclerosis. Although linoleic acid (LA) treatment and LA plus L-mentol treatment increased apo B100 secretion, LAME treatment significantly decreased apo B100 secretion in HepG2 cells compared with control medium. The hypolipidemic effect of LAME was attributable to the suppression of triglyceride synthesis in HepG2 cells. It is also known that the risk of coronary heart disease is negatively related to the concentration of serum apo A-1. In the present study, LAME treatment increased apo A-1 secretion as compared with LA treatment in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that mentyl-esterification of fatty acids may be beneficial in anti-atherogenic dietary therapy.

  5. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho RF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberta F Carvalho,1 Sofia K Uehara,2 Glorimar Rosa1,21Medicine Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Josué de Castro Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.Results: There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 µU/mL, P = 0.02. Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02, which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02 in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02, but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03.Conclusion: Supplementation with mixed

  6. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced ex Vivo Interleukin-6 Production by Dietary Fish Oil Is Not Modified by Linoleic Acid Intake in Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Lauritzen, L.; Calder, P. C.

    2009-01-01

    production from cultures of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes in healthy men. The study was a double-blinded, controlled, 2 X 2 factorial 8-wk intervention. Sixty-four healthy men were randomized to 5 mL/d FO or olive oil (00) provided in capsules and to spreads and oils......Fish oil (FO) is considered antiinflammatory, but evidence regarding its effect on human cytokine production is conflicting. High linoleic acid (LA) intake may impair any effects of FO. The aim of this study was to investigate how FO combined with high or low LA intake affected ex vivo cytokine...

  8. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: good or bad nutrient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Daniela C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a class of 28 positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid octadecadienoic.Currently, it has been described many benefits related to the supplementation of CLA in animals and humans, as in the treatment of cancer, oxidative stress, in atherosclerosis, in bone formation and composition in obesity, in diabetes and the immune system. However, our results show that, CLA appears to be not a good supplement in patients with cachexia.

  9. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T₉₀ - T₀ = -12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = -2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = -3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = -1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T₉₀ - T₀ = -4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure.

  10. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. Methods This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. Results There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Conclusion Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure. PMID:23271912

  11. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  12. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine

  13. Comparison of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids in enzymatic acidolysis of tristearin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Xu, Xuebing; Li, L.T.

    2001-01-01

    tristearin (SSS) and linoleic (L) or conjugated linoleic (cL) acids (1:6, mol/mol). The other was between tristearin and the mixture of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids (1:3:3, mol/mol/mol). Acyl incorporation and migration together with triacylglycerol composition of the products were monitored...... with gas chromatography, pancreatic lipase hydrolysis, and high performance liquid chromatography. Both acyl incorporation and migration of linoleic acid were faster than those of conjugated linoleic acid. At 5 h reaction, there were 13.0% LLL, 46.5% LSL, 27.7% LSS, and 5.6% SSS in the product for a system...... between tristearin and linoleic acid; whereas there were 2.4% cLcLcL, 10.4% cLScL, 50.9% cLSS, and 36.2% SSS in the product for a system between tristearin and conjugated linoleic acid. The results suggest that linoleic acid was more reactive than conjugated linoleic acid in the enzymatic acidolysis...

  14. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  15. The essential nature of linoleic acid in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1986-01-01

    Linoleic acid [CH(CH)(CH = CHCH)(CH) COOH] is a precursor of the icosanoids -20-carbon fatty acids which include leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes and related compounds. Until recently, the classical symptoms resulting from deficiency of linoleic and other essential fatty acids (EFAs) ha...

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid in ewe milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pilar; Fontecha, Javier; Juárez, Manuela; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel

    2005-11-01

    Ewe milk fat from five different herds was studied to determine the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Research was carried out by combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and 4,4-dimethyloxazolyne derivatives (DMOX) with silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography (Ag+-HPLC). Reconstructed mass spectral profiles of CLA characteristic ions from DMOX were used to identify positional isomers and Ag+-HPLC to quantify them. Total CLA content varied from 0.57 to 0.97 g/100 g of total fatty acids. FAME and DMOX were separated into a complex mixture of minor isomers and major rumenic acid (9-cis 11-trans C18:2) by GC-MS using a 100-m polar capillary column. Rumenic acid would represent more than 75% of total CLA. 11-trans 13-trans, 11-13 cis/trans plus trans/cis and 7-9 cis/trans plus trans/cis were the main CLA isomers after rumenic acid. Minor amounts of 8-10 and 10-12 C18:2 isomers were also found. Although most of the isomers were present in each herd's milk, differences in content were observed for some CLA species.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid-rich soy oil triacylglycerol identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Rahul K; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal P; Lay, Jackson O

    2009-03-11

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich soy oil has been produced by soy oil linoleic acid (LA) photoisomerization, but CLA-rich oil triacylglycerol (TAG) characterization was not described. Therefore, the objectives were to identify and quantify new TAG fractions in CLA-rich oil by nonaqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NARP-HPLC). Analytical NARP-HPLC with an acetonitrile/dichloromethane (ACN/DCM) gradient and an evaporating light scattering detector/ultraviolet (ELSD/UV) detector was used. New TAG peaks from LA-containing TAGs were observed. The LnLL, LLL, LLO, and LLP (Ln, linolenic; L, linoleic; O, oleic; and P, palmitic) peaks reduced after isomerization with an increase in adjacent peaks that coeluted with LnLnO, LnLO, LnOO, and LnPP. The newly formed peaks were wider than those of the original oil and absorbed at 233 nm, suggesting the possibility of various CLA containing TAGs. The HPLC profile showed five fractions of mixed TAGs, and fatty acid analysis showed that CLA isomers were found predominately in fractions 2 and 3, which originally contained most LA. The CLA isomers were 70-80% trans,trans and 20-30% cis,trans and trans,cis.

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Triacylglycerols Exhibit Superior Lymphatic Absorption Than Free Conjugate Linoleic Acids and Have Antiobesity Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunjoon; Chung, Min-Yu; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Min, Jinyoung; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare lymphatic absorption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in the triacylglycerol (TAG) or free fatty acid (FFA) form and to examine the antiobesity effects of different doses of CLAs in the TAG form in animals. Conjugated linoleic TAGs (containing 70.3 wt% CLAs; CLA-TAG) were prepared through lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with commercial CLA mixtures (CLA-FFA). Lymphatic absorption of CLA-TAG and CLA-FFA was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Greater amounts of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLAs were detected in the collected lymph from a lipid emulsion containing CLA-TAG. This result suggests that CLA-TAG has greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than does CLA-FFA. The antiobesity efficacy of CLA-TAG at different doses was examined in mice with diet-induced obesity. A high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat weights, which were significantly decreased by 2% dietary supplementation (w/w) with CLA-TAG. CLA-TAG at 2% significantly attenuated the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TAG, but led to hepatomegaly and exacerbated HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly attenuated upregulation of retroperitoneal fat weight and significantly increased liver weight, which was decreased by the HFD. Nonetheless, the liver weight in group "HFD +1% CLA-TAG" was not significantly different from that of normal diet controls. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly reduced serum TAG levels and did not exacerbate HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. Thus, 1% dietary supplementation with CLA-TAG reduces retroperitoneal fat weight without apparent hepatomegaly, a known side-effect of CLAs in mouse models of obesity.

  19. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Does Not Reduce Visceral Adipose Tissue in Middle-Aged Men Engaged in a Resistance-Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Clay

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation has shown convincing effects at reducing body fat in animals; yet human study results have been somewhat inconclusive. The purpose of this study is to determine whether four weeks of CLA supplementation, the approximate length of a commercial package, can result in a positive change in visceral adipose tissue in resistance-trained middle-aged men. Thirty overweight and moderately obese, but otherwise healthy male subjects (aged 35 to 55 years currently involved in resistance training, were randomly assigned into CLA and placebo groups in a double-blind, placebo controlled approach. The study lasted for 12 weeks and consisted of three four-week periods. During the first four weeks (run-in period each subject received placebo (4 g safflower oil. Throughout the next four weeks (supplementation period, the placebo group continued receiving placebo, while the CLA group received 3.2 g/d of CLA. During the final four weeks (run-out period all subjects received the placebo. Computed tomography (CT scans were used to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT at weeks 4, 8 and 12. No significant reduction in VAT cross-sectional area was determined in the CLA group during the study. On the contrary, a significant reduction in cross-sectional area of VAT of 23.12 cm2 during the supplementation period was measured in the placebo group, which was abated during the run-out period. Our results suggest that CLA supplementation of 3.2 g/d for four weeks does not promote decreases in VAT in middle-aged men currently participating in a resistance-training program.

  20. Role of linoleic acid in arsenical palmar keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tarafder S; Misbahuddin, Mir

    2016-03-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure can lead to palmoplantar keratosis. In the stratum corneum of skin, linoleic acid is of the utmost importance to the inflammation, keratinization, and regeneration processes. The aims of this study were: (i) to present quantitative information on the linoleic acid fraction of intercorneocyte lipids, and (ii) to elucidate the role of linoleic acid in the pathophysiology of arsenical keratosis. Lipid extracts were collected from keratotic lesions in seven patients, seven arsenic-exposed subjects, and seven non-exposed control subjects. Linoleic acid levels of the specimens were estimated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). There was a significant (P keratosis patients (palm: 25.66 ± 4.95 μg/cm(2); dorsum: 28.25 ± 6.20 μg/cm(2)) compared with arsenic-exposed (palm: 2.75 ± 0.85 μg/cm(2); dorsum: 1.96 ± 0.64 μg/cm(2)) and non-exposed (palm: 1.52 ± 0.61 μg/cm(2); dorsum: 1.28 ± 0.39 μg/cm(2)) control subjects. There was no significant difference (P = 0.556) in linoleic acid concentration in the non-affected skin of the dorsum of the hand (28.25 ± 6.20 μg/cm(2)) compared with that in the palmar sites (25.66 ± 4.95 μg/cm(2)) in the patient group. The change in linoleic acid levels in the arsenic-exposed control group did not differ from that in non-exposed controls (P = 1.000). Linoleic acid concentration is elevated in arsenical keratosis; this finding warrants further investigation to ascertain whether linoleic acid plays a direct role in the pathophysiology of arsenical keratosis. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  2. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and L-Lysine on heavy pigs performances and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a group of positional and geometric fatty acid isomers derived from linoleic acid. Dietary CLA supplementation has been shown to increase feed efficiency and may reduce body fat content in swine as recently reviewed by Corino et al., (2005. There was only one research conducted in heavy pig in which the authors did not observed any significant effect of dietary CLA on growth performances and lean tissue (Corino et al., 2003.

  3. Oxidative modifications of conjugated and unconjugated linoleic acid during heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giua, L; Blasi, F; Simonetti, M S; Cossignani, L

    2013-10-15

    The oxidative stability of conjugated linoleic (CLA) and linoleic (LA) acids in different chemical forms (free acids, methyl esters and homogeneous triacylglycerols) was compared. All model systems were heated at 180°C for different times (15, 30, 45 and 60min). The primary oxidation products were evaluated by spectrophometric analysis, while the volatile compounds were determined by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). The isomer profile modifications were investigated by silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC) equipped with an UV detector. Generally, peroxide values decreased during the heating time. Among the volatiles, saturated aldehydes were the most represented compounds. Isomerization of cis,trans and trans,cis CLA to trans,trans isomers was observed mainly for the methyl form of CLA. The three different chemical forms of LA never showed isomerization phenomena. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W J; Tarka, S M; Dobson, G; Reid, C M

    2001-03-01

    The fatty acids from a series of milk-chocolate-based confectionery samples were analyzed as methyl esters by GC to determine the presence and amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). A single peak corresponding to the 9-cis,11-trans isomer and ranging from less than 0.1% to nearly 0.2% of the total fatty acids, corresponding to up to 0.3 mg per g of chocolate, was observed. One of the chocolate extracts and a milk extract were subjected to silver ion HPLC and GC-MS in order to confirm the identity of the major isomer and tentatively identity minor isomers.

  5. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim aydin

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was reported to increase the levels of saturated fatty ... Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid ..... silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography.

  6. Optical Properties of Linoleic Acid Protected Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Linoleic acid-protected gold nanoparticles have been synthesized through the chemical reduction of tetrachloroaurate ions by ethanol in presence of sodium linoleate. The structure of these nanoparticles is investigated using transmission electron microscopy, which shows that the Au nanoparticles are spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution which ranges from 8 to 15 nm. Colloidal dispersion of gold nanoparticles in cyclohexane exhibits absorption bands in the ultraviolet-visible range due to surface plasmon resonance, with absorption maximum at 530 nm. Fluorescence spectra of gold nanoparticles also show an emission peak at 610 nm when illuminated at 450 nm. UV-Vis spectroscopy reveals that these nanoparticles remain stable for 10 days.

  7. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  8. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Raimondi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane.

  9. Novel metabolic pathways for linoleic and arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M; Motoba, K; Borhan, B; Pinot, F; Hammock, B D

    1996-08-13

    Mouse liver microsomes oxidized linoleic acid to form 9,10- or 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoate. These monoepoxides were subsequently hydrolyzed to their corresponding diols in the absence of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane. Furthermore, both 9,10- and 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoates were oxidized to diepoxyoctadecanoate at apparently identical rates by mouse liver microsomal P-450 epoxidation. Both epoxyoctadecanoates and diepoxyoctadecanoates were converted to tetrahydrofuran-diols by microsomes. Tetrahydroxides of linoleate were produced as minor metabolites. Arachidonic acid was metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoates, dihydroxyeicosatrienoates, and monohydroxyeicosatetraenoates by the microsomes. Microsomes prepared from clofibrate (but not phenobarbital) -treated mice exhibited much higher production rates for epoxyeicosatrienoates and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoates. This indicated an induction of P-450 epoxygenase(s) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase in mice by clofibrate and not by phenobarbital. Incubation of synthetic epoxyeicosatrienoates with microsomes led to the production of diepoxyeicosadienoates. Among chemically generated diepoxyeicosadienoate isomers, three of them possessing adjacent diepoxides were hydrolyzed to their diol epoxides which cyclized to the corresponding tetrahydrofuran-diols by microsomes as well as soluble epoxide hydrolase at a much higher rate. Larger cyclic products from non-adjacent diepoxides were not observed. The results of our in vitro experiments suggest that linoleic and arachidonic acid can be metabolized to their tetrahydrofuran-diols by two consecutive microsomal cytochrome P-450 epoxidations followed by microsomal or soluble epoxide hydrolase catalyzed hydrolysis of the epoxides. Incubation experiments with the S-9 fractions indicate that the soluble epoxide hydrolase is more important in this conversion. This manuscript is the first report of techniques for the separation and

  10. Temperature and duration of heating of sunflower oil affect ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Privé , Florence; Combes, Sylvie; Cauquil, Laurent; Farizon, Yves; Enjalbert, Francis; Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle

    2010-01-01

    Sunflower oil heated at 110 or 150°C for 1, 3, or 6 h was incubated with ruminal content in order to investigate the effects of temperature and duration of heating of oil on the ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro. When increased, these 2 parameters acted together to decrease the disappearance of linoleic acid in the media by inhibiting the isomerization of linoleic acid, which led to a decrease in conjugated linoleic acids and trans-C18:1 production. Nevertheless, trans-10 iso...

  11. Production of conjugated linoleic acid-rich potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found primarily in diary and beef products, but the health benefits of CLA can only be realized if they are consumed at much greater levels than a normal healthy dietary intake. We have recently shown that a CLA-rich soy oil can be produced by simple isomerization of linoleic acid in soy oil by photoirradiation. This oil may allow greatly increased dietary CLA without significantly elevating fat intake. The objective of this study was to prepare CLA-rich potato chips by frying in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil was photoisomerized in the presence of iodine catalyst with UV/visible light. The irradiated oil was clay processed to remove the residual iodine and this oil was then used to fry potato chips. Oil was extracted from fried chips and analyzed for its CLA content with gas chromatography. A 1-oz serving of CLA-rich potato chips contained approximately 2.4 g CLA as compared to 0.1 g CLA in 3-oz serving of steak fillet and 0.06 g CLA in 8-oz serving of whole milk. The peroxide value of the oil extracted from potato chips was found to be 1 meq/1000 g sample, which was within the acceptable commercial standards. This study may lead to the commercialization of CLA-rich food products.

  12. Investigation of tritium removal by means of organic compounds. Catalytic hydrogenation (tritiation) of linoleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, A.; Weichselgartner, H.

    1984-11-01

    In the presence of noble-metal catalysts unsaturated fatty acids such as eruic acid and linoleic acid capture hydrogen (and tritium) quantitatively. The hydrogenation reaction of eruic acid has already been reported. The experimental results of the reaction of hydrogen (and tritium) with linoleic acid are now discussed in this paper. Obviously, the use of linoleic acid shows some advantages compared with eruic acid: - the hydrogenation reaction is faster, - linoleic acid is liquid, so that the choice of additional solvents is easier, and - linoleic acid is a more or less cheap natural product, which is available from a series of seeds, so that the cost of a technical tritium removal plant is not increased by the basic chemical material. (orig.)

  13. Comparative effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and linoleic acid (LA) on the oxidoreduction status in THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicka, Marta; Stachowska, Ewa; Gutowska, Izabela; Parczewski, Miłosz; Baśkiewicz, Magdalena; Machaliński, Bogusław; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2011-04-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) on macrophage reactive oxygen species synthesis and the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The macrophages were obtained from the THP-1 monocytic cell line. Cells were incubated with the addition of cis-9,trans-11 CLA or trans-10,cis-12 CLA or linoleic acid. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was estimated by flow cytometry. Enzymes activity was measured spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression was estimated by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Statistical analysis was based on nonparametric statistical tests [Friedman analysis of variation (ANOVA) and Wilcoxon signed-rank test]. cis-9,trans-11 CLA significantly increased the activity of Cat, while trans-10,cis-12 CLA notably influenced GPx activity. Both isomers significantly decreased mRNA expression for Cat. Only trans-10,cis-12 significantly influenced mRNA for SOD-2 expression. The CLAs activate processes of the ROS formation in macrophages. Adverse metabolic effects of each isomer action were observed.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Demin; Li, Hongji; Zhou, Bo; Han, Liqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. ► Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. ► Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Demin [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Hongji [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhou, Bo [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Han, Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhang, Xiaomei [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoyu, E-mail: haubiochem@163.com [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoqing, E-mail: gqyang@yeah.net [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  16. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of different tissues and yolk lipids in pigeons. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Eight established breeding pairs per group were fed either a commercially pelleted pigeon diet mixed with 0.5% safflower oil (SFO) or 0.5% CLA for 12 weeks. For fatty ...

  17. Meat quality and tissue fatty acid profiles in rabbits fed diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Dokoupilová, A.; Czauderna, M.; Berladyn, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 12 (2007), s. 552-561 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * conjugated linoleic acid * fatty acids Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007

  18. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p4208528

    Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid, geese, growth, lipid metabolism, fatty acid composition .... For determination of serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, high density ... separated and quantified by gas–liquid chromatography (Carlo Erba Vega ...

  19. Linoleic acid, thymine, and tryptophan radiosensitization by protoporphyrin in presence of oxygene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champel, P.; Mignot, M.A.; Pillement, B.; Fontenil, L.; Rocquet, G.

    Sensitizing effect induced by protoporphyrin, an active molecule in photooxidation is studied. Studied substances are tryptophan, thymine, linoleic acid, each component representing one of the great groups of biological components, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids [fr

  20. Bovine milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and vaccenic acids attenuates allergic airway disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, R K; Macgibbon, A K; Black, P N; Kanwar, J R; Rowan, A; Vale, M; Krissansen, G W

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that a reduction in the Western diet of anti-inflammatory unsaturated lipids, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has contributed to the increase in the frequency and severity of allergic diseases. We investigated whether feeding milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acids (VAs) ('enriched' milk fat), produced by supplementing the diet of pasture-fed cows with fish and sunflower oil, will prevent development of allergic airway responses. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing soybean oil and diets supplemented with milk lipids. They were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on days 14 and 28, and challenged intranasally with OVA on day 42. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissues and serum samples were collected 6 days after the intranasal challenge. Feeding of enriched milk fat led to marked suppression of airway inflammation as evidenced by reductions in eosinophilia and lymphocytosis in the airways, compared with feeding of normal milk fat and control diet. Enriched milk fat significantly reduced circulating allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 levels, together with reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IL-5 and CCL11. Treatment significantly inhibited changes in the airway including airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion. The two major components of enriched milk fat, cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and VA, inhibited airway inflammation when fed together to mice, whereas alone they were not effective. Milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and VAs suppresses inflammation and changes to the airways in an animal model of allergic airway disease.

  1. Production of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites by guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosthuizen, M.J.; Engels, F.; Van Esch, B.; Henricks, P.A.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cells may be responsible for regulating airway smooth muscle function, in part by release of fatty acid-derived mediators. Incubation of isolated guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells with radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) leads to the production of 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5- and 15-HETE) and smaller amounts of leukotriene (LT) B4 and C4 and 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT). Epithelial cells also are able to release linoleic acid (LA) metabolites. Incubation with radiolabeled linoleic acid leads to the formation of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE). The biological significance of these mediators produced by epithelial cells is discussed

  2. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Sailas; Spener Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studi...

  3. A systems approach for discovering linoleic acid derivatives that potentially mediate pain and itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Christopher E.; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Yuan, Zhi-Xin; Sapio, Matthew R.; Keyes, Gregory S.; Mishra, Santosh K.; Gross, Jacklyn R.; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon; Zamora, Daisy; Horowitz, Mark S.; Davis, John M.; Sorokin, Alexander V.; Dey, Amit; LaPaglia, Danielle M.; Wheeler, Joshua J.; Vasko, Michael R.; Mehta, Nehal N.; Mannes, Andrew J.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain and itch are common hypersensitivity syndromes that are affected by endogenous mediators. We applied a systems-based, translational approach to predict, discover, and characterize mediators of pain and itch that are regulated by diet and inflammation. Profiling of tissue-specific precursor abundance and biosynthetic gene expression predicted that inflamed skin would be abundant in four previously unknown 11-hydroxy-epoxy-or 11-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives and four previously identified 9- or 13-hydroxy-epoxy- or 9- or 13-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives. All of these mediators were confirmed to be abundant in rat and human skin by mass spectrometry. However, only the two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates sensitized rat dorsal root ganglion neurons to release more calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP), which is involved in pain transmission, in response to low pH (which mimics an inflammatory state) or capsaicin (which activates ion channels involved in nociception). The two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates share a 3-hydroxy-Z-pentenyl-E-epoxide moiety, thus suggesting that this substructure could mediate nociceptor sensitization. In rats, intradermal hind paw injection of 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate elicited C-fiber–mediated sensitivity to thermal pain. In a randomized trial testing adjunctive strategies to manage refractory chronic headaches, reducing the dietary intake of linoleic acid was associated with decreases in plasma 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate, which correlated with clinical pain reduction. Human psoriatic skin had 30-fold higher 9-keto-12,13-trans-epoxy-(10E)-octadecenoate compared to control skin, and intradermal injection of this compound induced itch-related scratching behavior in mice. Collectively, these findings define a family of endogenous mediators with potential roles in pain and itch. PMID:28831021

  4. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  5. Bioproduction of conjugated linoleic acid by probiotic bacteria occurs in vitro and in vivo in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaschuk, Julia B; Walker, John W; Diaz, Hugo; Madsen, Karen L

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics have been shown to reduce the incidence of colon cancer in animal models. The mechanisms responsible for this activity are poorly defined. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of isomers of linoleic acid (LA) possessing anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties, which can be produced from LA by certain bacterial strains. In this study, the ability of probiotic bacteria to exert anticarcinogenic effects through the production of CLA was assessed. Incubation of probiotic bacteria (VSL3, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. plantarum, Bifidobacterium breve, B. infantis, B. longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus) in the presence of LA yielded CLA production as measured by gas chromatography. Conditioned medium, containing probiotic-produced CLA, reduced viability and induced apoptosis of HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, as assessed by MTT assay and DNA laddering, respectively. Western blotting demonstrated an increased expression of PPARgamma in cells treated with conditioned medium compared with LA alone. Incubation of murine feces with LA after administering VSL3 yielded 100-fold more CLA than feces collected prior to VSL3 feeding. This study supports a role for supplemental probiotics as a strategy both for attenuating inflammation and for preventing colon cancer.

  6. Ácido linoléico conjugado e perda de peso Conjugated linoleic acid and weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Machado Mourão

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento e a prevenção da obesidade têm sido considerados uma enorme batalha para os profissionais da área de saúde. As indústrias de alimentos e de fármacos, por sua vez, têm oferecido cada vez mais uma vasta gama de novos produtos que preconizam a perda de peso. O ácido linoléico conjugado, encontrado em maiores concentrações na gordura de animais ruminantes, parece apresentar efeitos favoráveis quanto à manutenção do peso corporal. Esta revisão apresenta uma análise crítica dos dados disponíveis na literatura, que relacionam o ácido linoléico conjugado com o metabolismo energético e a composição corporal. Os estudos realizados com humanos ainda não são conclusivos, embora alguns apontem um possível aumento da lipólise e/ou redução da lipogênese, que reflete em alterações apenas na composição corporal, especialmente no tecido adiposo abdominal, mas não na perda de peso. Entretanto, as altas doses usadas nesses estudos podem implicar efeitos colaterais indesejáveis. Portanto, mais estudos são necessários para uma indicação desse ácido graxo como um agente para a melhora da composição corporal e/ou como um agente anti-obesidade.The prevention and the treatment of obesity have proved to be enormous challenges for health professionals. On their turn, the food and the pharmaceutical industries have been offering an increasingly vast array of new products which are said to promote weight loss. The conjugated linoleic acid, found in greater concentrations in the fat of ruminant mammals, seems to present favorable effects on body weight maintenance. This work reviewed the available data in the literature that related conjugated linoleic acid to energy expenditure and body composition, with the objective of better understanding its real or possible actions in the body, in particular, whether I does or does not promote weight loss. The studies on humans are not conclusive yet, although some of them have

  7. Trends in linoleic acid intake in the United States adult population: NHANES 1999-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linoleic acid (LA), the primary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the US diet, is an essential fatty acid. LA is available from a wide variety of foods, although it is primarily sourced from plant seed oils. Individual-level data on demography and food and nutrient intake were acquired from the N...

  8. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Hatanaka

    Full Text Available The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts.

  9. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  10. Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols...... (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were...... incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated...

  11. Optimization of the In Situ Epoxidation of Linoleic Acid of Jatropha Curcas Oil With Performic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.K.; Rahimi Mohd Yusop; Nadia Salih; Jumat Salimon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to optimise the epoxidation of linoleic acid of Jatropha curcas oil. This experiment was carried out with performic acid generated in situ by using hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. The method was evaluated on different parameters such as reaction temperature, mole ratios of formic acid to ethylenic unsaturation and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation. The optimum relative conversion into oxirane (80.4 %) and conversion of iodine (94.7 %) was achieved with ∼70 % yield at the condition of 45 degree Celsius reaction temperature, formic acid to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio of 2.0, hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio of 12.0 for 2 hours of reaction time. The epoxidized linoleic acid was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and NMR analysis. The result was also found that the formations of an epoxide and oxirane ring cleavage were both occurred at the same time if low amount of hydrogen peroxide was used. (author)

  12. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  13. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and canola oil on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes adverse effects on quality of eggs by modifying the fatty acid composition of the yolk. Supplementing oils prevent CLA-induced changes, but cause a decrease in the level of egg CLA. The objective of the study was to investigate the incorporation of CLA into the egg and its effect ...

  14. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth and lipid metabolism of geese and fatty acid composition of their tissues. ... Dietary CLA altered serum lipid concentrations by decreasing total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, the atherogenic index and activity of ...

  15. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of bolus versus fractionated oral applications of [13C]-linoleic acid in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmelmair, H; Iser, B; Rauh-Pfeiffer, A; Koletzko, B

    1999-07-01

    The endogenous conversion of linoleic acid into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is of potential importance for meeting substrate requirements, particularly in young infants. After application of [13C]-linoleic acid, we estimated its conversion to dihomo-gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acids from only two blood samples. Oral tracer doses were given to five healthy adults as a single bolus. In four subjects the tracer was given in nine equal portions over 3 days. Concentration and 13C content of fatty acids from serum phospholipids were analysed by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio-mass spectrometry. Areas under the tracer-concentration curves were calculated, and fractional transfer and turnover rates estimated from compartmental models. The median fractional turnover of linoleic acid was 93.7% per day (interquartile range 25.3) in the bolus group and 80. 0% per day (6.3) in the fraction group (NS). Fractional conversion of linoleic to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid was 1.5% (0.9) vs. 2.1% (0.7) (bolus vs. fraction, P /= 0.94, P < 0.05) with the ratio of areas under the curve. Using areas under the curve overestimates the conversion, because different residence times are not considered. Estimation of conversion intensity appears possible with only one blood sample obtained after tracer application.

  17. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) content in different tissues of ruminants fed with CLA supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Pellattiero, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) are a group of positional and geometric isomers of Linoleic Acid characterized by a carbon chain containing 18 carbon atoms and two double bonds, not in the classic position (cis), but conjugated from the carbons atoms 9, 10 or 11. Double bonds have different position in the carbon chain ([7,9], [8,10], [9,11], [10,12], [11,13] and [12,14]) and four different geometric distribution (cis/trans, trans/cis, cis/cis and trans/trans). In total 24 possible isomers are...

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin E supplementation in elderly lowers the oxidation rate of linoleic acid in LDL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, de F.; Moser, U.; Kok, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    .Oxidation of LDL–linoleic acid (LDL–LA), a major substrate for lipid peroxidation, may be counteracted by the antioxidant vitamin E. In a 3-month randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 83 apparently healthy Dutch elderly, aged 67–85 years, the direct protective effect of 100 IU vitamin

  20. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), fish oil, soybean oil or their mixtures (at 7% for single and 3.5% + 3.5% for mixtures) as well as up 12% dosage of palm oil, on the performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens. The chicks fed 7% fish oil or 7% CLA ...

  1. The effect of long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid on fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on laying hen performance, egg fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). One hundred and sixty 7-day old Japanese quail chicks were randomly assigned to four ...

  2. Hydroperoxide production from linoleic acid by heterologous Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici lipoxygenase: Optimization and scale-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villaverde, J.J.; Vlist, van der V.; Santos, S.A.O.; Haarmann, T.; Langfelder, K.; Pirttimaa, M.; Nyyssola, A.; Jylhä, S.; Tamminen, T.; Kruus, K.; Graaff, de L.H.; Pascoal Neto, C.; Simoes, M.M.Q.; Domingues, M.R.M.; Silvestre, A.J.D.; Eidner, J.; Buchert, J.

    2013-01-01

    Linoleic acid was converted into hydroperoxides by a Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici lipoxygenase produced recombinantly in Trichoderma reesei. Hydroperoxide production was optimized using a face-centred experimental design in order to study the effects of pH, temperature and time on the conversion

  3. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA...

  4. Linoleic acid metabolite leads to steroid resistant asthma features partially through NF-?B

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, Lipsa; Gheware, Atish; Rehman, Rakhshinda; Yadav, Manish K.; Jayaraj, B. S.; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Mahesh, Padukudru Anand; Ghosh, Balaram; Agrawal, Anurag; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan

    2017-01-01

    Studies have highlighted the role of nutritional and metabolic modulators in asthma pathobiology. Steroid resistance is an important clinical problem in asthma but lacks good experimental models. Linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been linked to asthma and glucocorticoid sensitivity. Its 12/15?lipoxygenase metabolite, 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) induces mitochondrial dysfunction, with severe airway obstruction and neutrophilic airway inflammation. Here we show that H...

  5. Substitution of Linoleic Acid for Other Macronutrients and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venø, Stine K; Schmidt, Erik B; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Bach, Flemming W; Overvad, Kim

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major health problem worldwide, but the influence of dietary factors on stroke risk is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the risk of ischemic stroke and its subtypes with a higher intake from linoleic acid and a concomitant lower intake from saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, or glycemic carbohydrates. In the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer, and Health Study of 57 053 participants aged 50 to 64 years at baseline, information on diet was collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Information on ischemic stroke was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, and cases were all validated and subclassified according to the TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. Substitution of linoleic acid for saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, or glycemic carbohydrates was investigated in relation to the risk of ischemic stroke and subtypes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the associations with ischemic stroke adjusting for appropriate confounders. During 13.5 years of follow-up 1879 participants developed ischemic stroke. A slightly lower risk of ischemic stroke was found with a 5% higher intake of linoleic acid and a concomitant lower intake of saturated fatty acid (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.16), monounsaturated fatty acid (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.02), and glycemic carbohydrates (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.09), although not statistically significant. Similar patterns of association were found for large-artery atherosclerosis and small-vessel occlusions. This study suggests that replacing saturated fatty acid, glycemic carbohydrate, or monounsaturated fatty acid with linoleic acid may be associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer. 

  7. Preferential oxidation of linolenic acid compared to linoleic acid in the liver of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, G.K.; Dutta, J.; Ghosh, S.

    1982-01-01

    The fate of [1(- 14 C] linoleic acid and [1( 14 C] linolenic acid in the liver slices and also in the liver tissues of live carnivorous catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus, was studied. Incorporation of the fatty acids into different lipid classes in the live fish differed greatly from the tissue slices, indicating certain physiological control operative in vivo. The extent of desaturation and chain elongation of linoleic and linolenic acids into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was low. Linolenic acid was oxidized (thus labeling the saturated fatty acid with liberated 14 C-acetyl-CoA) in preference to linoleic acid, and this oxidation also seemed to be under physiological control since both of the fatty acids were poorly oxidized in the tissue slices and in the killed fish. These fish can therefore recognize the difference in the acyl chain structures of linoleate and linolenate. The higher oxidation of linolenic acid and poor capacity for its conversion to longer chain, highly unsaturated derivatives indicates a higher demand for the dietary supply of these essential fatty acids in these two species

  8. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation also could increase the lipolysis and reduce the accumulation of fatty acids on the adipose tissue; the putative mechanisms involved may be its action in reducing the lipase lipoprotein activity and to increase the carnitine-palmitoil-transferase-1 (CAT-1) activity, its interaction with PPARγ, and to raise the expression of UCP-1. Although studies made in human have shown some benefits of CLA supplementation as the weight loss, the results are still discordant. Moreover, some have shown adverse effects, such as negative effects on glucose metabolism and lipid profile. The purpose of this article is to review the available data regarding the benefits of CLA on the energetic metabolism and body composition, emphasizing action mechanisms.

  9. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition in Selected Dietary Supplements Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derewiaka, Dorota; Nestorowicz, Klara; Wołosiak, Rafał

    2017-07-04

    The market of pharmaceutical products is offering a wide range of supplements. Most of the consumers believe that these products will improve their state of health, but are they getting what they want and what they are paying for? The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of selected dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). All supplements were available in the Warsaw markets and bought from pharmacies. Assessment of the quality of food supplements was achieved by analysis of fatty acid using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. On the basis of the investigations carried out, it was found that content of CLA in selected dietary supplements ranged between 282 and 528 mg by weight of a single capsule. The content of bioactive ingredients found in three of the four product supplements assessed was lower than was claimed by the manufacturer.

  10. Are conjugated linolenic acid isomers an alternative to conjugated linoleic acid isomers in obesity prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jonatan; Arias, Noemi; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; del Puy Portillo, María

    2014-04-01

    Despite its benefits, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may cause side effects after long-term administration. Because of this and the controversial efficacy of CLA in humans, alternative biomolecules that may be used as functional ingredients have been studied in recent years. Thus, conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) has been reported to be a potential anti-obesity molecule which may have additional positive effects related to obesity. According to the results reported in obesity, CLNA needs to be given at higher doses than CLA to be effective. However, because of the few studies conducted so far, it is still difficult to reach clear conclusions about the potential use of these CLNAs in obesity and its related changes (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, or inflammation). Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Classroom Research: GC Studies of Linoleic and Linolenic Fatty Acids Found in French Fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Janice P.; Deboise, Kristen L.; Marshall, Megan R.; Shaffer, Hannah M.; Zafar, Sara; Jones, Kevin A.; Palko, Nick R.; Mitsch, Stephen M.; Sutton, Lindsay A.; Chang, Margaret; Fromer, Ilana; Kraft, Jake; Meister, Jessica; Shah, Amar; Tan, Priscilla; Whitchurch, James

    2002-07-01

    A study of fatty-acid ratios in French fries has proved to be an excellent choice for an entry-level research class. This research develops reasoning skills and involves the subject of breast cancer, a major concern of American society. Analysis of tumor samples removed from women with breast cancer revealed high ratios of linoleic to linolenic acid, suggesting a link between the accelerated growth of breast tumors and the combination of these two fatty acids. When the ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid was approximately 9 to 1, accelerated growth was observed. Since these fatty acids are found in cooking oils, Wichita Collegiate students, under the guidance of their chemistry teacher, decided that an investigation of the ratios of these two fatty acids should be conducted. A research class was structured using a gas chromatograph for the analysis. Separation of linoleic from linolenic acid was successfully accomplished. The students experienced inductive experimental research chemistry as it applies to everyday life. The structure of this research class can serve as a model for high school and undergraduate college research curricula.

  12. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bee , Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to profoundly affect lipid metabolism and to act as repartitioning agents. Currently, little is known about their effect on the fatty acid profile of tissue lipids in pigs. In the present study we determined the lipid composition of the backfat inner (BFI) and outer layer (BFO), omental fat (OF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 24 Swiss Large White pigs fed diets supplemented eithe...

  13. Emulsifying Property and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Modified with Oxidized Linoleic Acid and Oxidized Tannic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Cuttlefish skin gelatins modified with oxidized linoleic acid (OLA) and oxidized tannic acid (OTA) were characterized and determined for emulsifying properties and antioxidative activity. Modification of gelatin with 5% OTA increased the total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,

  14. Effect of abscisic acid on the linoleic acid metabolism in developing maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abian, J.; Gelpi, E.; Pages, M.

    1991-01-01

    Partially purified protein extracts from maize (Zea mays L.) embryos, whether treated or not with abscisic acid (ABA), were incubated with linoleic acid (LA) and 1-[ 14 C]LA. The resulting LA metabolites were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography with a radioactivity detector and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. α- and γ-ketol metabolites arising from 9-lipoxygenase activity were the more abundant compounds detected in the incubates, although the corresponding metabolites produced by 13-lipoxygenase were also present in the samples. In addition, a group of stereoisomers originating form two isomeric trihydroxy acids (9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acids) are described. Important variations in the relative proportions of the LA metabolites were observed depending on the embryo developmental stage and on ABA treatment. Two new ABA-induced compounds have been detected. These compounds are present in embryos at all developmental stages, being more abundant in old (60 days) embryos. Furthermore, ABA induction of these compounds is maximum at very young development stages, decreasing as maturation progresses. A tentative structure for these compounds (10-oxo-9,13-dihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acid and 12-oxo-9,13-dihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acid) is also provided. This study revealed an early stage in maize embryogenesis characterized by a higher relative sensitivity to ABA. The physiological importance of ABA on LA metabolism is discussed

  15. Improved fatty acid analysis of conjugated linoleic acid rich egg yolk triacylglycerols and phospholipid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jack; Proctor, Andrew

    2014-07-16

    Reports from chicken conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding trials are limited to yolk total fatty acid composition, which consistently described increased saturated fatty acids and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids. However, information on CLA triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) species is limited. This study determined the fatty acid composition of total lipids in CLA-rich egg yolk produced with CLA-rich soy oil, relative to control yolks using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), determined TAG and PL fatty acid compositions by thin-layer chromatography-GC-FID (TLC-GC-FID), identified intact PL and TAG species by TLC-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC-MALDI-MS), and determined the composition of TAG and PL species in CLA and control yolks by direct flow infusion electrospray ionization MS (DFI ESI-MS). In total, 2 lyso-phosphatidyl choline (LPC) species, 1 sphingomyelin species, 17 phosphatidyl choline species, 19 TAG species, and 9 phosphatidyl ethanolamine species were identified. Fifty percent of CLA was found in TAG, occurring predominantly in C52:5 and C52:4 TAG species. CLA-rich yolks contained significantly more LPC than did control eggs. Comprehensive lipid profiling may provide insight on relationships between lipid composition and the functional properties of CLA-rich eggs.

  16. Impact of lactic acid bacteria on conjugated linoleic acid content and atherogenic index of butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Roufegari-Nejad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a study aimed to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Sterptococcus thermophilus (as thermophilic culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, cremoris and diacetylactis, Leuconostoc citrovorum (as mesophilic culture, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis and a mixed culture of L.acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis on fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and atherogenic index (AI of butter. Fatty acid analysis with gas chromatography indicated that application of thermophilic and mixed culture decreased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid; whereas, the butters made with L. acidophilus had the highest content of CLA. Moreover, AI in the samples prepared with thermophilic cultures was the least. Sensory evaluation of the treatments revealed no significant differences (p> 0/05 in appearance and color. However, the butters prepared with thermophilic and mesophilic cultures had more desirable taste in comparison with the samples made with L. acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis. From the nutritional point of view, the adverse effect of butter could be diminished via the application of selected lactic acid bacteria.

  17. Effect of oral supplementation of the linoleic and gammalinolenic acids on the diabetic pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Consonni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the direct protective action of oral fatty acid supplementation against the deleterious effect of hyperglycemia on maternal reproductive outcomes; fetal growth and development on female Wistar rats. The animals were distributed into four experimental groups: G1= non-diabetic without supplementation (Control group; G2= non-diabetic treated with linoleic (LA and gammalinolenic acid (GLA (1 mL of Gamaline-V/day; G3= diabetic without supplementation and G4= diabetic treated with LA and GLA. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg. At day 21 of pregnancy, the gravid uterus was weighed and dissected to count the dead and live fetuses, resorption, implantation, and corpora lutea numbers. The fetuses were analyzed for external and internal anomalies. The treatment with Gamaline-V supplementation to diabetic rats interfered in the maternal reproductive outcome (reduced number of live fetuses and embryonic implantation; however, it protected the deleterious on the incidence of congenital anomalies caused by hyperglycemia.

  18. role of conjugated linoleic acid in the prevention of radiation hazard in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, E.M.; Osman, N.N.; Haggag, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a natural product in minimizing the radiation hazards. male rats were assigned to six groups each of 7 animals throughout six weeks, fed 1% CLA (wt/wt)added to commercial diet in the form of milk powder 182 g/kg diet. rats exposed to 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation showed significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).triglycerides (TG), atherosclerosis index, total lipid (TL), phospholipids (ph-lipids), malondialdehyde (MDA), urea,creatinine, uric acid, calcium (Ca) and phosphorous levels associated with decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), activity of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status, body weight, testes weight and testosterone both irradiated and non-irradiated milk powder administrated to irradiated rat groups minimized the radiation damage in the assayed parameters indicating its beneficial role as a promising antioxidant in scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species

  19. [Evaluation of the possibilities to increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat and meat product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.

  20. Production and characterization of ice cream with high content in oleic and linoleic fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marín-Suárez, Marta; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Padial-Domínguez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Ice creams produced with unsaturated fats rich in oleic (OO, 70.7% of oleic) and linoleic (LO, 49.0% of linoleic) fatty acids, were compared to ice cream based on saturated coconut oil (CO, 50% of lauric acid). The globule size distribution of OO mix during aging (72 h at 4°C) followed a similar...... trend to CO mix, being stable after 48 h; whereas LO mix destabilized after 24 h. CO mix showed higher destabilization during ice cream production, but no significant differences among fats were observed in the particle size of the ice cream produced. The overrun was also lower for OO and LO ice creams...... (34.19 and 27.12%, respectively) compared to CO based ice cream (45.06%). However, an improved melting behavior, which gradually decreased from 88.69% for CO to 66.09% for LO ice cream, was observed....

  1. Incorporation of 14C-linoleic acid in lipids of normal and psoriatic human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruestow, B.; Metz, D.; Kunze, D.; Meffert, H.

    1980-01-01

    The 14 C-linoleic acid incorporation in lipids of surviving epidermis and corium of normal and psoriatic human skin was investigated. Changes of lipid metabolism were found in both epidermis and corium. Particularly the turnover of phospholipids was increased in the uninvolved psoriatic epidermis in relation to the involved psoriatic epidermis or to healthy controls. Possible reasons of these phenomena and the significance of structural lipids in psoriasis are discussed. (author)

  2. THE IMPACT OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ADDITION ON PH VALUE OF LONGISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław WASILEWSKI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research was 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or sunflower oil (SFO in amount: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Animals were slaughtered with the body weight ca. 95 kg. The aim of research was to determine pH value of loin meat tissue (Longissimus dorsi of right half-carcass in 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours and 24 hours after slaughter. Results were statistically elaborated using one-way variance analysis. Longissimus dorsi muscle pH values measured 45 minutes after slaughter in case of all groups of pigs were in range from 6.34 up to 6.47, what shows good meat quality. The lowest pH1 (measured 45 minutes after slaughter had meat of fatteners where addition of 2 % sunflower oil was given into fodder and the highest value of this trait was in group of individuals where also was given sunflower oil in 1 % amount. Statistical significant differences in pH value measured in different time after slaughter i.e. after 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 hours between tested groups of pigs were not stated. The exception is the result of pH measurement 5 hours after slaughter. Statistical significant differences were between group of pigs getting 0.5 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid characterized by the highest pH value of meat and group of animals fed the fodder with 1 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid (P≤0.01. On the basis of the results obtained in presented paper may be stated that feeding pigs with addition of conjugated linoleic acid in amounts 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 % did not impact negatively on meat quality defined by pH value.

  3. Linoleic acid participates in the response to ischemic brain injury through oxidized metabolites that regulate neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, Marie; Zhang, Zhichao; Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Otoki, Yurika; Richardson, Christine E; Yang, Jun; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D; Zhang, Liang; Bazinet, Richard P; Taha, Ameer Y

    2017-06-28

    Linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n-6), the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the US diet, is a precursor to oxidized metabolites that have unknown roles in the brain. Here, we show that oxidized LA-derived metabolites accumulate in several rat brain regions during CO 2 -induced ischemia and that LA-derived 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, but not LA, increase somatic paired-pulse facilitation in rat hippocampus by 80%, suggesting bioactivity. This study provides new evidence that LA participates in the response to ischemia-induced brain injury through oxidized metabolites that regulate neurotransmission. Targeting this pathway may be therapeutically relevant for ischemia-related conditions such as stroke.

  4. Oleic acid and linoleic acid from Tenebrio molitor larvae inhibit BACE1 activity in vitro: molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Kumju; Yun, Eun-Young; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2014-02-01

    In our ongoing research to find therapeutic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) from natural resources, the inhibitory activity of the BACE1 enzyme by Tenebrio molitor larvae and its major compounds were evaluated. The T. molitor larvae extract and its fractions exhibited strong BACE1 suppression. The major components of hexane fraction possessing both high yield and strong BACE1 inhibition were determined by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. A remarkable composition of unsaturated long chain fatty acids, including oleic acid and linoleic acid, were identified. Oleic acid, in particular, noncompetitively attenuated BACE1 activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 61.31 μM and Ki value of 34.3 μM. Furthermore, the fatty acids were stably interacted with BACE1 at different allosteric sites of the enzyme bound with the OH of CYS319 and the NH₃ of TYR320 for oleic acid and with the C=O group of GLN304 for linoleic acid. Here, we first revealed novel pharmacophore features of oleic acids and linoleic acid to BACE1 by in silico docking studies. The present findings would clearly suggest potential guidelines for designing novel BACE1 selective inhibitors.

  5. Orally administered conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates allergic dermatitis induced by repeated applications of oxazolone in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tomonori; Tokunaga, Yuzo; Yamasaki, Masao; Erickson, Laurie; Kawahara, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is one of the constituents of animal products with possible health benefits such as anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of CLA using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis. Mice were orally administered either a CLA mixture containing equal amounts of 9c, 11 t-CLA and 10 t, 12c-CLA, or high linoleic acid safflower oil, and allergic dermatitis was induced on the ear by repeated topical applications of oxazolone. Oral administration of the CLA mixture but not the high linoleic safflower oil attenuated the symptoms of allergic dermatitis in both ear weights and clinical scores. This effect was associated with decreased levels of ear interleukin-4 (IL-4) and plasma immunoglobulin E. The immunomodulatory effects of the CLA isomers were compared by an in vitro cytokine production assay. The results showed that 9c, 11 t-CLA, the most predominant isomer in animal products, significantly inhibited IL-4 and interferon-γ production from mouse splenocytes with similar potency to 10 t, 12c-CLA. These findings suggest that CLA, a constituent of animal products, has a potentially beneficial effect for amelioration of allergic dermatitis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Supplemental safflower oil affects the fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid, of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty acids and CLA in the lean tissue, without adversely affecting growth performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb.

  7. Dietary Linoleic and a-Linolenic Acid Affect Anxiety-Related Responses and Exploratory Activity in Growing Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, C.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kerkhof, van I.; Smink, W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that the dietary ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to a-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursors of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively, may affect behavior in mammals. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the impact of dietary LA and

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and essential fatty acids in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipasquale, D; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Primi, R; Tröscher, A; Bernabucci, U

    2018-01-09

    Fatty acids are important modulators of inflammatory responses, in particular, n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids and CLA have received particular attention for their ability to modulate inflammation. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of CLA and essential fatty acids on the expression of pro and anti- inflammatory cytokines and their protective efficacy against inflammatory status in mammary gland by an in vitro model based on bovine mammary epithelial cells (BME-UV1). Bovine mammary epithelial cells were treated with complete medium containing either 50 µM of cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11 CLA) or trans-10, cis-12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA) or (α)-linolenic acid (aLnA) or (γ)-linolenic acid (gLnA) or linoleic acid (LA). After 48 h by fatty acids administration the cells were treated for 3 h with 20 µM of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammatory stimulus. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after treatments was assessed to verify and to compare the potential protection of different fatty acids against LPS-induced oxidative stress. The messenger RNA abundance of bovine pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukine-10 (IL-10)) and peroxisome proliferator receptor-α/γ (PPARγ/α) were determined in BME-UV1 by real-time PCR. The results showed that cells treated with fatty acids and LPS increased ROS production compared with control cells. Among treatments, cells treated with c9,t11 CLA and t10,c12 CLA isomers revealed significant lower levels of ROS production compared with other fatty acids. All fatty acids reduced the gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Among fatty acids, t10,c12 CLA, LA and gLnA showed an homogeneous reduction of the three pro-inflammatory cytokines and this may correspond to more balanced and efficient physiological activity and may trigger a better protective effect. The PPARγ gene expression was

  9. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Sailas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studies highlight that CLA, apart form the classical nuclear transcription factors-mediated mechanism of action, appear to exhibit a number of inter-dependent molecular signalling pathways accounting for their reported health benefits. Such benefits relate to anti-obesitic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic and osteosynthetic effects. On the other hand, negative effects of CLA have been reported such as fatty liver and spleen, induction of colon carcinogenesis and hyperproinsulinaemia. As far as human consumption is concerned, a definite conclusion for CLA safety has not been reached yet. Parameters such as administration of the type of CLA isomer and/or their combination with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, mode of administration (eg., as free fatty acid or its triglyceride form, liquid or solid, daily dose and duration of consumption, gender, age, or ethnic and geographical backgrounds remain to be determined. Yet, it appears from trials so far conducted that CLA are functional food having prevailing beneficial health effects for humans.

  10. Linoleic acid and its potassium and sodium salts: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocen, Tuğba; Haman Bayarı, Sevgi; Haluk Guven, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Linoleic acid (cis, cis-9,12-octodecadienoic acid) is the main polyunsaturated -omega 6- essential fatty acid. The conformational behaviour of linoleic acid (LA) in the gas phase was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT). The structures of conformers of LA were fully optimized by using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The theory showed that the tttttts‧CssCs‧tt conformation of LA (conformer I) is the more stable than the other conformations. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman spectra of pure LA in liquid form were recorded in the region 4000-450 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The DFT calculations on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of the dimer form of most stable conformer of LA were also performed using the same method. The assignment of the vibrational modes was made based on calculated potential energy distributions (PEDs). The simulated spectra of dimer form of LA are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental spectra. The sodium and potassium salts of LA were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations. Several molecular and electronic properties of LA and its salts such as HOMO-LUMO energies, chemical hardness and electronegativity were also calculated and interpreted.

  11. Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben-Russ, Michael; Bors, Wolf; Saran, Manfred

    1987-01-01

    Linoleic acid peroxyl radicals (LOO) can be viewed as model intermediates occurring during lipid peroxidation processes. Formation and reactions of these species were investigated in aqueous alkaline solution using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. Irradiation of linoleic acid in N 2 O/O 2 -saturated solutions leads to a mixture of peroxyl radical isomers; reaction of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (13-LOOH) with azide radicals in N 2 O-saturated solution produces 13-LOO radicals specifically. These peroxyl radicals cannot be observed directly, but their reactions with kaempferol and quercetin, acting as radical-scavenging antioxidants, produced strongly absorbing aroxyl radicals (ArO). The same aroxyl radicals were generated by OH and N 3 with rate constants exceeding 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . Applying a reaction scheme that includes competing generation and decay reactions of both LOO and ArO radicals, individual rate constants were derived for LOO reactions with the phenols (> 10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s-? 1 ), with aroxyl radicals to form covalent adducts (> 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ), as well as for their bimilecular decay (3.0 x 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ). These results demonstrate high reactivity of fatty acid peroxyl radicals and flavone antioxidants in aqueous solution. (author)

  12. Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erben-Russ, M.; Bors, W.; Saran, M.

    1987-09-01

    Linoleic acid peroxyl radicals (LOO) can be viewed as model intermediates occurring during lipid peroxidation processes. Formation and reactions of these species were investigated in aqueous alkaline solution using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. Irradiation of linoleic acid in N/sub 2/O/O/sub 2/-saturated solutions leads to a mixture of peroxyl radical isomers; reaction of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (13-LOOH) with azide radicals in N/sub 2/O-saturated solution produces 13-LOO radicals specifically. These peroxyl radicals cannot be observed directly, but their reactions with kaempferol and quercetin, acting as radical-scavenging antioxidants, produced strongly absorbing aroxyl radicals (ArO). The same aroxyl radicals were generated by OH and N/sub 3/ with rate constants exceeding 10/sup 9/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. Applying a reaction scheme that includes competing generation and decay reactions of both LOO and ArO radicals, individual rate constants were derived for LOO reactions with the phenols (> 10/sup 7/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s-./sup 1/), with aroxyl radicals to form covalent adducts (> 10/sup 8/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/), as well as for their bimilecular decay (3.0 x 10/sup 8/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/). These results demonstrate high reactivity of fatty acid peroxyl radicals and flavone antioxidants in aqueous solution.

  13. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids on the activity and mRNA expression of 5- and 15-lipoxygenases in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowska, Ewa; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Machaliñski, Bogusław; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2007-06-27

    Lipoxygenases are a family of non-heme enzyme dioxygenases. The role of lipoxygenases is synthesis of hydroperoxides of fatty acids, which perform signaling functions in the body. Studies on conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) as fatty acids with a potential anti-atherosclerotic function have recently been initiated. The aim of the study was to test the effect of CLAs and linoleic acid on 5- and 15-lipoxygenase (5-LO, 15-LO-1) enzyme activity, their mRNA expression, and concentration in the cells. It was also desired to determine whether the CLAs are substrates for the enzymes. For the experiments monocytic cell line (THP-1) and monocytes obtained from human venous blood were used. Monocytes were differentiated to macrophages: THP-1 (CD14+) by PMA administration (100 nM for 24 h) and monocytes from blood (CD14+) by 7-day cultivation with the autologous serum (10%). After differentiation, macrophages were cultured with 30 microM CLAs or linoleic acid for 48 h. The 15- and 5-lipoxygenase products were measured by HPLC method. mRNA expression and protein content were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. The in vitro studies proved that both CLA isomers are not substrates for 15-LO-1; in ex vivo studies hydroxydecadienoic acid (HODE) concentration was significantly reduced (p = 0.019). The trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer reduced HODE concentration by 28% (p = 0.046) and the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer by 35% (p = 0.028). In macrophages obtained from THP-1 fatty acids did not change significantly mRNA expression of the majority of the investigated genes. CLAs did not change the content of 5-LO and 15-LO-1 proteins in macrophages obtained from peripheral blood. Linoleic acid induced 15-LO-1 expression (2.6 times, p < 0.05). CLAs may perform the function of an inhibitor of lipoxygenase 15-LO-1 activity in macrophages.

  14. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu

    2012-01-01

    7-12 h, respectively. The mRNA levels of liver X receptor (LXR)α and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, transcription factors that regulate SCD-1, were decreased by 10,12 CLA within 5 h. These data suggest that the isomer-specific decrease in de novo lipid synthesis by 10,12 CLA......]-oleic or [(14)C]-linoleic acids. When using [(14)C]-acetic acid and [(14)C]-pyruvic acid as substrates, 30 μM 10,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased de novo synthesis of triglyceride, free FA, diacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, cardiolipin, phospholipids and ceramides within 3-24 h. Treatment with 30 μM 10...... is due, in part, to the rapid repression of lipogenic transcription factors that regulate MUFA synthesis, suggesting an anti-obesity mechanism unique to this trans FA....

  16. The Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Heo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (p<0.05. Nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation.

  17. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Stimulates Apoptosis in RH and Tehran Strains of Toxoplasma gondii, in Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Shamseddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on apoptosis of tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain (type I and the cyst-forming Tehran strain (type II in vitro.Toxoplasma strains were injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice. The Tehran strain forms cysts in the brain of mice. Bradyzoites within the cysts are reactivated to proliferative tachyzoites, by dexamethasone. Tachyzoites were aspirated from the peritoneum of infected mice, and the percentage of viable parasites was estimated with trypan blue staining. Tachyzoites were inoculated into HeLa cells cultivated in DMEM medium. Different concentrations of CLA were evaluated on T. gondii in HeLa cells by the tetrazolium (MTT colorimetric assay. Differentiation between apoptosis and cell death was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI double staining. The statistical analysis performed by GraphPad Prism version 6.00.CLA induces apoptosis in virulent (RH and avirulent (Tehran strains of T. gondii. The results of MTT indicated that CLA could decrease the proliferation of tachyzoites of both strains in HeLa cells.Conjugated linoleic acid has anti-toxoplasmacidal activity on tachyzoites of T. gondii. Therefore, we recommended further studies on this component in order to achieve a new drug against the parasite.

  19. Allelopathic interactions of linoleic acid and nitric oxide increase the competitive ability of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Tan, Hana; Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Pengfei; Fu, Zhengwei; Paerl, Hans W; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide with major societal and economic costs. Interactions between toxic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algal competitors can affect toxic bloom formation, but the exact mechanisms of interspecies interactions remain unknown. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling of co-cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with a green alga as well as of microorganisms collected in a Microcystis spp. bloom in Lake Taihu (China), we disentangle novel interspecies allelopathic interactions. We describe an interspecies molecular network in which M. aeruginosa inhibits growth of Chlorella vulgaris, a model green algal competitor, via the release of linoleic acid. In addition, we demonstrate how M. aeruginosa takes advantage of the cell signaling compound nitric oxide produced by C. vulgaris, which stimulates a positive feedback mechanism of linoleic acid release by M. aeruginosa and its toxicity. Our high-throughput system-biology approach highlights the importance of previously unrecognized allelopathic interactions between a broadly distributed toxic cyanobacterial bloom former and one of its algal competitors. PMID:28398349

  20. Dose-rate and oxygen effects in models of lipid membranes: linoleic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raleigh, J A; Kremers, W; Gaboury, B [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba. Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    1977-03-01

    Cellular membranes have been suggested as possible loci for the development of the oxygen effect in radiobiology. Unsaturated lipids from membranes are subject to very efficient radiation-induced peroxidation, and the deleterious effects generally associated with lipid autoxidation could be initiated by ionizing radiation. Oxidative damage in lipids was characterized not only by high yields but also by a profound dose-rate effect. At dose-rates of x irradiation below 100 rad/min, a very sharp rise occurred in oxidative damage. This damage has been quantified spectrophotometrically in terms of diene conjugation (O.D. 234 mm) and chromatographically in terms of specific 9- and 13-hydroperoxide formation in linoleic acid micelles. Radical scavenging experiments indicated that hydroxyl radical attack initiated the oxidative damage. Dimethyl sulphoxide is exceptional in that it did not protect, but sensitized, linoleic acid to radiation-induced peroxidation. The yields of hydroperoxides were substantial (G = 10 to 40) and could be related to biological changes known to be effected by autoxidizing lipids.

  1. Allelopathic interactions of linoleic acid and nitric oxide increase the competitive ability of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Tan, Hana; Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Pengfei; Fu, Zhengwei; Paerl, Hans W; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-08-01

    The frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide with major societal and economic costs. Interactions between toxic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algal competitors can affect toxic bloom formation, but the exact mechanisms of interspecies interactions remain unknown. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling of co-cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with a green alga as well as of microorganisms collected in a Microcystis spp. bloom in Lake Taihu (China), we disentangle novel interspecies allelopathic interactions. We describe an interspecies molecular network in which M. aeruginosa inhibits growth of Chlorella vulgaris, a model green algal competitor, via the release of linoleic acid. In addition, we demonstrate how M. aeruginosa takes advantage of the cell signaling compound nitric oxide produced by C. vulgaris, which stimulates a positive feedback mechanism of linoleic acid release by M. aeruginosa and its toxicity. Our high-throughput system-biology approach highlights the importance of previously unrecognized allelopathic interactions between a broadly distributed toxic cyanobacterial bloom former and one of its algal competitors.

  2. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rist, L.; Mueller, A.; Barthel, C.; Snijders, B.; Jansen, M.; Simões-Wüst, A.P.; Huber, M.; Kummeling, I.; Mandach, U. von; Steinhart, H.; Thijs, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis through estrogen receptor alpha in human breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Suling

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a naturally occurring fatty acid found in ruminant products such as milk and beef, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities in in vivo animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. In human breast cancer, the overall duration of estrogen exposure is the most important risk factor for developing estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Accordingly, it has been suggested that estrogen exposure reduces apoptosis through the up-regulation of the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, regulates apoptosis and plays a crucial role in the development and growth regulation of normal and cancerous cells. Our research interest is to examine the effects of CLA on the induction of apoptosis in human breast tissues. Methods The localization of Bcl-2 in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining and the Bcl-2 protein expression was tested by western blot analysis. Co-culture of epithelial cells and stromal cells was carried out in the presence or absence of CLA to evaluate apoptosis in the context of a cell-cell interaction. Results The results showed that both normal and cancerous breast tissues were positive for Bcl-2 staining, which was higher overall in mammary ducts but very low in the surrounding stromal compartment. Interestingly, by quantifying the western blot data, basal Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in normal breast epithelial cells than in cancerous epithelial cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2 stimulated growth and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression in estrogen responsive breast epithelial cells; however, these carcinogenic effects were diminished by either CLA or 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (Tam and were suppressed further by the combination of CLA and Tam. In both one cell type cultured and co-culture systems, CLA induced cell apoptosis in ERα transfected MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the wild type MDA

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis through estrogen receptor alpha in human breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Shu; Huang, Yi-Wen; Liu, Suling; Yan, Pearlly; Lin, Young C

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring fatty acid found in ruminant products such as milk and beef, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities in in vivo animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. In human breast cancer, the overall duration of estrogen exposure is the most important risk factor for developing estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Accordingly, it has been suggested that estrogen exposure reduces apoptosis through the up-regulation of the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, regulates apoptosis and plays a crucial role in the development and growth regulation of normal and cancerous cells. Our research interest is to examine the effects of CLA on the induction of apoptosis in human breast tissues. The localization of Bcl-2 in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining and the Bcl-2 protein expression was tested by western blot analysis. Co-culture of epithelial cells and stromal cells was carried out in the presence or absence of CLA to evaluate apoptosis in the context of a cell-cell interaction. The results showed that both normal and cancerous breast tissues were positive for Bcl-2 staining, which was higher overall in mammary ducts but very low in the surrounding stromal compartment. Interestingly, by quantifying the western blot data, basal Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in normal breast epithelial cells than in cancerous epithelial cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) stimulated growth and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression in estrogen responsive breast epithelial cells; however, these carcinogenic effects were diminished by either CLA or 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (Tam) and were suppressed further by the combination of CLA and Tam. In both one cell type cultured and co-culture systems, CLA induced cell apoptosis in ERα transfected MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the wild type MDA-MB-231 cells. These data, therefore, demonstrate that

  5. Production of Palmitoleic and Linoleic Acid in Oleaginous and Nonoleaginous Yeast Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kolouchová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility of utilizing both oleaginous yeast species accumulating large amounts of lipids (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Candida sp. and traditional biotechnological nonoleaginous ones (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as potential producers of dietetically important major fatty acids. The main objective was to examine the cultivation conditions that would induce a high ratio of dietary fatty acids and biomass. Though genus-dependent, the type of nitrogen source had a higher influence on biomass yield than the C/N ratio. The nitrogen source leading to the highest lipid accumulation was potassium nitrate, followed by ammonium sulfate, which is an ideal nitrogen source supporting, in both oleaginous and nonoleaginous species, sufficient biomass growth with concomitantly increased lipid accumulation. All yeast strains displayed high (70–90% content of unsaturated fatty acids in total cell lipids. The content of dietary fatty acids of interest, namely, palmitoleic acid and linoleic acid, reached in Kluyveromyces and Trichosporon strains over 50% of total fatty acids and the highest yield, over 280 mg per g of dry cell weight of these fatty acids, was observed in Trichosporon with ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source at C/N ratio 70.

  6. Hydrogenation Alternatives - Effects of Trans-Fatty-Acids and Stearic-Acid Versus Linoleic-Acid on Serum-Lipids and Lipoproteins in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of linoleic acid (cis,cis-C18:2(n-6)) and its hydrogenation products elaidic (trans-C18:1(n-9)) and stearic acid (C18:0) on serum lipoprotein levels in humans.Twenty-six men and 30 women, all nor

  7. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  8. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9) microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (pbreve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (pbreve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (pbreve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats significantly modified the palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents in tissues. The effect was not observed in non-separated animals.

  9. Experimentally induced cerebral fat embolism with linoleic acid; MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bae; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Yong; Lee, Suck Hong; Park, Byeong Rae

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the MRI findings of cerebral fat embolism induced by injecting linoleic acid into ten cats, and pathologic diagnosis. Using a microcatheter, 30μ1 of linoleic acid was injeted into the internal carotid artery of ten cats. MR T2-weighted (T2WI), diffusion-weighted (DWI), and Gd-enhanced T1-weighted images(Gd-enhanced T1WI) were obtained after 30 minutes and after 2 hours of embolization. We pathlogically examined endothelial cell damage, cellular change, perivascular abnormality and fat vacuoles, and then determined the correlation between MRI and the pathologic findings. After 30 minutes of embolization, lesions of very high signal intensity were detected by T2WI in six cats, and of slightly high signal intensity in two:in the remaining two, signal intensity was normal. DWI showed lesions of very high intensity in nine animals and of slightly high intensity in one, while Gd-enhanced T1WI showed well-enhanced lesions in nine and a minimally enhanced lesion in one. After 2 hours of embolization, T2WI revealed lesions of very high signal intensity in nine cats, and of slightly high signal intensity in one, while DWI detected lesions of very high signal intensity in all cats. On Gd-enhanced T1WI, lesions in all cats were well enhanced. According to the findings of light microscopic examination, infarcted lesions mainly involved the gray matter, but also some white matter. In the lesions, neurophil matrix edema, neuronal degeneration, perivascular swelling, the widening of extracellular space, extravascular hemorrhage, and fat vacuoles were evident. During the initial two hours following injuction, MR imaging of cerebral fat embolism induced by linoleic acid through the internal carotid artery in cats showed high signal intensity on T2WI and DWI, and clear enhancement on Gd-enhanced T1WI. In cases involving cellular edema, cerebrovascular injury and extracellular space widening, the pathologic evidence suggested the coexistence of

  10. Kinetics of photoirradiation-induced synthesis of soy oil-conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew

    2007-02-07

    Photoirradiation of soy oil with UV/visible light has been shown to produce significant amounts of trans,trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers through conversion of various synthesized intermediate cis,trans isomers. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of CLA isomers synthesis to better understand the production of various isomers. Soy oil was irradiated with UV/visible light for 144 h in the presence of an iodine catalyst and CLA isomers analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Arrhenius plots were developed for the conversion of soy oil linoleic acid (A) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA (B), conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA to form trans,trans-CLA (C) with respect to B, and formation of trans,trans-CLA isomers with respect to C. The kinetics of consumption of linoleic acid (LA) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA was found to be of second-order with a rate constant of 9.01 x 10-7 L/mol s. The rate of formation of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers depends on the rate of formation from LA and its rate of consumption to form trans,trans-CLA isomers. The conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers to trans,trans-CLA isomers was found to be of first-order with a rate constant of 2.75 x 10-6 s-1. However, the formation of thermodynamically stable trans,trans-CLA isomers (C) with respect to C was found to be a zero-order reaction with a rate constant of 10.66 x 10-7 mol/L s. The consumption of LA was found to be the rate-determining step in the CLA isomers formation reaction mechanism. The findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of CLA isomers synthesis by photoirradiation and the factors controlling the ratio of various isomers.

  11. Preliminary observations on the effects of milk fortification with conjugated linoleic acid in yogurt preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, R. V.; Albert, I.; András, C. D.; Csapó, J.; Ibănescu, C.

    2015-04-01

    The fortification and enrichment of food with health benefic natural or natural identical substances creating new functional foods became an important issue for food researchers and processors. However, often occurs that the obtained products (despite of their health benefic activity) cannot be marketed due to strange or accustomed taste and/or texture. The aim of the research was to elucidate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) enrichment of raw milk on the rheological properties of the obtained yogurt. The results show that the values of the complex viscosity at 50 rad.s-1 (correlated with the thickness and sliminess of the food gel structures) of the CLA-enriched yogurt was the lowest among the studied samples, meaning the enriched yogurt is more creamy than the commercial products. These observations gave us the hope that, in this case, the texture of enriched product will not present any drawback related to consumer quality judgment.

  12. Effect of spirulina on the levels of zinc, vitamin E and linoleic acid in the palm skin extracts of people with prolonged exposure to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Misbahuddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, a dietary supplement, improves the symptoms of arsenical palmer keratosis. To understand its mechanism of action, palm skin extracts of moderate palmer arsenical keratosis (n=10, arsenic exposed controls (n=10 and healthy volunteers (n=10 were collected before and after treatment with spirulina powder 10 g/day orally for 12 weeks. The mean (±SD amount of zinc in the palm skin of healthy volunteers was 13.1 ± 5.7 ng/cm2, which was not changed significantly in patients (11.3 ± 5.3 ng/cm2. The amount of vitamin E in healthy volunteers was 6.0 ± 0.3 ng/cm2 which was severely reduced in patients (3.5 ± 0.6 ng/cm2. The amount of linoleic acid was lowered in patient (26.7 ± 17.1 ng/cm2 which was statistically significant in comparison to healthy volunteers (p=0.029. After supplementation of spirulina, zinc level in the palm skin of arsenic exposed controls was increased but it was not statistically significant (p=0.068. The vitamin E and linoleic acid levels were not changed significantly in the skin of palm. In conclusion, arsenical keratosis showed significantly low levels of vitamin E and linoleic acid without any significant change in zinc level. After supplementation of spirulina, low levels of these three compounds were not returned towards the normal levels.

  13. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Burdette, J E; Sun, Y; Deng, S; Schlecht, S M; Zheng, W; Nikolic, D; Mahady, G; van Breemen, R B; Fong, H H S; Pezzuto, J M; Bolton, J L; Farnsworth, N R

    2004-01-01

    A methanol extract of chaste-tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus L.) was tested for its ability to displace radiolabeled estradiol from the binding site of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). The extract at 46 +/- 3 microg/ml displaced 50% of estradiol from ERalpha and 64 +/- 4 microg/ml from ERbeta. Treatment of the ER+ hormone-dependent T47D:A18 breast cancer cell line with the extract induced up-regulation of ERbeta mRNA. Progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was upregulated in the Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. However, chaste-tree berry extract did not induce estrogen-dependent alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in Ishikawa cells. Bioassay-guided isolation, utilizing ER binding as a monitor, resulted in the isolation of linoleic acid as one possible estrogenic component of the extract. The use of pulsed ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is an affinity-based screening technique, also identified linoleic acid as an ER ligand based on its selective affinity, molecular weight, and retention time. Linoleic acid also stimulated mRNA ERbeta expression in T47D:A18 cells, PR expression in Ishikawa cells, but not AP activity in Ishikawa cells. These data suggest that linoleic acid from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus can bind to estrogen receptors and induce certain estrogen inducible genes.

  14. Characterization of the triple-component linoleic acid isomerase in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 by genetic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B; Qi, H; Gu, Z; Zhang, H; Chen, W; Chen, H; Chen, Y Q

    2017-11-01

    To assess the mechanism for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058. CLA has attracted great interests for decades due to its health-associated benefits including anticancer, anti-atherogenic, anti-obesity and modulation of the immune system. A number of microbial CLA producers were widely reported including lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, an isolate from Chinese traditional fermented food, could convert LA to CLA with various intermediates. To characterize the genetic determinants for generating CLA, a cre-lox-based system was utilized to delete the genes encoding myosin cross-reactive antigen (MCRA), short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase (DH) and acetoacetate decarboxylase (DC) in Lact. plantarum ZS2058, respectively. Neither intermediate was detected in the corresponding gene deletion mutant. Meanwhile all those mutants could recover the ability to convert linoleic acid to CLA when the corresponding gene was completed. The results indicated that CLA production was a multiple-step reaction catalysed by triple-component linoleate isomerase system encoded by mcra, dh and dc. Multicomponent linoleic acid isomerase provided important results for illustration unique mechanism for CLA production in Lact. plantarum ZS2058. Lactobacilli with CLA production ability offer novel opportunities for functional food development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Autoxidation of conjugated linoleic acid methyl ester in the presence of α-tocopherol: the hydroperoxide pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Pajunen, Taina

    2009-01-01

    The autoxidation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is poorly understood in spite of increasing interest in the beneficial biological properties of CLA and growing consumption of CLA-rich foods. In this thesis, the autoxidation reactions of the two major CLA isomers, 9-cis,11-trans-octadecadienoic acid and 10-trans,12-cis-octadecadienoic acid, are investigated. The results contribute to an understanding of the early stages of the autoxidation of CLA methyl ester, and provide for the first time...

  16. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...... in the control group (P women and greater serum insulin concentrations in the highest waist circumference tertile. Future research is needed to confirm the insulin desensitizing...

  17. Lecithin-Based Nano-emulsification Improves the Bioavailability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Jun Ho; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-02-17

    In this study, we investigated the effects of lecithin-based nano-emulsification on the heat stability and bioavailability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in different free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) forms. CLA nano-emulsion in TG form exhibited a small droplet size (70-120 nm) compared to CLA nano-emulsion in FFA form (230-260 nm). Nano-emulsification protected CLA isomers in TG form, but not in free form, against thermal decomposition during the heat treatment. The in vitro bioavailability test using monolayers of Caco-2 human intestinal cells showed that nano-emulsification increased the cellular uptake of CLA in both FFA and TG forms. More importantly, a rat feeding study showed that CLA content in small intestinal tissues or plasma was higher when CLA was emulsified, indicating an enhanced oral bioavailability of CLA by nano-emulsification. These results provide important information for development of nano-emulsion-based delivery systems that improve thermal stability and bioavailability of CLA.

  18. Chemometric deconvolution of gas chromatographic unresolved conjugated linoleic acid isomers triplet in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasko, Jaroslav; Kubinec, Róbert; Ostrovský, Ivan; Pavlíková, Eva; Krupcík, Ján; Soják, Ladislav

    2009-04-03

    A generally known problem of GC separation of trans-7;cis-9; cis-9,trans-11; and trans-8,cis-10 CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) isomers was studied by GC-MS on 100m capillary column coated with cyanopropyl silicone phase at isothermal column temperatures in a range of 140-170 degrees C. The resolution of these CLA isomers obtained at given conditions was not high enough for direct quantitative analysis, but it was, however, sufficient for the determination of their peak areas by commercial deconvolution software. Resolution factors of overlapped CLA isomers determined by the separation of a model CLA mixture prepared by mixing of a commercial CLA mixture and CLA isomer fraction obtained by the HPLC semi-preparative separation of milk fatty acids methyl esters were used to validate the deconvolution procedure. Developed deconvolution procedure allowed the determination of the content of studied CLA isomers in ewes' and cows' milk samples, where dominant isomer cis-9,trans-11 is eluted between two small isomers trans-7,cis-9 and trans-8,cis-10 (in the ratio up to 1:100).

  19. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  20. Matrice lipidique et biodisponibilité de l’acide alpha-linolénique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couëdelo Leslie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Les acides gras poly-insaturés (AGPI de la série oméga-3 (ω3 ont un rôle important dans la prévention de certaines pathologies. En plus d’être nécessaires dans des conditions physiologiques particulières (développement pré- et post-natal, croissance (Riediger et al., 2009. J Am Diet Assoc 109 : 668–679, ils sont associés à des effets santé en termes de prévention, notamment au niveau de pathologies cardiovasculaires, inflammatoires, certains cancers et certaines maladies neuro-dégénératives (De Lorgeril et al., 1994. Lancet 343 : 1454–1459 ; Simopoulos, 2008. Exp Biol Med (Maywood, NJ 233 : 674–688. Cependant, les dernières études épidémiologiques montrent que les apports en AGPI ω3, et notamment en acide alpha-linolénique (ALA, précurseur métabolique des AGPI à longue chaîne ω3, sont deux fois inférieurs aux recommandations de l’Agence national de sécurité sanitaire, de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail (ANSES, 2011. Outre la nécessité d’augmenter l’apport en ALA, il est désormais nécessaire de prendre en considération les facteurs qui améliorent sa biodisponibilité. Dans ce contexte, nous avons testé plusieurs paramètres susceptibles de moduler le devenir métabolique de l’ALA. Nos recherches ont mis en évidence que plusieurs paramètres physiques et chimiques, tels que l’émulsification d’une huile linolénique avec de la lécithine de soja, la position de l’ALA sur le squelette glycérique du triglycéride alimentaire mais aussi la composition de la matrice permettraient de moduler la biodisponibilité et le devenir métabolique de l’ALA dans l’organisme.

  1. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin Barrett

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15 were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9 microorganisms/day alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05 compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01 and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05, and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001. B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated

  2. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid and trans 18:1 isomers in synthetic and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, John K G; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Deng, Zeyuan; Zhou, Jianqiang; Jahreis, Gerhard; Dugan, Michael E R

    2004-06-01

    The chemistry of conjugated fatty acids, specifically octadecadienoic acids (18:2; commonly referred to as conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA), has provided many challenges to lipid analysts because of their unique physical properties and the many possible positional and geometric isomers. After the acid-labile properties of CLAs during analytic procedures were overcome, it became evident that natural products, specifically dairy fats, contain one dominant (c9,t11-CLA), 3 intermediate (t7,c9-, t9,c11-, and t11,c13-CLA), and up to 20 more minor CLA isomers. The best analytic techniques to date include a combination of gas chromatography that uses 100-m highly polar capillary columns, silver ion-HPLC, and a combination of silver ion-thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography to analyze the CLA and trans 18:1 isomers, because some of them serve as precursors of CLA in biological systems. These analytic techniques have assisted commercial suppliers to prepare pure CLA isomers and have permitted the evaluation of individual CLA isomers for their nutritional and biological activity in animal and human systems. It is increasingly evident that different CLA isomers have distinctly different physiologic and biochemical properties. These techniques are essential to evaluate dairy fats for their CLA content, to design experimental diets to increase the amount of CLA in dairy fats, and to determine the CLA profile in these CLA-enriched dairy fats. These improved techniques are used to evaluate the CLA profile in pork products from pigs fed different commercial CLA mixtures.

  3. Production of volatiles in fresh-cut apple: effect of applying alginate coatings containing linoleic acid or isoleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Meraz, Irma O; Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Molina-Corral, Francisco J; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Jacobo-Cuellar, Juan L; Sepulveda, David R; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2014-11-01

    One of the main quality parameters in apples is aroma, its main precursors are fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). In this study, alginate edible coatings were used as carriers of linoleic acid or isoleucine to serve as precursors for the production of aroma in cut apples. Apple wedges were immersed in a CaCl2 solution and coated with one of the following formulations: alginate solution (Alg-Ca), Alg-Ca-low-level linoleic acid (0.61 g/Lt), (LFA), Alg-Ca-high-level linoleic acid (2.44 g/L; HFA), Alg-Ca-low-level isoleucine (0.61 g/L; LAA), and Alg-Ca-high-level isoleucine (2.44 g/L; HAA). Apple wedges were stored at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity for 21 d and key volatiles were studied during storage. Addition of precursors, mainly isoleucine, showed to increase the production of some key volatiles on coated fresh-cut apples during storage. The concentration of 2-methyl-1-butanol was 4 times higher from day 12 to day 21 in HAA, while 2-methyl butyl acetate increased from day 12 to day 21 in HAA. After 21 d, HAA-apples presented a 40-fold value of 2-methyl-butyl acetate, compared to Alg-Ca cut apples. Values of hexanal increased during cut apple storage when the coating carried linoleic acid, mainly on HFA, from 3 to 12 d. The ability of apples to metabolize AA and FA depends on the concentration of precursors, but also depends on key enzymes, previous apple storage, among others. Further studies should be done to better clarify the behavior of fresh-cut apples as living tissue to metabolize precursors contained in edible coatings for the production of volatiles. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and other biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat of cows fed raw or extruded linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akraim, F; Nicot, M C; Juaneda, P; Enjalbert, F

    2007-07-01

    Thirty lactating dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design to investigate the effects of a raw or extruded blend of linseed and wheat bran (70:30) on plasma and milk fatty-acids (FA). Linseed diets, containing 16.6% linseed blend on a dry-matter basis, decreased milk yield and protein percentage. They decreased the proportions of FA with less than 18 carbons in plasma and milk and resulted in cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 proportions that were more than three and four times higher in plasma and milk, respectively, whereas cis-9, cis-12 18:2 proportions were decreased by 10-15%. The cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid was not detected in the milk of control cows, but was over 0.15% of total FA in the milk fat of linseed-supplemented cows. Similarly, linseed increased plasma and milk proportions of all biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in plasma and milk, including the main isomer of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11 18:2, except trans-4 18:1 and cis-11, trans-15 18:2 in plasma lipids. In milk fat, compared with raw linseed, extruded linseed further reduced 6:0-16:0 even-chain FA, did not significantly affect the proportions of 18:0, cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, cis-12 18:2, tended to increase cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3, and resulted in an additional increase in the proportions of most BH intermediates. It was concluded that linseed addition can improve the proportion of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids, and that extrusion further increases the proportions of intermediates of ruminal BH in milk fat.

  5. Effect of substratum, serum and linoleic acid on the lipid synthesis of isolated alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cott, G.R.; Edeen, K.E.; Hale, S.G.; Mason, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of cellular substratum (plastic or amnionic basement membrane (ABM)) and serum additive (fetal bovine (FBS), pork, horse, rat or human) on phospholipid synthesis in alveolar type II cells. The cells were isolated from adult rats, cultured for 48 hours under the various substratum and serum conditions, and then incubated for an additional 2 hours with [1- 14 C] acetate. ABM consistently caused a significant increase in the percent of radiolabel incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) and/or phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Serum also had a significant effect with the highest values of PC and saturated PC being obtained with rat serum and the highest PG values with horse serum. The fatty acid composition of the sera used varied according to species with the largest variations in percent linoleic acid. Supplementing media with linoleic acid resulted in a marked increase in saturated PC values and a fall in PG values. Therefore, they conclude that: 1) ABM improves differentiated function, 2) FBS supplementation may not be optimal, and 3) the different effects of linoleic acid supplementation on PC, saturated PC, and PG values suggests an independent regulation of synthesis for these lipid species in vitro

  6. Complexes between ovalbumin nanoparticles and linoleic acid: Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponton, Osvaldo E; Perez, Adrián A; Carrara, Carlos R; Santiago, Liliana G

    2016-11-15

    Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of complex formation between heat-induced aggregates of ovalbumin (ovalbumin nanoparticles, OVAn) and linoleic acid (LA) were evaluated. Extrinsic fluorescence data were fitted to modified Scatchard model yielding the following results: n: 49±2 LA molecules bound per OVA monomer unit and Ka: 9.80±2.53×10(5)M. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties were analyzed by turbidity measurements at different LA/OVA monomer molar ratios (21.5-172) and temperatures (20-40°C). An adsorption approach was used and a pseudo-second-order kinetics was found for LA-OVAn complex formation. This adsorption process took place within 1h. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that LA adsorption on OVAn was a spontaneous, endothermic and entropically-driven process, highlighting the hydrophobic nature of the LA and OVAn interaction. Finally, Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed that both OVAn and LA-OVAn complexes have a roughly rounded form with size lower than 100nm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates inflammation-induced colorectal cancer in mice through activation of PPARgamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P; Misyak, Sarah A; Schmelz, Eva M; Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood. Mice lacking PPARgamma in immune and epithelial cells and PPARgamma-expressing littermates were fed either control or CLA-supplemented (1 g CLA/100 g) diets to determine the role of PPARgamma in inflammation-induced CRC. To induce tumor formation and colitis, mice were treated with azoxymethane and then challenged with 2% dextran sodium sulfate, respectively. Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARgamma-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARgamma-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARgamma-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARgamma-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARgamma-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism.

  8. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Hassan; Matin, Somaieh; Nemati, Ali; Naghizadeh-Baghi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL 1β ), is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients. In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL 1β assessment, the patients' anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score ( P =0.001), average caloric intake ( P =0.01), and macronutrient intake ( P nutritional status of patients suffering from COPD through adjusting the serum level of IL 1β .

  9. Mathematical Modelling to Predict Oxidative Behaviour of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Food Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitziber Ojanguren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes that apply high temperatures in the presence of oxygen may compromise the stability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA bioactive isomers. Statistical techniques are used in this study to model and predict, on a laboratory scale, the oxidative behaviour of oil with high CLA content, controlling the limiting factors of food processing. This modelling aims to estimate the impact of an industrial frying process (140 °C, 7 L/h air on the oxidation of CLA oil for use as frying oil instead of sunflower oil. A factorial design was constructed within a temperature (80–200 °C and air flow (7–20 L/h range. Oil stability index (Rancimat method was used as a measure of oxidation. Three-level full factorial design was used to obtain a quadratic model for CLA oil, enabling the oxidative behaviour to be predicted under predetermined process conditions (temperature and air flow. It is deduced that temperatures applied in food processes affect the oxidation of CLA to a greater extent than air flow. As a result, it is estimated that the oxidative stability of CLA oil is less resistant to industrial frying than sunflower oil. In conclusion, thanks to the mathematical model, a good choice of the appropriate industrial food process can be selected to avoid the oxidation of the bioactive isomers of CLA, ensuring its functionality in novel applications.

  10. The effects of conjugated linoleic acids on breast cancer: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Arab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently prevention strategies for breast cancer are focused on lifestyle modification such as diet. Some dietary factors such as Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA can lower the risk of breast cancer, metastasis and some factors concerning this malignancy. Many studies have been established in this field, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated this association based on systematic review among published scientific literature. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar and Persian database (Iran Medex, magiran to identify relevant studies. We summarized the findings of 8 papers in this review. Although, three cohort studies were not overall identified a protective effect of CLA dietary intake or CLA content in breast tissue on breast cancer incidence, metastasis and death, one of them showed an inverse association after adjusting for age. Also, among case-control studies a weak inverse association between breast cancer risk and CLA dietary intake and serum levels among post-menopausal women was reported. Besides, a clinical trial showed that some indicator of breast tumor decreased after CLA administration among women with breast adenocarcinoma. Lacking published evidence suggested inconsistent results. So, further well-designed studies are required, particularly in considering the main breast cancer risk factors.

  11. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi extract and linoleic acid from Passiflora edulis synergistically decrease melanin synthesis in B16 cells and reconstituted epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, A T S; Arroteia, K F; Santos, I A; Andres, E; Medina, S P H; Ferrari, C R; Lourenço, C B; Biaggio, R M T T; Moreira, P L

    2012-10-01

    Several treatments for skin whitening are available today, but few of them are completely adequate, especially owing to the carcinogenic potential attributed to classical drugs like hydroquinone, arbutin and kojic acid. To provide an alternative and safer technology for whitening, we developed two botanical compounds originated from Brazilian biodiversity, an extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and a linoleic acid fraction isolated from Passiflora edulis oil. The whitening effect of these compounds was assessed using biochemical assays and in vitro models including cellular assays and equivalent skin. The results showed that S. terebinthifolius Raddi extract is able to reduce the tyrosinase activity in vitro, and the combination of this extract with linoleic acid is able to decrease the level of melanin produced by B16 cells cultured with melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, melanin was also reduced in human reconstituted epidermis (containing melanocytes) treated with the compounds. The combination of the compounds may provide a synergistic positive whitening effect rather than their isolated use. Finally, we demonstrated that the performance of these mixed compounds is comparable to classical molecules used for skin whitening, as kojic acid. This new natural mixture could be considered an alternative therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation and an effective component in whitening cosmetics. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Contrasting apoptotic responses of conjugated linoleic acid in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed palm oil or ovine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Viana, Ricardo S J; Ramalho, Rita M; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinho, Mário S; Jerónimo, Eliana; Bessa, Rui J B; Castro, Matilde F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prates, José A M

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesized that reducing weight properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to adipocyte apoptosis and that CLA differentially modulates the apoptotic responses in hepatic lipotoxicity from rats fed saturated fat diets. Obese Zucker rats were fed atherogenic diets (2%w/w of cholesterol) formulated with high (15%w/w) saturated fat, from vegetable or animal origin, supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers for 14 weeks. CLA induced no changes on retroperitoneal fat depot weight, which was in line with similar levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, CLA had a contrasting effect on cell death in the liver according to the dietary fat. CLA increased hepatocyte apoptosis, associated with upregulation of Fas protein in rats fed palm oil, compared to rats receiving palm oil alone. However, rats fed ovine fat alone displayed the highest levels of hepatic cell death, which were decreased in rats fed ovine fat plus CLA. This reducing effect of CLA was related to positively restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATF-6α, BiP and CHOP protein levels and increasing phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, thus suggesting an adaptive response of cell survival. These findings reinforce the role of CLA as regulator of apoptosis in the liver. Moreover, the dietary fat composition is a key factor in activation of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; Park, Si-Bum; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute...

  15. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Determination of the conjugated linoleic acid-containing triacylglycerols in New Zealand bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N P; MacGibbon, A K

    2000-07-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 233 nm was used to separate, quantify, and identify the triacylglycerols (TAG) of milk fat that contain conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The absorbance at 233 nm was substantially due to CLA-TAG (chromatography of some representative TAG devoid of CLA, such as tripalmitin and triolein, showed poor responses at 233 nm, 1/800th that of CLA-TAG). A CLA molar extinction coefficient at 233 nm of 23,360 L mol(-1) cm(-1) and an HPLC UV response factor were obtained from a commercially available cis-9,trans-11-CLA standard. This molar extinction coefficient was only 86% of reported literature values. Summation of all chromatographic peaks absorbing at 233 nm using the corrected response factor gave good agreement with independent determinations of total CLA by gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometry. This agreement allowed quantification of individual CLA-TAG peaks in the HPLC separation of a typical New Zealand bovine milk fat. Three CLA-containing TAG, CLA-dipalmitin, CLA-oleoyl-palmitin and CLA-diolein, were prepared by interesterification of tripalmitin with the respective fatty acid methyl esters and used to assign individual peaks in the reversed-phase chromatography of total milk fat, of which CLA-oleoyl-palmitin was coincident with the largest UV peak. Band fractions from argentation thin-layer chromatography of total milk fat were similarly employed to identify five predominant CLA-TAG groups in total milk fat: CLA-disaturates, CLA-oleoyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-olein, and CLA-diolein.

  17. Essential function of linoleic acid esterified in acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide in maintaining the epidermal water permeability barrier. Evidence from feeding studies with oleate, linoleate, arachidonate, columbinate and a-linolenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1985-01-01

    sphingolipids. These rats showed increased evaporation which was comparable to that of essential fatty acid-deficient rats. We interpret these results as strong evidence for a very specific and essential function of linoleic acid in maintaining the integrity of the epidermal water permeability barrier......Essential fatty acid-deficient rats were supplemented with 300 mg per day of pure fatty acid esters: oleate (O), linoleate (L), arachidonate (A), and columbinate (C) for 10 days. During this period, the rats in groups L, A, and C all showed a decrease in their initially high trans-epidermal water...... loss, a classical essential fatty acid-deficiency symptom, to a level seen in non-deficient rats (group N). The trans-epidermal water loss in rats of group O was unaffected by the supplementation. Fatty acid composition of two epidermal sphingolipids, acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide, from...

  18. Differences in partitioning of meal fatty acids into blood lipid fractions: a comparison of linoleate, oleate, and palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Leanne; McQuaid, Siobh?n E.; Karpe, Fredrik; Frayn, Keith N.; Fielding, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been much interest in the health effects of dietary fat, but few studies have comprehensively compared the acute metabolic fate of specific fatty acids in vivo. We hypothesized that different classes of fatty acids would be variably partitioned in metabolic pathways and that this would become evident over 24 h. We traced the fate of fatty acids using equal amounts of [U-13C]linoleate, [U-13C]oleate, and [U-13C]palmitate given in a test breakfast meal in 12 healthy subjects. There wa...

  19. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  20. Characterization and stability analysis of zinc oxide nanoencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Jin-Ho; Shin, Jiwon; Lim, Seung-Yong; Oh, Jae-Min; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Oh, Sangsuk

    2010-08-01

    Nanoencapsulation technology has a diverse range of applications, including drug-delivery systems (DDS) and cosmetic and chemical carriers, because it can deliver various bio- and organic-molecules and improve their stabilities. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has health benefits, including being an anticancer agent, but it decreases flavor due to volatiles from oxidation. To improve the stability of CLA for food applications, nanoencapsulated CLA was synthesized for use in zinc basic salt (ZBS) and characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental CHN analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, UV/VIS spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of nanoencapsulated CLA at 180 degrees C, a temperature similar to that used in cooking, was analyzed by gas chromatography. The gallery height of nanoencapsulated CLA was determined to be approximately 26 A through powder X-ray diffractometry; therefore, the CLA molecules were closely packed with zig-zag form between the intracrystalline spaces of nano particles. Elemental CHN analysis and ICP data determined the chemical composition of nanoencapsulated CLA to be Zn(4.86)(OH)(8.78)(CLA)(0.94). By TGA, it was determined about 45% (wt/wt) of weight loss corresponded to CLA, which is good agreement with the 42.13% (wt/wt) determined from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elemental CHN analysis. UV/VIS spectroscopy and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed encapsulated CLA maintained a conjugated diene structure, supporting the presence of CLA. Nanoencapsulation improved the thermal stability of CLA by about 25%, compared to pristine CLA. Practical Application: This system can be used for protection of encapsulated negatively-charged food ingredients from thermal processing.

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid or omega 3 fatty acids increase mitochondrial biosynthesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are popular dietary supplements advertised to contribute to weight loss by increasing fat metabolism in liver, but the effects on overall muscle metabolism are less established. We evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or combination omega 3 on metabolic characteristics in muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with either DMSO control, or CLA or combination omega 3 for 24 or 48 hours. RNA was determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was determined using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rates. Results Omega 3 significantly induced metabolic genes as well as oxidative metabolism (oxygen consumption, glycolytic capacity (extracellular acidification, and metabolic rate compared with control. Both treatments significantly increased mitochondrial content. Conclusion Omega 3 fatty acids appear to enhance glycolytic, oxidative, and total metabolism. Moreover, both omega 3 and CLA treatment significantly increase mitochondrial content compared with control.

  2. Production of 7,8-Dihydroxy Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Plant Oils by Whole Recombinant Cells Expressing 7,8-Linoleate Diol Synthase from Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Ju; Kang, Woo-Ri; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2016-11-16

    The reaction conditions for the production of 7S,8S-dihydroxy-9,12(Z,Z)-octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing 7,8-linoleate diol synthase from Glomerella cingulata were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimal reaction conditions were pH 7.0, 18.6 °C, 10.8% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, 44.9 g/L cells, and 14.3 g/L linoleic acid, with agitation at 256 rpm. Under these conditions, recombinant cells produced 7,8-dihydroxy unsaturated fatty acids in the range of 7.0-9.8 g/L from 14.3 g/L linoleic acid, 14.3 g/L oleic acid, and plant oil hydrolysates such as waste oil and olive oil containing 14.3 g/L linoleic acid or oleic acid. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the biotechnological production of 7,8-dihydroxy unsaturated fatty acids.

  3. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  4. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Sjøgren, Per; Hølland, Nina; Müller, Hanne; Kjos, Nils P; Taugbøl, Ole; Fjerdingby, Nina; Biong, Anne S; Selmer-Olsen, Eirik; Harstad, Odd M

    2008-01-01

    Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) and trans vaccenic acid (VA). These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs. PMID:18759970

  5. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Algerian mint species:high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brahmi Fatiha; Madani Khodir; Stvigny Caroline; Chibane Mohamed; Duez Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints,Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata), Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation.Methods:The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform:acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v) as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method.Results:Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively). The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox®equivalents) as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation.Conclusions:Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  7. Algerian mint species: high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmi Fatiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints, Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata, Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation. Methods: The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform: acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method. Results: Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1 000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox® equivalents as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  8. In vitro synergistic efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, oleic acid, safflower oil and taxol cytotoxicity on PC3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızılşahin, Sadi; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine in vitro synergistic efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), oleic acid (OLA), safflower oil and taxol (Tax) cytotoxicity on human prostate cancer (PC3) cell line. To determine synergistic efficacy of oil combinations, PC3 treated with different doses of compounds alone and combined with 10 μg/mL Tax. The MTT results indicated that OLA-Tax combinations exhibited cytotoxicity against PC3 at doses of 30 nM+10 μg-Tax, 15 nM+5 μg-Tax and 7.5 nM+2.5 μg-Tax. The treatment of OLA or Tax did not show significant inhibition on PC3, while OLA-Tax combinations showed effective cytotoxicity at treated doses. CLA-Tax combinations demonstrated the same effect on PC3 as combined form with 45.72% versus the alone form as 74.51% viability. Cytotoxic synergy between Tax, OLA and CLA shows enhanced cytotoxicity on PC3 which might be used in the therapy of prostate cancer.

  9. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts.

  10. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  11. Co-treatment with conjugated linoleic acid and nitrite protects against myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natia Qipshidze-Kelm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the CDC, the most common type of heart disease is coronary artery disease, which commonly leads to myocardial infarction (MI. Therapeutic approaches to lessen the resulting cardiovascular injury associated with MI are limited. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or stimulating mRNA degradation. A single miRNA can modulate physiological or disease phenotypes by regulating whole functional systems. Importantly, miRNAs can regulate cardiac function, thereby modulating heart muscle contraction, heart growth and morphogenesis. MicroRNA-499 (miRNA-499 is a cardiac-specific miRNA that when elevated causes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, in turn preventing cardiac dysfunction during MI. Previous studies revealed that combination treatment with conjugated linoleic acid (cLA and nitrite preserved cardiovascular function in mice. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cLA and nitrite may regulate miRNA-499, thus providing cardiac protection during MI. To test this hypothesis, 12-week old mice were treated with cLA (10 mg/kg/d-via osmotic mini-pump or cLA and nitrite (50 ppm-drinking water 3 days prior to MI (ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Echocardiography and pressure–volume (PV-loop analysis revealed that cLA and nitrite-treated MI mice had improved heart function (10 days following MI compared to untreated MI mice. Treatment with cLA and nitrite significantly induced levels of miRNA-499 compared to untreated MI mice. In addition, treatment with cLA and nitrite abolished MI-induced protein expression of p53 and dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP-1. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 was elevated in MI mice treated with cLA and nitrite compared to untreated MI mice. Confocal imaging on heart tissue confirmed expression the levels of HO-1 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that therapeutic

  12. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobadi H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Ghobadi,1 Somaieh Matin,2 Ali Nemati,3 Abbas Naghizadeh-baghi4 1Pulmonary Division, 2Internal Medicine Department, 3Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, 4Basic Sciences Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran Background: COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL1β, is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.Patients and methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL1β assessment, the patients’ anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study.Results: The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score (P=0.001, average caloric intake (P=0.01, and macronutrient intake (P<0.05, while a significant decrease was observed in the serum level of IL1β among the patients of the supplementation group (P=0.008. Meanwhile, although the supplementation group’s body mass index was also higher on completion, compared to their own initial state as well as to that in the control

  13. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and dietary antibiotics as growth promotants in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T E; Schinckel, A P; Houseknecht, K L; Richert, B T

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a growth promotant in weanling swine. Weanling pigs (n = 192; 7.6 kg and 29 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments that were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Concentrations of dietary CLA (0 or 0.6%) and antibiotics (+/-) constituted the main effect variables. Dietary CLA treatments consisted of a 1% addition of an oil containing 60% CLA isomers or 1% soybean oil, and dietary antibiotic treatments were antibiotics or no antibiotics. The experimental diets were fed for 9 wk in four phases (1, wk 1; 2, wk 2 and 3; 3, wk 4 through 6; and 4, wk 7 through 9), after which all pigs were fed identical medicated diets for the duration of the finishing phase. Live weights were recorded at wk 17 postweaning and at marketing to determine any residual effects of dietary treatments on finisher ADG and days to market. Medicated diets fed during phases 1 and 2 contained 55 mg carbadox/kg; during phase 3 contained 299 mg tilmicosin/kg; and during phase 4 contained 110 mg tylosin and 110 mg sulfamethazine/kg. Pigs fed medicated diets had higher overall ADG than pigs fed unmedicated diets for wk 0 through 9 (P pigs fed medicated diets than for pigs fed unmedicated diets during phase 1 (P residual effects of nursery CLA or antibiotics on finisher ADG and days to market. Blood samples collected from a subset of pigs (n = 72) at the completion of phases 2, 3, and 4 were assayed for serum IGF-I and antibody concentrations to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. There was a tendency for pigs fed medicated diets to have greater IGF-I concentrations than pigs fed unmedicated diets at the completion of phase 4 (P Pigs fed CLA had greater antibody titers (P pigs fed diets without CLA. These results indicate that feeding 0.6% dietary CLA did not enhance growth performance in weanling swine and that the use of dietary antibiotics can

  14. Detection of biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in kaymak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ökten, Sevtap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous physiological effects are attributed to conjugated linoleic acids (CLA. Biologically active isomers of CLA ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2 and trans- 10, cis- 12 (C18:2 have been reported to have anticarcinogenic, antioxidative and antiatherosclerotic properties. Relatively rich sources of CLA include milk fat-containing foods such as kaymak. Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow's milk mainly in Turkey . The objective of this study was to determine CLA concentrations during kaymak production. Kaymak was manufactured from cow's milk which was enriched with unfermented cream. Biologically active isomers of CLA in raw milk, cream and kaymak were analyzed using gas chromatography. The method was quick, repeatable and sensitive for the CLA determination of samples. Significant differences were found among the concentrations of both isomer and total CLA during the production process (pNumerosos efectos fisiológicos se atribuyen a los ácidos linoleico conjugados (CLA. Así los isómeros biológicamente activos ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2 y trans- 10, cis del ácido linoleico han sido descritos con propiedades anticarcinogénicas, antioxidantes y antiarterioscleróticas. Fuentes relativamente ricas de CLA incluyen alimentos con grasas lácteas tales como el kaymak. El kaymak es una crema concentrada elaborada de leche de búfalo o vaca principalmente en Turquía. El objetivo de este estudio fue la determinación de la concentración de CLA durante la producción de kaymak. El kaymak objeto de estudio fue elaborado a partir de leche de vaca que fue enriquecida con crema no fermentada. Los isómeros biológicamente activos del CLA fueron analizados por cromatografía gaseosa en leche cruda, crema y kaymak. El método empleado fue rápido, reproducible y sensible. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones de ambos isómeros y de CLA total durante el proceso de producci

  15. ESR studies of radiation induced radical products from linoleic acid and linolenic acid and the radioprotective effect by α-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Younan; Tu Tiecheng; Dong Jirong; Zhang Jiashan; Li Nianyun

    1993-01-01

    Primary radicals from the γ-radiolysis of air-saturated linoleic acid and linolenic acid at 77 K, and the subsequent secondary radicals appeared during the course of variable temperature elevation were investigated by ESR. The ESR spectrum from samples irradiated and observed at 77 K shows the presence of the radical anion doublet arise from the electron adducts of the carboxy groups and the poorly resolved broad singlet results from some carbon-centered radicals. Annealing to approximately 125 K which allows for molecular oxygen migration results in the formation of peroxyl radicals. At 247 K, the ESR spectrum is a multi-line pattern which is attributable to structure of the α-carbon radical superimposed on the pentadienyl radicals. The ESR spectra from linoleic acid-α-tocopherol and linolenic acid-α-tocopherol binary systems irradiated at 77 K and recorded at 140 K or 215 K revealed the characteristic similarity to that from α-tocopherol alone, no trace of ESR signal from either peroxyl or the composite pattern from superposition of pentadienyl radical and α-carbon radicals can be found out. Therefore α-tocopherol has exerted radioprotection effect on peroxidation of linoleic acid and linolenic acid

  16. Effects of oils rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acids on fatty acid profile and gene expression in goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng

    2014-09-24

    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  17. Phase equilibrium measurements of ternary systems formed by linoleic and linolenic acids in carbon dioxide/ethanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Sibele R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Franceschi, Elton; Borges, Gustavo R.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS 99700-000 (Brazil); Ferreira, Sandra R.S. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: sandra@enq.ufsc.br

    2009-11-15

    This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the ternary systems linoleic (acid + CO{sub 2} + ethanol) and (linolenic acid + CO{sub 2} + ethanol). The fatty acids present in the ternary systems were selected based on composition of banana peel oil extracted by supercritical CO{sub 2} at 20 MPa and 313 K. The motivation of this research relies on the fact that these unsaturated fatty acids are recognized to play an important role in lowering blood pressure and serum cholesterol and because they are present in high concentrations in banana peel extract. Besides that, equilibrium data of these compounds are scarce in literature. The phase equilibrium experiments were performed using a high-pressure variable-volume view cell over the temperature range of (303 to 343) K and pressures up to 19 MPa. For both systems, only vapour-liquid phase transitions were visually recorded for all data measured.

  18. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tgoto@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Ohue, Ryuji [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Nomura, Wataru [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Sugawara, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Marine Bioproducts Technology, Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yu, Rina [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kitamura, Nahoko [Laboratory of Fermentation Physiology and Applied Microbiology, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); and others

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  19. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis

  20. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on bone mass in young male Balb/C mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shea Marianne

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an increase in obesity among the population of industrialized countries, and dietary supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA has been reported to lower body fat mass. However, weight loss is generally associated with negative effects on bone mass, but CLA is reported to have beneficial effects on bone. Furthermore, another factor that is well established to have a beneficial effect on bone is exercise (EX. However, a combination therapy of CLA and EX on bone health has not been studied. In this paper, we report the beneficial effects of CLA and EX on bone, in four different groups of Balb-C young, male mice. There were 4 groups in our study: 1. Safflower oil (SFO sedentary (SED; 2. SFO EX; 3. CLA SED; 4. CLA EX. Two months old mice, under their respective treatment regimens were followed for 14 weeks. Mice were scanned in vivo using a DEXA scanner before and after treatment. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed, the left tibia was removed and scanned using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT. The results showed that although CLA decreased gain in body weight by 35%, it however increased bone mass by both reducing bone resorption and increasing bone formation. EX also decreased gain in body weight by 21% and increased bone mass; but a combination of CLA and EX, however, did not show any further increase in bone mass. In conclusion, CLA increases bone mass in both cancellous and cortical bones, and the effects of CLA on bone is not further improved by EX in pure cortical bone of young male mice.

  1. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake on Endurance Exercise Performance and Anti-fatigue in Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Naoko; Okamoto, Ken; Nakada, Kenta; Masuda, Kazumi

    2017-07-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) intake has been reported to reduce body fat mass or increase lean body mass and to improve exercise outcome by modulating testosterone in humans. These reports have studied mostly overweight subjects; few were athletes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of CLA intake on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes was investigated. A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male student athletes. Each subject was administered with either CLA (net 0.9 g/day) or a placebo for 14 days. They were subjected to an exercise tolerance test (steady loading) using a cycle ergometer on days 0 and 14. Peak VO 2 was determined for each subject using a graded loading test. The steady loading test was performed with a pedaling exercise load of 50% peak VO 2 for 40 min and then with a load of 70% peak VO 2 until exhaustion. Blood sampling and measurement of critical flicker frequency (CFF) were performed before and after exercise. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured serially during exercise. In the results, amount of body weight variation significantly increased and amount of body fat percentage variation tended to decrease by CLA intake, it might have an effect by increase in muscle mass. In addition, amount of exercise time variation significantly increased, amount of variation of CFF before and after exercise tended to increase, that of RPE during exercise tended to decrease, and that of creatine phosphokinase before and after exercise tended to decrease in the CLA group. These results suggested that CLA intake for 14 days might have an effect on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes.

  2. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Metabolism Response of Growing Meat Rabbits to Dietary Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different amounts of dietary linoleic acid (LA on growth performance, serum biochemical traits, meat quality, fatty acids composition of muscle and liver, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits. One hundred and fifty 9 wks old meat rabbits were allocated to individual cages and randomly divided into five groups. Animals in each group were fed with a diet with the following LA addition concentrations: 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g/kg diet (as-fed basis and LA concentrations were 0.84, 1.21, 1.34, 1.61 and 1.80% in the diet, respectively. The results showed as follows: the dietary LA levels significantly affected muscle color of LL included a* and b* of experimental rabbits (p<0.05. The linear effect of LA on serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was obtained (p = 0.0119. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs contents of LL decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs content of LL increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001. The PUFA n-6 content and PUFA n-3 content in the LL was significantly affected by the dietary LA levels (p<0.01, p<0.05. The MUFAs content in the liver decreased and the PUFAs contents in the liver increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001. The PUFA n-6 content and the PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio in the liver increased and PUFA n-3 content in the liver decreased with dietary LA increase (p<0.01. The linear effect of LA on CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver was obtained (p = 0.0081. In summary, dietary LA addition had significant effects on liver and muscle fatty acid composition (increased PUFAs of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits, but had little effects on growth performance, meat physical traits and mRNA expression of liver relative enzyme of experimental rabbits.

  4. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29, Simoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Park, Si-Bum [Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hirata, Takashi [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Faculty of Rehabilitation, Shijonawategakuen University, 5-11-10, Hojo, Daitou-shi, Osaka 574-0011 (Japan); Sugawara, Tatsuya, E-mail: sugawara@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We evaluated the effect of modified fatty acids generated by Lactobacillus plantarum. • 10-Oxo-trans-11-ocatadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected cells from oxidative stress. • KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to promote antioxidative gene expression. • KetoC promoted the expression of antioxidative enzymes in mice organs. • The cytoprotective effect of KetoC was because of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety.

  5. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We evaluated the effect of modified fatty acids generated by Lactobacillus plantarum. • 10-Oxo-trans-11-ocatadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected cells from oxidative stress. • KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to promote antioxidative gene expression. • KetoC promoted the expression of antioxidative enzymes in mice organs. • The cytoprotective effect of KetoC was because of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety.

  6. The effect of micro-particles of linoleic acid emulsion on the blood-brain barrier in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Tae Hong; Pyun, Yong Seon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeability change of the blood-brain barrier and the reversibility of the embolized lesions induced with a fat-emulsion technique by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and we also wished to evaluate the resultant histologic findings in cat brains. MR imaging was scheduled serially at 1 hour, day 1, day 4 and day 7 after infusion of linoleic acid-emulsion (0.05 ml linoleic acid + 20 ml saline) to the internal carotid artery in 12 cats. Abnormal signal intensity or contrast enhancement was evaluated on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs), the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-T1WIs) at the stated times. MR imaging was stopped if the lesion shows isointensity and no contrast enhancement was observed at the acquisition time, and then brain tissue was harvested and examined. Light microscopic (LM) and electron microscopic (EM) examinations were performed. The embolized lesions appeared as isointensities (n = 7) or mild hyperintensities (n = 5) on DWIs, as isointensities (n = 12) on the ADC maps, and as contrast enhancements (n = 12) on Gd-T1WIs at 1 hour. The lesions showed isointensity on DWIs and the ADC maps, and as no contrast enhancement for all cats at day 1. The LM findings revealed small (< 1 cm) focal necrosis and demyelination in three cats. EM examinations showed minimal findings of small (< 3 μm) fat globules within the endothelial wall (n = 10) and mild swelling of the neuropils (< 5 μm). Widening of the interstitium or morphologic disruption of the endothelial wall was not seen. Cerebral fat embolism induced by linoleic acid emulsion revealed vasogenic edema and reversible changes as depicted on the MR images. These results might help us to understand the mechanisms of fat on the blood-brain barrier, and this technique could be used as a basic model for research of the effects of drugs on the disrupted blood-brain barrier, and also as a research

  7. Evidence for conjugated linoleic acid-induced embryonic mortality that is independent of egg storage conditions and changes in egg relative fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, V A; Stransky, D L; Aydin, R; Cook, M E

    2009-09-01

    Three experiments were performed to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on embryonic development in the absence of vitelline membrane disruption. In experiment 1, when eggs from control and CLA (0.5%)-fed hens were stored at 21 or 15 degrees C for 48 h, mineral movement between the yolk and albumen was not observed (with the exception of Mg and Na). Also, it was found that CLA-induced changes in yolk fatty acid content (e.g., increased saturated fatty acids and CLA) had begun to change after 5 d of feeding hens CLA, and no differences were detected in fatty acid composition after 14 d. In experiment 2, the hatchability of eggs incubated directly after oviposition or stored 24 h at 21 or 15 degrees C was determined from hens fed control or 0.5% CLA diets. Regardless of storage conditions, CLA reduced hatchability. These data showed that CLA elicits negative effects on hatchability independent of vitelline membrane disruption or egg storage condition. In experiment 3, eggs were collected from hens fed 0 or 1% CLA daily for 3 wk, stored at 21 degrees C for 24 h, and incubated. Not only did CLA decrease hatchability, the data showed as the days of CLA feeding increased, the days of survival during incubation decreased. Average days of embryonic survival during incubation for the CLA group diminished to 18.0, 13.4, and 6.3 d for wk 1, 2, and 3 of CLA feeding, respectively, and control remained at 20.6, 20.8, and 19.8 for the 3 wk. These studies suggested that without the disruption of the vitelline membrane, hatchability and embryonic days of survival were significantly reduced by maternal CLA feeding in comparison to control-fed hens. Evidence that embryos die earlier the longer the hens are fed CLA, even though no additional changes in the fatty acid content of eggs were found, suggested that factors other than storage and egg yolk fatty acid composition played a role in CLA-induced embryonic mortality.

  8. Effect of linoleic acid supplementation on in vitro maturation, embryo development and apoptotic related gene expression in ovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Amini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Linoleic acid (LA is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in high concentrations in follicular fluid, when added to maturation culture media, it affects oocyte competence. Objective: In the present study, we investigated effect of linoleic acid supplementation on in vitro maturation, embryo development and apoptotic related gene expression in ovine Materials and Methods: The experiments conducted on 450 ovine Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs with homogenous ooplasm and more than two compact layers of cumulus cells. For in vitro maturation COCs were randomly allocated into four treatment groups for 24 hr period. Treatment groups were as follow: control maturation media, 0 μM LA, 50 μM LA, 100 μM LA and 200 μM LA. The cumulus cell expansion and blastocysts rates were recorded. Total RNA was isolated from embryo pools, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and subjected to apoptotic gene expression by real-time PCR. Results: Highest concentration (200 μM/mL of LA significantly decreased the rate of fully expanded cumulus cells 24 hr after in vitro maturation (IVM and the percentage of blastocyste rate compared with the control (p<0.05. These inhibitory effects were associated with an increased in relative mRNA expression of Bax (Bcl-2- associated X gene compared with controls. Conclusion: Data obtained in present study suggest that low concentration of LA used for maturation had no deleterious effect on subsequent embryonic development compared to high concentration of LA. Relative expression of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 and Bax in embryos seems to be associated with LA concentration.

  9. Optimization of the Hydrolysis of Safflower Oil for the Production of Linoleic Acid, Used as Flavor Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial lipases, from porcine pancreas (PPL, Candida rugosa (CRL, and Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM, were investigated in terms of their efficiency for the hydrolysis of safflower oil (SO for the liberation of free linoleic acid (LA, used as a flavor precursor. Although PPL, under the optimized conditions, showed a high degree of hydrolysis (91.6%, its low tolerance towards higher substrate concentrations could limit its use for SO hydrolysis. In comparison to the other investigated lipases, Lipozyme TL IM required higher amount of enzyme and an additional 3 h of reaction time to achieve its maximum degree of SO hydrolysis (90.2%. On the basis of the experimental findings, CRL was selected as the most appropriate biocatalyst, with 84.1% degree of hydrolysis. The chromatographic analyses showed that the CRL-hydrolyzed SO is composed mainly of free LA.

  10. Optimization of the Hydrolysis of Safflower Oil for the Production of Linoleic Acid, Used as Flavor Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Marya; Husson, Florence; Kermasha, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Commercial lipases, from porcine pancreas (PPL), Candida rugosa (CRL), and Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM), were investigated in terms of their efficiency for the hydrolysis of safflower oil (SO) for the liberation of free linoleic acid (LA), used as a flavor precursor. Although PPL, under the optimized conditions, showed a high degree of hydrolysis (91.6%), its low tolerance towards higher substrate concentrations could limit its use for SO hydrolysis. In comparison to the other investigated lipases, Lipozyme TL IM required higher amount of enzyme and an additional 3 h of reaction time to achieve its maximum degree of SO hydrolysis (90.2%). On the basis of the experimental findings, CRL was selected as the most appropriate biocatalyst, with 84.1% degree of hydrolysis. The chromatographic analyses showed that the CRL-hydrolyzed SO is composed mainly of free LA.

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis with focus on the role of linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagmeister, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas are devastating cancers with high mortality rates. Major risk factors are chronic hepatitis and associated cirrhosis as consequence of viral hepatitis infections, chronically ethanol consumption or metabolic disorders. While the stepwise development of liver cancer is well investigated, the role of mesenchymal cells in this process is largely unknown. To analyse epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, we established new cell lines from human hepatocellular carcinomas and obtained several hepatocarcinoma (HCC)-, B-lymphoblastoid (BLC)- and myofibroblastoid (MF)-lines. BLC- and MF-supernatants were able to increase DNA replication of premalignant hepatocytes. Supernatants of MF-lines enhanced angiogenesis and increased migration of HCC-lines. Besides these pro-tumourigenic effects we could also observe tumouricidal properties of mesenchymal cells, as BLC-supernatants induced cell death of HCC-lines. Linoleic acid is an important source for hydroperoxides, which may be generated either endogenously in the course of inflammation or exogenously during food processing. We found that linoleic acid hydroperoxides (=LOOH) were able to activate mesenchymal cells of the liver resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors including TNF-alpha (=tumour necrosis factor alpha) and HB-EGF (=heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor), which turned out to be a growth factor for premalignant hepatocytes. Furthermore LOOH enhanced the growth of hepatocarcinoma cells via upregulation of the antiapoptotic enzyme heme oxygenase 1 and stimulation of cell proliferation. In conclusion, the results of our studies confirm the crucial role of different mesenchymal cells in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis and propose a tumour-promoting effect of LOOH. (author) [de

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance and abdominal and trunk fat loss induced by aerobic training in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Cheche PINA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the effect of eight weeks of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on physical performance, and trunk and abdominal fat in overweight women submitted to an aerobic training program. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight women (body mass index ³25 kg/m2 were divided randomly and double-blindly to receive conjugated linoleic acid or placebo, both associated with an aerobic exercise program (frequency = three times a week, duration=30 min/session, intensity=80% of maximum heart rate. Conjugated linoleic acid (3.2 g and placebo (4.0 g supplements were consumed daily (four capsules for eight weeks. Maximum speed and time to exhaustion were determined in incremental treadmill test. Trunk fat was estimated by dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Waist circumference was used as indicator of abdominal fat. Results: Main effect of time (p0.05. Similarly, significant reductions (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance, and loss of body and abdominal fat induced by aerobic training in overweight women.

  14. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas

  15. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention:

  16. Effects of enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d evaluated at different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Juan, María; Realini, Carolina E; Barahona, Marta; Sarriés, Maria Victoria; del Mar Campo, Maria; Beriain, María José; Vitale, Mauro; Gil, Marta; Albertí, Pere

    2014-11-01

    The effect of different animal diets supplemented with linseed (source of omega-3 fatty acids: n-3) and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CON: control, LIN: 10% linseed, CLA: 2% conjugated linoleic acid, LINCLA: 10% linseed plus 2% CLA) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d was assessed in 3 Spanish cities. Overall, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor liking of beef were evaluated by consumers (n = 720) using 9-point scales. Hedonic scores assigned by consumers did not differ (P > 0.05) for beef from animals fed the different diets and aged for 7 or 21 d. Consumer scores showed an increasing trend in beef liking with aging time. Consumers from Pamplona assigned lower (P consumers from Barcelona and Zaragoza. Linseed and/or CLA can be fed to improve the fatty acid profile in beef with minimal impact on consumer liking. Consumer ratings seem to depend on regional tastes and preferences. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk with C17 as internal marker – Evaluation of different methylation procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2017-01-01

    in the methylation steps, as they are sensitive to pH changes and oxidation. The present study was carried out to determine the efficiency of different methylation procedures on quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), PUFA and response of internal standard. The highest response of internal...... standard was observed for boron trifluoride (BF3)/methanol and methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3, while cis-9, trans-11 CLA, total CLA and PUFA was higher with methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3 compared with the BF3 method. These data can be useful for quantitating of milk FA....

  18. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pegolo

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet. The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography. In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy

  19. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05 the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05 decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05 upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  20. Linoleic Acid-Induced Ultra-Weak Photon Emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a Tool for Monitoring of Lipid Peroxidation in the Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ankush; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non-invasive tool for the

  1. Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prasad

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non

  2. Production of bioactive substances by intestinal bacteria as a basis for explaining probiotic mechanisms: bacteriocins and conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Eileen F; Cotter, Paul D; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-16

    The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria achieve their associated health benefits can be complex and multifaceted. In this respect, the diverse microbial composition of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) provides an almost unlimited potential source of bioactive substances (pharmabiotics) which can directly or indirectly affect human health. Bacteriocins and fatty acids are just two examples of pharmabiotic substances which may contribute to probiotic functionality within the mammalian GIT. Bacteriocin production is believed to confer producing strains with a competitive advantage within complex microbial environments as a consequence of their associated antimicrobial activity. This has the potential to enable the establishment and prevalence of producing strains as well as directly inhibiting pathogens within the GIT. Consequently, these antimicrobial peptides and the associated intestinal producing strains may be exploited to beneficially influence microbial populations. Intestinal bacteria are also known to produce a diverse array of health-promoting fatty acids. Indeed, certain strains of intestinal bifidobacteria have been shown to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid which has been associated with a variety of systemic health-promoting effects. Recently, the ability to modulate the fatty acid composition of the liver and adipose tissue of the host upon oral administration of CLA-producing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was demonstrated in a murine model. Importantly, this implies a potential therapeutic role for probiotics in the treatment of certain metabolic and immunoinflammatory disorders. Such examples serve to highlight the potential contribution of pharmabiotic production to probiotic functionality in relation to human health maintenance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk -9, -11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%, middle (0.37±0.010%, and late stages (0.44±0.020% showed significant differences (p<0.05; and the individual contents of the major fatty acids, especially cis-9, trans-11 CLA in cows of the same lactation were also variable. In the second experiment design as a validation test, our results once again showed that the individual contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA were various, and a difference of about 2-fold (0.55% vs 0.95% was observed, although the animals were offered same diet. These data demonstrated that lactation stage and individual performance have considerable effects on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents.

  4. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched triacylglycerol mixtures by isocratic silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, R O; Menzel, A; Dorovska-Taran, V

    2002-04-12

    Silver-ion HPLC (Ag-HPLC) was applied to the fractionation of a triacylglycerol (TAG) sample enriched (>80%) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). After conversion of the TAGs to fatty acid methyl esters using sodium methoxide in methanol, Ag-HPLC (dual-column; isocratic solvent system of 0.1% acetonitrile in hexane; UV detection at 233 nm) was used to determine the CLA isomer distribution (50:50 mixture of 9c 11t- and 10t,12c-18:2). Three or four Ag-HPLC columns connected in series (0.6-1.0% acetonitrile in hexane as solvent; UV detection at 206 nm) were used to analyze the sample in TAG form. Elution times for CLA-enriched TAGs averaged 30 min or less. Isocratic solvent conditions were used to eliminate the solvent equilibration times (often 30 min or more) required between sample injections when solvent programming is used. The ratio of TAGs containing three vs. only two CLA molecules was found to be approximately 3 to 1. Ag-HPLC has thus been shown to be a useful method for rapidly analyzing not only CLA isomers as esters, but also in the TAG form.

  5. One-pot conjugated linoleic acid production from castor oil by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and resting cells of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaskheli, Abid Ali; Talpur, Farah Naz; Cebeci Aydin, Aysun; Jawaid, Sana; Surhio, Muhammad Ali; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2017-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has attracted as novel type of fatty acids having unusual health-promoting properties such as anticarcinogenic and antiobesitic effects. The present work employed castor oil as substrate for one-pot production of CLA using washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and lipases as catalysts. Among the screened lipases, the lipase Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) greatly assisted resting cells to produce CLA. Mass spectral analysis of the product showed that two major isomers of CLA were produced in the reaction mixture i.e. cis-9, trans-11 56.55% and trans-10, cis-12 43.45%. Optimum factors for CLA synthesis were found as substrate concentration (8 mg/mL), pH (6.5), washed cell concentration (12% w/v), and incubation time of 20 h. Hence, the combination of ROL with L. plantarum offers one pot production of CLA selectively using castor oil as a cost-effective substrate.

  6. Absorption Kinetics of the Main Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers in Commercial-Rich Oil after Oral Administration in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Ares, Irma; Fontecha, Javier; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, María-Aránzazu

    2017-09-06

    This study aimed to assess the oral absorption and plasma kinetics of two main isomers contained in commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oil (Tonalin TG-80), rumenic acid (RA), and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12. The isomer plasma disposition after the single oral dose of 3000 mg of Tonalin TG-80/kg, containing 1200 mg/kg of each isomer, was studied in rats. The isomer plasma concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The plasma kinetics showed rapid oral absorption of RA and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12 (t 1/2a 0.34 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.01 h) and slow elimination (t 1/2β 25.68 ± 3.29 and 18.12 ± 1.71 h); the maximal isomer plasma concentrations (C max ) of 8.48 ± 0.98 and 7.67 ± 0.80 μg mL -1 , respectively, were estimated at 2.08 ± 0.14 and 2.26 ± 0.11 h. Our results from a preclinical kinetic study in rats help to design future studies in humans for evaluating the CLA isomer dose-response.

  7. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and other health-related lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boiled samples preserved the total beneficial lipids of CLA, PUFA, MUFA and omega 3 and 6 fatty acids more than smoked samples. The major fatty acids found in the muscle analyzed are palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and octadecenoic (C18:1). Omega 3 fatty acids are 1.05%, 1.16% and 1.30 % for boiled, smoked and ...

  8. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Biocatalytic hydroxylation of linoleic acid in a double-fed batch system with lipoxygenase and cysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Elshof, M.B.W.; Veldink, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The enzymatic large-scale preparation of unsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides is the first step in the preparation of the corresponding fatty acid hydroxides. Since hydroxides are more suitable than hydroperoxides as precursors of fine chemicals like certain flavour compounds, a convenient and

  10. Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic fatty acids – micromanaging cellular response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eVisioli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized de novo by mammals and need to be ingested either with the diet or through the use of supplements/functional foods to ameliorate cardiovascular prognosis. This review focus on the molecular targets of omega 3 fatty acids and CLA, as paradigmatic molecules that can be explored both as nutrients and as pharmacological agents, especially as related to cardioprotection. In addition, we indicate novel molecular targets, namely microRNAs that might contribute to the observed biological activities of such essential fatty acids.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... The chickens fed diets containing palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil as the ... polyunsaturated fatty acids; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, .... content of muscles in broilers fed different dietary CLA levels. Javadi et al. (2007) ...

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chaplin

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  15. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Ameliorates Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Mice through Activation of PPARγ1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P.; Misyak, Sarah A.; Schmelz, Eva M.; Guri, Amir J.; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood. Mice lacking PPARγ in immune and epithelial cells and PPARγ-expressing littermates were fed either control or CLA-supplemented (1 g CLA/100 g) diets to determine the role of PPARγ in inflammation-induced CRC. To induce tumor formation and colitis, mice were treated with azoxymethane and then challenged with 2% dextran sodium sulfate, respectively. Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARγ-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARγ-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARγ-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARγ-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARγ-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism. PMID:20089779

  16. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  17. Cell nanomechanics and focal adhesions are regulated by retinol and conjugated linoleic acid in a dose-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, Yaron R; Horton, Michael A; Pelling, Andrew E; Yakubov, Gleb E

    2009-01-01

    Retinol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have previously been shown to have an important role in gene expression and various cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation and cell death. In this study we have investigated the effect of retinol and CLA, both individually and in combination, on the intracellular cytoskeleton, focal adhesions (FAs) and the nanomechanical properties of 3T3 fibroblasts. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in the formation of FAs following treatment with either compound, which was directly correlated to an increase in cell height (>30%) and a decrease in the measured Young's modulus (∼28%). Furthermore, treatments with both compounds demonstrated an increased effect and led to a reduction of>70% in the average number of FAs per cell and a decrease of >50% in average cell stiffness. These data reveal that retinol and CLA disrupt FA formation, leading to an increase in cell height and a significant decrease in stiffness. These results may broaden our understanding of the interplay between cell nanomechanics and cellular contact with the external microenvironment, and help to shed light on the important role of retinoids and CLA in health and disease.

  18. Effect of Safflower Oil on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid of Kefir Prepared by Low-fat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad-Naeimi, Alireza; Imani, Saeid; Arefhosseini, Seyed R; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a special fatty acid in dairy products with unique antioxidant and anti-cancerous effects. Kefir, a milk product, comprises normalized homogenized cow's milk, the fructose and lactulose syrup as well as a symbiotic starter which has improved probiotic characteristics. The study was aimed to discuss patents and to examine the effect of different safflower oil concentrations on CLA content of the kefir drink prepared by low-fat milk. Safflower oil was added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (V/V) to low-fat cow's milk and six formulations of kefir samples were prepared. The CLA content of the kefir products was measured at pH=6.0 and pH=6.8 by gas chromatography. Acid and bile tolerance of bacterial microenvironment in the products were also determined. Substitution of natural fat content of milk with safflower oil resulted in proportional increase in the CLA contents of kefir in a dose dependent manner. The highest concentration of CLA was found under 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil at pH 6.0 and temperature of 37 °C. Adding the Safflower oil into milk used for kefir production, increased CLA content from 0.123 (g/100 g) in pure safflower free samples to 0.322 (g/100 g) in samples with 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil. The current study revealed that substitution of safflower oil with natural fat of cow's milk may help the production of kefir samples with remarkable increase in CLA content of final product.

  19. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivero Montserrat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. Results The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A or by oral gavage (Group B, supplemented just during suckling (Group C and control animals (Group D was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix. Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1, galanin (Gal, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1, growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2, actin gamma 2 (Actg2 and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2, as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR. Conclusions Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life.

  20. Direct nuclear magnetic resonance identification and quantification of geometric isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps: Overcoming sensitivity and resolution barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G.; Skarlas, Theodore; Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The first NMR quantification of four geometric 18:2 CLA isomers has been achieved. • Sensitivity and resolution NMR barriers have been overcome. • Selective suppression and reduced 13 C spectral width have been utilized. • The method is applied in the milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps. • The method is selective, sensitive with very good analytical characteristics. - Abstract: We report the first successful direct and unequivocal identification and quantification of four minor geometric (9-cis, 11-trans) 18:2, (9-trans, 11-cis) 18:2, (9-cis, 11-cis) 18:2 and (9-trans, 11-trans) 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in lipid fractions of lyophilized milk samples with the combined use of 1D 1 H-NMR, 2D 1 H- 1 H TOCSY and 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC NMR. The significant sensitivity barrier has been successfully overcome under selective suppression of the major resonances, with over 10 4 greater equilibrium magnetization of the -(CH 2 ) n - 1 H spins compared to that of the 1 H spins of the conjugated bonds of the CLA isomers. The resolution barrier has been significantly increased using reduced 13 C spectral width in the 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC experiment. The assignment was confirmed with spiking experiments with CLA standard compounds and the method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction. The proposed method is selective, sensitive and compares favorably with the GS-MS method of analysis

  1. Effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on milk fatty acid composition in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bichi, E; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Despite controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the fatty acid (FA) profile of ruminant-derived products, reports on this issue are still very limited for dairy sheep. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on ewe performance and milk FA composition. Thirty-six lactating ewes were distributed into 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment): control or quebracho. All sheep received a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60) supplemented with 20 g of sunflower oil/kg of dry matter plus 0 (control diet) or 20 g of an extract of quebracho tannins/kg of dry matter (QUE diet). Milk production and composition were analyzed on d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 on treatments, and milk FA profile on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 27. On d 27, samples of rumen fluid were collected for pH, and lactate, ammonia, and volatile FA concentration analysis. Feeding the QUE diet had no apparent effect on animal performance and hardly modified ruminal fermentation characteristics, except for a reduction in the molar proportions of minor volatile FA. Dietary tannins increased the milk concentration of several 18:1 and 18:2 isomers and decreased that of branched-chain FA. Some of these changes were relatively constant throughout the experiment (e.g., cis-12 18:1 and trans-9,cis-12 18:2), whereas others varied over time (e.g., trans-10 18:1, which increased gradually with the QUE diet). Significant differences between treatments in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid were only observed on d 3. Overall, addition of quebracho tannins to a diet rich in linoleic acid did not prove useful to beneficially modify milk FA composition, especially over the long term. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-29 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  3. Isolation, Optimization, and Investigation of Production of Linoleic Acid in Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Shafiei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Microorganisms that are capable of accumulating lipid up to 20% of their biomass are called oleaginous microorganisms. In this study, optimization in lipid and linolenic acid production was investigated in Aspergillus niger as an oleaginous filamentous fungi. Methods: In this study, at first different strains of filamentous fungi were isolated, and after staining of the isolates with Sudan Black, their oil was extracted using chloroform/methanol. Then, the isolates with oil/dry biomass ratio of more than 20% were considered as oleaginous filamentous fungi. After microscopic examination, the identified isolate was optimized in terms of oil production. Finally, the amount of linolenic acid was evaluated using gas chromatography. Results: At first, 20 filamentous fungi isolates were isolated. According to the results of Sudan Black staining, lipid inclusions were observed in all the fungal isolates. The amount of oil produced in all isolates, showed that the percentage of oil production in isolates 4, 5, and 16, was more than 20%. In microscopic examination, the isolate 5 was Aspergillus niger. The best pH, temperature, time, and carbon source for oil production by Aspergillus niger was 4.5, 30°C, 96 hours, and fructose, respectively. The amount of linolenic acid in Aspergillus niger was reported 22.4% using gas chromatography.   Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that Aspergillus niger is an appropriate filamentous fungi for linolenic acid production.   

  4. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profiles and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Aryaeian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Naheed Aryaeian1, Farhad Shahram2, Mahmoud Djalali1, Mohammad R Eshragian3, Abolghasem Djazayeri1, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad4, Nasim Naderi2, Maryam Chamari1, Fariha Fatehi1, Mahnaz Zarei11Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 2Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 4Department of Immunology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs, vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for three months: Group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g mixture of cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis12 CLAs in a rate of 50/50; Group E: vitamin E: 400 mg; Group CE: CLAs and vitamin E at above doses: Group P: placebo. After supplementation, SBP levels decreased significantly in the group C in comparison with groups E and P and mean arterial pressure reduced signifi cantly in groups C and CE. There weren’t significant differences in the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL/HDL, cholesterol/HDL, fasting blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP, arylestrase activity, platelet count and body mass index between groups. CRP dropped nonsignificantly in groups P, C, E and CE (19%, 24%, 55%, and 39%, respectively. Erythrocytes

  5. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profiles and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Aryaeian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Naheed Aryaeian1, Farhad Shahram2, Mahmoud Djalali1, Mohammad R Eshragian3, Abolghasem Djazayeri1, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad4, Nasim Naderi2, Maryam Chamari1, Fariha Fatehi1, Mahnaz Zarei11Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 2Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 4Department of Immunology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs, vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for three months: Group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g mixture of cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis12 CLAs in a rate of 50/50; Group E: vitamin E: 400 mg; Group CE: CLAs and vitamin E at above doses: Group P: placebo. After supplementation, SBP levels decreased significantly in the group C in comparison with groups E and P and mean arterial pressure reduced signifi cantly in groups C and CE. There weren’t significant differences in the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL/HDL, cholesterol/HDL, fasting blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP, arylestrase activity, platelet count and body mass index between groups. CRP dropped nonsignificantly in groups P, C, E and CE (19%, 24%, 55%, and 39%, respectively. Erythrocytes

  6. Evaluation of mutagenic/antimutagenic activity of conjugated linoleic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... INTRODUCTION. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary adjuvant for its ... who found unidentified anticarcinogenic factors in fried ground beef. ..... products decreases rectum cancer in 13% and colon cancer in 34%. .... alters mammary gland morphogenesis and reduces cancer risk in rats. J. Nutr.

  7. Antiproliferative Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Enhancement of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication through Inactivation of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rakib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly enhanced GJIC of MCF-7 cells at 40 μM concentration, whereas CLA inhibited cell growth and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. CLA increased connexin43 (Cx43 expression both at the transcriptional and translational levels. CLA inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activity and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. No significant difference was observed in the efficacy of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of CLA is associated with upregulation of GJIC mediated by enhanced Cx43 expression through inactivation of NF-κB and generation of ROS in MCF-7 cells.

  8. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  9. Insights into the Indian peanut genotypes for ahFAD2 gene polymorphism regulating its oleic and linoleic acid fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat Nawade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfil the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and ‘SunOleic’‒ a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89% than in ssp. fastigiata (17%. This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39 respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism.

  10. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis with focus on the role of linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagmeister, S

    2009-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas are devastating cancers with high mortality rates. Major risk factors are chronic hepatitis and associated cirrhosis as consequence of viral hepatitis infections, chronically ethanol consumption or metabolic disorders. While the stepwise development of liver cancer is well investigated, the role of mesenchymal cells in this process is largely unknown. To analyse epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, we established new cell lines from human hepatocellular carcinomas and obtained several hepatocarcinoma (HCC)-, B-lymphoblastoid (BLC)- and myofibroblastoid (MF)-lines. BLC- and MF-supernatants were able to increase DNA replication of premalignant hepatocytes. Supernatants of MF-lines enhanced angiogenesis and increased migration of HCC-lines. Besides these pro-tumourigenic effects we could also observe tumouricidal properties of mesenchymal cells, as BLC-supernatants induced cell death of HCC-lines. Linoleic acid is an important source for hydroperoxides, which may be generated either endogenously in the course of inflammation or exogenously during food processing. We found that linoleic acid hydroperoxides (=LOOH) were able to activate mesenchymal cells of the liver resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors including TNF-alpha (=tumour necrosis factor alpha) and HB-EGF (=heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor), which turned out to be a growth factor for premalignant hepatocytes. Furthermore LOOH enhanced the growth of hepatocarcinoma cells via upregulation of the antiapoptotic enzyme heme oxygenase 1 and stimulation of cell proliferation. In conclusion, the results of our studies confirm the crucial role of different mesenchymal cells in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis and propose a tumour-promoting effect of LOOH. (author) [German] Bei hepatozellulaeren Karzinomen handelt es sich um Krebserkrankungen mit einer ausserordentlich hohen

  11. Linoleic acid enhance the production of moncolin K and red pigments in Monascus ruber by activating mokH and mokA, and by accelerating cAMP-PkA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Liao, NanQing; Li, HaoMing

    2018-04-01

    Monacolin K, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, is a secondary metabolite synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKS) from Monascus ruber. The mokH gene encoding Zn(II)2Cys6 binding protein and mokA gene encoding polyketide synthase are presumed to activate monacolin K production. In this study, linoleic acid could be a quorum sensing signaling molecule to increase monacolin K production in the cyclic AMP(cAMP)-protein kinase A(PKA) signaling pathway. Analysis of the PKA activity and the cAMP concentration shows that linoleic acid could increase cAMP concentration and activate PKA. Analysis of the RT-qPCR products demonstrates that 256μM and 512μM linoleic acid can up-regulate mokH and mokA gene transcript levels. Especially with 512μM linoleic acid addition, linoleic acid increase 1.35 folds of monacolin K production, but 64μM linoleic acid increase 1.94 folds of red pigment production in Monascus ruber. These results show the cAMP-PkA pathway activity can up-regulate mokA and mokH gene, which enhance the yield of Monacolin K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Backbone and sidechain 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of the human brain-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP7) in its apo form and the holo forms binding to DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid and elaidic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oeemig, Jesper S; Jørgensen, Mathilde L; Hansen, Mikka S

    2009-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present the backbone and side chain assignments of human brain-type fatty acid binding protein, also known as FABP7, in its apo form and in four different holo forms, bound to DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid and elaidic acid.......In this manuscript, we present the backbone and side chain assignments of human brain-type fatty acid binding protein, also known as FABP7, in its apo form and in four different holo forms, bound to DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid and elaidic acid....

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents age-induced bone loss in mice by regulating both osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guanlin; Wang, Huan; Dai, Jun; Li, Xiao; Guan, Ming; Gao, Shutao; Ding, Qing; Wang, Huaixi; Fang, Huang

    2017-08-26

    Osteoporosis (OP) can increase the risk of bone fracture and other complications, which is a major clinical problem. Previous researches have revealed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can promote the bone formation. But the mechanisms are not clear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that CLA acts on bone formation might be via mTOR Complex1 (mTORC 1) pathway by in vitro and vivo assays. We studied the effect of CLA mix on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts differentiation into osteoblasts, and bone formation under osteoporotic conditions. At the same time, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte with the same CLA mix concentration gradient for 8 days with adipogenic differentiation medium. We found that Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteocalcin (OCN) expressions of pre-osteoblasts were up-regulated. Moreover in presence of CLA, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) were down-regulated. Osteoporosis mice bone parameters in the distal femoral meraphysis were significantly increased compared with placebo mice. Furthermore, the phosphor-S6 (P-S6) was suppressed and phosphor-AKT (P-AKT) was up-regulated. Consistently, CLA can stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibited pre-adipocytes differentiated into adipocytes via AKT/mTORC1 signal pathway. Overall CLA thus be a suitable candidate for the treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Linoleic acid emulsion on the peri-lesion skin of venal ulcers. Action and cicatrizant effect. Corpus study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicas, Vicente Tormo; Rochina, Iván Julián

    2008-04-01

    The authors present a clinical and documented follow up on the peri-lesion skin in 44 venal blood vessel ulcers which were treated by a hyper-oxygenized fatty acid emulsion. All the elderly in this study belonged to the Number 3 Health Department of the Valencia Sanitary Council. This study's protocol and its data collection register received a favourable report from the Committee on Research Ethics at the "La Plana" Hospital. With a total percentage of 60 in essential linoleic fatty acid, CORPITOLINOL 60, is the emulsion which has the greatest quantity of this element so necessary for human skin. In effect, this is the essential fatty acid which has the greatest presence in human skin, besides being a vital element for skin hydration and its viability to form part of a fundamental structure: intercellular layers in the corneum layer of the epidermis. On the other hand, in the hyper-oxygenation process, this product helps the skin to obtain molecules very similar to prostaglandins land 2 which favour tissue perfusion. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate, after the application of this emulsion over a four week time period, the reduction of erythema and peri-lesion hyperkeratosis in venal blood vessel ulcers. But at the same time, as a secondary objective, this study evaluated peri-lesion skin based on other criteria such as pruritus, lesions due to scratching, or edema; this study verified whether treatment of peri-lesion skin influences the cicatrisation of wounds, as well as treatment acceptance by health professionals and patients. Incidences of erythemas and hyperkeratosis totally disappeared in 40% and 50% of those cases, respectively; in those lesions where these symptoms continued after four weeks of treatment there was a significant reduction in the degree of both erythemas and hyperkeratosis, 25% in each case. These researchers consider that good treatment of peri-lesion skin combined with a standard cure protocol, using "Urgotul" as the

  15. Oleic and linoleic acids are active principles in Nigella sativa and stabilize an E(2)P conformation of the Na,K-ATPase. Fatty acids differentially regulate cardiac glycoside interaction with the pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A; Christensen, S Brøgger

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa seed oil was found to contain a modulator of Na,K-ATPase. Separation analyses combined with (1)H NMR and GCMS identified the inhibitory fraction as a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids. These two fatty acids are specifically concentrated in several medicinal plant oils, and have particularly been implicated in decreasing high blood pressure. The ouabain binding site on Na,K-ATPase has also been implicated in blood pressure regulation. Thus, we aimed to determine how these two molecules modify pig kidney Na,K-ATPase. Oleic and linoleic acids did not modify reactions involving the E(1) (Na(+)) conformations of the Na,K-ATPase. In contrast, K(+) dependent reactions were strongly modified after treatment. Oleic and linoleic acids were found to stabilize a pump conformation that binds ouabain with high affinity, i.e., an ion free E(2)P form. Time-resolved binding assays using anthroylouabain, a fluorescent ouabain analog, revealed that the increased ouabain affinity is unique to oleic and linoleic acids, as compared with γ-linolenic acid, which decreased pump-mediated ATP hydrolysis but did not equally increase ouabain interaction with the pump. Thus, the dynamic changes in plasma levels of oleic and linoleic acids are important in the modulation of the sensitivity of the sodium pump to cardiac glycosides. Given the possible involvement of the cardiac glycoside binding site on Na,K-ATPase in the regulation of hypertension, we suggest oleic acid to be a specific chaperon that modulates interaction of cardiac glycosides with the sodium pump. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Qingming [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nair, Jagadeesan [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: j.nair@dkfz.de; Sun Xin [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hadjiolov, Dimiter [National Oncological Centre, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bartsch, Helmut [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-11-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary {omega}-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N{sup 6}-ethenodeoxyadenosine ({epsilon}dA) and 3, N{sup 4}-ethenodeoxycytidine ({epsilon}dC) by immunoaffinity/{sup 32}P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in {omega}-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis.

  17. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qingming; Nair, Jagadeesan; Sun Xin; Hadjiolov, Dimiter; Bartsch, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N 6 -ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3, N 4 -ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) by immunoaffinity/ 32 P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in ω-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis

  18. Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and mice, and induces weight gain and inflammation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvheim, Anita R.; Torstensen, Bente E.; Lin, Yu Hong

    2013-01-01

    , arachidonic acid (AA), decreased EPA and DHA, elevated the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), and increased TAG accumulation in the salmon liver. In mice, the SO salmon diet increased LA and AA and decreased EPA and DHA in the liver and erythrocyte phospholipids, and elevated......Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century and is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity. Vegetable oils are recognised as suitable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) but introduce high amounts of LA......-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA in mice....

  19. Quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk with C17:0 as internal marker – Evaluation of different methylation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lashkari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are commonly analysed by gas chromatography as their corresponding fatty acid (FA methyl esters (FAME. For quantitative determination of individual FA an internal standard like C17:0 is necessary. Conjugated FA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA represents a challenge in the methylation steps, as they are sensitive to pH changes and oxidation. The present study was carried out to determine the efficiency of different methylation procedures on quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, PUFA and response of internal standard. The highest response of internal standard was observed for boron trifluoride (BF3/methanol and methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3, while cis-9, trans-11 CLA, total CLA and PUFA was higher with methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3 compared with the BF3 method. These data can be useful for quantitating of milk FA. Keywords: Methylation procedures, Milk fatty acid, Conjugated linoleic acid

  20. , , , , , and Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001 carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases. Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  1. Effect of oleic and conjugated linoleic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on the live growth performances, carcass traits and meat fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.

  2. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Leigh E; Collene, Angela L; Asp, Michelle L; Hsu, Jason C; Liu, Li-Fen; Richardson, Julia R; Li, Dongmei; Bell, Doris; Osei, Kwame; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Weight loss may improve glucose control in persons with type 2 diabetes. The effects of fat quality, as opposed to quantity, on weight loss are not well understood. Objective: We compared the effects of 2 dietary oils, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Design: This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Fifty-five obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received SAF or CLA (8 g oil/d) during two 16-wk diet periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. Subjects met monthly with the study coordinator to receive new supplements and for assessment of energy balance, biochemical endpoints, or anthropometric variables. Results: Thirty-five women completed the 36-wk intervention. Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention. Conclusions: Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with these dietary oils may be beneficial for weight loss, glycemic control, or both. PMID:19535429

  3. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Leigh E; Collene, Angela L; Asp, Michelle L; Hsu, Jason C; Liu, Li-Fen; Richardson, Julia R; Li, Dongmei; Bell, Doris; Osei, Kwame; Jackson, Rebecca D; Belury, Martha A

    2009-09-01

    Weight loss may improve glucose control in persons with type 2 diabetes. The effects of fat quality, as opposed to quantity, on weight loss are not well understood. We compared the effects of 2 dietary oils, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Fifty-five obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received SAF or CLA (8 g oil/d) during two 16-wk diet periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. Subjects met monthly with the study coordinator to receive new supplements and for assessment of energy balance, biochemical endpoints, or anthropometric variables. Thirty-five women completed the 36-wk intervention. Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention. Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with these dietary oils may be beneficial for weight loss, glycemic control, or both.

  4. Suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado: estabilidade oxidativa dos suplementos e correlações com conteúdo dos lípides totais hepáticos e indicadores da oxidação dos lípides biológicos de ratos Wistar Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation: oxidative stability of supplements and correlations with total hepatic lipid contents and biological lipid oxidation indicators in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago

    2009-02-01

    control and supplemented with the commercial mixtures AdvantEdge® and One®. The mixtures were administered in the concentration of 2% of the total diet consumption, and animals were supplemented for 42 days. The total liver lipid content was determined, and the morphology of the organ was examined by optical microscopy. Peroxide and malondialdehyde indexes were determined in vitro in order to evaluate the oxidative stability of the supplements. Peroxide, malondialdehyde and 8-iso-PGF2α isoprostane and catalase were determined as biological lipid oxidation indicators. RESULTS:Results indicated a low in vitro oxidation stability of commercial mixtures. Associations between conjugated linoleic acid consumption and malondialdehyde (r=-0.7914, p<0.0001, and catalase (r=-0.5991, p=0.008 were moderate, negative and significant, demonstrating that conjugated linoleic acid reduced in vivo lipid oxidation. Total hepatic lipid content did not increase (22.42%, (SD=1.40%, and the organ remained morphologically undamaged. CONCLUSION:However, even though this CLA supplementation protocol did reduce lipid oxidation, a tendency was observed to an increase of 8-iso-PGF2 alpha isoprostane and peroxides induced by conjugated linoleic acid. Further research may be needed to verify its antioxidant effect.

  5. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Plaza, Bricia; Bermejo, Laura M; Koester Weber, Thabata; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Hernández, Marta; Palma Milla, Samara; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) have shown beneficial effects in weight control therapy however this relation is not clear. The aim of the study was to examine the effects and safety of 3g of a 1:1 mix of c9-t11 and t10-c12 on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight individuals. A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomised double-blind, parallel clinical trial lasting 24 weeks was carried out in 38 volunteers (29w, 9m) aged 30-55 years and BMI ≥27-oil (placebo). Anthropometric, biochemical and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) tests were measured. Diet and physical activity were assessed. Subjects maintained their habitual dietary and exercise patterns over the study. Only CLA group showed a significant decrease in weight (74.43 ± 10.45 vs 73.54 ± 11.66 kg, p = 0.029) and waist circumference (91.45 ± 10.33 vs 90.65 ± 9.84 cm, p = 0.012) between baseline and end of the study. BMI and waist height ratio decreased (28.44 ± 1.08 vs 27.81 ± 1.43 kg/m2, p = 0.030 and 0.57 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.04 p = 0.013 respectively) in CLA group at the end. CLA group experienced a reduction in total fat mass after 24 weeks (38.62 ± 5.02 vs 36.65 ± 5.64%, p = 0.035). No decrease was observed in Control group. HOMA index had no changes. The consumption of skimmed milk enriched with 3g of a 1:1 mixture of c9-t11 and t10-c12 for 24 weeks led to a decrease in body weight and total fat mass in healthy, overweight subjects who maintained habitual diets and exercise patterns. No adverse effects were observed. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier No. NCT01503047. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Villar-Tajadura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA, respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp. and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.. These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1 and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1 in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk.

  7. Metabolism in humans of cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid relative to palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emken, E.A.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Adlof, R.O.; Rakoff, H.; Gulley, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mixtures of triglycerides containing deuterium-labeled hexadecanoic acid (16:0), octadecanoic acid (18:0), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (9c-18:1), cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (9c, 12c-18:2) and cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid (12c,15t-18:2) were fed to two young-adult males. Plasma lipid classes were isolated from samples collected periodically over 48 hr. Incorporation and turnover of the deuterium-labeled fats in plasma lipids were followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the methyl ester derivatives. Absorption of the deuterated fats was followed by GC-MS analysis of chylomicron triglycerides isolated by ultracentrifugation. Results were the following: (i) endogenous fat contributed about 40% of the total fat incorporated into chylomicron triglycerides; (ii) elongation, desaturation and chain-shortened products from the deuterated fats were not detected; (iii) the polyunsaturated isomer 12c,15t-18:2 was metabolically more similar to saturated and 9c-18:1 fatty acids than to 9c,12c-18:2; (iv) relative incorporation of 9c,12c-18:2 into phospholipids did not increase proportionally with an increase of 9c,12c-18:2 in the mixture of deuterated fats fed; (v) absorption of 16:0, 18:0, 9c-18:1, 9c,12c-18:2 and 12c,15t-18:2 were similar; and (vi) data for the 1- and 2-acyl positions of phosphatidylcholine and for cholesteryl ester fractions reflected the known high specificity of phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase for 9c,12c-18:2. These results illustrate that incorporation of dietary fatty acids into human plasma lipid classes is selectively controlled and that incorporation of dietary 9c,12c-18:2 is limited

  8. Distribution of 14C after oral administration of [1-14C]linoleic acid in rats fed different levels of essential fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1984-01-01

    Rats from an inbred Sprague-Dawley strain were fed semisynthetic diets with a low [0.3 energy percent (en %)], normal (3 en %) or high (10 en %) content of essential fatty acids (EFA) for at least three generations. Twenty-nine- to 33-day-old male rats were given a single intragastric dose of [1-14C]linoleic acid in olive oil, and the respiratory CO2, urine and feces were collected for 46 hours (expt 1) or 20 hours (expt 2). The 14C activity in respiratory CO2, feces, urine and the carcass was determined in both experiments. In experiment 2 it was also measured in samples of the brown fat, liver, adrenals, white fat, skeletal muscles and brain. In both experiments the rats fed the low EFA diet retained significantly more 14C activity than the rats fed the normal or high EFA diets. In all groups the concentration of label was highest in the brown fat and the adrenals, but the above differences among the groups with respect to 14C retention were mainly observed in the liver, skeletal muscles and brain

  9. The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Khosro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ and retinoid × receptor-α (RXR-α were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-γ or RXR-α expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

  10. Using linoleic acid embedded cellulose acetate membranes to in situ monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lakes and predict their bioavailability to submerged macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yuqiang; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shuchun

    2015-05-19

    To date no passive sampler has been used to predict bioavailability of contaminants to macrophytes. Here a novel passive sampler, linoleic acid embedded cellulose acetate membrane (LAECAM), was developed and used to in situ measure the freely dissolved concentrations of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediment porewaters and the water columns of two lakes in both winter and summer and predict their bioavailability to the shoots of resident submerged macrophytes (Potamogeton malainus, Myriophyllum spicata, Najas minor All., and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara). PAH sampling by LAECAMs could reach equilibrium within 21 days. The influence of temperature on LAECAM-water partition coefficients was 0.0008-0.0116 log units/°C. The method of LAECAM was comparable with the active sampling methods of liquid-liquid extraction combined with fDOC adjustment, centrifugation/solid-phase extraction (SPE), and filtration/SPE but had several advantages. After lipid normalization, concentrations of the PAHs in LAECAMs were not significantly different from those in the macrophytes. In contrast, concentrations of the PAHs in the triolein containing passive sampler (TECAM) deployed simultaneously with LAECAM were much higher. The results suggest that linoleic acid is more suitable than triolein as the model lipid for passive samplers to predict bioavailability of PAHs to submerged macrophytes.

  11. Gas chromatography and silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in free fatty acid form using sulphuric acid in methanol as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pilar; Juárez, Manuela; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel

    2008-09-12

    This study used GC and silver-ion HPLC to examine the effects of temperature and time on methylation of individual and mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in free fatty acid form using sulphuric acid as catalyst. In the conditions tested (temperatures between 20 and 50 degrees C and times between 10 and 60 min) methylation was complete while avoiding isomerization of conjugated dienes and the formation of artefacts that could interfere with chromatographic determinations. An analytical method using solvent extraction of the lipids followed by selective elution of the free fatty acids from aminopropyl bonded phase columns and methylation with H(2)SO(4) in mild conditions was then applied to determine the CLA isomers in free fatty acid form in rumen fluid, and the results were evaluated.

  12. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha concentration compared with the control, P...

  13. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich soy oil by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-11-25

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.

  14. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  15. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis Condições de cultura simulando o levado acúmulo de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Reddy Ronda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25ºC, strong light intensity (6 klux and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria.Estudou-se a produção de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis em diferentes condições de estresse. Culturas submersas indicaram que temperatura baixa (25ºC, forte intensidade de luz (6 klux e suplementação com óleo de prímula (0,8% p/v induziram a produção de ácido linolênico de 13,2 mg/g, 14,6 mg/g e 13,5 mg/g peso seco, respectivamente. Uma observação cuidadosa do perfil de ácidos graxos da cianobacteria indica que os ácidos oléico e linoléico, em experimentos com diferentes temperaturas de crescimento e suplementos de óleo, auxiliaram no acúmulo de excesso de ácido γ-linolênico. Além disso, as culturas obtidas em intensidades crescentes de luz mantiveram a relação ácido γ-linolênico/ácidos graxos totais constante, independentemente de qualquer mudança no conteúdo de ácido γ-linolênico da cianobactéria.

  16. Inflammation and insulin resistance induced by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid depend on intracellular calcium levels in primary cultures of human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, Arion; Martinez, Kristina; Chung, Soonkyu

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induced inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes by activating nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling. In this study, we demonstrated...... that the initial increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mediated by 10,12 CLA was attenuated by TMB-8, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), by BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, and by D609, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor. Moreover, BAPTA, TMB-8, and D609 attenuated......, and suppression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma protein levels and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These data suggest that 10,12 CLA increases inflammation and insulin resistance in human adipocytes, in part by increasing [Ca2+]i levels, particularly calcium from the ER....

  17. Transport of C-13-labelled linoleic and C-13-labelled caprylic acid in rat plasma after administration of specific structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    the transport of dietary C-13-labelled fatty acids in rat plasma to compare the chylomicron fatty acid metabolism after administration of specific structured, long chain and medium chain triacylglycerols. Rats were fed ML*M, M*LM*, L*L*L* or M*M*M* (L=linoleic acid, 18:2n-6, M=caprylic acid, 8:0, * = C-13......-labelled fatty acid) by gavage. A maximum transport of 0.5% of the administered C-13-labelled 18:2n-6 was observed in 1mL rat plasma both after administration of L*L*L* and ML*M, while approximately 0.04% of the administered C-13-labelled 8:0 was detected in 1mL plasma following administration of M......*M*M* or M*LM*. After L*L*L* administration C-13-labelled 20:4n-6 was observed in plasma, probably formed by elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6 in the enterocyte or liver cells. Furthermore, C-13-labelled 16:0, 48:0, 18: 1n-9 and 20:4n-6 were observed in plasma of rats fed M*M*M* and M*LM* due...

  18. A rumen unprotected conjugated linoleic acid supplement inhibits milk fat synthesis and improves energy balance in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, M; Gama, M A S; Dresch, R; Harvatine, K J; Oliveira, D E

    2013-07-01

    Feeding trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplements in a rumen-protected form has been shown to cause milk fat depression (MFD) in cows, ewes, and goats. Methyl esters of CLA were shown to be as effective as FFA in inducing MFD when infused postruminally, but their efficacy as a feed supplement has not been addressed in studies with lactating ruminants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an unprotected trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement as methyl esters on performance, milk composition, and energy status of dairy goats. Eighteen multiparous Toggenburg goats were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a crossover experimental design (14 d treatment periods separated by a 7 d washout interval): 30 g/d of calcium salts of fatty acids (Control) or 30 g/d of a rumen unprotected CLA supplement containing 29.9% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA as methyl esters (CLA). Lipid supplements were mixed into a concentrate and fed individually to animals 3 times a day as a total mixed ration component. The DMI, milk yield, milk protein and lactose content and secretion, and somatic cell count were unaffected by CLA treatment. On the other hand, milk fat content and yield were reduced by 19.9 and 17.9% in CLA-fed goats. Reduced milk fat yield in CLA-fed goats was a consequence of a lower secretion of both preformed and de novo synthesized fatty acids. The CLA treatment also changed the milk fatty acid profile, which included a reduction in the concentration of SFA (2.5%), increased MUFA and PUFA (5.6 and 5.4%, respectively), and a pronounced increase (1576%) in milk fat trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Consistent with the high milk fat trans-10, cis-12 CLA content, all desaturase indexes were reduced in milk fat from CLA-fed goats. The MFD induced by CLA reduced the energy required for milk production by 22%, which was accompanied by an improvement in the estimated energy balance (P rumen biohydrogenation and indirect comparisons with data obtained from other studies suggest equivalent MFD

  19. Starch and oil in the donor cow diet and starch in substrate differently affect the in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Nicot, M C; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2011-11-01

    Trans isomers of fatty acids exhibit different health properties. Among them, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on milk fat production and can affect human health. A shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of dairy cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with highly unsaturated fat sources. The differences of BH patterns between linoleic acid (LeA) and linolenic acid (LnA) in such ruminal conditions remain unknown; thus, the aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the effects of starch and sunflower oil in the diet of the donor cows and starch level in the incubates on the BH patterns and efficiencies of LeA and LnA. The design was a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 cows, 4 periods, and 4 diets with combinations of 21 or 34% starch and 0 or 5% sunflower oil. The rumen content of each cow during each period was incubated with 4 substrates, combining 2 starch levels and either LeA or LnA addition. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism of incubates showed that dietary starch decreased the diversity of the bacterial community and the high-starch plus oil diet modified its structure. High-starch diets poorly affected isomerization and first reduction of LeA and LnA, but decreased the efficiencies of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and trans C18:1 reduction. Dietary sunflower oil increased the efficiency of LeA isomerization but decreased the efficiency of trans C18:1 reduction. An interaction between dietary starch and dietary oil resulted in the highest trans-10 isomers production in incubates when the donor cow received the high-starch plus oil diet. The partition between trans-10 and trans-11 isomers was also affected by an interaction between starch level and the fatty acid added to the incubates, showing that the trans-10 shift only occurred with LeA, whereas LnA was mainly hydrogenated via the more usual trans-11

  20. Oxidation of linoleic and palmitic acid in pre-hibernating and hibernating common noctule bats revealed by 13C breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Elisabeth; Voigt, Christian C

    2018-02-19

    Mammals fuel hibernation by oxidizing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from triacylglycerols in adipocytes, yet the relative importance of these two categories as an oxidative fuel may change during hibernation. We studied the selective use of fatty acids as an oxidative fuel in noctule bats ( Nyctalus noctula ). Pre-hibernating noctule bats that were fed 13 C-enriched linoleic acid (LA) showed 12 times higher tracer oxidation rates compared with conspecifics fed 13 C-enriched palmitic acid (PA). After this experiment, we supplemented the diet of bats with the same fatty acids on five subsequent days to enrich their fat depots with the respective tracer. We then compared the excess 13 C enrichment (excess atom percentage, APE) in breath of bats for torpor and arousal events during early and late hibernation. We observed higher APE values in breath of bats fed 13 C-enriched LA than in bats fed 13 C-enriched PA for both states (torpor and arousal), and also for both periods. Thus, hibernating bats selectively oxidized endogenous LA instead of PA, probably because of faster transportation rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with saturated fatty acids. We did not observe changes in APE values in the breath of torpid animals between early and late hibernation. Skin temperature of torpid animals increased by 0.7°C between early and late hibernation in bats fed PA, whereas it decreased by -0.8°C in bats fed LA, highlighting that endogenous LA may fulfil two functions when available in excess: serving as an oxidative fuel and supporting cell membrane functionality. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Administration Induces Amnesia in Male Sprague Dawley Rats and Exacerbates Recovery from Functional Deficits Induced by a Controlled Cortical Impact Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are required for normal neural development and cognitive function and have been ascribed various beneficial functions. Recently, oral CLA also has been shown to increase testosterone (T biosynthesis, which is known to diminish traumatic brain injury (TBI-induced neuropathology and reduce deficits induced by stroke in adult rats. To test the impact of CLA on cognitive recovery following a TBI, 5-6 month old male Sprague Dawley rats received a focal injury (craniectomy + controlled cortical impact (CCI; n = 17 or Sham injury (craniectomy alone; n = 12 and were injected with 25 mg/kg body weight of Clarinol® G-80 (80% CLA in safflower oil; n = 16 or saline (n = 13 every 48 h for 4 weeks. Sham surgery decreased baseline plasma progesterone (P4 by 64.2% (from 9.5 ± 3.4 ng/mL to 3.4 ± 0.5 ng/mL; p = 0.068, T by 74.6% (from 5.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL to 1.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL; p 0.05 animals by post-injury day 29, but rapidly reversed by post-injury day 1 the hypoadrenalism in Sham (11-DOC: 372.6 ± 36.6 ng/mL; corticosterone: 202.6 ± 15.6 ng/mL and CCI-injured (11-DOC: 384.2 ± 101.3 ng/mL; corticosterone: 234.6 ± 43.8 ng/mL animals. In Sham surgery animals, CLA did not alter body weight, but did markedly increase latency to find the hidden Morris Water Maze platform (40.3 ± 13.0 s compared to saline treated Sham animals (8.8 ± 1.7 s. In CCI injured animals, CLA did not alter CCI-induced body weight loss, CCI-induced cystic infarct size, or deficits in rotarod performance. However, like Sham animals, CLA injections exacerbated the latency of CCI-injured rats to find the hidden MWM platform (66.8 ± 10.6 s compared to CCI-injured rats treated with saline (30.7 ± 5.5 s, p < 0.05. These results indicate that chronic treatment of CLA at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight in adult male rats over 1-month 1 does not reverse craniectomy- and craniectomy + CCI-induced hypogonadism, but does reverse

  2. Effect of the cryopreservation method used, the embryonic stage and the use of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Simões Rafagnin Marinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA might be able to improve the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced (IVP embryos. The effect of two CLA isomers on the cryotolerance of bovine IVP embryos, as well as that of the stage of embryonic development and the method used for cryopreservation was evaluated by three experiments. In Experiment 1, oocytes (n = 3,917 were fertilized in vitro and cultured with 0, 50, 100, or 200 ?M trans-10, cis-12 (t10, c12 CLA. In Experiment 2, fertilized oocytes (n = 2,131 were cultured with 100 ?M t10, c12 or cis-9, trans-11 (c9, t11 CLA, or a combination of both isomers. The embryos were vitrified at the blastocyst (BL or the expanded blastocyst (EB stage. In Experiment 3, oocytes (n = 1,720 were fertilized and cultured with or without 100 ?M t10, c12 CLA, and the blastocysts were vitrified or frozen. Blastocyst development rate as well as the rates of re-expansion and hatching after thawing was recorded. Moreover, the mean cell number and mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 as well as fatty acid synthase (FASN multienzyme complex were determined. In Experiment 1, the highest concentration of t10, c12 CLA that did not reduce blastocyst development rate was 100 ?M. In Experiment 2, the rates of re-expansion and hatching among the EBs obtained through IVP after supplementation with t10, c12 CLA (73.1% and 57.7%, with c9, t11 CLA (80.0% and 68.6%, with the combination (78.3% and 52.2%, and with the control group (85.4% and 58.3% were similar. At the BL stage, the rates of re-expansion and hatching were lower than those at the EB stage, and CLA combination allowed a hatching rate (8.0% lower than that observed in the control group (40.0%. In Experiment 3, the hatching rates for vitrified EBs (vitrified control; 67.4% and vitrified CLA EBs (65.8% were higher than those obtained for frozen EBs, exposed (13.3% or not exposed (28.6% to CLA. In addition, in Experiment 3, the hatching rate was

  3. Os efeitos do ácido linoléico conjugado no metabolismo animal: avanço das pesquisas e perspectivas para o futuro Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on animal metabolism: advances in research and perspectives for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago

    2008-04-01

    consumidos em quantidades adequadas e de forma freqüente, poderiam atuar como coadjuvantes na prevenção e no controle de inúmeras doenças crônicas.This systematic review without date restrictions is about the physiological effects of conjugated linoleic acid on regression of carcinogenesis, oxidative stress, glucose and lipid metabolism and change in body composition. The objective was to establish the historical aspect of research advances regarding conjugated linoleic acid, considering original articles reporting work on animals, cell cultures and humans. Regarding the researches on the anticarcinogenic effect of conjugated linoleic acid, innumerous evidences were found in this respect, especially in the regression of mammary and colon tumors induced by both isomers which act distinctively. The researchers devoted considerable effort to reinvestigate the antioxidant properties of conjugated linoleic acid. Although the antioxidant properties have been investigated, pro-oxidant effect has been identified leading to oxidative stress in humans. Few studies demonstrated significant beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the metabolism of lipids and glucose and on the reduction of body fat, especially in humans. Studies with adverse effects were also identified. There is strong indication that the action of this conjugated fatty acid on a class of transition factors - the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor - and on the consequent modulation of gene expression can be the fundamental explanation of its physiological effects. The most recent studies reinforce the nutrigenomic concept, that is, the modulation of gene expression induced by compounds present in the foods consumed by humans. This current scenario stimulates the scientific community to seek a consensus on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid in humans, since it is naturally found in some foods; when these foods are consumed regularly and in appropriate amounts, they could help prevent and

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  5. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic gene expression in a polygenic obese line of mice displaying hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Melissa S; Ceddia, Ryan P; House, Ralph L; Cassady, Joseph P; Eisen, Eugene J; Eling, Thomas E; Collins, Jennifer B; Grissom, Sherry F; Odle, Jack

    2010-09-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes a rapid reduction of body and adipose mass in mice. In addition to changes in adipose tissue, numerous studies have reported alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism. Livers of CLA-fed mice gain mass, partly due to lipid accumulation; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. To elucidate these mechanisms, we examined fatty acid composition and gene expression profiles of livers from a polygenic obese line of mice fed 1% trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 14 days. Analysis of gene expression data led to the identification of 1393 genes differentially expressed in the liver of CLA-fed male mice at a nominal P value of .01, and 775 were considered significant using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of .05. While surprisingly few genes in lipid metabolism were impacted, pathway analysis found that protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathways signaling pathways were affected by CLA treatment and 98 of the 775 genes were found to be regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha, a transcription factor important in controlling liver metabolic status. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Andersen, Anders D.

    2008-01-01

    with a high- or low-LA intake affects overall CVD risk profile. Healthy men (n = 64) were randomized to 5 mL/d fish oil capsules (FO) [mean intake 3.1 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil capsules (control) and to oils and spreads with either a high (S/B) or a low (R/K) LA content, resulting in a 7.3 g/d higher LA......Both (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and linoleic acid [LA, 18:2(n-6)] improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but a high-LA intake may weaken the effect of (n-3) LCPUFA. In a controlled, double-blind, 2 x 2-factorial 8-wk intervention, we investigated whether fish oil combined......, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, oxidized LDL, cluster of differentiation antigen 40 ligand (CD40L), adiponectin, or fasting or postprandial BP or HR after adjustment for body weight changes. In conclusion, neither fish oil supplementation nor the LA...

  7. Structural characterization and bioavailability of ternary nanoparticles consisting of amylose, α-linoleic acid and β-lactoglobulin complexed with naringin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Wang, Ke; Liu, Fangfang; Ye, Ran; Zhu, Xiao; Zhuang, Haining; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-06-01

    Naringin is a bioflavonoid that is rich in citrus plants and possesses enormous health benefits. However, the use of naringin as a nutraceutical is significantly limited by its low bioavailability. In this study, a novel water-soluble ternary nanoparticle material consisting of amylose, α-linoleic acid and β-lactoglobulin was developed to encapsulate naringin to improve its bioavailability. The physicochemical characteristics of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex were analysed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and particle size distribution. The results confirmed the formation of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading content (LC) of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex were 78.73±4.17% and 14.51±3.43%, respectively. In addition, the results of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) demonstrated that naringin can be gradually released from the complex. In conclusion, ternary nanoparticles are considered promising carriers to effectively improve the bioavailability of naringin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The palatability of corn oil and linoleic acid to mice as measured by short-term two-bottle choice and licking tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Takeshi; Saitou, Katsuyoshi; Mizushige, Takafumi; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Manabe, Yasuko; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2007-06-08

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) were reported to be recognized in the oral cavity and possibly involved in fatty foods recognition. To understand the importance of oil recognition in the oral cavity, we investigated the effect of various concentrations of a fatty acid or corn oil on fluid intake as well as mice's preferences in a two-bottle choice test and a licking test. Linoleic acid (LA), which is a main component of corn oil, was used as a representative FFA. In the two-bottle choice test between a pair of different concentrations of corn oil, the mice consistently adopted the higher concentration of corn oil. In the licking test for corn oil, the licking rates for the serial concentration of corn oils (0, 1, 5, 10 and 100%) were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, in the two-bottle test for a pair of different concentrations of LA (0, 0.125, 0.25 and 1%), 0.25% and 1% LA were preferred to mineral oil, but 0.25% and 1% LA were preferred equally in mice. In the licking test for LA, the mice showed the largest number of initial lickings for the 1% LA, while the licking rates for the high concentration of LA decreased. These results suggest that mice could discriminate the concentration of corn oil and LA in the oral cavity. We also suggest that pure corn oil is a highly preferable solution, while an optimal concentration of LA according to the preferences of mice is a low-range concentration (0.25-1%).

  9. Supplementation with linoleic acid-rich soybean oil stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via increased oxidative stress and diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-mediated triglyceride biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Jeries, Helana; Hayek, Tony; Aviram, Michael

    2017-01-02

    During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice. Lipid peroxidation and triglyceride mass in aortas from SO or LA supplemented mice were dose-dependently and significantly increased. In MPM from SO or LA supplemented mice, lipid peroxides were significantly increased and a marked accumulation of cellular triglycerides was found in accordance with enhanced triglyceride biosynthesis rate and overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1), the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. In cultured J774A.1 macrophages treated with SO or LA, triglyceride accumulated via increased oxidative stress and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated overexpression of DGAT1. Accordingly, anti-oxidants (pomegranate polyphenols), inhibition of p38 MAPK (by SB202190) or DGAT1 (by oleanolic acid), all significantly attenuated SO or LA-induced macrophage triglyceride accumulation. These findings reveal novel mechanisms by which supplementation with SO or LA stimulate macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting a pro-atherogenic role for overconsumption of SO or LA. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):100-116, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid induces human adipocyte delipidation: autocrine/paracrine regulation of MEK/ERK signaling by adipocytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu

    2004-01-01

    of MEK/ERK could be attenuated by pretreatment with U0126 and pertussis toxin. In parallel, pretreatment with U0126 blocked the ability of trans-10, cis-12 CLA to alter gene expression and attenuate glucose and fatty acid uptake of the cultures. Intriguingly, the induction by CLA of MEK/ERK signaling...

  11. Autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Part I. Effect of ozone on the autoxidation of neat methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, W.A.; Stanley, J.P.; Blair, E.; Cullen, G.B.

    Neat samples of polyunsaturated fatty acids were exposed to ozone in air in a flow system, and the formation of peroxides, conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive material was followed as a function of time. The effect of ozone is to shorten the induction period normally observed in autoxidation studies, but the ozone, at the concentrations used here (0-1.5 ppm), appears to have no effect on the rates of product formation after the induction period. During the induction period, increasing ozone concentrations gives rise to substantially increased rates of peroxide (or materials which titrate like peroxide) formation, a slightly increased rate of conjugated diene formation, and no significant increase in the rate of production of TBA-reactive material. Vitamin E lengthens the induction period but appears to have no other effect. Some of these data are in conflict with earlier reports of Menzel et al.

  12. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  13. Generation of novel metabolites of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n6) by guinea pig epidermis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapkin, R.S.; Ziboh, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    Although the authors have demonstrated the inability of rat and guinea pig (GP) skin enzyme preparations to desaturate 18:2n6 into gammalinolenic acid (18:3n6) using an in vitro microsomal system, the fate of this dietary essential fatty acid in the GP epidermis is unknown. To explore the fate of 18:2n6, intact tissue slices from GP epidermis were incubated with (1-/sup 14/C)18:2n6. After incubation, the extracted lipids were transesterified using methanolic-HCL. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a combination of (i) argentation TLC, scanned using a proportional TLC radioscanner, and (ii) reverse phase HPLC, equipped with a flow through radioscanner. The results indicate that the intact epidermis metabolized /sup 14/C-18:2n6 to a group of novel products more polar than 18:2n6. In subsequent experiments, /sup 14/C-18:2n6 was either incubated with the 800 xg supernatant, the 105,000 xg pellet or supernatant from GP epidermis. Metabolism of 18:2n6 by the high speed supernatant resulted in the generation of polar products with chromatographic properties of not greater than 2 double bonds. These results indicate that although the GP epidermis lacks the capacity to desaturate 18:2n6 to 18:3n6, it can convert dietary 18:2n6 into a group of novel polar metabolites via a cytosolic mediated process. The function of these metabolites in the GP integumentary system remains to be determined.

  14. Generation of novel metabolites of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n6) by guinea pig epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapkin, R.S.; Ziboh, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Although the authors have demonstrated the inability of rat and guinea pig (GP) skin enzyme preparations to desaturate 18:2n6 into gammalinolenic acid (18:3n6) using an in vitro microsomal system, the fate of this dietary essential fatty acid in the GP epidermis is unknown. To explore the fate of 18:2n6, intact tissue slices from GP epidermis were incubated with [1- 14 C]18:2n6. After incubation, the extracted lipids were transesterified using methanolic-HCL. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a combination of (i) argentation TLC, scanned using a proportional TLC radioscanner, and (ii) reverse phase HPLC, equipped with a flow through radioscanner. The results indicate that the intact epidermis metabolized 14 C-18:2n6 to a group of novel products more polar than 18:2n6. In subsequent experiments, 14 C-18:2n6 was either incubated with the 800 xg supernatant, the 105,000 xg pellet or supernatant from GP epidermis. Metabolism of 18:2n6 by the high speed supernatant resulted in the generation of polar products with chromatographic properties of not greater than 2 double bonds. These results indicate that although the GP epidermis lacks the capacity to desaturate 18:2n6 to 18:3n6, it can convert dietary 18:2n6 into a group of novel polar metabolites via a cytosolic mediated process. The function of these metabolites in the GP integumentary system remains to be determined

  15. System Development from Organic Solvents to Ionic Liquids for Synthesiz-ing Ascorbyl Esters with Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Schultz, Lise; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    . Results show that only Novozym® 435 turned out to be a useful enzymatic preparation for the production of ascorbyl-CLA ester. The optimum reaction conditions in the or-ganic solvent system were 4 h at 55°C and at a molar ratio of 5 (CLA/ascorbic acid). The esterification reaction was trans......-ferred to an ionic liquid system for the purpose of improving solubility of the polar substrate and avoiding the application of organic solvents. From screening experiments, it was evident that only methyltrioctylammonium triflouroacetate (tO-MA·TFA) could provide a proper reaction environment for production...... of ascorbyl-CLA ester when using Novozym® 435 as biocatalyst. It was possible to significantly increase the productivity (150 g/l) through the increase of ascorbic acid sol-ubility in ionic liquids by super saturation together with the increase of reaction temperature to 70°C, far beyond than that in organic...

  16. Oleic and linoleic acids are active principles in Nigella sativa and stabilize an E2P conformation of the Na,K-ATPase. Fatty acids differentially regulate cardiac glycoside interaction with the pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmoud, Yasser Ahmed; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa seed oil was found to contain a modulator of Na,K-ATPase. Separation analyses combined with (1)H NMR and GCMS identified the inhibitory fraction as a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids. These two fatty acids are specifically concentrated in several medicinal plant oils, and have...

  17. Estimation of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid content in UK foods and assessment of dietary intake in a cohort of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Sohail; Heather Mangiapane, E; Hunter, Kirsty A

    2010-05-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from ruminant-derived foods may be potentially beneficial to health. The quantity of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA in a range of UK foodstuffs (112 foods) was determined using triple-column silver ion HPLC. The cis-9, trans-11 CLA content ranged from 1.9 mg/g lipid (mild Cheddar) to 7.3 mg/g lipid (processed cheese) in cheeses, from 0.9 mg/g lipid (ice cream) to 3.7 mg/g lipid (double cream) in non-cheese dairy products, and from 2.9 mg/g lipid (Swedish meatballs) to 6.0 mg/g lipid (minced lamb) in meat products. cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations for chocolate and sweets ranged from 0.1 mg/g lipid (hot chocolate) to 4.8 mg/g lipid (buttermint). The trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer was undetected or negligible in the food samples examined. To provide information about dietary cis-9, trans-11 CLA intakes in the UK, a study was performed to estimate the daily intake of CLA in a cohort of eighteen healthy volunteers (nine female and nine male; aged 21-60 years; mean BMI = 24.0 kg/m2 (sd 2.2)) with a 7-d weighed food record. This information combined with the CLA isomer contents of UK foodstuffs was used to estimate the daily intake of the cohort. The mean daily intake of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was estimated to be 97.5 (sd 73.3) mg/d. Due to its potential health benefits, it is important to determine the CLA content of food and dietary intake as these data will be useful in determining the role of CLA in health and disease.

  18. Contents of conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis9,trans11 and trans10,cis12 in ruminant and non-ruminant meats available in the Italian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Cicognini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers are considered healthy factors due to their anticarcinogenic, anti-atherosclerotic and lipolytic effect. A recommended daily intake from 0.8 to 3 g CLA/day/person has been proposed to obtain biological effects in humans. The aim of this work was to provide data on cis9,trans11 (c9,t11 CLA and trans10,cis12 (t10,c12 CLA contents in meats collected from Italian largescale retail trade and completing a food CLA database. In a first trial, beef loin meats were characterised for label information available for consumers: origin (i.e., Ireland, France- Italy, Piedmont and sex of animals. No differences were observed for c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA contents (mg/g fat of loin meat from male or female. Piedmontese meat showed lower (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA level (mg/g fat than Irish and French-Italian meats, whereas similar t10,c12 CLA contents were measured in Piedmontese, Irish and French-Italian meats. Successively, meat samples from different animal species (male and female beef, veal, suckling lamb, belly beef, canned beef meat, pork and horse were characterised for their contents in c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. Lamb meat had the highest (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA content (mg/g fat. The c9,t11 CLA was lower than 2 mg/g fat in veal, pork and horse meats. Low t10,c12 CLA amounts were found in all analysed meat samples. These data provided information to estimate the average daily intake of CLA from meats in an Italian cohort, which can be used in epidemiological studies.

  19. Linoleic Acid Permeabilizes Gastric Epithelial Cells by Increasing Connexin43 Levels in the Cell Membrane Via a GPR40- and Akt-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Carlos; Cisterna, Bruno A.; Salas, Daniela P.; Delgado-López, Fernando; Lampe, Paul D.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC of similar intensity and additive with LA-induced change. Treatment with a CD36 blocker or transfection with siRNA-GPR120 maintain the LA-induced Cx HC activity. However, cells transfected with siRNA-GPR40 did not show LA-induced Cx HC activity but activity was increased upon exposure to DCFS, confirming the presence of activatable Cx HCs in the cell membrane. Treatment with AKTi (Akt inhibitor) abrogated the LA-induced Cx HC activity. In HeLa cells transfected with Cx43 (HeLa-Cx43), LA induced phosphorylation of surface Cx43 at serine 373 (S373), site for Akt phosphorylation. HeLa-Cx43 but not HeLa-Cx43 cells with a S373A mutation showed a LA-induced Cx HC activity directly related to an increase in cell surface Cx43 levels. Thus, the increase in membrane permeability induced by LA is mediated by an intracellular signaling pathway activated by GPR40 that leads to an increase in membrane levels of Cx43 phosphorylated at serine 373 via Akt. PMID:26869446

  20. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on serum C-reactive protein: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Karimi, Ehsan; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-12-01

    To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP). PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until May 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of CLAs supplementation on serum CRP. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I 2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016038945. From a total of 85 entries identified via searches, 14 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a significant increase in serum CRP concentrations following supplementation with CLAs (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.63 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.13-1.13, N=21 arms, heterogeneity P=.026; I 2 =52.3%). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Random-effects meta-regression revealed that changes in serum CRP levels were independent of the dosage of CLAs supplementation (slope: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.10, 0.12; P=.889) or duration of follow-up (slope: 0.271; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.59; P=.098). This meta-analysis suggests that CLA supplementation is associated with an increase in plasma CRP concentrations and a reduction in serum adiponectin concentrations, which indicates that CLA supplements have a proinflammatory effect. Randomized control trials with larger sample size and a longer follow-up period may be required for future investigations to provide an unequivocal answer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells by inducing ER stress, autophagy, and modulation of Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian M K Shahzad

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA. MTT assays and QCM™ chemotaxis 96-wells were used to test the effect of t10,c12 CLA on the proliferation and migration and invasion of cancer cells. qPCR and Western Blotting were used to determine the expression of specific factors. RNA sequencing was conducted using the Illumina platform and apoptosis was measured using a flow cytometry assay. t10,c12 CLA (IC50, 7 μM inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and A2780. c9,t11 CLA did not attenuate the proliferation of these cells. Transcription of 165 genes was significantly repressed and 28 genes were elevated. Genes related to ER stress, ATF4, CHOP, and GADD34 were overexpressed whereas EDEM2 and Hsp90, genes required for proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins, were downregulated upon treatment. While apoptosis was not detected, t10,c12 CLA treatment led to 9-fold increase in autophagolysosomes and higher levels of LC3-II. G1 cell cycle arrest in treated cells was correlated with phosphorylation of GSK3β and loss of β-catenin. microRNA miR184 and miR215 were upregulated. miR184 likely contributed to G1 arrest by downregulating E2F1. miR215 upregulation was correlated with increased expression of p27/Kip-1. t10,c12 CLA-mediated inhibition of invasion and migration correlated with decreased expression of PTP1b and decreased Src activation by inhibiting phosphorylation at Tyr416. Due to its ability to inhibit proliferation and migration, t10,c12 CLA should be considered for treatment of ovarian cancer.

  2. Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells by inducing ER stress, autophagy, and modulation of Src.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Mian M K; Felder, Mildred; Ludwig, Kai; Van Galder, Hannah R; Anderson, Matthew L; Kim, Jong; Cook, Mark E; Kapur, Arvinder K; Patankar, Manish S

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA). MTT assays and QCM™ chemotaxis 96-wells were used to test the effect of t10,c12 CLA on the proliferation and migration and invasion of cancer cells. qPCR and Western Blotting were used to determine the expression of specific factors. RNA sequencing was conducted using the Illumina platform and apoptosis was measured using a flow cytometry assay. t10,c12 CLA (IC50, 7 μM) inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and A2780. c9,t11 CLA did not attenuate the proliferation of these cells. Transcription of 165 genes was significantly repressed and 28 genes were elevated. Genes related to ER stress, ATF4, CHOP, and GADD34 were overexpressed whereas EDEM2 and Hsp90, genes required for proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins, were downregulated upon treatment. While apoptosis was not detected, t10,c12 CLA treatment led to 9-fold increase in autophagolysosomes and higher levels of LC3-II. G1 cell cycle arrest in treated cells was correlated with phosphorylation of GSK3β and loss of β-catenin. microRNA miR184 and miR215 were upregulated. miR184 likely contributed to G1 arrest by downregulating E2F1. miR215 upregulation was correlated with increased expression of p27/Kip-1. t10,c12 CLA-mediated inhibition of invasion and migration correlated with decreased expression of PTP1b and decreased Src activation by inhibiting phosphorylation at Tyr416. Due to its ability to inhibit proliferation and migration, t10,c12 CLA should be considered for treatment of ovarian cancer.

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  4. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and high oleic acid safflower oil in the treatment of children with HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis: a randomized, double-blinded and crossover preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Louise

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery is the mainstay therapy for HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis (LP and adjuvant therapies are palliative at best. Research revealed that conjugated-linoleic acid (CLA may improve the outcome of virally-induced diseases. The effects of Clarinol™ G-80 (CLA and high oleic safflower oil (HOSF on children with LP (concomitant with surgery were evaluated. Design A randomized, double-blinded, crossover and reference-oil controlled trial was conducted at a South African medical university. Study components included clinical, HPV type/load and lymphocyte/cytokine analyses, according to routine laboratory methods. Participants Overall: ten children enrolled; eight completed the trial; five remained randomized; seven received CLA first; all treatments remained double-blinded. Intervention Children (4 to 12 years received 2.5 ml p/d CLA (8 weeks and 2.5 ml p/d HOSF (8 weeks with a washout period (6 weeks in-between. The one-year trial included a post-treatment period (30 weeks and afterwards was a one-year follow-up period. Main outcome measures Changes in numbers of surgical procedures for improved disease outcome, total/anatomical scores (staging system for papillomatosis prevention/viral inhibition, and lymphocyte/cytokine counts for immune responses between baselines and each treatment/end of trial were measured. Findings After each treatment all the children were in remission (no surgical procedures; after the trial two had recurrence (surgical procedures in post-treatment period; after the follow-up period three had recurrence (several surgical procedures and five recovered (four had no surgical procedures. Effects of CLA (and HOSF to a lesser extent were restricted to mildly/moderately aggressive papillomatosis. Children with low total scores (seven/less and reduced infections (three/less laryngeal sub-sites recovered after the trial. No harmful effects were observed. The number of surgical procedures during the trial

  5. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and high oleic acid safflower oil in the treatment of children with HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis: a randomized, double-blinded and crossover preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Louise

    2012-10-12

    Surgery is the mainstay therapy for HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis (LP) and adjuvant therapies are palliative at best. Research revealed that conjugated-linoleic acid (CLA) may improve the outcome of virally-induced diseases. The effects of Clarinol™ G-80 (CLA) and high oleic safflower oil (HOSF) on children with LP (concomitant with surgery) were evaluated. A randomized, double-blinded, crossover and reference-oil controlled trial was conducted at a South African medical university. Study components included clinical, HPV type/load and lymphocyte/cytokine analyses, according to routine laboratory methods. Overall: ten children enrolled; eight completed the trial; five remained randomized; seven received CLA first; all treatments remained double-blinded. Children (4 to 12 years) received 2.5 ml p/d CLA (8 weeks) and 2.5 ml p/d HOSF (8 weeks) with a washout period (6 weeks) in-between. The one-year trial included a post-treatment period (30 weeks) and afterwards was a one-year follow-up period. Changes in numbers of surgical procedures for improved disease outcome, total/anatomical scores (staging system) for papillomatosis prevention/viral inhibition, and lymphocyte/cytokine counts for immune responses between baselines and each treatment/end of trial were measured. After each treatment all the children were in remission (no surgical procedures); after the trial two had recurrence (surgical procedures in post-treatment period); after the follow-up period three had recurrence (several surgical procedures) and five recovered (four had no surgical procedures). Effects of CLA (and HOSF to a lesser extent) were restricted to mildly/moderately aggressive papillomatosis. Children with low total scores (seven/less) and reduced infections (three/less laryngeal sub-sites) recovered after the trial. No harmful effects were observed. The number of surgical procedures during the trial (n6/available records) was significantly lower [(p 0.03) (95% CI 1.1; 0)]. Changes in

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.

  7. c9t11-Conjugated linoleic acid-rich oil fails to attenuate wasting in colon-26 tumor-induced late-stage cancer cachexia in male CD2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Min; Kliewer, Kara L; Asp, Michelle L; Stout, Michael B; Belury, Martha A

    2011-02-01

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by muscle and adipose tissue wasting caused partly by chronic, systemic inflammation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of fatty acids with various properties including anti-inflammatory cis9, trans11 (c9t11)-CLA and lipid-mobilizing trans10, cis12 (t10c12)-CLA. The purpose of this study was to test whether dietary supplementation of a c9t11-CLA-rich oil (6:1 c9t11:t10c12) could attenuate wasting of muscle and adipose tissue in colon-26 adenocarcinoma-induced cachexia in mice. Loss of body weight, muscle and adipose tissue mass caused by tumors were not rescued by supplementation with the c9t11-CLA-rich oil. In quadriceps muscle, c9t11-CLA-rich oil exacerbated tumor-induced gene expression of inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6 receptor and the E3 ligase MuRF-1 involved in muscle proteolysis. In epididymal adipose tissue, tumor-driven delipidation and atrophy was aggravated by the c9,t11-CLA-rich oil, demonstrated by further reduced adipocyte size and lower adiponectin expression. However, expression of inflammatory cytokines and macrophage markers were not altered by tumors, or CLA supplementation. These data suggest that addition of c9t11-CLA-rich oil (0.6% c9t11, 0.1% t10c12) in diet did not ameliorate wasting in mice with cancer cachexia. Instead, it increased expression of inflammatory markers in the muscle and increased adipose delipidation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Types of gene effects governing the inheritance of oleic and linoleic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oleic and linoleic acids are major fatty acids in peanut determining the quality and shelf-life of peanut products. A better understanding on the inheritance of these characters is an important for high-oleic breeding programs. The objective of this research was to determine the gene actions for oleic acid, linoleic acid, the ratio ...

  9. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in serum and liver of dairy cows receiving conjugated linoleic acids or a control fat supplement during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, H; Dänicke, S; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, J; Frank, J; Sauerwein, H

    2015-10-01

    The fat-soluble vitamin E comprises the 8 structurally related compounds (congeners) α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (with a saturated side chain) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol (with a 3-fold unsaturated side chain). Little is known regarding the blood and liver concentrations of the 8 vitamin E congeners during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in dairy cows. We thus quantified tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in serum and liver and hepatic expression of genes involved in vitamin E metabolism in pluriparous German Holstein cows during late gestation and early lactation and investigated whether dietary supplementation (from d 1 in milk) with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA; 100g/d; each 12% of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA; n=11) altered these compared with control-fat supplemented cows (CTR; n=10). Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. In both groups, the serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 increased from d -21 to d 21 and remained unchanged between d 21 and 70, but were unaffected by CLA. The concentrations of the different congeners of vitamin E in liver did not differ between the CTR and the CLA groups. In both groups, the concentrations of the vitamin E forms in liver changed during the course of the study. The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes controlling vitamin E status did not differ between groups, but α-tocopherol transfer protein and tocopherol-associated protein mRNA increased with time of lactation in both. In conclusion, the concentrations of vitamin E congeners and the expression of genes related to vitamin E status follow characteristic time-related changes during the transition from late gestation to early lactation but are unaffected by CLA supplementation at the dosage used. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid influences the metabolism of tocopherol in lactating rats but has little effect on tissue tocopherol concentrations in pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Johanna O; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2016-05-31

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known to affect the lipid metabolism in growing and lactating animals. However, potential effects on the metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins in lactating animals and co-occurring effects on their offspring are unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of dietary CLA on concentrations of tocopherol in various tissues of lactating rats and their offspring and expression of genes involved in tocopherol metabolism. Twenty-eight Wistar Han rats were allocated to 2 groups and fed either a control diet (control group) or a diet containing 0.9 % of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 (1:1) CLA (CLA group) during pregnancy and lactation. Feed intake of dams and body weight of dams and their pups were recorded weekly. Tocopherol concentrations in various body tissues were determined at day 14 of lactation in dams and 1, 7 and 14 days after birth in pups. Expression of selected genes involved in metabolism of tocopherol was determined in dams and pups. The data were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. Feed intake and body weight development of nursing rats and their pups was similar in both groups. In livers of CLA-fed dams, tocopherol concentrations decreased by 24 % but expression of TTPA and CYP3A1, involved in tocopherol transport and metabolism, were not influenced. In the dams' adipose tissue, gene expression of receptors involved in tissue tocopherol uptake, LDLR and SCARB1, but not of LPL, increased by 30 to 50 % and tocopherol concentrations increased by 47 % in CLA-fed compared to control dams. Expression of LPL, LDLR and SCARB1 in mammary gland was not influenced by CLA-feeding. Tocopherol concentrations in the pup's livers and lungs were similar in both groups, but at 14 days of age, adipose tissue tocopherol concentrations, and LDLR and SCARB1 expression, were higher in the CLA-exposed pups. We show that dietary CLA affects tissue concentrations of tocopherol in lactating rats and tocopherol metabolism in

  11. Ácido linoléico conjugado e perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios Linoleic conjugated acid and fatty acids profile in the muscle and fat layer of water buffalo steers fed different fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o teor de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA e o perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios. Utilizaram-se 12 animais castrados, da raça Murrah, com peso vivo de 306±8kg, submetidos aos tratamentos sem lipídeo adicional, grão de soja e óleo de soja, confinados durante 84 dias. Após o abate a carcaça foi resfriada a 5ºC, durante 24 horas. Foi feita secção entre a nona e a 11ª costelas da meia carcaça direita, de onde se separou músculo e capa de gordura, analisadas as concentrações de CLA e de ácidos graxos, por cromatografia gasosa. O fornecimento de óleo de soja resultou em maior concentração de CLA no músculo e na capa de gordura, e a adição de óleo de soja menores concentrações de ácidos graxos saturados, principalmente os ácidos mirístico e palmítico. Os animais que receberam a dieta com grão de soja integral também apresentaram menor teor de CLA e redução nas concentrações de mirístico e palmítico. Esses efeitos foram observados somente na capa de gordura e em menor intensidade.The effect of different fat sources on fatty acid concentrations in the muscle and in the fat layer of water buffalo steers was studied. Twelve water buffalo steers weighting 306±8kg, fed without additional fat, soybean grain or soybean oil and confined during 84 days were used. The animals were slaughtered after 16-hours-fasting and the carcass was cooled at 5ºC, for 24 hours. A section was extracted between 9th and 11th ribs from the right half carcass and this section was separated in bone, muscle and fat layer. In the last two fractions, the fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, were quantified by gaseous chromatography. The soybean oil provided higher CLA concentrations in the steers muscle and fat layer. Moreover, the soybean oil inclusion promoted lower saturated fatty acids contents, mainly miristic and palmitic

  12. Effect of pre- and postpartum supplementation with lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid on reproductive performance and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in multiparous high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csillik, Z; Faigl, V; Keresztes, M; Galamb, E; Hammon, H M; Tröscher, A; Fébel, H; Kulcsár, M; Husvéth, F; Huszenicza, Gy; Butler, W R

    2017-07-01

    ). Plasma progesterone concentration was higher in both supplemented groups on d 2 to 5 following the synchronized ovulation than in controls. We concluded that CLA supplementation around calving alters PP metabolic signals as reflected by higher plasma leptin and IGF-I levels. Conjugated linoleic acid stimulated early luteal function and reduced the PP interval to conception. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  13. Mice Lacking Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) are Protected Against Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Fatty Liver but Develop Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tina; Drescher, Andrea; Panse, Madhura; Lastovicka, Petr; Peter, Andreas; Weigert, Cora; Kostenis, Evi; Ullrich, Susanne; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) affect body fat distribution, induce insulin resistance and stimulate insulin secretion. The latter effect is mediated through the free fatty acid receptor-1 (GPR40/FFAR1). This study examines whether GPR40/FFAR1 interacts with tissue specific metabolic changes induced by CLAs. After chronic application of CLAs C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and GPR40/FFAR1 (Ffar1(-/-)) knockout mice developed insulin resistance. Although CLAs accumulated in liver up to 46-fold genotype-independently, hepatic triglycerides augmented only in WT mice. This triglyceride deposition was not associated with increased inflammation. In contrast, in brain of CLA fed Ffar1(-/-) mice mRNA levels of TNF-α were 2-fold higher than in brain of WT mice although CLAs accumulated genotype-independently in brain up to 4-fold. Concomitantly, Ffar1(-/-) mice did not respond to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) insulin injection with an increase in cortical activity while WT mice reacted as assessed by radiotelemetric electrocorticography (ECoG) measurements. In vitro incubation of primary murine astrocytes confirmed that CLAs stimulate neuronal inflammation independent of GPR40/FFAR1. This study discloses that GPR40/FFAR1 indirectly modulates organ-specific effects of CLAs: the expression of functional GPR40/FFAR1 counteracts CLA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in the brain, but favors the development of fatty liver. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Synthesis of (9Z, 12E-, (9E, 12Z-[1-14C]-linoleic acid, (9Z, 12Z, 15E-, (9E, 12Z, 15Z-[1-14C]-linolenic acid and (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14E-[1-14C]-arachidonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enard, Thierry

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Trans polyunsaturated fatty acids are produced in vegetable oils during heat treatment (240-250 °C.ln order to study the metabolic pathway of 9c, 12t and 9t, 12c linoleic acid and 9c, 12c, 15t and 9t, 12c, 15c linolenic acid, these products were prepared labelled with carbon 14 in the carboxylic position. 5c, 8c, 11c, 14t-Arachidonic acid was also labelled on the carboxylic position with carbon 14 in order to study its physiological effects. To introduce the labelling (E-bromo precursors with a 17 carbons chain or a 19 carbon chain were needed. The different syntheses were done by elongation steps and creation of cis double bonds via highly stereospecific Wittig reactions. The radioactive carbon atom was introduced from [14C]-potassium cyanide. The final radioactive fatty acids had a specific activity greater than 50 mCi/mmol and a radioactive purity better than 99 % for linoleic and linolenic and better than 98.6 % for arachidonic acid.

  15. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  16. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  17. Alpha-eleostearic acid (9Z11E13E-18:3) is quickly converted to conjugated linoleic acid (9Z11E-18:2) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Tokuyama, Yoshiko; Igarashi, Miki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Komai, Michio; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-10-01

    We previously showed that alpha-eleostearic acid (alpha-ESA; 9Z11E13E-18:3) is converted to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 9,11-18:2) in the liver and plasma of rats that were given diets including 1% alpha-ESA for 4 wk. In this study, we investigated this phenomenon in detail. First, the chemical structure of CLA produced by alpha-ESA administration was determined. After alpha-ESA was orally administered to rats, CLA in rat liver was isolated by HPLC. The positional and geometric isomerism was determined using GC-EI/MS and (13)C-NMR, respectively, and the CLA generated in rats after alpha-ESA feeding was confirmed to be 9Z11E-CLA. Next, the concentrations of alpha-ESA and CLA were determined 0, 3, 6, and 24 h after oral administration of alpha-ESA to rats. Moreover, we also investigated whether enteric bacteria are involved in the conversion of alpha-ESA to CLA using germ-free rats. alpha-ESA was orally administered to germ-free and normal rats and alpha-ESA and CLA were detected in the organs of both groups. In addition, to confirm that this reaction was enzyme-mediated, alpha-ESA was reacted with tissue homogenates (liver, kidney, and small intestine mucous) and coenzymes (NADH, NAD(+), NADPH, and NADP(+)), and the enzyme activities were estimated from the amount of CLA produced. CLA was detected when alpha-ESA was reacted with liver, kidney, and small intestine mucous homogenates and a coenzyme (NADPH). These results indicated that alpha-ESA is converted to 9Z11E-CLA in rats by a Delta13-saturation reaction carried out by an NADPH-dependent enzyme.

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    that the additional information provided does not contain evidence thath would modify its previous conclusions regarding the effects of CLA on insulin sensitivity/glucose metabolism, blood lipids, lipid peroxidation, or subclinical inflammation. The Panel also considers that the new studies provided do not address......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...... uses and daily doses for up to six months. The safety of CLA consumption for periods longer than six months has not been established under the proposed conditions of use. The safety of CLA consumption by type-2 diabetic subjects has not been established. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  19. Efeito da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado e do treinamento em natação sobre a composição corporal e os parâmetros bioquímicos de ratos Wistar em crescimento Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and swimming training on the body composition and biochemical parameters of Wistar pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo de Aquino Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado, associada ao treinamento moderado em natação, sobre a composição corporal, o consumo e a eficiência alimentar, a glicemia, o perfil lipídico e o glicogênio muscular e hepático de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar (30 dias foram divididos em: sedentário, sedentário suplementado, treinado e treinado suplementado. Permaneceram em gaiolas individuais com comida e água ad libitum, temperatura de 23ºC (com variação de1ºC e ciclo claro-escuro de 12 horas, durante 8 semanas. A sessão de natação durou 1 hora e foi realizada três vezes/semana, bem como a suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado a 2%. Após sacrifício, o plasma, os tecidos adiposos brancos e o marrom, o músculo gastrocnêmio e o fígado foram coletados e pesados. RESULTADOS: A suplementação per se não promoveu modificação na ingestão alimentar e na massa corporal dos animais. Houve aumento na glicemia de jejum (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation associated with moderate swimming training on body composition, food efficiency and consumption, blood glucose, lipid profile, and muscle and liver glycogen of Wistar rats. METHODS: Thirty-day old Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: inactive, inactive with 2% conjugated linoleic acid supplementation, active, and active with 2% conjugated linoleic acid supplementation. They remained in individual cages with food and water ad libitum, temperature of 23±1ºC and a light and dark cycle of 12 hours for 8 weeks. The active groups swam for one hour three times per week. The animals were killed and the plasma, white and brown fat tissues, gastrocnemius muscle and liver were collected and weighted. RESULTS: Supplementation per se did not promote food intake or body weight changes in the animals. Fasting glucose (p<0.05 and high density lipoproteins

  20. Effect of silage type and concentrate level on conjugated linoleic acids, trans-C18 : 1 isomers and fat content in milk from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Jungersen, Mogens Vestergaard

    2006-01-01

    to one of four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and a six week experimental period. Treatments were total mixed rations with maize (M) or grass (G) silage differing in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profile and starch content, combined with a high (H) or a low (L) level......:1 and reduced cis9, trans11-CLA and trans11-C18:1 when maize but not grass silage was provided. The results suggest that high levels of concentrate (grain) do not significantly alter the pattern of PUFA biohydrogenation in the rumen, the concentration of CLA and trans-C18:1 isomers in milk or cause milk fat...

  1. Comparison of linoleic acid-containing water-in-oil emulsion with urea-containing water-in-oil emulsion in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrohalli SA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi,1 Azin Ayatollahi,1 Taraneh Yazdanparast,1,2 Aniseh Samadi,1 Hamed Hosseini,3 Mansour Shamsipour,4 Ali Asghar Akhlaghi,5 Somayeh Yadangi,1 Christoph Abels,6 Alireza Firooz1,2 1Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, 2Telemedicine Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 3Clinical Trial Center, 4Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 5Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; 6Dr. August Wolff GmbH & Co. KG Arzneimittel, Bielefeld, Germany Background: Application of topical moisturizers is an essential part of the management of atopic dermatitis (AD. Linoleic acid (LA, the most abundant fatty acid in the epidermis, and its derivatives have an essential role in the structure and function of the epidermal barrier, and their defects are prominent in AD. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of two cosmetic products containing either LA or urea in patients with AD.Patients and methods: A total of 20 patients with AD who met the eligibility criteria and provided written informed consents were enrolled in this randomized, intra-individual split-body, single-center trial. Symmetrical lesions of patients were randomized for treatment with LA- or urea-containing water-in-oil (w/o emulsions applied two to three times daily for 4 weeks. The efficacy of the two products was evaluated by local Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD of both lesions and also patient (or guardian satisfaction. In addition, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL, stratum corneum (SC hydration, pH, sebum, temperature, erythema, melanin content, and ultrasonographic thickness and echo density of epidermis and dermis were

  2. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME COMMERCIAL YOGURTS FROM COLOMBIA CONTENIDO DE ÁCIDO LINOLEICO CONJUGADO (CLA Y COMPOSICIÓN DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS EN ALGUNOS YOGURES COMERCIALES DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Gutiérrez Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA of the fifteen commercial yogurts corresponding to the main consumption and distribution in the Colombian market was studied, as well as their fatty acid composition. The concentration of CLA, expressed as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/g fat and as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/100 g sample varied between 4.5 and 8.2, and between 7.8 and 25.5, respectively. The higher values of CLA (>6.0 mg/g fat corresponded to those samples containing yogurt starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and species of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The main fatty acids found in the studied samples were the acids palmitic (10.7-21.2 mg/g fat, oleic (11.9-21.0 mg/g fat, stearic (16.1-37.4 mg/g fat, myristic (3.5-7.8 mg/g fat and butyric (1.6-5.5 mg/g fat. Low PUFA/SFA and MUFA/SFA ratios were found, as typical of milk fat samples.Se estudió la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA de quince yogures de las marcas comerciales de mayor consumo y distribución en el mercado colombiano, así como su composición en ácidos grasos. La concentración de CLA, expresada como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/g de grasa y como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/100 g de yogur osciló entre 4,5 y 8,2 y entre 7,8 y 25,5, respectivamente. Los valores de CLA más elevados (>6,0 mg/g de grasa en los yogures evaluados, correspondieron a aquellos que contenían cultivo de yogur (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus y Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus y especies de Bifidobacterium y Lactobacillus. Los principales ácidos grasos encontrados en las muestras estudiadas, fueron los ácidos palmítico (10,7-21,2 mg/g de grasa, oleico (11,9-21,0 mg/g de grasa, esteárico (16,1-37,4 mg/g de grasa, mirístico (3,5-7,8 mg/g de grasa y butírico (1,6-5,5 mg/g de grasa. Bajas relaciones de PUFA/SFA y de MUFA

  3. Site and extent of digestion, duodenal flow, and intestinal disappearance of total and esterified fatty acids in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Lake, S L; Nayigihugu, V; Hess, B W; Rule, D C

    2006-02-01

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of DM. Oil was infused intraruminally along with an isonitrogenous basal diet (fed at 2% of BW) that contained bromegrass hay, cracked corn, corn gluten meal, urea, and limestone. Four crossbred wethers (BW = 44.3 +/- 15.7 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment, in which 14 d of dietary adaptation were followed by 4 d of duodenal, ileal, and ruminal sampling. Fatty acid intake increased (linear, P = 0.004 to 0.001) with increased dietary safflower oil. Digestibilities of OM, NDF, and N were not affected (P = 0.09 to 0.65) by increased dietary safflower oil. For total fatty acids (free plus esterified) and esterified fatty acids, duodenal flow of most fatty acids, including 18:2c-9,c-12, increased (P = 0.006 to 0.05) with increased dietary oil. Within each treatment, duodenal flow of total and esterified 18:2c-9,c-12 was similar (P = 0.32), indicating that duodenal flow of this fatty acid occurred because most of it remained esterified. Duodenal flow of esterified 18:1t-11 increased (P = 0.08) with increased dietary safflower oil, indicating that reesterification of ruminal fatty acids occurred. Apparent small intestinal disappearance of most fatty acids was not affected (P = 0.19 to 0.98) by increased dietary safflower oil, but increased (P = 0.05) for 18:2c-9,c-12, which ranged from 87.0 to 97.4%, and for 18:2c-9,t-11 (P = 0.03), which ranged from 37.9% with no added oil to 99.2% with supplemental oil. For esterified fatty acids, apparent small intestinal disappearance was from 80% for 18:3c-9,c-12,c-15 at the greatest level of dietary oil up to 100% for 18:1t-11 and 18:1c-12 with 0% oil. We concluded that

  4. Redox-initiated poly(methyl methcrylate) emulsion polymerizations stabilized with block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide), e-caprolactone and linoleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, B.H.; Nabuurs, Tijs; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    A redox initiating system, consisting of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHPO), isoascorbic acid (iAA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ferric-sodium salt (FeEDTA) was employed in emulsion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at high solids contents of 30 wt % in water. The system was stabilized

  5. Redox-Initiated Poly(methyl methacrylate) Emulsion Polymerizations Stabilized with Block Copolymers Based on Methoxy-Poly(ethylene glycol), epsilon-Caprolactone, and Linoleic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Boonhua; Nabuurs, Tijs; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    A redox initiating system, consisting of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHPO), isoascorbic acid (iAA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ferric-sodium salt (FeEDTA) was employed in emulsion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at high solids contents of 30 wt % in water. The system was stabilized

  6. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  7. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Brose, Stephen A; Rosenberger, Thad A; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J

    2011-10-26

    The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the contents of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regioisomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and EPA, while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The contents of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of a coating on the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect on prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA contents, indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids, and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined.

  8. The influence of diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid, selenium, and vitamin E, with or without animal protein, on the composition of pork from female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morel, P.C.; Janz, J.A.; Zou, M.; Purchas, R.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Wilkinson, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary manipulations on the fatty acid composition, Se content, and vitamin E content of pork. Sixty Duroc-cross gilts were randomly allocated at weaning to 1 of 4 dietary treatment groups (n = 15 per group). The 4 experimental diets were

  9. Minor iridoids from Scutellaria albida ssp albida. Inhibitory potencies on lipoxygenase, linoleic acid lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of iridoids from Scutellaria sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Matsa, Marina

    2013-01-01

    A new iridoid glycoside, 6'-O-E-caffeoyl-mussaenosidic acid, in addition to one known aglycon, four known triterpenes and one known flavonoid, were isolated from the aerial parts of Scutellaria albida subsp. albida. Furthermore, 12 iridoids with similar structures isolated from Scutellariasp., we...

  10. Maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid in the setting of diet-induced obesity normalises the inflammatory phenotype in mothers and reverses metabolic dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-12-01

    Maternal consumption of a high-fat diet significantly impacts the fetal environment and predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic dysfunction during adulthood. We examined the effects of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation on metabolic and inflammatory profiles and whether maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could have beneficial effects on mothers and offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% total fat as CLA), high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% total fat as CLA) diet ad libitum 10days prior to and throughout gestation and lactation. Dams and offspring were culled at either late gestation (fetal day 20, F20) or early postweaning (postnatal day 24, P24). CLA, HF and HFCLA dams were heavier than CD throughout gestation. Plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α were elevated in HF dams, with restoration in HFCLA dams. Male and female fetuses from HF dams were smaller at F20 but displayed catch-up growth and impaired insulin sensitivity at P24, which was reversed in HFCLA offspring. HFCLA dams at P24 were protected from impaired insulin sensitivity as compared to HF dams. Maternal CLA supplementation normalised inflammation associated with consumption of a high-fat diet and reversed associated programming of metabolic dysfunction in offspring. This demonstrates that there are critical windows of developmental plasticity in which the effects of an adverse early-life environment can be reversed by maternal dietary interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trans-10, cis 12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Milk Fat Depression Is Associated with Inhibition of PPARγ Signaling and Inflammation in Murine Mammary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. G. Kadegowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous trans-10, cis-12-CLA (CLA reduces lipid synthesis in murine adipose and mammary (MG tissues. However, genomewide alterations in MG and liver (LIV associated with dietary CLA during lactation remain unknown. We fed mice (n=5/diet control or control + trans-10, cis-12-CLA (37 mg/day between d 6 and d 10 postpartum. The 35,302 annotated murine exonic evidence-based oligo (MEEBO microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were used for transcript profiling. Milk fat concentration was 44% lower on d 10 versus d 6 due to CLA. The CLA diet resulted in differential expression of 1,496 genes. Bioinformatics analyses underscored that a major effect of CLA on MG encompassed alterations in cellular signaling pathways and phospholipid species biosynthesis. Dietary CLA induced genes related to ER stress (Xbp1, apoptosis (Bcl2, and inflammation (Orm1, Saa2, and Cp. It also induced marked inhibition of PPARγ signaling, including downregulation of Pparg and Srebf1 and several lipogenic target genes (Scd, Fasn, and Gpam. In LIV, CLA induced hepatic steatosis probably through perturbations in the mitochondrial functions and induction of ER stress. Overall, results from this study underscored the role of PPARγ signaling on mammary lipogenic target regulation. The proinflammatory effect due to CLA could be related to inhibition of PPARγ signaling.

  12. Evaluation of therapeutic effect of omega-6 linoleic acid and thymoquinone enriched extracts from Nigella sativa oil in the mitigation of lipidemic oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shafeeque; Beg, Zafarul H

    2016-06-01

    Nigella sativa belongs to the Ranunculaceae family. The therapeutic role of methanolic extract (ME) and volatile oil (VO) fractionated from N. sativa seed oil was investigated for antiperoxidative and antioxidant effects in atherogenic suspension fed rats. We examined the protective effects of ME and VO on the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants status in erythrocytes and the livers of atherogenic suspension fed rats. As a marker of lipid peroxidation, we estimated the conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma in the following groups of rats: normolipidemic control, hyperlipidemic control, hyperlipidemic methanolic extract, and hyperlipidemic volatile oil. ME 500 mg or VO 100 mg/kg body weight of male rat was orally administrated for 30 d. Pretreatment of hyperlipidemic rats with these test extracts resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the level of lipid peroxidation markers, conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and malondialdehyde (16-50%) compared to the hyperlipidemic control rats. In addition, ME and VO significantly (P < 0.001) elevated the hepatic and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities (19-58%) compared to the hyperlipidemic rats. In liver homogenate of hyperlipidemic-ME and hyperlipidemic-VO, the glutathione-S-transferase activity was protected by 93% and 89%, and in erythrocytes, the glutathione peroxidase activity was protected by 90% and 77%, respectively. Interestingly, reduced glutathione level and activities of ATPases were protected to near normal levels. Pretreatment of rats with the test extracts replenished effectively (P < 0.001) the plasma total antioxidant power by an average of 88% against free radicals. The lipidemic oxidative stress was effectively mitigated by antiperoxidative activities of ME and VO. Thus, these test extracts, especially ME, may be used as antioxidant as well as hypolipidemic agents in the form of natural food

  13. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  14. Early dinner reduces nocturnal gastric acidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Duroux, P; Bauerfeind, P; Emde, C; Koelz, H R; Blum, A L

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether eating food at different times has differential effects on intragastric pH. Experiments were done in 23 healthy volunteers (12 men). Intragastric acidity was monitored by ambulatory 22 hour pH-metry. Composition of meals was standardised: breakfast and lunch at 7 am and 12 noon respectively, and dinner at 6 or 9 pm, in random order. The time of going to bed and getting up was also standardised. With early dinner nocturnal pH was higher, than with late dinner (pH me...

  15. High-oleic ready-to-use therapeutic food maintains docosahexaenoic acid status in severe malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the preferred treatment for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. It contains large amounts of linoleic acid and little a-linolenic acid, which may reduce the availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to the recovering child...

  16. Characterization of linoleate 10-hydratase of Lactobacillus plantarum and novel antifungal metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to the antifungal compound 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid (10-HOE by linoleate 10-hydratase (10-LAH. However, the effect of this conversion on cellularmembrane physiology and properties of the cell surface have not been demonstrated. Moreover, L. plantarum produces 13-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (13-HOE in addition to 10-HOE, but the antifungal activity of 13-HOE was unknown. Phylogenetic analyses conducted in this study did not differentiate between 10-LAH and linoleate 13-hydratase (13-LAH. Thus, linoleate hydratases (LAHs must be characterized through their differences in their activities of linoleate conversion. Four genes encoding putative LAHs from lactobacilli were cloned, heterologous expressed, purified and identified as FAD-dependent 10-LAH. The unsaturated fatty acid substrates stimulated the growth of lactobacilli. We also investigated the role of 10-LAH in ethanol tolerance, membrane fluidity and hydrophobicity of cell surfaces in lactobacilli by disruption of 10-lah. Compared with the L. plantarum 10-lah deficient strain, 10-LAH in wild-type strain did not exert effect on cell survival and membrane fluidity under ethanol stress, but influenced the cell surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, deletion of 10-LAH in L. plantarum facilitated purification of 13-HOE and demonstration of its antifungal activity against Penicillium roquefortii and Aspergillus niger.

  17. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  18. Ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA em dietas para tilápia-do-nilo: desempenho produtivo, composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in Nile tilapia diets: productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Dena dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adição de CLA na dieta sobre o desempenho produtivo, a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos de tilápia-do-nilo. Foram utilizados 80 peixes revertidos, com 109 ± 10 g, distribuídos em oito tanques (0,8 m³ cada, em densidade de 10 peixes/tanque, durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se a inclusão na dieta de 2% de CLA (Luta-CLA®-BASF, Brasil com 60% dos isômeros (cis-9,trans-11 e trans-10,cis-12 e 40% do veículo (ácido oléico e outros ácidos graxos. Como dieta utilizou-se ração comercial extrusada, com 29% PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg de ração. Ao final do experimento, todos os peixes foram utilizados para avaliação do desempenho, da composição química e do perfil de ácidos graxos no fígado e nos filés. A taxa de eficiência protéica, o rendimento de carcaça, o índice hepatossomático e a gordura visceral não diferiram com a adição de CLA a dieta. A adição de CLA a dieta promoveu melhora no ganho de peso, aumento no consumo e melhora na conversão alimentar. Os peixes alimentados com dietas com adição de CLA apresentaram aumento na composição de ácidos graxos saturados e redução dos ácidos graxos n-6 nos filés. Houve também aumento na composição de ácidos graxos n-3 e de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados totais no fígado. Houve aumento da proteína nos filés de tilápias alimentadas com dietas enriquecidas com CLA. O uso do CLA melhora variáveis de desempenho produtivo, afeta o metabolismo e a proporção dos ácidos graxos nos filés e fígados e aumenta proteína nos filés em tilápia-do-nilo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the addition of CLA in the diet on Nile tilapia productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition. Eighty reversed fish with 109 ± 10 g were used, distributed in eight tanks (0.8 m³ each in density of ten fishes/tank, during 90 days. It was evaluated the inclusion in the diets of 2% of CLA (Luta

  19. Milk in the island of Chole [Tanzania] is high in lauric, myristic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and low in linoleic acid - Reconstructed diet of infants born to our ancestors living in tropical coastal regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Smit, Ella N.; van der Meulen, Jan; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Boersma, E. Rudy; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    Background: We need information on the diet on which our genes evolved. Objective: We studied the milk fatty acid [FA] composition of mothers living in the island of Chole [Tanzania, Indian Ocean]. These mothers have high intakes of boiled marine fish and coconut, and consume plenty amount of fruits

  20. Procedure for reducing hydrogen ion concentration in acidic anion eluate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parobek, P.; Baloun, S.; Plevac, S.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is suggested for reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in the acidic anionic eluate formed during the separation of uranium. The procedure involves anex elution, precipitation, filtration, precipitate rinsing, and anex rinsing. The procedure is included in the uranium elution process and requires at least one ion exchanger column and at least one tank in the continuous or discontinuous mode. Sparing the neutralizing agent by reducing the hydrogen ion concentration in the acidic anionic eluate is a major asset of this procedure. (Z.S.). 1 fig

  1. Novel Omega-3 Fatty Acid Epoxygenase Metabolite Reduces Kidney Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Levick, Scott P.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D.; Imig, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases epoxidize the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid into novel epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) that have multiple biological actions. The present study determined the ability of the most abundant EDP regioisomer, 19,20-EDP to reduce kidney injury in an experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal fibrosis mouse model. Mice with UUO developed kidney tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. UUO mice had elevated kidney hydroxyproline content and five-times greater collagen positive fibrotic area than sham control mice. 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice for 10 days reduced renal fibrosis with a 40%–50% reduction in collagen positive area and hydroxyproline content. There was a six-fold increase in kidney α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive area in UUO mice compared to sham control mice, and 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice decreased α-SMA immunopositive area by 60%. UUO mice demonstrated renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and elevated expression of multiple mesenchymal markers (FSP-1, α-SMA, and desmin). Interestingly, 19,20-EDP treatment reduced renal EMT in UUO by decreasing mesenchymal and increasing epithelial marker expression. Overall, we demonstrate that a novel omega-3 fatty acid metabolite 19,20-EDP, prevents UUO-induced renal fibrosis in mice by reducing renal EMT. PMID:27213332

  2. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  3. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1991-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 o C. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300 o C. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130 o C, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  4. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  5. Pomegranate seed oil influences the fatty acids profile and reduces the activity of desaturases in livers of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Stawarska, Agnieszka; Bodecka, Joanna; Białek, Małgorzata; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the influence of diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil - as conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) source, or conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and to examine the mechanism of their activity. The content of fatty acids, levels of biomarkers of lipids' oxidation and the activity of key enzymes catalyzing lipids metabolism were measured. Obtained results revealed that conjugated fatty acids significantly decrease the activity of Δ5-desaturase (p=0.0001) and Δ6-desaturase (p=0.0008) and pomegranate seed oil reduces their activity in the most potent way. We confirmed that diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil - a rich source of punicic acid leads to the increase of cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in livers (p=0.0003). Lack of side effects and beneficial influence on desaturases activity and fatty acids profile claim pomegranate seed oil to become interesting alternative for CLA as functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Teneurs en acides gras polyinsaturés essentiels du lait maternel en France : évolution du contenu en acides linoléique et alphalinolénique au cours des 10 dernières années

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boué-Vaysse Carole

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are nutritionally important constituents of breast milk to support normal growth, immune function and central nervous system development of newborn infants. Both linoleic acid (18:2 n-6; LA and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3; ALA, the essential fatty acids, precursors of n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFA, are also present in breast milk. Although the total amount of fat in human milk is fairly constant, the fatty acid composition can vary substantially depending on the diet of the mother. Large variations in the LA, ALA and DHA (22:6 n-3 contents are observed among countries. As reported by previous studies (1993-2001, the ALA consumption of the French population was 2-3 times lower than the recommended value. Since this period, the food industry offers more food products enriched in n-3 fatty acids. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether current recommendations and improved n-3 PUFA content of food products comply with the actual breast-milk PUFA composition. For this purpose, the PUFA content of a large number of human milk samples collected in 2007 in different French regions were compared with previous data obtained in studies conducted in the nineties years (1993-1998. Moreover, this study aimed to confirm expected reduction of the trans fatty acid (TFA intake resulting from decreased level of TFA in margarine and other dietary fats during the same period. Study design and methods: Mature (postpartum day ≥ 30 human milk samples (n = 145 were provided in 2007 by eight French regional human milk banks (Bordeaux : n = 20; Dijon: n = 21; Ile-de-France: n = 18; Lyon: n = 20; Montpellier: n = 18; Nantes: n = 21; St Etienne: n = 6; Tours: n = 21, from healthy women volunteers with no particular health history. The fatty acid composition of breast milk was analysed by high-resolution gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann and

  7. A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum como fonte de ácido α-linolênico na formação da bainha de mielina Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum as a source of α-linolenic acid in the development of the myelin sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Calvi Lenzi de Almeida

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum é uma semente oleaginosa que tem sido estudada por seus efeitos benéficos à saúde. É considerada um alimento funcional, pelo fato de ser uma fonte natural de fitoquímicos, e por conter o ácido graxo α-linolênico (C18:3 n-3, que pode ser metabolicamente convertido nos ácidos docosaexahenóico (C22:6 n-3 e eicosapentaenóico (C20:5 n-3, sendo o primeiro essencial para o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central. Durante o crescimento do cérebro, há uma grande incorporação do ácido docosaexahenóico, que tem papel importante na formação de suas membranas celulares. Diante disto, esta comunicação visa a abordar os prováveis mecanismos pelos quais o ácido docosaexahenóico, proveniente do ácido α-linolênico presente abundantemente na semente de linhaça, interfere na formação da bainha de mielina, assim como relatar a técnica mais adequada para visualização desta bainha.Flaxseed is an oily seed that has been studied for its beneficial health effects. It is considered a functional food because it is a natural source of phytochemicals and contain the fatty acid α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 that can be metabolically converted into docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3. The former is essential for the development of the central nervous system. During brain growth, there is a great incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid which plays in important role in the formation of cell membranes. This communication intended to address the likely mechanisms by which docosahexaenoic acid originating from α-linolenic acid, present in abundance in flaxseed, interferes in the formation of the myelin sheath and report the best method to see this structure.

  8. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the size and acidity of the acid pocket in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roelof J; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-07-01

    The gastric acid pocket is believed to be the reservoir from which acid reflux events originate. Little is known about how changes in position, size, and acidity of the acid pocket contribute to the therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Thirty-six patients with GERD (18 not taking PPIs, 18 taking PPIs; 19 men; age, 55 ± 2.1 y) were analyzed by concurrent high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring after a standardized meal. The acid pocket was visualized using scintigraphy after intravenous administration of (99m)technetium-pertechnetate. The size of the acid pocket was measured and its position was determined, relative to the diaphragm, using radionuclide markers on a high-resolution manometry catheter. At the end of the study, the acid pocket was aspirated, and its pH level was measured. The number of reflux episodes was comparable between patients on and off PPIs, but the number of acid reflux episodes was reduced significantly in patients on PPIs. In patients on PPIs, the acid pocket was smaller and more frequently located below the diaphragm. The mean pH of the acid pocket was significantly lower in patients not taking PPIs (n = 6) than in those who were (n = 16) (0.9; range, 0.7-1.2 vs 4.0; range, 1.6-5.9; P pH of acid pockets correlated significantly with the lowest pH values measured for refluxate (r = 0.72; P < .01). Based on analyses of acid pockets in patients with GERD, the acid pocket appears to be a reservoir from which reflux occurs when patients are receiving PPIs. PPIs might affect the size, acidity, or position of the acid pocket, which contributes to the efficacy in patients with GERD. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced humic acid nanosheets and its uses as nanofiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraia, El-shazly M.; Henderson, B.; Beall, Gary W.

    2015-10-01

    Leonardite is highly oxidized form of lignite coal and contains a number of carboxyl groups around the edges of a graphene-like core. A novel approach has been developed to synthesize graphene oxide-like nanosheets in large scale utilizing leonardite as a starting material. Humic acid extracted from leonardite has been reduced by performing a high pressure catalytic hydrogenation. The reaction was carried out inside a high pressure stirred reactor at 150 °C and 750 psi (~5.2×106 Pa). Morphology of the as-synthesized samples showed porous platy particles and EDAX analysis indicates the carbon and oxygen atomic ratios as 96:4-97:3%. The as-synthesized material has been used as nanofiller in polyurethane. The reduced humic acid-polyurethane nanocomposite showed over 250% increase of Young's modulus. This new approach provides a low cost and scalable source for graphene oxide-like nanosheets in nanocomposite applications.

  10. Fonctionnalité, résilience, maintenance, acides gras insaturés Un exemple : l’acide linoléique et les récepteurs du LDL-cholestérol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendy François

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Fonctionnalité, résilience, maintenance, et acides gras poly-insaturés. Il deviendra impossible dans le futur de poser le problème des apports nutritionnels conseillés sans se poser la question : Conseillés dans quel but ? Comptable, humanitaire, épanouissement individuel ? Obtenir une croissance, une reproduction, un gain de masse musculaire dans le plus court temps sont des objectifs de nutritionnistes zoo-techniciens. Dans ce système, l’objectif final est la mort programmée dans un abattoir dans le délai le plus court et le plus rentable possible. En nutrition humaine, l’objectif est d’obtenir la meilleure adaptabilité possible dans n’importe quelle situation et le plus longtemps possible. L’objectif n’est plus comme à la fin du xviiie et xixe siècle, d’obtenir une main-d’oeuvre pouvant se développer et se reproduire le plus rapidement possible, assurer un travail physique efficace au moindre coût. Peut-être est-il la transmission des connaissances anciennes, l’acquisition et la transmission de connaissances nouvelles, durant le plus lontemps possible. Pour l’homme, la définition des apports nutritionnels conseillés devrait être la définition des marges de sécurités entre les apports minimaux acceptables et les apports maximaux tolérables. Ces marges de sécurité devraient permettre d’obtenir une fonctionnalité réelle, soit la meilleure conformation récepteurs-enzymes, malgré des status génétiques variés (mutations, polymorphisme, etc., un environnement aléatoire, d’obtenir la résislience, l’adaptabilité individuelle, maximale, durant le plus longtemps possible (maintenance. Il n’existe pas d’autres possibilités de prévention des maladies conformationnelles nouvellement décrites. À titre d’exemple, les conditions d’obtention du niveau de régulation optimale du récepteur LDL, la dégradation sécrétoire de l’ApoB par le récepteur LDL sur le chemin de la s

  11. Effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the muscle fatty acid composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-08-15

    Aug 15, 2014 ... fatty acids (PUFA) in the LD muscle (4.60 : 1 in the flaxseed diet, compared with ... reducing the consumption of linoleic fatty acid (LA), and increasing the ..... inflammatory potential because of their traditional properties of ...

  12. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO 2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO 2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO 2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO 2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Définition des limites de flexibilité des apports en acides oléique, linoléique et alphalinolénique sur la lipidémie et les paramètres d’athérothrombose chez l’homme : intérêt des huiles végétales combinées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Les maladies cardiovasculaires représentent le premier problème de santé publique des pays occidentaux. Des études récentes de prévention secondaire ont montré que des régimes maintenant un apport en acide oléique de 10 à 13% de l’apport énergétique total (AET pouvaient protéger de l’apparition d’accidents cardio-vasculaires [8], mais augmenter cet apport d’acide oléique à plus de 20% de l’AET pourrait limiter cet effet bénéfique en induisant une augmentation du LDL-C [12, 34]. Grundy, dans le but de clarifier le ratio nécessaire entre acides gras saturés et insaturés (mono and poly, concluait en 1997 à d’« insufficient data for recommended Oleic intake », et proposait pour le moment 15-16% d’acide oléique à titre de « reasonable compromise ». L’objectif de notre étude était de définir des rapports entre acides oléique, linoléique et alphalinolénique (OL/LA/ALA ratio et de valider l’apport oléique après avoir stabilisé le rapport linoléique/alphalinolénique du régime d’hommes normolipidémiques (n = 40. Pour atteindre 11, 13 et 16% de l’AET sous forme d’acide oléique, nous avons utilisé des huiles de tournesol, de tournesol oléique (HOSO et de colza pour obtenir des mélanges spécifiques ajustés à l’apport en acides gras proposés au protocole. Chacun de ces trois régimes (comportant 11, 13 et 16% d’acide oléique a été suivi pendant 16 semaines et l’épuration postprandiale d’un repas gras (1 000 Kcal, 62,5% lipides a été suivie pendant 8 heures à la fin de chaque période de régime. Les résultats indiquent que la stabilité des paramètres d’athérogenèse évalués à jeun et en postprandial est maintenue à un niveau favorable après ces régimes à 11, 13 et 16% d’apport en acide oléique : il n’y a pas de différences statistiques significatives sur les concentrations à jeun de LDL-C, non-HDL-C, HDL-C, TG, ApoB, ApoAI ou sur l’amplitude de la r

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Amyloid β Production via Multiple Pleiotropic Mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Kuchenbecker, Johanna; Grösgen, Sven; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Friess, Petra; de Wilde, Martijn C.; Broersen, Laus M.; Penke, Botond; Péter, Mária; Vígh, László; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is characterized by accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) generated by β- and γ-secretase processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with decreased amyloid deposition and a reduced risk in Alzheimer disease in several epidemiological trials; however, the exact underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we systematically investigate the effect of DHA on amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic APP processing and the potential cross-links to cholesterol metabolism in vivo and in vitro. DHA reduces amyloidogenic processing by decreasing β- and γ-secretase activity, whereas the expression and protein levels of BACE1 and presenilin1 remain unchanged. In addition, DHA increases protein stability of α-secretase resulting in increased nonamyloidogenic processing. Besides the known effect of DHA to decrease cholesterol de novo synthesis, we found cholesterol distribution in plasma membrane to be altered. In the presence of DHA, cholesterol shifts from raft to non-raft domains, and this is accompanied by a shift in γ-secretase activity and presenilin1 protein levels. Taken together, DHA directs amyloidogenic processing of APP toward nonamyloidogenic processing, effectively reducing Aβ release. DHA has a typical pleiotropic effect; DHA-mediated Aβ reduction is not the consequence of a single major mechanism but is the result of combined multiple effects. PMID:21324907

  15. Oral Tranexamic Acid Reduces Transfusions in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Roger E; Fournier, Christine A; Mattingly, David A; Junghans, Richard P; Talmo, Carl T

    2017-10-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces intraoperative blood loss and transfusions in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Although numerous studies demonstrate the efficacy of intravenous and topical TXA in these patients, few demonstrate the effectiveness and appropriate dosing recommendations of oral formulations. A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate differences in transfusion requirements in patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty with either no TXA (n = 866), a single-dose of oral TXA (n = 157), or both preoperative and postoperative oral TXA (n = 1049). Secondary outcomes included postoperative hemoglobin drop, total units transfused, length of stay, drain output, and cell salvage volume. Transfusion rates decreased from 15.4% in the no-oral tranexamic acid (OTA) group to 9.6% in the single-dose OTA group (P < .001) and 7% in the 2-dose group (P < .001), with no difference in transfusion rates between the single- and 2-dose groups (P = .390). In addition, postoperative hemoglobin drop was reduced from 4.2 g/dL in the no-OTA group to 3.5 g/dL in the single-dose group (P < .01) and to 3.4 g/dL in the 2-dose group (P < .01), without a difference between the single- and 2-dose groups (P = .233). OTA reduces transfusions, with greater ease of administration and improved cost-effectiveness relative to other forms of delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce mercury bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadán-Piedra, C; Alcántara, C; Monedero, V; Zúñiga, M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2017-08-01

    Mercury in food is present in either inorganic [Hg(II)] or methylmercury (CH 3 Hg) form. Intestinal absorption of mercury is influenced by interactions with other food components. The use of dietary components to reduce mercury bioavailability has been previously proposed. The aim of this work is to explore the use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce the amount of mercury solubilized after gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption (bioaccessibility). Ten strains were tested by addition to aqueous solutions containing Hg(II) or CH 3 Hg, or to food samples, and submission of the mixtures to gastrointestinal digestion. All of the strains assayed reduce the soluble fraction from standards of mercury species under gastrointestinal digestion conditions (72-98%). However their effectiveness is lower in food, and reductions in bioaccessibility are only observed with mushrooms (⩽68%). It is hypothesized that bioaccessible mercury in seafood forms part of complexes that do not interact with lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... particularly the CLA, omega-3 and omega-6 FA content of the milk fat of Jersey and Fleckvieh x Jersey (F x J) cows in a pasture-based feeding system. All cows were fed the same diet consisting of kikuyu-ryegrass pasture in a rotational grazing system supplemented with a standard commercial concentrate mixture at 7 kg ...

  18. Milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-20

    Oct 20, 2015 ... ... (CLA), have further beneficial effects on the health status of people by exhibiting anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory benefits ... at 4000 g for 30 minutes at 8 ºC and the top fat layer (fat cake) was removed.

  19. Does Tranexamic Acid Reduce Bleeding during Femoral Fracture Operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Proximal Femoral shaft fractures are commonly associated with marked blood loss which can lead topostoperative acute anemia and some other complications.Tranexamic acid (TA is an antifibrinolytic medication that reduces intra-and postoperative blood loss and transfusionrequirements during some elective surgeries (1-3.The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous Tranexamic acid (TA on intraoperative blood loss and asubsequent need for transfusion in patients who were undergoing surgery for femoral shaft fractures in trauma setting.Methods:Thirty-eight ASA grade I-II patients undergoing proximal femoral shaft fracture surgery with intra medullarynailing were included in this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. They were allocated into two groups. GroupI, the intervention group with eighteen patients received 15 mg/kg (TA via intravenous infusion before surgical incision.Patients in the placebo group received an identical volume of normal saline.Hemoglobin level was measured four hours before and after the surgeries. Postoperative blood loss and hemoglobinchange as well as transfusion rates and volumes were compared between the two groups.Results:Mean Percentage fall in hemoglobin after surgery were 1.75±0.84 and 2.04±1.9 in the study and placebo groups,respectively (P=0.570. Hemoglobin loss was higher in the placebo group. Transfusion rates was lower in TA group(5.6% compared to the placebo group (30% (P=0.06. No significant difference in The Allowable Blood Loss during thesurgery was found between the two groups (P=0.894.Conclusion:Preoperative treatment with TA reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion duringtraumatic femoral fracture operation.

  20. The effects of epidermal fatty acid profiles, 1-oleoglycerol, and triacylglycerols on the susceptibility of hibernating bats to Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R Ingala

    Full Text Available White Nose Syndrome (WNS greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus, Indiana (M. sodalis, northern (M. septentrionalis, and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus bats, and is caused by cutaneous infections with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus are highly resistant to Pd infections. Seven different fatty acids (myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids occur in the wing epidermis of both M. lucifugus and E. fuscus, 4 of which (myristic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids inhibit Pd growth. The amounts of myristic and linoleic acids in the epidermis of M. lucifugus decrease during hibernation, thus we predicted that the epidermal fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit Pd growth. Laboratory Pd growth experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results demonstrated that the fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus wing epidermis during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit the growth of Pd. Additional Pd growth experiments revealed that: a triacylglycerols composed of known anti-Pd fatty acids do not significantly affect growth, b pentadecanoic acid inhibits Pd growth, and c 1-oleoglycerol, which is found in the wing epidermis of E. fuscus, also inhibits the growth of this fungus. Analyses of white adipose from M. lucifugus also revealed the selective retention of oleic and linoleic acids in this tissue during hibernation.

  1. The effects of epidermal fatty acid profiles, 1-oleoglycerol, and triacylglycerols on the susceptibility of hibernating bats to Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingala, Melissa R; Ravenelle, Rebecca E; Monro, Johanna J; Frank, Craig L

    2017-01-01

    White Nose Syndrome (WNS) greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus), Indiana (M. sodalis), northern (M. septentrionalis), and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus) bats, and is caused by cutaneous infections with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are highly resistant to Pd infections. Seven different fatty acids (myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids) occur in the wing epidermis of both M. lucifugus and E. fuscus, 4 of which (myristic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids) inhibit Pd growth. The amounts of myristic and linoleic acids in the epidermis of M. lucifugus decrease during hibernation, thus we predicted that the epidermal fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit Pd growth. Laboratory Pd growth experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results demonstrated that the fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus wing epidermis during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit the growth of Pd. Additional Pd growth experiments revealed that: a) triacylglycerols composed of known anti-Pd fatty acids do not significantly affect growth, b) pentadecanoic acid inhibits Pd growth, and c) 1-oleoglycerol, which is found in the wing epidermis of E. fuscus, also inhibits the growth of this fungus. Analyses of white adipose from M. lucifugus also revealed the selective retention of oleic and linoleic acids in this tissue during hibernation.

  2. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  3. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  4. Does topical tranexamic acid reduce postcoronary artery bypass graft bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mirmohammadsadeghi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative bleeding is a common problem in cardiac surgery. We tried to evaluate the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TA on reducing postoperative bleeding of patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six isolated primary CABG patients were included in this clinical trial. They were divided blindly into two groups; Group 1, patients receiving 1 g TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline poured into mediastinal cavity before closing the chest and Group 2, patients receiving 100 ml normal saline at the end of operation. First 24 and 48 h chest tube drainage, hemoglobin decrease and packed RBC transfusion needs were compared. Results: Both groups were the same in baseline characteristics including gender, age, body mass index, ejection fraction, clamp time, bypass time, and operation length. During the first 24 h postoperatively, mean chest tube drainage in intervention group was 567 ml compared to 564 ml in control group (P = 0.89. Mean total chest tube drainage was 780 ml in intervention group and 715 ml in control group (P = 0.27. There was no significant difference in both mean hemoglobin decrease (P = 0.26 and packed RBC transfusion (P = 0.7. Topical application of 1 g TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline does not reduce postoperative bleeding of isolated on-pump CABG surgery. Conclusion: We do not recommend topical usage of 1 g TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline for decreasing blood loss in on-pump CABG patients.

  5. Efficacy of Lactic Acid, Lactic Acid-Acetic Acid Blends, and Peracetic Acid To Reduce Salmonella on Chicken Parts under Simulated Commercial Processing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirex-Hernandez, Alejandra; Brashears, Mindy M; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X

    2018-01-01

    The poultry processing industry has been undergoing a series of changes as it modifies processing practices to comply with new performance standards for chicken parts and comminuted poultry products. The regulatory approach encourages the use of intervention strategies to prevent and control foodborne pathogens in poultry products and thus improve food safety and protect human health. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial interventions for reducing Salmonella on inoculated chicken parts under simulated commercial processing conditions. Chicken pieces were inoculated by immersion in a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at 6 log CFU/mL and then treated with organic acids and oxidizing agents on a commercial rinsing conveyor belt. The efficacy of spraying with six different treatments (sterile water, lactic acid, acetic acid, buffered lactic acid, acetic acid in combination with lactic acid, and peracetic acid) at two concentrations was evaluated on skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs at three application temperatures. Skinless chicken breasts were used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of lactic acid and peracetic acid. The color stability of treated and untreated chicken parts was assessed after the acid interventions. The lactic acid and buffered lactic acid treatments produced the greatest reductions in Salmonella counts. Significant differences between the control and water treatments were identified for 5.11% lactic acid and 5.85% buffered lactic acid in both skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs. No significant effect of treatment temperature for skin-on chicken thighs was found. Lactic acid and peracetic acid were effective agents for eluting Salmonella cells attached to chicken breasts.

  6. Redução do peso e da glicemia resultante da suplementação de ácido linoleico conjugado e fitosteróis à dieta hiperlipídica de camundongos Weight and blood glucose reduction resulting from conjugated linoleic acid and phytosterols supplementation on hiperlipidic diets of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne y Castro Marques

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as possíveis alterações causadas pela ingestão de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA e de fitosteróis no ganho de peso, na glicemia e no perfil lipídico de camundongos alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica. Durante nove semanas, vinte e cinco camundongos Swiss machos receberam dietas hiperlipídicas suplementadas com CLA e/ou fitosteróis, na concentração de 2%. Foram aferidos consumo alimentar, ganho de peso, glicemia em jejum, além dos níveis séricos de colesterol total, triglicérides, HDL colesterol e ácidos graxos livres. O grupo suplementado com CLA e fitosteróis apresentou menor ganho de peso e bom controle glicêmico, quando comparado aos demais grupos. Os resultados encontrados incentivam a continuação de pesquisas que investiguem os efeitos biológicos causados pela suplementação concomitante de CLA e fitosteróis, com possível aplicação na indústria de alimentos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes caused by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and phytosterols intake in weight gain, blood glucose levels and lipid profile on mice fed with high fat diet. Twenty-five male Swiss mice received for nine weeks high fat diets supplemented with 2% of CLA and/or phytosterols. Feed intake, weight gain, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and free fatty acids were determined. The group supplemented with CLA and phytosterols gained less weight and showed better glycemic control compared to other groups. The results encourage further research to investigate the biological effects caused by supplementation of CLA and phytosterols, with possible application in food industry.

  7. Rinsing with antacid suspension reduces hydrochloric acid-induced erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria do Socorro Coelho; Mantilla, Taís Fonseca; Bridi, Enrico Coser; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2016-01-01

    Mouthrinsing with antacids, following erosive episodes, have been suggested as a preventative strategy to minimize tooth surface loss due to their neutralizing effect. The purpose of this in situ study was to evaluate the effect of an antacid suspension containing sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate in controlling simulated erosion of enamel of intrinsic origin. The experimental units were 48 slabs (3×3×2mm) of bovine enamel, randomly divided among 12 volunteers who wore palatal appliances with two enamel slabs. One of them was exposed extra-orally twice a day to 25mL of a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution (0.01M, pH 2) for 2min. There were two independent phases, lasting 5 days each. In the first phase, according to a random scheme, half of the participants rinsed with 10mL of antacid suspension (Gaviscon(®), Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare Ltd.), while the remainder was rinsed with deionized water, for 1min. For the second phase, new slabs were inserted and participants switched to the treatment not received in the first stage. Therefore, the groups were as follows: (a) erosive challenge with HCl+antacid suspension; (b) erosive challenge with HCl+deionized water (DIW); (c) no erosive challenge+antacid suspension; (d) no erosive challenge+DIW. Specimens were assessed in terms of surface loss using optical profilometry and Knoop microhardness. The data were analyzed using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests. Compared to DIW rinses, surface loss of enamel was significantly lower when using an antacid rinse following erosive challenges (p=0.015). The Knoop microhardness of the enamel was significantly higher when the antacid rinse was used (p=0.026). The antacid suspension containing sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate, rinsed after erosive challenges of intrinsic origin, reduced enamel surface loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An alginate-antacid formulation localizes to the acid pocket to reduce acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roel J; Smout, Andre J P M; Thomas, Edward; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2013-12-01

    Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an alginate formulation in relation to the acid pocket and the corresponding effects on reflux parameters and acid pocket positioning in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic GERD and large hiatal hernias to groups who were given either (111)In-labeled alginate-antacid (n = 8, Gaviscon Double Action Liquid) or antacid (n = 8, Antagel) after a standard meal. The relative positions of labeled alginate and acid pocket were analyzed for 2 hours by using scintigraphy; reflux episodes were detected by using high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring. The alginate-antacid label localized to the acid pocket. The number of acid reflux episodes was significantly reduced in patients receiving alginate-antacid (3.5; range, 0-6.5; P = .03) compared with those receiving antacid (15; range, 5-20), whereas time to acid reflux was significantly increased in patients receiving alginate-antacid (63 minutes; range, 23-92) vs those receiving antacid (14 minutes; range, 9-23; P = .01). The acid pocket was located below the diaphragm in 71% of patients given alginate-antacid vs 21% of those given antacid (P = .08). There was an inverse correlation between a subdiaphragm position of the acid pocket and acid reflux (r = -0.76, P acid pocket and displaces it below the diaphragm to reduce postprandial acid reflux. These findings indicate the importance of the acid pocket in GERD pathogenesis and establish alginate-antacid as an appropriate therapy for postprandial acid reflux. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. n-3 fatty acids reduce plasma 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Anne E; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emilie; Beilin, Lawrence J; Puddey, Ian B; Watts, Gerald F; Irish, Ashley B; Mori, Trevor A

    2015-09-01

    Metabolism of arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase leads to the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) that regulates vascular function, sodium homeostasis and blood pressure (BP). Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids is known to alter arachidonic acid metabolism and reduce the formation of the lipid peroxidation products F2-isoprostanes, but the effect of n-3 fatty acids on 20-HETE has not been studied. We previously reported a significant effect of n-3 fatty acids but not coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) to reduce BP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, wherein patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were randomized to n-3 fatty acids (4 g), CoQ (200 mg), both supplements or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. This study examined the effect of n-3 fatty acids on plasma and urinary 20-HETE in the same study, as well as plasma and urinary F2-isoprostanes, and relate these to changes in BP. Seventy-four patients completed the 8-week intervention. n-3 fatty acids but not CoQ significantly reduced plasma 20-HETE (P = 0.001) and F2-isoprostanes (P fatty acids. This is the first report that n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces plasma 20-HETE in humans and that this associates with reduced BP. These results provide a plausible mechanism for the reduction in BP observed in patients with CKD following n-3 fatty acid supplementation.

  10. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the size and acidity of the acid pocket in the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Bennink, Roelof J.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    The gastric acid pocket is believed to be the reservoir from which acid reflux events originate. Little is known about how changes in position, size, and acidity of the acid pocket contribute to the therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

  11. A Case of Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia Which Was Aggravated by Acid Reducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiomi Nakade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE is known to be characterized by red patches or spots in a diffuse or linear array in the antrum of the stomach. The precise etiology of GAVE remains to be elucidated. Argon plasma laser coagulation (APC has been used to control oozing from GAVE; however, there is no satisfactory long-term effect of APC in the control of oozing from GAVE. An acid reducer is used after APC because even physiological acid exposure might delay post-APC ulcer healing. We describe the case of a patient who had used an acid reducer and experienced repeated gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to GAVE. After ceasing to administer the acid reducer, incidences of hospitalization due to oozing from GAVE stopped. After the administration of the acid reducer was restarted, the patient had tarry stool, and diffuse oozing of blood was seen again. We report a first case of GAVE which was aggravated by acid reducer.

  12. Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces intestinal permeability in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Y.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, van den M.; Holst, J.J.; Moreto, M.; Buurman, W.A.; Kulik, W.; Kempen, van T.A.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Piglets are highly susceptible to gut health-related problems. Intravenously administered chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) affects gut health mediated through glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). To test whether CDCA is a suitable feed additive for improving gut health, a trial was performed with newly

  13. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated. The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group. Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD. PMID:27977613

  14. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after cesarean section: A double blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr H. Yehia

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Tranexamic acid can be used safely to reduce blood loss during cesarean section. Reduced blood loss after tranexamic acid was associated with improvement of post-operative hemoglobin, hematocrit and with reduction of post-partum need for iron replacement.

  15. Teichuronic acid reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue linked by phosphodiester to peptidoglycan of Micrococcus luteus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, G.T.; Dickie, J.P.; Hamerski, D.A.; Magnuson, J.K.; Anderson, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Teichuronic acid-peptidoglycan complex isolated from Micrococcus luteus cells by lysozyme digestion in osmotically stabilized medium was treated with mild acid to cleave the linkage joining teichuronic acid to peptidoglycan. This labile linkage was shown to be the phosphodiester which joins N-acetylglucosamine, the residue located at the reducing end of the teichuronic acid, through its anomeric hydroxyl group to a 6-phosphomuramic acid, a residue of the glycan strand of peptidoglycan. 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lysozyme digest of cell walls demonstrated the presence of a phosphodiester which was converted to a phosphomonoester by the conditions which released teichuronic acid from cell walls. Reduction of acid-liberated reducing end groups by NaB 3 H 4 followed by complete acid hydrolysis yielded [ 3 H] glucosaminitol from the true reducing end residue of teichuronic acid and [ 3 H]glucitol from the sites of fragmentation of teichuronic acid. The amount of N-acetylglucosamine detected was approximately stoichiometric with the amount of phosphate in the complex. Partial fragmentation of teichuronic acid provides an explanation of the previous erroneous identification of the reducing end residue

  16. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on carcass quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and histopathological changes of broiler chickens infected with aflatoxin B 1. ... included increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and decreased ... Furthermore, dietary CLA supplementation increased serum HDL levels.

  17. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giulia

    2013-07-05

    Jul 5, 2013 ... hormone receptor (GHR), pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and cytosolic ... CLA supplemented cows, compared to the control group, recorded a significant lower ... amount of energy required for maintenance, plus milk production ...

  18. An Evolutionary Perspective on Linoleic Acid Synthesis in Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malcicka, Miriama; Visser, Bertanne; Ellers, Jacintha

    The diet of organisms generally provides a sufficient supply of energy and building materials for healthy growth and development, but should also contain essential nutrients. Species differ in their exogenous requirements, but it is not clear why some species are able to synthesize essential

  19. Alkylation of Methyl Linoleate with Propene in Ionic Liquids in the Presence of Metal Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomelli, Christian Silvio; Ghilardi, Tiziana; Chiappe, Cinzia; de Angelis, Alberto Renato; Calemma, Vincenzo

    2015-12-07

    Vegetable oils and fatty acid esters are suitable precursor molecules for the production of a variety of bio-based products and materials, such as paints and coatings, plastics, soaps, lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, surfactants, and biofuels. Here, we report the possibility of using Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) to obtain polyunsaturated ester dimerization-oligomerization and/or, in the presence of another terminal alkene (propene), co-polymerization. In particular, we have tested the Lewis acidic mixtures arising from the addition of a proper amount of GaCl₃ (Χ > 0.5) to two chloride-based (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, and 1-butylisoquinolium chloride, [BuIsoq]Cl) or by dissolution of a smaller amount of Al(Tf₂N)₃ (Χ = 0.1) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [bmim][Tf₂N]. On the basis of product distribution studies, [bmim][Tf₂N]/Al(Tf₂N)₃ appears the most suitable medium in which methyl linoleate alkylation with propene can compete with methyl linoleate or propene oligomerization.

  20. Alkylation of Methyl Linoleate with Propene in Ionic Liquids in the Presence of Metal Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Silvio Pomelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fatty acid esters are suitable precursor molecules for the production of a variety of bio-based products and materials, such as paints and coatings, plastics, soaps, lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, surfactants, and biofuels. Here, we report the possibility of using Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs to obtain polyunsaturated ester dimerization-oligomerization and/or, in the presence of another terminal alkene (propene, co-polymerization. In particular, we have tested the Lewis acidic mixtures arising from the addition of a proper amount of GaCl3 (Χ > 0.5 to two chloride-based (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, and 1-butylisoquinolium chloride, [BuIsoq]Cl or by dissolution of a smaller amount of Al(Tf2N3 (Χ = 0.1 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide, [bmim][Tf2N]. On the basis of product distribution studies, [bmim][Tf2N]/Al(Tf2N3 appears the most suitable medium in which methyl linoleate alkylation with propene can compete with methyl linoleate or propene oligomerization.

  1. Dietary linoleate preserves cardiolipin and attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction in the failing rat heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Christopher M.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Le, Catherine H.; De Mooy, Anthony B.; Routh, Melissa A.; Holmes, Michael G.; Hickson-Bick, Diane L.; Zarini, Simona; Murphy, Robert C.; Xu, Fred Y.; Hatch, Grant M.; McCune, Sylvia A.; Moore, Russell L.; Chicco, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Cardiolipin (CL) is a tetra-acyl phospholipid that provides structural and functional support to several proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The majority of CL in the healthy mammalian heart contains four linoleic acid acyl chains (L4CL). A selective loss of L4CL is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure in humans and animal models. We examined whether supplementing the diet with linoleic acid would preserve cardiac L4CL and attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and contractile failure in rats with hypertensive heart failure. Methods and results Male spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats (21 months of age) were administered diets supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil (HLSO) or lard (10% w/w; 28% kilocalorie fat) or without supplemental fat (control) for 4 weeks. HLSO preserved L4CL and total CL to 90% of non-failing levels (vs. 61–75% in control and lard groups), and attenuated 17–22% decreases in state 3 mitochondrial respiration observed in the control and lard groups (P < 0.05). Left ventricular fractional shortening was significantly higher in HLSO vs. control (33 ± 2 vs. 29 ± 2%, P < 0.05), while plasma insulin levels were lower (5.4 ± 1.1 vs. 9.1 ± 2.3 ng/mL; P < 0.05), with no significant effect of lard supplementation. HLSO also increased serum concentrations of several eicosanoid species compared with control and lard diets, but had no effect on plasma glucose or blood pressure. Conclusion Moderate consumption of HLSO preserves CL and mitochondrial function in the failing heart and may be a useful adjuvant therapy for this condition. PMID:22411972

  2. Quantificação de ácido alfa-linolênico em caules e folhas de linho (Linum usitatissimum L. colhidos em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento Quantification of alpha-linolenic acid in stems and leaves of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. harvested in different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar o ácido alfa-linolênico [LNA, 18:3 (n-3], avaliar a composição centesimal das folhas e caules de linho (Linum usitatissimum L. submetidos à secagem e colhidos em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (40, 80 e 120 dias, e determinar o potencial antioxidante das folhas colhidas aos 80 dias através do teste com o radical DPPH. As folhas obtiveram maiores teores de cinzas, proteína e lipídios totais em relação aos caules. Tanto as folhas quanto os caules apresentaram razões de AGPI/AGS e n-6/n-3 dentro dos valores considerados adequados para a alimentação. Os caules colhidos nos diferentes tempos não apresentaram diferenças significativas (PThe objective of this study was to quantify the alpha-linolenic acid [LNA, 18:3 (n-3] and to evaluate the proximate composition of leaves and stems of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. dried and harvested at different stages of development (40, 80 and 120 days, and to determine the antioxidant potential of the leaf harvested at 80 days using the test of DPPH radical. The leaves had higher levels of ash, protein and total lipids when compared to the stems. Both the leaves as the stems had ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 within the values considered suitable for food. Stems in the different stages showed no significant difference (P<0.05 of LNA content. Leaves harvested at 80 days showed the highest concentration of LNA, corresponding to 1,262.36 mg/100g dried leaf. The different extracts (methanol, butanol, acetate and water were efficient in the inhibition of DPPH radical, with emphasis on the butanolic and acetate fractions and the values of IC50 were approximately 42 ppm. These results highlight the nutritional potential and antioxidant activity of leaves and stems of flaxseed for future use in the animal and human feeding.

  3. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  4. Study of Ascorbic Acid as Iron(III Reducing Agent for Spectrophotometric Iron Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antesar Elmagirbi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for iron(III has been investigated in order to obtain an alternative carcinogenic reducing agent, hydroxylamine, used in spectrophotometric standard method based on the formation of a red-orange complex of Fe(II-o-phenanthroline. The study was optimised with regards to ascorbic acid concentration as well as pH solution. The results showed that ascorbic acid showed maximum capacity as reducing agent of iron(III under concentration of 4.46.10-4 M and pH solution of 1-4.Under these conditions, ascorbic acid reduced iron(III proportionally and performed similarly to that of hydroxylamine.  The method gave result to linear calibration over the range of 0.2-2 mg/L withhigh accuracy of 97 % and relative standard deviation of less than 2 %. This method was successfully applied to assay iron speciation in water samples.

  5. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Navas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Methods: Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Results: Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Conclusions: Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD. Keywords: Obesity, N43, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid, Central nervous system, Western diet, ω6-fatty acids

  6. Formamidine sulfinic acid as reducing agent in technetium-99m rhenium sulfide labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M; Patricio, L [Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia e Technologia Industrial, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. de Radioisotopes; Ferronha, H [Laboratorio Nacional de Investigacao Veterinaria, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1989-08-01

    Labelling kinetic studies, radiochemical characterization and particle size evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc rhenium sulfide colloid using formamidine sulfinic acid as reducing agent are described. Comparison with the same colloid which makes use of Sn-sodium pyrophosphate complex as reducing agent showed higher labelling yields, simplification of labelling procedure and a longer shelf life when formamidine sulfinic acid was used. (author) 15 refs.; 7 figs.

  7. Bimodal distribution of fasting gastric acidity in a rural African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting. The people of Transkei eat a diet high in linoleic acid, the principal fatty acid in maize. The theory has been put forward that a diet high in linoleic acid and low in fat and riboflavin, such as the traditional diet in Transkei, results in overproduction of prostaglandin E2 in the gastric mucosa, and that this overproduction ...

  8. Results of breeding for modified C18-fatty acid composition in Linum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Friedt, W.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The oil of cultivated linseed (Linum usitatissimum) is characterised by a high level (55-65%) of linolenic acid (C18:3) with comparatively little genetic variability. However, among wild Linum species there are large differences in fatty acid composition. Therefore, interspecific hybridisation between cultivated linseed and wild species may provide material segregating for oil quality. Alternatively, induced mutagenesis may be used for broadening genetic variation. Seeds of 32 Linum species were obtained from botanical gardens and institutes. Plant habitus, flower colour, oil content, fatty acid pattern, 1000-seed weight and seed colour were determined. Crosses between Linum usitatissimum cultivars and wild species were attempted. Where capsule development was not obtained, pollen tube growth was studied by fluorescence microscopy. It was tried to circumvent incompatibility barriers by applying the embryo rescue technique. For that purpose, 'heart-shaped' immature embryos of Linum usitatissimum plants were cultured on MONNIER-medium. In a mutation breeding programme, M 5 lines with reduced C18:3-content (35-40%) derived from the cultivars 'Bionda' and 'Raulinus' by EMS-mutagenesis were intercrossed and the progeny analysed. Variation in fatty acid composition amongst wild species was 3.5-68.2% for linolenic and 9.2-83.4% for linoleic acid. Variation of oil content was 22.5-46.0% and of 1000-seed weight 0.1-4.4g. Interspecific crosses of cultivated linseed with wild species of low linolenic and high linoleic acid content (especially L. flavum, L. catharticum, and L. campanulatum), were not successful because of pre-fertilisation barriers. Crosses between M 5 -lines selected for reduced linolenic acid content (35-40%) were analysed for segregation in the F 2 . Here, new recombinant types with only 11-13% linolenic, but nearly 50% oleic and 25-30% linoleic acid content could be identified. Previously, GREEN selected a mutant with very low C18:3-content (2

  9. Leaching of Carbothermic Reduced Titanium-bearing Blast Furnace Slag by Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Yulan; ZHANG Guohua; CHOU Kuochih

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag in Panzhihua Iron and Steel Company with acid system under atmosphere pressure was studied. The results show that the temperature and concentration have significant influence on leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag by ac-id. The experimental data of leaching indicate that the shrinking core model with chemical reaction controlled process is most applicable for the acid leaching. The apparent activation energy can be estimated to be from 23 to 32 kJ/mol. Fur-thermore, the main products are TiC and SiO2 after leaching.

  10. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liaset, Bjørn; Madsen, Lise; Hao, Qin

    2009-01-01

    levels relative to rats fed soy protein or casein. Concomitantly, the saithe FPH fed rats had reduced liver lipids and fasting plasma TAG levels. Furthermore, visceral adipose tissue mass was reduced and expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure was induced in perirenal....../retroperitoneal adipose tissues of rats fed saithe FPH. Our results provide the first evidence that dietary protein sources with different amino acid compositions can modulate the level of plasma bile acids and our data suggest potential novel mechanisms by which dietary protein sources can affect energy metabolism....

  11. The stability of iso-α-acids and reduced iso-α-acids in stored blood specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2014-06-01

    The long-term stability of the iso-α-acids, and three structurally similar but chemically altered iso-α-acids (known as 'reduced iso-α-acids' and consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-iso-α-acid groups) were investigated in whole blood. Pools of blank blood spiked with the four beer-specific ingredient congener groups at two different concentration levels were stored at 20°C, 4°C and -20°C; and extracted in duplicate in weeks 1, 3, 5 and 8, using a previously published method. A loss of 15% of the initial concentration was considered to indicate possible instability and losses greater than 30% demonstrated significant losses. The individual analytes within the four iso-α-acid groups were also measured to determine which iso-α-acids were subject to greater degradation and were responsible for the overall group instability. All four iso-α-acid groups showed significant losses after 8 weeks of storage under room temperature conditions in particularly the natural iso-α-acid group where major losses were observed (96% and 85% losses for low and high concentrations, respectively). Some degradation in all iso-α-acid groups were seen at 4°C samples predominantly due to the 'n' analogs of the groups showing an increased instability in blood. The -20°C storage conditions resulted in minimal changes in concentrations of all analytes. Higher than frozen storage temperatures can result in substantial changes on the stability of the iso-α-acid type groups in blood. The aim of this study was to highlight the stabilities of the IAA analytes in order to assist in the interpretation of IAA in stored blood specimens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A procedure for reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in acid anionic eluate and equipment therefore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parobek, P.; Baloun, S.; Plevac, S.

    1989-01-01

    The method is described of reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in acid anionic eluate produced in the separation of uranium or other metals, in which anion exchanger elution, precipitation, filtration and precipitate and anion exchanger washing are used. The technological line for such elution comprises at least one ion exchange column and at least one container. They together form the first and the second stages of preparation of the acid anion elution solution, the sorption-elution separation of hydrogen ions on an cation exchanger being inserted between them. The preparation of the solution is divide into two stages. In the first stage, the acid and part of the solution for the preparation of the acid anion elution solution are supplied. The resulting enriched acid elution solution is fe onto the cation exchanger where the hydrogen ion concentration i reduced. It is then carried into the second stage where it is mixed with the remaining part of the solution. (B.S.)

  13. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in ferulic acid and sinapic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramesh B; Bastress, Kristen L; Ruegger, Max O; Denault, Jeff W; Chapple, Clint

    2004-02-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall-esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes.

  14. Can Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss during Major Cardiac Surgery? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Frances; Wahed, Amer; Gregoric, Igor; Kar, Biswajit; Dasgupta, Amitava; Tint, Hlaing

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in preventing intraoperative blood loss during major cardiac surgery. Out of initial 81 patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (both coronary artery bypass and valve repair procedures) at our teaching hospital, sixty-seven patients were selected for this study. We compared estimated blood loss, decrease in percent hemoglobin and hematocrit following surgery between two groups of patients (none of them received any blood product during surgery), one group receiving no tranexamic acid (n=17) and another group receiving tranexamic acid (n=25). In the second study, we combined these patients with patients receiving modest amounts of blood products (1-2 unit) and compared these parameters between two groups of patients (25 patients received no tranexamic acid, 42 patients received tranexamic acid). In patients who received no blood product during surgery, those who received no tranexamic acid showed statistically significant (independent t-test two tailed at p tranexamic acid (mean: 987.2 mL, SD: 459.9, n=25). We observed similar results when the patients receiving no blood products and patients receiving modest amount of blood products were combined based on the use of tranexamic acid or not. No statistically significant difference was observed in percent reduced hemoglobin or hematocrit following surgery in any group of patients. We conclude that intraoperative antifibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid does not reduce intraoperative blood loss during major cardiac surgery which contradicts popular belief. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  15. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPHrad scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  16. Effect of Thiamine, Ascorbic acid and Gibberellic acid (GA3 on Growth Characteristics, Pigment Content and Reduced Sugars of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    moslem salehi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bedding plants, especially petunia is important element for urban landscaping and attracted the attention of landscapers. This is due to some properties such as growth habit and color. The petunia (Petunia hybrida L. belongs to Solanaceae family that has annual and perennial varieties. This plant is originally from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Some plant growth regulators such as gibberellic acid (GA3 and vitamins including thiamine and ascorbic acid affect plant growth and development and may extend flowering period. Vitamin C affects cell division and cell growth in plants and is effective on the feeding cycle activity in higher plants and it has an important role in electron transport system. The concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm of vitamin C and thiamine can increase the plant height, leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, and chemical compounds of the Syngonium plant. The application of 100 mg/l of GA3 significantly increased plant height and the number of leaves of gladiolus. Material and methods: The experiment was arranged in a factorial based on a completely randomized design with five replications. In this research, growth characteristics (lateral branch number, flower number, flower diameter, stem diameter, root length, and lateral branch length and biochemical characteristics (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, and reducing sugar were measured. After seeding and transplanting the seedling at 6 leaf stage, plants sprayed at 4 various growth stages with following treatments: 1-\tControl 2-\tVitamin C(100 mg/l 3-\tThiamin (100 mg/l 4-\tGibberellic acid (100 mg/l 5-\tVitamin C and Thiamin (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 6-\tVitamin C and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 7-\tThiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 8-\tVitamin C, Thiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of three 100 mg/l Data obtained from the measured parameters

  17. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls at the top and bottom. The reactor was operated with 150 kg of cassava bagasse and 1350 kg of water. The yield of the acid hydrolysis was 62.4 g of reducing sugars from 100 g of cassava bagasse containing 66% starch. It represented 94.5% of reducing sugar recovery. The yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 77.1 g of reducing sugars from 120 g of cassava bagasse, which represented 97.3% of reducing sugars recovery. Concerning to the time, a batch of acid hydrolysis required 10 minutes, plus the time to heat and cool the reactor, and a batch of the enzymatic hydrolysis needed 25 hours and 20 minutes, plus the time to heat and to cool the reactor. Thus, the acid hydrolysis of 150 kg of cassava bagasse required US$ 34.27, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of the same amount of cassava bagasse required US$ 2470.99.

  18. Effect of extruded cotton and canola seed on unsaturated fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    linear correlation between linoleic acid content of the liver and levels of dietary ECAS and ECOS. This study provides evidence that dietary oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid might escape biohydrogenation in the rumen and showed that the type of dietary fat has a marked impact on lipid metabolism in the liver.

  19. Ascorbic acid reduces noise-induced nitric oxide production in the guinea pig ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger; Fischer, Ilka; Brieger, Jürgen; Rümelin, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Li, Huige; Mann, Wolf J; Helling, Kai

    2008-05-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused, among other causes, by increased nitric oxide (NO) production in the inner ear leading to nitroactive stress and cell destruction. Some studies in the literature suggest that the degree of hearing loss (HL) could be reduced in an animal model through ascorbic acid supplementation. To identify the effect of ascorbic acid on tissue-dependent NO content in the inner ear of the guinea pig, we determined the local NO production in the organ of Corti and the lateral wall separately 6 hours after noise exposure. Prospective animal study in guinea pigs. Over a period of 7 days, male guinea pigs were supplied with minimum (25 mg/kg body weight/day) and maximum (525 mg/kg body weight/day) ascorbic acid doses, and afterwards exposed to noise (90 dB sound pressure level for 1 hour). The acoustic-evoked potentials were recorded before and after noise exposure. The organ of Corti and the lateral wall were incubated differently for 6 hours in culture medium, and the degree of NO production was determined by chemiluminescence. Ascorbic acid treatment reduced the hearing threshold shift after noise exposure depending on concentration. When the maximum ascorbic acid dose was substituted, NO production was significantly reduced in the lateral wall after noise exposure and slightly reduced in the organ of Corti. Oral supplementation of the natural radical scavenger ascorbic acid reduces the NO-production rate in the inner ear in noisy conditions. This finding supports the concept of inner ear protection by ascorbic acid supplementation.

  20. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  1. Tranexamic Acid Reduced the Percent of Total Blood Volume Lost During Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen E; Butler, Elissa K; Barrack, Tara; Ledonio, Charles T; Forte, Mary L; Cohn, Claudia S; Polly, David W

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel posterior spine fusion is associated with significant intraoperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that reduces intraoperative blood loss. The goal of this study was to compare the percent of total blood volume lost during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with or without tranexamic acid in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Thirty-six AIS patients underwent PSF in 2011-2014; the last half (n=18) received intraoperative tranexamic acid. We retrieved relevant demographic, hematologic, intraoperative and outcomes information from medical records. The primary outcome was the percent of total blood volume lost, calculated from estimates of intraoperative blood loss (numerator) and estimated total blood volume per patient (denominator, via Nadler's equations). Unadjusted outcomes were compared using standard statistical tests. Tranexamic acid and no-tranexamic acid groups were similar (all p>0.05) in mean age (16.1 vs. 15.2 years), sex (89% vs. 83% female), body mass index (22.2 vs. 20.2 kg/m2), preoperative hemoglobin (13.9 vs. 13.9 g/dl), mean spinal levels fused (10.5 vs. 9.6), osteotomies (1.6 vs. 0.9) and operative duration (6.1 hours, both). The percent of total blood volume lost (TBVL) was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid-treated vs. no-tranexamic acid group (median 8.23% vs. 14.30%, p = 0.032); percent TBVL per level fused was significantly lower with tranexamic acid than without it (1.1% vs. 1.8%, p=0.048). Estimated blood loss (milliliters) was similar across groups. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the percentage of total blood volume lost versus no tranexamic acid in AIS patients who underwent PSF using a standardized blood loss measure.Level of Evidence: 3. Institutional Review Board status: This medical record chart review (minimal risk) study was approved by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board.

  2. Functional improvement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to reduce volatile acidity in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zongli; Walkey, Christopher J; Madilao, Lufiani L; Measday, Vivien; Van Vuuren, Hennie J J

    2013-08-01

    Control of volatile acidity (VA) is a major issue for wine quality. In this study, we investigated the production of VA by a deletion mutant of the fermentation stress response gene AAF1 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fermentations were carried out in commercial Chardonnay grape must to mimic industrial wine-making conditions. We demonstrated that a wine yeast strain deleted for AAF1 reduced acetic acid levels in wine by up to 39.2% without increasing the acetaldehyde levels, revealing a potential for industrial application. Deletion of the cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALD6 also reduced acetic acid levels dramatically, but increased the acetaldehyde levels by 41.4%, which is not desired by the wine industry. By comparison, ALD4 and the AAF1 paralog RSF2 had no effects on acetic acid production in wine. Deletion of AAF1 was detrimental to the growth of ald6Δ and ald4Δald6Δ mutants, but had no effect on acetic acid production. Overexpression of AAF1 dramatically increased acetic acid levels in wine in an Ald6p-dependent manner, indicating that Aaf1p regulates acetic acid production mainly via Ald6p. Overexpression of AAF1 in an ald4Δald6Δ strain produced significantly more acetic acid in wine than the ald4Δald6Δ mutant, suggesting that Aaf1p may also regulate acetic acid synthesis independently of Ald4p and Ald6p. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of methods for the determination of reduced inorganic sulphur in acid sulphate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santomartino, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The management of acid sulphate soils requires analytical methods that provide accurate data on the quantity of reduced inorganic sulphur within a soil, as it is this fraction that produces acid upon oxidation. This study uses sulphidic Coode Island Silt samples to compare common analytical methods including POCAS (Peroxide Oxidation-Combined Acidity and Sulphate) which consists of TSA (Total Sulphidic Acidity), S pos (Peroxide Oxidisable Sulphur), TOS (Total Oxidisable Sulphur) and chromium-reducible sulphur. The determination of total sulphur by Leco sulphur is strongly correlated with, but slightly less than, that analysed by XRF. Comparison of soil sulphide content by chromium-reducible sulphur, TSA and TOS methods indicates that TOS values are substantially higher than both other methods. The problem with the TOS method lies in the sulphate extraction procedure. Hot distilled water and HCI are commonly used as extractants, however hot distilled water fails to remove organic sulphur, thereby overestimating the sulphide content of the soil. Leco carbon analyses verify that a substantial proportion of organic matter exists within the samples. The HCI extraction process, which uses Ion Chromatography to analyse for sulphate, produces highly inaccurate results due to the interference of the sulphate peak by the chloride peak during analysis. An alternative method involving HCI extraction and XRF analysis of the soil residue is currently being undertaken. The use of KCI to extract sulphate generally produces values similar to the hot distilled water method. The sulphidic content measured by TSA is strongly correlated with, but slightly higher than that determined by the chromium-reducible sulphur method. This is attributed to the use of hydrogen peroxide in the TSA method, which oxidises organic matter to organic acids in addition to oxidising sulphides. These preliminary findings indicate that the chromium-reducible sulphur method is the most suitable

  4. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in patients with extracapsular fractures of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, P T; Foss, N B; Palm, H

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single...

  5. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge...

  6. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  7. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water.

  8. The Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diclofenac Reduces Acid-Induced Heartburn Symptoms in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Okada, Hiroki; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits prostaglandin production, on induction of esophageal sensation by acid perfusion in healthy men. We performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period, cross-over study over 3 visits in 12 healthy men. Diclofenac was given 6 hours and 2 hours before an acid perfusion test. During the test, hydrochloric acid (0.15 mol/L) was perfused into the lower esophagus for 30 minutes; we evaluated upper gastrointestinal symptoms using a validated categoric rating scale. Then, we calculated and assessed the acid perfusion sensitivity score (APSS). Biopsy specimens were collected by endoscopy of the distal esophagus before and after acid perfusion; levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (pg/mg) were measured in the samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with placebo, diclofenac significantly reduced the APSS for heartburn (82.2 ± 12.2 for placebo and 47.5 ± 8.9 for diclofenac; P heartburn was reduced significantly by diclofenac. Compared with placebo, diclofenac reduced the overproduction of PGE2 by esophageal tissues after acid perfusion (23.3 ± 5.2 for placebo and 11.4 ± 3.5 for diclofenac; P heartburn and esophageal levels of PGE2 (r = 0.53; P heartburn vs PGE2). Diclofenac attenuated acid-induced heartburn by inhibiting PGE2 overproduction in the esophagus. Esophageal PGE2 might be involved in producing heartburn symptoms. Clinical Trials Registry no: UMIN000014595. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lactic acid fermentation of human urine to improve its fertilizing value and reduce odour emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, N; Ronteltap, M; Boincean, B; Wernli, M; Zubcov, E; Bagrin, N; Borodin, N; Lens, P N L

    2017-08-01

    During storage of urine, urea is biologically decomposed to ammonia, which can be lost through volatilization and in turn causes significant unpleasant smell. In response, lactic acid fermentation of urine is a cost-effective technique to decrease nitrogen volatilization and reduce odour emissions. Fresh urine (pH = 5.2-5.3 and NH 4 + -N = 1.2-1.3 g L -1 ) was lacto-fermented for 36 days in closed glass jars with a lactic acid bacterial inoculum from sauerkraut juice and compared to untreated, stored urine. In the lacto-fermented urine, the pH was reduced to 3.8-4.7 and the ammonium content by 22-30%, while the pH of the untreated urine rose to 6.1 and its ammonium content increased by 32% due to urea hydrolysis. The concentration of lactic acid bacteria in lacto-fermented urine was 7.3 CFU ml -1 , suggesting that urine is a suitable growth medium for lactic acid bacteria. The odour of the stored urine was subjectively perceived by four people to be twice as strong as that of lacto-fermented samples. Lacto-fermented urine induced increased radish germination compared to stored urine (74-86% versus 2-31%). Adding a lactic acid bacterial inoculum to one week old urine in the storage tanks in a urine-diverting dry toilet reduced the pH from 8.9 to 7.7 after one month, while the ammonium content increased by 35%, probably due to the high initial pH of the urine. Given that the hydrolyzed stale urine has a high buffering capacity, the lactic acid bacterial inoculum should be added to the urine storage tank of a UDDT before urine starts to accumulate there to increase the efficiency of the lactic acid fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategies for Reduced Acid and Metalliferous Drainage by Pyrite Surface Passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujie Qian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD is broadly accepted to be a major global environmental problem facing the mining industry, requiring expensive management and mitigation. A series of laboratory-scale kinetic leach column (KLC experiments, using both synthetic and natural mine wastes, were carried out to test the efficacy of our pyrite passivation strategy (developed from previous research for robust and sustainable AMD management. For the synthetic waste KLC tests, initial treatment with lime-saturated water was found to be of paramount importance for maintaining long-term circum-neutral pH, favourable for the formation and preservation of the pyrite surface passivating layer and reduced acid generation rate. Following the initial lime-saturated water treatment, minimal additional alkalinity (calcite-saturated water was required to maintain circum-neutral pH for the maintenance of pyrite surface passivation. KLC tests examining natural potentially acid forming (PAF waste, with much greater peak acidity than that of the synthetic waste, blended with lime (≈2 wt % with and without natural non-acid-forming (NAF waste covers, were carried out. The addition of lime and use of NAF covers maintained circum-neutral leachate pH up to 24 weeks. During this time, the net acidity generated was found to be significantly reduced by the overlying NAF cover. If the reduced rate of acidity production from the natural PAF waste is sustained, the addition of smaller (more economically-feasible amounts of lime, together with application of NAF wastes as covers, could be trialled as a potential cost-effective AMD mitigation strategy.

  11. Reducing the acidity of Arabica coffee beans by ohmic fermentation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is widely consumed not only because of its typical taste, but coffee has antioxidant properties because of its polygons, and it stimulates brain performance. The main problem with the consumption of coffee is its content of caffeine. Caffeine when consumed in excess, can increase muscle tension, stimulate the heart, and increase the secretion of gastric acid. In this research, we applied ohmic fermentation technology, which is specially designed to mimic the stomach. Arabica coffee has high acidity that needs to be reduced than Luwak coffee, although it is cheaper. Hence, the ohmic technology with a time and temperature variation were applied to measure the total acidity of the coffee to determine optimum fermentation conditions. Results revealed that the total acidity of the coffee varied with fermentation conditions (0.18% – 0.73%. Generally, the longer the fermentation and the higher the temperature, the lower the total acidity. The acidity of the Luwak coffee through natural fermentation was 2.34%, which is substantially higher than the total acidity from the ohmic samples. Ohmic-based fermentation technology, therefore, offers improvements in coffee quality.

  12. Lauric acid as feed additive - An approach to reducing Campylobacter spp. in broiler meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Katrin; Popp, Johanna; Becker, André; Hankel, Julia; Visscher, Christian; Klein, Guenter; Meemken, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Campylobacter spp. within broiler populations is a major problem for food safety and consumer protection worldwide. In vitro studies could already demonstrate that Campylobacter spp. are susceptible to lauric acid. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo the influence of lauric acid as a feed additive on slaughter parameters, muscle fatty acid profile, meat quality traits and the reduction of Campylobacter coli in inoculated meat of Ross 308 (R308) and Hubbard JA 757 (HJA) broilers in three independent trials (n = 3). Although slaughter parameters did not show any significant differences, the fatty acid profile of both breeds revealed significantly higher lauric acid concentrations (P meat quality traits showed no differences in the R308 breed (P > 0.05), but HJA test broilers had higher values for drip loss, electrical conductivity, CIE color values L* and b*, and lower pH values. The inoculation trials of R308 showed that initial bacterial loads of 5.9 log10 cfu/g were reduced during six days of storage (4°C) to approximately 4.3 log10 cfu/g in the control groups compared to 3.5 log10 cfu/g in the treatment groups (P = 0.0295), which could be due to antimicrobial effects of lauric acid within the muscle. This study therefore suggests that lauric acid as a feed additive has the potential to improve food safety by reducing the numbers of Campylobacter coli in broiler meat. However, this effect seems to be dependent on the breed determining the feed intake capacity, the fat deposition and therefore the ability to incorporate lauric acid in the muscle.

  13. Lauric acid as feed additive - An approach to reducing Campylobacter spp. in broiler meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Zeiger

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of Campylobacter spp. within broiler populations is a major problem for food safety and consumer protection worldwide. In vitro studies could already demonstrate that Campylobacter spp. are susceptible to lauric acid. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo the influence of lauric acid as a feed additive on slaughter parameters, muscle fatty acid profile, meat quality traits and the reduction of Campylobacter coli in inoculated meat of Ross 308 (R308 and Hubbard JA 757 (HJA broilers in three independent trials (n = 3. Although slaughter parameters did not show any significant differences, the fatty acid profile of both breeds revealed significantly higher lauric acid concentrations (P 0.05, but HJA test broilers had higher values for drip loss, electrical conductivity, CIE color values L* and b*, and lower pH values. The inoculation trials of R308 showed that initial bacterial loads of 5.9 log10 cfu/g were reduced during six days of storage (4°C to approximately 4.3 log10 cfu/g in the control groups compared to 3.5 log10 cfu/g in the treatment groups (P = 0.0295, which could be due to antimicrobial effects of lauric acid within the muscle. This study therefore suggests that lauric acid as a feed additive has the potential to improve food safety by reducing the numbers of Campylobacter coli in broiler meat. However, this effect seems to be dependent on the breed determining the feed intake capacity, the fat deposition and therefore the ability to incorporate lauric acid in the muscle.

  14. A reduced amino acid alphabet for understanding and designing protein adaptation to mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchebest, C; Benros, C; Bornot, A; Camproux, A-C; de Brevern, A G

    2007-11-01

    Protein sequence world is considerably larger than structure world. In consequence, numerous non-related sequences may adopt similar 3D folds and different kinds of amino acids may thus be found in similar 3D structures. By grouping together the 20 amino acids into a smaller number of representative residues with similar features, sequence world simplification may be achieved. This clustering hence defines a reduced amino acid alphabet (reduced AAA). Numerous works have shown that protein 3D structures are composed of a limited number of building blocks, defining a structural alphabet. We previously identified such an alphabet composed of 16 representative structural motifs (5-residues length) called Protein Blocks (PBs). This alphabet permits to translate the structure (3D) in sequence of PBs (1D). Based on these two concepts, reduced AAA and PBs, we analyzed the distributions of the different kinds of amino acids and their equivalences in the structural context. Different reduced sets were considered. Recurrent amino acid associations were found in all the local structures while other were specific of some local structures (PBs) (e.g Cysteine, Histidine, Threonine and Serine for the alpha-helix Ncap). Some similar associations are found in other reduced AAAs, e.g Ile with Val, or hydrophobic aromatic residues Trp with Phe and Tyr. We put into evidence interesting alternative associations. This highlights the dependence on the information considered (sequence or structure). This approach, equivalent to a substitution matrix, could be useful for designing protein sequence with different features (for instance adaptation to environment) while preserving mainly the 3D fold.

  15. Altered fatty acid metabolism and reduced stearoyl-coenzyme a desaturase activity in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Perez, N; Schiavi, E; Frei, R; Ferstl, R; Wawrzyniak, P; Smolinska, S; Sokolowska, M; Sievi, N A; Kohler, M; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Michalovich, D; Simpson, K D; Hessel, E M; Jutel, M; Martin-Fontecha, M; Palomares, O; Akdis, C A; O'Mahony, L

    2017-11-01

    Fatty acids and lipid mediator signaling play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, yet this area remains largely underexplored. The aims of this study were (i) to examine fatty acid levels and their metabolism in obese and nonobese asthma patients and (ii) to determine the functional effects of altered fatty acid metabolism in experimental models. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid levels were quantified in serum from 161 human volunteers by LC/MS. Changes in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) expression and activity were evaluated in the ovalbumin (OVA) and house dust mite (HDM) murine models. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients and controls were evaluated for SCD expression and activity. The serum desaturation index (an indirect measure of SCD) was significantly reduced in nonobese asthma patients and in the OVA murine model. SCD1 gene expression was significantly reduced within the lungs following OVA or HDM challenge. Inhibition of SCD in mice promoted airway hyper-responsiveness. SCD1 expression was suppressed in bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients. IL-4 and IL-13 reduced epithelial cell SCD1 expression. Inhibition of SCD reduced surfactant protein C expression and suppressed rhinovirus-induced IP-10 secretion, which was associated with increased viral titers. This is the first study to demonstrate decreased fatty acid desaturase activity in humans with asthma. Experimental models in mice and human epithelial cells suggest that inhibition of desaturase activity leads to airway hyper-responsiveness and reduced antiviral defense. SCD may represent a new target for therapeutic intervention in asthma patients. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  16. Role of ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in many economically developed nations, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate in emerging economies. Diet and lifestyle issues are closely associated with a myriad of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal plasma lipids, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity, suggesting that diet-based approaches may be of benefit. Omega-3 longchain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) are increasingly being used in the prevention and management of several cardiovascular risk factors. Both the ω3 and ω6 PUFA families are considered essential, as the human body is itself unable to synthesize them. The conversion of the two precursor fatty acids - linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linoleic acid (α18:3ω3) - of these two pathways to longer (≥C(20)) PUFA is inefficient. Although there is an abundance of ω6 PUFA in the food supply; in many populations the relative intake of ω3 LC-PUFA is low with health authorities advocating increased consumption. Fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids, has been found to cause a modest reduction in blood pressure at a dose level of >3g/d both in untreated and treated hypertensives. Whilst a multitude of mechanisms may contribute to the blood pressure lowering action of ω3 LC-PUFA, improved vascular endothelial cell function appears to play a central role. Recent studies which evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil in type-2 diabetes have helped to alleviate concerns raised in some previous studies which used relatively large dose (5-8 g/d) and reported a worsening of glycemic control. Several meta-analyses have confirmed that the most consistent action of ω3 LC-PUFA in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes is the reduction in triglycerides. In some studies, fish oil has been found to cause a small rise in LDL-cholesterol, but a change in the LDL particle size, from the smaller more

  17. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

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    Ming-Che Shen

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (C18:0 is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil, or oleic acid (corn oil enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2 and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  18. Thyroid hormone reduces PCSK9 and stimulates bile acid synthesis in humans[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Ylva; Breuer, Olof; Lütjohann, Dieter; Sjöberg, Stefan; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol is a hallmark of hyperthyroidism and is caused by transcriptional stimulation of LDL receptors in the liver. Here, we investigated whether thyroid hormone (TH) actions involve other mechanisms that may also account for the reduction in LDL-cholesterol, including effects on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and bile acid synthesis. Twenty hyperthyroid patients were studied before and after clinical normalization, and the responses to hyperthyroidism were compared with those in 14 healthy individuals after 14 days of treatment with the liver-selective TH analog eprotirome. Both hyperthyroidism and eprotirome treatment reduced circulating PCSK9, lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB and AI, and lipoprotein(a), while cholesterol synthesis was stable. Hyperthyroidism, but not eprotirome treatment, markedly increased bile acid synthesis and reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 and dietary cholesterol absorption. Eprotirome treatment, but not hyperthyroidism, reduced plasma triglycerides. Neither hyperthyroidism nor eprotirome treatment altered insulin, glucose, or FGF21 levels. TH reduces circulating PSCK9, thereby likely contributing to lower plasma LDL-cholesterol in hyperthyroidism. TH also stimulates bile acid synthesis, although this response is not critical for its LDL-lowering effect. PMID:25172631

  19. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  20. Role of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Kaur Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Association between caesarean section and intra operative and post operative bleeding is known. Post-partum hemorrhage is still a leading cause for maternal morbidity and mortality. This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing the blood loss after placental delivery following lower segment caesarean section (LSCS and note any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women, who underwent elective or emergency primary caesarean section at term between 37 and 41 weeks have been studied prospectively. They were divided into two groups. In the study group of 50, tranexamic acid 1 gm IV was given 20 minutes before making incision for caesarean section and the control group of 50 did not receive tranexamic acid. Statistical Analysis: For quantitative outcomes, the t-test was used to test for difference in the two groups. For categorical outcomes, chi square and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used as applicable. Results: The patient characteristics, namely age, height, weight, gestational age and gravidity in two groups were similar which was statistically insignificant. Hemoglobin decreased slightly after birth in both groups but no statistical difference between two groups was noticed. There was no episode of thrombosis in the study. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of the blood loss from time of placental delivery to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001 and from end of LSCS to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001. However, there was no statistical difference in quantity of blood loss from time of placental delivery to end of LSCS in both groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: A safe dose of tranexamic acid has an effective role in reducing blood loss during LSCS without causing adverse reaction. Thus, drug can be used effectively in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality during LSCS.

  1. DOES TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS IN OFF-PUMP CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehr-Aein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tranexamic acid is now used on a routine basis for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. We assessed the hemostatic effects of tranexamic acid to decrease bleeding tendency and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB. A total of 66 patients were enrolled to elective OPCAB in a double-blind, prospective randomized study. Of these, 33 patients received tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg before the infusion of heparin and 15 mg/kg after protamin infusion, and 33 patients received only saline. Preoperative hematologic variables, postoperative bleeding and allogeneic transfusions were considered. D-dimer plasma levels were also evaluated to monitor the activation of fibrinolysis. Postoperative bleeding was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group compared with the control group (320 ± 38 mL vs. 480 ± 75 mL at 12 hour, P < 0.001. The tranexamic acid group had significantly lesser need for allogeneic blood products (0.46 units/patients vs. 0.94 units/patients, P < 0.001. They had also lower post-operative D-dimer plasma levels. No postoperative thrombotic complications were observed in either group. The defective hemostasis occurs even in the OPCABG. Tranexamic acid effectively reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood products after OPCAB is decreased.

  2. Ethanolic extract of Piper betle Linn. leaves reduces nociception via modulation of arachidonic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Soumita; Maroo, Niteeka; Saha, Piu; Hazra, Samik; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the peripheral analgesic effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) along with establishing its putative mechanism of action. Male Swiss albino mice after pre-treatment (1 h) with different doses of PBE were injected 0.8% (v/v) acetic acid i.p.; the onset and number of writhes were noted up to 15 min. To evaluate the mechanism of action, the murine peritoneal exudate was incubated with PBE for 1 h, followed by exposure to arachidonic acid (AA) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. PBE in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced acetic acid induced writhing response in mice (P < 0.001). In peritoneal exudates, PBE significantly inhibited AA induced generation of ROS, P < 0.01. The present study indicates that PBE has promising analgesic activity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration.

  3. Thyroid hormone reduces PCSK9 and stimulates bile acid synthesis in humans[S

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Ylva; Breuer, Olof; L?tjohann, Dieter; Sj?berg, Stefan; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol is a hallmark of hyperthyroidism and is caused by transcriptional stimulation of LDL receptors in the liver. Here, we investigated whether thyroid hormone (TH) actions involve other mechanisms that may also account for the reduction in LDL-cholesterol, including effects on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and bile acid synthesis. Twenty hyperthyroid patients were studied before and after clinical normalization, and the responses to hyperthyr...

  4. [Single intravenous tranexamic acid dose to reduce blood loss in primary total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, J; Parra Ruiz, B; Ferrández Martínez, J; Martínez López, J F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous dose of tranexamic acid in order to reduce blood loss in total knee replacement. Prospective observational study of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from November 2013 to February 2015, in which an autologous blood recovery system was used. The study included 98 patients, distributed into two groups of 49 patients according to whether or not they received intravenous tranexamic acid. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring autologous transfusion from the recovery system autologous blood recovery system. No drop-outs were recorded during follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups as regards the preoperative and hospital variables. The mean preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively were similar in both groups. The average volume of bleeding in the autologous blood recovery system and estimated average blood loss was lower in patients who had been administered tranexamic acid, with significant differences. No patients in the group that was administered tranexamic acid required blood autotransfusion. The transfusion rate was zero in the two groups. No adverse events related to the administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid, according to the described protocol, has presented a non-autotransfusion or allo-transfusion rate of 100%, with no increased incidence of thrombotic events. Thus, its use in this group of patients is recommended. The indication should be individualized, its use justified in the patient medical records, and informed consent is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Eugene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO, olive oil (OO, and beef tallow (BT on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. Naturally occurring and process-induced trans fatty acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHOKRI

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Key words: Trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, butter oil. INTRODUCTION ... important role in determining risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) than ... performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade, supplied by.

  7. Novel Dental Cement to Combat Biofilms and Reduce Acids for Orthodontic Applications to Avoid Enamel Demineralization

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    Ning Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatments often lead to biofilm buildup and white spot lesions due to enamel demineralization. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel bioactive orthodontic cement to prevent white spot lesions, and to determine the effects of cement compositions on biofilm growth and acid production. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC, nanoparticles of silver (NAg, and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI. Enamel shear bond strength (SBS was determined. Protein adsorption was determined using a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU and lactic acid production. Incorporating 3% of MPC, 1.5% of DMAHDM, and 0.1% of NAg into RMGI, and immersing in distilled water at 37 °C for 30 days, did not decrease the SBS, compared to control (p > 0.1. RMGI with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM + 0.1% NAg had protein amount that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with triple agents (MPC + DMAHDM + NAg had much stronger antibacterial property than using a single agent or double agents (p < 0.05. Biofilm CFU on RMGI with triple agents was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude, compared to commercial control. Biofilm metabolic activity and acid production were also greatly reduced. In conclusion, adding MPC + DMAHDM + NAg in RMGI substantially inhibited biofilm viability and acid production, without compromising the orthodontic bracket bond strength to enamel. The novel bioactive cement is promising for orthodontic applications to hinder biofilms and plaque buildup and enamel demineralization.

  8. Reducing the Dietary Acid Load: How a More Alkaline Diet Benefits Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    It has been proposed that a low-protein diet will slow progression of chronic kidney disease although studies have not always supported this belief. The accepted practice is that 60% to 70% of protein comes from high biological value (HBV) protein, but this limits patient choice and patients struggle to follow the diet. When a diet with only 30% HBV protein was trialed, there was a significant increase in serum bicarbonate, and patients preferred the diet. The dietary advice given in predialysis clinics was changed. HBV protein was restricted to approximately 50% of total protein, bread and cereal foods were allowed freely, and fruits and vegetables (F&V) were encouraged. Patients who followed the diet have seen a slowing of progression and occasionally regression of their renal function. Both observations and scientific literature indicate that this is because of a reduction in the acid content of the diet. When foods are metabolized, most proteins produce acid, and most F&V produce alkali. A typical 21 st -century diet produces 50 to 100 mEq H + per day which the kidney is challenged to excrete. Acid is excreted with phosphate and is limited to about 45 mEq H + per day. With chronic kidney disease, this falls progressively to below 20 mEq H + per day. Historically, ammonium excretion was believed to be excretion of acid (NH 3 +  + H + → NH 4 + ), but it is now understood to be a by-product in the neutralization of acid by glutamine. The remaining acid is neutralized or stored within the body. Bone and muscle are lost in order to neutralize the acid. Acid also accumulates within cells, and serum bicarbonate falls. The author postulates that reducing the acid load through a low-protein diet with greater use of vegetable proteins and increased F&V intake will slow progression or occasionally improve renal function while maintaining the nutritional status of the individual. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel

    2014-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  10. Phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide based fluorescence nano sensor for glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiruddin, SK; Swain, Sarat K., E-mail: swainsk2@yahoo.co.in

    2016-01-01

    Reduced graphene has emerged as promising tools for detection based application of biomolecules as it has high surface area with strong fluorescence quenching property. We have used the concept of fluorescent quenching property of reduced graphene oxide to the fluorescent probes which are close vicinity of its surface. In present work, we have synthesized fluorescent based nano-sensor consist of phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO–PBA) and di-ol modified fluorescent probe for detection of biologically important glucose molecules. This fluorescent graphene based nano-probe has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM), UV–visible, Photo-luminescence (PL) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Finally, using this PBA functionalized reduced GO based nano-sensor, we were able to detect glucose molecule in the range of 2 mg/mL to 75 mg/mL in aqueous solution of pH 7.4. - Highlights: • Easy and simple synthesis of PBA functionalized reduced GO based nano probe. • PBA functionalized reduced GO graphene based nano-probes are characterized. • PBA functionalized reduced GO nano probe is used to detect glucose molecules. • It is very cost-effective and enzyme-free detection of glucose in solution.

  11. The bile acid deoxycholate elicits defences in Arabidopsis and reduces bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarattini, Marco; Launay, Alban; Farjad, Mahsa; Wénès, Estelle; Taconnat, Ludivine; Boutet, Stéphanie; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Fagard, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    Disease has an effect on crop yields, causing significant losses. As the worldwide demand for agricultural products increases, there is a need to pursue the development of new methods to protect crops from disease. One mechanism of plant protection is through the activation of the plant immune system. By exogenous application, 'plant activator molecules' with elicitor properties can be used to activate the plant immune system. These defence-inducing molecules represent a powerful and often environmentally friendly tool to fight pathogens. We show that the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) induces defence in Arabidopsis and reduces the proliferation of two bacterial phytopathogens: Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. We describe the global defence response triggered by this new plant activator in Arabidopsis at the transcriptional level. Several induced genes were selected for further analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We describe the kinetics of their induction and show that abiotic stress, such as moderate drought or nitrogen limitation, does not impede DCA induction of defence. Finally, we investigate the role in the activation of defence by this bile acid of the salicylic acid biosynthesis gene SID2, of the receptor-like kinase family genes WAK1-3 and of the NADPH oxidase-encoding RbohD gene. Altogether, we show that DCA constitutes a promising molecule for plant protection which can induce complementary lines of defence, such as callose deposition, reactive oxygen species accumulation and the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling pathways. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    that will help reduce public concerns for environmental issues surrounding genetically modified plants. Conclusion In this study we produced seed-specific JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic Jatropha without a selectable marker. We successfully increased the proportion of oleic acid versus linoleic in Jatropha through genetic engineering, enhancing the quality of its oil.

  13. Temporary reduction of radiation does not permanently reduce flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids in red lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Applying transparent daytime screens in greenhouses in cool seasons reduces the amount of energy needed for heating, but also the solar radiation available for crops. This can reduce yield and product quality of leafy vegetables because of constrained photosynthesis and altered biosynthesis. To study this, we cultivated five-week old red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for four weeks in growth chambers under a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 225 and 410 μmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Some plants were exchanged between radiation intensities after two weeks. We investigated the concentration of five flavonoid glycosides, three caffeic acid derivatives, reducing sugars as well as plant growth. Remarkably, no significant influence of radiation intensity on the concentration of phenolic acids or anthocyanin glycosides was observed. In contrast, quercetin and luteolin glycoside concentration was between 14 and 34% lower in plants growing under lower compared to higher PPFD. Already after two weeks of cultivation, plants grown under lower PPFD contained less quercetin and luteolin glycosides but they completely compensated if subsequently transferred to higher PPFD until harvest. Hence, marketable lettuce heads which experienced temporary shading followed by an unshaded phase did not contain lower concentrations of flavonoid glycosides or phenolic acids. Also, there was no reduction of head mass in this variant. Our results suggest that saving energy in early growth stages is feasible without losses in yield or health promoting phenolic substances. In addition, there was a close correlation between the concentration of reducing sugars and some flavonoid glycosides, indicating a close metabolic connection between their biosynthesis and the availability of carbohydrates. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  14. An alginate-antacid formulation localizes to the acid pocket to reduce acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Bennink, Roel J.; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Thomas, Edward; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2013-01-01

    Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an

  15. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanky, Bhavana S.; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A. E.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Miller, David H.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = −0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.792, −0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = −0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.667, −0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid

  16. Pharmacokinetics of reduced iso-α-acids in volunteers following clear bottled beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-05-01

    Reduced iso-α-acids (reduced IAA) consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-IAA groups (RIAA, TIAA and HIAA, respectively) are ingredient congeners specific to beer and generally found in clear and also occasionally green bottled beer. Concentrations of reduced IAA were determined in the blood and urine of five volunteers over 6h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing each of the reduced IAA. The reduced IAA were absorbed and bioavailable with peak concentrations at 0.5h followed by a drop of generally fivefold by 2h. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small inter-individual differences and an estimated short half-life varying between ∼38 and 46min for the three groups. Comparison of RIAA analyte ratios within the group indicate that some analytes eliminate relatively faster than others and the formation of metabolite products was observed. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified RIAA analytes were detectable throughout 6h and suggests extensive phase I metabolism of TIAA and HIAA analytes. In authentic forensic casework where clear or green bottled beers are consumed, the identification of reduced IAA groups may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion and suggest the type of beer consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Friction reducing behavior of stearic acid film on a textured aluminum substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wan, Yong, E-mail: wanyong@qtech.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Li, Yang; Yang, Shuyan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Yao, Wenqing [Analysis Center of Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-09-01

    A simple two-step process was developed to render the aluminum hydrophobicity with lower friction. The textured aluminum substrate was firstly fabricated by immersed in a sodium hydroxide solution at 100 °C for 1 h. Stearic acid film was then deposited to acquire high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the morphological features, chemical structure and hydrophobicity of prepared samples, respectively. Moreover, the friction reducing behavior of the organic–inorganic composite film on aluminum sliding against steel was evaluated in a ball-on-plate configuration. It was found that the stearic acid film on the textured aluminum led to decreased friction with significantly extended life.

  18. Effect of Amine Adlayer on Electrochemical Uric Acid Sensor Conducted on Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sumi; Kim, Kyuwon [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The electrochemical biosensing efficiency of uric acid (UA) detection on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)-decorated electrode surface was studied by using various amine linkers used to immobilize ERGO. The amine linkers aminoethylphenyldiazonium , 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), 3-aminopro-pyltriethoxysilane, and polyethyleneimine were coated on indium-tin-oxide electrode surfaces through chemical or electrochemical deposition methods. ERGO-decorated surfaces were prepared by the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which was immobilized on the amine-coated electrode surfaces through the electrostatic interaction between GO and the ammonium ion of the linker on the surface. We monitored the sensing results of electrochemical UA detection with differential pulse voltammetry. The ERGO-modified surface presented electrocatalytic oxidation of UA and ascorbic acid. Among the different amines tested, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane provided the best biosensing performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility.

  19. Effect of Amine Adlayer on Electrochemical Uric Acid Sensor Conducted on Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sumi; Kim, Kyuwon

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical biosensing efficiency of uric acid (UA) detection on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)-decorated electrode surface was studied by using various amine linkers used to immobilize ERGO. The amine linkers aminoethylphenyldiazonium , 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), 3-aminopro-pyltriethoxysilane, and polyethyleneimine were coated on indium-tin-oxide electrode surfaces through chemical or electrochemical deposition methods. ERGO-decorated surfaces were prepared by the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which was immobilized on the amine-coated electrode surfaces through the electrostatic interaction between GO and the ammonium ion of the linker on the surface. We monitored the sensing results of electrochemical UA detection with differential pulse voltammetry. The ERGO-modified surface presented electrocatalytic oxidation of UA and ascorbic acid. Among the different amines tested, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane provided the best biosensing performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility.

  20. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions.

  1. Reducing Renal Uptake of {sup 177}Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soyoung; Lim, Jaecheong; Joh, Eunha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects.

  2. Reaction product of pyrogallol with methyl linoleate and its antioxidant potential for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, H.; Ainny, L.; Lukman; Susanto, B. H.; Nasikin, M.

    2018-03-01

    The demand of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is increasing due to fossil fuel depletion. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel in the form of fatty acid methyl ester or FAME as a result of an esterification of plant oils in a presence of catalyst. Compared to the conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel is more biodegradable, has higher lubricity, and lower toxic emissions. However, the high content of unsaturated fatty acid leads to a problem that biodiesel is prone to oxidation during storage period. This oxidation instability causes degradation of fuel quality and will affect engine performance. Pyrogallol and other phenolic derivatives have been used as the antioxidant additives to prevent biodiesel oxidation. As reported in many researches, pyrogallol is one of the best phenolic antioxidant. However, its low solubility in biodiesel needs an attention. Several reports indicate the increasing solubility of pyrogallol using molecule modification with the addition of alkyl groups to its benzene ring via electrophilic substitution. This paper discusses the idea about modification of pyrogallol molecule and methyl linoleate using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in order to increase its solubility in biodiesel while keeping its antioxidant property. Three responses were analyzed to examine the antioxidant activity: iodine value, viscosity, and color intensity. The result shown that the addition of 0.1% reaction product exhibit antioxidant activity in biodiesel.

  3. Boric acid reduces axonal and myelin damage in experimental sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir Kizilay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid in experimental acute sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7: control (C, boric acid (BA, sciatic nerve injury (I , and sciatic nerve injury + boric acid treatment (BAI. Sciatic nerve injury was generated using a Yasargil aneurysm clip in the groups I and BAI. Boric acid was given four times at 100 mg/kg to rats in the groups BA and BAI after injury (by gavage at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours but no injury was made in the group BA. In vivo electrophysiological tests were performed at the end of the day 4 and sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. The amplitude of compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly lower and the myelin structure was found to be broken in group I compared with those in groups C and BA. However, the amplitude of the compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly greater in group BAI than in group I. Moreover, myelin injury was significantly milder and the intensity of nuclear factor kappa B immunostaining was significantly weaker in group BAI than in group I. The results of this study show that administration of boric acid at 100 mg/kg after sciatic nerve injury in rats markedly reduces myelin and axonal injury and improves the electrophysiological function of injured sciatic nerve possibly through alleviating oxidative stress reactions.

  4. The relationship between fatty acid compositions and thermal stability of extra virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayegh Moulodi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty acids are one of the most important compounds in edible oils. Further, the stability of oils depends on the composition of fatty acids. So, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition on the oxidative stability of extra virgin olive oils during the heating process. Methods: In total, eight samples of extra virgin olive oil were studied. To evaluate their thermal stability, the oils were heated at 120 ° C for 4 h and sampling was carried out in 2-hour intervals. Then, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, anisidine value and totox value were evaluated according to Iranian national standards. Results: Results showed a significantly direct correlation between Palmitoleic acid and Totox index in the second (r=0.786 and fourth hours (r=0.762, and between linoleic and Totox index in the second (r=0.643 and fourth hours (r=0.786. However, there was a significantly inverse relationship between oleic acid and Totox index in the fourth hour (r=-0.833. Conclusion: Result indicated that linoleic and Palmitoleic acids had a reducing effect on thermal stability of extra virgin olive oil after the second hour. But, Oleic acid caused a positive effect on thermal stability after the fourth hour. Thus, it is concluded that unsaturated fatty acids especially oleic acid affect the thermal stability at final hours.

  5. Lithium-storage Properties of Gallic Acid-Reduced Graphene Oxide and Silicon-Graphene Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Binghui; Zhang, Jintao; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Zhi; Al Abdulla, Wael; Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Zhao, X.S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was de-oxygenated using gallic acid under mild conditions to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The resultant RGO showed a lithium-ion storage capacity of 1280 mA h g −1 at a current density of 200 mA g −1 after 350 cycles when used as an anode for lithium ion batteries. The RGO was further used to stabilize silicon (Si) nanoparticles to prepare silicon-graphene composite electrode materials. Experimental results showed that a composite electrode prepared with a mass ratio of Si:GO = 1:2 exhibited the best lithium ion storage performance.

  6. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Wen-yuan; Ye, Fang; Yang, Jun-lin

    2016-04-27

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery usually require prolonged operative times with extensive soft tissue dissection and significant perioperative blood loss, and allogeneic blood products are frequently needed. Methods to reduce the requirement for transfusion would have a beneficial effect on these patients. Although many previous studies have revealed the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) in spinal surgery, there is still a lack of agreement concerning the reduction of both blood loss and transfusion requirements of large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The objective of this study was to elevate the efficacy and safety of a large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing transfusion requirements of allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery using a retrospective study designed with historical control group. One hundred thirty seven consecutive AIS patients who underwent surgery treatment with posterior spinal pedicle systems from August 2011 to March 2015 in our scoliosis center were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups, the TXA group and the historical recruited no TXA group (NTXA). Preoperative demographics, radiographic parameters, operative parameters, estimated blood loss (EBL), total irrigation fluid, number of patients requiring blood transfusion, mean drop of Hb (Pre-op Hb-Post-op Hb), haematocrit pre and post-surgery, mean volume of blood transfusion, hospitalization time, and adverse effect were recorded and compared. All the patients were successfully treated with satisfied clinical and radiographic outcomes. There were 71 patients in the TXA group and 66 patients in the NTXA group. The preoperative demographics were homogeneity between two groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant difference in average operative time between two groups (209 min vs 215 min, p >0.05). Number of patients in the TXA group showed a significant decrease in

  7. Effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Supoken, Amornrat; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake

    2016-01-23

    Ovarian cancer is the third most common gynaecological cancer worldwide, with an age-standardised incidence rate of 6.1 per 10,000 women. Standard therapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) includes a combination of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Cytoreductive surgery aims to remove as much of the visible tumour as possible. As extensive intraperitoneal metastases are typical of advanced EOC, cytoreductive surgery is usually an extensive procedure with the risk of excessive bleeding. Tranexamic acid given perioperatively is effective in reducing blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion requirements in a variety of surgical settings. Therefore, tranexamic acid seems to be a promising agent for minimising blood loss and the need for blood transfusion among women with advanced EOC undergoing cytoreductive surgery. To assess the effects of tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss associated with cytoreductive surgery in women with advanced EOC (stage III to IV). We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological, Neuro-oncology and Orphan Cancers Trial Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE, EMBASE and conference proceedings to May 2015. We also checked registers of clinical trials, citation lists of included studies, key textbooks and previous systematic reviews for potentially relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tranexamic acid given during surgery versus placebo or no treatment, in adult women diagnosed with advanced EOC. Two review authors (CK, AS) independently selected potentially relevant trials, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, compared results and resolved disagreements by discussion. We found only one study that met our inclusion criteria. This was a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of intravenous tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg body weight) versus

  8. Supplementation with Abscisic Acid Reduces Malaria Disease Severity and Parasite Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Elizabeth K. K.; Adams, L. Garry; Hicks, Derrick R.; Dehesh, Katayoon; Luckhart, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of the world's population is at risk for malaria. Increasing drug resistance has intensified the need for novel therapeutics, including treatments with intrinsic transmission-blocking properties. In this study, we demonstrate that the isoprenoid abscisic acid (ABA) modulates signaling in the mammalian host to reduce parasitemia and the formation of transmissible gametocytes and in the mosquito host to reduce parasite infection. Oral ABA supplementation in a mouse model of malaria was well tolerated and led to reduced pathology and enhanced gene expression in the liver and spleen consistent with infection recovery. Oral ABA supplementation also increased mouse plasma ABA to levels that can signal in the mosquito midgut upon blood ingestion. Accordingly, we showed that supplementation of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood meal with ABA increased expression of mosquito nitric oxide synthase and reduced infection prevalence in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. Identification of the mechanisms whereby ABA reduces parasite growth in mammals and mosquitoes could shed light on the balance of immunity and metabolism across eukaryotes and provide a strong foundation for clinical translation. PMID:27001761

  9. Chenodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Protein and Its Target Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwon Moon

    Full Text Available This study evaluated HIF-1α inhibitors under different hypoxic conditions, physiological hypoxia (5% O2 and severe hypoxia (0.1% O2. We found that chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein only under physiological hypoxia but not under severe hypoxia without decreasing its mRNA level. By using a proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a translation inhibitor cyclohexamide, we showed that CDCA reduced HIF-1α protein by decreasing its translation but not by enhancing its degradation. The following findings indicated that farnesoid X receptor (FXR, a CDCA receptor and its target gene, Small heterodimer partner (SHP are not involved in this effect of CDCA. Distinctly from CDCA, MG132 prevented SHP and an exogenous FXR agonist, GW4064 from reducing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore a FXR antagonist, guggulsterone failed to prevent CDCA from decreasing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, guggulsterone by itself reduced HIF-1α protein even in the presence of MG132. These findings suggested that CDCA and guggulsterone reduced the translation of HIF-1α in a mechanism which FXR and SHP are not involved. This study reveals novel therapeutic functions of traditional nontoxic drugs, CDCA and guggulsterone, as inhibitors of HIF-1α protein.

  10. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple.

  11. Importance of different physiological groups of iron reducing microorganisms in an acidic mining lake remediation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, Katharina; Meier, Jutta; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Wendt-Potthoff, Katrin

    2009-05-01

    Iron- and sulfate-reducing microorganisms play an important role for alkalinity-generating processes in mining lakes with low pH. In the acidic mining lake 111 in Lusatia, Germany, a passive in situ remediation method was tested in a large scale experiment, in which microbial iron and sulfate reduction are stimulated by addition of Carbokalk (a mixture of the nonsugar compounds of sugar beets and lime) and straw. The treated surface sediment consisted of three layers of different pH and geochemical composition. The top layer was acidic and rich in Fe(III), the second and third layer both showed moderately acidic to circum-neutral pH values, but only the second was rich in organics, strongly reduced and sulfidic. Aim of the study was to elucidate the relative importance of neutrophilic heterotrophic, acidophilic heterotrophic, and acidophilic autotrophic iron-reducing microorganisms in each of the three layers. In order to distinguish between them, the effect of their respective characteristic electron donors acetate, glucose, and elemental sulfur on potential iron reduction rates was investigated. Limitation of iron reduction by the availability of Fe(III) was revealed by the addition of Fe(OH)(3). The three groups of iron-reducing microorganisms were quantified by most probable number (MPN) technique and their community composition was analyzed by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. In the acidic surface layer, none of the three electron donors stimulated iron reduction; acetate even had an inhibiting effect. In agreement with this, no decrease of the added electron donors was observed. Iron reduction rates were low in comparison to the other layers. Iron reduction in layers 2 and 3 was enhanced by glucose and acetate, accompanied by a decrease of these electron donors. Addition of elemental sulfur did not enhance iron reduction in either layer. Layer 2 exhibited the highest iron reduction rate (4.08 mmol dm(-3) d(-1)) and the highest cell numbers in MPN

  12. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer: An Asian population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-12-01

    Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated.The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group.Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD.

  13. Reduced Gut Acidity Induces an Obese-Like Phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster and in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Sheng Lin

    Full Text Available In order to identify genes involved in stress and metabolic regulation, we carried out a Drosophila P-element-mediated mutagenesis screen for starvation resistance. We isolated a mutant, m2, that showed a 23% increase in survival time under starvation conditions. The P-element insertion was mapped to the region upstream of the vha16-1 gene, which encodes the c subunit of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase. We found that vha16-1 is highly expressed in the fly midgut, and that m2 mutant flies are hypomorphic for vha16-1 and also exhibit reduced midgut acidity. This deficit is likely to induce altered metabolism and contribute to accelerated aging, since vha16-1 mutant flies are short-lived and display increases in body weight and lipid accumulation. Similar phenotypes were also induced by pharmacological treatment, through feeding normal flies and mice with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide or proton pump inhibitor (PPI, lansoprazole to suppress gut acid production. Our study may thus provide a useful model for investigating chronic acid suppression in patients.

  14. Reduced Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants by Bactericidal Peroxyacetic Acid Mixture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacetic acid mixture Perosan, composed of peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid, was evaluated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt by Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum. Perosan drastically suppressed in vitro growth of R. pseudosolanacearum in liquid cultures in dose- and incubation time-dependent manners. Higher perosan doses (0.1 and 1% caused lowered pH and phytotoxicity to detached leaves of two tomato cultivars Cupirang and Benekia 220 in aqueous solution. Treatment with 0.01% of Perosan delayed wilting symptom significantly in the detached leaves of two cultivars inoculated with R. pseudosolanacearum (10⁷ cfu/ml. Soil drenching of 5% Perosan solution in pots caused severe tissue collapse of tomato seedlings at the four-week-old stage of two tomato cultivars. Treatment with 1% Perosan by soil-drenching significantly reduced bacterial wilt in the tomato seedlings of two cultivars. These findings suggest that Perosan treatment can be applied to suppress bacterial wilt during tomato production.

  15. The role of urban forest to reduce rain acid in urban industrial areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, B.; Agustiarni, Y.; Hidayati; Basyuni, M.

    2018-03-01

    Urban forest has many functions mainly on improving the quality of the urban environment. One of the functions is to increase pH and reduce dangerous chemical content. The aim of the research is to find out the role of vegetation density of urban forest around the industrial area in reducing the acid rain. The condition of land cover was classified into four classes which are dense, medium, sparse and open area. The water of the throughfall and stemflow was taken from each type of land cover except in the open area. Parameters measured in this study are water acidity (pH), anion content (SO4 2- and NO3 -), cation content (Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4 +) and electrical conductivity (EC). The results indicated that urban forest vegetation was able to increase the pH of rain water from 5.42 which is in an open area without vegetation to be 7.13 and 7.32 in dense and moderate vegetation cover by throughfall mechanism, respectively. Rain water acidity also decreased through stemflow mechanism with a pH ranged from 5.92 - 6.43. Urban forest vegetation decreased sulfate content (SO42-) from 528.67 mg/l in open area to 44 - 118 mg/l by throughfall mechanism and ranged from 90 to 366.67 mg/l through stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation significantly decreased the rainwater nitrate content from 27 mg/l to 0.03 - 0.70 mg/l through the mechanism of throughfall and between 1.53 - 8.82 mg/l through the stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation also increased the concentration of cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) compared with open areas. Urban forest vegetation showed increased the electrical conductivity (EC) from 208.12 μmhos/cm to 344.67 - 902.17 μmhos/cm through the through fall mechanism and 937.67 - 1058.70 μmhos/cm through the stemflow mechanism. The study suggested that urban forests play a significant role in reducing rainwater acidity and improving the quality of rainwater that reached the soil surface.

  16. BASE COMPOSITION OF THE DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGAL, N; SENEZ, J C; LEGALL, J; SEBALD, M

    1963-06-01

    Sigal, Nicole (Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne du CNRS, Marseille, France), Jacques C. Senez, Jean Le Gall, and Madeleine Sebald. Base composition of the deoxyribonucleic acid of sulfate-reducing bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 85:1315-1318. 1963-The deoxyribonucleic acid constitution of several strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been analytically determined. The results of these studies show that this group of microorganisms includes at least four subgroups characterized by significantly different values of the adenine plus thymine to guanine plus cytosine ratio. The nonsporulated forms with polar flagellation, containing both cytochrome c(3) and desulfoviridin, are divided into two subgroups. One includes the fresh-water, nonhalophilic strains with base ratio from 0.54 to 0.59, and the other includes the halophilic or halotolerant strains with base ratio from 0.74 to 0.77. The sporulated, peritrichous strains without cytochrome and desulfoviridin ("nigrificans" and "orientis") are distinct from the above two types and differ from each other, having base ratios of 1.20 and 1.43, respectively.

  17. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. New food approaches to reduce and/or eliminate increased gastric acidity related to gastroesophageal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Ciro; Naviglio, Daniele; Marino, Marina; Calogero, Armando; Gallo, Monica

    2018-03-22

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is very common in industrialized countries and rapidly and significantly increasing even in developing countries. The approach in this study is one not commonly found to date in the scientific literature. To assess the ability of reduced-carbohydrate diets and foods that are enriched with acid potential of hydrogen (pH; lemon and tomato) to quickly and exponentially reduce symptoms that are related to conditions such as gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux and unrelated to Helicobacter pylori. After the administration of an anamnestic test, 130 patients were selected including 73 women and 57 men, 21 to 67 y, and with a gastritis diagnosis for 92 patients (56 women, 36 men) and reflux gastritis for 38 patients (17 women, 21 men). Study participants followed three dietary treatments in succession. Each treatment lasted 2 wk and treatments were separated by 2 wk of washout. The patients followed a diet that consisted primarily of proteins and fats and included the exponential reduction of glycides (simple and complex). In addition, the treatment provided for the daily intake of the juice of two lemons and approximately 100 g of fresh orange tomato without seeds eaten either raw or cooked and peeled. During treatment and at the end of 2 wk of treatment, the patients reported significant improvements including an almost total disappearance of symptoms that were related to the disease in question. This study shows that a carbohydrate-free diet and/or highly hypoglycidal diet that is enriched with acid pH foods appears to lead to a decrease in the pH of the gastric contents, thus inhibiting the further production of hydrochloric acid with a reduction or disappearance of heartburn symptoms that are typical of gastroesophageal diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Melatonin reduces the expression of chemokines in rat with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun H.; Zhou, W.; Liu, K.; Li, Hong X.; Wang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the colon inflammatory injury of rats with colitis and determine whether this effect is associated with inhibition of chemoattractant molecules interleukins (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1.The study was designed and implemented in JingMen No.1 People's Hospital, HuBei Province, from May 2006 to April 2007. It involved 72 animals divided into 6 groups of 12 each: normal group, model group, 5-aminosalisalicylic acid group, and melatonin group (dose of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg). Rat colitis model was established by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. Interleukin-8 and MCP-1 proteins in colon tissue were examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The messenger-RNA expressions of chemokines were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid enema resulted in pronounced pathological changes of colonic mucosa in model rats, which were in accordance with the significantly elevated Myeloperoxidase activity. Expressions of chemokines were up-regulated in colitis. Melatonin treatment reduced colonic lesions and improved colitis symptom, and decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of IL-8 and MCP-1 significantly in colon tissues of rats with colitis. Chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 are elevated in mucosal tissues in colitis and play an important role in the perpetuation of tissue destructive inflammatory process; melatonin reduces colonic inflammatory injury of rats colitis through down-regulating the expressions of chemokines. Melatonin can be considered as a novel therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (author)

  20. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  1. Role of ascorbic acid supplement in reducing oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in lead intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Y.; Hussain, M.M.; Aleem, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to measure the oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in lead intoxicated sprague dawley rats with and without supplementation of ascorbic acid. Study Design: Randomized Control Trial. Place of Study: Physiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi. (From Oct 2007 to Sep 2008) Material and Methods: One hundred and five male rats (age, 90-120 days; weight 200 - 250 gm) were divided into three groups each having 35 rats. Rats of group 1 and group 2 were given weekly injections of sodium acetate (10 mg /kg body weight) and lead acetate (10 mg /kg body weight) respectively, whereas rats of group 3 were administered lead acetate(10 mg /kg body weight) through weekly injections and ascorbic acid in drinking water (500 mg/l). After 6 weeks, 4 ml of blood was drawn from each rat by cardiac puncture. The blood was allowed to clot and serum was separated for estimation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels on spectrophotometer; and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels on Merck Micorlab 200. Results: Lead intoxication of rats revealed that serum MDA levels were raised to 7.8 +- 0.48 micro mol/l (control, 3.2 +-0.39 micro mol/l), ALT levels to 76.26 +- 5.88 IU/l (control, 44.1 +- 3.26) and AST levels to 258.06 +- 13.30 IU/l (control, 156.2 +- 4.97). Ascorbic acid supplementation significantly lowered serum MDA levels (3.8 +- 0.34 micro mol/l), ALT levels (52.26 +-4.57 IU/l) and AST levels (188.13 +- 12.91 IU/l). Conclusion: Ascorbic acid supplementation ameliorates lead intoxication probably by reducing the oxidative stress, thus preventing the development of hepatotoxicity, but this amelioration is not equal to the control. (author)

  2. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  3. Role of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Vaginal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priyankur; Sujatha, M S; Bhandiwad, Ambarisha; Biswas, Bivas

    2016-10-01

    Anti-fibrinolytic agents are used to reduce obstetric blood loss as the fibrinolytic system is known to get activated after placental delivery. To evaluate the efficacy of parenteral tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during normal labour and to compare it with the amount of blood loss in patients who received placebo in the third stage of labour. Patients with spontaneous labour or planned for induction of labour and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. In each patient, the pre-delivery pulse rate, blood pressure, Hb gm% and PCV% were noted. Labour was monitored carefully using a partogram. The study group received Inj. Oxytocin and Inj. Tranexamic acid. The control group received Inj. Oxytocin and Placebo injection. Immediately after delivery of the baby, when all the liquor was drained, the patient was placed over a blood drape-a disposable conical, graduated plastic collection bag. The amount of blood collected in the blood drape was measured. Then the patient was given pre-weighed pads, which were weighed 2 h post-partum. The blood loss was measured by measuring the blood collected in the drape and by weighing the swabs before and after delivery. The total number of patients studied was 100-equally distributed in both the groups. The age group of the patients and BMI were comparable. There was a significant increase in the pulse rate and decrease in blood pressure in the control group as compared with the study group. The post-delivery haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in the control group as compared to the study group. The mean blood loss at the end of 2 h was 105 ml in the study group and 252 ml in the control group. There was a significant increase in the usage of uterotonics and also in the need for blood transfusion in the control group; 12 % of the patients in the control group had to stay for more than 3 days compared to 2 % in the study group. Tranexamic acid injection, an antifibrinolytic

  4. The Application of Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria for the Heavy Metals Elimination from Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Luptáková

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems affecting mining companies around the world is the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD. AMD is characterised by its high acidity, high concentration of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd,… and high concentration of dissolved sulphates. The techniques traditionally used for the treatment of AMD have been based on chemical methods of neutralization and precipitation. A possible alternative to the chemical treatment of AMD is bioremediation using anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. The treatment of AMD by SRB is based on the ability of SRB to reduce sulphates to hydrogen sulphide, which binds readily with metals to form sparingly soluble precipitates. In this study we have attempted to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic biotreatment of the copper contaminated model solution and a real effluent AMD from the shaft Pech (the locality Smolnik using SRB. This method involves three stages: The H2S production by sulphate-reducing bacteria, the metals precipitation by the biologically produced H2S and the metal sulphides filtration. The studies confirm that copper was effectively recovered from the solution using bacterial produced H2S. An initial copper concentration 10 mg.l-1 was decreased to less than 0.05 mg.l-1 after 3 hours. The most adequate pH value for cooper precipitation was 2.5. Results of the copper precipitation from the areal effluent indicates that the optimal pH value for the copper precipitation is 3.5, but the created precipitates contain a mixture of copper and iron sulphides.

  5. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  6. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogue, Alexandra; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore; Umbdenstock, Thierry; Claude, Nancy; Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J.; Guillouzo, André

    2014-01-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  7. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogue, Alexandra [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Umbdenstock, Thierry [Technologie Servier, Orléans (France); Claude, Nancy [Institut de Recherches Servier, Courbevoie (France); Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J. [Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Guillouzo, André, E-mail: Andre.Guillouzo@univ-rennes1.fr [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  8. A MapReduce approach to diminish imbalance parameters for big deoxyribonucleic acid dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Sarwar; Ripon, Shamim Hasnat; Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Santhi, V

    2016-07-01

    In the age of information superhighway, big data play a significant role in information processing, extractions, retrieving and management. In computational biology, the continuous challenge is to manage the biological data. Data mining techniques are sometimes imperfect for new space and time requirements. Thus, it is critical to process massive amounts of data to retrieve knowledge. The existing software and automated tools to handle big data sets are not sufficient. As a result, an expandable mining technique that enfolds the large storage and processing capability of distributed or parallel processing platforms is essential. In this analysis, a contemporary distributed clustering methodology for imbalance data reduction using k-nearest neighbor (K-NN) classification approach has been introduced. The pivotal objective of this work is to illustrate real training data sets with reduced amount of elements or instances. These reduced amounts of data sets will ensure faster data classification and standard storage management with less sensitivity. However, general data reduction methods cannot manage very big data sets. To minimize these difficulties, a MapReduce-oriented framework is designed using various clusters of automated contents, comprising multiple algorithmic approaches. To test the proposed approach, a real DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) dataset that consists of 90 million pairs has been used. The proposed model reduces the imbalance data sets from large-scale data sets without loss of its accuracy. The obtained results depict that MapReduce based K-NN classifier provided accurate results for big data of DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty acids bind tightly to the N-terminal domain of angiopoietin-like protein 4 and modulate its interaction with lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robal, Terje; Larsson, Mikael; Martin, Miina; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Lookene, Aivar

    2012-08-24

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4), a potent regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism, binds to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) through its N-terminal coiled-coil domain (ccd-Angptl4) inducing dissociation of the dimeric enzyme to inactive monomers. In this study, we demonstrate that fatty acids reduce the inactivation of LPL by Angptl4. This was the case both with ccd-Angptl4 and full-length Angptl4, and the effect was seen in human plasma or in the presence of albumin. The effect decreased in the sequence oleic acid > palmitic acid > myristic acid > linoleic acid > linolenic acid. Surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence, and chromatography measurements revealed that fatty acids bind with high affinity to ccd-Angptl4. The interactions were characterized by fast association and slow dissociation rates, indicating formation of stable complexes. The highest affinity for ccd-Angptl4 was detected for oleic acid with a subnanomolar equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)). The K(d) values for palmitic and myristic acid were in the nanomolar range. Linoleic and linolenic acid bound with much lower affinity. On binding of fatty acids, ccd-Angptl4 underwent conformational changes resulting in a decreased helical content, weakened structural stability, dissociation of oligomers, and altered fluorescence properties of the Trp-38 residue that is located close to the putative LPL-binding region. Based on these results, we propose that fatty acids play an important role in modulating the effects of Angptl4.

  10. DOES INTRAVENOUS TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS DURING SURGICALLY ASSISTED RAPID PALATAL EXPANSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine AKBAŞ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA in reducing blood loss during surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE procedure. Subjects and Methods: A total of 34 patients (12 male, 22 female who had been treated surgically under general anesthesia with SARPE including pterygoid disjunction for transverse maxillary deficiency (TMD were included in this study. The study group (n=17 received intravenous (IV TXA 10 mg/kg as a preoperative bolus; the control group (n=17 received normal saline solution. Preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit values, intraoperative blood loss, and any blood product transfusion were recorded. Results: Blood loss during SARPE was statistically significantly less in the study group than the control group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Preoperative IV administration of TXA can effectively control blood loss during when SARPE with pterygoid disjunction is performed.

  11. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined alkali and acid pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for reducing sugar and biofertilizer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ji; Liu, Jia-Heng; Sun, Li-Fan; Hu, Zong-Fu; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pretreated with alkaline reagents including potassium hydroxide, lime and ammonia to enhance enzymatic saccharification. Under the best pretreatment conditions (1M KOH, 80 °C, 90 min; 1M lime, 80 °C, 120 min; 10 M ammonia, 70 °C, 120 min), the total reducing sugar (TRS) yield reached 258.6, 204.2 and 251.2 mg/g raw SMS, which were respectively 6.15, 4.86, and 5.98 times of untreated SMS. The effects of pretreatment by above alkaline reagents and sulfuric acid on the composition and structure of SMS were evaluated to provide comparative performance data. A new process, combined alkali and acid (CAA) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, was innovatively proposed to improve the cost-effectiveness and avoid environmental problems. The SMS residue after CAA pretreatment-enzymatic hydrolysis process was converted to biofertilizer with Pichia farinose FL7 and a cell density of 3.0×10(8) cfu/g in biomass was attained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chir99021 and Valproic acid reduce the proliferative advantage of Apc mutant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlands, Alistair J; Carroll, Thomas D; Chen, Yu; Näthke, Inke

    2018-02-15

    More than 90% of colorectal cancers carry mutations in Apc that drive tumourigenesis. A 'just-right' signalling model proposes that Apc mutations stimulate optimal, but not excessive Wnt signalling, resulting in a growth advantage of Apc mutant over wild-type cells. Reversal of this growth advantage constitutes a potential therapeutic approach. We utilised intestinal organoids to compare the growth of Apc mutant and wild-type cells. Organoids derived from Apc Min/+ mice recapitulate stages of intestinal polyposis in culture. They eventually form spherical cysts that reflect the competitive growth advantage of cells that have undergone loss of heterozygosity (LOH). We discovered that this emergence of cysts was inhibited by Chiron99021 and Valproic acid, which potentiates Wnt signalling. Chiron99021 and Valproic acid restrict the growth advantage of Apc mutant cells while stimulating that of wild-type cells, suggesting that excessive Wnt signalling reduces the relative fitness of Apc mutant cells. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated that Chiron99021-treated Apc mutant organoids were rendered susceptible to TSA-induced apoptosis, while wild-type cells were protected.

  14. Fodder shrubs and fatty acids: strategies to reduce enteric methane production in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonardo Cardona-Iglesias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the use of fodder shrubs and polyunsaturated fatty acids as a nutritional strategy to mitigate enteric methane production in cattle. Special emphasis was made on the use of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray (Mexican sun ower, as a species with antimethanogenic potential. Bibliographic information for this review was obtained between July and September 2015 by using key words. Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG, the increase of its atmospheric concentration is caused mainly by emissions from agriculture and industry, but it is also estimated that a proportion of methane is emitted by ruminants as a product of enteric and anaerobic fermentation of diet. This causes an environmental and productive problem in livestock production systems worldwide. Although there is controversy about the real contribution of methane by ruminants and its impact on environmental issues, the amount of emissions should try to be reduced.This document emphasizes the search for nutritional strategies such as supplementation with forage shrubs and sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have shown potential to maintain animal production ef ciency and decrease enteric methane synthesis.

  15. Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Juliann C; Welsby, Ian J; Green, Cynthia L; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Wellman, Samuel S

    2018-01-01

    Total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) are associated with significant blood loss and some patients require postoperative blood transfusion. While tranexamic acid has been studied extensively among this population, we tested the hypothesis that epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) can reduce blood loss and transfusion after joint arthroplasty. In April 2014, our Veterans Affairs Medical Center introduced a protocol to administer EACA during THA and TKA. No antifibrinolytics were used previously. We retrospectively compared blood loss and incidence of transfusion among patients who underwent primary arthroplasty in the year before standardized administration of EACA with patients having the same procedures the following year. Blood loss was measured as delta hemoglobin (preoperative hemoglobin - hemoglobin on postoperative day 1). All patients undergoing primary THA or TKA were included. Patients having revision surgery were excluded. We identified 185 primary arthroplasty patients from the year before and 184 from the year after introducing the EACA protocol. There were no changes in surgical technique or attending surgeons during this period. Delta hemoglobin was significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared to the control group (3.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL) (P blood transfusion was also significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7%) compared to the control group (25.4%) (P transfusion following introduction of the EACA protocol in patients undergoing primary arthroplasty. EACA offers a lower cost alternative to TXA for reducing blood loss and transfusion in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefang; Xu, Qingxian; Zheng, Yi; Qian, Lei; Lin, Bin

    To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v) in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5) for 2h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0) for 3h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Guan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. Methods The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. Results The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940 and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 for 2 h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0 for 3 h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24 h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. Conclusion These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health.

  18. Hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea by priming defence responses and reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finiti, Ivan; de la O Leyva, María; Vicedo, Begonya; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; López-Cruz, Jaime; García-Agustín, Pilar; Real, Maria Dolores; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the resistance priming inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) protects tomato plants from Botrytis cinerea by activating defence responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR), we compared the expression profiles of three different conditions: Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), Hx-treated plants (Hx) and Hx-treated + infected plants (Hx+Inf). The microarray analysis at 24 h post-inoculation showed that Hx and Hx+Inf plants exhibited the differential expression and priming of many Botrytis-induced genes. Interestingly, we found that the activation by Hx of other genes was not altered by the fungus at this time point. These genes may be considered to be specific targets of the Hx priming effect and may help to elucidate its mechanisms of action. It is noteworthy that, in Hx and Hx+Inf plants, there was up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor genes, DNA-binding factors, enzymes involved in plant hormone signalling and synthesis, and, remarkably, the genes involved in oxidative stress. Given the relevance of the oxidative burst occurring in plant-pathogen interactions, the effect of Hx on this process was studied in depth. We showed by specific staining that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Hx+Inf plants was reduced and more restricted around infection sites. In addition, these plants showed higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and ascorbate, and normal levels of antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that Hx protects tomato plants from B. cinerea by regulating and priming Botrytis-specific and non-specific genes, preventing the harmful effects of oxidative stress produced by infection. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Inhibiting mitochondrial β-oxidation selectively reduces levels of nonenzymatic oxidative polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Masoodi, Mojgan; Bazinet, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    Schönfeld and Reiser recently hypothesized that fatty acid β-oxidation is a source of oxidative stress in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we inhibited brain mitochondrial β-oxidation with methyl palmoxirate (MEP) and measured oxidative polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites in the rat brain. Upon MEP treatment, levels of several nonenzymatic auto-oxidative PUFA metabolites were reduced with few effects on enzymatically derived metabolites. Our finding confirms the hypothesis that reduced fatty acid β-oxidation decreases oxidative stress in the brain and β-oxidation inhibitors may be a novel therapeutic approach for brain disorders associated with oxidative stress.

  20. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  1. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Morselli, Eugenia; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD) for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

  2. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa...

  3. Suitable Concentrations of Uric Acid Can Reduce Cell Death in Models of OGD and Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Ning; Lin, Shao-Peng; Zhang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Cerebral infarction (CI) is a common clinical cerebrovascular disease, and to explore the pathophysiological mechanisms and seek effective treatment means are the hotspot and difficult point in medical research nowadays. Numerous studies have confirmed that uric acid plays an important role in CI, but the mechanism has not yet been clarified. When treating HT22 and BV-2 cells with different concentrations of uric acid, uric acid below 450 μM does not have significant effect on cell viability, but uric acid more than 500 μM can significantly inhibit cell viability. After establishing models of OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation) with HT22 and BV-2 cells, uric acid at a low concentration (50 μM) cannot improve cell viability and apoptosis, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during OGD/reoxygenation; a suitable concentration (300 μM) of uric acid can significantly improve cell viability and apoptosis, and reduce ROS production during OGD/reoxygenation; but a high concentration (1000 μM) of uric acid can further reduce cell viability and enhance ROS production. After establishing middle cerebral artery occlusion of male rats with suture method, damage and increase of ROS production in brain tissue could be seen, and after adding suitable concentration of uric acid, the degree of brain damage and ROS production was reduced. Therefore, different concentrations of uric acid should have different effect, and suitable concentrations of uric acid have neuroprotective effect, and this finding may provide guidance for study on the clinical curative effect of uric acid.

  4. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of chlorogenic acid on reducing the virulence factor production by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Qiao, Mingyu; Guo, Yan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Yunfeng; Xia, Xiaodong

    2014-09-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CA) has been reported to inhibit several pathogens, but the influence of subinhibitory concentrations of CA on virulence expression of pathogens has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of CA on the virulence factor production of Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CA against S. aureus was determined using a broth microdilution method. Hemolysin assays, coagulase titer assays, adherence to solid-phase fibrinogen assays, Western blot, and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of CA on the virulence factors of S. aureus. MIC of CA against S. aureus ATCC29213 was found to be 2.56 mg/mL. At subinhibitory concentrations, CA significantly inhibited the hemolysis and dose-dependently decreased coagulase titer. Reduced binding to fibrinogen and decreased production of SEA were observed with treatment of CA at concentrations ranging from 1/16MIC to 1/2MIC. CA markedly inhibited the expression of hla, sea, and agr genes in S. aureus. These data demonstrate that the virulence expression of S. aureus could be reduced by CA and suggest that CA could be potentially developed as a supplemental strategy to control S. aureus infection and to prevent staphylococcal food poisoning.

  5. Exogenous and endogenous hyaluronic acid reduces HIV infection of CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peilin; Fujimoto, Katsuya; Bourguingnon, Lilly; Yukl, Steven; Deeks, Steven; Wong, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    Preventing mucosal transmission of HIV is critical to halting the HIV epidemic. Novel approaches to preventing mucosal transmission are needed. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major extracellular component of mucosa and the primary ligand for the cell surface receptor CD44. CD44 enhances HIV infection of CD4+ T cells, but the role of HA in this process is not clear. To study this, virions were generated with CD44 (HIVCD44) or without CD44 (HIVmock). Exogenous HA reduced HIV infection of unstimulated CD4+ T cells in a CD44-dependent manner. Conversely, hyaluronidase-mediated reduction of endogenous HA on the cell surface enhanced HIV binding to and infection of unstimulated CD4+ T cells. Exogenous HA treatment reduced activation of protein kinase C alpha via CD44 on CD4+ T cells during infection with HIVCD44. These results reveal new roles for HA during the interaction of HIV with CD4+ T cells that may be relevant to mucosal HIV transmission and could be exploitable as a future strategy to prevent HIV infection. PMID:24957217

  6. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  7. Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Its Taurine- or Glycine-Conjugated Species Reduce Colitogenic Dysbiosis and Equally Suppress Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Lien; Hindryckx, Pieter; Devisscher, Lindsey; Devriese, Sarah; Van Welden, Sophie; Holvoet, Tom; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby

    2017-04-01

    The promising results seen in studies of secondary bile acids in experimental colitis suggest that they may represent an attractive and safe class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact mechanism by which bile acid therapy confers protection from colitogenesis is currently unknown. Since the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and exogenous bile acid administration may affect the community structure of the microbiota, we examined the impact of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine or glycine conjugates on the fecal microbial community structure during experimental colitis. Daily oral administration of UDCA, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), or glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) equally lowered the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice, as evidenced by reduced body weight loss, colonic shortening, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Illumina sequencing demonstrated that bile acid therapy during colitis did not restore fecal bacterial richness and diversity. However, bile acid therapy normalized the colitis-associated increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes Interestingly, administration of bile acids prevented the loss of Clostridium cluster XIVa and increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila , bacterial species known to be particularly decreased in IBD patients. We conclude that UDCA, which is an FDA-approved drug for cholestatic liver disorders, could be an attractive treatment option to reduce dysbiosis and ameliorate inflammation in human IBD. IMPORTANCE Secondary bile acids are emerging as attractive candidates for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Although bile acids may affect the intestinal microbial community structure, which significantly contributes to the course of these inflammatory disorders, the impact of bile acid therapy on the fecal microbiota during colitis has not yet been considered. Here, we

  8. Tranexamic acid administration to older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty conserves hemoglobin and reduces blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Beheiry, Hossam; Lubberdink, Ashley; Clements, Nigel; Dihllon, Kiran; Sharma, Vicky

    2018-06-01

    Tranexamic acid effects in older people are difficult to predict. This study investigated the following research questions: 1) Is tranexamic acid effective in older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA)? and 2) Is there a difference in the effect of tranexamic acid between younger and older patients? This was a 2-phase retrospective matched-pair study of patients who underwent THA in 2007-2013. All procedures were performed by surgeons with at least 10 years' experience as senior consultant. In the first phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients who did not receive tranexamic acid for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and body mass index. In the second phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients less than 65 years of age who received tranexamic acid for sex, ASA classification and body mass index. The primary outcome measures were percent maximum decrease in hemoglobin level and estimated blood loss after surgery. In the first phase, patients who received tranexamic acid conserved postoperative hemoglobin by a mean of 10.26 g/L (standard deviation [SD] 9.89 g/L) compared to the control group ( p Tranexamic acid reduced the postoperative decrease in hemoglobin level and blood loss in older patients. Moreover, the significant hemoglobin-sparing effect of tranexamic acid in older patients was similar to that observed in younger patients.

  9. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb, which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  10. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  11. Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Tse, Maric T; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related markers have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, a preclinical assessment of how suppression of prefrontal cortex GABA activity may reflect behavioral and cognitive pathologies observed in schizophrenia is forthcoming. We assessed the effects of pharmacologic blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors in rats on executive functions and other behaviors related to schizophrenia, as well as neural activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) did not affect working memory accuracy but did increase response latencies, resembling speed of processing deficits observed in schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex GABA(A) blockade did not impede simple discrimination or reversal learning but did impair set-shifting in a manner dependent on when these treatments were given. Reducing GABA activity before the set-shift impaired the ability to acquire a novel strategy, whereas treatment before the initial discrimination increased perseveration during the shift. Latent inhibition was unaffected by bicuculline infusions before the preexposure/conditioning phases, suggesting that reduced prefrontal cortex GABA activity does not impair "learned irrelevance." GABA(A) blockade increased locomotor activity and showed synergic effects with a subthreshold dose of amphetamine. Furthermore, reducing medial prefrontal cortex GABA activity selectively increased phasic burst firing of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, without altering the their overall population activity. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex GABA hypofunction may be a key contributing factor to deficits in speed of processing, cognitive flexibility, and enhanced phasic dopamine activity observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-Dose Epinephrine Plus Tranexamic Acid Reduces Early Postoperative Blood Loss and Inflammatory Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Nan; Liu, Jun-Li; Wang, Fu-You; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Liu

    2018-02-21

    The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. However, the effect of epinephrine administration plus tranexamic acid has not been intensively investigated, to our knowledge. In this study, we evaluated whether the combined administration of low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid reduced perioperative blood loss or inflammatory response further compared with tranexamic acid alone. This randomized placebo-controlled trial consisted of 179 consecutive patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomized into 3 interventions: Group IV received intravenous low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, Group TP received topical diluted epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, and Group CT received tranexamic acid alone. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 3, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters (measured by thromboelastography), inflammatory cytokine levels, transfusion values (rate and volume), thromboembolic complications, length of hospital stay, wound score, range of motion, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score. The mean calculated total blood loss (and standard deviation) in Group IV was 348.1 ± 158.2 mL on postoperative day 1 and 458.0 ± 183.4 mL on postoperative day 3, which were significantly reduced (p 0.05). The combined administration of low-dose epinephrine and tranexamic acid demonstrated an increased effect in reducing perioperative blood loss and the inflammatory response compared with tranexamic acid alone, with no apparent increased incidence of thromboembolic and other complications. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Influence du taux d’acide alpha-linolénique de l’aliment sur la teneur en oméga-3 et les caractéristiques hédoniques de la viande de lapin. Revue bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teillet Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several publications are dealing with the influence of the omega 3 level in the feed, more particularly the alpha-linolenic acid level, on the rabbit meat level in this fatty acid, but only few of them deal with the use of the flaxseed. This review is a synthesis of the effects of the level of alpha-linolenic acid brought by the flaxseed on the omega 3 level of the rabbit meat. It shows a direct connection between the alpha-linolenic acid level in the feed and the omega 3 content of the rabbit meat. Besides, this enrichment decreases the saturated fatty acids level, the omega 6 level and consequently the omega 6/omega 3 ratio below 4. In consequence, the contribution of around 0.65% of alpha-linolenic acid in the feed by incorporation of flaxseed in the feed allows to bring in average 967 mg of omega 3 for 100 g of back or 459 mg for 100 kcal and 1004 mg of omega 3 for 100 g of shoulder or 483 mg for 100 kcal and consequently to claim the allegation “rich in omega 3”. This enrichment doesn’t modify the hedonic characteristics of the rabbit meat.

  14. PseKRAAC: a flexible web server for generating pseudo K-tuple reduced amino acids composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yongchun; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yingli; Li, Guangpeng; Yan, Zhenhe; Yang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The reduced amino acids perform powerful ability for both simplifying protein complexity and identifying functional conserved regions. However, dealing with different protein problems may need different kinds of cluster methods. Encouraged by the success of pseudo-amino acid composition algorithm, we developed a freely available web server, called PseKRAAC (the pseudo K-tuple reduced amino acids composition). By implementing reduced amino acid alphabets, the protein complexity can be significantly simplified, which leads to decrease chance of overfitting, lower computational handicap and reduce information redundancy. PseKRAAC delivers more capability for protein research by incorporating three crucial parameters that describes protein composition. Users can easily generate many different modes of PseKRAAC tailored to their needs by selecting various reduced amino acids alphabets and other characteristic parameters. It is anticipated that the PseKRAAC web server will become a very useful tool in computational proteomics and protein sequence analysis. Freely available on the web at http://bigdata.imu.edu.cn/psekraac CONTACTS: yczuo@imu.edu.cn or imu.hema@foxmail.com or yanglei_hmu@163.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Interference effects from coexisting fatty acids on elaidic acid separation by fractionating crystallization: A model study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Bjerring, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage temperature-programmed fractionating crystallization process was carried out to examine the effects of the presence of stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and linoleic acid (LA) on the separation of elaidic acid (EA). The results showed that the efficiency of fractionating...

  16. Arachidonic acid reduces the stress response of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, R.D. van; Spanings, F.A.T.; Koven, WM; Nixon, O.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the influence of the dietary level of the fatty acid arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6) was determined on the acute stress response and osmoregulation of adult gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Seabream were fed a diet containing either 0.9% or 2.4% of total fatty acids as ArA for 18

  17. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase with reduced catalytic activity for glycogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, N G; LaBadie, G U; Hirschhorn, K

    1980-03-01

    Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. The three peaks of activity of the common isozyme were eluted with 0.08, 0.12, and 0.17 M NaCl, whereas the two peaks of the variant, with 0.01 and 0.06 M NaCl. The pH optimum and thermal denaturation at 57 degrees C were the same in all enzyme peaks of both isozymes. Rabbit antiacid alpha-glucosidase antibodies produced against the common isozyme were found to cross-react with both peaks of the variant isozyme. The two isozymes shared antigenic identity and had similar Km's with maltose as substrate. Normal substrate saturation kinetics were observed with the common isozyme when glycogen was the substrate, but the variant produced an S-shaped saturation curve indicating a phase of negative and positive cooperativity at low and high glycogen concentrations, respectively. The activity of the variant was only 8.6% and 19.2% of the common isozyme when assayed with nonsaturating and saturating concentrations of glycogen, respectively. A similar rate of hydrolysis of isomaltose by both isozymes was found indicating that the reduced catalytic activity of the variant isozyme toward glycogen is not the result of a reduced ability of this enzyme to cleave the alpha-1,6 linkages of glycogen.

  19. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces the effects of excitatory amino acids in the rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion during pregnancy can lead to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a disorder marked by learning disabilities. A rat model of FAS was used by introducing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories (E), while a second group was pair-fed an isocaloric liquid diet without ethanol (P). A third group of pregnant dams received ad libitum lab chow (C). At parturition, pups from the E and P groups were cross fostered by C mothers and all groups received lab chow. During adulthood, male offspring were sacrificed and hippocampal and prefrontal cortical slices were prelabeled with [3H]inositol. Phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis was determined by measuring the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates in the presence of LiCl in response to activation of various excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In hippocampal slices, ibotenate- and quisqualate-induced PI hydrolysis was reduced in E compared to P and C animals. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on carbachol-induced PI hydrolysis, evident in P and C animals, was completely abolished in the hippocampus of E animals. In contrast, in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, this inhibitory effect of NMDA prevailed even in the E animals. The evidence suggests that prenatal ethanol exposure alters the activity of EAA receptors in the hippocampal generation of 2nd messengers

  20. Administration of Protocatechuic Acid Reduces Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Neuronal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hwon Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid (PCA was first purified from green tea and has shown numerous biological activities, including anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. The effect of PCA on traumatic brain injury (TBI-induced neuronal death has not previously been evaluated. TBI is defined as damage to the brain resulting from external mechanical force, such as rapid acceleration or deceleration, impact, blast waves, or penetration by a projectile. TBI causes neuronal death in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of PCA on TBI-induced neuronal death. Here, TBI was induced by a controlled cortical impact model using rats. PCA (30 mg/kg was injected into the intraperitoneal (ip space immediately after TBI. Neuronal death was evaluated with Fluoro Jade-B (FJB staining at 24 h after TBI. Oxidative injury was detected by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE, glutathione (GSH concentration was analyzed by glutathione adduct with N-ethylmaleimide (GS-NEM staining at 24 h after TBI, and microglial activation in the hippocampus was detected by CD11b immunohistochemistry at one week after TBI. We found that the proportion of degenerating neurons, oxidative injury, GSH depletion, and microglia activation in the hippocampus and cortex were all reduced by PCA treatment following TBI. Therefore, our study suggests that PCA may have therapeutic potential in preventing TBI-induced neuronal death.

  1. FXR agonist obeticholic acid reduces hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of toxic cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Len; Mannaerts, Inge; Schierwagen, Robert; Govaere, Olivier; Klein, Sabine; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Farre, Ricard; Wenes, Mathias; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Nevens, Frederik; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Trebicka, Jonel; Laleman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic inflammation drives hepatic stellate cells (HSC), resulting in liver fibrosis. The Farnesoid-X receptor (FXR) antagonizes inflammation through NF-κB inhibition. We investigated preventive and therapeutic effects of FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in toxic cirrhotic rats. Cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication. OCA was given during or after intoxication with vehicle-treated rats as controls. At sacrifice, fibrosis, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were assessed. HSC activation, cell turn-over, hepatic NF-κB activation, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines were determined. The effect of OCA was further evaluated in isolated HSC, Kupffer cells, hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal end