WorldWideScience

Sample records for linoleic acid inhibits

  1. Oleic acid and linoleic acid from Tenebrio molitor larvae inhibit BACE1 activity in vitro: molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Kumju; Yun, Eun-Young; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2014-02-01

    In our ongoing research to find therapeutic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) from natural resources, the inhibitory activity of the BACE1 enzyme by Tenebrio molitor larvae and its major compounds were evaluated. The T. molitor larvae extract and its fractions exhibited strong BACE1 suppression. The major components of hexane fraction possessing both high yield and strong BACE1 inhibition were determined by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. A remarkable composition of unsaturated long chain fatty acids, including oleic acid and linoleic acid, were identified. Oleic acid, in particular, noncompetitively attenuated BACE1 activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 61.31 μM and Ki value of 34.3 μM. Furthermore, the fatty acids were stably interacted with BACE1 at different allosteric sites of the enzyme bound with the OH of CYS319 and the NH₃ of TYR320 for oleic acid and with the C=O group of GLN304 for linoleic acid. Here, we first revealed novel pharmacophore features of oleic acids and linoleic acid to BACE1 by in silico docking studies. The present findings would clearly suggest potential guidelines for designing novel BACE1 selective inhibitors.

  2. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (C17H31COOH) (CAS Reg. No. 60-33-3)), a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.5...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5065 Linoleic acid. (a) Product. Linoleic acid prepared from edible fats and oils and free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  6. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: good or bad nutrient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Daniela C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a class of 28 positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid octadecadienoic.Currently, it has been described many benefits related to the supplementation of CLA in animals and humans, as in the treatment of cancer, oxidative stress, in atherosclerosis, in bone formation and composition in obesity, in diabetes and the immune system. However, our results show that, CLA appears to be not a good supplement in patients with cachexia.

  7. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine

  8. Comparison of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids in enzymatic acidolysis of tristearin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Xu, Xuebing; Li, L.T.

    2001-01-01

    tristearin (SSS) and linoleic (L) or conjugated linoleic (cL) acids (1:6, mol/mol). The other was between tristearin and the mixture of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids (1:3:3, mol/mol/mol). Acyl incorporation and migration together with triacylglycerol composition of the products were monitored...... with gas chromatography, pancreatic lipase hydrolysis, and high performance liquid chromatography. Both acyl incorporation and migration of linoleic acid were faster than those of conjugated linoleic acid. At 5 h reaction, there were 13.0% LLL, 46.5% LSL, 27.7% LSS, and 5.6% SSS in the product for a system...... between tristearin and linoleic acid; whereas there were 2.4% cLcLcL, 10.4% cLScL, 50.9% cLSS, and 36.2% SSS in the product for a system between tristearin and conjugated linoleic acid. The results suggest that linoleic acid was more reactive than conjugated linoleic acid in the enzymatic acidolysis...

  9. Temperature and duration of heating of sunflower oil affect ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Privé , Florence; Combes, Sylvie; Cauquil, Laurent; Farizon, Yves; Enjalbert, Francis; Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle

    2010-01-01

    Sunflower oil heated at 110 or 150°C for 1, 3, or 6 h was incubated with ruminal content in order to investigate the effects of temperature and duration of heating of oil on the ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro. When increased, these 2 parameters acted together to decrease the disappearance of linoleic acid in the media by inhibiting the isomerization of linoleic acid, which led to a decrease in conjugated linoleic acids and trans-C18:1 production. Nevertheless, trans-10 iso...

  10. Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells by inducing ER stress, autophagy, and modulation of Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian M K Shahzad

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA. MTT assays and QCM™ chemotaxis 96-wells were used to test the effect of t10,c12 CLA on the proliferation and migration and invasion of cancer cells. qPCR and Western Blotting were used to determine the expression of specific factors. RNA sequencing was conducted using the Illumina platform and apoptosis was measured using a flow cytometry assay. t10,c12 CLA (IC50, 7 μM inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and A2780. c9,t11 CLA did not attenuate the proliferation of these cells. Transcription of 165 genes was significantly repressed and 28 genes were elevated. Genes related to ER stress, ATF4, CHOP, and GADD34 were overexpressed whereas EDEM2 and Hsp90, genes required for proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins, were downregulated upon treatment. While apoptosis was not detected, t10,c12 CLA treatment led to 9-fold increase in autophagolysosomes and higher levels of LC3-II. G1 cell cycle arrest in treated cells was correlated with phosphorylation of GSK3β and loss of β-catenin. microRNA miR184 and miR215 were upregulated. miR184 likely contributed to G1 arrest by downregulating E2F1. miR215 upregulation was correlated with increased expression of p27/Kip-1. t10,c12 CLA-mediated inhibition of invasion and migration correlated with decreased expression of PTP1b and decreased Src activation by inhibiting phosphorylation at Tyr416. Due to its ability to inhibit proliferation and migration, t10,c12 CLA should be considered for treatment of ovarian cancer.

  11. Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells by inducing ER stress, autophagy, and modulation of Src.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Mian M K; Felder, Mildred; Ludwig, Kai; Van Galder, Hannah R; Anderson, Matthew L; Kim, Jong; Cook, Mark E; Kapur, Arvinder K; Patankar, Manish S

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA). MTT assays and QCM™ chemotaxis 96-wells were used to test the effect of t10,c12 CLA on the proliferation and migration and invasion of cancer cells. qPCR and Western Blotting were used to determine the expression of specific factors. RNA sequencing was conducted using the Illumina platform and apoptosis was measured using a flow cytometry assay. t10,c12 CLA (IC50, 7 μM) inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and A2780. c9,t11 CLA did not attenuate the proliferation of these cells. Transcription of 165 genes was significantly repressed and 28 genes were elevated. Genes related to ER stress, ATF4, CHOP, and GADD34 were overexpressed whereas EDEM2 and Hsp90, genes required for proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins, were downregulated upon treatment. While apoptosis was not detected, t10,c12 CLA treatment led to 9-fold increase in autophagolysosomes and higher levels of LC3-II. G1 cell cycle arrest in treated cells was correlated with phosphorylation of GSK3β and loss of β-catenin. microRNA miR184 and miR215 were upregulated. miR184 likely contributed to G1 arrest by downregulating E2F1. miR215 upregulation was correlated with increased expression of p27/Kip-1. t10,c12 CLA-mediated inhibition of invasion and migration correlated with decreased expression of PTP1b and decreased Src activation by inhibiting phosphorylation at Tyr416. Due to its ability to inhibit proliferation and migration, t10,c12 CLA should be considered for treatment of ovarian cancer.

  12. A rumen unprotected conjugated linoleic acid supplement inhibits milk fat synthesis and improves energy balance in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, M; Gama, M A S; Dresch, R; Harvatine, K J; Oliveira, D E

    2013-07-01

    Feeding trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplements in a rumen-protected form has been shown to cause milk fat depression (MFD) in cows, ewes, and goats. Methyl esters of CLA were shown to be as effective as FFA in inducing MFD when infused postruminally, but their efficacy as a feed supplement has not been addressed in studies with lactating ruminants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an unprotected trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement as methyl esters on performance, milk composition, and energy status of dairy goats. Eighteen multiparous Toggenburg goats were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a crossover experimental design (14 d treatment periods separated by a 7 d washout interval): 30 g/d of calcium salts of fatty acids (Control) or 30 g/d of a rumen unprotected CLA supplement containing 29.9% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA as methyl esters (CLA). Lipid supplements were mixed into a concentrate and fed individually to animals 3 times a day as a total mixed ration component. The DMI, milk yield, milk protein and lactose content and secretion, and somatic cell count were unaffected by CLA treatment. On the other hand, milk fat content and yield were reduced by 19.9 and 17.9% in CLA-fed goats. Reduced milk fat yield in CLA-fed goats was a consequence of a lower secretion of both preformed and de novo synthesized fatty acids. The CLA treatment also changed the milk fatty acid profile, which included a reduction in the concentration of SFA (2.5%), increased MUFA and PUFA (5.6 and 5.4%, respectively), and a pronounced increase (1576%) in milk fat trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Consistent with the high milk fat trans-10, cis-12 CLA content, all desaturase indexes were reduced in milk fat from CLA-fed goats. The MFD induced by CLA reduced the energy required for milk production by 22%, which was accompanied by an improvement in the estimated energy balance (P rumen biohydrogenation and indirect comparisons with data obtained from other studies suggest equivalent MFD

  13. The essential nature of linoleic acid in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1986-01-01

    Linoleic acid [CH(CH)(CH = CHCH)(CH) COOH] is a precursor of the icosanoids -20-carbon fatty acids which include leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes and related compounds. Until recently, the classical symptoms resulting from deficiency of linoleic and other essential fatty acids (EFAs) ha...

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid in ewe milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pilar; Fontecha, Javier; Juárez, Manuela; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel

    2005-11-01

    Ewe milk fat from five different herds was studied to determine the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Research was carried out by combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and 4,4-dimethyloxazolyne derivatives (DMOX) with silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography (Ag+-HPLC). Reconstructed mass spectral profiles of CLA characteristic ions from DMOX were used to identify positional isomers and Ag+-HPLC to quantify them. Total CLA content varied from 0.57 to 0.97 g/100 g of total fatty acids. FAME and DMOX were separated into a complex mixture of minor isomers and major rumenic acid (9-cis 11-trans C18:2) by GC-MS using a 100-m polar capillary column. Rumenic acid would represent more than 75% of total CLA. 11-trans 13-trans, 11-13 cis/trans plus trans/cis and 7-9 cis/trans plus trans/cis were the main CLA isomers after rumenic acid. Minor amounts of 8-10 and 10-12 C18:2 isomers were also found. Although most of the isomers were present in each herd's milk, differences in content were observed for some CLA species.

  15. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  16. Role of linoleic acid in arsenical palmar keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tarafder S; Misbahuddin, Mir

    2016-03-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure can lead to palmoplantar keratosis. In the stratum corneum of skin, linoleic acid is of the utmost importance to the inflammation, keratinization, and regeneration processes. The aims of this study were: (i) to present quantitative information on the linoleic acid fraction of intercorneocyte lipids, and (ii) to elucidate the role of linoleic acid in the pathophysiology of arsenical keratosis. Lipid extracts were collected from keratotic lesions in seven patients, seven arsenic-exposed subjects, and seven non-exposed control subjects. Linoleic acid levels of the specimens were estimated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). There was a significant (P keratosis patients (palm: 25.66 ± 4.95 μg/cm(2); dorsum: 28.25 ± 6.20 μg/cm(2)) compared with arsenic-exposed (palm: 2.75 ± 0.85 μg/cm(2); dorsum: 1.96 ± 0.64 μg/cm(2)) and non-exposed (palm: 1.52 ± 0.61 μg/cm(2); dorsum: 1.28 ± 0.39 μg/cm(2)) control subjects. There was no significant difference (P = 0.556) in linoleic acid concentration in the non-affected skin of the dorsum of the hand (28.25 ± 6.20 μg/cm(2)) compared with that in the palmar sites (25.66 ± 4.95 μg/cm(2)) in the patient group. The change in linoleic acid levels in the arsenic-exposed control group did not differ from that in non-exposed controls (P = 1.000). Linoleic acid concentration is elevated in arsenical keratosis; this finding warrants further investigation to ascertain whether linoleic acid plays a direct role in the pathophysiology of arsenical keratosis. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Hatanaka

    Full Text Available The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts.

  18. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  19. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  20. Oxidative modifications of conjugated and unconjugated linoleic acid during heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giua, L; Blasi, F; Simonetti, M S; Cossignani, L

    2013-10-15

    The oxidative stability of conjugated linoleic (CLA) and linoleic (LA) acids in different chemical forms (free acids, methyl esters and homogeneous triacylglycerols) was compared. All model systems were heated at 180°C for different times (15, 30, 45 and 60min). The primary oxidation products were evaluated by spectrophometric analysis, while the volatile compounds were determined by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). The isomer profile modifications were investigated by silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC) equipped with an UV detector. Generally, peroxide values decreased during the heating time. Among the volatiles, saturated aldehydes were the most represented compounds. Isomerization of cis,trans and trans,cis CLA to trans,trans isomers was observed mainly for the methyl form of CLA. The three different chemical forms of LA never showed isomerization phenomena. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid-rich soy oil triacylglycerol identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Rahul K; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal P; Lay, Jackson O

    2009-03-11

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich soy oil has been produced by soy oil linoleic acid (LA) photoisomerization, but CLA-rich oil triacylglycerol (TAG) characterization was not described. Therefore, the objectives were to identify and quantify new TAG fractions in CLA-rich oil by nonaqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NARP-HPLC). Analytical NARP-HPLC with an acetonitrile/dichloromethane (ACN/DCM) gradient and an evaporating light scattering detector/ultraviolet (ELSD/UV) detector was used. New TAG peaks from LA-containing TAGs were observed. The LnLL, LLL, LLO, and LLP (Ln, linolenic; L, linoleic; O, oleic; and P, palmitic) peaks reduced after isomerization with an increase in adjacent peaks that coeluted with LnLnO, LnLO, LnOO, and LnPP. The newly formed peaks were wider than those of the original oil and absorbed at 233 nm, suggesting the possibility of various CLA containing TAGs. The HPLC profile showed five fractions of mixed TAGs, and fatty acid analysis showed that CLA isomers were found predominately in fractions 2 and 3, which originally contained most LA. The CLA isomers were 70-80% trans,trans and 20-30% cis,trans and trans,cis.

  2. Determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W J; Tarka, S M; Dobson, G; Reid, C M

    2001-03-01

    The fatty acids from a series of milk-chocolate-based confectionery samples were analyzed as methyl esters by GC to determine the presence and amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). A single peak corresponding to the 9-cis,11-trans isomer and ranging from less than 0.1% to nearly 0.2% of the total fatty acids, corresponding to up to 0.3 mg per g of chocolate, was observed. One of the chocolate extracts and a milk extract were subjected to silver ion HPLC and GC-MS in order to confirm the identity of the major isomer and tentatively identity minor isomers.

  3. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim aydin

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was reported to increase the levels of saturated fatty ... Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid ..... silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography.

  4. Conjugated Linoleic Triacylglycerols Exhibit Superior Lymphatic Absorption Than Free Conjugate Linoleic Acids and Have Antiobesity Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunjoon; Chung, Min-Yu; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Min, Jinyoung; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare lymphatic absorption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in the triacylglycerol (TAG) or free fatty acid (FFA) form and to examine the antiobesity effects of different doses of CLAs in the TAG form in animals. Conjugated linoleic TAGs (containing 70.3 wt% CLAs; CLA-TAG) were prepared through lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with commercial CLA mixtures (CLA-FFA). Lymphatic absorption of CLA-TAG and CLA-FFA was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Greater amounts of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLAs were detected in the collected lymph from a lipid emulsion containing CLA-TAG. This result suggests that CLA-TAG has greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than does CLA-FFA. The antiobesity efficacy of CLA-TAG at different doses was examined in mice with diet-induced obesity. A high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat weights, which were significantly decreased by 2% dietary supplementation (w/w) with CLA-TAG. CLA-TAG at 2% significantly attenuated the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TAG, but led to hepatomegaly and exacerbated HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly attenuated upregulation of retroperitoneal fat weight and significantly increased liver weight, which was decreased by the HFD. Nonetheless, the liver weight in group "HFD +1% CLA-TAG" was not significantly different from that of normal diet controls. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly reduced serum TAG levels and did not exacerbate HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. Thus, 1% dietary supplementation with CLA-TAG reduces retroperitoneal fat weight without apparent hepatomegaly, a known side-effect of CLAs in mouse models of obesity.

  5. Optical Properties of Linoleic Acid Protected Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Linoleic acid-protected gold nanoparticles have been synthesized through the chemical reduction of tetrachloroaurate ions by ethanol in presence of sodium linoleate. The structure of these nanoparticles is investigated using transmission electron microscopy, which shows that the Au nanoparticles are spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution which ranges from 8 to 15 nm. Colloidal dispersion of gold nanoparticles in cyclohexane exhibits absorption bands in the ultraviolet-visible range due to surface plasmon resonance, with absorption maximum at 530 nm. Fluorescence spectra of gold nanoparticles also show an emission peak at 610 nm when illuminated at 450 nm. UV-Vis spectroscopy reveals that these nanoparticles remain stable for 10 days.

  6. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  7. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Raimondi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Demin; Li, Hongji; Zhou, Bo; Han, Liqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. ► Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. ► Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Demin [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Hongji [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhou, Bo [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Han, Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhang, Xiaomei [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoyu, E-mail: haubiochem@163.com [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoqing, E-mail: gqyang@yeah.net [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  10. Novel metabolic pathways for linoleic and arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M; Motoba, K; Borhan, B; Pinot, F; Hammock, B D

    1996-08-13

    Mouse liver microsomes oxidized linoleic acid to form 9,10- or 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoate. These monoepoxides were subsequently hydrolyzed to their corresponding diols in the absence of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane. Furthermore, both 9,10- and 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoates were oxidized to diepoxyoctadecanoate at apparently identical rates by mouse liver microsomal P-450 epoxidation. Both epoxyoctadecanoates and diepoxyoctadecanoates were converted to tetrahydrofuran-diols by microsomes. Tetrahydroxides of linoleate were produced as minor metabolites. Arachidonic acid was metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoates, dihydroxyeicosatrienoates, and monohydroxyeicosatetraenoates by the microsomes. Microsomes prepared from clofibrate (but not phenobarbital) -treated mice exhibited much higher production rates for epoxyeicosatrienoates and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoates. This indicated an induction of P-450 epoxygenase(s) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase in mice by clofibrate and not by phenobarbital. Incubation of synthetic epoxyeicosatrienoates with microsomes led to the production of diepoxyeicosadienoates. Among chemically generated diepoxyeicosadienoate isomers, three of them possessing adjacent diepoxides were hydrolyzed to their diol epoxides which cyclized to the corresponding tetrahydrofuran-diols by microsomes as well as soluble epoxide hydrolase at a much higher rate. Larger cyclic products from non-adjacent diepoxides were not observed. The results of our in vitro experiments suggest that linoleic and arachidonic acid can be metabolized to their tetrahydrofuran-diols by two consecutive microsomal cytochrome P-450 epoxidations followed by microsomal or soluble epoxide hydrolase catalyzed hydrolysis of the epoxides. Incubation experiments with the S-9 fractions indicate that the soluble epoxide hydrolase is more important in this conversion. This manuscript is the first report of techniques for the separation and

  11. Trans-10, cis 12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Milk Fat Depression Is Associated with Inhibition of PPARγ Signaling and Inflammation in Murine Mammary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. G. Kadegowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous trans-10, cis-12-CLA (CLA reduces lipid synthesis in murine adipose and mammary (MG tissues. However, genomewide alterations in MG and liver (LIV associated with dietary CLA during lactation remain unknown. We fed mice (n=5/diet control or control + trans-10, cis-12-CLA (37 mg/day between d 6 and d 10 postpartum. The 35,302 annotated murine exonic evidence-based oligo (MEEBO microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were used for transcript profiling. Milk fat concentration was 44% lower on d 10 versus d 6 due to CLA. The CLA diet resulted in differential expression of 1,496 genes. Bioinformatics analyses underscored that a major effect of CLA on MG encompassed alterations in cellular signaling pathways and phospholipid species biosynthesis. Dietary CLA induced genes related to ER stress (Xbp1, apoptosis (Bcl2, and inflammation (Orm1, Saa2, and Cp. It also induced marked inhibition of PPARγ signaling, including downregulation of Pparg and Srebf1 and several lipogenic target genes (Scd, Fasn, and Gpam. In LIV, CLA induced hepatic steatosis probably through perturbations in the mitochondrial functions and induction of ER stress. Overall, results from this study underscored the role of PPARγ signaling on mammary lipogenic target regulation. The proinflammatory effect due to CLA could be related to inhibition of PPARγ signaling.

  12. Production of conjugated linoleic acid-rich potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found primarily in diary and beef products, but the health benefits of CLA can only be realized if they are consumed at much greater levels than a normal healthy dietary intake. We have recently shown that a CLA-rich soy oil can be produced by simple isomerization of linoleic acid in soy oil by photoirradiation. This oil may allow greatly increased dietary CLA without significantly elevating fat intake. The objective of this study was to prepare CLA-rich potato chips by frying in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil was photoisomerized in the presence of iodine catalyst with UV/visible light. The irradiated oil was clay processed to remove the residual iodine and this oil was then used to fry potato chips. Oil was extracted from fried chips and analyzed for its CLA content with gas chromatography. A 1-oz serving of CLA-rich potato chips contained approximately 2.4 g CLA as compared to 0.1 g CLA in 3-oz serving of steak fillet and 0.06 g CLA in 8-oz serving of whole milk. The peroxide value of the oil extracted from potato chips was found to be 1 meq/1000 g sample, which was within the acceptable commercial standards. This study may lead to the commercialization of CLA-rich food products.

  13. Investigation of tritium removal by means of organic compounds. Catalytic hydrogenation (tritiation) of linoleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, A.; Weichselgartner, H.

    1984-11-01

    In the presence of noble-metal catalysts unsaturated fatty acids such as eruic acid and linoleic acid capture hydrogen (and tritium) quantitatively. The hydrogenation reaction of eruic acid has already been reported. The experimental results of the reaction of hydrogen (and tritium) with linoleic acid are now discussed in this paper. Obviously, the use of linoleic acid shows some advantages compared with eruic acid: - the hydrogenation reaction is faster, - linoleic acid is liquid, so that the choice of additional solvents is easier, and - linoleic acid is a more or less cheap natural product, which is available from a series of seeds, so that the cost of a technical tritium removal plant is not increased by the basic chemical material. (orig.)

  14. Comparative effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and linoleic acid (LA) on the oxidoreduction status in THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicka, Marta; Stachowska, Ewa; Gutowska, Izabela; Parczewski, Miłosz; Baśkiewicz, Magdalena; Machaliński, Bogusław; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2011-04-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) on macrophage reactive oxygen species synthesis and the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The macrophages were obtained from the THP-1 monocytic cell line. Cells were incubated with the addition of cis-9,trans-11 CLA or trans-10,cis-12 CLA or linoleic acid. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was estimated by flow cytometry. Enzymes activity was measured spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression was estimated by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Statistical analysis was based on nonparametric statistical tests [Friedman analysis of variation (ANOVA) and Wilcoxon signed-rank test]. cis-9,trans-11 CLA significantly increased the activity of Cat, while trans-10,cis-12 CLA notably influenced GPx activity. Both isomers significantly decreased mRNA expression for Cat. Only trans-10,cis-12 significantly influenced mRNA for SOD-2 expression. The CLAs activate processes of the ROS formation in macrophages. Adverse metabolic effects of each isomer action were observed.

  15. Orally administered conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates allergic dermatitis induced by repeated applications of oxazolone in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tomonori; Tokunaga, Yuzo; Yamasaki, Masao; Erickson, Laurie; Kawahara, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is one of the constituents of animal products with possible health benefits such as anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of CLA using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis. Mice were orally administered either a CLA mixture containing equal amounts of 9c, 11 t-CLA and 10 t, 12c-CLA, or high linoleic acid safflower oil, and allergic dermatitis was induced on the ear by repeated topical applications of oxazolone. Oral administration of the CLA mixture but not the high linoleic safflower oil attenuated the symptoms of allergic dermatitis in both ear weights and clinical scores. This effect was associated with decreased levels of ear interleukin-4 (IL-4) and plasma immunoglobulin E. The immunomodulatory effects of the CLA isomers were compared by an in vitro cytokine production assay. The results showed that 9c, 11 t-CLA, the most predominant isomer in animal products, significantly inhibited IL-4 and interferon-γ production from mouse splenocytes with similar potency to 10 t, 12c-CLA. These findings suggest that CLA, a constituent of animal products, has a potentially beneficial effect for amelioration of allergic dermatitis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Bovine milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and vaccenic acids attenuates allergic airway disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, R K; Macgibbon, A K; Black, P N; Kanwar, J R; Rowan, A; Vale, M; Krissansen, G W

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that a reduction in the Western diet of anti-inflammatory unsaturated lipids, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has contributed to the increase in the frequency and severity of allergic diseases. We investigated whether feeding milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acids (VAs) ('enriched' milk fat), produced by supplementing the diet of pasture-fed cows with fish and sunflower oil, will prevent development of allergic airway responses. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing soybean oil and diets supplemented with milk lipids. They were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on days 14 and 28, and challenged intranasally with OVA on day 42. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissues and serum samples were collected 6 days after the intranasal challenge. Feeding of enriched milk fat led to marked suppression of airway inflammation as evidenced by reductions in eosinophilia and lymphocytosis in the airways, compared with feeding of normal milk fat and control diet. Enriched milk fat significantly reduced circulating allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 levels, together with reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IL-5 and CCL11. Treatment significantly inhibited changes in the airway including airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion. The two major components of enriched milk fat, cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and VA, inhibited airway inflammation when fed together to mice, whereas alone they were not effective. Milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and VAs suppresses inflammation and changes to the airways in an animal model of allergic airway disease.

  17. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of different tissues and yolk lipids in pigeons. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Eight established breeding pairs per group were fed either a commercially pelleted pigeon diet mixed with 0.5% safflower oil (SFO) or 0.5% CLA for 12 weeks. For fatty ...

  18. Meat quality and tissue fatty acid profiles in rabbits fed diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Dokoupilová, A.; Czauderna, M.; Berladyn, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 12 (2007), s. 552-561 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * conjugated linoleic acid * fatty acids Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007

  19. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p4208528

    Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid, geese, growth, lipid metabolism, fatty acid composition .... For determination of serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, high density ... separated and quantified by gas–liquid chromatography (Carlo Erba Vega ...

  20. Linoleic acid, thymine, and tryptophan radiosensitization by protoporphyrin in presence of oxygene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champel, P.; Mignot, M.A.; Pillement, B.; Fontenil, L.; Rocquet, G.

    Sensitizing effect induced by protoporphyrin, an active molecule in photooxidation is studied. Studied substances are tryptophan, thymine, linoleic acid, each component representing one of the great groups of biological components, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids [fr

  1. Allelopathic interactions of linoleic acid and nitric oxide increase the competitive ability of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Tan, Hana; Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Pengfei; Fu, Zhengwei; Paerl, Hans W; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide with major societal and economic costs. Interactions between toxic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algal competitors can affect toxic bloom formation, but the exact mechanisms of interspecies interactions remain unknown. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling of co-cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with a green alga as well as of microorganisms collected in a Microcystis spp. bloom in Lake Taihu (China), we disentangle novel interspecies allelopathic interactions. We describe an interspecies molecular network in which M. aeruginosa inhibits growth of Chlorella vulgaris, a model green algal competitor, via the release of linoleic acid. In addition, we demonstrate how M. aeruginosa takes advantage of the cell signaling compound nitric oxide produced by C. vulgaris, which stimulates a positive feedback mechanism of linoleic acid release by M. aeruginosa and its toxicity. Our high-throughput system-biology approach highlights the importance of previously unrecognized allelopathic interactions between a broadly distributed toxic cyanobacterial bloom former and one of its algal competitors. PMID:28398349

  2. Allelopathic interactions of linoleic acid and nitric oxide increase the competitive ability of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Tan, Hana; Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Pengfei; Fu, Zhengwei; Paerl, Hans W; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-08-01

    The frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide with major societal and economic costs. Interactions between toxic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algal competitors can affect toxic bloom formation, but the exact mechanisms of interspecies interactions remain unknown. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling of co-cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with a green alga as well as of microorganisms collected in a Microcystis spp. bloom in Lake Taihu (China), we disentangle novel interspecies allelopathic interactions. We describe an interspecies molecular network in which M. aeruginosa inhibits growth of Chlorella vulgaris, a model green algal competitor, via the release of linoleic acid. In addition, we demonstrate how M. aeruginosa takes advantage of the cell signaling compound nitric oxide produced by C. vulgaris, which stimulates a positive feedback mechanism of linoleic acid release by M. aeruginosa and its toxicity. Our high-throughput system-biology approach highlights the importance of previously unrecognized allelopathic interactions between a broadly distributed toxic cyanobacterial bloom former and one of its algal competitors.

  3. Production of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites by guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosthuizen, M.J.; Engels, F.; Van Esch, B.; Henricks, P.A.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cells may be responsible for regulating airway smooth muscle function, in part by release of fatty acid-derived mediators. Incubation of isolated guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells with radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) leads to the production of 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5- and 15-HETE) and smaller amounts of leukotriene (LT) B4 and C4 and 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT). Epithelial cells also are able to release linoleic acid (LA) metabolites. Incubation with radiolabeled linoleic acid leads to the formation of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE). The biological significance of these mediators produced by epithelial cells is discussed

  4. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Sailas; Spener Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studi...

  5. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  6. Ácido linoléico conjugado e perda de peso Conjugated linoleic acid and weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Machado Mourão

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento e a prevenção da obesidade têm sido considerados uma enorme batalha para os profissionais da área de saúde. As indústrias de alimentos e de fármacos, por sua vez, têm oferecido cada vez mais uma vasta gama de novos produtos que preconizam a perda de peso. O ácido linoléico conjugado, encontrado em maiores concentrações na gordura de animais ruminantes, parece apresentar efeitos favoráveis quanto à manutenção do peso corporal. Esta revisão apresenta uma análise crítica dos dados disponíveis na literatura, que relacionam o ácido linoléico conjugado com o metabolismo energético e a composição corporal. Os estudos realizados com humanos ainda não são conclusivos, embora alguns apontem um possível aumento da lipólise e/ou redução da lipogênese, que reflete em alterações apenas na composição corporal, especialmente no tecido adiposo abdominal, mas não na perda de peso. Entretanto, as altas doses usadas nesses estudos podem implicar efeitos colaterais indesejáveis. Portanto, mais estudos são necessários para uma indicação desse ácido graxo como um agente para a melhora da composição corporal e/ou como um agente anti-obesidade.The prevention and the treatment of obesity have proved to be enormous challenges for health professionals. On their turn, the food and the pharmaceutical industries have been offering an increasingly vast array of new products which are said to promote weight loss. The conjugated linoleic acid, found in greater concentrations in the fat of ruminant mammals, seems to present favorable effects on body weight maintenance. This work reviewed the available data in the literature that related conjugated linoleic acid to energy expenditure and body composition, with the objective of better understanding its real or possible actions in the body, in particular, whether I does or does not promote weight loss. The studies on humans are not conclusive yet, although some of them have

  7. Trends in linoleic acid intake in the United States adult population: NHANES 1999-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linoleic acid (LA), the primary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the US diet, is an essential fatty acid. LA is available from a wide variety of foods, although it is primarily sourced from plant seed oils. Individual-level data on demography and food and nutrient intake were acquired from the N...

  8. Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols...... (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were...... incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated...

  9. Optimization of the In Situ Epoxidation of Linoleic Acid of Jatropha Curcas Oil With Performic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.K.; Rahimi Mohd Yusop; Nadia Salih; Jumat Salimon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to optimise the epoxidation of linoleic acid of Jatropha curcas oil. This experiment was carried out with performic acid generated in situ by using hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. The method was evaluated on different parameters such as reaction temperature, mole ratios of formic acid to ethylenic unsaturation and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation. The optimum relative conversion into oxirane (80.4 %) and conversion of iodine (94.7 %) was achieved with ∼70 % yield at the condition of 45 degree Celsius reaction temperature, formic acid to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio of 2.0, hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio of 12.0 for 2 hours of reaction time. The epoxidized linoleic acid was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and NMR analysis. The result was also found that the formations of an epoxide and oxirane ring cleavage were both occurred at the same time if low amount of hydrogen peroxide was used. (author)

  10. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  11. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and canola oil on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes adverse effects on quality of eggs by modifying the fatty acid composition of the yolk. Supplementing oils prevent CLA-induced changes, but cause a decrease in the level of egg CLA. The objective of the study was to investigate the incorporation of CLA into the egg and its effect ...

  12. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth and lipid metabolism of geese and fatty acid composition of their tissues. ... Dietary CLA altered serum lipid concentrations by decreasing total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, the atherogenic index and activity of ...

  13. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of bolus versus fractionated oral applications of [13C]-linoleic acid in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmelmair, H; Iser, B; Rauh-Pfeiffer, A; Koletzko, B

    1999-07-01

    The endogenous conversion of linoleic acid into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is of potential importance for meeting substrate requirements, particularly in young infants. After application of [13C]-linoleic acid, we estimated its conversion to dihomo-gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acids from only two blood samples. Oral tracer doses were given to five healthy adults as a single bolus. In four subjects the tracer was given in nine equal portions over 3 days. Concentration and 13C content of fatty acids from serum phospholipids were analysed by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio-mass spectrometry. Areas under the tracer-concentration curves were calculated, and fractional transfer and turnover rates estimated from compartmental models. The median fractional turnover of linoleic acid was 93.7% per day (interquartile range 25.3) in the bolus group and 80. 0% per day (6.3) in the fraction group (NS). Fractional conversion of linoleic to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid was 1.5% (0.9) vs. 2.1% (0.7) (bolus vs. fraction, P /= 0.94, P < 0.05) with the ratio of areas under the curve. Using areas under the curve overestimates the conversion, because different residence times are not considered. Estimation of conversion intensity appears possible with only one blood sample obtained after tracer application.

  15. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) content in different tissues of ruminants fed with CLA supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Pellattiero, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) are a group of positional and geometric isomers of Linoleic Acid characterized by a carbon chain containing 18 carbon atoms and two double bonds, not in the classic position (cis), but conjugated from the carbons atoms 9, 10 or 11. Double bonds have different position in the carbon chain ([7,9], [8,10], [9,11], [10,12], [11,13] and [12,14]) and four different geometric distribution (cis/trans, trans/cis, cis/cis and trans/trans). In total 24 possible isomers are...

  16. Vitamin E supplementation in elderly lowers the oxidation rate of linoleic acid in LDL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, de F.; Moser, U.; Kok, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    .Oxidation of LDL–linoleic acid (LDL–LA), a major substrate for lipid peroxidation, may be counteracted by the antioxidant vitamin E. In a 3-month randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 83 apparently healthy Dutch elderly, aged 67–85 years, the direct protective effect of 100 IU vitamin

  17. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), fish oil, soybean oil or their mixtures (at 7% for single and 3.5% + 3.5% for mixtures) as well as up 12% dosage of palm oil, on the performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens. The chicks fed 7% fish oil or 7% CLA ...

  18. The effect of long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid on fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on laying hen performance, egg fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). One hundred and sixty 7-day old Japanese quail chicks were randomly assigned to four ...

  19. Hydroperoxide production from linoleic acid by heterologous Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici lipoxygenase: Optimization and scale-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villaverde, J.J.; Vlist, van der V.; Santos, S.A.O.; Haarmann, T.; Langfelder, K.; Pirttimaa, M.; Nyyssola, A.; Jylhä, S.; Tamminen, T.; Kruus, K.; Graaff, de L.H.; Pascoal Neto, C.; Simoes, M.M.Q.; Domingues, M.R.M.; Silvestre, A.J.D.; Eidner, J.; Buchert, J.

    2013-01-01

    Linoleic acid was converted into hydroperoxides by a Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici lipoxygenase produced recombinantly in Trichoderma reesei. Hydroperoxide production was optimized using a face-centred experimental design in order to study the effects of pH, temperature and time on the conversion

  20. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA...

  1. Linoleic acid metabolite leads to steroid resistant asthma features partially through NF-?B

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, Lipsa; Gheware, Atish; Rehman, Rakhshinda; Yadav, Manish K.; Jayaraj, B. S.; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Mahesh, Padukudru Anand; Ghosh, Balaram; Agrawal, Anurag; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan

    2017-01-01

    Studies have highlighted the role of nutritional and metabolic modulators in asthma pathobiology. Steroid resistance is an important clinical problem in asthma but lacks good experimental models. Linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been linked to asthma and glucocorticoid sensitivity. Its 12/15?lipoxygenase metabolite, 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) induces mitochondrial dysfunction, with severe airway obstruction and neutrophilic airway inflammation. Here we show that H...

  2. Substitution of Linoleic Acid for Other Macronutrients and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venø, Stine K; Schmidt, Erik B; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Bach, Flemming W; Overvad, Kim

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major health problem worldwide, but the influence of dietary factors on stroke risk is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the risk of ischemic stroke and its subtypes with a higher intake from linoleic acid and a concomitant lower intake from saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, or glycemic carbohydrates. In the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer, and Health Study of 57 053 participants aged 50 to 64 years at baseline, information on diet was collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Information on ischemic stroke was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, and cases were all validated and subclassified according to the TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. Substitution of linoleic acid for saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, or glycemic carbohydrates was investigated in relation to the risk of ischemic stroke and subtypes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the associations with ischemic stroke adjusting for appropriate confounders. During 13.5 years of follow-up 1879 participants developed ischemic stroke. A slightly lower risk of ischemic stroke was found with a 5% higher intake of linoleic acid and a concomitant lower intake of saturated fatty acid (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.16), monounsaturated fatty acid (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.02), and glycemic carbohydrates (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.09), although not statistically significant. Similar patterns of association were found for large-artery atherosclerosis and small-vessel occlusions. This study suggests that replacing saturated fatty acid, glycemic carbohydrate, or monounsaturated fatty acid with linoleic acid may be associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer. 

  4. Preferential oxidation of linolenic acid compared to linoleic acid in the liver of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, G.K.; Dutta, J.; Ghosh, S.

    1982-01-01

    The fate of [1(- 14 C] linoleic acid and [1( 14 C] linolenic acid in the liver slices and also in the liver tissues of live carnivorous catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus, was studied. Incorporation of the fatty acids into different lipid classes in the live fish differed greatly from the tissue slices, indicating certain physiological control operative in vivo. The extent of desaturation and chain elongation of linoleic and linolenic acids into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was low. Linolenic acid was oxidized (thus labeling the saturated fatty acid with liberated 14 C-acetyl-CoA) in preference to linoleic acid, and this oxidation also seemed to be under physiological control since both of the fatty acids were poorly oxidized in the tissue slices and in the killed fish. These fish can therefore recognize the difference in the acyl chain structures of linoleate and linolenate. The higher oxidation of linolenic acid and poor capacity for its conversion to longer chain, highly unsaturated derivatives indicates a higher demand for the dietary supply of these essential fatty acids in these two species

  5. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition in Selected Dietary Supplements Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derewiaka, Dorota; Nestorowicz, Klara; Wołosiak, Rafał

    2017-07-04

    The market of pharmaceutical products is offering a wide range of supplements. Most of the consumers believe that these products will improve their state of health, but are they getting what they want and what they are paying for? The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of selected dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). All supplements were available in the Warsaw markets and bought from pharmacies. Assessment of the quality of food supplements was achieved by analysis of fatty acid using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. On the basis of the investigations carried out, it was found that content of CLA in selected dietary supplements ranged between 282 and 528 mg by weight of a single capsule. The content of bioactive ingredients found in three of the four product supplements assessed was lower than was claimed by the manufacturer.

  6. Are conjugated linolenic acid isomers an alternative to conjugated linoleic acid isomers in obesity prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jonatan; Arias, Noemi; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; del Puy Portillo, María

    2014-04-01

    Despite its benefits, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may cause side effects after long-term administration. Because of this and the controversial efficacy of CLA in humans, alternative biomolecules that may be used as functional ingredients have been studied in recent years. Thus, conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) has been reported to be a potential anti-obesity molecule which may have additional positive effects related to obesity. According to the results reported in obesity, CLNA needs to be given at higher doses than CLA to be effective. However, because of the few studies conducted so far, it is still difficult to reach clear conclusions about the potential use of these CLNAs in obesity and its related changes (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, or inflammation). Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Classroom Research: GC Studies of Linoleic and Linolenic Fatty Acids Found in French Fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Janice P.; Deboise, Kristen L.; Marshall, Megan R.; Shaffer, Hannah M.; Zafar, Sara; Jones, Kevin A.; Palko, Nick R.; Mitsch, Stephen M.; Sutton, Lindsay A.; Chang, Margaret; Fromer, Ilana; Kraft, Jake; Meister, Jessica; Shah, Amar; Tan, Priscilla; Whitchurch, James

    2002-07-01

    A study of fatty-acid ratios in French fries has proved to be an excellent choice for an entry-level research class. This research develops reasoning skills and involves the subject of breast cancer, a major concern of American society. Analysis of tumor samples removed from women with breast cancer revealed high ratios of linoleic to linolenic acid, suggesting a link between the accelerated growth of breast tumors and the combination of these two fatty acids. When the ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid was approximately 9 to 1, accelerated growth was observed. Since these fatty acids are found in cooking oils, Wichita Collegiate students, under the guidance of their chemistry teacher, decided that an investigation of the ratios of these two fatty acids should be conducted. A research class was structured using a gas chromatograph for the analysis. Separation of linoleic from linolenic acid was successfully accomplished. The students experienced inductive experimental research chemistry as it applies to everyday life. The structure of this research class can serve as a model for high school and undergraduate college research curricula.

  8. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bee , Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to profoundly affect lipid metabolism and to act as repartitioning agents. Currently, little is known about their effect on the fatty acid profile of tissue lipids in pigs. In the present study we determined the lipid composition of the backfat inner (BFI) and outer layer (BFO), omental fat (OF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 24 Swiss Large White pigs fed diets supplemented eithe...

  9. Emulsifying Property and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Modified with Oxidized Linoleic Acid and Oxidized Tannic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Cuttlefish skin gelatins modified with oxidized linoleic acid (OLA) and oxidized tannic acid (OTA) were characterized and determined for emulsifying properties and antioxidative activity. Modification of gelatin with 5% OTA increased the total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,

  10. Effect of abscisic acid on the linoleic acid metabolism in developing maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abian, J.; Gelpi, E.; Pages, M.

    1991-01-01

    Partially purified protein extracts from maize (Zea mays L.) embryos, whether treated or not with abscisic acid (ABA), were incubated with linoleic acid (LA) and 1-[ 14 C]LA. The resulting LA metabolites were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography with a radioactivity detector and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. α- and γ-ketol metabolites arising from 9-lipoxygenase activity were the more abundant compounds detected in the incubates, although the corresponding metabolites produced by 13-lipoxygenase were also present in the samples. In addition, a group of stereoisomers originating form two isomeric trihydroxy acids (9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acids) are described. Important variations in the relative proportions of the LA metabolites were observed depending on the embryo developmental stage and on ABA treatment. Two new ABA-induced compounds have been detected. These compounds are present in embryos at all developmental stages, being more abundant in old (60 days) embryos. Furthermore, ABA induction of these compounds is maximum at very young development stages, decreasing as maturation progresses. A tentative structure for these compounds (10-oxo-9,13-dihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acid and 12-oxo-9,13-dihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acid) is also provided. This study revealed an early stage in maize embryogenesis characterized by a higher relative sensitivity to ABA. The physiological importance of ABA on LA metabolism is discussed

  11. Improved fatty acid analysis of conjugated linoleic acid rich egg yolk triacylglycerols and phospholipid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jack; Proctor, Andrew

    2014-07-16

    Reports from chicken conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding trials are limited to yolk total fatty acid composition, which consistently described increased saturated fatty acids and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids. However, information on CLA triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) species is limited. This study determined the fatty acid composition of total lipids in CLA-rich egg yolk produced with CLA-rich soy oil, relative to control yolks using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), determined TAG and PL fatty acid compositions by thin-layer chromatography-GC-FID (TLC-GC-FID), identified intact PL and TAG species by TLC-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC-MALDI-MS), and determined the composition of TAG and PL species in CLA and control yolks by direct flow infusion electrospray ionization MS (DFI ESI-MS). In total, 2 lyso-phosphatidyl choline (LPC) species, 1 sphingomyelin species, 17 phosphatidyl choline species, 19 TAG species, and 9 phosphatidyl ethanolamine species were identified. Fifty percent of CLA was found in TAG, occurring predominantly in C52:5 and C52:4 TAG species. CLA-rich yolks contained significantly more LPC than did control eggs. Comprehensive lipid profiling may provide insight on relationships between lipid composition and the functional properties of CLA-rich eggs.

  12. Impact of lactic acid bacteria on conjugated linoleic acid content and atherogenic index of butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Roufegari-Nejad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a study aimed to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Sterptococcus thermophilus (as thermophilic culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, cremoris and diacetylactis, Leuconostoc citrovorum (as mesophilic culture, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis and a mixed culture of L.acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis on fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and atherogenic index (AI of butter. Fatty acid analysis with gas chromatography indicated that application of thermophilic and mixed culture decreased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid; whereas, the butters made with L. acidophilus had the highest content of CLA. Moreover, AI in the samples prepared with thermophilic cultures was the least. Sensory evaluation of the treatments revealed no significant differences (p> 0/05 in appearance and color. However, the butters prepared with thermophilic and mesophilic cultures had more desirable taste in comparison with the samples made with L. acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis. From the nutritional point of view, the adverse effect of butter could be diminished via the application of selected lactic acid bacteria.

  13. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and L-Lysine on heavy pigs performances and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a group of positional and geometric fatty acid isomers derived from linoleic acid. Dietary CLA supplementation has been shown to increase feed efficiency and may reduce body fat content in swine as recently reviewed by Corino et al., (2005. There was only one research conducted in heavy pig in which the authors did not observed any significant effect of dietary CLA on growth performances and lean tissue (Corino et al., 2003.

  14. Production and characterization of ice cream with high content in oleic and linoleic fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marín-Suárez, Marta; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Padial-Domínguez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Ice creams produced with unsaturated fats rich in oleic (OO, 70.7% of oleic) and linoleic (LO, 49.0% of linoleic) fatty acids, were compared to ice cream based on saturated coconut oil (CO, 50% of lauric acid). The globule size distribution of OO mix during aging (72 h at 4°C) followed a similar...... trend to CO mix, being stable after 48 h; whereas LO mix destabilized after 24 h. CO mix showed higher destabilization during ice cream production, but no significant differences among fats were observed in the particle size of the ice cream produced. The overrun was also lower for OO and LO ice creams...... (34.19 and 27.12%, respectively) compared to CO based ice cream (45.06%). However, an improved melting behavior, which gradually decreased from 88.69% for CO to 66.09% for LO ice cream, was observed....

  15. Incorporation of 14C-linoleic acid in lipids of normal and psoriatic human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruestow, B.; Metz, D.; Kunze, D.; Meffert, H.

    1980-01-01

    The 14 C-linoleic acid incorporation in lipids of surviving epidermis and corium of normal and psoriatic human skin was investigated. Changes of lipid metabolism were found in both epidermis and corium. Particularly the turnover of phospholipids was increased in the uninvolved psoriatic epidermis in relation to the involved psoriatic epidermis or to healthy controls. Possible reasons of these phenomena and the significance of structural lipids in psoriasis are discussed. (author)

  16. THE IMPACT OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ADDITION ON PH VALUE OF LONGISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław WASILEWSKI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research was 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or sunflower oil (SFO in amount: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Animals were slaughtered with the body weight ca. 95 kg. The aim of research was to determine pH value of loin meat tissue (Longissimus dorsi of right half-carcass in 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours and 24 hours after slaughter. Results were statistically elaborated using one-way variance analysis. Longissimus dorsi muscle pH values measured 45 minutes after slaughter in case of all groups of pigs were in range from 6.34 up to 6.47, what shows good meat quality. The lowest pH1 (measured 45 minutes after slaughter had meat of fatteners where addition of 2 % sunflower oil was given into fodder and the highest value of this trait was in group of individuals where also was given sunflower oil in 1 % amount. Statistical significant differences in pH value measured in different time after slaughter i.e. after 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 hours between tested groups of pigs were not stated. The exception is the result of pH measurement 5 hours after slaughter. Statistical significant differences were between group of pigs getting 0.5 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid characterized by the highest pH value of meat and group of animals fed the fodder with 1 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid (P≤0.01. On the basis of the results obtained in presented paper may be stated that feeding pigs with addition of conjugated linoleic acid in amounts 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 % did not impact negatively on meat quality defined by pH value.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and essential fatty acids in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipasquale, D; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Primi, R; Tröscher, A; Bernabucci, U

    2018-01-09

    Fatty acids are important modulators of inflammatory responses, in particular, n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids and CLA have received particular attention for their ability to modulate inflammation. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of CLA and essential fatty acids on the expression of pro and anti- inflammatory cytokines and their protective efficacy against inflammatory status in mammary gland by an in vitro model based on bovine mammary epithelial cells (BME-UV1). Bovine mammary epithelial cells were treated with complete medium containing either 50 µM of cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11 CLA) or trans-10, cis-12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA) or (α)-linolenic acid (aLnA) or (γ)-linolenic acid (gLnA) or linoleic acid (LA). After 48 h by fatty acids administration the cells were treated for 3 h with 20 µM of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammatory stimulus. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after treatments was assessed to verify and to compare the potential protection of different fatty acids against LPS-induced oxidative stress. The messenger RNA abundance of bovine pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukine-10 (IL-10)) and peroxisome proliferator receptor-α/γ (PPARγ/α) were determined in BME-UV1 by real-time PCR. The results showed that cells treated with fatty acids and LPS increased ROS production compared with control cells. Among treatments, cells treated with c9,t11 CLA and t10,c12 CLA isomers revealed significant lower levels of ROS production compared with other fatty acids. All fatty acids reduced the gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Among fatty acids, t10,c12 CLA, LA and gLnA showed an homogeneous reduction of the three pro-inflammatory cytokines and this may correspond to more balanced and efficient physiological activity and may trigger a better protective effect. The PPARγ gene expression was

  18. Linoleic acid participates in the response to ischemic brain injury through oxidized metabolites that regulate neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, Marie; Zhang, Zhichao; Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Otoki, Yurika; Richardson, Christine E; Yang, Jun; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D; Zhang, Liang; Bazinet, Richard P; Taha, Ameer Y

    2017-06-28

    Linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n-6), the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the US diet, is a precursor to oxidized metabolites that have unknown roles in the brain. Here, we show that oxidized LA-derived metabolites accumulate in several rat brain regions during CO 2 -induced ischemia and that LA-derived 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, but not LA, increase somatic paired-pulse facilitation in rat hippocampus by 80%, suggesting bioactivity. This study provides new evidence that LA participates in the response to ischemia-induced brain injury through oxidized metabolites that regulate neurotransmission. Targeting this pathway may be therapeutically relevant for ischemia-related conditions such as stroke.

  19. In vitro synergistic efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, oleic acid, safflower oil and taxol cytotoxicity on PC3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızılşahin, Sadi; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine in vitro synergistic efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), oleic acid (OLA), safflower oil and taxol (Tax) cytotoxicity on human prostate cancer (PC3) cell line. To determine synergistic efficacy of oil combinations, PC3 treated with different doses of compounds alone and combined with 10 μg/mL Tax. The MTT results indicated that OLA-Tax combinations exhibited cytotoxicity against PC3 at doses of 30 nM+10 μg-Tax, 15 nM+5 μg-Tax and 7.5 nM+2.5 μg-Tax. The treatment of OLA or Tax did not show significant inhibition on PC3, while OLA-Tax combinations showed effective cytotoxicity at treated doses. CLA-Tax combinations demonstrated the same effect on PC3 as combined form with 45.72% versus the alone form as 74.51% viability. Cytotoxic synergy between Tax, OLA and CLA shows enhanced cytotoxicity on PC3 which might be used in the therapy of prostate cancer.

  20. Supplemental safflower oil affects the fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid, of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty acids and CLA in the lean tissue, without adversely affecting growth performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb.

  1. Dietary Linoleic and a-Linolenic Acid Affect Anxiety-Related Responses and Exploratory Activity in Growing Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, C.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kerkhof, van I.; Smink, W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that the dietary ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to a-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursors of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively, may affect behavior in mammals. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the impact of dietary LA and

  2. Linoleic Acid-Induced Ultra-Weak Photon Emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a Tool for Monitoring of Lipid Peroxidation in the Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ankush; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non-invasive tool for the

  3. Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prasad

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non

  4. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Sailas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studies highlight that CLA, apart form the classical nuclear transcription factors-mediated mechanism of action, appear to exhibit a number of inter-dependent molecular signalling pathways accounting for their reported health benefits. Such benefits relate to anti-obesitic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic and osteosynthetic effects. On the other hand, negative effects of CLA have been reported such as fatty liver and spleen, induction of colon carcinogenesis and hyperproinsulinaemia. As far as human consumption is concerned, a definite conclusion for CLA safety has not been reached yet. Parameters such as administration of the type of CLA isomer and/or their combination with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, mode of administration (eg., as free fatty acid or its triglyceride form, liquid or solid, daily dose and duration of consumption, gender, age, or ethnic and geographical backgrounds remain to be determined. Yet, it appears from trials so far conducted that CLA are functional food having prevailing beneficial health effects for humans.

  5. Linoleic acid and its potassium and sodium salts: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocen, Tuğba; Haman Bayarı, Sevgi; Haluk Guven, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Linoleic acid (cis, cis-9,12-octodecadienoic acid) is the main polyunsaturated -omega 6- essential fatty acid. The conformational behaviour of linoleic acid (LA) in the gas phase was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT). The structures of conformers of LA were fully optimized by using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The theory showed that the tttttts‧CssCs‧tt conformation of LA (conformer I) is the more stable than the other conformations. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman spectra of pure LA in liquid form were recorded in the region 4000-450 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The DFT calculations on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of the dimer form of most stable conformer of LA were also performed using the same method. The assignment of the vibrational modes was made based on calculated potential energy distributions (PEDs). The simulated spectra of dimer form of LA are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental spectra. The sodium and potassium salts of LA were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations. Several molecular and electronic properties of LA and its salts such as HOMO-LUMO energies, chemical hardness and electronegativity were also calculated and interpreted.

  6. Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben-Russ, Michael; Bors, Wolf; Saran, Manfred

    1987-01-01

    Linoleic acid peroxyl radicals (LOO) can be viewed as model intermediates occurring during lipid peroxidation processes. Formation and reactions of these species were investigated in aqueous alkaline solution using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. Irradiation of linoleic acid in N 2 O/O 2 -saturated solutions leads to a mixture of peroxyl radical isomers; reaction of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (13-LOOH) with azide radicals in N 2 O-saturated solution produces 13-LOO radicals specifically. These peroxyl radicals cannot be observed directly, but their reactions with kaempferol and quercetin, acting as radical-scavenging antioxidants, produced strongly absorbing aroxyl radicals (ArO). The same aroxyl radicals were generated by OH and N 3 with rate constants exceeding 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . Applying a reaction scheme that includes competing generation and decay reactions of both LOO and ArO radicals, individual rate constants were derived for LOO reactions with the phenols (> 10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s-? 1 ), with aroxyl radicals to form covalent adducts (> 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ), as well as for their bimilecular decay (3.0 x 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ). These results demonstrate high reactivity of fatty acid peroxyl radicals and flavone antioxidants in aqueous solution. (author)

  7. Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erben-Russ, M.; Bors, W.; Saran, M.

    1987-09-01

    Linoleic acid peroxyl radicals (LOO) can be viewed as model intermediates occurring during lipid peroxidation processes. Formation and reactions of these species were investigated in aqueous alkaline solution using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. Irradiation of linoleic acid in N/sub 2/O/O/sub 2/-saturated solutions leads to a mixture of peroxyl radical isomers; reaction of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (13-LOOH) with azide radicals in N/sub 2/O-saturated solution produces 13-LOO radicals specifically. These peroxyl radicals cannot be observed directly, but their reactions with kaempferol and quercetin, acting as radical-scavenging antioxidants, produced strongly absorbing aroxyl radicals (ArO). The same aroxyl radicals were generated by OH and N/sub 3/ with rate constants exceeding 10/sup 9/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. Applying a reaction scheme that includes competing generation and decay reactions of both LOO and ArO radicals, individual rate constants were derived for LOO reactions with the phenols (> 10/sup 7/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s-./sup 1/), with aroxyl radicals to form covalent adducts (> 10/sup 8/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/), as well as for their bimilecular decay (3.0 x 10/sup 8/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/). These results demonstrate high reactivity of fatty acid peroxyl radicals and flavone antioxidants in aqueous solution.

  8. A systems approach for discovering linoleic acid derivatives that potentially mediate pain and itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Christopher E.; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Yuan, Zhi-Xin; Sapio, Matthew R.; Keyes, Gregory S.; Mishra, Santosh K.; Gross, Jacklyn R.; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon; Zamora, Daisy; Horowitz, Mark S.; Davis, John M.; Sorokin, Alexander V.; Dey, Amit; LaPaglia, Danielle M.; Wheeler, Joshua J.; Vasko, Michael R.; Mehta, Nehal N.; Mannes, Andrew J.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain and itch are common hypersensitivity syndromes that are affected by endogenous mediators. We applied a systems-based, translational approach to predict, discover, and characterize mediators of pain and itch that are regulated by diet and inflammation. Profiling of tissue-specific precursor abundance and biosynthetic gene expression predicted that inflamed skin would be abundant in four previously unknown 11-hydroxy-epoxy-or 11-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives and four previously identified 9- or 13-hydroxy-epoxy- or 9- or 13-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives. All of these mediators were confirmed to be abundant in rat and human skin by mass spectrometry. However, only the two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates sensitized rat dorsal root ganglion neurons to release more calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP), which is involved in pain transmission, in response to low pH (which mimics an inflammatory state) or capsaicin (which activates ion channels involved in nociception). The two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates share a 3-hydroxy-Z-pentenyl-E-epoxide moiety, thus suggesting that this substructure could mediate nociceptor sensitization. In rats, intradermal hind paw injection of 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate elicited C-fiber–mediated sensitivity to thermal pain. In a randomized trial testing adjunctive strategies to manage refractory chronic headaches, reducing the dietary intake of linoleic acid was associated with decreases in plasma 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate, which correlated with clinical pain reduction. Human psoriatic skin had 30-fold higher 9-keto-12,13-trans-epoxy-(10E)-octadecenoate compared to control skin, and intradermal injection of this compound induced itch-related scratching behavior in mice. Collectively, these findings define a family of endogenous mediators with potential roles in pain and itch. PMID:28831021

  9. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu

    2012-01-01

    7-12 h, respectively. The mRNA levels of liver X receptor (LXR)α and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, transcription factors that regulate SCD-1, were decreased by 10,12 CLA within 5 h. These data suggest that the isomer-specific decrease in de novo lipid synthesis by 10,12 CLA......]-oleic or [(14)C]-linoleic acids. When using [(14)C]-acetic acid and [(14)C]-pyruvic acid as substrates, 30 μM 10,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased de novo synthesis of triglyceride, free FA, diacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, cardiolipin, phospholipids and ceramides within 3-24 h. Treatment with 30 μM 10...... is due, in part, to the rapid repression of lipogenic transcription factors that regulate MUFA synthesis, suggesting an anti-obesity mechanism unique to this trans FA....

  11. The Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Heo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (p<0.05. Nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation.

  12. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Stimulates Apoptosis in RH and Tehran Strains of Toxoplasma gondii, in Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Shamseddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on apoptosis of tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain (type I and the cyst-forming Tehran strain (type II in vitro.Toxoplasma strains were injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice. The Tehran strain forms cysts in the brain of mice. Bradyzoites within the cysts are reactivated to proliferative tachyzoites, by dexamethasone. Tachyzoites were aspirated from the peritoneum of infected mice, and the percentage of viable parasites was estimated with trypan blue staining. Tachyzoites were inoculated into HeLa cells cultivated in DMEM medium. Different concentrations of CLA were evaluated on T. gondii in HeLa cells by the tetrazolium (MTT colorimetric assay. Differentiation between apoptosis and cell death was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI double staining. The statistical analysis performed by GraphPad Prism version 6.00.CLA induces apoptosis in virulent (RH and avirulent (Tehran strains of T. gondii. The results of MTT indicated that CLA could decrease the proliferation of tachyzoites of both strains in HeLa cells.Conjugated linoleic acid has anti-toxoplasmacidal activity on tachyzoites of T. gondii. Therefore, we recommended further studies on this component in order to achieve a new drug against the parasite.

  14. Bioproduction of conjugated linoleic acid by probiotic bacteria occurs in vitro and in vivo in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaschuk, Julia B; Walker, John W; Diaz, Hugo; Madsen, Karen L

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics have been shown to reduce the incidence of colon cancer in animal models. The mechanisms responsible for this activity are poorly defined. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of isomers of linoleic acid (LA) possessing anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties, which can be produced from LA by certain bacterial strains. In this study, the ability of probiotic bacteria to exert anticarcinogenic effects through the production of CLA was assessed. Incubation of probiotic bacteria (VSL3, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. plantarum, Bifidobacterium breve, B. infantis, B. longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus) in the presence of LA yielded CLA production as measured by gas chromatography. Conditioned medium, containing probiotic-produced CLA, reduced viability and induced apoptosis of HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, as assessed by MTT assay and DNA laddering, respectively. Western blotting demonstrated an increased expression of PPARgamma in cells treated with conditioned medium compared with LA alone. Incubation of murine feces with LA after administering VSL3 yielded 100-fold more CLA than feces collected prior to VSL3 feeding. This study supports a role for supplemental probiotics as a strategy both for attenuating inflammation and for preventing colon cancer.

  15. Dose-rate and oxygen effects in models of lipid membranes: linoleic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raleigh, J A; Kremers, W; Gaboury, B [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba. Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    1977-03-01

    Cellular membranes have been suggested as possible loci for the development of the oxygen effect in radiobiology. Unsaturated lipids from membranes are subject to very efficient radiation-induced peroxidation, and the deleterious effects generally associated with lipid autoxidation could be initiated by ionizing radiation. Oxidative damage in lipids was characterized not only by high yields but also by a profound dose-rate effect. At dose-rates of x irradiation below 100 rad/min, a very sharp rise occurred in oxidative damage. This damage has been quantified spectrophotometrically in terms of diene conjugation (O.D. 234 mm) and chromatographically in terms of specific 9- and 13-hydroperoxide formation in linoleic acid micelles. Radical scavenging experiments indicated that hydroxyl radical attack initiated the oxidative damage. Dimethyl sulphoxide is exceptional in that it did not protect, but sensitized, linoleic acid to radiation-induced peroxidation. The yields of hydroperoxides were substantial (G = 10 to 40) and could be related to biological changes known to be effected by autoxidizing lipids.

  16. Co-treatment with conjugated linoleic acid and nitrite protects against myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natia Qipshidze-Kelm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the CDC, the most common type of heart disease is coronary artery disease, which commonly leads to myocardial infarction (MI. Therapeutic approaches to lessen the resulting cardiovascular injury associated with MI are limited. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or stimulating mRNA degradation. A single miRNA can modulate physiological or disease phenotypes by regulating whole functional systems. Importantly, miRNAs can regulate cardiac function, thereby modulating heart muscle contraction, heart growth and morphogenesis. MicroRNA-499 (miRNA-499 is a cardiac-specific miRNA that when elevated causes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, in turn preventing cardiac dysfunction during MI. Previous studies revealed that combination treatment with conjugated linoleic acid (cLA and nitrite preserved cardiovascular function in mice. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cLA and nitrite may regulate miRNA-499, thus providing cardiac protection during MI. To test this hypothesis, 12-week old mice were treated with cLA (10 mg/kg/d-via osmotic mini-pump or cLA and nitrite (50 ppm-drinking water 3 days prior to MI (ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Echocardiography and pressure–volume (PV-loop analysis revealed that cLA and nitrite-treated MI mice had improved heart function (10 days following MI compared to untreated MI mice. Treatment with cLA and nitrite significantly induced levels of miRNA-499 compared to untreated MI mice. In addition, treatment with cLA and nitrite abolished MI-induced protein expression of p53 and dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP-1. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 was elevated in MI mice treated with cLA and nitrite compared to untreated MI mice. Confocal imaging on heart tissue confirmed expression the levels of HO-1 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that therapeutic

  17. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rist, L.; Mueller, A.; Barthel, C.; Snijders, B.; Jansen, M.; Simões-Wüst, A.P.; Huber, M.; Kummeling, I.; Mandach, U. von; Steinhart, H.; Thijs, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding

  18. Production of Palmitoleic and Linoleic Acid in Oleaginous and Nonoleaginous Yeast Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kolouchová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility of utilizing both oleaginous yeast species accumulating large amounts of lipids (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Candida sp. and traditional biotechnological nonoleaginous ones (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as potential producers of dietetically important major fatty acids. The main objective was to examine the cultivation conditions that would induce a high ratio of dietary fatty acids and biomass. Though genus-dependent, the type of nitrogen source had a higher influence on biomass yield than the C/N ratio. The nitrogen source leading to the highest lipid accumulation was potassium nitrate, followed by ammonium sulfate, which is an ideal nitrogen source supporting, in both oleaginous and nonoleaginous species, sufficient biomass growth with concomitantly increased lipid accumulation. All yeast strains displayed high (70–90% content of unsaturated fatty acids in total cell lipids. The content of dietary fatty acids of interest, namely, palmitoleic acid and linoleic acid, reached in Kluyveromyces and Trichosporon strains over 50% of total fatty acids and the highest yield, over 280 mg per g of dry cell weight of these fatty acids, was observed in Trichosporon with ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source at C/N ratio 70.

  19. Hydrogenation Alternatives - Effects of Trans-Fatty-Acids and Stearic-Acid Versus Linoleic-Acid on Serum-Lipids and Lipoproteins in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of linoleic acid (cis,cis-C18:2(n-6)) and its hydrogenation products elaidic (trans-C18:1(n-9)) and stearic acid (C18:0) on serum lipoprotein levels in humans.Twenty-six men and 30 women, all nor

  20. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  1. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9) microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (pbreve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (pbreve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (pbreve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats significantly modified the palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents in tissues. The effect was not observed in non-separated animals.

  2. Experimentally induced cerebral fat embolism with linoleic acid; MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bae; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Yong; Lee, Suck Hong; Park, Byeong Rae

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the MRI findings of cerebral fat embolism induced by injecting linoleic acid into ten cats, and pathologic diagnosis. Using a microcatheter, 30μ1 of linoleic acid was injeted into the internal carotid artery of ten cats. MR T2-weighted (T2WI), diffusion-weighted (DWI), and Gd-enhanced T1-weighted images(Gd-enhanced T1WI) were obtained after 30 minutes and after 2 hours of embolization. We pathlogically examined endothelial cell damage, cellular change, perivascular abnormality and fat vacuoles, and then determined the correlation between MRI and the pathologic findings. After 30 minutes of embolization, lesions of very high signal intensity were detected by T2WI in six cats, and of slightly high signal intensity in two:in the remaining two, signal intensity was normal. DWI showed lesions of very high intensity in nine animals and of slightly high intensity in one, while Gd-enhanced T1WI showed well-enhanced lesions in nine and a minimally enhanced lesion in one. After 2 hours of embolization, T2WI revealed lesions of very high signal intensity in nine cats, and of slightly high signal intensity in one, while DWI detected lesions of very high signal intensity in all cats. On Gd-enhanced T1WI, lesions in all cats were well enhanced. According to the findings of light microscopic examination, infarcted lesions mainly involved the gray matter, but also some white matter. In the lesions, neurophil matrix edema, neuronal degeneration, perivascular swelling, the widening of extracellular space, extravascular hemorrhage, and fat vacuoles were evident. During the initial two hours following injuction, MR imaging of cerebral fat embolism induced by linoleic acid through the internal carotid artery in cats showed high signal intensity on T2WI and DWI, and clear enhancement on Gd-enhanced T1WI. In cases involving cellular edema, cerebrovascular injury and extracellular space widening, the pathologic evidence suggested the coexistence of

  3. Kinetics of photoirradiation-induced synthesis of soy oil-conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew

    2007-02-07

    Photoirradiation of soy oil with UV/visible light has been shown to produce significant amounts of trans,trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers through conversion of various synthesized intermediate cis,trans isomers. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of CLA isomers synthesis to better understand the production of various isomers. Soy oil was irradiated with UV/visible light for 144 h in the presence of an iodine catalyst and CLA isomers analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Arrhenius plots were developed for the conversion of soy oil linoleic acid (A) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA (B), conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA to form trans,trans-CLA (C) with respect to B, and formation of trans,trans-CLA isomers with respect to C. The kinetics of consumption of linoleic acid (LA) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA was found to be of second-order with a rate constant of 9.01 x 10-7 L/mol s. The rate of formation of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers depends on the rate of formation from LA and its rate of consumption to form trans,trans-CLA isomers. The conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers to trans,trans-CLA isomers was found to be of first-order with a rate constant of 2.75 x 10-6 s-1. However, the formation of thermodynamically stable trans,trans-CLA isomers (C) with respect to C was found to be a zero-order reaction with a rate constant of 10.66 x 10-7 mol/L s. The consumption of LA was found to be the rate-determining step in the CLA isomers formation reaction mechanism. The findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of CLA isomers synthesis by photoirradiation and the factors controlling the ratio of various isomers.

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary observations on the effects of milk fortification with conjugated linoleic acid in yogurt preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, R. V.; Albert, I.; András, C. D.; Csapó, J.; Ibănescu, C.

    2015-04-01

    The fortification and enrichment of food with health benefic natural or natural identical substances creating new functional foods became an important issue for food researchers and processors. However, often occurs that the obtained products (despite of their health benefic activity) cannot be marketed due to strange or accustomed taste and/or texture. The aim of the research was to elucidate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) enrichment of raw milk on the rheological properties of the obtained yogurt. The results show that the values of the complex viscosity at 50 rad.s-1 (correlated with the thickness and sliminess of the food gel structures) of the CLA-enriched yogurt was the lowest among the studied samples, meaning the enriched yogurt is more creamy than the commercial products. These observations gave us the hope that, in this case, the texture of enriched product will not present any drawback related to consumer quality judgment.

  6. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Burdette, J E; Sun, Y; Deng, S; Schlecht, S M; Zheng, W; Nikolic, D; Mahady, G; van Breemen, R B; Fong, H H S; Pezzuto, J M; Bolton, J L; Farnsworth, N R

    2004-01-01

    A methanol extract of chaste-tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus L.) was tested for its ability to displace radiolabeled estradiol from the binding site of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). The extract at 46 +/- 3 microg/ml displaced 50% of estradiol from ERalpha and 64 +/- 4 microg/ml from ERbeta. Treatment of the ER+ hormone-dependent T47D:A18 breast cancer cell line with the extract induced up-regulation of ERbeta mRNA. Progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was upregulated in the Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. However, chaste-tree berry extract did not induce estrogen-dependent alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in Ishikawa cells. Bioassay-guided isolation, utilizing ER binding as a monitor, resulted in the isolation of linoleic acid as one possible estrogenic component of the extract. The use of pulsed ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is an affinity-based screening technique, also identified linoleic acid as an ER ligand based on its selective affinity, molecular weight, and retention time. Linoleic acid also stimulated mRNA ERbeta expression in T47D:A18 cells, PR expression in Ishikawa cells, but not AP activity in Ishikawa cells. These data suggest that linoleic acid from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus can bind to estrogen receptors and induce certain estrogen inducible genes.

  7. Characterization of the triple-component linoleic acid isomerase in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 by genetic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B; Qi, H; Gu, Z; Zhang, H; Chen, W; Chen, H; Chen, Y Q

    2017-11-01

    To assess the mechanism for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058. CLA has attracted great interests for decades due to its health-associated benefits including anticancer, anti-atherogenic, anti-obesity and modulation of the immune system. A number of microbial CLA producers were widely reported including lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, an isolate from Chinese traditional fermented food, could convert LA to CLA with various intermediates. To characterize the genetic determinants for generating CLA, a cre-lox-based system was utilized to delete the genes encoding myosin cross-reactive antigen (MCRA), short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase (DH) and acetoacetate decarboxylase (DC) in Lact. plantarum ZS2058, respectively. Neither intermediate was detected in the corresponding gene deletion mutant. Meanwhile all those mutants could recover the ability to convert linoleic acid to CLA when the corresponding gene was completed. The results indicated that CLA production was a multiple-step reaction catalysed by triple-component linoleate isomerase system encoded by mcra, dh and dc. Multicomponent linoleic acid isomerase provided important results for illustration unique mechanism for CLA production in Lact. plantarum ZS2058. Lactobacilli with CLA production ability offer novel opportunities for functional food development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Autoxidation of conjugated linoleic acid methyl ester in the presence of α-tocopherol: the hydroperoxide pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Pajunen, Taina

    2009-01-01

    The autoxidation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is poorly understood in spite of increasing interest in the beneficial biological properties of CLA and growing consumption of CLA-rich foods. In this thesis, the autoxidation reactions of the two major CLA isomers, 9-cis,11-trans-octadecadienoic acid and 10-trans,12-cis-octadecadienoic acid, are investigated. The results contribute to an understanding of the early stages of the autoxidation of CLA methyl ester, and provide for the first time...

  9. Production of bioactive substances by intestinal bacteria as a basis for explaining probiotic mechanisms: bacteriocins and conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Eileen F; Cotter, Paul D; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-16

    The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria achieve their associated health benefits can be complex and multifaceted. In this respect, the diverse microbial composition of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) provides an almost unlimited potential source of bioactive substances (pharmabiotics) which can directly or indirectly affect human health. Bacteriocins and fatty acids are just two examples of pharmabiotic substances which may contribute to probiotic functionality within the mammalian GIT. Bacteriocin production is believed to confer producing strains with a competitive advantage within complex microbial environments as a consequence of their associated antimicrobial activity. This has the potential to enable the establishment and prevalence of producing strains as well as directly inhibiting pathogens within the GIT. Consequently, these antimicrobial peptides and the associated intestinal producing strains may be exploited to beneficially influence microbial populations. Intestinal bacteria are also known to produce a diverse array of health-promoting fatty acids. Indeed, certain strains of intestinal bifidobacteria have been shown to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid which has been associated with a variety of systemic health-promoting effects. Recently, the ability to modulate the fatty acid composition of the liver and adipose tissue of the host upon oral administration of CLA-producing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was demonstrated in a murine model. Importantly, this implies a potential therapeutic role for probiotics in the treatment of certain metabolic and immunoinflammatory disorders. Such examples serve to highlight the potential contribution of pharmabiotic production to probiotic functionality in relation to human health maintenance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lecithin-Based Nano-emulsification Improves the Bioavailability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Jun Ho; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-02-17

    In this study, we investigated the effects of lecithin-based nano-emulsification on the heat stability and bioavailability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in different free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) forms. CLA nano-emulsion in TG form exhibited a small droplet size (70-120 nm) compared to CLA nano-emulsion in FFA form (230-260 nm). Nano-emulsification protected CLA isomers in TG form, but not in free form, against thermal decomposition during the heat treatment. The in vitro bioavailability test using monolayers of Caco-2 human intestinal cells showed that nano-emulsification increased the cellular uptake of CLA in both FFA and TG forms. More importantly, a rat feeding study showed that CLA content in small intestinal tissues or plasma was higher when CLA was emulsified, indicating an enhanced oral bioavailability of CLA by nano-emulsification. These results provide important information for development of nano-emulsion-based delivery systems that improve thermal stability and bioavailability of CLA.

  11. Chemometric deconvolution of gas chromatographic unresolved conjugated linoleic acid isomers triplet in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasko, Jaroslav; Kubinec, Róbert; Ostrovský, Ivan; Pavlíková, Eva; Krupcík, Ján; Soják, Ladislav

    2009-04-03

    A generally known problem of GC separation of trans-7;cis-9; cis-9,trans-11; and trans-8,cis-10 CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) isomers was studied by GC-MS on 100m capillary column coated with cyanopropyl silicone phase at isothermal column temperatures in a range of 140-170 degrees C. The resolution of these CLA isomers obtained at given conditions was not high enough for direct quantitative analysis, but it was, however, sufficient for the determination of their peak areas by commercial deconvolution software. Resolution factors of overlapped CLA isomers determined by the separation of a model CLA mixture prepared by mixing of a commercial CLA mixture and CLA isomer fraction obtained by the HPLC semi-preparative separation of milk fatty acids methyl esters were used to validate the deconvolution procedure. Developed deconvolution procedure allowed the determination of the content of studied CLA isomers in ewes' and cows' milk samples, where dominant isomer cis-9,trans-11 is eluted between two small isomers trans-7,cis-9 and trans-8,cis-10 (in the ratio up to 1:100).

  12. Effect of oral supplementation of the linoleic and gammalinolenic acids on the diabetic pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Consonni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the direct protective action of oral fatty acid supplementation against the deleterious effect of hyperglycemia on maternal reproductive outcomes; fetal growth and development on female Wistar rats. The animals were distributed into four experimental groups: G1= non-diabetic without supplementation (Control group; G2= non-diabetic treated with linoleic (LA and gammalinolenic acid (GLA (1 mL of Gamaline-V/day; G3= diabetic without supplementation and G4= diabetic treated with LA and GLA. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg. At day 21 of pregnancy, the gravid uterus was weighed and dissected to count the dead and live fetuses, resorption, implantation, and corpora lutea numbers. The fetuses were analyzed for external and internal anomalies. The treatment with Gamaline-V supplementation to diabetic rats interfered in the maternal reproductive outcome (reduced number of live fetuses and embryonic implantation; however, it protected the deleterious on the incidence of congenital anomalies caused by hyperglycemia.

  13. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation also could increase the lipolysis and reduce the accumulation of fatty acids on the adipose tissue; the putative mechanisms involved may be its action in reducing the lipase lipoprotein activity and to increase the carnitine-palmitoil-transferase-1 (CAT-1) activity, its interaction with PPARγ, and to raise the expression of UCP-1. Although studies made in human have shown some benefits of CLA supplementation as the weight loss, the results are still discordant. Moreover, some have shown adverse effects, such as negative effects on glucose metabolism and lipid profile. The purpose of this article is to review the available data regarding the benefits of CLA on the energetic metabolism and body composition, emphasizing action mechanisms.

  14. role of conjugated linoleic acid in the prevention of radiation hazard in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, E.M.; Osman, N.N.; Haggag, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a natural product in minimizing the radiation hazards. male rats were assigned to six groups each of 7 animals throughout six weeks, fed 1% CLA (wt/wt)added to commercial diet in the form of milk powder 182 g/kg diet. rats exposed to 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation showed significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).triglycerides (TG), atherosclerosis index, total lipid (TL), phospholipids (ph-lipids), malondialdehyde (MDA), urea,creatinine, uric acid, calcium (Ca) and phosphorous levels associated with decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), activity of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status, body weight, testes weight and testosterone both irradiated and non-irradiated milk powder administrated to irradiated rat groups minimized the radiation damage in the assayed parameters indicating its beneficial role as a promising antioxidant in scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species

  15. Linoleic acid-menthyl ester reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nao; Yamano, Naomi; Sakata, Kotaro; Arao, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nagao, Toshihiro; Shimada, Yuji; Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of linoleic acid-menthyl ester (LAME) on lipid metabolism were assessed in HepG2 cells. It is well known that high level of apolipoprotein (apo) B100 in the serum is risk for atherosclerosis. Although linoleic acid (LA) treatment and LA plus L-mentol treatment increased apo B100 secretion, LAME treatment significantly decreased apo B100 secretion in HepG2 cells compared with control medium. The hypolipidemic effect of LAME was attributable to the suppression of triglyceride synthesis in HepG2 cells. It is also known that the risk of coronary heart disease is negatively related to the concentration of serum apo A-1. In the present study, LAME treatment increased apo A-1 secretion as compared with LA treatment in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that mentyl-esterification of fatty acids may be beneficial in anti-atherogenic dietary therapy.

  16. Matrice lipidique et biodisponibilité de l’acide alpha-linolénique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couëdelo Leslie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Les acides gras poly-insaturés (AGPI de la série oméga-3 (ω3 ont un rôle important dans la prévention de certaines pathologies. En plus d’être nécessaires dans des conditions physiologiques particulières (développement pré- et post-natal, croissance (Riediger et al., 2009. J Am Diet Assoc 109 : 668–679, ils sont associés à des effets santé en termes de prévention, notamment au niveau de pathologies cardiovasculaires, inflammatoires, certains cancers et certaines maladies neuro-dégénératives (De Lorgeril et al., 1994. Lancet 343 : 1454–1459 ; Simopoulos, 2008. Exp Biol Med (Maywood, NJ 233 : 674–688. Cependant, les dernières études épidémiologiques montrent que les apports en AGPI ω3, et notamment en acide alpha-linolénique (ALA, précurseur métabolique des AGPI à longue chaîne ω3, sont deux fois inférieurs aux recommandations de l’Agence national de sécurité sanitaire, de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail (ANSES, 2011. Outre la nécessité d’augmenter l’apport en ALA, il est désormais nécessaire de prendre en considération les facteurs qui améliorent sa biodisponibilité. Dans ce contexte, nous avons testé plusieurs paramètres susceptibles de moduler le devenir métabolique de l’ALA. Nos recherches ont mis en évidence que plusieurs paramètres physiques et chimiques, tels que l’émulsification d’une huile linolénique avec de la lécithine de soja, la position de l’ALA sur le squelette glycérique du triglycéride alimentaire mais aussi la composition de la matrice permettraient de moduler la biodisponibilité et le devenir métabolique de l’ALA dans l’organisme.

  17. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin Barrett

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15 were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9 microorganisms/day alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05 compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01 and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05, and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001. B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated

  18. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid and trans 18:1 isomers in synthetic and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, John K G; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Deng, Zeyuan; Zhou, Jianqiang; Jahreis, Gerhard; Dugan, Michael E R

    2004-06-01

    The chemistry of conjugated fatty acids, specifically octadecadienoic acids (18:2; commonly referred to as conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA), has provided many challenges to lipid analysts because of their unique physical properties and the many possible positional and geometric isomers. After the acid-labile properties of CLAs during analytic procedures were overcome, it became evident that natural products, specifically dairy fats, contain one dominant (c9,t11-CLA), 3 intermediate (t7,c9-, t9,c11-, and t11,c13-CLA), and up to 20 more minor CLA isomers. The best analytic techniques to date include a combination of gas chromatography that uses 100-m highly polar capillary columns, silver ion-HPLC, and a combination of silver ion-thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography to analyze the CLA and trans 18:1 isomers, because some of them serve as precursors of CLA in biological systems. These analytic techniques have assisted commercial suppliers to prepare pure CLA isomers and have permitted the evaluation of individual CLA isomers for their nutritional and biological activity in animal and human systems. It is increasingly evident that different CLA isomers have distinctly different physiologic and biochemical properties. These techniques are essential to evaluate dairy fats for their CLA content, to design experimental diets to increase the amount of CLA in dairy fats, and to determine the CLA profile in these CLA-enriched dairy fats. These improved techniques are used to evaluate the CLA profile in pork products from pigs fed different commercial CLA mixtures.

  19. Production of volatiles in fresh-cut apple: effect of applying alginate coatings containing linoleic acid or isoleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Meraz, Irma O; Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Molina-Corral, Francisco J; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Jacobo-Cuellar, Juan L; Sepulveda, David R; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2014-11-01

    One of the main quality parameters in apples is aroma, its main precursors are fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). In this study, alginate edible coatings were used as carriers of linoleic acid or isoleucine to serve as precursors for the production of aroma in cut apples. Apple wedges were immersed in a CaCl2 solution and coated with one of the following formulations: alginate solution (Alg-Ca), Alg-Ca-low-level linoleic acid (0.61 g/Lt), (LFA), Alg-Ca-high-level linoleic acid (2.44 g/L; HFA), Alg-Ca-low-level isoleucine (0.61 g/L; LAA), and Alg-Ca-high-level isoleucine (2.44 g/L; HAA). Apple wedges were stored at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity for 21 d and key volatiles were studied during storage. Addition of precursors, mainly isoleucine, showed to increase the production of some key volatiles on coated fresh-cut apples during storage. The concentration of 2-methyl-1-butanol was 4 times higher from day 12 to day 21 in HAA, while 2-methyl butyl acetate increased from day 12 to day 21 in HAA. After 21 d, HAA-apples presented a 40-fold value of 2-methyl-butyl acetate, compared to Alg-Ca cut apples. Values of hexanal increased during cut apple storage when the coating carried linoleic acid, mainly on HFA, from 3 to 12 d. The ability of apples to metabolize AA and FA depends on the concentration of precursors, but also depends on key enzymes, previous apple storage, among others. Further studies should be done to better clarify the behavior of fresh-cut apples as living tissue to metabolize precursors contained in edible coatings for the production of volatiles. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Effect of substratum, serum and linoleic acid on the lipid synthesis of isolated alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cott, G.R.; Edeen, K.E.; Hale, S.G.; Mason, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of cellular substratum (plastic or amnionic basement membrane (ABM)) and serum additive (fetal bovine (FBS), pork, horse, rat or human) on phospholipid synthesis in alveolar type II cells. The cells were isolated from adult rats, cultured for 48 hours under the various substratum and serum conditions, and then incubated for an additional 2 hours with [1- 14 C] acetate. ABM consistently caused a significant increase in the percent of radiolabel incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) and/or phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Serum also had a significant effect with the highest values of PC and saturated PC being obtained with rat serum and the highest PG values with horse serum. The fatty acid composition of the sera used varied according to species with the largest variations in percent linoleic acid. Supplementing media with linoleic acid resulted in a marked increase in saturated PC values and a fall in PG values. Therefore, they conclude that: 1) ABM improves differentiated function, 2) FBS supplementation may not be optimal, and 3) the different effects of linoleic acid supplementation on PC, saturated PC, and PG values suggests an independent regulation of synthesis for these lipid species in vitro

  1. Complexes between ovalbumin nanoparticles and linoleic acid: Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponton, Osvaldo E; Perez, Adrián A; Carrara, Carlos R; Santiago, Liliana G

    2016-11-15

    Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of complex formation between heat-induced aggregates of ovalbumin (ovalbumin nanoparticles, OVAn) and linoleic acid (LA) were evaluated. Extrinsic fluorescence data were fitted to modified Scatchard model yielding the following results: n: 49±2 LA molecules bound per OVA monomer unit and Ka: 9.80±2.53×10(5)M. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties were analyzed by turbidity measurements at different LA/OVA monomer molar ratios (21.5-172) and temperatures (20-40°C). An adsorption approach was used and a pseudo-second-order kinetics was found for LA-OVAn complex formation. This adsorption process took place within 1h. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that LA adsorption on OVAn was a spontaneous, endothermic and entropically-driven process, highlighting the hydrophobic nature of the LA and OVAn interaction. Finally, Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed that both OVAn and LA-OVAn complexes have a roughly rounded form with size lower than 100nm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates inflammation-induced colorectal cancer in mice through activation of PPARgamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P; Misyak, Sarah A; Schmelz, Eva M; Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood. Mice lacking PPARgamma in immune and epithelial cells and PPARgamma-expressing littermates were fed either control or CLA-supplemented (1 g CLA/100 g) diets to determine the role of PPARgamma in inflammation-induced CRC. To induce tumor formation and colitis, mice were treated with azoxymethane and then challenged with 2% dextran sodium sulfate, respectively. Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARgamma-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARgamma-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARgamma-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARgamma-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARgamma-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism.

  3. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Hassan; Matin, Somaieh; Nemati, Ali; Naghizadeh-Baghi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL 1β ), is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients. In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL 1β assessment, the patients' anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score ( P =0.001), average caloric intake ( P =0.01), and macronutrient intake ( P nutritional status of patients suffering from COPD through adjusting the serum level of IL 1β .

  4. Mathematical Modelling to Predict Oxidative Behaviour of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Food Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitziber Ojanguren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes that apply high temperatures in the presence of oxygen may compromise the stability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA bioactive isomers. Statistical techniques are used in this study to model and predict, on a laboratory scale, the oxidative behaviour of oil with high CLA content, controlling the limiting factors of food processing. This modelling aims to estimate the impact of an industrial frying process (140 °C, 7 L/h air on the oxidation of CLA oil for use as frying oil instead of sunflower oil. A factorial design was constructed within a temperature (80–200 °C and air flow (7–20 L/h range. Oil stability index (Rancimat method was used as a measure of oxidation. Three-level full factorial design was used to obtain a quadratic model for CLA oil, enabling the oxidative behaviour to be predicted under predetermined process conditions (temperature and air flow. It is deduced that temperatures applied in food processes affect the oxidation of CLA to a greater extent than air flow. As a result, it is estimated that the oxidative stability of CLA oil is less resistant to industrial frying than sunflower oil. In conclusion, thanks to the mathematical model, a good choice of the appropriate industrial food process can be selected to avoid the oxidation of the bioactive isomers of CLA, ensuring its functionality in novel applications.

  5. The effects of conjugated linoleic acids on breast cancer: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Arab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently prevention strategies for breast cancer are focused on lifestyle modification such as diet. Some dietary factors such as Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA can lower the risk of breast cancer, metastasis and some factors concerning this malignancy. Many studies have been established in this field, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated this association based on systematic review among published scientific literature. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar and Persian database (Iran Medex, magiran to identify relevant studies. We summarized the findings of 8 papers in this review. Although, three cohort studies were not overall identified a protective effect of CLA dietary intake or CLA content in breast tissue on breast cancer incidence, metastasis and death, one of them showed an inverse association after adjusting for age. Also, among case-control studies a weak inverse association between breast cancer risk and CLA dietary intake and serum levels among post-menopausal women was reported. Besides, a clinical trial showed that some indicator of breast tumor decreased after CLA administration among women with breast adenocarcinoma. Lacking published evidence suggested inconsistent results. So, further well-designed studies are required, particularly in considering the main breast cancer risk factors.

  6. The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Khosro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ and retinoid × receptor-α (RXR-α were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-γ or RXR-α expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

  7. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; Park, Si-Bum; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute...

  9. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Determination of the conjugated linoleic acid-containing triacylglycerols in New Zealand bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N P; MacGibbon, A K

    2000-07-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 233 nm was used to separate, quantify, and identify the triacylglycerols (TAG) of milk fat that contain conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The absorbance at 233 nm was substantially due to CLA-TAG (chromatography of some representative TAG devoid of CLA, such as tripalmitin and triolein, showed poor responses at 233 nm, 1/800th that of CLA-TAG). A CLA molar extinction coefficient at 233 nm of 23,360 L mol(-1) cm(-1) and an HPLC UV response factor were obtained from a commercially available cis-9,trans-11-CLA standard. This molar extinction coefficient was only 86% of reported literature values. Summation of all chromatographic peaks absorbing at 233 nm using the corrected response factor gave good agreement with independent determinations of total CLA by gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometry. This agreement allowed quantification of individual CLA-TAG peaks in the HPLC separation of a typical New Zealand bovine milk fat. Three CLA-containing TAG, CLA-dipalmitin, CLA-oleoyl-palmitin and CLA-diolein, were prepared by interesterification of tripalmitin with the respective fatty acid methyl esters and used to assign individual peaks in the reversed-phase chromatography of total milk fat, of which CLA-oleoyl-palmitin was coincident with the largest UV peak. Band fractions from argentation thin-layer chromatography of total milk fat were similarly employed to identify five predominant CLA-TAG groups in total milk fat: CLA-disaturates, CLA-oleoyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-olein, and CLA-diolein.

  11. Essential function of linoleic acid esterified in acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide in maintaining the epidermal water permeability barrier. Evidence from feeding studies with oleate, linoleate, arachidonate, columbinate and a-linolenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1985-01-01

    sphingolipids. These rats showed increased evaporation which was comparable to that of essential fatty acid-deficient rats. We interpret these results as strong evidence for a very specific and essential function of linoleic acid in maintaining the integrity of the epidermal water permeability barrier......Essential fatty acid-deficient rats were supplemented with 300 mg per day of pure fatty acid esters: oleate (O), linoleate (L), arachidonate (A), and columbinate (C) for 10 days. During this period, the rats in groups L, A, and C all showed a decrease in their initially high trans-epidermal water...... loss, a classical essential fatty acid-deficiency symptom, to a level seen in non-deficient rats (group N). The trans-epidermal water loss in rats of group O was unaffected by the supplementation. Fatty acid composition of two epidermal sphingolipids, acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide, from...

  12. Differences in partitioning of meal fatty acids into blood lipid fractions: a comparison of linoleate, oleate, and palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Leanne; McQuaid, Siobh?n E.; Karpe, Fredrik; Frayn, Keith N.; Fielding, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been much interest in the health effects of dietary fat, but few studies have comprehensively compared the acute metabolic fate of specific fatty acids in vivo. We hypothesized that different classes of fatty acids would be variably partitioned in metabolic pathways and that this would become evident over 24 h. We traced the fate of fatty acids using equal amounts of [U-13C]linoleate, [U-13C]oleate, and [U-13C]palmitate given in a test breakfast meal in 12 healthy subjects. There wa...

  13. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  14. Characterization and stability analysis of zinc oxide nanoencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Jin-Ho; Shin, Jiwon; Lim, Seung-Yong; Oh, Jae-Min; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Oh, Sangsuk

    2010-08-01

    Nanoencapsulation technology has a diverse range of applications, including drug-delivery systems (DDS) and cosmetic and chemical carriers, because it can deliver various bio- and organic-molecules and improve their stabilities. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has health benefits, including being an anticancer agent, but it decreases flavor due to volatiles from oxidation. To improve the stability of CLA for food applications, nanoencapsulated CLA was synthesized for use in zinc basic salt (ZBS) and characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental CHN analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, UV/VIS spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of nanoencapsulated CLA at 180 degrees C, a temperature similar to that used in cooking, was analyzed by gas chromatography. The gallery height of nanoencapsulated CLA was determined to be approximately 26 A through powder X-ray diffractometry; therefore, the CLA molecules were closely packed with zig-zag form between the intracrystalline spaces of nano particles. Elemental CHN analysis and ICP data determined the chemical composition of nanoencapsulated CLA to be Zn(4.86)(OH)(8.78)(CLA)(0.94). By TGA, it was determined about 45% (wt/wt) of weight loss corresponded to CLA, which is good agreement with the 42.13% (wt/wt) determined from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elemental CHN analysis. UV/VIS spectroscopy and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed encapsulated CLA maintained a conjugated diene structure, supporting the presence of CLA. Nanoencapsulation improved the thermal stability of CLA by about 25%, compared to pristine CLA. Practical Application: This system can be used for protection of encapsulated negatively-charged food ingredients from thermal processing.

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid or omega 3 fatty acids increase mitochondrial biosynthesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are popular dietary supplements advertised to contribute to weight loss by increasing fat metabolism in liver, but the effects on overall muscle metabolism are less established. We evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or combination omega 3 on metabolic characteristics in muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with either DMSO control, or CLA or combination omega 3 for 24 or 48 hours. RNA was determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was determined using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rates. Results Omega 3 significantly induced metabolic genes as well as oxidative metabolism (oxygen consumption, glycolytic capacity (extracellular acidification, and metabolic rate compared with control. Both treatments significantly increased mitochondrial content. Conclusion Omega 3 fatty acids appear to enhance glycolytic, oxidative, and total metabolism. Moreover, both omega 3 and CLA treatment significantly increase mitochondrial content compared with control.

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents age-induced bone loss in mice by regulating both osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guanlin; Wang, Huan; Dai, Jun; Li, Xiao; Guan, Ming; Gao, Shutao; Ding, Qing; Wang, Huaixi; Fang, Huang

    2017-08-26

    Osteoporosis (OP) can increase the risk of bone fracture and other complications, which is a major clinical problem. Previous researches have revealed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can promote the bone formation. But the mechanisms are not clear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that CLA acts on bone formation might be via mTOR Complex1 (mTORC 1) pathway by in vitro and vivo assays. We studied the effect of CLA mix on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts differentiation into osteoblasts, and bone formation under osteoporotic conditions. At the same time, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte with the same CLA mix concentration gradient for 8 days with adipogenic differentiation medium. We found that Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteocalcin (OCN) expressions of pre-osteoblasts were up-regulated. Moreover in presence of CLA, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) were down-regulated. Osteoporosis mice bone parameters in the distal femoral meraphysis were significantly increased compared with placebo mice. Furthermore, the phosphor-S6 (P-S6) was suppressed and phosphor-AKT (P-AKT) was up-regulated. Consistently, CLA can stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibited pre-adipocytes differentiated into adipocytes via AKT/mTORC1 signal pathway. Overall CLA thus be a suitable candidate for the treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of 7,8-Dihydroxy Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Plant Oils by Whole Recombinant Cells Expressing 7,8-Linoleate Diol Synthase from Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Ju; Kang, Woo-Ri; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2016-11-16

    The reaction conditions for the production of 7S,8S-dihydroxy-9,12(Z,Z)-octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing 7,8-linoleate diol synthase from Glomerella cingulata were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimal reaction conditions were pH 7.0, 18.6 °C, 10.8% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, 44.9 g/L cells, and 14.3 g/L linoleic acid, with agitation at 256 rpm. Under these conditions, recombinant cells produced 7,8-dihydroxy unsaturated fatty acids in the range of 7.0-9.8 g/L from 14.3 g/L linoleic acid, 14.3 g/L oleic acid, and plant oil hydrolysates such as waste oil and olive oil containing 14.3 g/L linoleic acid or oleic acid. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the biotechnological production of 7,8-dihydroxy unsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis through estrogen receptor alpha in human breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Suling

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a naturally occurring fatty acid found in ruminant products such as milk and beef, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities in in vivo animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. In human breast cancer, the overall duration of estrogen exposure is the most important risk factor for developing estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Accordingly, it has been suggested that estrogen exposure reduces apoptosis through the up-regulation of the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, regulates apoptosis and plays a crucial role in the development and growth regulation of normal and cancerous cells. Our research interest is to examine the effects of CLA on the induction of apoptosis in human breast tissues. Methods The localization of Bcl-2 in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining and the Bcl-2 protein expression was tested by western blot analysis. Co-culture of epithelial cells and stromal cells was carried out in the presence or absence of CLA to evaluate apoptosis in the context of a cell-cell interaction. Results The results showed that both normal and cancerous breast tissues were positive for Bcl-2 staining, which was higher overall in mammary ducts but very low in the surrounding stromal compartment. Interestingly, by quantifying the western blot data, basal Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in normal breast epithelial cells than in cancerous epithelial cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2 stimulated growth and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression in estrogen responsive breast epithelial cells; however, these carcinogenic effects were diminished by either CLA or 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (Tam and were suppressed further by the combination of CLA and Tam. In both one cell type cultured and co-culture systems, CLA induced cell apoptosis in ERα transfected MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the wild type MDA

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis through estrogen receptor alpha in human breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Shu; Huang, Yi-Wen; Liu, Suling; Yan, Pearlly; Lin, Young C

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring fatty acid found in ruminant products such as milk and beef, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities in in vivo animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. In human breast cancer, the overall duration of estrogen exposure is the most important risk factor for developing estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Accordingly, it has been suggested that estrogen exposure reduces apoptosis through the up-regulation of the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, regulates apoptosis and plays a crucial role in the development and growth regulation of normal and cancerous cells. Our research interest is to examine the effects of CLA on the induction of apoptosis in human breast tissues. The localization of Bcl-2 in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining and the Bcl-2 protein expression was tested by western blot analysis. Co-culture of epithelial cells and stromal cells was carried out in the presence or absence of CLA to evaluate apoptosis in the context of a cell-cell interaction. The results showed that both normal and cancerous breast tissues were positive for Bcl-2 staining, which was higher overall in mammary ducts but very low in the surrounding stromal compartment. Interestingly, by quantifying the western blot data, basal Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in normal breast epithelial cells than in cancerous epithelial cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) stimulated growth and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression in estrogen responsive breast epithelial cells; however, these carcinogenic effects were diminished by either CLA or 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (Tam) and were suppressed further by the combination of CLA and Tam. In both one cell type cultured and co-culture systems, CLA induced cell apoptosis in ERα transfected MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the wild type MDA-MB-231 cells. These data, therefore, demonstrate that

  20. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Algerian mint species:high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brahmi Fatiha; Madani Khodir; Stvigny Caroline; Chibane Mohamed; Duez Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints,Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata), Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation.Methods:The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform:acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v) as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method.Results:Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively). The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox®equivalents) as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation.Conclusions:Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  2. Algerian mint species: high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmi Fatiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints, Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata, Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation. Methods: The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform: acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method. Results: Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1 000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox® equivalents as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  3. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts.

  4. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobadi H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Ghobadi,1 Somaieh Matin,2 Ali Nemati,3 Abbas Naghizadeh-baghi4 1Pulmonary Division, 2Internal Medicine Department, 3Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, 4Basic Sciences Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran Background: COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL1β, is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.Patients and methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL1β assessment, the patients’ anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study.Results: The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score (P=0.001, average caloric intake (P=0.01, and macronutrient intake (P<0.05, while a significant decrease was observed in the serum level of IL1β among the patients of the supplementation group (P=0.008. Meanwhile, although the supplementation group’s body mass index was also higher on completion, compared to their own initial state as well as to that in the control

  5. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and dietary antibiotics as growth promotants in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T E; Schinckel, A P; Houseknecht, K L; Richert, B T

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a growth promotant in weanling swine. Weanling pigs (n = 192; 7.6 kg and 29 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments that were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Concentrations of dietary CLA (0 or 0.6%) and antibiotics (+/-) constituted the main effect variables. Dietary CLA treatments consisted of a 1% addition of an oil containing 60% CLA isomers or 1% soybean oil, and dietary antibiotic treatments were antibiotics or no antibiotics. The experimental diets were fed for 9 wk in four phases (1, wk 1; 2, wk 2 and 3; 3, wk 4 through 6; and 4, wk 7 through 9), after which all pigs were fed identical medicated diets for the duration of the finishing phase. Live weights were recorded at wk 17 postweaning and at marketing to determine any residual effects of dietary treatments on finisher ADG and days to market. Medicated diets fed during phases 1 and 2 contained 55 mg carbadox/kg; during phase 3 contained 299 mg tilmicosin/kg; and during phase 4 contained 110 mg tylosin and 110 mg sulfamethazine/kg. Pigs fed medicated diets had higher overall ADG than pigs fed unmedicated diets for wk 0 through 9 (P pigs fed medicated diets than for pigs fed unmedicated diets during phase 1 (P residual effects of nursery CLA or antibiotics on finisher ADG and days to market. Blood samples collected from a subset of pigs (n = 72) at the completion of phases 2, 3, and 4 were assayed for serum IGF-I and antibody concentrations to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. There was a tendency for pigs fed medicated diets to have greater IGF-I concentrations than pigs fed unmedicated diets at the completion of phase 4 (P Pigs fed CLA had greater antibody titers (P pigs fed diets without CLA. These results indicate that feeding 0.6% dietary CLA did not enhance growth performance in weanling swine and that the use of dietary antibiotics can

  6. Detection of biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in kaymak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ökten, Sevtap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous physiological effects are attributed to conjugated linoleic acids (CLA. Biologically active isomers of CLA ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2 and trans- 10, cis- 12 (C18:2 have been reported to have anticarcinogenic, antioxidative and antiatherosclerotic properties. Relatively rich sources of CLA include milk fat-containing foods such as kaymak. Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow's milk mainly in Turkey . The objective of this study was to determine CLA concentrations during kaymak production. Kaymak was manufactured from cow's milk which was enriched with unfermented cream. Biologically active isomers of CLA in raw milk, cream and kaymak were analyzed using gas chromatography. The method was quick, repeatable and sensitive for the CLA determination of samples. Significant differences were found among the concentrations of both isomer and total CLA during the production process (pNumerosos efectos fisiológicos se atribuyen a los ácidos linoleico conjugados (CLA. Así los isómeros biológicamente activos ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2 y trans- 10, cis del ácido linoleico han sido descritos con propiedades anticarcinogénicas, antioxidantes y antiarterioscleróticas. Fuentes relativamente ricas de CLA incluyen alimentos con grasas lácteas tales como el kaymak. El kaymak es una crema concentrada elaborada de leche de búfalo o vaca principalmente en Turquía. El objetivo de este estudio fue la determinación de la concentración de CLA durante la producción de kaymak. El kaymak objeto de estudio fue elaborado a partir de leche de vaca que fue enriquecida con crema no fermentada. Los isómeros biológicamente activos del CLA fueron analizados por cromatografía gaseosa en leche cruda, crema y kaymak. El método empleado fue rápido, reproducible y sensible. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones de ambos isómeros y de CLA total durante el proceso de producci

  7. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  8. [Evaluation of the possibilities to increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat and meat product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.

  9. ESR studies of radiation induced radical products from linoleic acid and linolenic acid and the radioprotective effect by α-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Younan; Tu Tiecheng; Dong Jirong; Zhang Jiashan; Li Nianyun

    1993-01-01

    Primary radicals from the γ-radiolysis of air-saturated linoleic acid and linolenic acid at 77 K, and the subsequent secondary radicals appeared during the course of variable temperature elevation were investigated by ESR. The ESR spectrum from samples irradiated and observed at 77 K shows the presence of the radical anion doublet arise from the electron adducts of the carboxy groups and the poorly resolved broad singlet results from some carbon-centered radicals. Annealing to approximately 125 K which allows for molecular oxygen migration results in the formation of peroxyl radicals. At 247 K, the ESR spectrum is a multi-line pattern which is attributable to structure of the α-carbon radical superimposed on the pentadienyl radicals. The ESR spectra from linoleic acid-α-tocopherol and linolenic acid-α-tocopherol binary systems irradiated at 77 K and recorded at 140 K or 215 K revealed the characteristic similarity to that from α-tocopherol alone, no trace of ESR signal from either peroxyl or the composite pattern from superposition of pentadienyl radical and α-carbon radicals can be found out. Therefore α-tocopherol has exerted radioprotection effect on peroxidation of linoleic acid and linolenic acid

  10. Effects of oils rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acids on fatty acid profile and gene expression in goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng

    2014-09-24

    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  11. Reduced ex Vivo Interleukin-6 Production by Dietary Fish Oil Is Not Modified by Linoleic Acid Intake in Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Lauritzen, L.; Calder, P. C.

    2009-01-01

    production from cultures of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes in healthy men. The study was a double-blinded, controlled, 2 X 2 factorial 8-wk intervention. Sixty-four healthy men were randomized to 5 mL/d FO or olive oil (00) provided in capsules and to spreads and oils......Fish oil (FO) is considered antiinflammatory, but evidence regarding its effect on human cytokine production is conflicting. High linoleic acid (LA) intake may impair any effects of FO. The aim of this study was to investigate how FO combined with high or low LA intake affected ex vivo cytokine...

  12. Phase equilibrium measurements of ternary systems formed by linoleic and linolenic acids in carbon dioxide/ethanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Sibele R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Franceschi, Elton; Borges, Gustavo R.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS 99700-000 (Brazil); Ferreira, Sandra R.S. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: sandra@enq.ufsc.br

    2009-11-15

    This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the ternary systems linoleic (acid + CO{sub 2} + ethanol) and (linolenic acid + CO{sub 2} + ethanol). The fatty acids present in the ternary systems were selected based on composition of banana peel oil extracted by supercritical CO{sub 2} at 20 MPa and 313 K. The motivation of this research relies on the fact that these unsaturated fatty acids are recognized to play an important role in lowering blood pressure and serum cholesterol and because they are present in high concentrations in banana peel extract. Besides that, equilibrium data of these compounds are scarce in literature. The phase equilibrium experiments were performed using a high-pressure variable-volume view cell over the temperature range of (303 to 343) K and pressures up to 19 MPa. For both systems, only vapour-liquid phase transitions were visually recorded for all data measured.

  13. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tgoto@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Ohue, Ryuji [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Nomura, Wataru [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Sugawara, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Marine Bioproducts Technology, Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yu, Rina [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kitamura, Nahoko [Laboratory of Fermentation Physiology and Applied Microbiology, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); and others

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  14. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis

  15. Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Metabolism Response of Growing Meat Rabbits to Dietary Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different amounts of dietary linoleic acid (LA on growth performance, serum biochemical traits, meat quality, fatty acids composition of muscle and liver, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits. One hundred and fifty 9 wks old meat rabbits were allocated to individual cages and randomly divided into five groups. Animals in each group were fed with a diet with the following LA addition concentrations: 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g/kg diet (as-fed basis and LA concentrations were 0.84, 1.21, 1.34, 1.61 and 1.80% in the diet, respectively. The results showed as follows: the dietary LA levels significantly affected muscle color of LL included a* and b* of experimental rabbits (p<0.05. The linear effect of LA on serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was obtained (p = 0.0119. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs contents of LL decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs content of LL increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001. The PUFA n-6 content and PUFA n-3 content in the LL was significantly affected by the dietary LA levels (p<0.01, p<0.05. The MUFAs content in the liver decreased and the PUFAs contents in the liver increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001. The PUFA n-6 content and the PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio in the liver increased and PUFA n-3 content in the liver decreased with dietary LA increase (p<0.01. The linear effect of LA on CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver was obtained (p = 0.0081. In summary, dietary LA addition had significant effects on liver and muscle fatty acid composition (increased PUFAs of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits, but had little effects on growth performance, meat physical traits and mRNA expression of liver relative enzyme of experimental rabbits.

  16. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29, Simoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Park, Si-Bum [Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hirata, Takashi [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Faculty of Rehabilitation, Shijonawategakuen University, 5-11-10, Hojo, Daitou-shi, Osaka 574-0011 (Japan); Sugawara, Tatsuya, E-mail: sugawara@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We evaluated the effect of modified fatty acids generated by Lactobacillus plantarum. • 10-Oxo-trans-11-ocatadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected cells from oxidative stress. • KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to promote antioxidative gene expression. • KetoC promoted the expression of antioxidative enzymes in mice organs. • The cytoprotective effect of KetoC was because of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety.

  17. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We evaluated the effect of modified fatty acids generated by Lactobacillus plantarum. • 10-Oxo-trans-11-ocatadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected cells from oxidative stress. • KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to promote antioxidative gene expression. • KetoC promoted the expression of antioxidative enzymes in mice organs. • The cytoprotective effect of KetoC was because of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety.

  18. Antiproliferative Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Enhancement of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication through Inactivation of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rakib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly enhanced GJIC of MCF-7 cells at 40 μM concentration, whereas CLA inhibited cell growth and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. CLA increased connexin43 (Cx43 expression both at the transcriptional and translational levels. CLA inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activity and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. No significant difference was observed in the efficacy of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of CLA is associated with upregulation of GJIC mediated by enhanced Cx43 expression through inactivation of NF-κB and generation of ROS in MCF-7 cells.

  19. The effect of micro-particles of linoleic acid emulsion on the blood-brain barrier in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Tae Hong; Pyun, Yong Seon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeability change of the blood-brain barrier and the reversibility of the embolized lesions induced with a fat-emulsion technique by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and we also wished to evaluate the resultant histologic findings in cat brains. MR imaging was scheduled serially at 1 hour, day 1, day 4 and day 7 after infusion of linoleic acid-emulsion (0.05 ml linoleic acid + 20 ml saline) to the internal carotid artery in 12 cats. Abnormal signal intensity or contrast enhancement was evaluated on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs), the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-T1WIs) at the stated times. MR imaging was stopped if the lesion shows isointensity and no contrast enhancement was observed at the acquisition time, and then brain tissue was harvested and examined. Light microscopic (LM) and electron microscopic (EM) examinations were performed. The embolized lesions appeared as isointensities (n = 7) or mild hyperintensities (n = 5) on DWIs, as isointensities (n = 12) on the ADC maps, and as contrast enhancements (n = 12) on Gd-T1WIs at 1 hour. The lesions showed isointensity on DWIs and the ADC maps, and as no contrast enhancement for all cats at day 1. The LM findings revealed small (< 1 cm) focal necrosis and demyelination in three cats. EM examinations showed minimal findings of small (< 3 μm) fat globules within the endothelial wall (n = 10) and mild swelling of the neuropils (< 5 μm). Widening of the interstitium or morphologic disruption of the endothelial wall was not seen. Cerebral fat embolism induced by linoleic acid emulsion revealed vasogenic edema and reversible changes as depicted on the MR images. These results might help us to understand the mechanisms of fat on the blood-brain barrier, and this technique could be used as a basic model for research of the effects of drugs on the disrupted blood-brain barrier, and also as a research

  20. Effect of linoleic acid supplementation on in vitro maturation, embryo development and apoptotic related gene expression in ovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Amini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Linoleic acid (LA is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in high concentrations in follicular fluid, when added to maturation culture media, it affects oocyte competence. Objective: In the present study, we investigated effect of linoleic acid supplementation on in vitro maturation, embryo development and apoptotic related gene expression in ovine Materials and Methods: The experiments conducted on 450 ovine Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs with homogenous ooplasm and more than two compact layers of cumulus cells. For in vitro maturation COCs were randomly allocated into four treatment groups for 24 hr period. Treatment groups were as follow: control maturation media, 0 μM LA, 50 μM LA, 100 μM LA and 200 μM LA. The cumulus cell expansion and blastocysts rates were recorded. Total RNA was isolated from embryo pools, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and subjected to apoptotic gene expression by real-time PCR. Results: Highest concentration (200 μM/mL of LA significantly decreased the rate of fully expanded cumulus cells 24 hr after in vitro maturation (IVM and the percentage of blastocyste rate compared with the control (p<0.05. These inhibitory effects were associated with an increased in relative mRNA expression of Bax (Bcl-2- associated X gene compared with controls. Conclusion: Data obtained in present study suggest that low concentration of LA used for maturation had no deleterious effect on subsequent embryonic development compared to high concentration of LA. Relative expression of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 and Bax in embryos seems to be associated with LA concentration.

  1. Optimization of the Hydrolysis of Safflower Oil for the Production of Linoleic Acid, Used as Flavor Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial lipases, from porcine pancreas (PPL, Candida rugosa (CRL, and Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM, were investigated in terms of their efficiency for the hydrolysis of safflower oil (SO for the liberation of free linoleic acid (LA, used as a flavor precursor. Although PPL, under the optimized conditions, showed a high degree of hydrolysis (91.6%, its low tolerance towards higher substrate concentrations could limit its use for SO hydrolysis. In comparison to the other investigated lipases, Lipozyme TL IM required higher amount of enzyme and an additional 3 h of reaction time to achieve its maximum degree of SO hydrolysis (90.2%. On the basis of the experimental findings, CRL was selected as the most appropriate biocatalyst, with 84.1% degree of hydrolysis. The chromatographic analyses showed that the CRL-hydrolyzed SO is composed mainly of free LA.

  2. Optimization of the Hydrolysis of Safflower Oil for the Production of Linoleic Acid, Used as Flavor Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Marya; Husson, Florence; Kermasha, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Commercial lipases, from porcine pancreas (PPL), Candida rugosa (CRL), and Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM), were investigated in terms of their efficiency for the hydrolysis of safflower oil (SO) for the liberation of free linoleic acid (LA), used as a flavor precursor. Although PPL, under the optimized conditions, showed a high degree of hydrolysis (91.6%), its low tolerance towards higher substrate concentrations could limit its use for SO hydrolysis. In comparison to the other investigated lipases, Lipozyme TL IM required higher amount of enzyme and an additional 3 h of reaction time to achieve its maximum degree of SO hydrolysis (90.2%). On the basis of the experimental findings, CRL was selected as the most appropriate biocatalyst, with 84.1% degree of hydrolysis. The chromatographic analyses showed that the CRL-hydrolyzed SO is composed mainly of free LA.

  3. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis with focus on the role of linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagmeister, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas are devastating cancers with high mortality rates. Major risk factors are chronic hepatitis and associated cirrhosis as consequence of viral hepatitis infections, chronically ethanol consumption or metabolic disorders. While the stepwise development of liver cancer is well investigated, the role of mesenchymal cells in this process is largely unknown. To analyse epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, we established new cell lines from human hepatocellular carcinomas and obtained several hepatocarcinoma (HCC)-, B-lymphoblastoid (BLC)- and myofibroblastoid (MF)-lines. BLC- and MF-supernatants were able to increase DNA replication of premalignant hepatocytes. Supernatants of MF-lines enhanced angiogenesis and increased migration of HCC-lines. Besides these pro-tumourigenic effects we could also observe tumouricidal properties of mesenchymal cells, as BLC-supernatants induced cell death of HCC-lines. Linoleic acid is an important source for hydroperoxides, which may be generated either endogenously in the course of inflammation or exogenously during food processing. We found that linoleic acid hydroperoxides (=LOOH) were able to activate mesenchymal cells of the liver resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors including TNF-alpha (=tumour necrosis factor alpha) and HB-EGF (=heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor), which turned out to be a growth factor for premalignant hepatocytes. Furthermore LOOH enhanced the growth of hepatocarcinoma cells via upregulation of the antiapoptotic enzyme heme oxygenase 1 and stimulation of cell proliferation. In conclusion, the results of our studies confirm the crucial role of different mesenchymal cells in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis and propose a tumour-promoting effect of LOOH. (author) [de

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance and abdominal and trunk fat loss induced by aerobic training in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Cheche PINA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the effect of eight weeks of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on physical performance, and trunk and abdominal fat in overweight women submitted to an aerobic training program. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight women (body mass index ³25 kg/m2 were divided randomly and double-blindly to receive conjugated linoleic acid or placebo, both associated with an aerobic exercise program (frequency = three times a week, duration=30 min/session, intensity=80% of maximum heart rate. Conjugated linoleic acid (3.2 g and placebo (4.0 g supplements were consumed daily (four capsules for eight weeks. Maximum speed and time to exhaustion were determined in incremental treadmill test. Trunk fat was estimated by dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Waist circumference was used as indicator of abdominal fat. Results: Main effect of time (p0.05. Similarly, significant reductions (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance, and loss of body and abdominal fat induced by aerobic training in overweight women.

  6. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas

  7. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention:

  8. Characterization of unsaturated fatty acid sustained-release microspheres for long-term algal inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lixiao; Jie, Xiaoting; Wang, Peifang; Li, Shiyin; Hu, Shuzhen; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Acharya, Kumud

    2015-02-01

    The unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid) sustained-release microspheres were prepared with linoleic acid (LA) using alginate-chitosan microcapsule technology. These LA sustained-release microspheres had a high encapsulation efficiency (up to 62%) tested by high performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array. The dry microspheres were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction measurement, dynamic thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The results of characterization showed that the microspheres had good thermal stability (decomposition temperature of 236°C), stable and temperature independent release properties (release time of more than 40 d). Compared to direct dosing of LA, LA sustained-released microspheres could inhibit Microcystis aeruginosa growth to the non-growth state. The results of this study suggested that the LA sustained-release microspheres may be a potential candidate for algal inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d evaluated at different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Juan, María; Realini, Carolina E; Barahona, Marta; Sarriés, Maria Victoria; del Mar Campo, Maria; Beriain, María José; Vitale, Mauro; Gil, Marta; Albertí, Pere

    2014-11-01

    The effect of different animal diets supplemented with linseed (source of omega-3 fatty acids: n-3) and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CON: control, LIN: 10% linseed, CLA: 2% conjugated linoleic acid, LINCLA: 10% linseed plus 2% CLA) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d was assessed in 3 Spanish cities. Overall, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor liking of beef were evaluated by consumers (n = 720) using 9-point scales. Hedonic scores assigned by consumers did not differ (P > 0.05) for beef from animals fed the different diets and aged for 7 or 21 d. Consumer scores showed an increasing trend in beef liking with aging time. Consumers from Pamplona assigned lower (P consumers from Barcelona and Zaragoza. Linseed and/or CLA can be fed to improve the fatty acid profile in beef with minimal impact on consumer liking. Consumer ratings seem to depend on regional tastes and preferences. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk with C17 as internal marker – Evaluation of different methylation procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2017-01-01

    in the methylation steps, as they are sensitive to pH changes and oxidation. The present study was carried out to determine the efficiency of different methylation procedures on quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), PUFA and response of internal standard. The highest response of internal...... standard was observed for boron trifluoride (BF3)/methanol and methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3, while cis-9, trans-11 CLA, total CLA and PUFA was higher with methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3 compared with the BF3 method. These data can be useful for quantitating of milk FA....

  11. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05 the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05 decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05 upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  12. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids on the activity and mRNA expression of 5- and 15-lipoxygenases in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowska, Ewa; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Machaliñski, Bogusław; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2007-06-27

    Lipoxygenases are a family of non-heme enzyme dioxygenases. The role of lipoxygenases is synthesis of hydroperoxides of fatty acids, which perform signaling functions in the body. Studies on conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) as fatty acids with a potential anti-atherosclerotic function have recently been initiated. The aim of the study was to test the effect of CLAs and linoleic acid on 5- and 15-lipoxygenase (5-LO, 15-LO-1) enzyme activity, their mRNA expression, and concentration in the cells. It was also desired to determine whether the CLAs are substrates for the enzymes. For the experiments monocytic cell line (THP-1) and monocytes obtained from human venous blood were used. Monocytes were differentiated to macrophages: THP-1 (CD14+) by PMA administration (100 nM for 24 h) and monocytes from blood (CD14+) by 7-day cultivation with the autologous serum (10%). After differentiation, macrophages were cultured with 30 microM CLAs or linoleic acid for 48 h. The 15- and 5-lipoxygenase products were measured by HPLC method. mRNA expression and protein content were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. The in vitro studies proved that both CLA isomers are not substrates for 15-LO-1; in ex vivo studies hydroxydecadienoic acid (HODE) concentration was significantly reduced (p = 0.019). The trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer reduced HODE concentration by 28% (p = 0.046) and the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer by 35% (p = 0.028). In macrophages obtained from THP-1 fatty acids did not change significantly mRNA expression of the majority of the investigated genes. CLAs did not change the content of 5-LO and 15-LO-1 proteins in macrophages obtained from peripheral blood. Linoleic acid induced 15-LO-1 expression (2.6 times, p < 0.05). CLAs may perform the function of an inhibitor of lipoxygenase 15-LO-1 activity in macrophages.

  13. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk -9, -11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%, middle (0.37±0.010%, and late stages (0.44±0.020% showed significant differences (p<0.05; and the individual contents of the major fatty acids, especially cis-9, trans-11 CLA in cows of the same lactation were also variable. In the second experiment design as a validation test, our results once again showed that the individual contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA were various, and a difference of about 2-fold (0.55% vs 0.95% was observed, although the animals were offered same diet. These data demonstrated that lactation stage and individual performance have considerable effects on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents.

  14. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched triacylglycerol mixtures by isocratic silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, R O; Menzel, A; Dorovska-Taran, V

    2002-04-12

    Silver-ion HPLC (Ag-HPLC) was applied to the fractionation of a triacylglycerol (TAG) sample enriched (>80%) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). After conversion of the TAGs to fatty acid methyl esters using sodium methoxide in methanol, Ag-HPLC (dual-column; isocratic solvent system of 0.1% acetonitrile in hexane; UV detection at 233 nm) was used to determine the CLA isomer distribution (50:50 mixture of 9c 11t- and 10t,12c-18:2). Three or four Ag-HPLC columns connected in series (0.6-1.0% acetonitrile in hexane as solvent; UV detection at 206 nm) were used to analyze the sample in TAG form. Elution times for CLA-enriched TAGs averaged 30 min or less. Isocratic solvent conditions were used to eliminate the solvent equilibration times (often 30 min or more) required between sample injections when solvent programming is used. The ratio of TAGs containing three vs. only two CLA molecules was found to be approximately 3 to 1. Ag-HPLC has thus been shown to be a useful method for rapidly analyzing not only CLA isomers as esters, but also in the TAG form.

  15. One-pot conjugated linoleic acid production from castor oil by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and resting cells of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaskheli, Abid Ali; Talpur, Farah Naz; Cebeci Aydin, Aysun; Jawaid, Sana; Surhio, Muhammad Ali; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2017-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has attracted as novel type of fatty acids having unusual health-promoting properties such as anticarcinogenic and antiobesitic effects. The present work employed castor oil as substrate for one-pot production of CLA using washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and lipases as catalysts. Among the screened lipases, the lipase Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) greatly assisted resting cells to produce CLA. Mass spectral analysis of the product showed that two major isomers of CLA were produced in the reaction mixture i.e. cis-9, trans-11 56.55% and trans-10, cis-12 43.45%. Optimum factors for CLA synthesis were found as substrate concentration (8 mg/mL), pH (6.5), washed cell concentration (12% w/v), and incubation time of 20 h. Hence, the combination of ROL with L. plantarum offers one pot production of CLA selectively using castor oil as a cost-effective substrate.

  16. Absorption Kinetics of the Main Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers in Commercial-Rich Oil after Oral Administration in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Ares, Irma; Fontecha, Javier; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, María-Aránzazu

    2017-09-06

    This study aimed to assess the oral absorption and plasma kinetics of two main isomers contained in commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oil (Tonalin TG-80), rumenic acid (RA), and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12. The isomer plasma disposition after the single oral dose of 3000 mg of Tonalin TG-80/kg, containing 1200 mg/kg of each isomer, was studied in rats. The isomer plasma concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The plasma kinetics showed rapid oral absorption of RA and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12 (t 1/2a 0.34 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.01 h) and slow elimination (t 1/2β 25.68 ± 3.29 and 18.12 ± 1.71 h); the maximal isomer plasma concentrations (C max ) of 8.48 ± 0.98 and 7.67 ± 0.80 μg mL -1 , respectively, were estimated at 2.08 ± 0.14 and 2.26 ± 0.11 h. Our results from a preclinical kinetic study in rats help to design future studies in humans for evaluating the CLA isomer dose-response.

  17. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and other health-related lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boiled samples preserved the total beneficial lipids of CLA, PUFA, MUFA and omega 3 and 6 fatty acids more than smoked samples. The major fatty acids found in the muscle analyzed are palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and octadecenoic (C18:1). Omega 3 fatty acids are 1.05%, 1.16% and 1.30 % for boiled, smoked and ...

  18. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  19. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho RF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberta F Carvalho,1 Sofia K Uehara,2 Glorimar Rosa1,21Medicine Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Josué de Castro Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.Results: There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 µU/mL, P = 0.02. Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02, which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02 in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02, but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03.Conclusion: Supplementation with mixed

  20. Biocatalytic hydroxylation of linoleic acid in a double-fed batch system with lipoxygenase and cysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Elshof, M.B.W.; Veldink, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The enzymatic large-scale preparation of unsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides is the first step in the preparation of the corresponding fatty acid hydroxides. Since hydroxides are more suitable than hydroperoxides as precursors of fine chemicals like certain flavour compounds, a convenient and

  1. Supplementation with linoleic acid-rich soybean oil stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via increased oxidative stress and diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-mediated triglyceride biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Jeries, Helana; Hayek, Tony; Aviram, Michael

    2017-01-02

    During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice. Lipid peroxidation and triglyceride mass in aortas from SO or LA supplemented mice were dose-dependently and significantly increased. In MPM from SO or LA supplemented mice, lipid peroxides were significantly increased and a marked accumulation of cellular triglycerides was found in accordance with enhanced triglyceride biosynthesis rate and overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1), the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. In cultured J774A.1 macrophages treated with SO or LA, triglyceride accumulated via increased oxidative stress and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated overexpression of DGAT1. Accordingly, anti-oxidants (pomegranate polyphenols), inhibition of p38 MAPK (by SB202190) or DGAT1 (by oleanolic acid), all significantly attenuated SO or LA-induced macrophage triglyceride accumulation. These findings reveal novel mechanisms by which supplementation with SO or LA stimulate macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting a pro-atherogenic role for overconsumption of SO or LA. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):100-116, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic fatty acids – micromanaging cellular response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eVisioli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized de novo by mammals and need to be ingested either with the diet or through the use of supplements/functional foods to ameliorate cardiovascular prognosis. This review focus on the molecular targets of omega 3 fatty acids and CLA, as paradigmatic molecules that can be explored both as nutrients and as pharmacological agents, especially as related to cardioprotection. In addition, we indicate novel molecular targets, namely microRNAs that might contribute to the observed biological activities of such essential fatty acids.

  3. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... The chickens fed diets containing palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil as the ... polyunsaturated fatty acids; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, .... content of muscles in broilers fed different dietary CLA levels. Javadi et al. (2007) ...

  4. Inhibition of steroid 5 alpha-reductase by specific aliphatic unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T; Liao, S

    1992-01-01

    Human or rat microsomal 5 alpha-reductase activity, as measured by enzymic conversion of testosterone into 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone or by binding of a competitive inhibitor, [3H]17 beta-NN-diethulcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one ([3H]4-MA) to the reductase, is inhibited by low concentrations (less than 10 microM) of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The relative inhibitory potencies of unsaturated fatty acids are, in decreasing order: gamma-linolenic acid greater than cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid = cis-6,9,12,15-octatetraenoic acid = arachidonic acid = alpha-linolenic acid greater than linoleic acid greater than palmitoleic acid greater than oleic acid greater than myristoleic acid. Other unsaturated fatty acids such as undecylenic acid, erucic acid and nervonic acid, are inactive. The methyl esters and alcohol analogues of these compounds, glycerols, phospholipids, saturated fatty acids, retinoids and carotenes were inactive even at 0.2 mM. The results of the binding assay and the enzymic assay correlated well except for elaidic acid and linolelaidic acid, the trans isomers of oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively, which were much less active than their cis isomers in the binding assay but were as potent in the enzymic assay. gamma-Linolenic acid had no effect on the activities of two other rat liver microsomal enzymes: NADH:menadione reductase and glucuronosyl transferase. gamma-Linolenic acid, the most potent inhibitor tested, decreased the Vmax. and increased Km values of substrates, NADPH and testosterone, and promoted dissociation of [3H]4-MA from the microsomal reductase. gamma-Linolenic acid, but not the corresponding saturated fatty acid (stearic acid), inhibited the 5 alpha-reductase activity, but not the 17 beta-dehydrogenase activity, of human prostate cancer cells in culture. These results suggest that unsaturated fatty acids may play an important role in regulating androgen action in target cells. PMID:1637346

  5. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chaplin

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  6. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  7. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Ameliorates Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Mice through Activation of PPARγ1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P.; Misyak, Sarah A.; Schmelz, Eva M.; Guri, Amir J.; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood. Mice lacking PPARγ in immune and epithelial cells and PPARγ-expressing littermates were fed either control or CLA-supplemented (1 g CLA/100 g) diets to determine the role of PPARγ in inflammation-induced CRC. To induce tumor formation and colitis, mice were treated with azoxymethane and then challenged with 2% dextran sodium sulfate, respectively. Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARγ-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARγ-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARγ-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARγ-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARγ-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism. PMID:20089779

  8. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contrasting apoptotic responses of conjugated linoleic acid in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed palm oil or ovine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Viana, Ricardo S J; Ramalho, Rita M; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinho, Mário S; Jerónimo, Eliana; Bessa, Rui J B; Castro, Matilde F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prates, José A M

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesized that reducing weight properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to adipocyte apoptosis and that CLA differentially modulates the apoptotic responses in hepatic lipotoxicity from rats fed saturated fat diets. Obese Zucker rats were fed atherogenic diets (2%w/w of cholesterol) formulated with high (15%w/w) saturated fat, from vegetable or animal origin, supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers for 14 weeks. CLA induced no changes on retroperitoneal fat depot weight, which was in line with similar levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, CLA had a contrasting effect on cell death in the liver according to the dietary fat. CLA increased hepatocyte apoptosis, associated with upregulation of Fas protein in rats fed palm oil, compared to rats receiving palm oil alone. However, rats fed ovine fat alone displayed the highest levels of hepatic cell death, which were decreased in rats fed ovine fat plus CLA. This reducing effect of CLA was related to positively restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATF-6α, BiP and CHOP protein levels and increasing phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, thus suggesting an adaptive response of cell survival. These findings reinforce the role of CLA as regulator of apoptosis in the liver. Moreover, the dietary fat composition is a key factor in activation of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  11. Cell nanomechanics and focal adhesions are regulated by retinol and conjugated linoleic acid in a dose-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, Yaron R; Horton, Michael A; Pelling, Andrew E; Yakubov, Gleb E

    2009-01-01

    Retinol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have previously been shown to have an important role in gene expression and various cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation and cell death. In this study we have investigated the effect of retinol and CLA, both individually and in combination, on the intracellular cytoskeleton, focal adhesions (FAs) and the nanomechanical properties of 3T3 fibroblasts. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in the formation of FAs following treatment with either compound, which was directly correlated to an increase in cell height (>30%) and a decrease in the measured Young's modulus (∼28%). Furthermore, treatments with both compounds demonstrated an increased effect and led to a reduction of>70% in the average number of FAs per cell and a decrease of >50% in average cell stiffness. These data reveal that retinol and CLA disrupt FA formation, leading to an increase in cell height and a significant decrease in stiffness. These results may broaden our understanding of the interplay between cell nanomechanics and cellular contact with the external microenvironment, and help to shed light on the important role of retinoids and CLA in health and disease.

  12. Effect of Safflower Oil on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid of Kefir Prepared by Low-fat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad-Naeimi, Alireza; Imani, Saeid; Arefhosseini, Seyed R; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a special fatty acid in dairy products with unique antioxidant and anti-cancerous effects. Kefir, a milk product, comprises normalized homogenized cow's milk, the fructose and lactulose syrup as well as a symbiotic starter which has improved probiotic characteristics. The study was aimed to discuss patents and to examine the effect of different safflower oil concentrations on CLA content of the kefir drink prepared by low-fat milk. Safflower oil was added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (V/V) to low-fat cow's milk and six formulations of kefir samples were prepared. The CLA content of the kefir products was measured at pH=6.0 and pH=6.8 by gas chromatography. Acid and bile tolerance of bacterial microenvironment in the products were also determined. Substitution of natural fat content of milk with safflower oil resulted in proportional increase in the CLA contents of kefir in a dose dependent manner. The highest concentration of CLA was found under 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil at pH 6.0 and temperature of 37 °C. Adding the Safflower oil into milk used for kefir production, increased CLA content from 0.123 (g/100 g) in pure safflower free samples to 0.322 (g/100 g) in samples with 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil. The current study revealed that substitution of safflower oil with natural fat of cow's milk may help the production of kefir samples with remarkable increase in CLA content of final product.

  13. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivero Montserrat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. Results The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A or by oral gavage (Group B, supplemented just during suckling (Group C and control animals (Group D was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix. Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1, galanin (Gal, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1, growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2, actin gamma 2 (Actg2 and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2, as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR. Conclusions Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life.

  14. Effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on milk fatty acid composition in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bichi, E; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Despite controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the fatty acid (FA) profile of ruminant-derived products, reports on this issue are still very limited for dairy sheep. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on ewe performance and milk FA composition. Thirty-six lactating ewes were distributed into 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment): control or quebracho. All sheep received a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60) supplemented with 20 g of sunflower oil/kg of dry matter plus 0 (control diet) or 20 g of an extract of quebracho tannins/kg of dry matter (QUE diet). Milk production and composition were analyzed on d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 on treatments, and milk FA profile on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 27. On d 27, samples of rumen fluid were collected for pH, and lactate, ammonia, and volatile FA concentration analysis. Feeding the QUE diet had no apparent effect on animal performance and hardly modified ruminal fermentation characteristics, except for a reduction in the molar proportions of minor volatile FA. Dietary tannins increased the milk concentration of several 18:1 and 18:2 isomers and decreased that of branched-chain FA. Some of these changes were relatively constant throughout the experiment (e.g., cis-12 18:1 and trans-9,cis-12 18:2), whereas others varied over time (e.g., trans-10 18:1, which increased gradually with the QUE diet). Significant differences between treatments in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid were only observed on d 3. Overall, addition of quebracho tannins to a diet rich in linoleic acid did not prove useful to beneficially modify milk FA composition, especially over the long term. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and other biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat of cows fed raw or extruded linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akraim, F; Nicot, M C; Juaneda, P; Enjalbert, F

    2007-07-01

    Thirty lactating dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design to investigate the effects of a raw or extruded blend of linseed and wheat bran (70:30) on plasma and milk fatty-acids (FA). Linseed diets, containing 16.6% linseed blend on a dry-matter basis, decreased milk yield and protein percentage. They decreased the proportions of FA with less than 18 carbons in plasma and milk and resulted in cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 proportions that were more than three and four times higher in plasma and milk, respectively, whereas cis-9, cis-12 18:2 proportions were decreased by 10-15%. The cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid was not detected in the milk of control cows, but was over 0.15% of total FA in the milk fat of linseed-supplemented cows. Similarly, linseed increased plasma and milk proportions of all biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in plasma and milk, including the main isomer of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11 18:2, except trans-4 18:1 and cis-11, trans-15 18:2 in plasma lipids. In milk fat, compared with raw linseed, extruded linseed further reduced 6:0-16:0 even-chain FA, did not significantly affect the proportions of 18:0, cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, cis-12 18:2, tended to increase cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3, and resulted in an additional increase in the proportions of most BH intermediates. It was concluded that linseed addition can improve the proportion of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids, and that extrusion further increases the proportions of intermediates of ruminal BH in milk fat.

  16. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-29 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  17. Isolation, Optimization, and Investigation of Production of Linoleic Acid in Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Shafiei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Microorganisms that are capable of accumulating lipid up to 20% of their biomass are called oleaginous microorganisms. In this study, optimization in lipid and linolenic acid production was investigated in Aspergillus niger as an oleaginous filamentous fungi. Methods: In this study, at first different strains of filamentous fungi were isolated, and after staining of the isolates with Sudan Black, their oil was extracted using chloroform/methanol. Then, the isolates with oil/dry biomass ratio of more than 20% were considered as oleaginous filamentous fungi. After microscopic examination, the identified isolate was optimized in terms of oil production. Finally, the amount of linolenic acid was evaluated using gas chromatography. Results: At first, 20 filamentous fungi isolates were isolated. According to the results of Sudan Black staining, lipid inclusions were observed in all the fungal isolates. The amount of oil produced in all isolates, showed that the percentage of oil production in isolates 4, 5, and 16, was more than 20%. In microscopic examination, the isolate 5 was Aspergillus niger. The best pH, temperature, time, and carbon source for oil production by Aspergillus niger was 4.5, 30°C, 96 hours, and fructose, respectively. The amount of linolenic acid in Aspergillus niger was reported 22.4% using gas chromatography.   Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that Aspergillus niger is an appropriate filamentous fungi for linolenic acid production.   

  18. Effect of spirulina on the levels of zinc, vitamin E and linoleic acid in the palm skin extracts of people with prolonged exposure to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Misbahuddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, a dietary supplement, improves the symptoms of arsenical palmer keratosis. To understand its mechanism of action, palm skin extracts of moderate palmer arsenical keratosis (n=10, arsenic exposed controls (n=10 and healthy volunteers (n=10 were collected before and after treatment with spirulina powder 10 g/day orally for 12 weeks. The mean (±SD amount of zinc in the palm skin of healthy volunteers was 13.1 ± 5.7 ng/cm2, which was not changed significantly in patients (11.3 ± 5.3 ng/cm2. The amount of vitamin E in healthy volunteers was 6.0 ± 0.3 ng/cm2 which was severely reduced in patients (3.5 ± 0.6 ng/cm2. The amount of linoleic acid was lowered in patient (26.7 ± 17.1 ng/cm2 which was statistically significant in comparison to healthy volunteers (p=0.029. After supplementation of spirulina, zinc level in the palm skin of arsenic exposed controls was increased but it was not statistically significant (p=0.068. The vitamin E and linoleic acid levels were not changed significantly in the skin of palm. In conclusion, arsenical keratosis showed significantly low levels of vitamin E and linoleic acid without any significant change in zinc level. After supplementation of spirulina, low levels of these three compounds were not returned towards the normal levels.

  19. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Uffe; Flummer, Christine; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs....... 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.10) than CON sows whereas contents of lactose, protein, and dry matter were similar in the two groups. Sows fed CLA tended to produce less colostrum than CON sows (409 vs. 463 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07) as predicted by the piglet rate of gain from 0 to 24 h (58 vs.......03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow...

  20. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  1. Insights into the Indian peanut genotypes for ahFAD2 gene polymorphism regulating its oleic and linoleic acid fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat Nawade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfil the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and ‘SunOleic’‒ a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89% than in ssp. fastigiata (17%. This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39 respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism.

  2. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis with focus on the role of linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagmeister, S

    2009-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas are devastating cancers with high mortality rates. Major risk factors are chronic hepatitis and associated cirrhosis as consequence of viral hepatitis infections, chronically ethanol consumption or metabolic disorders. While the stepwise development of liver cancer is well investigated, the role of mesenchymal cells in this process is largely unknown. To analyse epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, we established new cell lines from human hepatocellular carcinomas and obtained several hepatocarcinoma (HCC)-, B-lymphoblastoid (BLC)- and myofibroblastoid (MF)-lines. BLC- and MF-supernatants were able to increase DNA replication of premalignant hepatocytes. Supernatants of MF-lines enhanced angiogenesis and increased migration of HCC-lines. Besides these pro-tumourigenic effects we could also observe tumouricidal properties of mesenchymal cells, as BLC-supernatants induced cell death of HCC-lines. Linoleic acid is an important source for hydroperoxides, which may be generated either endogenously in the course of inflammation or exogenously during food processing. We found that linoleic acid hydroperoxides (=LOOH) were able to activate mesenchymal cells of the liver resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors including TNF-alpha (=tumour necrosis factor alpha) and HB-EGF (=heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor), which turned out to be a growth factor for premalignant hepatocytes. Furthermore LOOH enhanced the growth of hepatocarcinoma cells via upregulation of the antiapoptotic enzyme heme oxygenase 1 and stimulation of cell proliferation. In conclusion, the results of our studies confirm the crucial role of different mesenchymal cells in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis and propose a tumour-promoting effect of LOOH. (author) [German] Bei hepatozellulaeren Karzinomen handelt es sich um Krebserkrankungen mit einer ausserordentlich hohen

  3. Linoleic acid enhance the production of moncolin K and red pigments in Monascus ruber by activating mokH and mokA, and by accelerating cAMP-PkA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Liao, NanQing; Li, HaoMing

    2018-04-01

    Monacolin K, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, is a secondary metabolite synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKS) from Monascus ruber. The mokH gene encoding Zn(II)2Cys6 binding protein and mokA gene encoding polyketide synthase are presumed to activate monacolin K production. In this study, linoleic acid could be a quorum sensing signaling molecule to increase monacolin K production in the cyclic AMP(cAMP)-protein kinase A(PKA) signaling pathway. Analysis of the PKA activity and the cAMP concentration shows that linoleic acid could increase cAMP concentration and activate PKA. Analysis of the RT-qPCR products demonstrates that 256μM and 512μM linoleic acid can up-regulate mokH and mokA gene transcript levels. Especially with 512μM linoleic acid addition, linoleic acid increase 1.35 folds of monacolin K production, but 64μM linoleic acid increase 1.94 folds of red pigment production in Monascus ruber. These results show the cAMP-PkA pathway activity can up-regulate mokA and mokH gene, which enhance the yield of Monacolin K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Backbone and sidechain 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of the human brain-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP7) in its apo form and the holo forms binding to DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid and elaidic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oeemig, Jesper S; Jørgensen, Mathilde L; Hansen, Mikka S

    2009-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present the backbone and side chain assignments of human brain-type fatty acid binding protein, also known as FABP7, in its apo form and in four different holo forms, bound to DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid and elaidic acid.......In this manuscript, we present the backbone and side chain assignments of human brain-type fatty acid binding protein, also known as FABP7, in its apo form and in four different holo forms, bound to DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid and elaidic acid....

  5. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on bone mass in young male Balb/C mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shea Marianne

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an increase in obesity among the population of industrialized countries, and dietary supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA has been reported to lower body fat mass. However, weight loss is generally associated with negative effects on bone mass, but CLA is reported to have beneficial effects on bone. Furthermore, another factor that is well established to have a beneficial effect on bone is exercise (EX. However, a combination therapy of CLA and EX on bone health has not been studied. In this paper, we report the beneficial effects of CLA and EX on bone, in four different groups of Balb-C young, male mice. There were 4 groups in our study: 1. Safflower oil (SFO sedentary (SED; 2. SFO EX; 3. CLA SED; 4. CLA EX. Two months old mice, under their respective treatment regimens were followed for 14 weeks. Mice were scanned in vivo using a DEXA scanner before and after treatment. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed, the left tibia was removed and scanned using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT. The results showed that although CLA decreased gain in body weight by 35%, it however increased bone mass by both reducing bone resorption and increasing bone formation. EX also decreased gain in body weight by 21% and increased bone mass; but a combination of CLA and EX, however, did not show any further increase in bone mass. In conclusion, CLA increases bone mass in both cancellous and cortical bones, and the effects of CLA on bone is not further improved by EX in pure cortical bone of young male mice.

  6. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake on Endurance Exercise Performance and Anti-fatigue in Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Naoko; Okamoto, Ken; Nakada, Kenta; Masuda, Kazumi

    2017-07-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) intake has been reported to reduce body fat mass or increase lean body mass and to improve exercise outcome by modulating testosterone in humans. These reports have studied mostly overweight subjects; few were athletes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of CLA intake on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes was investigated. A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male student athletes. Each subject was administered with either CLA (net 0.9 g/day) or a placebo for 14 days. They were subjected to an exercise tolerance test (steady loading) using a cycle ergometer on days 0 and 14. Peak VO 2 was determined for each subject using a graded loading test. The steady loading test was performed with a pedaling exercise load of 50% peak VO 2 for 40 min and then with a load of 70% peak VO 2 until exhaustion. Blood sampling and measurement of critical flicker frequency (CFF) were performed before and after exercise. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured serially during exercise. In the results, amount of body weight variation significantly increased and amount of body fat percentage variation tended to decrease by CLA intake, it might have an effect by increase in muscle mass. In addition, amount of exercise time variation significantly increased, amount of variation of CFF before and after exercise tended to increase, that of RPE during exercise tended to decrease, and that of creatine phosphokinase before and after exercise tended to decrease in the CLA group. These results suggested that CLA intake for 14 days might have an effect on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes.

  7. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Linoleic acid emulsion on the peri-lesion skin of venal ulcers. Action and cicatrizant effect. Corpus study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicas, Vicente Tormo; Rochina, Iván Julián

    2008-04-01

    The authors present a clinical and documented follow up on the peri-lesion skin in 44 venal blood vessel ulcers which were treated by a hyper-oxygenized fatty acid emulsion. All the elderly in this study belonged to the Number 3 Health Department of the Valencia Sanitary Council. This study's protocol and its data collection register received a favourable report from the Committee on Research Ethics at the "La Plana" Hospital. With a total percentage of 60 in essential linoleic fatty acid, CORPITOLINOL 60, is the emulsion which has the greatest quantity of this element so necessary for human skin. In effect, this is the essential fatty acid which has the greatest presence in human skin, besides being a vital element for skin hydration and its viability to form part of a fundamental structure: intercellular layers in the corneum layer of the epidermis. On the other hand, in the hyper-oxygenation process, this product helps the skin to obtain molecules very similar to prostaglandins land 2 which favour tissue perfusion. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate, after the application of this emulsion over a four week time period, the reduction of erythema and peri-lesion hyperkeratosis in venal blood vessel ulcers. But at the same time, as a secondary objective, this study evaluated peri-lesion skin based on other criteria such as pruritus, lesions due to scratching, or edema; this study verified whether treatment of peri-lesion skin influences the cicatrisation of wounds, as well as treatment acceptance by health professionals and patients. Incidences of erythemas and hyperkeratosis totally disappeared in 40% and 50% of those cases, respectively; in those lesions where these symptoms continued after four weeks of treatment there was a significant reduction in the degree of both erythemas and hyperkeratosis, 25% in each case. These researchers consider that good treatment of peri-lesion skin combined with a standard cure protocol, using "Urgotul" as the

  9. Oleic and linoleic acids are active principles in Nigella sativa and stabilize an E(2)P conformation of the Na,K-ATPase. Fatty acids differentially regulate cardiac glycoside interaction with the pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A; Christensen, S Brøgger

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa seed oil was found to contain a modulator of Na,K-ATPase. Separation analyses combined with (1)H NMR and GCMS identified the inhibitory fraction as a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids. These two fatty acids are specifically concentrated in several medicinal plant oils, and have particularly been implicated in decreasing high blood pressure. The ouabain binding site on Na,K-ATPase has also been implicated in blood pressure regulation. Thus, we aimed to determine how these two molecules modify pig kidney Na,K-ATPase. Oleic and linoleic acids did not modify reactions involving the E(1) (Na(+)) conformations of the Na,K-ATPase. In contrast, K(+) dependent reactions were strongly modified after treatment. Oleic and linoleic acids were found to stabilize a pump conformation that binds ouabain with high affinity, i.e., an ion free E(2)P form. Time-resolved binding assays using anthroylouabain, a fluorescent ouabain analog, revealed that the increased ouabain affinity is unique to oleic and linoleic acids, as compared with γ-linolenic acid, which decreased pump-mediated ATP hydrolysis but did not equally increase ouabain interaction with the pump. Thus, the dynamic changes in plasma levels of oleic and linoleic acids are important in the modulation of the sensitivity of the sodium pump to cardiac glycosides. Given the possible involvement of the cardiac glycoside binding site on Na,K-ATPase in the regulation of hypertension, we suggest oleic acid to be a specific chaperon that modulates interaction of cardiac glycosides with the sodium pump. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Qingming [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nair, Jagadeesan [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: j.nair@dkfz.de; Sun Xin [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hadjiolov, Dimiter [National Oncological Centre, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bartsch, Helmut [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-11-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary {omega}-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N{sup 6}-ethenodeoxyadenosine ({epsilon}dA) and 3, N{sup 4}-ethenodeoxycytidine ({epsilon}dC) by immunoaffinity/{sup 32}P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in {omega}-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis.

  11. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qingming; Nair, Jagadeesan; Sun Xin; Hadjiolov, Dimiter; Bartsch, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N 6 -ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3, N 4 -ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) by immunoaffinity/ 32 P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in ω-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis

  12. Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and mice, and induces weight gain and inflammation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvheim, Anita R.; Torstensen, Bente E.; Lin, Yu Hong

    2013-01-01

    , arachidonic acid (AA), decreased EPA and DHA, elevated the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), and increased TAG accumulation in the salmon liver. In mice, the SO salmon diet increased LA and AA and decreased EPA and DHA in the liver and erythrocyte phospholipids, and elevated......Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century and is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity. Vegetable oils are recognised as suitable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) but introduce high amounts of LA......-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA in mice....

  13. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  14. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Sjøgren, Per; Hølland, Nina; Müller, Hanne; Kjos, Nils P; Taugbøl, Ole; Fjerdingby, Nina; Biong, Anne S; Selmer-Olsen, Eirik; Harstad, Odd M

    2008-01-01

    Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) and trans vaccenic acid (VA). These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs. PMID:18759970

  15. Quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk with C17:0 as internal marker – Evaluation of different methylation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lashkari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are commonly analysed by gas chromatography as their corresponding fatty acid (FA methyl esters (FAME. For quantitative determination of individual FA an internal standard like C17:0 is necessary. Conjugated FA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA represents a challenge in the methylation steps, as they are sensitive to pH changes and oxidation. The present study was carried out to determine the efficiency of different methylation procedures on quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, PUFA and response of internal standard. The highest response of internal standard was observed for boron trifluoride (BF3/methanol and methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3, while cis-9, trans-11 CLA, total CLA and PUFA was higher with methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3 compared with the BF3 method. These data can be useful for quantitating of milk FA. Keywords: Methylation procedures, Milk fatty acid, Conjugated linoleic acid

  16. , , , , , and Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001 carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases. Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  17. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  19. Effect of oleic and conjugated linoleic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on the live growth performances, carcass traits and meat fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.

  20. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T₉₀ - T₀ = -12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = -2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = -3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = -1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T₉₀ - T₀ = -4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure.

  1. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. Methods This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. Results There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Conclusion Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure. PMID:23271912

  2. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Plaza, Bricia; Bermejo, Laura M; Koester Weber, Thabata; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Hernández, Marta; Palma Milla, Samara; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) have shown beneficial effects in weight control therapy however this relation is not clear. The aim of the study was to examine the effects and safety of 3g of a 1:1 mix of c9-t11 and t10-c12 on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight individuals. A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomised double-blind, parallel clinical trial lasting 24 weeks was carried out in 38 volunteers (29w, 9m) aged 30-55 years and BMI ≥27-oil (placebo). Anthropometric, biochemical and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) tests were measured. Diet and physical activity were assessed. Subjects maintained their habitual dietary and exercise patterns over the study. Only CLA group showed a significant decrease in weight (74.43 ± 10.45 vs 73.54 ± 11.66 kg, p = 0.029) and waist circumference (91.45 ± 10.33 vs 90.65 ± 9.84 cm, p = 0.012) between baseline and end of the study. BMI and waist height ratio decreased (28.44 ± 1.08 vs 27.81 ± 1.43 kg/m2, p = 0.030 and 0.57 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.04 p = 0.013 respectively) in CLA group at the end. CLA group experienced a reduction in total fat mass after 24 weeks (38.62 ± 5.02 vs 36.65 ± 5.64%, p = 0.035). No decrease was observed in Control group. HOMA index had no changes. The consumption of skimmed milk enriched with 3g of a 1:1 mixture of c9-t11 and t10-c12 for 24 weeks led to a decrease in body weight and total fat mass in healthy, overweight subjects who maintained habitual diets and exercise patterns. No adverse effects were observed. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier No. NCT01503047. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi extract and linoleic acid from Passiflora edulis synergistically decrease melanin synthesis in B16 cells and reconstituted epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, A T S; Arroteia, K F; Santos, I A; Andres, E; Medina, S P H; Ferrari, C R; Lourenço, C B; Biaggio, R M T T; Moreira, P L

    2012-10-01

    Several treatments for skin whitening are available today, but few of them are completely adequate, especially owing to the carcinogenic potential attributed to classical drugs like hydroquinone, arbutin and kojic acid. To provide an alternative and safer technology for whitening, we developed two botanical compounds originated from Brazilian biodiversity, an extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and a linoleic acid fraction isolated from Passiflora edulis oil. The whitening effect of these compounds was assessed using biochemical assays and in vitro models including cellular assays and equivalent skin. The results showed that S. terebinthifolius Raddi extract is able to reduce the tyrosinase activity in vitro, and the combination of this extract with linoleic acid is able to decrease the level of melanin produced by B16 cells cultured with melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, melanin was also reduced in human reconstituted epidermis (containing melanocytes) treated with the compounds. The combination of the compounds may provide a synergistic positive whitening effect rather than their isolated use. Finally, we demonstrated that the performance of these mixed compounds is comparable to classical molecules used for skin whitening, as kojic acid. This new natural mixture could be considered an alternative therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation and an effective component in whitening cosmetics. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Villar-Tajadura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA, respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp. and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.. These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1 and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1 in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk.

  5. Metabolism in humans of cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid relative to palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emken, E.A.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Adlof, R.O.; Rakoff, H.; Gulley, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mixtures of triglycerides containing deuterium-labeled hexadecanoic acid (16:0), octadecanoic acid (18:0), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (9c-18:1), cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (9c, 12c-18:2) and cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid (12c,15t-18:2) were fed to two young-adult males. Plasma lipid classes were isolated from samples collected periodically over 48 hr. Incorporation and turnover of the deuterium-labeled fats in plasma lipids were followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the methyl ester derivatives. Absorption of the deuterated fats was followed by GC-MS analysis of chylomicron triglycerides isolated by ultracentrifugation. Results were the following: (i) endogenous fat contributed about 40% of the total fat incorporated into chylomicron triglycerides; (ii) elongation, desaturation and chain-shortened products from the deuterated fats were not detected; (iii) the polyunsaturated isomer 12c,15t-18:2 was metabolically more similar to saturated and 9c-18:1 fatty acids than to 9c,12c-18:2; (iv) relative incorporation of 9c,12c-18:2 into phospholipids did not increase proportionally with an increase of 9c,12c-18:2 in the mixture of deuterated fats fed; (v) absorption of 16:0, 18:0, 9c-18:1, 9c,12c-18:2 and 12c,15t-18:2 were similar; and (vi) data for the 1- and 2-acyl positions of phosphatidylcholine and for cholesteryl ester fractions reflected the known high specificity of phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase for 9c,12c-18:2. These results illustrate that incorporation of dietary fatty acids into human plasma lipid classes is selectively controlled and that incorporation of dietary 9c,12c-18:2 is limited

  6. Distribution of 14C after oral administration of [1-14C]linoleic acid in rats fed different levels of essential fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1984-01-01

    Rats from an inbred Sprague-Dawley strain were fed semisynthetic diets with a low [0.3 energy percent (en %)], normal (3 en %) or high (10 en %) content of essential fatty acids (EFA) for at least three generations. Twenty-nine- to 33-day-old male rats were given a single intragastric dose of [1-14C]linoleic acid in olive oil, and the respiratory CO2, urine and feces were collected for 46 hours (expt 1) or 20 hours (expt 2). The 14C activity in respiratory CO2, feces, urine and the carcass was determined in both experiments. In experiment 2 it was also measured in samples of the brown fat, liver, adrenals, white fat, skeletal muscles and brain. In both experiments the rats fed the low EFA diet retained significantly more 14C activity than the rats fed the normal or high EFA diets. In all groups the concentration of label was highest in the brown fat and the adrenals, but the above differences among the groups with respect to 14C retention were mainly observed in the liver, skeletal muscles and brain

  7. Using linoleic acid embedded cellulose acetate membranes to in situ monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lakes and predict their bioavailability to submerged macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yuqiang; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shuchun

    2015-05-19

    To date no passive sampler has been used to predict bioavailability of contaminants to macrophytes. Here a novel passive sampler, linoleic acid embedded cellulose acetate membrane (LAECAM), was developed and used to in situ measure the freely dissolved concentrations of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediment porewaters and the water columns of two lakes in both winter and summer and predict their bioavailability to the shoots of resident submerged macrophytes (Potamogeton malainus, Myriophyllum spicata, Najas minor All., and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara). PAH sampling by LAECAMs could reach equilibrium within 21 days. The influence of temperature on LAECAM-water partition coefficients was 0.0008-0.0116 log units/°C. The method of LAECAM was comparable with the active sampling methods of liquid-liquid extraction combined with fDOC adjustment, centrifugation/solid-phase extraction (SPE), and filtration/SPE but had several advantages. After lipid normalization, concentrations of the PAHs in LAECAMs were not significantly different from those in the macrophytes. In contrast, concentrations of the PAHs in the triolein containing passive sampler (TECAM) deployed simultaneously with LAECAM were much higher. The results suggest that linoleic acid is more suitable than triolein as the model lipid for passive samplers to predict bioavailability of PAHs to submerged macrophytes.

  8. Gas chromatography and silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in free fatty acid form using sulphuric acid in methanol as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pilar; Juárez, Manuela; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel

    2008-09-12

    This study used GC and silver-ion HPLC to examine the effects of temperature and time on methylation of individual and mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in free fatty acid form using sulphuric acid as catalyst. In the conditions tested (temperatures between 20 and 50 degrees C and times between 10 and 60 min) methylation was complete while avoiding isomerization of conjugated dienes and the formation of artefacts that could interfere with chromatographic determinations. An analytical method using solvent extraction of the lipids followed by selective elution of the free fatty acids from aminopropyl bonded phase columns and methylation with H(2)SO(4) in mild conditions was then applied to determine the CLA isomers in free fatty acid form in rumen fluid, and the results were evaluated.

  9. Evidence for conjugated linoleic acid-induced embryonic mortality that is independent of egg storage conditions and changes in egg relative fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, V A; Stransky, D L; Aydin, R; Cook, M E

    2009-09-01

    Three experiments were performed to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on embryonic development in the absence of vitelline membrane disruption. In experiment 1, when eggs from control and CLA (0.5%)-fed hens were stored at 21 or 15 degrees C for 48 h, mineral movement between the yolk and albumen was not observed (with the exception of Mg and Na). Also, it was found that CLA-induced changes in yolk fatty acid content (e.g., increased saturated fatty acids and CLA) had begun to change after 5 d of feeding hens CLA, and no differences were detected in fatty acid composition after 14 d. In experiment 2, the hatchability of eggs incubated directly after oviposition or stored 24 h at 21 or 15 degrees C was determined from hens fed control or 0.5% CLA diets. Regardless of storage conditions, CLA reduced hatchability. These data showed that CLA elicits negative effects on hatchability independent of vitelline membrane disruption or egg storage condition. In experiment 3, eggs were collected from hens fed 0 or 1% CLA daily for 3 wk, stored at 21 degrees C for 24 h, and incubated. Not only did CLA decrease hatchability, the data showed as the days of CLA feeding increased, the days of survival during incubation decreased. Average days of embryonic survival during incubation for the CLA group diminished to 18.0, 13.4, and 6.3 d for wk 1, 2, and 3 of CLA feeding, respectively, and control remained at 20.6, 20.8, and 19.8 for the 3 wk. These studies suggested that without the disruption of the vitelline membrane, hatchability and embryonic days of survival were significantly reduced by maternal CLA feeding in comparison to control-fed hens. Evidence that embryos die earlier the longer the hens are fed CLA, even though no additional changes in the fatty acid content of eggs were found, suggested that factors other than storage and egg yolk fatty acid composition played a role in CLA-induced embryonic mortality.

  10. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha concentration compared with the control, P...

  11. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich soy oil by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-11-25

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.

  12. [Inhibition of oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Vorobjeva, A K; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from 16 various spice plants were studied as natural antioxidants for the inhibition of autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids methyl esters isolated from linseed oil. The content of methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenoate after 1, 2, and 4 months of autooxidation were used as criteria to estimate the antioxidant efficiencies of essential oils. In 4 months, 92% of the methyl linolenoate and 79% of the methyl linoleate were oxidized in a control sample of a model system. It was found that the most effective antioxidants were essential oils from clove bud, cinnamon leaves, and oregano. They inhibited autooxidation of methyl linolenoate by 76–85%. The antioxidant properties of these essential oils were due to phenols— eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol. Essential oil from coriander did not contain phenols, but it inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 38%. Essential oils from thyme, savory, mace, lemon, and tea tree inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 17–24%. The other essential oils had no antioxidant properties.

  13. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pegolo

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet. The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography. In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy

  14. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  15. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis Condições de cultura simulando o levado acúmulo de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Reddy Ronda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25ºC, strong light intensity (6 klux and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria.Estudou-se a produção de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis em diferentes condições de estresse. Culturas submersas indicaram que temperatura baixa (25ºC, forte intensidade de luz (6 klux e suplementação com óleo de prímula (0,8% p/v induziram a produção de ácido linolênico de 13,2 mg/g, 14,6 mg/g e 13,5 mg/g peso seco, respectivamente. Uma observação cuidadosa do perfil de ácidos graxos da cianobacteria indica que os ácidos oléico e linoléico, em experimentos com diferentes temperaturas de crescimento e suplementos de óleo, auxiliaram no acúmulo de excesso de ácido γ-linolênico. Além disso, as culturas obtidas em intensidades crescentes de luz mantiveram a relação ácido γ-linolênico/ácidos graxos totais constante, independentemente de qualquer mudança no conteúdo de ácido γ-linolênico da cianobactéria.

  16. Inflammation and insulin resistance induced by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid depend on intracellular calcium levels in primary cultures of human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, Arion; Martinez, Kristina; Chung, Soonkyu

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induced inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes by activating nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling. In this study, we demonstrated...... that the initial increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mediated by 10,12 CLA was attenuated by TMB-8, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), by BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, and by D609, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor. Moreover, BAPTA, TMB-8, and D609 attenuated......, and suppression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma protein levels and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These data suggest that 10,12 CLA increases inflammation and insulin resistance in human adipocytes, in part by increasing [Ca2+]i levels, particularly calcium from the ER....

  17. Transport of C-13-labelled linoleic and C-13-labelled caprylic acid in rat plasma after administration of specific structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    the transport of dietary C-13-labelled fatty acids in rat plasma to compare the chylomicron fatty acid metabolism after administration of specific structured, long chain and medium chain triacylglycerols. Rats were fed ML*M, M*LM*, L*L*L* or M*M*M* (L=linoleic acid, 18:2n-6, M=caprylic acid, 8:0, * = C-13......-labelled fatty acid) by gavage. A maximum transport of 0.5% of the administered C-13-labelled 18:2n-6 was observed in 1mL rat plasma both after administration of L*L*L* and ML*M, while approximately 0.04% of the administered C-13-labelled 8:0 was detected in 1mL plasma following administration of M......*M*M* or M*LM*. After L*L*L* administration C-13-labelled 20:4n-6 was observed in plasma, probably formed by elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6 in the enterocyte or liver cells. Furthermore, C-13-labelled 16:0, 48:0, 18: 1n-9 and 20:4n-6 were observed in plasma of rats fed M*M*M* and M*LM* due...

  18. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  19. Starch and oil in the donor cow diet and starch in substrate differently affect the in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Nicot, M C; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2011-11-01

    Trans isomers of fatty acids exhibit different health properties. Among them, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on milk fat production and can affect human health. A shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of dairy cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with highly unsaturated fat sources. The differences of BH patterns between linoleic acid (LeA) and linolenic acid (LnA) in such ruminal conditions remain unknown; thus, the aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the effects of starch and sunflower oil in the diet of the donor cows and starch level in the incubates on the BH patterns and efficiencies of LeA and LnA. The design was a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 cows, 4 periods, and 4 diets with combinations of 21 or 34% starch and 0 or 5% sunflower oil. The rumen content of each cow during each period was incubated with 4 substrates, combining 2 starch levels and either LeA or LnA addition. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism of incubates showed that dietary starch decreased the diversity of the bacterial community and the high-starch plus oil diet modified its structure. High-starch diets poorly affected isomerization and first reduction of LeA and LnA, but decreased the efficiencies of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and trans C18:1 reduction. Dietary sunflower oil increased the efficiency of LeA isomerization but decreased the efficiency of trans C18:1 reduction. An interaction between dietary starch and dietary oil resulted in the highest trans-10 isomers production in incubates when the donor cow received the high-starch plus oil diet. The partition between trans-10 and trans-11 isomers was also affected by an interaction between starch level and the fatty acid added to the incubates, showing that the trans-10 shift only occurred with LeA, whereas LnA was mainly hydrogenated via the more usual trans-11

  20. Oxidation of linoleic and palmitic acid in pre-hibernating and hibernating common noctule bats revealed by 13C breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Elisabeth; Voigt, Christian C

    2018-02-19

    Mammals fuel hibernation by oxidizing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from triacylglycerols in adipocytes, yet the relative importance of these two categories as an oxidative fuel may change during hibernation. We studied the selective use of fatty acids as an oxidative fuel in noctule bats ( Nyctalus noctula ). Pre-hibernating noctule bats that were fed 13 C-enriched linoleic acid (LA) showed 12 times higher tracer oxidation rates compared with conspecifics fed 13 C-enriched palmitic acid (PA). After this experiment, we supplemented the diet of bats with the same fatty acids on five subsequent days to enrich their fat depots with the respective tracer. We then compared the excess 13 C enrichment (excess atom percentage, APE) in breath of bats for torpor and arousal events during early and late hibernation. We observed higher APE values in breath of bats fed 13 C-enriched LA than in bats fed 13 C-enriched PA for both states (torpor and arousal), and also for both periods. Thus, hibernating bats selectively oxidized endogenous LA instead of PA, probably because of faster transportation rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with saturated fatty acids. We did not observe changes in APE values in the breath of torpid animals between early and late hibernation. Skin temperature of torpid animals increased by 0.7°C between early and late hibernation in bats fed PA, whereas it decreased by -0.8°C in bats fed LA, highlighting that endogenous LA may fulfil two functions when available in excess: serving as an oxidative fuel and supporting cell membrane functionality. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Os efeitos do ácido linoléico conjugado no metabolismo animal: avanço das pesquisas e perspectivas para o futuro Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on animal metabolism: advances in research and perspectives for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago

    2008-04-01

    consumidos em quantidades adequadas e de forma freqüente, poderiam atuar como coadjuvantes na prevenção e no controle de inúmeras doenças crônicas.This systematic review without date restrictions is about the physiological effects of conjugated linoleic acid on regression of carcinogenesis, oxidative stress, glucose and lipid metabolism and change in body composition. The objective was to establish the historical aspect of research advances regarding conjugated linoleic acid, considering original articles reporting work on animals, cell cultures and humans. Regarding the researches on the anticarcinogenic effect of conjugated linoleic acid, innumerous evidences were found in this respect, especially in the regression of mammary and colon tumors induced by both isomers which act distinctively. The researchers devoted considerable effort to reinvestigate the antioxidant properties of conjugated linoleic acid. Although the antioxidant properties have been investigated, pro-oxidant effect has been identified leading to oxidative stress in humans. Few studies demonstrated significant beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the metabolism of lipids and glucose and on the reduction of body fat, especially in humans. Studies with adverse effects were also identified. There is strong indication that the action of this conjugated fatty acid on a class of transition factors - the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor - and on the consequent modulation of gene expression can be the fundamental explanation of its physiological effects. The most recent studies reinforce the nutrigenomic concept, that is, the modulation of gene expression induced by compounds present in the foods consumed by humans. This current scenario stimulates the scientific community to seek a consensus on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid in humans, since it is naturally found in some foods; when these foods are consumed regularly and in appropriate amounts, they could help prevent and

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  3. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic gene expression in a polygenic obese line of mice displaying hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Melissa S; Ceddia, Ryan P; House, Ralph L; Cassady, Joseph P; Eisen, Eugene J; Eling, Thomas E; Collins, Jennifer B; Grissom, Sherry F; Odle, Jack

    2010-09-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes a rapid reduction of body and adipose mass in mice. In addition to changes in adipose tissue, numerous studies have reported alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism. Livers of CLA-fed mice gain mass, partly due to lipid accumulation; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. To elucidate these mechanisms, we examined fatty acid composition and gene expression profiles of livers from a polygenic obese line of mice fed 1% trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 14 days. Analysis of gene expression data led to the identification of 1393 genes differentially expressed in the liver of CLA-fed male mice at a nominal P value of .01, and 775 were considered significant using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of .05. While surprisingly few genes in lipid metabolism were impacted, pathway analysis found that protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathways signaling pathways were affected by CLA treatment and 98 of the 775 genes were found to be regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha, a transcription factor important in controlling liver metabolic status. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profiles and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Aryaeian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Naheed Aryaeian1, Farhad Shahram2, Mahmoud Djalali1, Mohammad R Eshragian3, Abolghasem Djazayeri1, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad4, Nasim Naderi2, Maryam Chamari1, Fariha Fatehi1, Mahnaz Zarei11Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 2Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 4Department of Immunology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs, vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for three months: Group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g mixture of cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis12 CLAs in a rate of 50/50; Group E: vitamin E: 400 mg; Group CE: CLAs and vitamin E at above doses: Group P: placebo. After supplementation, SBP levels decreased significantly in the group C in comparison with groups E and P and mean arterial pressure reduced signifi cantly in groups C and CE. There weren’t significant differences in the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL/HDL, cholesterol/HDL, fasting blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP, arylestrase activity, platelet count and body mass index between groups. CRP dropped nonsignificantly in groups P, C, E and CE (19%, 24%, 55%, and 39%, respectively. Erythrocytes

  6. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profiles and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Aryaeian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Naheed Aryaeian1, Farhad Shahram2, Mahmoud Djalali1, Mohammad R Eshragian3, Abolghasem Djazayeri1, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad4, Nasim Naderi2, Maryam Chamari1, Fariha Fatehi1, Mahnaz Zarei11Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 2Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 4Department of Immunology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs, vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for three months: Group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g mixture of cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis12 CLAs in a rate of 50/50; Group E: vitamin E: 400 mg; Group CE: CLAs and vitamin E at above doses: Group P: placebo. After supplementation, SBP levels decreased significantly in the group C in comparison with groups E and P and mean arterial pressure reduced signifi cantly in groups C and CE. There weren’t significant differences in the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL/HDL, cholesterol/HDL, fasting blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP, arylestrase activity, platelet count and body mass index between groups. CRP dropped nonsignificantly in groups P, C, E and CE (19%, 24%, 55%, and 39%, respectively. Erythrocytes

  7. Undecylenic Acid Inhibits Morphogenesis of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    McLain, Nealoo; Ascanio, Rhoda; Baker, Carol; Strohaver, Robert A.; Dolan, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    Resilient liners are frequently used to treat denture stomatitis, a condition often associated with Candida albicans infections. Of 10 liners tested, 2 were found to inhibit the switch from the yeast form to hyphae and a third was found to stimulate this switch. The inhibitor was determined to be undecylenic acid.

  8. Undecylenic acid inhibits morphogenesis of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, N; Ascanio, R; Baker, C; Strohaver, R A; Dolan, J W

    2000-10-01

    Resilient liners are frequently used to treat denture stomatitis, a condition often associated with Candida albicans infections. Of 10 liners tested, 2 were found to inhibit the switch from the yeast form to hyphae and a third was found to stimulate this switch. The inhibitor was determined to be undecylenic acid.

  9. Isolation of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids as COX-1 and -2 inhibitors in rose hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna; Petersen, K N; Thomasen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Rose hip has previously shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and organic solvent extracts of rose hip have showed inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. A petroleum ether extract of rose hip was fractioned by VLC on silica; on a C-18 column and by HPLC. Each step was COX-1/...

  10. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Andersen, Anders D.

    2008-01-01

    with a high- or low-LA intake affects overall CVD risk profile. Healthy men (n = 64) were randomized to 5 mL/d fish oil capsules (FO) [mean intake 3.1 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil capsules (control) and to oils and spreads with either a high (S/B) or a low (R/K) LA content, resulting in a 7.3 g/d higher LA......Both (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and linoleic acid [LA, 18:2(n-6)] improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but a high-LA intake may weaken the effect of (n-3) LCPUFA. In a controlled, double-blind, 2 x 2-factorial 8-wk intervention, we investigated whether fish oil combined......, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, oxidized LDL, cluster of differentiation antigen 40 ligand (CD40L), adiponectin, or fasting or postprandial BP or HR after adjustment for body weight changes. In conclusion, neither fish oil supplementation nor the LA...

  11. Direct nuclear magnetic resonance identification and quantification of geometric isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps: Overcoming sensitivity and resolution barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G.; Skarlas, Theodore; Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The first NMR quantification of four geometric 18:2 CLA isomers has been achieved. • Sensitivity and resolution NMR barriers have been overcome. • Selective suppression and reduced 13 C spectral width have been utilized. • The method is applied in the milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps. • The method is selective, sensitive with very good analytical characteristics. - Abstract: We report the first successful direct and unequivocal identification and quantification of four minor geometric (9-cis, 11-trans) 18:2, (9-trans, 11-cis) 18:2, (9-cis, 11-cis) 18:2 and (9-trans, 11-trans) 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in lipid fractions of lyophilized milk samples with the combined use of 1D 1 H-NMR, 2D 1 H- 1 H TOCSY and 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC NMR. The significant sensitivity barrier has been successfully overcome under selective suppression of the major resonances, with over 10 4 greater equilibrium magnetization of the -(CH 2 ) n - 1 H spins compared to that of the 1 H spins of the conjugated bonds of the CLA isomers. The resolution barrier has been significantly increased using reduced 13 C spectral width in the 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC experiment. The assignment was confirmed with spiking experiments with CLA standard compounds and the method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction. The proposed method is selective, sensitive and compares favorably with the GS-MS method of analysis

  12. Structural characterization and bioavailability of ternary nanoparticles consisting of amylose, α-linoleic acid and β-lactoglobulin complexed with naringin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Wang, Ke; Liu, Fangfang; Ye, Ran; Zhu, Xiao; Zhuang, Haining; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-06-01

    Naringin is a bioflavonoid that is rich in citrus plants and possesses enormous health benefits. However, the use of naringin as a nutraceutical is significantly limited by its low bioavailability. In this study, a novel water-soluble ternary nanoparticle material consisting of amylose, α-linoleic acid and β-lactoglobulin was developed to encapsulate naringin to improve its bioavailability. The physicochemical characteristics of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex were analysed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and particle size distribution. The results confirmed the formation of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading content (LC) of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex were 78.73±4.17% and 14.51±3.43%, respectively. In addition, the results of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) demonstrated that naringin can be gradually released from the complex. In conclusion, ternary nanoparticles are considered promising carriers to effectively improve the bioavailability of naringin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The palatability of corn oil and linoleic acid to mice as measured by short-term two-bottle choice and licking tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Takeshi; Saitou, Katsuyoshi; Mizushige, Takafumi; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Manabe, Yasuko; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2007-06-08

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) were reported to be recognized in the oral cavity and possibly involved in fatty foods recognition. To understand the importance of oil recognition in the oral cavity, we investigated the effect of various concentrations of a fatty acid or corn oil on fluid intake as well as mice's preferences in a two-bottle choice test and a licking test. Linoleic acid (LA), which is a main component of corn oil, was used as a representative FFA. In the two-bottle choice test between a pair of different concentrations of corn oil, the mice consistently adopted the higher concentration of corn oil. In the licking test for corn oil, the licking rates for the serial concentration of corn oils (0, 1, 5, 10 and 100%) were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, in the two-bottle test for a pair of different concentrations of LA (0, 0.125, 0.25 and 1%), 0.25% and 1% LA were preferred to mineral oil, but 0.25% and 1% LA were preferred equally in mice. In the licking test for LA, the mice showed the largest number of initial lickings for the 1% LA, while the licking rates for the high concentration of LA decreased. These results suggest that mice could discriminate the concentration of corn oil and LA in the oral cavity. We also suggest that pure corn oil is a highly preferable solution, while an optimal concentration of LA according to the preferences of mice is a low-range concentration (0.25-1%).

  14. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and high oleic acid safflower oil in the treatment of children with HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis: a randomized, double-blinded and crossover preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Louise

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery is the mainstay therapy for HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis (LP and adjuvant therapies are palliative at best. Research revealed that conjugated-linoleic acid (CLA may improve the outcome of virally-induced diseases. The effects of Clarinol™ G-80 (CLA and high oleic safflower oil (HOSF on children with LP (concomitant with surgery were evaluated. Design A randomized, double-blinded, crossover and reference-oil controlled trial was conducted at a South African medical university. Study components included clinical, HPV type/load and lymphocyte/cytokine analyses, according to routine laboratory methods. Participants Overall: ten children enrolled; eight completed the trial; five remained randomized; seven received CLA first; all treatments remained double-blinded. Intervention Children (4 to 12 years received 2.5 ml p/d CLA (8 weeks and 2.5 ml p/d HOSF (8 weeks with a washout period (6 weeks in-between. The one-year trial included a post-treatment period (30 weeks and afterwards was a one-year follow-up period. Main outcome measures Changes in numbers of surgical procedures for improved disease outcome, total/anatomical scores (staging system for papillomatosis prevention/viral inhibition, and lymphocyte/cytokine counts for immune responses between baselines and each treatment/end of trial were measured. Findings After each treatment all the children were in remission (no surgical procedures; after the trial two had recurrence (surgical procedures in post-treatment period; after the follow-up period three had recurrence (several surgical procedures and five recovered (four had no surgical procedures. Effects of CLA (and HOSF to a lesser extent were restricted to mildly/moderately aggressive papillomatosis. Children with low total scores (seven/less and reduced infections (three/less laryngeal sub-sites recovered after the trial. No harmful effects were observed. The number of surgical procedures during the trial

  15. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and high oleic acid safflower oil in the treatment of children with HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis: a randomized, double-blinded and crossover preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Louise

    2012-10-12

    Surgery is the mainstay therapy for HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis (LP) and adjuvant therapies are palliative at best. Research revealed that conjugated-linoleic acid (CLA) may improve the outcome of virally-induced diseases. The effects of Clarinol™ G-80 (CLA) and high oleic safflower oil (HOSF) on children with LP (concomitant with surgery) were evaluated. A randomized, double-blinded, crossover and reference-oil controlled trial was conducted at a South African medical university. Study components included clinical, HPV type/load and lymphocyte/cytokine analyses, according to routine laboratory methods. Overall: ten children enrolled; eight completed the trial; five remained randomized; seven received CLA first; all treatments remained double-blinded. Children (4 to 12 years) received 2.5 ml p/d CLA (8 weeks) and 2.5 ml p/d HOSF (8 weeks) with a washout period (6 weeks) in-between. The one-year trial included a post-treatment period (30 weeks) and afterwards was a one-year follow-up period. Changes in numbers of surgical procedures for improved disease outcome, total/anatomical scores (staging system) for papillomatosis prevention/viral inhibition, and lymphocyte/cytokine counts for immune responses between baselines and each treatment/end of trial were measured. After each treatment all the children were in remission (no surgical procedures); after the trial two had recurrence (surgical procedures in post-treatment period); after the follow-up period three had recurrence (several surgical procedures) and five recovered (four had no surgical procedures). Effects of CLA (and HOSF to a lesser extent) were restricted to mildly/moderately aggressive papillomatosis. Children with low total scores (seven/less) and reduced infections (three/less laryngeal sub-sites) recovered after the trial. No harmful effects were observed. The number of surgical procedures during the trial (n6/available records) was significantly lower [(p 0.03) (95% CI 1.1; 0)]. Changes in

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid induces human adipocyte delipidation: autocrine/paracrine regulation of MEK/ERK signaling by adipocytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu

    2004-01-01

    of MEK/ERK could be attenuated by pretreatment with U0126 and pertussis toxin. In parallel, pretreatment with U0126 blocked the ability of trans-10, cis-12 CLA to alter gene expression and attenuate glucose and fatty acid uptake of the cultures. Intriguingly, the induction by CLA of MEK/ERK signaling...

  17. Autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Part I. Effect of ozone on the autoxidation of neat methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, W.A.; Stanley, J.P.; Blair, E.; Cullen, G.B.

    Neat samples of polyunsaturated fatty acids were exposed to ozone in air in a flow system, and the formation of peroxides, conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive material was followed as a function of time. The effect of ozone is to shorten the induction period normally observed in autoxidation studies, but the ozone, at the concentrations used here (0-1.5 ppm), appears to have no effect on the rates of product formation after the induction period. During the induction period, increasing ozone concentrations gives rise to substantially increased rates of peroxide (or materials which titrate like peroxide) formation, a slightly increased rate of conjugated diene formation, and no significant increase in the rate of production of TBA-reactive material. Vitamin E lengthens the induction period but appears to have no other effect. Some of these data are in conflict with earlier reports of Menzel et al.

  18. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  19. Generation of novel metabolites of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n6) by guinea pig epidermis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapkin, R.S.; Ziboh, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    Although the authors have demonstrated the inability of rat and guinea pig (GP) skin enzyme preparations to desaturate 18:2n6 into gammalinolenic acid (18:3n6) using an in vitro microsomal system, the fate of this dietary essential fatty acid in the GP epidermis is unknown. To explore the fate of 18:2n6, intact tissue slices from GP epidermis were incubated with (1-/sup 14/C)18:2n6. After incubation, the extracted lipids were transesterified using methanolic-HCL. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a combination of (i) argentation TLC, scanned using a proportional TLC radioscanner, and (ii) reverse phase HPLC, equipped with a flow through radioscanner. The results indicate that the intact epidermis metabolized /sup 14/C-18:2n6 to a group of novel products more polar than 18:2n6. In subsequent experiments, /sup 14/C-18:2n6 was either incubated with the 800 xg supernatant, the 105,000 xg pellet or supernatant from GP epidermis. Metabolism of 18:2n6 by the high speed supernatant resulted in the generation of polar products with chromatographic properties of not greater than 2 double bonds. These results indicate that although the GP epidermis lacks the capacity to desaturate 18:2n6 to 18:3n6, it can convert dietary 18:2n6 into a group of novel polar metabolites via a cytosolic mediated process. The function of these metabolites in the GP integumentary system remains to be determined.

  20. Generation of novel metabolites of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n6) by guinea pig epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapkin, R.S.; Ziboh, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Although the authors have demonstrated the inability of rat and guinea pig (GP) skin enzyme preparations to desaturate 18:2n6 into gammalinolenic acid (18:3n6) using an in vitro microsomal system, the fate of this dietary essential fatty acid in the GP epidermis is unknown. To explore the fate of 18:2n6, intact tissue slices from GP epidermis were incubated with [1- 14 C]18:2n6. After incubation, the extracted lipids were transesterified using methanolic-HCL. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a combination of (i) argentation TLC, scanned using a proportional TLC radioscanner, and (ii) reverse phase HPLC, equipped with a flow through radioscanner. The results indicate that the intact epidermis metabolized 14 C-18:2n6 to a group of novel products more polar than 18:2n6. In subsequent experiments, 14 C-18:2n6 was either incubated with the 800 xg supernatant, the 105,000 xg pellet or supernatant from GP epidermis. Metabolism of 18:2n6 by the high speed supernatant resulted in the generation of polar products with chromatographic properties of not greater than 2 double bonds. These results indicate that although the GP epidermis lacks the capacity to desaturate 18:2n6 to 18:3n6, it can convert dietary 18:2n6 into a group of novel polar metabolites via a cytosolic mediated process. The function of these metabolites in the GP integumentary system remains to be determined

  1. System Development from Organic Solvents to Ionic Liquids for Synthesiz-ing Ascorbyl Esters with Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Schultz, Lise; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    . Results show that only Novozym® 435 turned out to be a useful enzymatic preparation for the production of ascorbyl-CLA ester. The optimum reaction conditions in the or-ganic solvent system were 4 h at 55°C and at a molar ratio of 5 (CLA/ascorbic acid). The esterification reaction was trans......-ferred to an ionic liquid system for the purpose of improving solubility of the polar substrate and avoiding the application of organic solvents. From screening experiments, it was evident that only methyltrioctylammonium triflouroacetate (tO-MA·TFA) could provide a proper reaction environment for production...... of ascorbyl-CLA ester when using Novozym® 435 as biocatalyst. It was possible to significantly increase the productivity (150 g/l) through the increase of ascorbic acid sol-ubility in ionic liquids by super saturation together with the increase of reaction temperature to 70°C, far beyond than that in organic...

  2. Oleic and linoleic acids are active principles in Nigella sativa and stabilize an E2P conformation of the Na,K-ATPase. Fatty acids differentially regulate cardiac glycoside interaction with the pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmoud, Yasser Ahmed; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa seed oil was found to contain a modulator of Na,K-ATPase. Separation analyses combined with (1)H NMR and GCMS identified the inhibitory fraction as a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids. These two fatty acids are specifically concentrated in several medicinal plant oils, and have...

  3. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Leigh E; Collene, Angela L; Asp, Michelle L; Hsu, Jason C; Liu, Li-Fen; Richardson, Julia R; Li, Dongmei; Bell, Doris; Osei, Kwame; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Weight loss may improve glucose control in persons with type 2 diabetes. The effects of fat quality, as opposed to quantity, on weight loss are not well understood. Objective: We compared the effects of 2 dietary oils, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Design: This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Fifty-five obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received SAF or CLA (8 g oil/d) during two 16-wk diet periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. Subjects met monthly with the study coordinator to receive new supplements and for assessment of energy balance, biochemical endpoints, or anthropometric variables. Results: Thirty-five women completed the 36-wk intervention. Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention. Conclusions: Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with these dietary oils may be beneficial for weight loss, glycemic control, or both. PMID:19535429

  4. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Does Not Reduce Visceral Adipose Tissue in Middle-Aged Men Engaged in a Resistance-Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Clay

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation has shown convincing effects at reducing body fat in animals; yet human study results have been somewhat inconclusive. The purpose of this study is to determine whether four weeks of CLA supplementation, the approximate length of a commercial package, can result in a positive change in visceral adipose tissue in resistance-trained middle-aged men. Thirty overweight and moderately obese, but otherwise healthy male subjects (aged 35 to 55 years currently involved in resistance training, were randomly assigned into CLA and placebo groups in a double-blind, placebo controlled approach. The study lasted for 12 weeks and consisted of three four-week periods. During the first four weeks (run-in period each subject received placebo (4 g safflower oil. Throughout the next four weeks (supplementation period, the placebo group continued receiving placebo, while the CLA group received 3.2 g/d of CLA. During the final four weeks (run-out period all subjects received the placebo. Computed tomography (CT scans were used to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT at weeks 4, 8 and 12. No significant reduction in VAT cross-sectional area was determined in the CLA group during the study. On the contrary, a significant reduction in cross-sectional area of VAT of 23.12 cm2 during the supplementation period was measured in the placebo group, which was abated during the run-out period. Our results suggest that CLA supplementation of 3.2 g/d for four weeks does not promote decreases in VAT in middle-aged men currently participating in a resistance-training program.

  5. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Leigh E; Collene, Angela L; Asp, Michelle L; Hsu, Jason C; Liu, Li-Fen; Richardson, Julia R; Li, Dongmei; Bell, Doris; Osei, Kwame; Jackson, Rebecca D; Belury, Martha A

    2009-09-01

    Weight loss may improve glucose control in persons with type 2 diabetes. The effects of fat quality, as opposed to quantity, on weight loss are not well understood. We compared the effects of 2 dietary oils, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Fifty-five obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received SAF or CLA (8 g oil/d) during two 16-wk diet periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. Subjects met monthly with the study coordinator to receive new supplements and for assessment of energy balance, biochemical endpoints, or anthropometric variables. Thirty-five women completed the 36-wk intervention. Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention. Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with these dietary oils may be beneficial for weight loss, glycemic control, or both.

  6. Estimation of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid content in UK foods and assessment of dietary intake in a cohort of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Sohail; Heather Mangiapane, E; Hunter, Kirsty A

    2010-05-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from ruminant-derived foods may be potentially beneficial to health. The quantity of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA in a range of UK foodstuffs (112 foods) was determined using triple-column silver ion HPLC. The cis-9, trans-11 CLA content ranged from 1.9 mg/g lipid (mild Cheddar) to 7.3 mg/g lipid (processed cheese) in cheeses, from 0.9 mg/g lipid (ice cream) to 3.7 mg/g lipid (double cream) in non-cheese dairy products, and from 2.9 mg/g lipid (Swedish meatballs) to 6.0 mg/g lipid (minced lamb) in meat products. cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations for chocolate and sweets ranged from 0.1 mg/g lipid (hot chocolate) to 4.8 mg/g lipid (buttermint). The trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer was undetected or negligible in the food samples examined. To provide information about dietary cis-9, trans-11 CLA intakes in the UK, a study was performed to estimate the daily intake of CLA in a cohort of eighteen healthy volunteers (nine female and nine male; aged 21-60 years; mean BMI = 24.0 kg/m2 (sd 2.2)) with a 7-d weighed food record. This information combined with the CLA isomer contents of UK foodstuffs was used to estimate the daily intake of the cohort. The mean daily intake of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was estimated to be 97.5 (sd 73.3) mg/d. Due to its potential health benefits, it is important to determine the CLA content of food and dietary intake as these data will be useful in determining the role of CLA in health and disease.

  7. Contents of conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis9,trans11 and trans10,cis12 in ruminant and non-ruminant meats available in the Italian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Cicognini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers are considered healthy factors due to their anticarcinogenic, anti-atherosclerotic and lipolytic effect. A recommended daily intake from 0.8 to 3 g CLA/day/person has been proposed to obtain biological effects in humans. The aim of this work was to provide data on cis9,trans11 (c9,t11 CLA and trans10,cis12 (t10,c12 CLA contents in meats collected from Italian largescale retail trade and completing a food CLA database. In a first trial, beef loin meats were characterised for label information available for consumers: origin (i.e., Ireland, France- Italy, Piedmont and sex of animals. No differences were observed for c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA contents (mg/g fat of loin meat from male or female. Piedmontese meat showed lower (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA level (mg/g fat than Irish and French-Italian meats, whereas similar t10,c12 CLA contents were measured in Piedmontese, Irish and French-Italian meats. Successively, meat samples from different animal species (male and female beef, veal, suckling lamb, belly beef, canned beef meat, pork and horse were characterised for their contents in c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. Lamb meat had the highest (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA content (mg/g fat. The c9,t11 CLA was lower than 2 mg/g fat in veal, pork and horse meats. Low t10,c12 CLA amounts were found in all analysed meat samples. These data provided information to estimate the average daily intake of CLA from meats in an Italian cohort, which can be used in epidemiological studies.

  8. Linoleic Acid Permeabilizes Gastric Epithelial Cells by Increasing Connexin43 Levels in the Cell Membrane Via a GPR40- and Akt-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Carlos; Cisterna, Bruno A.; Salas, Daniela P.; Delgado-López, Fernando; Lampe, Paul D.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC of similar intensity and additive with LA-induced change. Treatment with a CD36 blocker or transfection with siRNA-GPR120 maintain the LA-induced Cx HC activity. However, cells transfected with siRNA-GPR40 did not show LA-induced Cx HC activity but activity was increased upon exposure to DCFS, confirming the presence of activatable Cx HCs in the cell membrane. Treatment with AKTi (Akt inhibitor) abrogated the LA-induced Cx HC activity. In HeLa cells transfected with Cx43 (HeLa-Cx43), LA induced phosphorylation of surface Cx43 at serine 373 (S373), site for Akt phosphorylation. HeLa-Cx43 but not HeLa-Cx43 cells with a S373A mutation showed a LA-induced Cx HC activity directly related to an increase in cell surface Cx43 levels. Thus, the increase in membrane permeability induced by LA is mediated by an intracellular signaling pathway activated by GPR40 that leads to an increase in membrane levels of Cx43 phosphorylated at serine 373 via Akt. PMID:26869446

  9. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on serum C-reactive protein: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Karimi, Ehsan; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-12-01

    To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP). PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until May 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of CLAs supplementation on serum CRP. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I 2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016038945. From a total of 85 entries identified via searches, 14 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a significant increase in serum CRP concentrations following supplementation with CLAs (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.63 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.13-1.13, N=21 arms, heterogeneity P=.026; I 2 =52.3%). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Random-effects meta-regression revealed that changes in serum CRP levels were independent of the dosage of CLAs supplementation (slope: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.10, 0.12; P=.889) or duration of follow-up (slope: 0.271; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.59; P=.098). This meta-analysis suggests that CLA supplementation is associated with an increase in plasma CRP concentrations and a reduction in serum adiponectin concentrations, which indicates that CLA supplements have a proinflammatory effect. Randomized control trials with larger sample size and a longer follow-up period may be required for future investigations to provide an unequivocal answer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.

  12. Types of gene effects governing the inheritance of oleic and linoleic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oleic and linoleic acids are major fatty acids in peanut determining the quality and shelf-life of peanut products. A better understanding on the inheritance of these characters is an important for high-oleic breeding programs. The objective of this research was to determine the gene actions for oleic acid, linoleic acid, the ratio ...

  13. Inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis by 2-tetradecylglycidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, S A; Nomura, T; Harris, R A

    1979-10-01

    2-Tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA), a hypoglycemic agent, has been found to be a very effective inhibitor of de novo fatty acid synthesis by isolated hepatocytes. A comparison was made between the effectiveness of TDGA and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), a hypolipidemic agent, on the metabolic processes of isolated hepatocytes. These compounds are structurally related and both inhibit fatty acid synthesis; however, they have opposite effects from each other on the oxidation and esterification of fatty acids. TDGA inhibits whereas TOFA stimulates fatty acid oxidation. TDGA stimulates whereas TOFA inhibits fatty acid esterification.

  14. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in serum and liver of dairy cows receiving conjugated linoleic acids or a control fat supplement during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, H; Dänicke, S; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, J; Frank, J; Sauerwein, H

    2015-10-01

    The fat-soluble vitamin E comprises the 8 structurally related compounds (congeners) α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (with a saturated side chain) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol (with a 3-fold unsaturated side chain). Little is known regarding the blood and liver concentrations of the 8 vitamin E congeners during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in dairy cows. We thus quantified tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in serum and liver and hepatic expression of genes involved in vitamin E metabolism in pluriparous German Holstein cows during late gestation and early lactation and investigated whether dietary supplementation (from d 1 in milk) with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA; 100g/d; each 12% of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA; n=11) altered these compared with control-fat supplemented cows (CTR; n=10). Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. In both groups, the serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 increased from d -21 to d 21 and remained unchanged between d 21 and 70, but were unaffected by CLA. The concentrations of the different congeners of vitamin E in liver did not differ between the CTR and the CLA groups. In both groups, the concentrations of the vitamin E forms in liver changed during the course of the study. The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes controlling vitamin E status did not differ between groups, but α-tocopherol transfer protein and tocopherol-associated protein mRNA increased with time of lactation in both. In conclusion, the concentrations of vitamin E congeners and the expression of genes related to vitamin E status follow characteristic time-related changes during the transition from late gestation to early lactation but are unaffected by CLA supplementation at the dosage used. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid influences the metabolism of tocopherol in lactating rats but has little effect on tissue tocopherol concentrations in pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Johanna O; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2016-05-31

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known to affect the lipid metabolism in growing and lactating animals. However, potential effects on the metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins in lactating animals and co-occurring effects on their offspring are unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of dietary CLA on concentrations of tocopherol in various tissues of lactating rats and their offspring and expression of genes involved in tocopherol metabolism. Twenty-eight Wistar Han rats were allocated to 2 groups and fed either a control diet (control group) or a diet containing 0.9 % of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 (1:1) CLA (CLA group) during pregnancy and lactation. Feed intake of dams and body weight of dams and their pups were recorded weekly. Tocopherol concentrations in various body tissues were determined at day 14 of lactation in dams and 1, 7 and 14 days after birth in pups. Expression of selected genes involved in metabolism of tocopherol was determined in dams and pups. The data were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. Feed intake and body weight development of nursing rats and their pups was similar in both groups. In livers of CLA-fed dams, tocopherol concentrations decreased by 24 % but expression of TTPA and CYP3A1, involved in tocopherol transport and metabolism, were not influenced. In the dams' adipose tissue, gene expression of receptors involved in tissue tocopherol uptake, LDLR and SCARB1, but not of LPL, increased by 30 to 50 % and tocopherol concentrations increased by 47 % in CLA-fed compared to control dams. Expression of LPL, LDLR and SCARB1 in mammary gland was not influenced by CLA-feeding. Tocopherol concentrations in the pup's livers and lungs were similar in both groups, but at 14 days of age, adipose tissue tocopherol concentrations, and LDLR and SCARB1 expression, were higher in the CLA-exposed pups. We show that dietary CLA affects tissue concentrations of tocopherol in lactating rats and tocopherol metabolism in

  16. Ácido linoléico conjugado e perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios Linoleic conjugated acid and fatty acids profile in the muscle and fat layer of water buffalo steers fed different fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o teor de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA e o perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios. Utilizaram-se 12 animais castrados, da raça Murrah, com peso vivo de 306±8kg, submetidos aos tratamentos sem lipídeo adicional, grão de soja e óleo de soja, confinados durante 84 dias. Após o abate a carcaça foi resfriada a 5ºC, durante 24 horas. Foi feita secção entre a nona e a 11ª costelas da meia carcaça direita, de onde se separou músculo e capa de gordura, analisadas as concentrações de CLA e de ácidos graxos, por cromatografia gasosa. O fornecimento de óleo de soja resultou em maior concentração de CLA no músculo e na capa de gordura, e a adição de óleo de soja menores concentrações de ácidos graxos saturados, principalmente os ácidos mirístico e palmítico. Os animais que receberam a dieta com grão de soja integral também apresentaram menor teor de CLA e redução nas concentrações de mirístico e palmítico. Esses efeitos foram observados somente na capa de gordura e em menor intensidade.The effect of different fat sources on fatty acid concentrations in the muscle and in the fat layer of water buffalo steers was studied. Twelve water buffalo steers weighting 306±8kg, fed without additional fat, soybean grain or soybean oil and confined during 84 days were used. The animals were slaughtered after 16-hours-fasting and the carcass was cooled at 5ºC, for 24 hours. A section was extracted between 9th and 11th ribs from the right half carcass and this section was separated in bone, muscle and fat layer. In the last two fractions, the fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, were quantified by gaseous chromatography. The soybean oil provided higher CLA concentrations in the steers muscle and fat layer. Moreover, the soybean oil inclusion promoted lower saturated fatty acids contents, mainly miristic and palmitic

  17. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Administration Induces Amnesia in Male Sprague Dawley Rats and Exacerbates Recovery from Functional Deficits Induced by a Controlled Cortical Impact Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are required for normal neural development and cognitive function and have been ascribed various beneficial functions. Recently, oral CLA also has been shown to increase testosterone (T biosynthesis, which is known to diminish traumatic brain injury (TBI-induced neuropathology and reduce deficits induced by stroke in adult rats. To test the impact of CLA on cognitive recovery following a TBI, 5-6 month old male Sprague Dawley rats received a focal injury (craniectomy + controlled cortical impact (CCI; n = 17 or Sham injury (craniectomy alone; n = 12 and were injected with 25 mg/kg body weight of Clarinol® G-80 (80% CLA in safflower oil; n = 16 or saline (n = 13 every 48 h for 4 weeks. Sham surgery decreased baseline plasma progesterone (P4 by 64.2% (from 9.5 ± 3.4 ng/mL to 3.4 ± 0.5 ng/mL; p = 0.068, T by 74.6% (from 5.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL to 1.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL; p 0.05 animals by post-injury day 29, but rapidly reversed by post-injury day 1 the hypoadrenalism in Sham (11-DOC: 372.6 ± 36.6 ng/mL; corticosterone: 202.6 ± 15.6 ng/mL and CCI-injured (11-DOC: 384.2 ± 101.3 ng/mL; corticosterone: 234.6 ± 43.8 ng/mL animals. In Sham surgery animals, CLA did not alter body weight, but did markedly increase latency to find the hidden Morris Water Maze platform (40.3 ± 13.0 s compared to saline treated Sham animals (8.8 ± 1.7 s. In CCI injured animals, CLA did not alter CCI-induced body weight loss, CCI-induced cystic infarct size, or deficits in rotarod performance. However, like Sham animals, CLA injections exacerbated the latency of CCI-injured rats to find the hidden MWM platform (66.8 ± 10.6 s compared to CCI-injured rats treated with saline (30.7 ± 5.5 s, p < 0.05. These results indicate that chronic treatment of CLA at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight in adult male rats over 1-month 1 does not reverse craniectomy- and craniectomy + CCI-induced hypogonadism, but does reverse

  18. Effect of the cryopreservation method used, the embryonic stage and the use of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Simões Rafagnin Marinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA might be able to improve the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced (IVP embryos. The effect of two CLA isomers on the cryotolerance of bovine IVP embryos, as well as that of the stage of embryonic development and the method used for cryopreservation was evaluated by three experiments. In Experiment 1, oocytes (n = 3,917 were fertilized in vitro and cultured with 0, 50, 100, or 200 ?M trans-10, cis-12 (t10, c12 CLA. In Experiment 2, fertilized oocytes (n = 2,131 were cultured with 100 ?M t10, c12 or cis-9, trans-11 (c9, t11 CLA, or a combination of both isomers. The embryos were vitrified at the blastocyst (BL or the expanded blastocyst (EB stage. In Experiment 3, oocytes (n = 1,720 were fertilized and cultured with or without 100 ?M t10, c12 CLA, and the blastocysts were vitrified or frozen. Blastocyst development rate as well as the rates of re-expansion and hatching after thawing was recorded. Moreover, the mean cell number and mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 as well as fatty acid synthase (FASN multienzyme complex were determined. In Experiment 1, the highest concentration of t10, c12 CLA that did not reduce blastocyst development rate was 100 ?M. In Experiment 2, the rates of re-expansion and hatching among the EBs obtained through IVP after supplementation with t10, c12 CLA (73.1% and 57.7%, with c9, t11 CLA (80.0% and 68.6%, with the combination (78.3% and 52.2%, and with the control group (85.4% and 58.3% were similar. At the BL stage, the rates of re-expansion and hatching were lower than those at the EB stage, and CLA combination allowed a hatching rate (8.0% lower than that observed in the control group (40.0%. In Experiment 3, the hatching rates for vitrified EBs (vitrified control; 67.4% and vitrified CLA EBs (65.8% were higher than those obtained for frozen EBs, exposed (13.3% or not exposed (28.6% to CLA. In addition, in Experiment 3, the hatching rate was

  19. Mice Lacking Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) are Protected Against Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Fatty Liver but Develop Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tina; Drescher, Andrea; Panse, Madhura; Lastovicka, Petr; Peter, Andreas; Weigert, Cora; Kostenis, Evi; Ullrich, Susanne; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) affect body fat distribution, induce insulin resistance and stimulate insulin secretion. The latter effect is mediated through the free fatty acid receptor-1 (GPR40/FFAR1). This study examines whether GPR40/FFAR1 interacts with tissue specific metabolic changes induced by CLAs. After chronic application of CLAs C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and GPR40/FFAR1 (Ffar1(-/-)) knockout mice developed insulin resistance. Although CLAs accumulated in liver up to 46-fold genotype-independently, hepatic triglycerides augmented only in WT mice. This triglyceride deposition was not associated with increased inflammation. In contrast, in brain of CLA fed Ffar1(-/-) mice mRNA levels of TNF-α were 2-fold higher than in brain of WT mice although CLAs accumulated genotype-independently in brain up to 4-fold. Concomitantly, Ffar1(-/-) mice did not respond to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) insulin injection with an increase in cortical activity while WT mice reacted as assessed by radiotelemetric electrocorticography (ECoG) measurements. In vitro incubation of primary murine astrocytes confirmed that CLAs stimulate neuronal inflammation independent of GPR40/FFAR1. This study discloses that GPR40/FFAR1 indirectly modulates organ-specific effects of CLAs: the expression of functional GPR40/FFAR1 counteracts CLA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in the brain, but favors the development of fatty liver. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium by Capparis deciduas in Acidic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of ethanolic extract of different parts of Capparis deciduas (Ker in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss and thermometric methods. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the two methods are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and acid.

  1. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium by Capparis deciduas in Acidic Media

    OpenAIRE

    P. Arora; S. Kumar; M. K. Sharma; S. P. Mathur

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency of ethanolic extract of different parts of Capparis deciduas (Ker) in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss and thermometric methods. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the two methods are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and acid.

  2. High Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Inhibit Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Kaneshwaran, Kirusanthy; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2017-07-01

    The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is structurally similar to the amino acid glycine and may cause seizures and myoclonus by acting as a competitive antagonist of glycine receptors. Glycine is an obligatory co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Thus, it is plausible that tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors by acting as a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site. The aim of this study was to determine whether tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors, as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Tranexamic acid modulation of NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainate receptors was studied using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of current from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Tranexamic acid rapidly and reversibly inhibited NMDA receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 241 ± 45 mM, mean ± SD; 95% CI, 200 to 281; n = 5) and shifted the glycine concentration-response curve for NMDA-evoked current to the right. Tranexamic acid also inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 231 ± 91 mM; 95% CI, 148 to 314; n = 5 to 6) and kainate receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 90 ± 24 mM; 95% CI, 68 to 112; n = 5). Tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors likely by reducing the binding of the co-agonist glycine and also inhibits α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate receptors. Receptor blockade occurs at high millimolar concentrations of tranexamic acid, similar to the concentrations that occur after topical application to peripheral tissues. Glutamate receptors in tissues including bone, heart, and nerves play various physiologic roles, and tranexamic acid inhibition of these receptors may contribute to adverse drug effects.

  3. Synthesis of (9Z, 12E-, (9E, 12Z-[1-14C]-linoleic acid, (9Z, 12Z, 15E-, (9E, 12Z, 15Z-[1-14C]-linolenic acid and (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14E-[1-14C]-arachidonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enard, Thierry

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Trans polyunsaturated fatty acids are produced in vegetable oils during heat treatment (240-250 °C.ln order to study the metabolic pathway of 9c, 12t and 9t, 12c linoleic acid and 9c, 12c, 15t and 9t, 12c, 15c linolenic acid, these products were prepared labelled with carbon 14 in the carboxylic position. 5c, 8c, 11c, 14t-Arachidonic acid was also labelled on the carboxylic position with carbon 14 in order to study its physiological effects. To introduce the labelling (E-bromo precursors with a 17 carbons chain or a 19 carbon chain were needed. The different syntheses were done by elongation steps and creation of cis double bonds via highly stereospecific Wittig reactions. The radioactive carbon atom was introduced from [14C]-potassium cyanide. The final radioactive fatty acids had a specific activity greater than 50 mCi/mmol and a radioactive purity better than 99 % for linoleic and linolenic and better than 98.6 % for arachidonic acid.

  4. Suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado: estabilidade oxidativa dos suplementos e correlações com conteúdo dos lípides totais hepáticos e indicadores da oxidação dos lípides biológicos de ratos Wistar Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation: oxidative stability of supplements and correlations with total hepatic lipid contents and biological lipid oxidation indicators in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa de misturas comerciais de ácido linoléico conjugado e buscar possível correlação entre a suplementação e o conteúdo total de lípides hepáticos, e também de alguns indicadores da oxidação lipídica em ratos. MÉTODOS:Um ensaio biológico com 30 ratos divididos em três grupos (n=10 caracterizando os grupos controle e suplementados com as misturas comerciais AdvantEdge® e One® foi realizado. A concentração administrada foi de 2% em relação ao consumo de dieta e os animais foram suplementados durante 42 dias. O conteúdo total de lípides do fígado foi determinado e a morfologia do órgão foi examinada por meio de microscopia ótica. Índice de peróxido e malondialdeído foram determinados para avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa dos suplementos in vitro. Índice de peróxido, malondialdeído, 8-iso-PGF2α isoprostana e catalase foram determinados como indicadores da oxidação dos lípides biológicos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram baixa estabilidade das misturas comerciais à oxidação in vitro. As associações entre o consumo de ácido linoléico conjugado e malondialdeído (r=-0,7914, pOBJECTIVE:The claimed action of conjugated linoleic acid as an antioxidant is unexpected and unclear, in view of its chemical structure - a conjugated diene, i.e., a fatty acid in its initial stage of autoxidation. Indeed, it can be speculated that it could act as a pro-oxidant, increasing oxidative stress in biological systems, nevertheless it has carbon-carbon bonds in the trans configuration. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the oxidative stability of commercial mixtures, and to investigate a possible correlation between conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and total hepatic lipid content, as well as some lipid oxidation indicators in rats. METHODS:A biological assay was done with thirty rats divided into three groups (n=10 characterized as

  5. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  6. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  7. Alpha-eleostearic acid (9Z11E13E-18:3) is quickly converted to conjugated linoleic acid (9Z11E-18:2) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Tokuyama, Yoshiko; Igarashi, Miki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Komai, Michio; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-10-01

    We previously showed that alpha-eleostearic acid (alpha-ESA; 9Z11E13E-18:3) is converted to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 9,11-18:2) in the liver and plasma of rats that were given diets including 1% alpha-ESA for 4 wk. In this study, we investigated this phenomenon in detail. First, the chemical structure of CLA produced by alpha-ESA administration was determined. After alpha-ESA was orally administered to rats, CLA in rat liver was isolated by HPLC. The positional and geometric isomerism was determined using GC-EI/MS and (13)C-NMR, respectively, and the CLA generated in rats after alpha-ESA feeding was confirmed to be 9Z11E-CLA. Next, the concentrations of alpha-ESA and CLA were determined 0, 3, 6, and 24 h after oral administration of alpha-ESA to rats. Moreover, we also investigated whether enteric bacteria are involved in the conversion of alpha-ESA to CLA using germ-free rats. alpha-ESA was orally administered to germ-free and normal rats and alpha-ESA and CLA were detected in the organs of both groups. In addition, to confirm that this reaction was enzyme-mediated, alpha-ESA was reacted with tissue homogenates (liver, kidney, and small intestine mucous) and coenzymes (NADH, NAD(+), NADPH, and NADP(+)), and the enzyme activities were estimated from the amount of CLA produced. CLA was detected when alpha-ESA was reacted with liver, kidney, and small intestine mucous homogenates and a coenzyme (NADPH). These results indicated that alpha-ESA is converted to 9Z11E-CLA in rats by a Delta13-saturation reaction carried out by an NADPH-dependent enzyme.

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    that the additional information provided does not contain evidence thath would modify its previous conclusions regarding the effects of CLA on insulin sensitivity/glucose metabolism, blood lipids, lipid peroxidation, or subclinical inflammation. The Panel also considers that the new studies provided do not address......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...... uses and daily doses for up to six months. The safety of CLA consumption for periods longer than six months has not been established under the proposed conditions of use. The safety of CLA consumption by type-2 diabetic subjects has not been established. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  9. A novel approach in acidic disinfection through inhibition of acid resistance mechanisms; Maleic acid-mediated inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase activity enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Ranju; Barnes, Ruth H; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G

    2018-02-01

    Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L. monocytogenes were investigated and found that it has a higher antimicrobial activity under acidic conditions than other organic acids, while this could not be explained by its pKa or Ka values. The effects were found to be more pronounced on strains with higher GAD activity. Maleic acid affected the extracellular GABA levels while it did not affect the intracellular ones. Maleic acid had a major impact mainly on GadD2 activity as also shown in cell lysates. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that maleic acid is able to partly remove biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Maleic acid is able to inhibit the GAD of L. monocytogenes significantly enhancing its sensitivity to acidic conditions and together with its ability to remove biofilms, make a good candidate for disinfection regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeito da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado e do treinamento em natação sobre a composição corporal e os parâmetros bioquímicos de ratos Wistar em crescimento Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and swimming training on the body composition and biochemical parameters of Wistar pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo de Aquino Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado, associada ao treinamento moderado em natação, sobre a composição corporal, o consumo e a eficiência alimentar, a glicemia, o perfil lipídico e o glicogênio muscular e hepático de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar (30 dias foram divididos em: sedentário, sedentário suplementado, treinado e treinado suplementado. Permaneceram em gaiolas individuais com comida e água ad libitum, temperatura de 23ºC (com variação de1ºC e ciclo claro-escuro de 12 horas, durante 8 semanas. A sessão de natação durou 1 hora e foi realizada três vezes/semana, bem como a suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado a 2%. Após sacrifício, o plasma, os tecidos adiposos brancos e o marrom, o músculo gastrocnêmio e o fígado foram coletados e pesados. RESULTADOS: A suplementação per se não promoveu modificação na ingestão alimentar e na massa corporal dos animais. Houve aumento na glicemia de jejum (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation associated with moderate swimming training on body composition, food efficiency and consumption, blood glucose, lipid profile, and muscle and liver glycogen of Wistar rats. METHODS: Thirty-day old Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: inactive, inactive with 2% conjugated linoleic acid supplementation, active, and active with 2% conjugated linoleic acid supplementation. They remained in individual cages with food and water ad libitum, temperature of 23±1ºC and a light and dark cycle of 12 hours for 8 weeks. The active groups swam for one hour three times per week. The animals were killed and the plasma, white and brown fat tissues, gastrocnemius muscle and liver were collected and weighted. RESULTS: Supplementation per se did not promote food intake or body weight changes in the animals. Fasting glucose (p<0.05 and high density lipoproteins

  11. INHIBITION OF CORROSION OF ZINC IN (HNO3 + HCl) ACID ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... corrosion inhibitor for zinc in phosphoric acid. Vashi et al.[8-9] studied the corrosion inhibition of zinc in (HNO3 + H2SO4) and (HNO3 + H3PO4) binary acid mixture by aniline. In the present work, the role of aniline as inhibitor for corrosion of zinc in (HNO3 + HCl) binary acid mixture has been reported. 2.

  12. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME COMMERCIAL YOGURTS FROM COLOMBIA CONTENIDO DE ÁCIDO LINOLEICO CONJUGADO (CLA Y COMPOSICIÓN DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS EN ALGUNOS YOGURES COMERCIALES DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Gutiérrez Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA of the fifteen commercial yogurts corresponding to the main consumption and distribution in the Colombian market was studied, as well as their fatty acid composition. The concentration of CLA, expressed as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/g fat and as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/100 g sample varied between 4.5 and 8.2, and between 7.8 and 25.5, respectively. The higher values of CLA (>6.0 mg/g fat corresponded to those samples containing yogurt starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and species of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The main fatty acids found in the studied samples were the acids palmitic (10.7-21.2 mg/g fat, oleic (11.9-21.0 mg/g fat, stearic (16.1-37.4 mg/g fat, myristic (3.5-7.8 mg/g fat and butyric (1.6-5.5 mg/g fat. Low PUFA/SFA and MUFA/SFA ratios were found, as typical of milk fat samples.Se estudió la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA de quince yogures de las marcas comerciales de mayor consumo y distribución en el mercado colombiano, así como su composición en ácidos grasos. La concentración de CLA, expresada como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/g de grasa y como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/100 g de yogur osciló entre 4,5 y 8,2 y entre 7,8 y 25,5, respectivamente. Los valores de CLA más elevados (>6,0 mg/g de grasa en los yogures evaluados, correspondieron a aquellos que contenían cultivo de yogur (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus y Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus y especies de Bifidobacterium y Lactobacillus. Los principales ácidos grasos encontrados en las muestras estudiadas, fueron los ácidos palmítico (10,7-21,2 mg/g de grasa, oleico (11,9-21,0 mg/g de grasa, esteárico (16,1-37,4 mg/g de grasa, mirístico (3,5-7,8 mg/g de grasa y butírico (1,6-5,5 mg/g de grasa. Bajas relaciones de PUFA/SFA y de MUFA

  13. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in isolated adipocytes by 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, D L; McCune, S A

    1984-11-01

    The compound 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), a hypolipidemic agent, inhibits fatty acid synthesis, lactate and pyruvate accumulation and CO2 release in isolated rat adipocytes. TOFA stimulates the accumulation of citrate. ATP levels are not lowered by TOFA. In comparison with the natural fatty acid, oleate, TOFA exhibited a much greater inhibitory effect on lipogenesis. TOFyl-CoA formation within intact adipocytes was demonstrated. Although not inhibited by TOFA, acetyl-CoA carboxylase is inhibited by TOFyl-CoA. It is proposed that many of the metabolic effects of TOFA in isolated adipocytes can be explained by TOFyl-CoA inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. TOFA inhibits glycolysis as a secondary event with the primary event of inhibition of fatty acid synthesis causing an accumulation of citrate which is an inhibitor of phosphofructokinase.

  14. Evaluation of mutagenic/antimutagenic activity of conjugated linoleic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... INTRODUCTION. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary adjuvant for its ... who found unidentified anticarcinogenic factors in fried ground beef. ..... products decreases rectum cancer in 13% and colon cancer in 34%. .... alters mammary gland morphogenesis and reduces cancer risk in rats. J. Nutr.

  15. Site and extent of digestion, duodenal flow, and intestinal disappearance of total and esterified fatty acids in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Lake, S L; Nayigihugu, V; Hess, B W; Rule, D C

    2006-02-01

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of DM. Oil was infused intraruminally along with an isonitrogenous basal diet (fed at 2% of BW) that contained bromegrass hay, cracked corn, corn gluten meal, urea, and limestone. Four crossbred wethers (BW = 44.3 +/- 15.7 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment, in which 14 d of dietary adaptation were followed by 4 d of duodenal, ileal, and ruminal sampling. Fatty acid intake increased (linear, P = 0.004 to 0.001) with increased dietary safflower oil. Digestibilities of OM, NDF, and N were not affected (P = 0.09 to 0.65) by increased dietary safflower oil. For total fatty acids (free plus esterified) and esterified fatty acids, duodenal flow of most fatty acids, including 18:2c-9,c-12, increased (P = 0.006 to 0.05) with increased dietary oil. Within each treatment, duodenal flow of total and esterified 18:2c-9,c-12 was similar (P = 0.32), indicating that duodenal flow of this fatty acid occurred because most of it remained esterified. Duodenal flow of esterified 18:1t-11 increased (P = 0.08) with increased dietary safflower oil, indicating that reesterification of ruminal fatty acids occurred. Apparent small intestinal disappearance of most fatty acids was not affected (P = 0.19 to 0.98) by increased dietary safflower oil, but increased (P = 0.05) for 18:2c-9,c-12, which ranged from 87.0 to 97.4%, and for 18:2c-9,t-11 (P = 0.03), which ranged from 37.9% with no added oil to 99.2% with supplemental oil. For esterified fatty acids, apparent small intestinal disappearance was from 80% for 18:3c-9,c-12,c-15 at the greatest level of dietary oil up to 100% for 18:1t-11 and 18:1c-12 with 0% oil. We concluded that

  16. Inhibiting Effect of Nicotinic Acid Hydrazide on Corrosion of Aluminum and Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, J. Ishwara [Mangalore Univ., Karnataka (India); Alva, Vijaya D. P. [Shree Devi Institute of Technology, Karnataka (India)

    2014-02-15

    The corrosion behavior of aluminum and mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium was studied using a nicotinic acid hydrazide as inhibitor by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and gravimetric methods. The effects of inhibitor concentration and temperature were investigated. The experimental results suggested, nicotinic acid hydrazide is a good corrosion inhibitor for both aluminum and mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium and the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The polarization studies revealed that nicotinic acid hydrazide exhibits mixed type of inhibition. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the aluminum and mild steel surface and inhibits corrosion by blocking the reaction sites on the surface of aluminum.

  17. Inhibiting Effect of Nicotinic Acid Hydrazide on Corrosion of Aluminum and Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, J. Ishwara; Alva, Vijaya D. P.

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of aluminum and mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium was studied using a nicotinic acid hydrazide as inhibitor by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and gravimetric methods. The effects of inhibitor concentration and temperature were investigated. The experimental results suggested, nicotinic acid hydrazide is a good corrosion inhibitor for both aluminum and mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium and the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The polarization studies revealed that nicotinic acid hydrazide exhibits mixed type of inhibition. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the aluminum and mild steel surface and inhibits corrosion by blocking the reaction sites on the surface of aluminum

  18. Redox-initiated poly(methyl methcrylate) emulsion polymerizations stabilized with block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide), e-caprolactone and linoleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, B.H.; Nabuurs, Tijs; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    A redox initiating system, consisting of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHPO), isoascorbic acid (iAA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ferric-sodium salt (FeEDTA) was employed in emulsion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at high solids contents of 30 wt % in water. The system was stabilized

  19. Redox-Initiated Poly(methyl methacrylate) Emulsion Polymerizations Stabilized with Block Copolymers Based on Methoxy-Poly(ethylene glycol), epsilon-Caprolactone, and Linoleic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Boonhua; Nabuurs, Tijs; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    A redox initiating system, consisting of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHPO), isoascorbic acid (iAA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ferric-sodium salt (FeEDTA) was employed in emulsion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at high solids contents of 30 wt % in water. The system was stabilized

  20. Catalytic Deoxygenation of Fatty Acids: Elucidation of the Inhibition Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollak, S.A.W.; Jong, de K.P.; Es, van D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic deoxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids in the absence of H2 is known to suffer from significant catalyst inhibition. Thus far, no conclusive results have been reported on the cause of deactivation. Here we show that CC double bonds present in the feed or the products dramatically reduce

  1. Glycation inhibits trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced whey protein precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four different WPI saccharide conjugates were successfully prepared to test whether glycation could inhibit WPI precipitation induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Conjugates molecular weights after glycation were analyzed with SDS-PAGE. No significant secondary structure change due to glycation wa...

  2. 2-Alkynoic fatty acids inhibit topoisomerase IB from Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeira, Néstor M; Cartagena, Michelle; Sanabria, David; Tasdemir, Deniz; Prada, Christopher F; Reguera, Rosa M; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    2-Alkynoic fatty acids display antimycobacterial, antifungal, and pesticidal activities but their antiprotozoal activity has received little attention. In this work we synthesized the 2-octadecynoic acid (2-ODA), 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA), and 2-tetradecynoic acid (2-TDA) and show that 2-ODA is the best inhibitor of the Leishmania donovani DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) with an EC(50)=5.3±0.7μM. The potency of LdTopIB inhibition follows the trend 2-ODA>2-HDA>2-TDA, indicating that the effectiveness of inhibition depends on the fatty acid carbon chain length. All of the studied 2-alkynoic fatty acids were less potent inhibitors of the human topoisomerase IB enzyme (hTopIB) as compared to LdTopIB. 2-ODA also displayed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani (IC(50)=11.0μM), but it was less effective against other protozoa, Trypanosoma cruzi (IC(50)=48.1μM) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50)=64.5μM). The antiprotozoal activity of the 2-alkynoic fatty acids, in general, followed the trend 2-ODA>2-HDA>2-TDA. The experimental information gathered so far indicates that 2-ODA is a promising antileishmanial compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Macrokinetics of magnesium sulfite oxidation inhibited by ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidong, Wang; Yongliang, Ma; Wendi, Zhang; Qiangwei, Li; Yi, Zhao; Zhanchao, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ascorbic acid is used as an inhibitor to retard the oxidation rate of magnesium sulfite. It shows that the oxidation rate would decrease greatly with the rise of initial ascorbic acid concentration, which provides a useful reference for sulfite recovery in magnesia desulfurization. -- Highlights: • We studied the kinetics of magnesium sulfite oxidation inhibited by ascorbic acid. • The oxidation process was simulated by a three-phase model and proved by HPLC–MS. • We calculated the kinetic parameters of intrinsic oxidation of magnesium sulfite. -- Abstract: Magnesia flue gas desulfurization is a promising process for small to medium scale industrial coal-fired boilers in order to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, in which oxidation control of magnesium sulfite is of great importance for the recycling of products. Effects of four inhibitors were compared by kinetic experiments indicating that ascorbic acid is the best additive, which retards the oxidation process of magnesium sulfite in trace presence. The macrokinetics of magnesium sulfite oxidation inhibited by ascorbic acid were studied. Effects of the factors, including ascorbic acid concentration, magnesium sulfite concentration, oxygen partial pressure, pH, and temperature, were investigated in a stirred reactor with bubbling. The results show that the reaction rate is −0.55 order in ascorbic acid, 0.77 in oxygen partial pressure, and zero in magnesium sulfite concentration, respectively. The apparent activation energy is 88.0 kJ mol −1 . Integrated with the kinetic model, it is concluded that the oxidation rate of magnesium sulfite inhibited by ascorbic acid is controlled by the intrinsic chemical reaction. The result provides a useful reference for sulfite recovery in magnesia desulfurization

  4. Theobromine inhibits uric acid crystallization. A potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

  5. Theobromine inhibits uric acid crystallization. A potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    Full Text Available To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL was evaluated using a flow system.The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments.Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

  6. The influence of diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid, selenium, and vitamin E, with or without animal protein, on the composition of pork from female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morel, P.C.; Janz, J.A.; Zou, M.; Purchas, R.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Wilkinson, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary manipulations on the fatty acid composition, Se content, and vitamin E content of pork. Sixty Duroc-cross gilts were randomly allocated at weaning to 1 of 4 dietary treatment groups (n = 15 per group). The 4 experimental diets were

  7. Minor iridoids from Scutellaria albida ssp albida. Inhibitory potencies on lipoxygenase, linoleic acid lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of iridoids from Scutellaria sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Matsa, Marina

    2013-01-01

    A new iridoid glycoside, 6'-O-E-caffeoyl-mussaenosidic acid, in addition to one known aglycon, four known triterpenes and one known flavonoid, were isolated from the aerial parts of Scutellaria albida subsp. albida. Furthermore, 12 iridoids with similar structures isolated from Scutellariasp., we...

  8. Inhibition of triacylglycerol and apoprotein B secretion and of low density lipoprotein binding in Hep G2 cells by eicosapentaenoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.H.; Nestel, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The consumption of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of fish oils leads to profound lowering of plasma triacylglyercol (TAG) but not of plasma cholesterol. Reasons for this were investigated with the human hepatoma cell line, the Hep G2 cell. Incubations with oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and the characteristic marine fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) enriched cellular TAG mass, though least with EPA. However, secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TAG and apoprotein B (apo B), measured from [ 3 H]-glycerol and [ 3 H]-leucine was markedly inhibited by EPA. Preincubation with LA reduced VLDL-TAG but not apo B secretion in comparison with OA which stimulated both. A possible effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL) removal was studied by measuring [ 125 I]-LDL binding. Preincubation with either EPA or LA inhibited the saturable binding of LDL, observed with OA and control incubations. The binding of lipoproteins containing chylomicron remnants was not affected by any of the fatty acids

  9. Inhibition of rotavirus replication by downregulation of fatty acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Eleanor R; Cheung, Winsome; Richards, James E; Lever, Andrew; Desselberger, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    Recently the recruitment of lipid droplets (LDs) to sites of rotavirus (RV) replication was reported. LDs are polymorphic organelles that store triacylglycerols, cholesterol and cholesterol esters. The neutral fats are derived from palmitoyl-CoA, synthesized via the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. RV-infected cells were treated with chemical inhibitors of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, and the effects on viral replication kinetics were assessed. Treatment with compound C75, an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase enzyme complex (FASN), reduced RV infectivity 3.2-fold (P = 0.07) and modestly reduced viral RNA synthesis (1.2-fold). Acting earlier in the fatty acid synthesis pathway, TOFA [5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid] inhibits the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1). TOFA reduced the infectivity of progeny RV 31-fold and viral RNA production 6-fold. The effect of TOFA on RV infectivity and RNA replication was dose-dependent, and infectivity was reduced by administering TOFA up to 4 h post-infection. Co-treatment of RV-infected cells with C75 and TOFA synergistically reduced viral infectivity. Knockdown by siRNA of FASN and ACC1 produced findings similar to those observed by inhibiting these proteins with the chemical compounds. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis using a range of approaches uniformly had a more marked impact on viral infectivity than on viral RNA yield, inferring a role for LDs in virus assembly and/or egress. Specific inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism may help pinpoint the critical structural and biochemical features of LDs that are essential for RV replication, and facilitate the development of antiviral therapies.

  10. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  11. c9t11-Conjugated linoleic acid-rich oil fails to attenuate wasting in colon-26 tumor-induced late-stage cancer cachexia in male CD2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Min; Kliewer, Kara L; Asp, Michelle L; Stout, Michael B; Belury, Martha A

    2011-02-01

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by muscle and adipose tissue wasting caused partly by chronic, systemic inflammation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of fatty acids with various properties including anti-inflammatory cis9, trans11 (c9t11)-CLA and lipid-mobilizing trans10, cis12 (t10c12)-CLA. The purpose of this study was to test whether dietary supplementation of a c9t11-CLA-rich oil (6:1 c9t11:t10c12) could attenuate wasting of muscle and adipose tissue in colon-26 adenocarcinoma-induced cachexia in mice. Loss of body weight, muscle and adipose tissue mass caused by tumors were not rescued by supplementation with the c9t11-CLA-rich oil. In quadriceps muscle, c9t11-CLA-rich oil exacerbated tumor-induced gene expression of inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6 receptor and the E3 ligase MuRF-1 involved in muscle proteolysis. In epididymal adipose tissue, tumor-driven delipidation and atrophy was aggravated by the c9,t11-CLA-rich oil, demonstrated by further reduced adipocyte size and lower adiponectin expression. However, expression of inflammatory cytokines and macrophage markers were not altered by tumors, or CLA supplementation. These data suggest that addition of c9t11-CLA-rich oil (0.6% c9t11, 0.1% t10c12) in diet did not ameliorate wasting in mice with cancer cachexia. Instead, it increased expression of inflammatory markers in the muscle and increased adipose delipidation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Muricholic acids inhibit Clostridium difficile spore germination and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Francis

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Clostridium difficile have increased steadily over the past several years. While studies on C. difficile virulence and physiology have been hindered, in the past, by lack of genetic approaches and suitable animal models, newly developed technologies and animal models allow these processes to be studied in detail. One such advance is the generation of a mouse-model of C. difficile infection. The development of this system is a major step forward in analyzing the genetic requirements for colonization and infection. While important, it is equally as important in understanding what differences exist between mice and humans. One of these differences is the natural bile acid composition. Bile acid-mediated spore germination is an important step in C. difficile colonization. Mice produce several different bile acids that are not found in humans. These muricholic acids have the potential to impact C. difficile spore germination. Here we find that the three muricholic acids (α-muricholic acid, β-muricholic acid and ω-muricholic acid inhibit C. difficile spore germination and can impact the growth of vegetative cells. These results highlight an important difference between humans and mice and may have an impact on C. difficile virulence in the mouse-model of C. difficile infection.

  13. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  14. D-amino acids inhibit initial bacterial adhesion: thermodynamic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Su-Fang; Sun, Xue-Fei; Taylor, Alicia A; Walker, Sharon L; Wang, Yi-Fu; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of cells enclosed in a self-produced hydrated polymeric matrix that can adhere to inert or living surfaces. D-Amino acids were previously identified as self-produced compounds that mediate biofilm disassembly by causing the release of the protein component of the polymeric matrix. However, whether exogenous D-amino acids could inhibit initial bacterial adhesion is still unknown. Here, the effect of the exogenous amino acid D-tyrosine on initial bacterial adhesion was determined by combined use of chemical analysis, force spectroscopic measurement, and theoretical predictions. The surface thermodynamic theory demonstrated that the total interaction energy increased with more D-tyrosine, and the contribution of Lewis acid-base interactions relative to the change in the total interaction energy was much greater than the overall nonspecific interactions. Finally, atomic force microscopy analysis implied that the hydrogen bond numbers and adhesion forces decreased with the increase in D-tyrosine concentrations. D-Tyrosine contributed to the repulsive nature of the cell and ultimately led to the inhibition of bacterial adhesion. This study provides a new way to regulate biofilm formation by manipulating the contents of D-amino acids in natural or engineered systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of silage type and concentrate level on conjugated linoleic acids, trans-C18 : 1 isomers and fat content in milk from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Jungersen, Mogens Vestergaard

    2006-01-01

    to one of four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and a six week experimental period. Treatments were total mixed rations with maize (M) or grass (G) silage differing in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profile and starch content, combined with a high (H) or a low (L) level......:1 and reduced cis9, trans11-CLA and trans11-C18:1 when maize but not grass silage was provided. The results suggest that high levels of concentrate (grain) do not significantly alter the pattern of PUFA biohydrogenation in the rumen, the concentration of CLA and trans-C18:1 isomers in milk or cause milk fat...

  16. Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid inhibits biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Bum; Baik, Jung Eun; Park, Ok-Jin; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is a biofilm-dependent oral disease and Streptococcus mutans is the known primary etiologic agent of dental caries that initiates biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. Although some Lactobacillus strains inhibit biofilm formation of oral pathogenic bacteria, the molecular mechanisms by which lactobacilli inhibit bacterial biofilm formation are not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA) inhibited the biofilm formation of S. mutans on polystyrene plates, hydroxyapatite discs, and dentin slices without affecting the bacterial growth. Lp.LTA interferes with sucrose decomposition of S. mutans required for the production of exopolysaccharide, which is a main component of biofilm. Lp.LTA also attenuated the biding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran to S. mutans, which is known to have a high affinity to exopolysaccharide on S. mutans. Dealanylated Lp.LTA did not inhibit biofilm formation of S. mutans implying that D-alanine moieties in the Lp.LTA structure were crucial for inhibition. Collectively, these results suggest that Lp.LTA attenuates S. mutans biofilm formation and could be used to develop effective anticaries agents. PMID:29420616

  17. Effect of pre- and postpartum supplementation with lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid on reproductive performance and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in multiparous high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csillik, Z; Faigl, V; Keresztes, M; Galamb, E; Hammon, H M; Tröscher, A; Fébel, H; Kulcsár, M; Husvéth, F; Huszenicza, Gy; Butler, W R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of prepartum and postpartum (PP) supplementation with 2 isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on reproductive parameters and some related metabolic factors in dairy cows. High-producing, multiparous Holstein Friesian cows (n = 60) were allotted to 3 treatment groups: the CLA1 group (n = 20) was supplemented with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA providing 7 g each of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA from d 21 (d 21) before expected calving until d 7 after artificial insemination (AI), that is, until 77 to 91 d PP; the CLA2 group (n = 20) was supplemented with the same amount of CLA beginning at calving until d 7 after AI; and the control group (n = 20) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and isolipidic diet. Blood samples were taken weekly to measure glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and leptin. Liver biopsy was performed in 10 cows per group for growth hormone receptor 1A and IGF-I mRNA analyses. At d 49 to 63 PP, ovulation was synchronized with the Pre-Synch protocol followed by fixed-time AI. Milk progesterone was monitored from calving until d 35 post-AI. Cows returning to estrus following AI were inseminated. Supplementation with CLA before calving improved the recovery of plasma leptin levels in the early PP period (from the day of calving until wk 3 PP; treatment effect). Later PP (wk 5), plasma IGF-I, and leptin remained significantly higher in both CLA1 and CLA2 groups compared with control, although hepatocellular IGF-I mRNA was not different among groups. Plasma IGF-I levels remained higher in both CLA-treated groups on the day of AI. Growth hormone receptor 1A mRNA levels in hepatic tissue decreased in all groups, reaching a nadir in the first week PP. Days to first PP ovulation did not differ between groups; however, both supplemented groups conceived earlier compared with control (d 97 ± 19, d 97 ± 23, and d 113 ± 30 for CLA1, CLA2, and control, respectively

  18. Maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid in the setting of diet-induced obesity normalises the inflammatory phenotype in mothers and reverses metabolic dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-12-01

    Maternal consumption of a high-fat diet significantly impacts the fetal environment and predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic dysfunction during adulthood. We examined the effects of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation on metabolic and inflammatory profiles and whether maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could have beneficial effects on mothers and offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% total fat as CLA), high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% total fat as CLA) diet ad libitum 10days prior to and throughout gestation and lactation. Dams and offspring were culled at either late gestation (fetal day 20, F20) or early postweaning (postnatal day 24, P24). CLA, HF and HFCLA dams were heavier than CD throughout gestation. Plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α were elevated in HF dams, with restoration in HFCLA dams. Male and female fetuses from HF dams were smaller at F20 but displayed catch-up growth and impaired insulin sensitivity at P24, which was reversed in HFCLA offspring. HFCLA dams at P24 were protected from impaired insulin sensitivity as compared to HF dams. Maternal CLA supplementation normalised inflammation associated with consumption of a high-fat diet and reversed associated programming of metabolic dysfunction in offspring. This demonstrates that there are critical windows of developmental plasticity in which the effects of an adverse early-life environment can be reversed by maternal dietary interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid inhibits tumor cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Yamamoto, Katsunori; Sato, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shinjiro; Morinaga, Tetsuo; Hirano, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Placental extract contains several biologically active compounds, and pharmacological induction of placental extract has therapeutic effects, such as improving liver function in patients with hepatitis or cirrhosis. Here, we searched for novel molecules with an anti-tumor activity in placental extracts. Active molecules were separated by chromatographic analysis, and their antiproliferative activities were determined by a colorimetric assay. We identified aspartic acid and glutamic acid to possess the antiproliferative activity against human hepatoma cells. Furthermore, we showed that the combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid exhibited enhanced antiproliferative activity, and inhibited Akt phosphorylation. We also examined in vivo tumor inhibition activity using the rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. The treatment mixture (emulsion of the amino acids with Lipiodol) administered by hepatic artery injection inhibited tumor cell growth of the rabbit VX2 liver. These results suggest that the combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid may be useful for induction of tumor cell death, and has the potential for clinical use as a cancer therapeutic agent.

  20. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  1. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. PMID:16346592

  2. The effects of epidermal fatty acid profiles, 1-oleoglycerol, and triacylglycerols on the susceptibility of hibernating bats to Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R Ingala

    Full Text Available White Nose Syndrome (WNS greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus, Indiana (M. sodalis, northern (M. septentrionalis, and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus bats, and is caused by cutaneous infections with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus are highly resistant to Pd infections. Seven different fatty acids (myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids occur in the wing epidermis of both M. lucifugus and E. fuscus, 4 of which (myristic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids inhibit Pd growth. The amounts of myristic and linoleic acids in the epidermis of M. lucifugus decrease during hibernation, thus we predicted that the epidermal fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit Pd growth. Laboratory Pd growth experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results demonstrated that the fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus wing epidermis during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit the growth of Pd. Additional Pd growth experiments revealed that: a triacylglycerols composed of known anti-Pd fatty acids do not significantly affect growth, b pentadecanoic acid inhibits Pd growth, and c 1-oleoglycerol, which is found in the wing epidermis of E. fuscus, also inhibits the growth of this fungus. Analyses of white adipose from M. lucifugus also revealed the selective retention of oleic and linoleic acids in this tissue during hibernation.

  3. The effects of epidermal fatty acid profiles, 1-oleoglycerol, and triacylglycerols on the susceptibility of hibernating bats to Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingala, Melissa R; Ravenelle, Rebecca E; Monro, Johanna J; Frank, Craig L

    2017-01-01

    White Nose Syndrome (WNS) greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus), Indiana (M. sodalis), northern (M. septentrionalis), and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus) bats, and is caused by cutaneous infections with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are highly resistant to Pd infections. Seven different fatty acids (myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids) occur in the wing epidermis of both M. lucifugus and E. fuscus, 4 of which (myristic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids) inhibit Pd growth. The amounts of myristic and linoleic acids in the epidermis of M. lucifugus decrease during hibernation, thus we predicted that the epidermal fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit Pd growth. Laboratory Pd growth experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results demonstrated that the fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus wing epidermis during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit the growth of Pd. Additional Pd growth experiments revealed that: a) triacylglycerols composed of known anti-Pd fatty acids do not significantly affect growth, b) pentadecanoic acid inhibits Pd growth, and c) 1-oleoglycerol, which is found in the wing epidermis of E. fuscus, also inhibits the growth of this fungus. Analyses of white adipose from M. lucifugus also revealed the selective retention of oleic and linoleic acids in this tissue during hibernation.

  4. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  5. Azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and inhibits retinoic acid-mediated biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K

    2011-02-11

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies.

  6. Azadirachtin Interacts with Retinoic Acid Receptors and Inhibits Retinoic Acid-mediated Biological Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B.; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies. PMID:21127062

  7. Boric acid inhibits embryonic histone deacetylases: A suggested mechanism to explain boric acid-related teratogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Cappelletti, Graziella; Broccia, Maria L.; Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) control gene expression by changing histonic as well as non histonic protein conformation. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are considered to be among the most promising drugs for epigenetic treatment for cancer. Recently a strict relationship between histone hyperacetylation in specific tissues of mouse embryos exposed to two HDACi (valproic acid and trichostatin A) and specific axial skeleton malformations has been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to verify if boric acid (BA), that induces in rodents malformations similar to those valproic acid and trichostatin A-related, acts through similar mechanisms: HDAC inhibition and histone hyperacetylation. Pregnant mice were treated intraperitoneally with a teratogenic dose of BA (1000 mg/kg, day 8 of gestation). Western blot analysis and immunostaining were performed with anti hyperacetylated histone 4 (H4) antibody on embryos explanted 1, 3 or 4 h after treatment and revealed H4 hyperacetylation at the level of somites. HDAC enzyme assay was performed on embryonic nuclear extracts. A significant HDAC inhibition activity (compatible with a mixed type partial inhibition mechanism) was evident with BA. Kinetic analyses indicate that BA modifies substrate affinity by a factor α = 0.51 and maximum velocity by a factor β = 0.70. This work provides the first evidence for HDAC inhibition by BA and suggests such a molecular mechanism for the induction of BA-related malformations

  8. Characterization of linoleate 10-hydratase of Lactobacillus plantarum and novel antifungal metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to the antifungal compound 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid (10-HOE by linoleate 10-hydratase (10-LAH. However, the effect of this conversion on cellularmembrane physiology and properties of the cell surface have not been demonstrated. Moreover, L. plantarum produces 13-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (13-HOE in addition to 10-HOE, but the antifungal activity of 13-HOE was unknown. Phylogenetic analyses conducted in this study did not differentiate between 10-LAH and linoleate 13-hydratase (13-LAH. Thus, linoleate hydratases (LAHs must be characterized through their differences in their activities of linoleate conversion. Four genes encoding putative LAHs from lactobacilli were cloned, heterologous expressed, purified and identified as FAD-dependent 10-LAH. The unsaturated fatty acid substrates stimulated the growth of lactobacilli. We also investigated the role of 10-LAH in ethanol tolerance, membrane fluidity and hydrophobicity of cell surfaces in lactobacilli by disruption of 10-lah. Compared with the L. plantarum 10-lah deficient strain, 10-LAH in wild-type strain did not exert effect on cell survival and membrane fluidity under ethanol stress, but influenced the cell surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, deletion of 10-LAH in L. plantarum facilitated purification of 13-HOE and demonstration of its antifungal activity against Penicillium roquefortii and Aspergillus niger.

  9. The weak acid preservative sorbic acid inhibits conidial germination and mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger through intracellular acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plumridge, A.; Hesse, S.J.A.; Watson, A.J.; Lowe, K.C.; Stratford, M.; Archer, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, a common food spoilage organism, is inhibited by the weak acid preservative sorbic acid (trans-trans-2,4-hexadienoic acid). Conidia inoculated at 105/ml of medium showed a sorbic acid MIC of 4.5 mM at pH 4.0, whereas the MIC for the amount of

  10. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinsheng.wang@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  11. Comparison of linoleic acid-containing water-in-oil emulsion with urea-containing water-in-oil emulsion in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrohalli SA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi,1 Azin Ayatollahi,1 Taraneh Yazdanparast,1,2 Aniseh Samadi,1 Hamed Hosseini,3 Mansour Shamsipour,4 Ali Asghar Akhlaghi,5 Somayeh Yadangi,1 Christoph Abels,6 Alireza Firooz1,2 1Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, 2Telemedicine Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 3Clinical Trial Center, 4Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 5Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; 6Dr. August Wolff GmbH & Co. KG Arzneimittel, Bielefeld, Germany Background: Application of topical moisturizers is an essential part of the management of atopic dermatitis (AD. Linoleic acid (LA, the most abundant fatty acid in the epidermis, and its derivatives have an essential role in the structure and function of the epidermal barrier, and their defects are prominent in AD. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of two cosmetic products containing either LA or urea in patients with AD.Patients and methods: A total of 20 patients with AD who met the eligibility criteria and provided written informed consents were enrolled in this randomized, intra-individual split-body, single-center trial. Symmetrical lesions of patients were randomized for treatment with LA- or urea-containing water-in-oil (w/o emulsions applied two to three times daily for 4 weeks. The efficacy of the two products was evaluated by local Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD of both lesions and also patient (or guardian satisfaction. In addition, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL, stratum corneum (SC hydration, pH, sebum, temperature, erythema, melanin content, and ultrasonographic thickness and echo density of epidermis and dermis were

  12. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Ayano; Sato, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    We analysed effects of abscisic acid (ABA, a negative regulatory hormone), alone and in combination with positive or neutral hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), on rice growth and expression of cell cycle-related genes. ABA significantly inhibited shoot growth and induced expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6 interacted with OsCDKA;1 and/or OsCDKA;2. When SA was simultaneously supplied with ABA, the antagonistic effect of SA completely blocked ABA inhibition. SA also blocked ABA inhibition of DNA replication and thymidine incorporation in the shoot apical meristem. These results suggest that ABA arrests cell cycle progression by inducing expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6, which inhibit the G1/S transition, and that SA antagonizes ABA by blocking expression of OsKRP genes.

  13. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acid Media By Citrullus Colocynthis Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Rajkiran; Garg, Urvija; Tak, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of corrosion of aluminium in acid solution by methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis plant has been studied using mass loss and thermometric measurements. It has been found that the plant extract act as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in all concentrations of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid solution. The inhibition action depends on the concentration of acid and inhibitor. Results for mass loss and thermometric measurement indicate that inhibition efficiency increase wi...

  14. Ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA em dietas para tilápia-do-nilo: desempenho produtivo, composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in Nile tilapia diets: productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Dena dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adição de CLA na dieta sobre o desempenho produtivo, a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos de tilápia-do-nilo. Foram utilizados 80 peixes revertidos, com 109 ± 10 g, distribuídos em oito tanques (0,8 m³ cada, em densidade de 10 peixes/tanque, durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se a inclusão na dieta de 2% de CLA (Luta-CLA®-BASF, Brasil com 60% dos isômeros (cis-9,trans-11 e trans-10,cis-12 e 40% do veículo (ácido oléico e outros ácidos graxos. Como dieta utilizou-se ração comercial extrusada, com 29% PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg de ração. Ao final do experimento, todos os peixes foram utilizados para avaliação do desempenho, da composição química e do perfil de ácidos graxos no fígado e nos filés. A taxa de eficiência protéica, o rendimento de carcaça, o índice hepatossomático e a gordura visceral não diferiram com a adição de CLA a dieta. A adição de CLA a dieta promoveu melhora no ganho de peso, aumento no consumo e melhora na conversão alimentar. Os peixes alimentados com dietas com adição de CLA apresentaram aumento na composição de ácidos graxos saturados e redução dos ácidos graxos n-6 nos filés. Houve também aumento na composição de ácidos graxos n-3 e de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados totais no fígado. Houve aumento da proteína nos filés de tilápias alimentadas com dietas enriquecidas com CLA. O uso do CLA melhora variáveis de desempenho produtivo, afeta o metabolismo e a proporção dos ácidos graxos nos filés e fígados e aumenta proteína nos filés em tilápia-do-nilo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the addition of CLA in the diet on Nile tilapia productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition. Eighty reversed fish with 109 ± 10 g were used, distributed in eight tanks (0.8 m³ each in density of ten fishes/tank, during 90 days. It was evaluated the inclusion in the diets of 2% of CLA (Luta

  15. Oleic Acid and Hydroxytyrosol Inhibit Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Synthesis in C6 Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Priore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the discovery of natural compounds capable of modulating nervous system function has revealed new perspectives for a healthier brain. Here, we investigated the effects of oleic acid (OA and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr, two important extra virgin olive oil compounds, on lipid synthesis in C6 glioma cells. OA and HTyr inhibited both de novo fatty acid and cholesterol syntheses without affecting cell viability. The inhibitory effect of the individual compounds was more pronounced if OA and HTyr were administered in combination. A reduction of polar lipid biosynthesis was also detected, while triglyceride synthesis was marginally affected. To clarify the lipid-lowering mechanism of these compounds, their effects on the activity of key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-ACC and fatty acid synthase-FAS and cholesterologenesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase-HMGCR were investigated in situ by using digitonin-permeabilized C6 cells. ACC and HMGCR activities were especially reduced after 4 h of 25 μM OA and HTyr treatment. No change in FAS activity was observed. Inhibition of ACC and HMGCR activities is corroborated by the decrease of their mRNA abundance and protein level. Our results indicate a direct and rapid downregulatory effect of the two olive oil compounds on lipid synthesis in C6 cells.

  16. Quantificação de ácido alfa-linolênico em caules e folhas de linho (Linum usitatissimum L. colhidos em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento Quantification of alpha-linolenic acid in stems and leaves of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. harvested in different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar o ácido alfa-linolênico [LNA, 18:3 (n-3], avaliar a composição centesimal das folhas e caules de linho (Linum usitatissimum L. submetidos à secagem e colhidos em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (40, 80 e 120 dias, e determinar o potencial antioxidante das folhas colhidas aos 80 dias através do teste com o radical DPPH. As folhas obtiveram maiores teores de cinzas, proteína e lipídios totais em relação aos caules. Tanto as folhas quanto os caules apresentaram razões de AGPI/AGS e n-6/n-3 dentro dos valores considerados adequados para a alimentação. Os caules colhidos nos diferentes tempos não apresentaram diferenças significativas (PThe objective of this study was to quantify the alpha-linolenic acid [LNA, 18:3 (n-3] and to evaluate the proximate composition of leaves and stems of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. dried and harvested at different stages of development (40, 80 and 120 days, and to determine the antioxidant potential of the leaf harvested at 80 days using the test of DPPH radical. The leaves had higher levels of ash, protein and total lipids when compared to the stems. Both the leaves as the stems had ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 within the values considered suitable for food. Stems in the different stages showed no significant difference (P<0.05 of LNA content. Leaves harvested at 80 days showed the highest concentration of LNA, corresponding to 1,262.36 mg/100g dried leaf. The different extracts (methanol, butanol, acetate and water were efficient in the inhibition of DPPH radical, with emphasis on the butanolic and acetate fractions and the values of IC50 were approximately 42 ppm. These results highlight the nutritional potential and antioxidant activity of leaves and stems of flaxseed for future use in the animal and human feeding.

  17. Fatty acid synthase inhibition in human breast cancer cells leads to malonyl-CoA-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupari, J N; Pinn, M L; Kuhajda, F P

    2001-07-13

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo without toxicity to proliferating normal cells. We have previously shown that FAS inhibition causes a rapid increase in malonyl-CoA levels identifying malonyl-CoA as a potential trigger of apoptosis. In this study we further investigated the role of malonyl-CoA during FAS inhibition. We have found that: [i] inhibition of FAS with cerulenin causes carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) inhibition and fatty acid oxidation inhibition in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells likely mediated by elevation of malonyl-CoA; [ii] cerulenin cytotoxicity is due to the nonphysiological state of increased malonyl-CoA, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and decreased fatty acid synthesis; and [iii] the cytotoxic effect of cerulenin can be mimicked by simultaneous inhibition of CPT-1, with etomoxir, and fatty acid synthesis with TOFA, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor. This study identifies CPT-1 and ACC as two new potential targets for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranga, Carla C.; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D.; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-01-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  19. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga, Carla C., E-mail: curanga@cicese.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beld, Joris, E-mail: joris.beld@drexelmed.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Mrse, Anthony, E-mail: amrse@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Córdova-Guerrero, Iván, E-mail: icordova@uabc.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC), Calzada Universidad 14418 Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, Tijuana, B.C. 22390 (Mexico); Burkart, Michael D., E-mail: mburkart@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Hernández-Martínez, Rufina, E-mail: ruhernan@cicese.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  20. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  1. Inhibition of denitrification and N2O emission by urine-derived benzoic and hippuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Palermo, V.; Kool, D.M.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hippuric acid (HA) in cattle urine acts as a natural inhibitor of soil N2O emissions. As HA concentration varies with diet, we determined critical HA levels. We also tested the hypothesis that the inhibition occurs because the HA breakdown product benzoic acid (BA) inhibits denitrification rates.

  2. Inhibition of Corrosion of Zinc in (HNO 3 + HCl) acid mixture by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion of Zinc metal in (HNO3 + HCl) binary acid mixture and inhibition efficiency of aniline has been studied by weight loss method and polarization technique. Corrosion rate increases with the concentration of acid mixture and the temperature. Inhibition efficiency (I.E.) of aniline increases with the concentration of ...

  3. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase prevents preadipocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Bernhard; Rippmann, Joerg F.; Tadayyon, Moh; Hamilton, Bradford S.

    2005-01-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) reduces food intake in rodents. As adipose tissue expresses FAS, we sought to investigate the effect of reduced FAS activity on adipocyte differentiation. FAS activity was suppressed either pharmacologically or by siRNA during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Cerulenin (10 μM), triclosan (50 μM), and C75 (50 μM) reduced dramatically visible lipid droplet accumulation, while incorporation of [1- 14 C]acetate into lipids was reduced by 75%, 70%, and 90%, respectively. Additionally, the substances reduced FAS, CEBPα, and PPARγ mRNA by up to 85% compared to that of control differentiated cells. Transient transfection with FAS siRNA suppressed FAS mRNA and FAS activity, and this was accompanied by reduction of CEBPα and PPARγ mRNA levels, and complete prevention of lipid accumulation. CD36, a late marker of differentiation, was also reduced. Together, these results suggest that FAS generated signals may be essential to support preadipocyte differentiation

  4. Inhibition of Aluminium Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Using Nizoral and the Effect of Iodide Ion Addition

    OpenAIRE

    I. B. Obot; N. O. Obi-Egbedi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nizoral (NZR) on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium alloy AA 1060 in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using the mylius thermometric technique. Results of the study revealed that nizoral acts as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in the acidic medium. In general, at constant acid concentration, the inhibition efficiency increases with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The addition of KI to the inhibitor enhanced the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The ad...

  5. Milk in the island of Chole [Tanzania] is high in lauric, myristic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and low in linoleic acid - Reconstructed diet of infants born to our ancestors living in tropical coastal regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Smit, Ella N.; van der Meulen, Jan; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Boersma, E. Rudy; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    Background: We need information on the diet on which our genes evolved. Objective: We studied the milk fatty acid [FA] composition of mothers living in the island of Chole [Tanzania, Indian Ocean]. These mothers have high intakes of boiled marine fish and coconut, and consume plenty amount of fruits

  6. Inhibition of food stimulated acid secretion by misoprostol, an orally active synthetic E1 analogue prostaglandin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramage, J K; Denton, A; Williams, J G

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 200 micrograms misoprostol (a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue) on food stimulated intragastric acidity has been monitored over a 9 h period in 16 normal volunteers. Misoprostol caused a significant inhibition of intragastric acidity for 2 h post-dosing, but no significant effect was seen thereafter on either basal or food stimulated acidity.

  7. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  8. Teneurs en acides gras polyinsaturés essentiels du lait maternel en France : évolution du contenu en acides linoléique et alphalinolénique au cours des 10 dernières années

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boué-Vaysse Carole

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are nutritionally important constituents of breast milk to support normal growth, immune function and central nervous system development of newborn infants. Both linoleic acid (18:2 n-6; LA and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3; ALA, the essential fatty acids, precursors of n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFA, are also present in breast milk. Although the total amount of fat in human milk is fairly constant, the fatty acid composition can vary substantially depending on the diet of the mother. Large variations in the LA, ALA and DHA (22:6 n-3 contents are observed among countries. As reported by previous studies (1993-2001, the ALA consumption of the French population was 2-3 times lower than the recommended value. Since this period, the food industry offers more food products enriched in n-3 fatty acids. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether current recommendations and improved n-3 PUFA content of food products comply with the actual breast-milk PUFA composition. For this purpose, the PUFA content of a large number of human milk samples collected in 2007 in different French regions were compared with previous data obtained in studies conducted in the nineties years (1993-1998. Moreover, this study aimed to confirm expected reduction of the trans fatty acid (TFA intake resulting from decreased level of TFA in margarine and other dietary fats during the same period. Study design and methods: Mature (postpartum day ≥ 30 human milk samples (n = 145 were provided in 2007 by eight French regional human milk banks (Bordeaux : n = 20; Dijon: n = 21; Ile-de-France: n = 18; Lyon: n = 20; Montpellier: n = 18; Nantes: n = 21; St Etienne: n = 6; Tours: n = 21, from healthy women volunteers with no particular health history. The fatty acid composition of breast milk was analysed by high-resolution gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann and

  9. IL-1β and TNFα inhibit GPR120 (FFAR4) and stimulate GPR84 (EX33) and GPR41 (FFAR3) fatty acid receptor expression in human adipocytes: implications for the anti-inflammatory action of n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muredda, Laura; Kępczyńska, Małgorzata A; Zaibi, Mohamed S; Alomar, Suliman Y; Trayhurn, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Regulation of the expression of GPCR fatty acid receptor genes has been examined in human adipocytes differentiated in culture. TNFα and IL-1β induced a marked reduction in GPR120 expression, mRNA level falling 17-fold at 24 h in adipocytes incubated with TNFα. In contrast, GPR84 mRNA was dramatically increased by these cytokines (>500-fold for IL-1β at 4 h); GPR41 expression was also stimulated. Rosiglitazone did not affect GPR84 expression, but GPR120 and GPR41 expression increased. Dexamethasone, insulin, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), and TUG891 (GPR120 agonist) had little effect on GPR120 and GPR84 expression. TUG891 did not attenuate the pro-inflammatory actions of TNFα and IL-1β. DHA slightly countered the actions of IL-1β on CCL2, IL6 and ADIPOQ expression, though not on secretion of these adipokines. GPR120 and GP84 gene expression in human adipocytes is highly sensitive to pro-inflammatory mediators; the inflammation-induced inhibition of GPR120 expression may compromise the anti-inflammatory action of GPR120 agonists.

  10. A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum como fonte de ácido α-linolênico na formação da bainha de mielina Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum as a source of α-linolenic acid in the development of the myelin sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Calvi Lenzi de Almeida

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum é uma semente oleaginosa que tem sido estudada por seus efeitos benéficos à saúde. É considerada um alimento funcional, pelo fato de ser uma fonte natural de fitoquímicos, e por conter o ácido graxo α-linolênico (C18:3 n-3, que pode ser metabolicamente convertido nos ácidos docosaexahenóico (C22:6 n-3 e eicosapentaenóico (C20:5 n-3, sendo o primeiro essencial para o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central. Durante o crescimento do cérebro, há uma grande incorporação do ácido docosaexahenóico, que tem papel importante na formação de suas membranas celulares. Diante disto, esta comunicação visa a abordar os prováveis mecanismos pelos quais o ácido docosaexahenóico, proveniente do ácido α-linolênico presente abundantemente na semente de linhaça, interfere na formação da bainha de mielina, assim como relatar a técnica mais adequada para visualização desta bainha.Flaxseed is an oily seed that has been studied for its beneficial health effects. It is considered a functional food because it is a natural source of phytochemicals and contain the fatty acid α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 that can be metabolically converted into docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3. The former is essential for the development of the central nervous system. During brain growth, there is a great incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid which plays in important role in the formation of cell membranes. This communication intended to address the likely mechanisms by which docosahexaenoic acid originating from α-linolenic acid, present in abundance in flaxseed, interferes in the formation of the myelin sheath and report the best method to see this structure.

  11. Inhibition of telomerase by linear-chain fatty acids: a structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Masako; Ueno, Takamasa; Kasai, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hirotada; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Hayashi, Hideya; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we have found that mono-unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids in the cis configuration with C(18) hydrocarbon chains (i.e. oleic acid) strongly inhibited the activity of human telomerase in a cell-free enzymic assay, with an IC(50) value of 8.6 microM. Interestingly, fatty acids with hydrocarbon chain lengths below 16 or above 20 carbons substantially decreased the potency of inhibition of telomerase. Moreover, the cis-mono-unsaturated C(18) linear-chain fatty acid oleic acid was the strongest inhibitor of all the fatty acids tested. A kinetic study revealed that oleic acid competitively inhibited the activity of telomerase ( K (i)=3.06 microM) with respect to the telomerase substrate primer. The energy-minimized three-dimensional structure of the linear-chain fatty acid was calculated and modelled. A molecule width of 11.53-14.26 A (where 1 A=0.1 nm) in the C(16) to C(20) fatty acid structure was suggested to be important for telomerase inhibition. The three-dimensional structure of the telomerase active site (i.e. the substrate primer-binding site) appears to have a pocket that could bind oleic acid, with the pocket being 8.50 A long and 12.80 A wide. PMID:12121150

  12. Selective inhibition of type 2 fatty acid synthetase by the antibiotic thiolactomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Ikuo; Kawaguchi, Akihiko; Yamada, Mitsuhiro

    1984-01-01

    The antibiotic thiolactomycin inhibits the fatty acid synthesis from both [1- 14 C]-acetate and [2 14 C] malonyl-CoA of spinach leaves, developing castor bean endosperms and avocado mesocarp. On the other hand, fatty acid synthetases of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Corynebacterium glutamicum are much less sensitive to this antibiotic. As Hayashi et al. have indicated in their paper that thiolactomycin inhibits fatty acid synthetase of Escherichia coli but has little effect on the synthetases of yeast and rat liver, thiolactomycin is suggested to be a selective inhibitor of type 2 fatty acid synthetases. (author)

  13. Selective inhibition of type 2 fatty acid synthetase by the antibiotic thiolactomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Ikuo; Kawaguchi, Akihiko; Yamada, Mitsuhiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1984-03-01

    The antibiotic thiolactomycin inhibits the fatty acid synthesis from both (1-/sup 14/C)-acetate and (2/sup 14/C) malonyl-CoA of spinach leaves, developing castor bean endosperms and avocado mesocarp. On the other hand, fatty acid synthetases of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Corynebacterium glutamicum are much less sensitive to this antibiotic. As Hayashi et al. have indicated in their paper that thiolactomycin inhibits fatty acid synthetase of Escherichia coli but has little effect on the synthetases of yeast and rat liver, thiolactomycin is suggested to be a selective inhibitor of type 2 fatty acid synthetases.

  14. Vanadate monomers and dimers both inhibit the human prostatic acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crans, D C; Simone, C M; Saha, A K; Glew, R H

    1989-11-30

    A combination of enzyme kinetics and 51V NMR spectroscopy was used to identify the species of vanadate that inhibits acid phosphatases. Monomeric vanadate was shown to inhibit wheat germ and potato acid phosphatases. At pH 5.5, the vanadate dimer inhibits the human prostatic acid phosphatase whereas at pH 7.0 it is the vanadate monomer that inhibits this enzyme. The pH-dependent shift in the affinity of the prostatic phosphatase for vanadate is presumably due to deprotonation of an amino acid side chain in or near the binding site resulting in a conformational change in the protein. pH may be a subtle effector of the insulin-like vanadate activity in biological systems and may explain some of the differences in selectivity observed with the protein phosphatases.

  15. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346347

  16. Fonctionnalité, résilience, maintenance, acides gras insaturés Un exemple : l’acide linoléique et les récepteurs du LDL-cholestérol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendy François

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Fonctionnalité, résilience, maintenance, et acides gras poly-insaturés. Il deviendra impossible dans le futur de poser le problème des apports nutritionnels conseillés sans se poser la question : Conseillés dans quel but ? Comptable, humanitaire, épanouissement individuel ? Obtenir une croissance, une reproduction, un gain de masse musculaire dans le plus court temps sont des objectifs de nutritionnistes zoo-techniciens. Dans ce système, l’objectif final est la mort programmée dans un abattoir dans le délai le plus court et le plus rentable possible. En nutrition humaine, l’objectif est d’obtenir la meilleure adaptabilité possible dans n’importe quelle situation et le plus longtemps possible. L’objectif n’est plus comme à la fin du xviiie et xixe siècle, d’obtenir une main-d’oeuvre pouvant se développer et se reproduire le plus rapidement possible, assurer un travail physique efficace au moindre coût. Peut-être est-il la transmission des connaissances anciennes, l’acquisition et la transmission de connaissances nouvelles, durant le plus lontemps possible. Pour l’homme, la définition des apports nutritionnels conseillés devrait être la définition des marges de sécurités entre les apports minimaux acceptables et les apports maximaux tolérables. Ces marges de sécurité devraient permettre d’obtenir une fonctionnalité réelle, soit la meilleure conformation récepteurs-enzymes, malgré des status génétiques variés (mutations, polymorphisme, etc., un environnement aléatoire, d’obtenir la résislience, l’adaptabilité individuelle, maximale, durant le plus longtemps possible (maintenance. Il n’existe pas d’autres possibilités de prévention des maladies conformationnelles nouvellement décrites. À titre d’exemple, les conditions d’obtention du niveau de régulation optimale du récepteur LDL, la dégradation sécrétoire de l’ApoB par le récepteur LDL sur le chemin de la s

  17. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M. [Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Salati, Lisa M., E-mail: lsalati@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Lecithin inhibits fatty acid and bile salt absorption from rat small intestine in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D R; Sillery, J

    1976-12-01

    During digestion of a fatty meal, long chain free fatty acids (FFA) and lecithin are among the lipids solubilized in intestinal contents as mixed micelles with bile salts. We hypothesized that if lecithin were not hydrolyzed, the mixed micelles would be abnormal, and absorption of FFA and bile salts would be depressed. To test this hypothesis, isolated segments of rat small intestine were infused in vivo with micellar solutions of 2 mMolar linoleic acid and 10 mMolar taurocholate to which was added 3 mMolar 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl lecithin (a common lecithin in bile and food), or 1-palmitoyl lysolecithin (the hydrolytic product of lecithin). Absorption of FFA and bile salt was measured under steady state conditions using a single-pass technique. Lecithin depressed the rate of FFA absorption by 40% (p less than 0.025) in jejunal and ileal segments whereas lysolecithin was associated with normal rates of FFA absorption. Lecithin also reduced taurocholate absorption from the ileum by 30% (p less than 0.05). These data support the idea that lecithin may depress FFA and bile salt absorption from the small intestine in pancreatic insufficiency.

  19. Jasmonic Acid Enhances Al-Induced Root Growth Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; He, Chunmei; Ma, Yanqi; Herde, Marco; Ding, Zhaojun

    2017-02-01

    Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root growth inhibition. Furthermore, phenotype analysis with mutants defective in either JA biosynthesis or signaling suggests that JA is involved in the regulation of Al-induced root growth inhibition. The expression of the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the key JA signaling regulator MYC2 was up-regulated in response to Al stress in the root tips. This process together with COI1-mediated Al-induced root growth inhibition under Al stress was controlled by ethylene but not auxin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that many responsive genes under Al stress were regulated by JA signaling. The differential responsive of microtubule organization-related genes between the wild-type and coi1-2 mutant is consistent with the changed depolymerization of cortical microtubules in coi1 under Al stress. In addition, ALMT-mediated malate exudation and thus Al exclusion from roots in response to Al stress was also regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling. Together, this study suggests that root growth inhibition is regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling independent from auxin signaling and provides novel insights into the phytohormone-mediated root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Determination of Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase, Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities and Fatty Acid Profiles of 10 Anatolian Klasea Cass. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsen Tel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In search of new natural fatty acid sources, extract of 10 different Turkish Klasea species were studies. Fatty acids of Klasea species were studied by GC and GC-MSD. Oleic acid (4.8-45.8%, palmitic acid (15.6-51.8%, linoleic acid (0.3-45.5%, palmitoleic acid (0.8-28.4% and linolenic acid (15.6-34.6% were the main fatty acids elucidated. All extracts were also subjected to acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH • scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous ion-chelating ability activities. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were determined as quercetin and pyrocatechol equivalents. All extracts showed significant antioxidant activity in all tests, except hexane extracts of K. serratuloides and K. cerinthifolia that showed weak inhibition against BChE and AChE. The hexane extract of K. coriaceae and methanol extract of K. serratuloides exhibited notable tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

  1. Inhibition of Aluminium Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Using Nizoral and the Effect of Iodide Ion Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Obot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nizoral (NZR on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium alloy AA 1060 in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using the mylius thermometric technique. Results of the study revealed that nizoral acts as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in the acidic medium. In general, at constant acid concentration, the inhibition efficiency increases with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The addition of KI to the inhibitor enhanced the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The adsorption of nizoral onto the aluminium surface was found to obey the Fruendlich adsorption isotherm. The value of the free energy for the adsorption process shows that the process is spontaneous.

  2. Corrosion inhibition behavior of Ketosulfone for Zinc in acidic medium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion inhibition behavior of Ketosulfone for zinc is investigated by polarization and AC-impedance techniques at 303-333K. The Tafel plots indicates that the Ketosulfone is a mixed type inhibitor. The interaction between metal and inhibitor is explained by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. DG0ads andDH0ads value ...

  3. Quantitative analysis of the modes of growth inhibition by weak organic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullah, A.; Orij, R.; Brul, S.; Smits, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Weak organic acids are naturally occurring compounds that are commercially used as preservatives in the food and beverage industries. They extend the shelf life of food products by inhibiting microbial growth. There are a number of theories that explain the antifungal properties of these weak acids,

  4. Définition des limites de flexibilité des apports en acides oléique, linoléique et alphalinolénique sur la lipidémie et les paramètres d’athérothrombose chez l’homme : intérêt des huiles végétales combinées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Les maladies cardiovasculaires représentent le premier problème de santé publique des pays occidentaux. Des études récentes de prévention secondaire ont montré que des régimes maintenant un apport en acide oléique de 10 à 13% de l’apport énergétique total (AET pouvaient protéger de l’apparition d’accidents cardio-vasculaires [8], mais augmenter cet apport d’acide oléique à plus de 20% de l’AET pourrait limiter cet effet bénéfique en induisant une augmentation du LDL-C [12, 34]. Grundy, dans le but de clarifier le ratio nécessaire entre acides gras saturés et insaturés (mono and poly, concluait en 1997 à d’« insufficient data for recommended Oleic intake », et proposait pour le moment 15-16% d’acide oléique à titre de « reasonable compromise ». L’objectif de notre étude était de définir des rapports entre acides oléique, linoléique et alphalinolénique (OL/LA/ALA ratio et de valider l’apport oléique après avoir stabilisé le rapport linoléique/alphalinolénique du régime d’hommes normolipidémiques (n = 40. Pour atteindre 11, 13 et 16% de l’AET sous forme d’acide oléique, nous avons utilisé des huiles de tournesol, de tournesol oléique (HOSO et de colza pour obtenir des mélanges spécifiques ajustés à l’apport en acides gras proposés au protocole. Chacun de ces trois régimes (comportant 11, 13 et 16% d’acide oléique a été suivi pendant 16 semaines et l’épuration postprandiale d’un repas gras (1 000 Kcal, 62,5% lipides a été suivie pendant 8 heures à la fin de chaque période de régime. Les résultats indiquent que la stabilité des paramètres d’athérogenèse évalués à jeun et en postprandial est maintenue à un niveau favorable après ces régimes à 11, 13 et 16% d’apport en acide oléique : il n’y a pas de différences statistiques significatives sur les concentrations à jeun de LDL-C, non-HDL-C, HDL-C, TG, ApoB, ApoAI ou sur l’amplitude de la r

  5. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acid Media By Citrullus Colocynthis Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of corrosion of aluminium in acid solution by methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis plant has been studied using mass loss and thermometric measurements. It has been found that the plant extract act as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in all concentrations of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid solution. The inhibition action depends on the concentration of acid and inhibitor. Results for mass loss and thermometric measurement indicate that inhibition efficiency increase with increasing inhibitor concentration. The inhibition action of the plant extract is discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It has been observed that the adsorption of the extract on aluminium surface is a spontaneous process. The plant extract provides a good protection to aluminium against corrosion.

  6. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution by henna extract: A comparative study of the inhibition by henna and its constituents (Lawsone, Gallic acid, α-D-Glucose and Tannic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostovari, A.; Hoseinieh, S.M.; Peikari, M.; Shadizadeh, S.R.; Hashemi, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The inhibitive action of henna extract (Lawsonia inermis) and its main constituents (lawsone, gallic acid, α-D-Glucose and tannic acid) on corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution was investigated through electrochemical techniques and surface analysis (SEM/EDS). Polarization measurements indicate that all the examined compounds act as a mixed inhibitor and inhibition efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration. Maximum inhibition efficiency (92.06%) is obtained at 1.2 g/l henna extract. Inhibition efficiency increases in the order: lawsone > henna extract > gallic acid > α-D-Glucose > tannic acid. Also, inhibition mechanism and thermodynamic parameters are discussed.

  7. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution by henna extract: A comparative study of the inhibition by henna and its constituents (Lawsone, Gallic acid, {alpha}-D-Glucose and Tannic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostovari, A. [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: A.Ostovari@gmail.com; Hoseinieh, S.M.; Peikari, M. [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadizadeh, S.R. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S.J. [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The inhibitive action of henna extract (Lawsonia inermis) and its main constituents (lawsone, gallic acid, {alpha}-D-Glucose and tannic acid) on corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution was investigated through electrochemical techniques and surface analysis (SEM/EDS). Polarization measurements indicate that all the examined compounds act as a mixed inhibitor and inhibition efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration. Maximum inhibition efficiency (92.06%) is obtained at 1.2 g/l henna extract. Inhibition efficiency increases in the order: lawsone > henna extract > gallic acid > {alpha}-D-Glucose > tannic acid. Also, inhibition mechanism and thermodynamic parameters are discussed.

  8. Citric acid inhibits development of cataracts, proteinuria and ketosis in streptozotocin (type1) diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoji; Nagai, Mime; Shimasaki, Satoko; Baynes, John W.; Fujiwara, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Although many fruits such as lemon and orange contain citric acid, little is known about beneficial effects of citric acid on health. Here we measured the effect of citric acid on the pathogenesis of diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Although oral administration of citric acid to diabetic rats did not affect blood glucose concentration, it delayed the development of cataracts, inhibited accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) such as Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in lens proteins, and protected against albuminuria and ketosis . We also show that incubation of protein with acetol, a metabolite formed from acetone by acetone monooxygenase, generate CEL, suggesting that inhibition of ketosis by citric acid may lead to the decrease in CEL in lens proteins. These results demonstrate that the oral administration of citric acid ameliorates ketosis and protects against the development of diabetic complications in an animal model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:20117096

  9. Milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... particularly the CLA, omega-3 and omega-6 FA content of the milk fat of Jersey and Fleckvieh x Jersey (F x J) cows in a pasture-based feeding system. All cows were fed the same diet consisting of kikuyu-ryegrass pasture in a rotational grazing system supplemented with a standard commercial concentrate mixture at 7 kg ...

  10. Milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-20

    Oct 20, 2015 ... ... (CLA), have further beneficial effects on the health status of people by exhibiting anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory benefits ... at 4000 g for 30 minutes at 8 ºC and the top fat layer (fat cake) was removed.

  11. Ursodeoxycholic acid but not tauroursodeoxycholic acid inhibits proliferation and differentiation of human subcutaneous adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mališová

    Full Text Available Stress of endoplasmic reticulum (ERS is one of the molecular triggers of adipocyte dysfunction and chronic low inflammation accompanying obesity. ERS can be alleviated by chemical chaperones from the family of bile acids (BAs. Thus, two BAs currently used to treat cholestasis, ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA and TUDCA, could potentially lessen adverse metabolic effects of obesity. Nevertheless, BAs effects on human adipose cells are mostly unknown. They could regulate gene expression through pathways different from their chaperone function, namely through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR and TGR5, G-coupled receptor. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze effects of UDCA and TUDCA on human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes derived from paired samples of two distinct subcutaneous adipose tissue depots, abdominal and gluteal. While TUDCA did not alter proliferation of cells from either depot, UDCA exerted strong anti-proliferative effect. In differentiated adipocytes, acute exposition to neither TUDCA nor UDCA was able to reduce effect of ERS stressor tunicamycin. However, exposure of cells to UDCA during whole differentiation process decreased expression of ERS markers. At the same time however, UDCA profoundly inhibited adipogenic conversion of cells. UDCA abolished expression of PPARγ and lipogenic enzymes already in the early phases of adipogenesis. This anti-adipogenic effect of UDCA was not dependent on FXR or TGR5 activation, but could be related to ability of UDCA to sustain the activation of ERK1/2 previously linked with PPARγ inactivation. Finally, neither BAs did lower expression of chemokines inducible by TLR4 pathway, when UDCA enhanced their expression in gluteal adipocytes. Therefore while TUDCA has neutral effect on human preadipocytes and adipocytes, the therapeutic use of UDCA different from treating cholestatic diseases should be considered with caution because UDCA alters functions of

  12. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn-Benz, M.; van 't Hof, W.; Bikker, F.J.; Nazmi, K.; Brand, H.S.; Sotres, J.; Lindh, L.; Arnebrant, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for

  13. Comparison of the inhibition capability of oleanolic acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important membrane proteins located in endoplasmic reticulum, and play important roles in metabolism of a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Aims: To determine the influence of subtle difference in the structure of oleanolic acid and betulinic ...

  14. Comparison of the inhibition capability of oleanolic acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as a disease spectrum of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency vi- rus (HIV)1,2. Searching the efficient drugs to treat HIV/. AIDS patients is very important and necessary. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic trit- erpenoid, and has been demonstrated to exhibit an-.

  15. Inhibition of aflatoxin-producing aspergilli by lactic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were selected from five indigenously fermented cereal gruels and identified as Lactobacillus fermentum OYB, Lb. fermentum RS2, Lb. plantarum MW, Lb. plantarum YO, Lb. brevis WS3, and Lactococcus spp. RS3. Six aflatoxin-producing aspergilli were also selected from the ...

  16. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition and Dietary Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Licciardi, Paul V.; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in diet can also have dramatic effects on the composition of gut microbiota. Commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract are critical regulators of health and disease by protecting against pathogen encounter whilst also maintaining immune tolerance to certain allergens. Moreover, consumption of fibre and vegetables typical of a non-Western diet generates substantial quantities of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have potent anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary interventions...

  17. The bisphosphonate zoledronic acid effectively targets lung cancer cells by inhibition of protein prenylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Fan; Li, Pengcheng; Gong, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiahong; Ma, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of oncoproteins such as members of the Ras family is common in human lung cancers. The proper function of Ras largely depends on a post-translational modification termed prenylation. Bisphosphonates have been shown to inhibit prenylation in cancer cells. In this study, we show that zoledronic acid, a third generation bisphosphonate, is effective in targeting lung cancer cells. This is achieved by the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation, through suppressing the activation of downstream Ras and EGFR signalling by zoledronic acid. The combination of zoledronic acid and paclitaxel or cisplatin (commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs for lung cancer) augmented the activity of either drug alone in in vitro lung cancer cellular system and in vivo lung xenograft mouse model. Importantly, zoledronic acid inhibits protein prenylation as shown by the increased levels of unprenylated Ras and Rap1A. In addition, the effects of zoledronic acid were reversed in the presence of geranylgeraniol and farnesol, further confirming that mechanism of zoledroinc acid's action in lung cancer cells is through prenylation inhibition. Since zoledronic acid is already available for clinic use, these results suggest that it may be an effective addition to the armamentarium of drugs for the treatment of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Zoledronic acid (ZA) is effectively against lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. • ZA acts on lung cancer cells through inhibition of protein prenylation. • ZA suppresses global downstream phosphorylation of Ras signalling. • ZA enhances the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs in lung cancer cells.

  18. The bisphosphonate zoledronic acid effectively targets lung cancer cells by inhibition of protein prenylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Fan [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jingzhou Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Jingzhou (China); Li, Pengcheng [Department of Oncology, Wuhan Union Hospital Affiliated to Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Gong, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiahong [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jingzhou Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Jingzhou (China); Ma, Jingping, E-mail: mjpjzhospital@hotmail.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jingzhou Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Jingzhou (China)

    2015-11-27

    Aberrant activation of oncoproteins such as members of the Ras family is common in human lung cancers. The proper function of Ras largely depends on a post-translational modification termed prenylation. Bisphosphonates have been shown to inhibit prenylation in cancer cells. In this study, we show that zoledronic acid, a third generation bisphosphonate, is effective in targeting lung cancer cells. This is achieved by the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation, through suppressing the activation of downstream Ras and EGFR signalling by zoledronic acid. The combination of zoledronic acid and paclitaxel or cisplatin (commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs for lung cancer) augmented the activity of either drug alone in in vitro lung cancer cellular system and in vivo lung xenograft mouse model. Importantly, zoledronic acid inhibits protein prenylation as shown by the increased levels of unprenylated Ras and Rap1A. In addition, the effects of zoledronic acid were reversed in the presence of geranylgeraniol and farnesol, further confirming that mechanism of zoledroinc acid's action in lung cancer cells is through prenylation inhibition. Since zoledronic acid is already available for clinic use, these results suggest that it may be an effective addition to the armamentarium of drugs for the treatment of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Zoledronic acid (ZA) is effectively against lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. • ZA acts on lung cancer cells through inhibition of protein prenylation. • ZA suppresses global downstream phosphorylation of Ras signalling. • ZA enhances the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs in lung cancer cells.

  19. The role of acid anion on the inhibition of the acidic corrosion of steel by lupine extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)], E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A.; Saadawy, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2009-05-15

    The inhibitive effect of lupine (Lupinous albus L.) extract on the corrosion of steel in aqueous solution of 1 M sulphuric and 2 M hydrochloric acids was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the lupine extract acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process is under activation control. The inhibition efficiency of the extract obtained from impedance and polarization measurements was in a good agreement and was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. The obtained results showed that, the lupine extract could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in acid media and the extract was more effective in case of hydrochloric acid. Theoretical fitting of the corrosion data to the kinetic-thermodynamic model was tested to show the nature of adsorption.

  20. Inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid by isatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid by isatin glycine (ING) and isatin (IN) at 30-60 oC and concentrations of 0.0001 M to 0.0005 M was studied via weight loss method. At the highest inhibitor concentration studied ING exhibited inhibition efficiency of 87% while IN exhibited 84% at 60 oC. A chemical ...

  1. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Calotropis for Corrosion of Aluminium in Acidic Media

    OpenAIRE

    Sudesh Kumar; Suraj Prakash Mathur

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of aluminium in sulfuric acid solution in the presence of different plant parts, namely, leaves, latex, and fruit was studied using weight loss method and thermometric method. The ethanolic extracts of Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea act as an inhibitor in the acid environment. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in inhibitor concentration. The plant parts inhibit aluminium, and inhibition is attributed, due to the adsorption of the plant part...

  2. Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enjun; Brosché, Mikael

    2014-06-04

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and corrosion inhibition properties of benzamide-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid and anthranilic acid-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid for mild steel corrosion in acidic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Archana; Verma, Chandrabhan; Singh, B.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2018-03-01

    The present study deals with the synthesis of two new compounds namely, benzamide - 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid (BENCNBA) and anthranilic acid-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid (AACNBA) using solid phase reactions. The phase diagram studies revealed that formation of the investigated compounds occurs in 1:1 molar ratio. The synthesized compounds were characterized using several spectral techniques such as FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, UV-Vis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Single crystal XRD (SCXRD) study showed that both BENCNBA and AACNBA compounds crystallize in triclinic crystal system with P-1 space group. Further, the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the constituent components was also supported by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) method. Heat of mixing, entropy of fusion, roughness parameter, interfacial energy and excess thermodynamic functions have also been computed using the enthalpy of fusion values derived from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) study. The inhibition effect of BENCNBA and AACNBA on the mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was tested using electrochemical methods. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study revealed that both BENCNBA and AACNBA behaved as interface corrosion inhibitors and showed maximum inhibition efficiencies of 95.71% and 96.42%, respectively at 400 ppm (1.23 × 10-3 M) concentration. Potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) measurements suggested that BENCNBA and AACNBA acted as mixed type corrosion inhibitors. EIS and PDP results showed that BENCNBA and AACNBA act as efficient corrosion inhibitors for mild steel and their inhibition efficiencies enhances on increasing their concentrations.

  4. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...... in primary duck hepatocytes (PDH). RESULTS: Both PNAs reproducibly inhibited DHBV RT in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) of 10nM, whereas up to 600-fold higher concentration of S-ODNs was required for similar inhibition. The PNA targeting the bulge and upper stem of epsilon appeared as more efficient RT...

  5. Inhibition effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on progesterone production in mLTC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Cui, Ruina; Wang, Jianshe; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of fluorine substituted carboxylic acid, sulfonic acid and alcohol, structurally similar to their corresponding parent compounds. Previous study demonstrated the potential endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid, two dominant PFASs in animals and humans. We explored the relationship between eleven perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with different carbon chain length and their ability to inhibit progesterone production in mouse Leydig tumor cells (mLTC-1). We found an obvious dose-response relationship between progesterone inhibition rate and PFAA exposure concentration in mLTC-1. The relative inhibition rate of progesterone by PFAAs was linearly related to the carbon chain length and molar refractivity of PFAAs. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decreased after PFAA exposure at the half-maximal inhibitory effect concentration (IC 50 ) of progesterone production in mLTC-1, while the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content increased significantly. These results imply that the inhibition effect of PFAAs on progesterone production might be due, in part, to ROS damage and the decrease in MMP in mLTC-1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Fatty acid synthase inhibition triggers apoptosis during S phase in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weibo; Simpson, P Jeanette; McFadden, Jill M; Townsend, Craig A; Medghalchi, Susan M; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; Pinn, Michael L; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Kuhajda, Francis P

    2003-11-01

    C75, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), induces apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. Its proposed mechanism of action linked high levels of malonyl-CoA after FAS inhibition to potential downstream effects including inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) with resultant inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. Recent data has shown that C75 directly stimulates CPT-1 increasing fatty acid oxidation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells despite inhibitory concentrations of malonyl-CoA. In light of these findings, we have studied fatty acid metabolism in MCF7 human breast cancer cells to elucidate the mechanism of action of C75. We now report that: (a) in the setting of increased fatty acid oxidation, C75 inhibits fatty acid synthesis; (b) C273, a reduced form of C75, is unable to inhibit fatty acid synthesis and is nontoxic to MCF7 cells; (c) C75 and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, both cause a significant reduction of fatty acid incorporation into phosphatidylcholine, the major membrane phospholipid, within 2 h; (d) pulse chase studies with [(14)C]acetate labeling of membrane lipids show that both C75 and TOFA accelerate the decay of (14)C-labeled lipid from membranes within 2 h; (e) C75 also promotes a 2-3-fold increase in oxidation of membrane lipids within 2 h; and (f) because interference with phospholipid synthesis during S phase is known to trigger apoptosis in cycling cells, we performed double-labeled terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated nick end labeling and BrdUrd analysis with both TOFA and C75. C75 triggered apoptosis during S phase, whereas TOFA did not. Moreover, application of TOFA 2 h before C75 blocked the C75 induced apoptosis, whereas etomoxir did not. Taken together these data indicate that FAS inhibition and its downstream inhibition of phospholipid production is a necessary part of the mechanism of action of C75. CPT-1 stimulation does not likely play a role in the

  7. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibition and dietary short-chain Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, Paul V; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    Changes in diet can also have dramatic effects on the composition of gut microbiota. Commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract are critical regulators of health and disease by protecting against pathogen encounter whilst also maintaining immune tolerance to certain allergens. Moreover, consumption of fibre and vegetables typical of a non-Western diet generates substantial quantities of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have potent anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary interventions such as probiotic supplementation have been investigated for their pleiotropic effects on microbiota composition and immune function. Probiotics may restore intestinal dysbiosis and improve clinical disease through elevated SCFA levels in the intestine. Although the precise mechanisms by which such dietary factors mediate these effects, SCFA metabolites such as butyrate also function as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), that can act on the epigenome through chromatin remodeling changes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of HDAC enzymes and to discuss the biological effects of HDACi. Further, we discuss the important relationship between diet and the balance between health and disease and how novel dietary interventions such as probiotics could be alternative approach for the prevention and/or treatment of chronic inflammatory disease through modulation of the intestinal microbiome.

  9. Remodeling of ACL Allografts is Inhibited by Peracetic Acid Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Johannes; Kamp, Julia; Przybilla, Dorothea; Pruss, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Sterilization of allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has become an important prerequisite to prevent disease transmission. However, current sterilization techniques impair the biological or mechanical properties of such treated grafts. Peracetic acid (PAA) has been successfully used to sterilize bone allografts without these disadvantages and does not impair the mechanical properties of soft tissue grafts in vitro. We asked whether PAA sterilization would influence recellularization, restoration of crimp length and pattern, and revascularization of ACL grafts during early healing. We used an in vivo sheep model for open ACL reconstruction. We also correlated the histologic findings with the restoration of anteroposterior stability and structural properties during load-to-failure testing. PAA slowed remodeling activity at 6 and 12 weeks compared to nonsterilized allografts and autografts. The mechanical properties of PAA grafts were also reduced compared to these control groups at both time points. We conclude PAA sterilization currently should not be used to sterilize soft tissue grafts typically used in ACL reconstruction. PMID:18491201

  10. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect

  11. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits craniopharyngioma cell growth: study on an explant cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; You, Chao; Zhou, Liangxue; Sima, Xiutian; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Hao; Xu, Jianguo

    2013-05-01

    The ratio between FABP5 and CRABPII determines cellular response to physiological level of retinoic acid; tumor cells undergo proliferation with high level of FABP5 and apoptosis with high level of CRABPII. We intended to study FABP5 and CRABPII expression in craniopharyngiomas, to establish craniopharyngioma cell model using explants method, and to study the effect of pharmacological dose of retinoic acid on craniopharyngioma cells. Expression of FABP5 and CRABPII in craniopharyngioma tissue from 20 patients was studied using immunohistochemistry. Primary craniopharyngioma cell cultures were established using tissue explants method. Craniopharyngioma cells were treated using various concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid, and cell growth curve, apoptosis, expression of FABP5, CRABPII and NF-κB were assayed in different groups. FABP5/CRABPII ratio was significantly higher in adamatinomatous group than that in papillary group. Cell cultures were established in 19 cases (95 %). Pharmacological level retinoic acid inhibited cell growth and induced cellular apoptosis in dose dependent manner, and apoptosis rate cells treated with 30 μM retinoic acid for 24 h was 43 %. Also, retinoic acid increased CRABPII, and decreased FABP5 and NF-κB expression in craniopharyngioma cells. High FABP5/CRABPII ratio is observed in adamatinomatous craniopharyngioma. Retinoic acid at pharmacological level induced craniopharyngioma cell apoptosis via increasing FABP5/CRABPII ratio and inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. Our study demonstrated that all-trans retinoic acid might be a candidate for craniopharyngioma adjuvant chemotherapy in future.

  12. Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Chlorogenic Acid by Sulfur-Containing Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Verloop, J.W.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The antibrowning activity of sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) was compared to that of other sulfur-containing compounds. Inhibition of enzymatic browning was investigated using a model browning system consisting of mushroom tyrosinase and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Development of brown color

  13. Inhibition of class IIa histone deacetylase activity by gallic acid, sulforaphane, TMP269, and panobinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sin Young; Kee, Hae Jin; Jin, Li; Ryu, Yuhee; Sun, Simei; Kim, Gwi Ran; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-05-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are gaining increasing attention as potential therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. We recently reported that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, and the phytochemical, gallic acid, lowered high blood pressure in mouse models of hypertension. We hypothesized that class II HDACs may be involved in the regulation of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of well-known HDAC inhibitors (TMP269, panobinostat, and MC1568), phytochemicals (gallic acid, sulforaphane, and piceatannol), and anti-hypertensive drugs (losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide) on activities of class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, 7, and 9). The selective class IIa HDAC inhibitor, TMP269, and the pan-HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat, but not MC1568, clearly inhibited class IIa HDAC activities. Among the three phytochemicals, gallic acid showed remarkable inhibition, whereas sulforaphane presented mild inhibition of class IIa HDACs. Piceatannol inhibited only HDAC7 activity. As expected, the anti-hypertensive drugs losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide did not affect the activity of any class IIa HDAC. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of several compounds on the activity of class l HDACs (HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8) and class IIb HDAC (HDAC6). MC1568 did not affect the activities of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, but it reduced the activity of HDAC8 at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM. Gallic acid weakly inhibited HDAC1 and HDAC6 activities, but strongly inhibited HDAC8 activity with effectiveness comparable to that of trichostatin A. Inhibition of HDAC2 activity by sulforaphane was stronger than that by piceatnnaol. These results indicated that gallic acid is a powerful dietary inhibitor of HDAC8 and class IIa/b HDAC activities. Sulforaphane may also be used as a dietary inhibitor of HDAC2 and class IIa HDAC. Our findings suggest that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, does not inhibit class IIa HDAC, but inhibits

  14. Zoledronic acid inhibits pulmonary metastasis dissemination in a preclinical model of Ewing’s sarcoma via inhibition of cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odri, Guillaume; Kim, Pui-Pui; Lamoureux, François; Charrier, Céline; Battaglia, Séverine; Amiaud, Jérôme; Heymann, Dominique; Gouin, François; Redini, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) is the second most frequent primitive malignant bone tumor in adolescents with a very poor prognosis for high risk patients, mainly when lung metastases are detected (overall survival <15% at 5 years). Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption which induces osteoclast apoptosis. Our previous studies showed a strong therapeutic potential of ZA as it inhibits ES cell growth in vitro and ES primary tumor growth in vivo in a mouse model developed in bone site. However, no data are available on lung metastasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of ZA on ES cell invasion and metastatic properties. Invasion assays were performed in vitro in Boyden’s chambers covered with Matrigel. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was analyzed by zymography in ES cell culture supernatant. In vivo, a relevant model of spontaneous lung metastases which disseminate from primary ES tumor was induced by the orthotopic injection of 10 6 human ES cells in the tibia medullar cavity of nude mice. The effect of ZA (50 μg/kg, 3x/week) was studied over a 4-week period. Lung metastases were observed macroscopically at autopsy and analysed by histology. ZA induced a strong inhibition of ES cell invasion, probably due to down regulation of MMP-2 and −9 activities as analyzed by zymography. In vivo, ZA inhibits the dissemination of spontaneous lung metastases from a primary ES tumor but had no effect on the growth of established lung metastases. These results suggest that ZA could be used early in the treatment of ES to inhibit bone tumor growth but also to prevent the early metastatic events to the lungs

  15. Combating against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - two fatty acids from Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) exhibit synergistic effects with erythromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ben C L; Han, X Q; Lui, Sau Lai; Wong, C W; Wang, Tina B Y; Cheung, David W S; Cheng, Sau Wan; Ip, Margaret; Han, Simon Q B; Yang, Xiao-Sheng; Jolivalt, Claude; Lau, Clara B S; Leung, Ping Chung; Fung, Kwok Pui

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the active ingredients from Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) that could provide synergism with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and their possible mechanisms of resistance inhibition. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a panel of laboratory MRSA strains were used for checkerboard and efflux inhibitory assays. Linoleic and oleic acids were identified from HSCCC fraction 18 of PO with synergistic antibacterial activity when combined with erythromycin against RN4220/pUL5054. Ethidium bromide efflux inhibitory studies revealed that linoleic and oleic acids may interfere the activity of MsrA pump. By comparing among a panel of linoleic and oleic acids analogues, unsaturated fatty acids in salt form with cis configuration and an increase in number of double bonds were found to further increase the antibacterial activity when used alone or in combination with antibiotics. This study reported for the first time that two active ingredients, namely linoleic and oleic acids, were identified from PO with synergistic antibacterial activity when combined with erythromycin against MRSA RN4220/pUL5054 and possibly act by inhibiting the efflux pumps of the bacteria cells. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  17. Carnosic acid and fisetin combination therapy enhances inhibition of lung cancer through apoptosis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Wang, Li-Fang; Meng, Wen-Shu; Chen, Liang; Meng, Zi-Li

    2017-06-01

    Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene with anti-inflammation, anticancer, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, as well as neuroprotective properties, which is generated by many species from Lamiaceae family. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally flavonoid is abundantly produced in different vegetables and fruits. Fisetin has been reported to have various positive biological effects, including anti-proliferative, anticancer, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Lung cancer is reported as the most common neoplasm in human world-wide. In the present study, the possible benefits of carnosic acid combined with fisetin on lung cancer in vitro and in vivo was explored. Carnosic acid and fisetin combination led to apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Caspase-3 signaling pathway was promoted in carnosic acid and fisetin co-treatment, which was accompanied by anti-apoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl decreasing and pro-apoptotic signals of Bax and Bad increasing. The death receptor (DR) of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was enhanced in carnosic acid and fisetin combined treatment. Furthermore, the mouse xenograft model in vivo suggested that carnosic acid and fisetin combined treatment inhibited lung cancer growth in comparison to the carnosic acid or fisetin monotherapy. This study supplies a novel therapy to induce apoptosis to inhibit lung cancer through caspase-3 activation.

  18. Different inhibition mechanisms of gentisic acid and cyaniding-3-O-glucoside on polyphenoloxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Zou, Liqiang

    2017-11-01

    Gentisic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside are important bioactive polyphenols which are widely distributed in many fruits and cereals. In this work, kinetic study, spectral analysis and computational simulation were used to compare the inhibitory effects and inhibition mechanisms of gentisic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO). The inhibitory effect of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on PPO was much stronger than that of gentisic acid. Gentisic acid inhibited PPO in a reversible mixed-type manner while cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was an irreversible inhibitor. Gentisic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside made the thermal inactivation of PPO easier, and induced apparent conformational changes of PPO. Compared with gentisic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside had stronger effects on the thermal inactivation and conformation of PPO. Molecular docking results revealed gentisic acid bound to the active site of PPO by hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking and van der Waals forces. However, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside might irreversibly interact with the Met or Cys in PPO by covalent bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase and Fatty Acid Composition in Theobroma grandiflorum Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Valentina Itriago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Theobroma grandiflorum is an important fruit tree from Sterculiaceae family, native to the Brazilian Amazon, known in the region as cupuaçu. The seeds have a high fat content (24% with characteristics that resemble those of cocoa (Theobroma cacao butter with potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The main objective of this work was to explore the seed fats from T. grandiflorum that were analyzed for fatty acid composition by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID and to analyze their activity for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Chromatographic analysis provided detection of nine fatty acids. The major fatty acids found in the species were oleic (40.0%, stearic (32.7%, arachidic (10.4% and palmitic (8.0%. The acetylcholinesterase inhibition by fats from seeds was over 40.48%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v0i0.894 

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Inhibition Effects of Vanadium Substituted Dawson-type Heteropoly Acids(Mo, P)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yan-bing; YANG Yu-lin; FAN Rui-qing; ZHU Yang-qing; SUN Ji-ru

    2011-01-01

    Four new vanadium substituted Dawson-type heteropoly acids H7[P2Mo17VO62]·39H2O(1),H8[P2Mo16V2O62]·41H2O(2), H9[P2Mo15V3O62]·51H2O(3) and H8[P2Mo14V4O62H2]·45H2O(4) were prepared respectively. Their structures were determined by IR and ICP. The inhibition effects of vanadium substituted Dawson-type heteropoly acids(Mo, P) on free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate(MMA) were investigated by dilatometry. The results show that the rate of the polymerization of MMA decreases and the inhibition effects of the four heteropoly acids reach the inhibitor performance of hydroquinone at a certain ratio.

  1. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzie, Emeka E.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 by extracts of selected plants was investigated using a gasometric technique at temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. The studied plants materials include leaf extracts Occimum viridis (OV), Telferia occidentalis (TO), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as well as extracts from the seeds of Garcinia kola (GK). The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in both acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Synergistic effects increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from assessment of kinetic and activation parameters that govern the processes. Comparative analysis of the inhibitor adsorption behaviour in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 as well as the effects of temperature and halide additives suggest that both protonated and molecular species could be responsible for the inhibiting action of the extracts

  2. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzie, Emeka E. [Electrochemistry and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri (Nigeria)], E-mail: oguziemeka@yahoo.com

    2008-11-15

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by extracts of selected plants was investigated using a gasometric technique at temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. The studied plants materials include leaf extracts Occimum viridis (OV), Telferia occidentalis (TO), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as well as extracts from the seeds of Garcinia kola (GK). The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in both acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Synergistic effects increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from assessment of kinetic and activation parameters that govern the processes. Comparative analysis of the inhibitor adsorption behaviour in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as well as the effects of temperature and halide additives suggest that both protonated and molecular species could be responsible for the inhibiting action of the extracts.

  3. Activation of Exogenous Fatty Acids to Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Cannot Bypass FabI Inhibition in Neisseria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Bruhn, David F.; Frank, Matthew W.; Lee, Richard E.; Rock, Charles O.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria is a Gram-negative pathogen with phospholipids composed of straight chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides that are not essential. The FabI inhibitor, AFN-1252, was deployed as a chemical biology tool to determine whether Neisseria can bypass the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by incorporating exogenous fatty acids. Neisseria encodes a functional FabI that was potently inhibited by AFN-1252. AFN-1252 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in growing Neisseria, a delayed inhibition of growth phenotype, and minimal inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, showing that its mode of action is through inhibiting fatty acid synthesis. Isotopic fatty acid labeling experiments showed that Neisseria encodes the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipids by an acyl-acyl carrier protein-dependent pathway. However, AFN-1252 remained an effective antibacterial when Neisseria were supplemented with exogenous fatty acids. These results demonstrate that extracellular fatty acids are activated by an acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasN) and validate type II fatty acid synthesis (FabI) as a therapeutic target against Neisseria. PMID:26567338

  4. Redução do peso e da glicemia resultante da suplementação de ácido linoleico conjugado e fitosteróis à dieta hiperlipídica de camundongos Weight and blood glucose reduction resulting from conjugated linoleic acid and phytosterols supplementation on hiperlipidic diets of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne y Castro Marques

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as possíveis alterações causadas pela ingestão de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA e de fitosteróis no ganho de peso, na glicemia e no perfil lipídico de camundongos alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica. Durante nove semanas, vinte e cinco camundongos Swiss machos receberam dietas hiperlipídicas suplementadas com CLA e/ou fitosteróis, na concentração de 2%. Foram aferidos consumo alimentar, ganho de peso, glicemia em jejum, além dos níveis séricos de colesterol total, triglicérides, HDL colesterol e ácidos graxos livres. O grupo suplementado com CLA e fitosteróis apresentou menor ganho de peso e bom controle glicêmico, quando comparado aos demais grupos. Os resultados encontrados incentivam a continuação de pesquisas que investiguem os efeitos biológicos causados pela suplementação concomitante de CLA e fitosteróis, com possível aplicação na indústria de alimentos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes caused by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and phytosterols intake in weight gain, blood glucose levels and lipid profile on mice fed with high fat diet. Twenty-five male Swiss mice received for nine weeks high fat diets supplemented with 2% of CLA and/or phytosterols. Feed intake, weight gain, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and free fatty acids were determined. The group supplemented with CLA and phytosterols gained less weight and showed better glycemic control compared to other groups. The results encourage further research to investigate the biological effects caused by supplementation of CLA and phytosterols, with possible application in food industry.

  5. Inhibition of transcription of abscisic acid in relation to the binding with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Sukla; Basu, P.S.; Biswas, B.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a plant substance inhibits RNA synthesis in vivo and vitro. In vitro inhibition by ABA has been demonstrated in isolated RNA polymerase system from coconut endosperm chromatin. This inhibition can be partly reversible with indole acetic acid-receptor protein complex if added in the system. To find the mechanism of inhibition of transcription by ABA, it has been found that ABA (10 -4 -10 -5 M) can bind with DNA and can prevent strand separation. This binding increases the Tm value. ABA binds with DNA but not with RNA. Moreover, ABA can equally bind and prevent denaturation of calfthymus DNA and E. coli DNA. pH optimum for this binding is 8.0. The bound complex is resistant to alkali and alcohol but susceptible to acid below pH 5.0. It has further been demonstrated that free aBA at this pH is changed to another component which has tentatively been identified as lactone form of ABA. (author)

  6. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Increases Reduction Potential in Neuronal Cells under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Brose

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we have reported a novel neuronal specific pathway for adaptation to hypoxia through increased fatty acid (FA biosynthesis (FAS followed by esterification into lipids. However, the biological role of this pathway under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the presented study, we have tested our hypothesis that activation of FAS maintains reduction potential and reduces lactoacidosis in neuronal cells under hypoxia. To address this hypothesis, we measured the effect of FAS inhibition on NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios, and lactic acid levels in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to normoxic and hypoxic conditions. FAS inhibitors, TOFA (inhibits Acetyl-CoA carboxylase and cerulenin (inhibits FA synthase, increased NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios under hypoxia. Further, FAS inhibition increased lactic acid under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and caused cytotoxicity under hypoxia but not normoxia. These results indicate that FA may serve as hydrogen acceptors under hypoxia, thus supporting oxidation reactions including anaerobic glycolysis. These findings may help to identify a radically different approach to attenuate hypoxia related pathophysiology in the nervous system including stroke.

  7. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Increases Reduction Potential in Neuronal Cells under Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Stephen A; Golovko, Svetlana A; Golovko, Mikhail Y

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have reported a novel neuronal specific pathway for adaptation to hypoxia through increased fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis followed by esterification into lipids. However, the biological role of this pathway under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the presented study, we have tested our hypothesis that activation of FA synthesis maintains reduction potential and reduces lactoacidosis in neuronal cells under hypoxia. To address this hypothesis, we measured the effect of FA synthesis inhibition on [Formula: see text]/NAD + and [Formula: see text]/NADP + ratios, and lactic acid levels in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to normoxic and hypoxic conditions. FA synthesis inhibitors, TOFA (inhibits Acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and cerulenin (inhibits FA synthase), increased [Formula: see text]/NAD + and [Formula: see text]/NADP + ratios under hypoxia. Further, FA synthesis inhibition increased lactic acid under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and caused cytotoxicity under hypoxia but not normoxia. These results indicate that FA may serve as hydrogen acceptors under hypoxia, thus supporting oxidation reactions including anaerobic glycolysis. These findings may help to identify a radically different approach to attenuate hypoxia related pathophysiology in the nervous system including stroke.

  8. Adsorption and corrosion inhibiting effect of riboflavin on Q235 mild steel corrosion in acidic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidiebere, Maduabuchi A. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Rd, Shenyang 110016 (China); Electrochemistry and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri, PMB 1526 Owerri (Nigeria); Oguzie, Emeka E. [Electrochemistry and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri, PMB 1526 Owerri (Nigeria); Liu, Li [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Rd, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Ying, E-mail: liying@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Rd, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Fuhui [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Rd, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-04-15

    The inhibiting effect of Riboflavin (RF) on Q235 mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 30 °C temperature was investigated using electrochemical techniques (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization). The obtained results revealed that RF inhibited the corrosion reaction in both acidic solutions. Maximum inhibition efficiency values in 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were 83.9% and 71.4%, respectively, obtained for 0.0012 M RF. Polarization data showed RF to be a mixed-type inhibitor, while EIS results revealed that the RF species adsorbed on the metal surface. The adsorption of RF followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies confirmed the formation of a protective layer adsorbed on the steel surface. Quantum chemical calculations were used to correlate the inhibition ability of RF with its electronic structural parameters. - Highlights: • The inhibitory mechanism was influenced by the nature of acid anions. • RF has reasonable inhibition effect especially in 1 M HCl solution. • Polarization studies showed that RF functioned as a mixed type inhibitor. • Improved surface morphology was observed in the presence of RF.

  9. Cinnamic acid amides from Tribulus terrestris displaying uncompetitive α-glucosidase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeong Hun; Kim, Dae Wook; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Park, Chanin; Son, Minky; Kim, Jeong Yoon; Yuk, Heung Joo; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2016-05-23

    The α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Tribulus terrestris extracts has been reported but as yet the active ingredients are unknown. This study attempted to isolate the responsible metabolites and elucidate their inhibition mechanism of α-glucosidase. By fractionating T. terristris extracts, three cinnamic acid amide derivatives (1-3) were ascertained to be active components against α-glucosidase. The lead structure, N-trans-coumaroyltyramine 1, showed significant inhibition of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.42 μM). Moreover, all active compounds displayed uncompetitive inhibition mechanisms that have rarely been reported for α-glucosidase inhibitors. This kinetic behavior was fully demonstrated by showing a decrease of both Km and Vmax, and Kik/Kiv ratio ranging between 1.029 and 1.053. We progressed to study how chemical modifications to the lead structure 1 may impact inhibition. An α, β-unsaturation carbonyl group and hydroxyl group in A-ring of cinnamic acid amide emerged to be critical functionalities for α-glucosidase inhibition. The molecular modeling study revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to π-π interaction as well as hydrogen bond interaction between enzyme and inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Interfacial (o/w) properties of naphthetic acids and metal naphthenates, naphtenic acid characterization and metal naphthenate inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandal, Oeystein

    2005-07-01

    Deposition of metal naphthenates in process facilities is becoming a huge problem for petroleum companies producing highly acidic crudes. In this thesis, the main focus has been towards the oil-water (o/w) interfacial properties of naphthenic acids and their ability to react with different divalent cations across the interface to form metal naphthenates. The pendant drop technique was utilized to determine dynamic interfacial tensions (IFT) between model oil containing naphthenic acid, synthetic as well as indigenous acid mixtures, and pH adjusted water upon addition of different divalent cations. Changes in IFT caused by the divalent cations were correlated to reaction mechanisms by considering two reaction steps with subsequent binding of acid monomers to the divalent cation. The results were discussed in light of degree of cation hydration and naphthenic acid conformation, which affect the interfacial conditions and thus the rate of formation of 2:1 complexes of acid and cations. Moreover, addition of non-ionic oil-soluble surfactants used as basis compounds in naphthenate inhibitors was found to hinder a completion of the reaction through interfacial dilution of the acid monomers. Formation and stability of metal naphthenate films at o/w interfaces were studied by means of Langmuir technique with a trough designed for liquid-liquid systems. The effects of different naphthenic acids, divalent cations, and pH of the subphase were investigated. The results were correlated to acid structure, cation hydration, and degree of dissociation, which all affect the film stability against compression. Naphthenic acids acquired from a metal naphthenate deposit were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. The sample was found to consist of a narrow family of 4-protic naphthenic acids with molecular weights around 1230 g/mol. These acids were found to be very o/w interfacially active compared to normal crude acids, and to form Langmuir monolayers with stability

  11. [Shikimic acid inhibits the degranulation and histamine release in RBL-2H3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianyong; Zheng, Qianqian; Liu, Wei; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jinling; Li, Shigang

    2017-05-01

    Objective To study the effects of shikimic acid on the proliferation of rat RBL-2H3 cells and the degranulation of the cells induced by C48/80 and its mechanism. Methods MTT assay was performed to measure the proliferation of RBL-2H3 cells treated with 3, 10, 30 μg/mL shikimic acid. Toluidine blue staining was used to observe the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. The release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells treated with 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 80, 100 μg/mL C48/80 was determined by substrate assay. ELISA was used to detect the histamine content in the supernatant of each treated group. Results Shikimic acid at 3, 10, 300 μg/mL had no obvious inhibitory effect on the proliferation of RBL-2H3 cells. There was a dose-effect relationship between the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and C48/80 concentration. Shikimic acid inhibited the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells compared with the positive control group, the β-hexosaminidase release rate and histamine release were significantly reduced in RBL-2H3 cells treated with shikimic acid and C48/80. Conclusion Shikimic acid can inhibit the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and reduce histamine release.

  12. Ebselen inhibits hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase binding to nucleic acid and prevents viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Weiner, Warren S; Schroeder, Chad E; Simpson, Denise S; Hanson, Alicia M; Sweeney, Noreena L; Marvin, Rachel K; Ndjomou, Jean; Kolli, Rajesh; Isailovic, Dragan; Schoenen, Frank J; Frick, David N

    2014-10-17

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is both a protease, which cleaves viral and host proteins, and a helicase that separates nucleic acid strands, using ATP hydrolysis to fuel the reaction. Many antiviral drugs, and compounds in clinical trials, target the NS3 protease, but few helicase inhibitors that function as antivirals have been reported. This study focuses on the analysis of the mechanism by which ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3-one), a compound previously shown to be a HCV antiviral agent, inhibits the NS3 helicase. Ebselen inhibited the abilities of NS3 to unwind nucleic acids, to bind nucleic acids, and to hydrolyze ATP, and about 1 μM ebselen was sufficient to inhibit each of these activities by 50%. However, ebselen had no effect on the activity of the NS3 protease, even at 100 times higher ebselen concentrations. At concentrations below 10 μM, the ability of ebselen to inhibit HCV helicase was reversible, but prolonged incubation of HCV helicase with higher ebselen concentrations led to irreversible inhibition and the formation of covalent adducts between ebselen and all 14 cysteines present in HCV helicase. Ebselen analogues with sulfur replacing the selenium were just as potent HCV helicase inhibitors as ebselen, but the length of the linker between the phenyl and benzisoselenazol rings was critical. Modifications of the phenyl ring also affected compound potency over 30-fold, and ebselen was a far more potent helicase inhibitor than other, structurally unrelated, thiol-modifying agents. Ebselen analogues were also more effective antiviral agents, and they were less toxic to hepatocytes than ebselen. Although the above structure-activity relationship studies suggest that ebselen targets a specific site on NS3, we were unable to confirm binding to either the NS3 ATP binding site or nucleic acid binding cleft by examining the effects of ebselen on NS3 proteins lacking key cysteines.

  13. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Streptococcus mutans UA159

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Nang Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we revealed that OA and UA significantly inhibited the expression of most genes related to peptidoglycan biosynthesis in S. mutans UA159. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to introduce the antimicrobial mechanism of OA and UA against S. mutans.

  14. Evaluation of Plants and Weeds Extract on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed in order to determine the inhibitive effects of extracts of plants and weeds namely Parthenium hysterophorus, Dathura stromonium, Azadirachta indica, Helianthus annuus leaves extract for mild steel in sulphuric acid by using weight loss and thermometric technique. Results demonstrated that, all the experimental inhibitors show an adsorption on steel surface according to Langmuir’s isotherm. The inhibition efficiency increased with increase in the concentration of all tested inhibitors to attain a maximum value at 1.0%. Free energy values for adsorption process show that the process is spontaneous. The kinetic treatment of the results shows first order kinetics.

  15. Gallic Acid Attenuates Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion by Inhibiting Inflammatory Reaction in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangbing; Wu, Yunhua; Gao, Qi; Shen, Cong; Chen, Zilu; Wang, Kang; Yu, Junhui

    2018-01-01

    Background Intra-abdominal adhesion is one of the most common complications after abdominal surgery. The efficacy of current treatments for intra-abdominal adhesion is unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effect of gallic acid on the prevention and treatment of intra-abdominal adhesions after abdominal surgery using an intra-abdominal adhesion rat model. Material/Methods The experimental rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, the control group, the chitosan group, and 3 gallic acid groups of different concentrations. All rats except those in the sham operation group received cecal abrasion to induce adhesion. From the first postoperative day, the rats in the gallic acid groups were administered different concentrations of gallic acid in a 2-ml gavage daily. All rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7, and the degree of intra-abdominal adhesion was evaluated by the naked eye. The amount of collagen deposited between the injured peritoneal tissues was assessed by Sirius red staining. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were measured by ELISA. Western blot was used to detect the level of NF-κB phosphorylation in the injured peritoneal or adhesion tissues of the rats. Results Compared with the control group, the scores of intra-abdominal adhesions in the rats treated with larger doses of gallic acid were significantly decreased, and the degree of inflammation and fibrosis was also significantly decreased. Gallic acid significantly reduced IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 serum levels. NF-κB phosphorylation in the higher gallic acid groups was significantly reduced. Conclusions Gallic acid inhibits the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in rats by inhibiting the inflammatory reaction and fibrogenesis. Gallic acid is a promising drug for preventing intra-abdominal adhesions. PMID:29429982

  16. Arachidonic acid-mediated inhibition of a potassium current in the giant neurons of Aplysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical and electrophysiological approaches were used to investigate the role of arachidonic acid (AA) in the modulation of an inwardly rectifying potassium current (I R ) in the giant neurons of the marine snail, Aplysia californica. Using [ 3 H]AA as tracer, the intracellular free AA pool in Aplysia ganglia was found to be in a state of constant and rapid turnover through deacylation and reacylation of phospholipid, primarily phosphatidyl-inositol. This constant turnover was accompanied by a constant release of free AA and eicosanoids into the extracellular medium. The effects of three pharmacological agents were characterized with regard to AA metabolism in Aplysia ganglia. 4-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated liberation of AA from phospholipid, and 4-bromophenacylbromide (BPB), an inhibitor of phospholipate A 2 , inhibited this liberation. Indomethacin at 250 μM was found to inhibit uptake of AA, likely through inhibition of acyl-CoA synthetase. These agents were also found to modulate I R in ways which were consistent with their biological effects: TPA inhibited I R , and both BPB and indomethacin stimulated I R . Modulation of I R by these substances was found not to involve cAMP metabolism. Acute application of exogenous AA did not affect I R ; however, I R in giant neurons was found to be inhibited after dialysis with AA or other unsaturated fatty acids. Also, after perfusion with BSA overnight, a treatment which strips the giant neurons of AA in lipid storage, I R was found to have increased over 2-fold. This perfusion-induced increase was inhibited by the presence of AA or by pretreatment of the giant neurons with BPB. These results suggest AA, provided through constant turnover from phospholipid, mediates constitutive inhibition of I R

  17. Edible seaweed as future functional food: Identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors by combined use of high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling and HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bingrui; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Wiese, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    -glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry–solid-phase extraction–nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-bioassay/HPLC–HRMS–SPE–NMR). The results showed Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesicolosus to be rich in antioxidants, equaling...... as fatty acids – with oleic acid, linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid being the most potent with IC50 values of 0.069, 0.075 and 0.10 mM, respectively, and showing a mixed-type inhibition mode....

  18. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5

  19. Injury-induced inhibition of small intestinal protein and nucleic acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.A.; Hatz, R.A.; Yarmush, M.L.; Tompkins, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Small intestinal mucosal weight and nutrient absorption are significantly diminished early after cutaneous thermal injuries. Because these intestinal properties are highly dependent on rates of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, in vivo incorporation of thymidine, uridine, and leucine into small intestinal deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and proteins were measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was markedly decreased with the lowest thymidine incorporation in the jejunum (p less than 0.01); these findings were confirmed by autoradiographic identification of radiolabeled nuclei in the intestinal crypts. Protein synthesis was decreased by 6 h postinjury (p less than 0.01) but had returned to normal by 48 h. Consistent with a decreased rate of protein synthesis, ribonucleic acid synthesis was also decreased 18 h postinjury (p less than 0.01). These decreased deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis rates are not likely a result of ischemia because in other studies of this injury model, intestinal blood flow was not significantly changed by the burn injury. Potentially, factors initiating the acute inflammatory reaction may directly inhibit nucleic acid and protein synthesis and lead to alterations in nutrient absorption and intestinal barrier function after injury

  20. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induces Apoptosis of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Koji; Suzuki, Kenta; Sawamoto, Junpei; Tokizawa, Yuma; Iwase, Yumiko; Yumita, Nagahiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Cancer cells tend to have a high requirement for lipids, including fatty acids, cholesterol and triglyceride, because of their rapid proliferative rate compared to normal cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhibition of lipid synthesis on the proliferation and viability of human pancreatic cancer cells. Of the inhibitors of lipid synthesis that were tested, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), which is an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors cerulenin and irgasan, significantly suppressed the proliferation of MiaPaCa-2 and AsPC-1 cells. Treatment of MiaPaCa-2 cells with these inhibitors significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells. In addition, TOFA increased caspase-3 activity and induced cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Moreover, addition of palmitate to MiaPaCa-2 cells treated with TOFA rescued cells from apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that TOFA induces apoptosis via depletion of fatty acids and that, among the various aspects of lipid metabolism, inhibition of fatty acid synthesis may be a notable target for the treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of inhibition on tyrosinase and melanogenesis of Agastache rugosa Kuntze by lactic acid bacteria fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Young; Kwon, Hee Souk; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2017-09-01

    This work presents the first report that A. rugosa could have tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition and that its activities also be improved by fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei. It was found that the tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition was correlated with antioxidant activity of acacetin, the major biologically active substances in A. rugosa. we pursued an improvement in tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition of A. rugosa extract by fermentation process. A. rugosa was extracted by lactic acid fermentation process; we measured antioxidant activities and tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition of A. rugosa extracts. In particular, reducing power of the extract from fermentation process (FE) was measured as 0.562 (O.D.), whereas reducing power of the extracts from 70% ethanol extraction (EE) was lower than the FE as 0.496 (O.D.). Polyphenols and flavonoids in the FE were higher than the EE: 69.3 mg/g vs. 60.5 mg/g, and 187 mg/g vs. 138 mg/g. The FE was estimated as 51.04% tyrosinase inhibition and 41.88% for the EE. Similarly, melanin inhibition in melanocyte B16F10 was observed as 66.60% vs. 42.23% for the FE and EE. The increase in tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition activity was confirmed by high elution of acacetin through fermentation process such as 289.97 mg/100 g vs. 198.04 mg/100 g in the FE and EE. These results indicate that tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition activities of the extracts should be associated with antioxidant activity because acacetin is known to have strong antioxidant activity, which can also positively affect whitening activities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Adsorption and inhibitive properties of Tryptophan on low alloy steel corrosion in acidic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham T.M. Abdel-Fatah

    2017-02-01

    Corrosion inhibition was studied using electrochemical methods (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; EIS and the new technique electrochemical frequency modulation; EFM and weight loss measurements. The influence of inhibitor concentration, solution temperature, and immersion time on the corrosion resistance of low alloy steel (LAS has been investigated. Trp proved to be a very good inhibitor for low alloy steel acid corrosion. EFM measurements showed that Trp is a mixed type inhibitor. Trp behaved better in 0.6 M HCl than in 0.6 M HSO3NH2. Moreover, it was found that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration, while a decrease was detected with the rise of temperature and immersion time. The associated activation energy (Ea has been determined. The values of Ea indicate that the type of adsorption of Trp on the steel surface in both acids belongs to physical adsorption. The adsorption process was tested using Temkin adsorption isotherm.

  3. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Cheese Using Chitosan-Grafted Lactic Acid Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Sandoval

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A chitosan from biologically obtained chitin was successfully grafted with d,l-lactic acid (LA in aqueous media using p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst to obtain a non-toxic, biodegradable packaging material that was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability, and relative humidity (RH losses. Additionally, the grafting in chitosan with LA produced films with improved mechanical properties. This material successfully extended the shelf life of fresh cheese and inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during 14 days at 4 °C and 22% RH, whereby inoculated samples with chitosan-g-LA packaging presented full bacterial inhibition. The results were compared to control samples and commercial low-density polyethylene packaging.

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition improves cardiac fatty acid metabolism in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, S; Takeishi, Y; Minamihaba, O; Arimoto, T; Hirono, O; Takahashi, H; Miyamoto, T; Nitobe, J; Nozaki, N; Tachibana, H; Watanabe, T; Fukui, A; Kubota, I

    2003-08-01

    This study aimed to examine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition improved cardiac fatty acid metabolism in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Myocardial 123I-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) imaging was performed in 25 patients with CHF and in 10 control subjects. Myocardial 123I-BMIPP images were obtained 30 min and 4 h after tracer injection. The heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio of 123I-BMIPP uptake and the washout rate of 123I-BMIPP from the myocardium were calculated. Patients were given enalapril for 6 months, and 123I-BMIPP imaging was repeated. H/M ratios on early and delayed images were lower in CHF patients than in normal controls (Pacid metabolism by ACE inhibition may represent a new mechanism for the beneficial effect of this therapy in heart failure.

  5. CORROSION INHIBITIVE PROPERTIES OF EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS LEAVES ON MILD STEEL IN HYDROCHLORIC ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Odusote

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas leaves extract was tested as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution using gravimetric and thermometric techniques. The results reveal that the inhibition efficiency vary with concentration of the leaf extract and the time of immersion. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found to be 95.92% in 2M HCl with 0.5 g/l concentration of the extract in gravimetric method, while 87.04% was obtained in thermometric method. The inhibiting effect was attributed to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenol in the extract. The adsorption processes of the Jatropha curcas leaves extract onto the mild steel is consistent with the assumptions of Langmuir isotherm model and also found to be spontaneous. From the results, a physical adsorption mechanism is proposed for the adsorption of Jatropha curcas leaves extract onto mild steel surface.

  6. The inhibition of anti-DNA binding to DNA by nucleic acid binding polymers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Stearns

    Full Text Available Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and can mediate disease pathogenesis by the formation of immune complexes. Since blocking immune complex formation can attenuate disease manifestations, the effects of nucleic acid binding polymers (NABPs on anti-DNA binding in vitro were investigated. The compounds tested included polyamidoamine dendrimer, 1,4-diaminobutane core, generation 3.0 (PAMAM-G3, hexadimethrine bromide, and a β-cylodextrin-containing polycation. As shown with plasma from patients with SLE, NABPs can inhibit anti-DNA antibody binding in ELISA assays. The inhibition was specific since the NABPs did not affect binding to tetanus toxoid or the Sm protein, another lupus autoantigen. Furthermore, the polymers could displace antibody from preformed complexes. Together, these results indicate that NABPs can inhibit the formation of immune complexes and may represent a new approach to treatment.

  7. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS, a surfactant on corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid was studied using three techniques namely: weight loss, electrochemical polarization and metallurgical research microscopy. Results obtained reveal that SLS is good inhibitor and shows very good corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE. The IE was found to vary with concentration of inhibitor and temperature. The electrochemical polarization result revealed that SLS is anodic in nature.

  8. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS), a surfactant on corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid was studied using three techniques namely: weight loss, electrochemical polarization and metallurgical research microscopy. Results obtained reveal that SLS is good inhibitor and shows very good corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE). The IE was found to vary with concentration of inhibitor and temperature. The electrochemical polarization result revealed that SLS is anodic in nature.

  9. Inhibition of fatty acid binding proteins elevates brain anandamide levels and produces analgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaczocha

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  10. Inhibition of fatty acid mobilization by arterial free fatty acid concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J; Bülow, J; Nielsen, N E

    1986-01-01

    Subcutaneous, inguinal adipose tissue from dogs was perfused with blood in which the free fatty acid (FFA) concentration was varied corresponding to FFA/albumin molar ratios between 1 and 6. Otherwise the composition of the perfusate was kept constant. In order to stimulate lipolysis, isoprenaline...

  11. Immobilization of Tyrosinase from Avocado Crude Extract in Polypyrrole Films for Inhibitive Detection of Benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Brisolari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at different concentrations, was amperometrically detected by these biosensors. Benzoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of Try, was added to the catechol solutions at specific concentrations aimed at obtaining the inhibition constant, K’m, which ranged from 1.7 to 4.6 mmol∙L−1 for 0.0 and 60 µmol∙L−1 of benzoic acid, respectively. Studies on the inhibition caused by benzoic acid by using PPy/Try films, and catechol as a substrate, allowed us propose how to develop, under optimized conditions, simple and low-cost biosensors based on the use of avocado fruit.

  12. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis decreases very low density lipoprotein secretion in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeeny, C M; Meyers, D S; Bergquist, K E; Gregg, R E

    1992-06-01

    The hamster was developed as a model to study very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism, since, as is the case in humans, the hamster liver was found to synthesize apoB-100 and not apoB-48. The effect of inhibiting fatty acid synthesis on the hepatic secretion of VLDL triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in this model was then investigated. In an in vivo study, hamsters were fed a chow diet containing 0.15% TOFA (5-tetradecyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. After 6 days of treatment, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased by 30.2% and 11.6%, respectively. When the secretion of VLDL-TG by the liver was measured in vivo after injection of Triton WR 1339, TOFA treatment was found to decrease VLDL-TG secretion by 40%. In subsequent in vitro studies utilizing cultured primary hamster hepatocytes, incubation with 20 microM TOFA for 4 h resulted in 98% and 76% inhibition in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, respectively; VLDL-TG secretion was decreased by 90%. When hepatocytes were pulsed with [3H]leucine, incubation with TOFA resulted in a 50% decrease in the incorporation of radiolabel into secreted VLDL apoB-100. The results of this study indicate that inhibition of intracellular triglyceride synthesis decreases the secretion of VLDL-TG and apoB-100, and does not result in the secretion of a dense, triglyceride-depleted lipoprotein.

  13. Inhibition of proteases activity in intestine needs a sustainable acidic environment rather than a transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chang; Xing, Jin-Feng; Ge, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-10-01

    α-Chymotrypsin (α-CT) and trypsin are important components of the enzymatic barrier. They could degrade the therapeutic proteins and peptides, inhibit their activity consequently, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. Acidic agents, as one type of indirect protease inhibitors, have shown proof of concept in clinical trials. We report here the inactivated proteases due to acid influence can be reactivated immediately by environmental pH recovery regardless of how long the inactivation last. To keep the inactivation time of proteases for 4-5 h, we designed and prepared a sustained-release tablet containing citric acid (CA) which can effectively reduce the pH below 5.0 and maintain it for 5 h in the dissolution-reaction medium. The activity of α-CT and trypsin was quantified by analyzing the residual amount of their respective substrates BTEE and TAME. More than 80% of the substrates were survived in 5.0 h of incubation, whereas the common tablet inhibited the proteases activity for only two hours in the same experimental medium. It indicates that the sustained-release tablet loaded with CA can efficiently inhibit the α-CT and trypsin activity longer than the common tablet. The results will be beneficial for designing and formulating the peroral administration of peptide and protein drugs.

  14. Triterpene Acids from Frankincense and Semi-Synthetic Derivatives That Inhibit 5-Lipoxygenase and Cathepsin G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Koeberle

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related diseases, such as osteoarthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, are often associated with chronic unresolved inflammation. Neutrophils play central roles in this process by releasing tissue-degenerative proteases, such as cathepsin G, as well as pro-inflammatory leukotrienes produced by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO pathway. Boswellic acids (BAs are pentacyclic triterpene acids contained in the gum resin of the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense that target cathepsin G and 5-LO in neutrophils, and might thus represent suitable leads for intervention with age-associated diseases that have a chronic inflammatory component. Here, we investigated whether, in addition to BAs, other triterpene acids from frankincense interfere with 5-LO and cathepsin G. We provide a comprehensive analysis of 17 natural tetra- or pentacyclic triterpene acids for suppression of 5-LO product synthesis in human neutrophils. These triterpene acids were also investigated for their direct interference with 5-LO and cathepsin G in cell-free assays. Furthermore, our studies were expanded to 10 semi-synthetic BA derivatives. Our data reveal that besides BAs, several tetra- and pentacyclic triterpene acids are effective or even superior inhibitors of 5-LO product formation in human neutrophils, and in parallel, inhibit cathepsin G. Their beneficial target profile may qualify triterpene acids as anti-inflammatory natural products and pharmacological leads for intervention with diseases related to aging.

  15. Triterpene Acids from Frankincense and Semi-Synthetic Derivatives That Inhibit 5-Lipoxygenase and Cathepsin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeberle, Andreas; Henkel, Arne; Verhoff, Moritz; Tausch, Lars; König, Stefanie; Fischer, Dagmar; Kather, Nicole; Seitz, Stefanie; Paul, Michael; Jauch, Johann; Werz, Oliver

    2018-02-24

    Age-related diseases, such as osteoarthritis, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, are often associated with chronic unresolved inflammation. Neutrophils play central roles in this process by releasing tissue-degenerative proteases, such as cathepsin G, as well as pro-inflammatory leukotrienes produced by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway. Boswellic acids (BAs) are pentacyclic triterpene acids contained in the gum resin of the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense that target cathepsin G and 5-LO in neutrophils, and might thus represent suitable leads for intervention with age-associated diseases that have a chronic inflammatory component. Here, we investigated whether, in addition to BAs, other triterpene acids from frankincense interfere with 5-LO and cathepsin G. We provide a comprehensive analysis of 17 natural tetra- or pentacyclic triterpene acids for suppression of 5-LO product synthesis in human neutrophils. These triterpene acids were also investigated for their direct interference with 5-LO and cathepsin G in cell-free assays. Furthermore, our studies were expanded to 10 semi-synthetic BA derivatives. Our data reveal that besides BAs, several tetra- and pentacyclic triterpene acids are effective or even superior inhibitors of 5-LO product formation in human neutrophils, and in parallel, inhibit cathepsin G. Their beneficial target profile may qualify triterpene acids as anti-inflammatory natural products and pharmacological leads for intervention with diseases related to aging.

  16. Correlating enzymatic browning inhibition and antioxidant ability of Maillard reaction products derived from different amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haining; Zhang, Xiaoming; Karangwa, Eric; Xia, Shuqin

    2017-09-01

    Up to now, only limited research on enzymatic browning inhibition capacity (BIC) of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) has been reported and there are still no overall and systematic researches on MRPs derived from different amino acids. In the present study, BIC and antioxidant capacity, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and Fe 2+ reducing power activity, of the MRPs derived from 12 different amino acids and three reducing sugars were investigated. The MRPs of cysteine (Cys), cystine, arginine (Arg) and histidine (His) showed higher BIC compared to other amino acids. Lysine (Lys)-MRPs showed the highest absorbance value at 420 nm (A 420 ) but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs, showed the highest BIC and the lowest A 420 . The A 420 can roughly reflect the trend of BIC of MRPs from different amino acids, except Cys and Lys. MRPs from tyrosine (Tyr) showed the most potent antioxidant capacity but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs showed both higher antioxidant capacity and BIC compared to other amino acids. Partial least squares regression analysis showed positive and significant correlation between BIC and Fe 2+ reducing power of MRPs from 12 amino acids with glucose or fructose, except Lys, Cys and Tyr. The suitable pH for generating efficient browning inhibition compounds varies depending on different amino acids: acidic pH was favorable for Cys, whereas neutral and alkaline pH were suitable for His and Arg, respectively. Increasing both heating temperature and time over a certain range could improve the BIC of MRPs of Cys, His and Arg, whereas any further increase deteriorates their browning inhibition efficiencies. The types of amino acid, initial pH, temperature and time of the Maillard reaction were found to greatly influence the BIC and antioxidant capacity of the resulting MRPs. There is no clear relationship between BIC and the antioxidant capacity of MRPs when reactant type and processing parameters of the Maillard

  17. Okadaic acid inhibits cell growth and photosynthetic electron transport in the alga Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perreault, Francois; Matias, Marcelo Seleme; Oukarroum, Abdallah [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada); Matias, William Gerson [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada); Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, LABTOX, Depto. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, CEP: 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Popovic, Radovan, E-mail: popovic.radovan@uqam.ca [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), which is produced by several dinoflagellate species, is a phycotoxin known to induce a decrease of biomass production in phytoplankton. However, the mechanisms of OA cytotoxicity are still unknown in microalgae. In this study, we exposed the green microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta to OA concentrations of 0.05 to 0.5 {mu}M in order to evaluate its effects on cell division, reactive oxygen species production and photosynthetic electron transport. After 72 h of treatment under continuous illumination, OA concentrations higher than 0.10 {mu}M decreased culture cell density, induced oxidative stress and inhibited photosystem II electron transport capacity. OA effect in D. tertiolecta was strongly light dependent since no oxidative stress was observed when D. tertiolecta was exposed to OA in the dark. In the absence of light, the effect of OA on culture cell density and photosystem II activity was also significantly reduced. Therefore, light appears to have a significant role in the toxicity of OA in microalgae. Our results indicate that the site of OA interaction on photosynthetic electron transport is likely to be at the level of the plastoquinone pool, which can lead to photo-oxidative stress when light absorbed by the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II cannot be dissipated via photochemical pathways. These findings allowed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of OA toxicity in microalgae. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposition of Dunaliella tertiolecta to okadaic acid in light conditions results in reactive oxygen species formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of photosystem II is dependent on oxidative stress and effects of okadaic acid on the plastoquinone pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress and inhibition of photosynthesis increase okadaic acid effect on cell density in light conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Okadaic acid induces toxicity in algae via both light-dependent and light

  18. Thiacetazone, an antitubercular drug that inhibits cyclopropanation of cell wall mycolic acids in mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Alahari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycolic acids are a complex mixture of branched, long-chain fatty acids, representing key components of the highly hydrophobic mycobacterial cell wall. Pathogenic mycobacteria carry mycolic acid sub-types that contain cyclopropane rings. Double bonds at specific sites on mycolic acid precursors are modified by the action of cyclopropane mycolic acid synthases (CMASs. The latter belong to a family of S-adenosyl-methionine-dependent methyl transferases, of which several have been well studied in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, namely, MmaA1 through A4, PcaA and CmaA2. Cyclopropanated mycolic acids are key factors participating in cell envelope permeability, host immunomodulation and persistence of M. tuberculosis. While several antitubercular agents inhibit mycolic acid synthesis, to date, the CMASs have not been shown to be drug targets.We have employed various complementary approaches to show that the antitubercular drug, thiacetazone (TAC, and its chemical analogues, inhibit mycolic acid cyclopropanation. Dramatic changes in the content and ratio of mycolic acids in the vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG, as well as in the related pathogenic species Mycobacterium marinum were observed after treatment with the drugs. Combination of thin layer chromatography, mass spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analyses of mycolic acids purified from drug-treated mycobacteria showed a significant loss of cyclopropanation in both the alpha- and oxygenated mycolate sub-types. Additionally, High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS NMR analyses on whole cells was used to detect cell wall-associated mycolates and to quantify the cyclopropanation status of the cell envelope. Further, overexpression of cmaA2, mmaA2 or pcaA in mycobacteria partially reversed the effects of TAC and its analogue on mycolic acid cyclopropanation, suggesting that the drugs act directly on CMASs.This is a first report on the mechanism of action of TAC, demonstrating the

  19. Inhibition of Na+-P/sub i/ cotransporter in small gut brush border by phosphonocarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loghman-Adham, M.; Szczepsanska-Konkel, M.; Yusufi, A.N.K.; Van Scoy, M.; Dousa, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of phosphonoformic acid (PFA) and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) upon Na + -P/sub i/ cotransport in brush-border membrane (BBM) from small gut of rat. Both PFA and PAA inhibited the Na + gradient-dependent uptake of 32 P/sub i/ by BBM vesicles (BBMV) prepared from intestinal mucosa but had no effect on Na + -dependent uptakes of D-[ 3 H]glucose, L-[ 3 H]proline, or [ 14 C]succinate. The uptake in the absence of Na + gradient, or uptake at equilibrium period (180 min), was not affected by PFA or by PAA. A chemical analogue of PFA and PAA, phosphonopropionic acid, had only a minor inhibitory effect and phenylphosphonic acid was inactive. Neither PFA nor PAA influenced the activity of rat intestinal BBM alkaline phosphatase. The BBMV from rat jejunum had a much higher capacity for Na + gradient-dependent uptake of 32 P/sub i/ than BBMV from duodenum or ileum. The inhibition of BBMV 32 P/sub i/ transport across rat jejunum by PFA is competitive. They suggest that PFA and PAA are specific inhibitors of Na + gradient-dependent uptake of P/sub i/ by BBMV from small intestinal mucosa and that they could serve as useful experimental tools for the studies of intestinal Na + -P/sub i/ cotransport

  20. Analysis of nucleic acid chaperoning by the prion protein and its inhibition by oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Cécile; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Gabus, Caroline; Marc, Daniel; Mély, Yves; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2011-10-01

    Prion diseases are unique neurodegenerative illnesses associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into the aggregated misfolded scrapie isoform, named PrP(Sc). Recent studies on the physiological role of PrP(C) revealed that this protein has probably multiple functions, notably in cell-cell adhesion and signal transduction, and in assisting nucleic acid folding. In fact, in vitro findings indicated that the human PrP (huPrP) possesses nucleic acid binding and annealing activities, similarly to nucleic acid chaperone proteins that play essential roles in cellular DNA and RNA metabolism. Here, we show that a peptide, representing the N-terminal domain of huPrP, facilitates nucleic acid annealing by two parallel pathways nucleated through the stem termini. We also show that PrP of human or ovine origin facilitates DNA strand exchange, ribozyme-directed cleavage of an RNA template and RNA trans-splicing in a manner similar to the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1. In an attempt to characterize inhibitors of PrP-chaperoning in vitro we discovered that the thioaptamer 5'-GACACAAGCCGA-3' was extensively inhibiting the PrP chaperoning activities. At the same time a recently characterized methylated oligoribonucleotide inhibiting the chaperoning activity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein was poorly impairing the PrP chaperoning activities.

  1. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPHrad scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  2. The induction of apoptosis in pre-malignant keratinocytes by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is inhibited by albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Zacharoula; Shaikh, Mushfiq Hassan; Dehlawi, Hebah; Michael-Titus, Adina Teodora; Parkinson, Eric Kenneth

    2013-04-12

    The long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been reported to exert anti-cancer effects. At this study we tested the effect of the omega-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), on pre-malignant keratinocytes growth in the well-characterised human pre-malignant epidermal cell line, HaCaT and attempted to identify a PUFA serum antagonist. Both EPA and DHA inhibited HaCaT growth and induced apoptosis. At the 10% (v/v) foetal bovine serum (FBS) medium, limited growth inhibition (3-20% for 50μM DHA and EPA respectively) and negligible apoptosis were observed with PUFA use. However, at 3% (v/v) FBS medium, 30-50μM of PUFA caused impressive levels of growth inhibition (82-83% for 50μM DHA and EPA respectively) and increase of apoptosis (8-19% increase in 72h). None of the numerous serum growth factors present in FBS or the antioxidant n-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone could inhibit the PUFA-induced cytotoxicity. In contrast, bovine and human albumin (0.1-0.3%, w/v) significantly antagonized the growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of PUFA. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that omega-3 PUFA inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of pre-malignant keratinocytes and identified albumin as a major antagonistic factor in serum that could limit their effectiveness at pharmacologically-achievable doses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence That Speciation of Oxovanadium Complexes Does Not Solely Account for Inhibition of Leishmania Acid Phosphatases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Benjamin M.; McLauchlan, Craig C.; Jones, Marjorie A.

    2018-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease affecting a diverse spectra of populations, with 1.6 million new cases reported each year. Current treatment options are costly and have harsh side effects. New therapeutic options that have been previously identified, but still underappreciated as potential pharmaceutical targets, are Leishmania secreted acid phosphatases (SAP). These acid phosphatases, which are reported to play a role in the survival of the parasite in the sand fly vector, and in homing to the host macrophage, are inhibited by orthovanadate and decavanadate. Here, we use L. tarentolae to further evaluate these inhibitors. Using enzyme assays, and UV-visible spectroscopy, we investigate which oxovanadium starting material (orthovanadate or decavanadate) is a better inhibitor of L. tarentolae secreted acid phosphatase activity in vitro at the same total moles of vanadium. Considering speciation and total vanadium concentration, decavanadate is a consistently better inhibitor of SAP in our conditions, especially at low substrate:inhibitor ratios. PMID:29707535

  4. Evidence that Speciation of Oxovanadium Complexes does not Solely Account for Inhibition of Leishmania Acid Phosphatases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Benjamin M.; McLauchlan, Craig C.; Jones, Marjorie A.

    2018-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease affecting a diverse spectra of populations, with 1.6 million new cases reported each year. Current treatment options are costly and have harsh side effects. New therapeutic options that have been previously identified, but still underappreciated as potential pharmaceutical targets, are Leishmania secreted acid phosphatases (SAP). These acid phosphatases, which are reported to play a role in the survival of the parasite in the sand fly vector, and in homing to the host macrophage, are inhibited by orthovanadate and decavanadate. Here, we use L. tarentolae to further evaluate these inhibitors. Using enzyme assays, and UV-visible spectroscopy, we investigate which oxovanadium starting material (orthovanadate or decavanadate) is a better inhibitor of L. tarentolae secreted acid phosphatase activity in vitro at the same total moles of vanadium. Considering speciation and total vanadium concentration, decavanadate is a consistently better inhibitor of SAP in our conditions, especially at low substrate:inhibitor ratios.

  5. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  6. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits hepatic cystogenesis in experimental models of polycystic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Garrido, Patricia; Marin, José J G; Perugorria, María J; Urribarri, Aura D; Erice, Oihane; Sáez, Elena; Úriz, Miriam; Sarvide, Sarai; Portu, Ainhoa; Concepcion, Axel R; Romero, Marta R; Monte, María J; Santos-Laso, Álvaro; Hijona, Elizabeth; Jimenez-Agüero, Raúl; Marzioni, Marco; Beuers, Ulrich; Masyuk, Tatyana V; LaRusso, Nicholas F; Prieto, Jesús; Bujanda, Luis; Drenth, Joost P H; Banales, Jesús M

    2015-10-01

    Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are genetic disorders characterized by progressive biliary cystogenesis. Current therapies show short-term and/or modest beneficial effects. Cystic cholangiocytes hyperproliferate as a consequence of diminished intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]i). Here, the therapeutic value of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was investigated. Effect of UDCA was examined in vitro and in polycystic (PCK) rats. Hepatic cystogenesis and fibrosis, and the bile acid (BA) content were evaluated from the liver, bile, serum, and kidneys by HPLC-MS/MS. Chronic treatment of PCK rats with UDCA inhibits hepatic cystogenesis and fibrosis, and improves their motor behaviour. As compared to wild-type animals, PCK rats show increased BA concentration ([BA]) in liver, similar hepatic Cyp7a1 mRNA levels, and diminished [BA] in bile. Likewise, [BA] is increased in cystic fluid of PLD patients compared to their matched serum levels. In PCK rats, UDCA decreases the intrahepatic accumulation of cytotoxic BA, normalizes their diminished [BA] in bile, increases the BA secretion in bile and diminishes the increased [BA] in kidneys. In vitro, UDCA inhibits the hyperproliferation of polycystic human cholangiocytes via a PI3K/AKT/MEK/ERK1/2-dependent mechanism without affecting apoptosis. Finally, the presence of glycodeoxycholic acid promotes the proliferation of polycystic human cholangiocytes, which is inhibited by both UDCA and tauro-UDCA. UDCA was able to halt the liver disease of a rat model of PLD through inhibiting cystic cholangiocyte hyperproliferation and decreasing the levels of cytotoxic BA species in the liver, which suggests the use of UDCA as a potential therapeutic tool for PLD patients. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  7. Capric acid secreted by S. boulardii inhibits C. albicans filamentous growth, adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Murzyn

    Full Text Available Candidiasis are life-threatening systemic fungal diseases, especially of gastro intestinal track, skin and mucous membranes lining various body cavities like the nostrils, the mouth, the lips, the eyelids, the ears or the genital area. Due to increasing resistance of candidiasis to existing drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. One promising strategy is the use of the probiotic microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit. Such a probiotic microorganism is yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, a close relative of baker yeast. Saccharomyces boulardii cells and their extract affect the virulence factors of the important human fungal pathogen C. albicans, its hyphae formation, adhesion and biofilm development. Extract prepared from S. boulardii culture filtrate was fractionated and GC-MS analysis showed that the active fraction contained, apart from 2-phenylethanol, caproic, caprylic and capric acid whose presence was confirmed by ESI-MS analysis. Biological activity was tested on C. albicans using extract and pure identified compounds. Our study demonstrated that this probiotic yeast secretes into the medium active compounds reducing candidal virulence factors. The chief compound inhibiting filamentous C. albicans growth comparably to S. boulardii extract was capric acid, which is thus responsible for inhibition of hyphae formation. It also reduced candidal adhesion and biofilm formation, though three times less than the extract, which thus contains other factors suppressing C. albicans adherence. The expression profile of selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by real-time PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, INO1 and CSH1 genes in C. albicans cells treated with capric acid and S. boulardii extract. Hence capric acid secreted by S. boulardii is responsible for inhibition of C. albicans filamentation and partially also adhesion and

  8. Capric Acid Secreted by S. boulardii Inhibits C. albicans Filamentous Growth, Adhesion and Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzyn, Anna; Krasowska, Anna; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Dziadkowiec, Dorota; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis are life-threatening systemic fungal diseases, especially of gastro intestinal track, skin and mucous membranes lining various body cavities like the nostrils, the mouth, the lips, the eyelids, the ears or the genital area. Due to increasing resistance of candidiasis to existing drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. One promising strategy is the use of the probiotic microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit. Such a probiotic microorganism is yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, a close relative of baker yeast. Saccharomyces boulardii cells and their extract affect the virulence factors of the important human fungal pathogen C. albicans, its hyphae formation, adhesion and biofilm development. Extract prepared from S. boulardii culture filtrate was fractionated and GC-MS analysis showed that the active fraction contained, apart from 2-phenylethanol, caproic, caprylic and capric acid whose presence was confirmed by ESI-MS analysis. Biological activity was tested on C. albicans using extract and pure identified compounds. Our study demonstrated that this probiotic yeast secretes into the medium active compounds reducing candidal virulence factors. The chief compound inhibiting filamentous C. albicans growth comparably to S. boulardii extract was capric acid, which is thus responsible for inhibition of hyphae formation. It also reduced candidal adhesion and biofilm formation, though three times less than the extract, which thus contains other factors suppressing C. albicans adherence. The expression profile of selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by real-time PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, INO1 and CSH1 genes in C. albicans cells treated with capric acid and S. boulardii extract. Hence capric acid secreted by S. boulardii is responsible for inhibition of C. albicans filamentation and partially also adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID

  9. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Mediates Amino Acid Inhibition of Insulin Signaling through Serine 727 Phosphorylation*

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong-Ho; Yoon, Mee-Sup; Chen, Jie

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient overload is associated with the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes. High plasma concentrations of amino acids have been found to correlate with insulin resistance. At the cellular level, excess amino acids impair insulin signaling, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. Here, we report that STAT3 plays a key role in amino acid dampening of insulin signaling in hepatic cells. Excess amino acids inhibited insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation a...

  10. Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B by Aurintricarboxylic Acid and Methylenedisalicylic Acid: Polymer versus Monomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Suja; Lee, Keun Hyeung; Cho, Hyeong Jin

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether the in vitro inhibitory activity of ATA against PTPases resides in the monomer or high molecular weight components. Not to mention commercial ATA, the ATA sample synthesized according to the method previously reported to produce monomer was also found to contain polymeric materials as described below. Therefore, monomeric component of ATA was prepared absolutely free of polymer. Also synthesized in a pure form was methylenedisalicylic acid (MDSA), one of the low molecular weight components formed in the conventional preparation of ATA. Commercial MDSA was also proved to contain polymeric substances. The inhibitory potency of ATA and MDSA synthesized in a polymer-free form was evaluated against human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Commercial ATA, however, contains significant amounts of polymeric materials schematically represented as. In general, ATA is prepared by condensation of salicylic acid with formaldehyde and the branching reaction results in the formation of polymers of molecular weights up to several thousands Dalton

  11. Ursolic acid inhibits superoxide production in activated neutrophils and attenuates trauma-hemorrhage shock-induced organ injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Long Hwang

    Full Text Available Neutrophil activation is associated with the development of organ injury after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, ursolic acid inhibited the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. Administration of ursolic acid attenuated trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced hepatic and lung injuries in rats. In addition, administration of ursolic acid attenuated the hepatic malondialdehyde levels and reduced the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In conclusion, ursolic acid, a bioactive natural compound, inhibits superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils and ameliorates trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced organ injury in rats.

  12. Inhibitive action of some plant extracts on the corrosion of steel in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)]. E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Sidahmed, I.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); El-Zayady, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Saadawy, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    The effect of extracts of Chamomile (Chamaemelum mixtum L.), Halfabar (Cymbopogon proximus), Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), and Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants on the corrosion of steel in aqueous 1 M sulphuric acid were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process of steel occurs under activation control. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitors. The corrosion rates of steel and the inhibition efficiencies of the extracts were calculated. The results obtained show that the extract solution of the plant could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in sulphuric acid media. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the plant extract up to a critical concentration. The inhibitive actions of plant extracts are discussed on the basis of adsorption of stable complex at the steel surface. Theoretical fitting of different isotherms, Langmuir, Flory-Huggins, and the kinetic-thermodynamic model, were tested to clarify the nature of adsorption.

  13. Synergistic inhibition between o-phenanthroline and chloride ion for steel corrosion in sulphuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xueming; Tang Libin; Li Lin; Mu Guannan; Liu Guangheng

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of cold rolled steel in 0.5 M sulphuric acid in the presence of o-phenanthroline and sodium chloride (NaCl) has been investigated by using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The experimental data suggest that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing NaCl concentration in the presence of 0.0002 M o-phenanthroline, but decreases with increasing temperature. A synergistic effect is observed when o-phenanthroline and chloride ions are used together to prevent cold rolled steel corrosion in 0.5 M sulphuric acid. The polarization curves showed that the complex of o-phenanthroline and NaCl acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The experimental results suggested that the presence of chloride ions in the solution stabilized the adsorption of o-phenanthroline molecules on the metal surface and improved the inhibition efficiency of o-phenanthroline. The adsorption of the complex accords with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Some thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption heat, adsorption entropy and adsorption free energy have been calculated by employing thermodynamic equations. Kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor have been calculated and discussed

  14. Do pH and flavonoids influence hypochlorous acid-induced catalase inhibition and heme modification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych-Madej, Justyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), highly reactive oxidizing and chlorinating species, is formed in the immune response to invading pathogens by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride catalyzed by the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Catalase, an important antioxidant enzyme, catalyzing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, hampers in vitro HOCl formation, but is also one of the main targets for HOCl. In this work we have investigated HOCl-induced catalase inhibition at different pH, and the influence of flavonoids (catechin, epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin) on this process. It has been shown that HOCl-induced catalase inhibition is independent on pH in the range 6.0-7.4. Preincubation of catalase with epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin before HOCl treatment enhances the degree of catalase inhibition, whereas catechin does not affect this process. Our rapid kinetic measurements of absorption changes around the heme group have revealed that heme modification by HOCl is mainly due to secondary, intramolecular processes. The presence of flavonoids, which reduce active catalase intermediate, Compound I to inactive Compound II have not influenced the kinetics of HOCl-induced heme modification. Possible mechanisms of the reaction of hypochlorous acid with catalase are proposed and the biological consequences are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dafachronic acid inhibits C. elegans germ cell proliferation in a DAF-12-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Madhumati; Chaudhari, Snehal N; Balachandran, Riju S; Vagasi, Alexandra S; Kipreos, Edward T

    2017-12-15

    Dafachronic acid (DA) is a bile acid-like steroid hormone that regulates dauer formation, heterochrony, and lifespan in C. elegans. Here, we describe that DA is an inhibitor of C. elegans germ stem cell proliferation in adult hermaphrodites. Using a C. elegans germ cell primary culture system, we show that DA inhibits the proliferation of germ cells in vitro. Exogenous DA reduces the frequency of large tumors in adult tumorous germline mutants and decreases the proliferation of wild-type germ stem cells in adult hermaphrodites. In contrast, DA has no appreciable effect on the proliferation of larval-stage germ cells in wild type. The inhibition of adult germ cell proliferation by DA requires its canonical receptor DAF-12. Blocking DA production by inactivating the cytochrome P450 DAF-9 increases germ cell proliferation in wild-type adult hermaphrodites and the frequency of large tumors in germline tumorous mutants, suggesting that DA inhibits the rate of germ cell proliferation under normal growth conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gambogic acid inhibits multiple myeloma mediated osteoclastogenesis through suppression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj K; Kale, Vijay P; Song, Chunhua; Sung, Shen-shu; Sharma, Arun K; Talamo, Giampaolo; Dovat, Sinisa; Amin, Shantu G

    2014-10-01

    Bone disease, characterized by the presence of lytic lesions and osteoporosis is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), has been implicated as a regulator of bone resorption, suggesting that agents that can suppress SDF1α/CXCR4 signaling might inhibit osteoclastogenesis, a process closely linked to bone resorption. We, therefore, investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone, could inhibit CXCR4 signaling and suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by MM cells. Through docking studies we predicted that GA directly interacts with CXCR4. This xanthone down-regulates the expression of CXCR4 on MM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CXCR4 was not due to proteolytic degradation, but rather GA suppresses CXCR4 mRNA expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) DNA binding. This was further confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, as GA inhibits p65 binding at the CXCR4 promoter. GA suppressed SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis of MM cells and downstream signaling of CXCR4 by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, p38, and Erk1/2 in MM cells. GA abrogated the RANKL-induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that MM cells induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, and that GA suppressed this process. Importantly, suppression of osteoclastogenesis by GA was mediated through IL-6 inhibition. Overall, our results show that GA is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression and has a strong potential to suppress osteoclastogenesis mediated by MM cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Aminomethylphosphonic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Keshab Raj; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; You, Zongbing

    2016-03-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine if AMPA could inhibit growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo. Human prostate cancer PC-3-LacZ-luciferase cells were implanted into the ventral lateral lobes of the prostate in 39 athymic Nu/Nu nude male mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into the control group (n = 14, treated intraperitoneally with phosphate buffered saline), low dose group (n = 10, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 400 mg/kg body weight/day), and high dose group (n = 15, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 800 mg/kg body weight/day). Tumor growth and metastasis were examined every 4-7 days by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. We found that AMPA treatment significantly inhibited growth and metastasis of orthotopic xenograft prostate tumors and prolonged the survival time of the mice. AMPA treatment decreased expression of BIRC2 and activated caspase 3, leading to increased apoptosis in the prostate tumors. AMPA treatment decreased expression of cyclin D1. AMPA treatment also reduced angiogenesis in the prostate tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AMPA can inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis, suggesting that AMPA may be developed into a therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  18. Food Polyphenol Apigenin Inhibits the Cytochrome P450 Monoxygenase Branch of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuck, Maryvonne; Hellhake, Stefan; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2016-11-30

    The product of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) ω-hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA), 20- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), is a potent vasoconstrictor. Utilizing microsomes as well as individual CYP4 isoforms we demonstrate here that flavonoids can block 20-HETE formation. Apigenin inhibits CYP4F2 with an IC 50 value of 4.6 μM and 20-HETE formation in human liver and kidney microsomes at 2.4-9.8 μM. Interestingly, the structurally similar naringenin shows no relevant effect on the formation of 20-HETE. Based on these in vitro data, it is impossible to evaluate if a relevant blockade of 20-HETE formation can result in humans from intake of polyphenols with the diet. However, the potency of apigenin is comparable to those of P450 inhibitors such as ketoconazole. Moreover, an IC 50 value in the micromolar range is also described for the inhibition of CYP-mediated drug metabolism leading to food-drug interactions. The modulation of the arachidonic acid cascade by food polyphenols therefore warrants further investigation.

  19. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  20. INHIBITION OF FATTY ACID DESATURASES IN Drosophila melanogaster LARVAE BLOCKS FEEDING AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; da Cruz, Tina Correia; Pulfemuller, Alicia; Grégoire, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid desaturases are metabolic setscrews. To study their systemic impact on growth in Drosophila melanogaster, we inhibited fatty acid desaturases using the inhibitor CAY10566. As expected, the amount of desaturated lipids is reduced in larvae fed with CAY10566. These animals cease feeding soon after hatching, and their growth is strongly attenuated. A starvation program is not launched, but the expression of distinct metabolic genes is activated, possibly to mobilize storage material. Without attaining the normal size, inhibitor-fed larvae molt to the next stage indicating that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers molting correctly. Nevertheless, after molting, expression of ecdysone-dependent regulators is not induced. While control larvae molt a second time, these larvae fail to do so and die after few days of straying. These effects are similar to those observed in experiments using larvae deficient for the fatty acid desaturase1 gene. Based on these data, we propose that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids adjusts a sensor system that directs feeding behavior. We also hypothesize that loss of fatty acid desaturase activity leads to a block of the genetic program of development progression indirectly by switching on a metabolic compensation program. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Quantum chemical studies on the corrosion inhibition of some sulphonamides on mild steel in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Taner; Kandemirli, Fatma; Ebenso, Eno E.; Love, Ian; Alemu, Hailemichael

    2009-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) and some semi-empirical methods were performed on four sulphonamides (sulfaguanidine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadiazine) used as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium to determine the relationship between molecular structure and their inhibition efficiencies. The results of the quantum chemical calculations and experimental %IE were subjected to correlation analysis and indicate that their inhibition effect are closely related to E HOMO , E LUMO , hardness, polarizability, dipole moment and charges. The %IE increased with increase in the E HOMO and decrease in E HOMO - E LUMO . The negative sign of the E HOMO values and other kinetic and thermodynamic parameters indicates that the data obtained support physical adsorption mechanism

  2. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the Hering-Breuer inspiration-inhibiting reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, N P; Aleksandrov, V G; Ivanova, T G

    2010-02-01

    Acute experiments on rats were performed to study the effects of intraventricular microinjections of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the volume-time parameters of external respiration and the inspiration-inhibiting Hering-Breuer reflex. The state of this reflex before and after GABA administration was assessed in terms of the extent of changes in the duration and amplitude of inspiratory oscillations in intrathoracic pressure in response to end-expiratory occlusion of the trachea. Administration of 20 microM GABA into the lateral ventricles of the brain decreased the minute ventilation (due to reductions in the respiratory frequency and respiratory volume), weakened respiratory muscle contractions, and decreased the peak airflow rate on inspiration and expiration. The response to end-expiratory occlusion decreased significantly after administration of GABA, demonstrating the involvement of GABAergic mechanisms in mediating the inspiration-inhibiting Hering-Breuer reflex.

  3. Flower inhibition in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. Bioassay of an endogenous long-day inhibitor and inhibition by (±) abscisic acid and xanthoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, W W

    1972-03-01

    The inhibition of flowering in Kalanchoe by crude sap expressed from leaves held in non-inductive long-day conditions is described, using a bioassay technique of leaf injection, which confirms the existence of a transferable inhibitor.This technique has also revealed that ± abscisic acid and Xanthoxin are inhibitory to flowering at 50 and 100 ppm respectively. The previously known inhibitory effects of gibberellic acid on flowering have also been confirmed.

  4. Structure/activity relationship of thapsigargin inhibition on the purified Golgi/secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-transport ATPase (SPCA1a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jialin; De Raeymaecker, Joren; Hovgaard, Jannik Brondsted

    2017-01-01

    SPCA1a displays a higher apparent Ca2+ affinity and lower maximal turnover rate than the purified sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA1a). The lipids cholesteryl hemisuccinate, linole-/oleamide and phosphatidyl ethanolamine inhibit, whereas phosphatidic acid and sphingomyelin enhance SPCA1a...... activity. Moreover, SPCA1a is blocked by μM concentrations of commonly used SERCA1a inhibitors thapsigargin (Tg), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and 2,5-di-tert-butyl hydroquinone (BHQ). Since tissue-specific targeting of SERCA2b by Tg analogues is considered for prostate cancer therapy, the inhibition of SPCA1a...

  5. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 release from monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Lajczak, Natalia K; Keyes, Jennifer A; Ward, Joseph B; Greene, Catherine M; Keely, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Monocytes are critical to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as they infiltrate the mucosa and release cytokines that drive the inflammatory response. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a naturally occurring bile acid with anti-inflammatory actions, has been proposed as a potential new therapy for IBD. However, its effects on monocyte function are not yet known. Primary monocytes from healthy volunteers or cultured U937 monocytes were treated with either the proinflammatory cytokine, TNFα (5 ng/ml) or the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/ml) for 24 h, in the absence or presence of UDCA (25-100 μM). IL-8 release into the supernatant was measured by ELISA. mRNA levels were quantified by qPCR and changes in cell signaling proteins were determined by Western blotting. Toxicity was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. UDCA treatment significantly attenuated TNFα-, but not LPS-driven, release of IL-8 from both primary and cultured monocytes. UDCA inhibition of TNFα-driven responses was associated with reduced IL-8 mRNA expression. Both TNFα and LPS stimulated NFκB activation in monocytes, while IL-8 release in response to both cytokines was attenuated by an NFκB inhibitor, BMS-345541. Interestingly, UDCA inhibited TNFα-, but not LPS-stimulated, NFκB activation. Finally, TNFα, but not LPS, induced phosphorylation of TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF2), while UDCA cotreatment attenuated this response. We conclude that UDCA specifically inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 release from monocytes by inhibiting TRAF2 activation. Since such actions would serve to dampen mucosal immune responses in vivo, our data support the therapeutic potential of UDCA for IBD. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on carcass quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and histopathological changes of broiler chickens infected with aflatoxin B 1. ... included increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and decreased ... Furthermore, dietary CLA supplementation increased serum HDL levels.

  7. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giulia

    2013-07-05

    Jul 5, 2013 ... hormone receptor (GHR), pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and cytosolic ... CLA supplemented cows, compared to the control group, recorded a significant lower ... amount of energy required for maintenance, plus milk production ...

  8. An Evolutionary Perspective on Linoleic Acid Synthesis in Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malcicka, Miriama; Visser, Bertanne; Ellers, Jacintha

    The diet of organisms generally provides a sufficient supply of energy and building materials for healthy growth and development, but should also contain essential nutrients. Species differ in their exogenous requirements, but it is not clear why some species are able to synthesize essential

  9. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...... in the control group (P women and greater serum insulin concentrations in the highest waist circumference tertile. Future research is needed to confirm the insulin desensitizing...

  10. Alkylation of Methyl Linoleate with Propene in Ionic Liquids in the Presence of Metal Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomelli, Christian Silvio; Ghilardi, Tiziana; Chiappe, Cinzia; de Angelis, Alberto Renato; Calemma, Vincenzo

    2015-12-07

    Vegetable oils and fatty acid esters are suitable precursor molecules for the production of a variety of bio-based products and materials, such as paints and coatings, plastics, soaps, lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, surfactants, and biofuels. Here, we report the possibility of using Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) to obtain polyunsaturated ester dimerization-oligomerization and/or, in the presence of another terminal alkene (propene), co-polymerization. In particular, we have tested the Lewis acidic mixtures arising from the addition of a proper amount of GaCl₃ (Χ > 0.5) to two chloride-based (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, and 1-butylisoquinolium chloride, [BuIsoq]Cl) or by dissolution of a smaller amount of Al(Tf₂N)₃ (Χ = 0.1) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [bmim][Tf₂N]. On the basis of product distribution studies, [bmim][Tf₂N]/Al(Tf₂N)₃ appears the most suitable medium in which methyl linoleate alkylation with propene can compete with methyl linoleate or propene oligomerization.

  11. Alkylation of Methyl Linoleate with Propene in Ionic Liquids in the Presence of Metal Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Silvio Pomelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fatty acid esters are suitable precursor molecules for the production of a variety of bio-based products and materials, such as paints and coatings, plastics, soaps, lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, surfactants, and biofuels. Here, we report the possibility of using Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs to obtain polyunsaturated ester dimerization-oligomerization and/or, in the presence of another terminal alkene (propene, co-polymerization. In particular, we have tested the Lewis acidic mixtures arising from the addition of a proper amount of GaCl3 (Χ > 0.5 to two chloride-based (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, and 1-butylisoquinolium chloride, [BuIsoq]Cl or by dissolution of a smaller amount of Al(Tf2N3 (Χ = 0.1 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide, [bmim][Tf2N]. On the basis of product distribution studies, [bmim][Tf2N]/Al(Tf2N3 appears the most suitable medium in which methyl linoleate alkylation with propene can compete with methyl linoleate or propene oligomerization.

  12. Salicylic acid metabolites and derivatives inhibit CDK activity: Novel insights into aspirin's chemopreventive effects against colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Callegari, Eduardo; Kesharwani, Siddharth S.; Sankaranarayanan, Ranjini; Seefeldt, Teresa; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin's potential as a drug continues to be evaluated for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple targets for aspirin and its metabolite, salicylic acid, have been identified, no unifying mechanism has been proposed to clearly explain its chemopreventive effects. Our goal here was to investigate the ability of salicylic acid metabolites, known to be generated through cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and its derivatives as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors to gain new insights into aspirin's chemopreventive actions. Using in vitro kinase assays, for the first time, we demonstrate that salicylic acid metabolites, 2,3-dihydroxy-benzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA), as well as derivatives 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-DHBA), 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,6-DHBA), inhibited CDK1 enzyme activity. 2,3-DHBA and 2,6-DHBA did not inhibit CDK2 and 4; however, both inhibited CDK-6 activity. Interestingly, another derivative, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6-THBA) was highly effective in inhibiting CDK1, 2, 4 and 6 activity. Molecular docking studies showed that these compounds potentially interact with CDK1. Immunoblotting experiments showed that aspirin acetylated CDK1, and pre-incubation with salicylic acid and its derivatives prevented aspirin-mediated CDK1 acetylation, which supported the data obtained from molecular docking studies. We suggest that intracellularly generated salicylic acid metabolites through CYP450 enzymes within the colonic epithelial cells, or the salicylic acid metabolites generated by gut microflora may significantly contribute to the preferential chemopreventive effect of aspirin against CRC through inhibition of CDKs. This novel hypothesis and mechanism of action in aspirin's chemopreventive effects opens a new area for future research. In addition, structural modification to salicylic acid derivatives may prove useful in the development of novel CDK inhibitors in cancer prevention and

  13. Strategies for improving production performance of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici viable cell by overcoming lactic acid inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Wasoh, Helmi; Kapri, Mohd Rizal; Halim, Murni

    2017-11-27

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Fermentation conditions such as concentration of initial glucose in the culture, concentration of lactic acid accumulated in the culture, types of pH control strategy, types of aeration mode and different agitation speed had influenced the cultivation performance of batch fermentation of Pediococcus acidilactici. The maximum viable cell concentration obtained in constant fed-batch fermentation at a feeding rate of 0.015 L/h was 6.1 times higher with 1.6 times reduction in lactic acid accumulation compared to batch fermentation. Anion exchange resin, IRA 67 was found to have the highest selectivity towards lactic acid compared to other components studied. Fed-batch fermentation of P. acidilactici coupled with lactic acid removal system using IRA 67 resin showed 55.5 and 9.1 times of improvement in maximum viable cell concentration compared to fermentation without resin for batch and fed-batch mode respectively. The improvement of the P. acidilactici growth in the constant fed-batch fermentation indicated the use of minimal and simple process control equipment is an effective approach for reducing by-product inhibition. Further improvement in the cultivation performance of P. acidilactici in fed-bath fermentation with in situ addition of anion-exchange resin significantly helped to enhance the growth of P. acidilactici by reducing the inhibitory effect of lactic acid and thus increasing probiotic production.

  14. Influence of poly(aminoquinone) on corrosion inhibition of iron in acid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaprabha, C.; Sathiyanarayanan, S.; Phani, K. L. N.; Venkatachari, G.

    2005-11-01

    The inhibitor performance of chemically synthesized water soluble poly(aminoquinone) (PAQ) on iron corrosion in 0.5 M sulphuric acid was studied in relation to inhibitor concentration using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. On comparing the inhibition performance of PAQ with that of the monomer o-phenylenediamine (OPD), the OPD gave an efficiency of 80% for 1000 ppm while it was 90% for 100 ppm of PAQ. PAQ was found to be a mixed inhibitor. Besides, PAQ was able to improve the passivation tendency of iron in 0.5 M H 2SO 4 markedly.

  15. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Behavior of Clove Oil on Iron in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of iron in hydrochloric acid solution was studied using weight loss as well Scanning electron microscopy study without and with clove oil. The percentage inhibition efficiency increases with increasing clove oil concentration. All the data revel that the oil acts as an excellent inhibitor for the corrosion of ir