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Sample records for linking social studies

  1. Linking Children's Literature with Social Studies in the Elementary Curriculum

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    The author shares information related to integrating quality literature written for children into the teaching of social studies at the elementary school level. Research within the past decade informs educators of the strong impact of curriculum standards for the social studies as developed by professional organizations. Teachers today are…

  2. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  3. Linking social capital and mortality in the elderly: a Swedish national cohort study.

    Sundquist, Kristina; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Li, Xinjun; Kawakami, Naomi; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between neighborhood linking social capital (a concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the elderly. The entire Swedish population aged 65+, a total of 1,517,336 men and women, was followed from 1 January 2002 until death, emigration, or the end of the study on 31 December 2010. Small geographic units were used to define neighborhoods. The definition of linking social capital was based on neighborhood voting participation rates, categorized into three groups. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and between-neighborhood variance in three different models. The results showed an overall association between linking social capital and all-cause mortality. The significant OR of 1.53 in the group with low linking social capital decreased, but remained significant (OR=1.27), after accounting for age, sex, family income, marital status, country of birth, education level, and region of residence. There were also significant associations between linking social capital and cause-specific mortality in coronary heart disease, psychiatric disorders, cancer, stroke, chronic lower respiratory diseases, type 2 diabetes, and suicide. There are associations between low linking social capital and mortality from chronic disorders and suicide in the elderly population. Community support for elderly people living in neighborhoods with low levels of linking social capital may need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. From the mouths of social media users: A focus group study exploring the social casino gaming-online gambling link.

    Kim, Hyoun S; Wohl, Michael J A; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The potential link between social casino gaming and online gambling has raised considerable concerns among clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Unfortunately, however, there is a paucity of research examining this potential link, especially among young adults. This represents a significant gap given young adults are frequently exposed to and are players of social casino games. Methods To better understand the potential link between social casino games and online gambling, we conducted three focus groups (N = 30) at two large Canadian Universities with college students who were avid social media users (who are regularly exposed to social casino games). Results Many participants spontaneously mentioned that social casino games were a great opportunity to build gambling skills before playing for real money. Importantly, some participants expressed a belief that there is a direct progression from social casino gaming to online gambling. Conversely, others believed the transition to online gambling depended on a person's personality, rather than mere exposure to social casino games. While many young adults in our focus groups felt immune to the effects of social casino games, there was a general consensus that social casino games may facilitate the transition to online gambling among younger teenagers (i.e., 12-14 yr olds), due to the ease of accessibility and early exposure. Discussion The results of the present research point to the need for more study on the effects of social casino gambling as well as a discussion concerning regulation of social casino games in order to minimize their potential risks.

  5. From the mouths of social media users: A focus group study exploring the social casino gaming–online gambling link

    Kim, Hyoun S.; Wohl, Michael J. A.; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The potential link between social casino gaming and online gambling has raised considerable concerns among clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Unfortunately, however, there is a paucity of research examining this potential link, especially among young adults. This represents a significant gap given young adults are frequently exposed to and are players of social casino games. Methods To better understand the potential link between social casino games and online gambling, we conducted three focus groups (N = 30) at two large Canadian Universities with college students who were avid social media users (who are regularly exposed to social casino games). Results Many participants spontaneously mentioned that social casino games were a great opportunity to build gambling skills before playing for real money. Importantly, some participants expressed a belief that there is a direct progression from social casino gaming to online gambling. Conversely, others believed the transition to online gambling depended on a person’s personality, rather than mere exposure to social casino games. While many young adults in our focus groups felt immune to the effects of social casino games, there was a general consensus that social casino games may facilitate the transition to online gambling among younger teenagers (i.e., 12–14 yr olds), due to the ease of accessibility and early exposure. Discussion The results of the present research point to the need for more study on the effects of social casino gambling as well as a discussion concerning regulation of social casino games in order to minimize their potential risks. PMID:28092197

  6. Neighborhood linking social capital as a predictor of drug abuse: A Swedish national cohort study.

    Sundquist, Jan; Sjöstedt, Cecilia; Winkleby, Marilyn; Li, Xinjun; Kendler, Kenneth S; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the association between the incidence of drug abuse (DA) and linking (communal) social capital, a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions. We present results from an 8-year population-based cohort study that followed all residents in Sweden, aged 15-44, from 2003 through 2010, for a total of 1,700,896 men and 1,642,798 women. Linking social capital was conceptualized as the proportion of people in a geographically defined neighborhood who voted in local government elections. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and between-neighborhood variance. We found robust associations between linking social capital and DA in men and women. For men, the OR for DA in the crude model was 2.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-2.21] for those living in neighborhoods with the lowest vs. highest level of social capital. After accounting for neighborhood level deprivation, the OR fell to 1.59 (1.51-1-68). The ORs remained significant after accounting for age, family income, marital status, country of birth, education level, and region of residence, and after further accounting for comorbidities and family history of comorbidities and family history of DA. For women, the OR decreased from 2.15 (2.03-2.27) in the crude model to 1.31 (1.22-1.40) in the final model, adjusted for multiple neighborhood-level, individual-level variables, and family history for DA. Our study suggests that low linking social capital may have significant independent effects on DA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ophthalmology on social networking sites: an observational study of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn

    Micieli JA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan A Micieli,1 Edmund Tsui2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA Background: The use of social media in ophthalmology remains largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the extent and involvement of ophthalmology journals, professional associations, trade publications, and patient advocacy and fundraising groups on social networking sites. Methods: An archived list of 107 ophthalmology journals from SCImago, trade publications, professional ophthalmology associations, and patient advocacy organizations were searched for their presence on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Activity and popularity of each account was quantified by using the number of “likes” on Facebook, the number of followers on Twitter, and members on LinkedIn. Results: Of the 107 journals ranked by SCImago, 21.5% were present on Facebook and 18.7% were present on Twitter. Journal of Community Eye Health was the most popular on Facebook and JAMA Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter. Among the 133 members of the International Council of Ophthalmology, 17.3% were present on Facebook, 12.8% were present on Twitter, and 7.5% were present on LinkedIn. The most popular on Facebook was the International Council of Ophthalmology, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter and LinkedIn. Patient advocacy organizations were more popular on all sites compared with journals, professional association, and trade publications. Among the top ten most popular pages in each category, patient advocacy groups were most active followed by trade publications, professional associations, and journals. Conclusion: Patient advocacy groups lead the way in social networking followed by professional organizations and journals. Although some journals use social media, most have yet to engage its full potential and maximize the number of

  8. Ophthalmology on social networking sites: an observational study of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Tsui, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media in ophthalmology remains largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the extent and involvement of ophthalmology journals, professional associations, trade publications, and patient advocacy and fundraising groups on social networking sites. An archived list of 107 ophthalmology journals from SCImago, trade publications, professional ophthalmology associations, and patient advocacy organizations were searched for their presence on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Activity and popularity of each account was quantified by using the number of "likes" on Facebook, the number of followers on Twitter, and members on LinkedIn. Of the 107 journals ranked by SCImago, 21.5% were present on Facebook and 18.7% were present on Twitter. Journal of Community Eye Health was the most popular on Facebook and JAMA Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter. Among the 133 members of the International Council of Ophthalmology, 17.3% were present on Facebook, 12.8% were present on Twitter, and 7.5% were present on LinkedIn. The most popular on Facebook was the International Council of Ophthalmology, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter and LinkedIn. Patient advocacy organizations were more popular on all sites compared with journals, professional association, and trade publications. Among the top ten most popular pages in each category, patient advocacy groups were most active followed by trade publications, professional associations, and journals. Patient advocacy groups lead the way in social networking followed by professional organizations and journals. Although some journals use social media, most have yet to engage its full potential and maximize the number of potential interested individuals.

  9. In search of links between social capital, mental health and sociotherapy: a longitudinal study in Rwanda.

    Verduin, Femke; Smid, Geert E; Wind, Tim R; Scholte, Willem F

    2014-11-01

    To date, reviews show inconclusive results on the association between social capital and mental health. Evidence that social capital can intentionally be promoted is also scarce. Promotion of social capital may impact post-conflict recovery through both increased social cohesion and better mental health. However, studies on community interventions and social capital have mostly relied on cross-sectional study designs. We present a longitudinal study in Rwanda on the effect on social capital and mental health of sociotherapy, a community-based psychosocial group intervention consisting of fifteen weekly group sessions. We hypothesized that the intervention would impact social capital and, as a result of that, mental health. We used a quasi-experimental study design with measurement points pre- and post-intervention and at eight months follow-up (2007-2008). Considering sex and living situation, we selected 100 adults for our experimental group. We formed a control group of 100 respondents with similar symptom score distribution, age, and sex from a random community sample in the same region. Mental health was assessed by use of the Self Reporting Questionnaire, and social capital through a locally adapted version of the short Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool. It measures three elements of social capital: cognitive social capital, support, and civic participation. Latent growth models were used to examine whether effects of sociotherapy on mental health and social capital were related. Civic participation increased with 7% in the intervention group versus 2% in controls; mental health improved with 10% versus 5% (both: p social capital did not show consistent changes. These findings hint at the possibility to foster social capital and simultaneously impact mental health. Further identification of pathways of influence may contribute to the designing of psychosocial interventions that effectively promote recovery in war-affected populations. Nederlands Trial

  10. Neighborhood linking social capital as a predictor of psychiatric medication prescription in the elderly: a Swedish national cohort study.

    Sundquist, Jan; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Li, Xinjun; Kawakami, Naomi; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the association between neighborhood linking social capital and psychiatric medication in the elderly. The present study analyzes whether there is an association between linking social capital (a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions) and prescription of antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics/sedatives, antidepressants, or anti-dementia drugs. The entire Swedish population aged 65+, a total of 1,292,816 individuals, were followed from 1 July 2005 until first prescription of psychiatric medication, death, emigration, or the end of the study on 31 December 2010. Small geographic units were used to define neighborhoods. The definition of linking social capital was based on mean voting participation in each neighborhood unit, categorized in three groups. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and between-neighborhood variance in three different models. There was an inverse association between the level of linking social capital and prescription of psychiatric medications (except for anti-dementia drugs). The associations decreased, but remained significant, after accounting for age, sex, family income, marital status, country of birth, and education level (except for antidepressants). The OR for prescription of antipsychotics in the crude model was 1.65 (95% CI 1.53-1.78) and decreased, but remained significant (OR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.17-1.35), after adjustment for the individual-level sociodemographic variables. Decision-makers should take into account the potentially negative effect of linking social capital on psychiatric disorders when planning sites of primary care centers and psychiatric clinics, as well as other kinds of community support for elderly patients with such disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Virtual reality experiments linking social environment and psychosis: A pilot study

    Veling, W.; Brinkman, W.P.; Dorrestijn, E.; van der Gaag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Initial studies with healthy subjects and individuals with high risk for psychosis have suggested that virtual reality (VR) environments may be used to investigate social and psychological mechanisms of psychosis. One small study reported that VR can safely be used in individuals with current

  12. Link prediction in multiplex online social networks

    Jalili, Mahdi; Orouskhani, Yasin; Asgari, Milad; Alipourfard, Nazanin; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-02-01

    Online social networks play a major role in modern societies, and they have shaped the way social relationships evolve. Link prediction in social networks has many potential applications such as recommending new items to users, friendship suggestion and discovering spurious connections. Many real social networks evolve the connections in multiple layers (e.g. multiple social networking platforms). In this article, we study the link prediction problem in multiplex networks. As an example, we consider a multiplex network of Twitter (as a microblogging service) and Foursquare (as a location-based social network). We consider social networks of the same users in these two platforms and develop a meta-path-based algorithm for predicting the links. The connectivity information of the two layers is used to predict the links in Foursquare network. Three classical classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machines (SVM) and K-nearest neighbour) are used for the classification task. Although the networks are not highly correlated in the layers, our experiments show that including the cross-layer information significantly improves the prediction performance. The SVM classifier results in the best performance with an average accuracy of 89%.

  13. Modeling Contextual Effects in Developmental Research: Linking Theory and Method in the Study of Social Development

    Ojanen, Tiina; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    This special section was inspired by the recent increased interest and methodological advances in the assessment of context-specificity in child and adolescent social development. While the effects of groups, situations, and social relationships on cognitive, affective and behavioral development have long been acknowledged in theoretical…

  14. Linking online news and social media

    Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.; Weerkamp, W.

    2011-01-01

    Much of what is discussed in social media is inspired by events in the news and, vice versa, social media provide us with a handle on the impact of news events. We address the following linking task: given a news article, find social media utterances that implicitly reference it. We follow a

  15. The political dimension of "linking social capital"

    Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    . Through an analysis of existing analytical practices, the article concludes that linking social capital is often subordinated to the two related social capital concepts of bonding and bridging, and that linking social capital is often exclusively defined and operationalized based on expressions...... of organizational trust and participation. The article proposes a recalibration to encompass the political dynamics, and political survival theory is recommended as a way to address the hitherto underexplored governance dimension. Rather than using trust as the analytical pivot, this analytical entry point may...

  16. Pain Processing in a Social Context and the Link with Psychopathic Personality Traits—An Event-Related Potential Study

    Casper H. van Heck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy describes the ability to understand another person’s feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to investigate pain empathy and pain sensitivity by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs extracted from the ongoing EEG in an interactive setup. Each participant fulfilled subsequently the role of “villain” and “victim”. In addition, mode of control was modulated resulting in four different conditions; passive villain, active villain, active victim and passive victim. Response-, visual- and pain ERPs were compared between the four conditions. Furthermore, the role of psychopathic traits in these outcomes was investigated. Our findings suggested that people experience more conflict when hurting someone else than hurting themselves. Furthermore, our results indicated that self-controlled pain was experienced as more painful than uncontrolled pain. People that scored high on psychopathic traits seemed to process and experience pain differently. According to the results of the current study, social context, attention and personality traits seem to modulate pain processing and the empathic response to pain in self and others. The within-subject experimental design described here provides an excellent approach to further unravel the influence of social context and personality traits on social cognition.

  17. Social Capital and Unretirement: Exploring the Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Aspects of Social Relationships.

    Gonzales, Ernest; Nowell, W Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    Working longer is an important area of research given extended life expectancy, shortfalls of retirement income, desires to remain socially engaged, and solvency concerns of social insurance programs. The purpose of this longitudinal population-based study of older adults is to examine how different types of social resources (social bonding, bridging, and linking) relate to returning to work after retirement. Data were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study of fully retired older adults aged 62+ in 1998 ( N = 8,334) and followed to 2008. After controlling for a comprehensive set of fixed and time-varying covariates, findings suggest that social bridging (informal volunteering) and social linking (formal volunteering, partnered with an employed spouse) were strongly and positively related to returning to work (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.49, p Social bonding resources were not significantly associated with returning to work. Implications for social policy are discussed.

  18. Neural mechanisms linking social status and inflammatory responses to social stress.

    Muscatell, Keely A; Dedovic, Katarina; Slavich, George M; Jarcho, Michael R; Breen, Elizabeth C; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-06-01

    Social stratification has important implications for health and well-being, with individuals lower in standing in a hierarchy experiencing worse outcomes than those higher up the social ladder. Separate lines of past research suggest that alterations in inflammatory processes and neural responses to threat may link lower social status with poorer outcomes. This study was designed to bridge these literatures to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms linking subjective social status and inflammation. Thirty-one participants reported their subjective social status, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while they were socially evaluated. Participants also provided blood samples before and after the stressor, which were analysed for changes in inflammation. Results showed that lower subjective social status was associated with greater increases in inflammation. Neuroimaging data revealed lower subjective social status was associated with greater neural activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in response to negative feedback. Finally, results indicated that activation in the DMPFC in response to negative feedback mediated the relation between social status and increases in inflammatory activity. This study provides the first evidence of a neurocognitive pathway linking subjective social status and inflammation, thus furthering our understanding of how social hierarchies shape neural and physiological responses to social interactions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  20. Utility-Based Link Recommendation in Social Networks

    Li, Zhepeng

    2013-01-01

    Link recommendation, which suggests links to connect currently unlinked users, is a key functionality offered by major online social networking platforms. Salient examples of link recommendation include "people you may know"' on Facebook and "who to follow" on Twitter. A social networking platform has two types of stakeholder:…

  1. Linking social and built environmental factors to the health of public housing residents: a focus group study.

    Hayward, Erin; Ibe, Chidinma; Young, Jeffery Hunter; Potti, Karthya; Jones, Paul; Pollack, Craig Evan; Gudzune, Kimberly A

    2015-04-10

    Public housing residents have a high risk of chronic disease, which may be related to neighborhood environmental factors. Our objective was to understand how public housing residents perceive that the social and built environments might influence their health and wellbeing. We conducted focus groups of residents from a low-income public housing community in Baltimore, MD to assess their perceptions of health and neighborhood attributes, resources, and social structure. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two investigators independently coded transcripts for thematic content using editing style analysis technique. Twenty-eight residents participated in six focus groups. All were African American and the majority were women. Most had lived in public housing for more than 5 years. We identified four themes: public housing's unhealthy physical environment limits health and wellbeing, the city environment limits opportunities for healthy lifestyle choices, lack of trust in relationships contributes to social isolation, and increased neighborhood social capital could improve wellbeing. Changes in housing and city policies might lead to improved environmental health conditions for public housing residents. Policymakers and researchers may consider promoting community cohesiveness to attempt to empower residents in facilitating neighborhood change.

  2. Linking Social Anxiety with Social Competence in Early Adolescence: Physiological and Coping Moderators.

    Kaeppler, Alexander K; Erath, Stephen A

    2017-02-01

    Despite relatively universal feelings of discomfort in social situations, there is considerable evidence for diversity in the social behaviors and peer experiences of socially anxious youth. However, to date, very little research has been conducted with the aim of identifying factors that differentiate socially anxious youth who are more socially competent from those who are less socially competent. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining whether physiological and cognitive coping responses to social stress moderate the association between social anxiety and social competence. Participants were a community sample of 123 fifth and sixth graders (Mage = 12.03). Social anxiety was measured globally and in the context of a lab-based peer evaluation situation, and social competence was assessed via teacher-reports. Physiological (i.e., skin conductance level reactivity, SCLR, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity, RSAR) and coping (i.e., disengaged) responses to social stressors were also assessed. Results indicated that SCLR and disengaged coping with peer victimization moderated associations linking global and context-specific social anxiety with social competence, such that social anxiety was associated with lower social competence at lower levels of SCLR and higher levels of disengaged coping with peer victimization. Thus, whether socially anxious preadolescents exhibit more or less competent social behavior may depend, in part, on how they respond to peer-evaluative stress. Inflexible physiological responses and disengaged coping responses may undermine social competence, whereas engaged responses may counteract socially anxious preadolescents' tendency to withdraw from social interactions or focus primarily on threat cues.

  3. Modeling online social networks based on preferential linking

    Hu Hai-Bo; Chen Jun; Guo Jin-Li

    2012-01-01

    We study the phenomena of preferential linking in a large-scale evolving online social network and find that the linear preference holds for preferential creation, preferential acceptance, and preferential attachment. Based on the linear preference, we propose an analyzable model, which illustrates the mechanism of network growth and reproduces the process of network evolution. Our simulations demonstrate that the degree distribution of the network produced by the model is in good agreement with that of the real network. This work provides a possible bridge between the micro-mechanisms of network growth and the macrostructures of online social networks

  4. The missing link: leadership, identity, and the social brain.

    van Vugt, Mark

    2012-05-01

    How the cohesion of a social network is being maintained in spite of having different layers of social interaction is an important question. I argue that the evolution of both (political) hierarchy and social identity play a crucial role in scaling up and bonding social networks. Together they are missing links in the social brain hypothesis, and further research is needed to understand the functions of leadership and social identity. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Pain processing in a social context and the link with psychopathic personality traits: An event-related potential study

    Heck, C.H. van; Driessen, J.M.A.; Amato, M.; Berg, M.N. van den; Bhandari, P.; Bilbao-Broch, L.; Farres-Casals, J.; Hendriks, M.; Jodzio, A.C.J.; Luque-Ballesteros, L.; Schöchl, C.A.; Velasco-Angeles, L.R.; Weijer, R.H.A.; Rijn, C.M. van; Jongsma, M.L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Empathy describes the ability to understand another person's feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to

  6. Cognitive Biases and the Link between Shyness and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence

    Weeks, Murray; Ooi, Laura L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shy children display wariness in unfamiliar social situations and often experience feelings of social anxiety. This study explored the potential mediating role of cognitive biases in the link between shyness and social anxiety in early adolescence. In particular, we focused on judgments of the probability and cost of negative social situations…

  7. Brain structure links loneliness to social perception.

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Duchaine, Brad; Janik, Agnieszka; Banissy, Michael J; Rees, Geraint

    2012-10-23

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling associated with the perceived absence of satisfying social relationships. Loneliness is increasingly prevalent in modern societies and has detrimental effects on health and happiness. Although situational threats to social relationships can transiently induce the emotion of loneliness, susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait that varies across individuals [6-8] and is to some extent heritable. However, little is known about the neural processes associated with loneliness (but see [12-14]). Here, we hypothesized that individual differences in loneliness might be reflected in the structure of the brain regions associated with social processes. To test this hypothesis, we used voxel-based morphometry and showed that lonely individuals have less gray matter in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)--an area implicated in basic social perception. As this finding predicted, we further confirmed that loneliness was associated with difficulty in processing social cues. Although other sociopsychological factors such as social network size, anxiety, and empathy independently contributed to loneliness, only basic social perception skills mediated the association between the pSTS volume and loneliness. Taken together, our results suggest that basic social perceptual abilities play an important role in shaping an individual's loneliness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain Structure Links Loneliness to Social Perception

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Duchaine, Brad; Janik, Agnieszka; Banissy, Michael J.; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    Summary Loneliness is the distressing feeling associated with the perceived absence of satisfying social relationships [1]. Loneliness is increasingly prevalent in modern societies [2, 3] and has detrimental effects on health and happiness [4, 5]. Although situational threats to social relationships can transiently induce the emotion of loneliness, susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait that varies across individuals [6–8] and is to some extent heritable [9–11]. However, little is kno...

  9. Linking adult olfactory neurogenesis to social behavior

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, new neurons are added to two brain areas: the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Newly-generated neurons integrate into the preexisting circuits, bringing a set of unique properties, such as increased plasticity and responsiveness to stimuli. However, the functional implications of the constant addition of these neurons remain unclear, although they are believed to be important for learning and memory. The levels of neurogenesis are regulated by a variety of environmental factors, as well as during learning, suggesting that new neurons could be important for coping with changing environmental demands. Notably, neurogenesis has been shown to be physiologically regulated in relation to reproductive behavior: neurogenesis increases in female mice upon exposure to cues of the mating partners, during pregnancy and lactation, and in male mice upon exposure to their offspring. In this scenario, and because of the key contribution of olfaction to maternal behavior, we sought to investigate the contribution of adult-generated neurons in the olfactory system to maternal behavior and offspring recognition. To do so, we selectively disrupted neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway of female mice using focal irradiation. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb did not affect maternal behavior, or the ability of female mice to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar pups. However, reduction of olfactory neurogenesis resulted in abnormal social interaction of female mice, specifically with male conspecifics. Because the olfactory system is crucial for sex recognition, we suggest that the abnormal interaction with males could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male-specific odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Here, I review the results of this and other studies, and discuss their implications for our understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  10. Linking scientific disciplines: Hydrology and social sciences

    Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.

    2017-07-01

    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?

  11. Area-based initiatives – and their work in bonding, bridging and linking social capital

    Agger, Annika; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we provide a conceptual and argumentative framework for studying how Area-based Initiatives (ABIs) can facilitate contact between networks in deprived neighbourhoods and external forms of power (linking social capital). These relations provide the residents and other members...... of social capital (bridging, bonding and linking). The article concludes that ABIs contribute to creating linking social capital, but the extent of the contribution depends on the level of bonding and bridging social capital in the area. We argue that public planners as well as evaluators of the ABIs should...

  12. Social thermoregulation as a potential mechanism linking sociality and fitness: Barbary macaques with more social partners form larger huddles.

    Campbell, Liz A D; Tkaczynski, Patrick J; Lehmann, Julia; Mouna, Mohamed; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2018-04-17

    Individuals with more or stronger social bonds experience enhanced survival and reproduction in various species, though the mechanisms mediating these effects are unclear. Social thermoregulation is a common behaviour across many species which reduces cold stress exposure, body heat loss, and homeostatic energy costs, allowing greater energetic investment in growth, reproduction, and survival, with larger aggregations providing greater benefits. If more social individuals form larger thermoregulation aggregations due to having more potential partners, this would provide a direct link between sociality and fitness. We conducted the first test of this hypothesis by studying social relationships and winter sleeping huddles in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), wherein individuals with more social partners experience greater probability of winter survival. Precipitation and low temperature increased huddle sizes, supporting previous research that huddle size influences thermoregulation and energetics. Huddling relationships were predicted by social (grooming) relationships. Individuals with more social partners therefore formed larger huddles, suggesting reduced energy expenditure and exposure to environmental stressors than less social individuals, potentially explaining how sociality affects survival in this population. This is the first evidence that social thermoregulation may be a direct proximate mechanism by which increased sociality enhances fitness, which may be widely applicable across taxa.

  13. Social Media, Open Science, and Data Science Are Inextricably Linked.

    Voytek, Bradley

    2017-12-20

    Should scientists use social media? Why practice open science? What is data science? Ten years ago, these phrases hardly existed. Now they are ubiquitous. Here I argue that these phenomena are inextricably linked and reflect similar underlying social and technological transformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Algorithm of Link Prediction on Social Network

    Liyan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, most link prediction algorithms are based on the similarity between two entities. Social network topology information is one of the main sources to design the similarity function between entities. But the existing link prediction algorithms do not apply the network topology information sufficiently. For lack of traditional link prediction algorithms, we propose two improved algorithms: CNGF algorithm based on local information and KatzGF algorithm based on global information network. For the defect of the stationary of social network, we also provide the link prediction algorithm based on nodes multiple attributes information. Finally, we verified these algorithms on DBLP data set, and the experimental results show that the performance of the improved algorithm is superior to that of the traditional link prediction algorithm.

  15. Psychosocial mechanisms linking the social environment to mental health in African Americans

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African Amer...

  16. The SAIL databank: linking multiple health and social care datasets

    Ford David V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vast amounts of data are collected about patients and service users in the course of health and social care service delivery. Electronic data systems for patient records have the potential to revolutionise service delivery and research. But in order to achieve this, it is essential that the ability to link the data at the individual record level be retained whilst adhering to the principles of information governance. The SAIL (Secure Anonymised Information Linkage databank has been established using disparate datasets, and over 500 million records from multiple health and social care service providers have been loaded to date, with further growth in progress. Methods Having established the infrastructure of the databank, the aim of this work was to develop and implement an accurate matching process to enable the assignment of a unique Anonymous Linking Field (ALF to person-based records to make the databank ready for record-linkage research studies. An SQL-based matching algorithm (MACRAL, Matching Algorithm for Consistent Results in Anonymised Linkage was developed for this purpose. Firstly the suitability of using a valid NHS number as the basis of a unique identifier was assessed using MACRAL. Secondly, MACRAL was applied in turn to match primary care, secondary care and social services datasets to the NHS Administrative Register (NHSAR, to assess the efficacy of this process, and the optimum matching technique. Results The validation of using the NHS number yielded specificity values > 99.8% and sensitivity values > 94.6% using probabilistic record linkage (PRL at the 50% threshold, and error rates were Conclusion With the infrastructure that has been put in place, the reliable matching process that has been developed enables an ALF to be consistently allocated to records in the databank. The SAIL databank represents a research-ready platform for record-linkage studies.

  17. The SAIL databank: linking multiple health and social care datasets.

    Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Kerina H; John, Gareth; Brooks, Caroline J; Verplancke, Jean-Philippe; Ford, David V; Brown, Ginevra; Leake, Ken

    2009-01-16

    Vast amounts of data are collected about patients and service users in the course of health and social care service delivery. Electronic data systems for patient records have the potential to revolutionise service delivery and research. But in order to achieve this, it is essential that the ability to link the data at the individual record level be retained whilst adhering to the principles of information governance. The SAIL (Secure Anonymised Information Linkage) databank has been established using disparate datasets, and over 500 million records from multiple health and social care service providers have been loaded to date, with further growth in progress. Having established the infrastructure of the databank, the aim of this work was to develop and implement an accurate matching process to enable the assignment of a unique Anonymous Linking Field (ALF) to person-based records to make the databank ready for record-linkage research studies. An SQL-based matching algorithm (MACRAL, Matching Algorithm for Consistent Results in Anonymised Linkage) was developed for this purpose. Firstly the suitability of using a valid NHS number as the basis of a unique identifier was assessed using MACRAL. Secondly, MACRAL was applied in turn to match primary care, secondary care and social services datasets to the NHS Administrative Register (NHSAR), to assess the efficacy of this process, and the optimum matching technique. The validation of using the NHS number yielded specificity values > 99.8% and sensitivity values > 94.6% using probabilistic record linkage (PRL) at the 50% threshold, and error rates were SAIL databank represents a research-ready platform for record-linkage studies.

  18. Developmental Pathways for Social Understanding: Linking Social Cognition to Social Contexts

    Kimberly eBrink

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms.

  19. Influence of Personal Preferences on Link Dynamics in Social Networks

    Ashwin Bahulkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a unique network dataset including periodic surveys and electronic logs of dyadic contacts via smartphones. The participants were a sample of freshmen entering university in the Fall 2011. Their opinions on a variety of political and social issues and lists of activities on campus were regularly recorded at the beginning and end of each semester for the first three years of study. We identify a behavioral network defined by call and text data, and a cognitive network based on friendship nominations in ego-network surveys. Both networks are limited to study participants. Since a wide range of attributes on each node were collected in self-reports, we refer to these networks as attribute-rich networks. We study whether student preferences for certain attributes of friends can predict formation and dissolution of edges in both networks. We introduce a method for computing student preferences for different attributes which we use to predict link formation and dissolution. We then rank these attributes according to their importance for making predictions. We find that personal preferences, in particular political views, and preferences for common activities help predict link formation and dissolution in both the behavioral and cognitive networks.

  20. Stakeholder Perspectives on the Link between Business Studies ...

    Stakeholder Perspectives on the Link between Business Studies and Quality Education: Botswana's Experience. ... Journal of Social Development in Africa ... International instruments such as the Millennium Development Goals' (MDG's) and ...

  1. Association between home visiting interventions and First Nations families' health and social outcomes in Manitoba, Canada: protocol for a study of linked population-based administrative data.

    Brownell, Marni D; Nickel, Nathan C; Enns, Jennifer E; Chartier, Mariette; Campbell, Rhonda; Phillips-Beck, Wanda; Chateau, Dan; Burland, Elaine; Santos, Rob; Katz, Alan

    2017-10-10

    First Nations people are descendants of Canada's original inhabitants. In consequence of historical and ongoing structural injustices, many First Nations families struggle with challenging living conditions, including high rates of poverty, poor housing conditions, mental illness and social isolation. These risk factors impede caregivers' abilities to meet their children's basic physical and psychosocial needs. Home visiting programmes were developed to support child developmental health in families facing parenting challenges. However, whether home visiting is an effective intervention for First Nations families has not been examined. We are evaluating two home visiting programmes in Manitoba, Canada, to determine whether they promote nurturing family environments for First Nations children. This research builds on new and established relationships among academic researchers, government decision-makers and First Nations stakeholders. We will link health, education and social services data from the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository to data from two home visiting programmes in Manitoba. Logistic regression modelling will be used to assess whether programme participation is associated with improved child developmental health, better connections between families and social services, reduced instances of child maltreatment and being taken into out-of-home care by child welfare and reduced inequities for First Nations families. Non-participating individuals with similar sociodemographic characteristics will serve as comparators. We will use an interrupted time series approach to test for differences in outcomes before and after programme implementation and a propensity score analysis to compare differences between participants and non-participants. Approvals were granted by the Health Information Research Governance Committee of the First Nations Health and Social Secretariat of Manitoba and the University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board. Our

  2. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-03

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358507-08$15.00/0.

  3. Studying Social Movements

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  4. Aggression and anxiety: social context and neurobiological links

    Inga D Neumann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB versus low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.

  5. Link Prediction in Social Networks: the State-of-the-Art

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Baowen; Wu, Yurong; Zhou, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    In social networks, link prediction predicts missing links in current networks and new or dissolution links in future networks, is important for mining and analyzing the evolution of social networks. In the past decade, many works have been done about the link prediction in social networks. The goal of this paper is to comprehensively review, analyze and discuss the state-of-the-art of the link prediction in social networks. A systematical category for link prediction techniques and problems ...

  6. Community work – the missing link of municipal social policy

    Moors M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal social policy has an important role in dealing with social problems of citizens. On micro level, municipalities spend a substantial amount of their budget solving such problems. However, increasing the amount of money spent on solving problems of each individual at micro level does not provide efficient fulfilment of the tasks defined for municipal social policy making. Thus new, complementary solutions should be looked into, as new ways of development of social work in municipalities should be designed with the aim to increase the level of citizen participation and joint responsibility, especially of socially vulnerable groups. Research results let the author conclude that social activity of socially vulnerable groups should be promoted by creating a series of prerequisites, among which citizen participation, need for organisational support, activities that would foster politician and municipality officials’ attitude towards citizen participation and their social capital increase, two-way relationship between citizens and officials, and the worker that would promote citizen participation, among which is social policy making, are considered to be very important. All of this can be successfully reached by developing community work in local municipalities. This is the missing link to combine macro and micro levels, or political determination and practical implementation of citizen participation.

  7. Hop, step, jump! : Building social capital by learning through bridging, bonding and linking

    Sluis, van der E.C. (Lidewey); Jong, de T

    2009-01-01

    Studies on social capital have produced major evidence for the contention that a firm's social capital has an important implication on organisational performance and innovation (Leana and Van Buren, 1999). More recently, there is research that suggest that there are highly significant links between

  8. Linking social cognition with social interaction: Non-verbal expressivity, social competence and "mentalising" in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Lehmkämper Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD can be distinguished from controls on the basis of their non-verbal expression. For example, patients with SSD use facial expressions less than normals to invite and sustain social interaction. Here, we sought to examine whether non-verbal expressivity in patients corresponds with their impoverished social competence and neurocognition. Method Fifty patients with SSD were videotaped during interviews. Non-verbal expressivity was evaluated using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI. Social competence was measured using the Social Behaviour Scale and psychopathology was rated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Neurocognitive variables included measures of IQ, executive functioning, and two mentalising tasks, which tapped into the ability to appreciate mental states of story characters. Results Non-verbal expressivity was reduced in patients relative to controls. Lack of "prosocial" nonverbal signals was associated with poor social competence and, partially, with impaired understanding of others' minds, but not with non-social cognition or medication. Conclusion This is the first study to link deficits in non-verbal expressivity to levels of social skills and awareness of others' thoughts and intentions in patients with SSD.

  9. Parental Control of the Time Preadolescents Spend on Social Media: Links with Preadolescents' Social Media Appearance Comparisons and Mental Health.

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Magson, Natasha R; Johnco, Carly J; Oar, Ella L; Rapee, Ronald M

    2018-07-01

    Time spent on social media and making online comparisons with others may influence users' mental health. This study examined links between parental control over the time their child spends on social media, preadolescents' time spent browsing social media, preadolescents' appearance comparisons on social media, and preadolescents' appearance satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. Preadolescent social media users (N = 284, 49.1% female; aged 10-12) and one of their parents completed online surveys. Preadolescents, whose parents reported greater control over their child's time on social media, reported better mental health. This relationship was mediated by preadolescents spending less time browsing and making fewer appearance comparisons on social media. Parental control over time spent on social media may be associated with benefits for mental health among preadolescents.

  10. Social Studies by Electronic Mail.

    Barr, Hugh

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that electronic mail provides opportunities to engage students actively in cross-cultural contact with students in other nations. Discusses advantages and problems with using electronic mail in the social studies classroom. Describes electronic mail projects that link students in New Zealand, England, and the United States. (CFR)

  11. A Review Paper On Exploring Text Link And Spacial-Temporal Information In Social Media Networks

    Dr. Mamta Madan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to have a literature review on the various methods to mine the knowledge from the social media by taking advantage of embedded heterogeneous information. Specifically we are trying to review different types of mining framework which provides us useful information from these networks that have heterogeneous data types including text spacial-temporal and data association LINK information. Firstly we will discuss the link mining to study the link structure with respect to Social Media SM. Secondly we summarize the various text mining models thirdly we shall review spacial as well the temporal models to extract or detect the frequent related topics from SM. Fourthly we will try to figure out few improvised models that take advantage of the link textual temporal and spacial information which motivates to discover progressive principles and fresh methodologies for DM Data Mining in social media networks SMNs.

  12. Exploring the significance of human mobility patterns in social link prediction

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Link prediction is a fundamental task in social networks. Recently, emphasis has been placed on forecasting new social ties using user mobility patterns, e.g., investigating physical and semantic co-locations for new proximity measure. This paper explores the effect of in-depth mobility patterns. Specifically, we study individuals\\' movement behavior, and quantify mobility on the basis of trip frequency, travel purpose and transportation mode. Our hybrid link prediction model is composed of two modules. The first module extracts mobility patterns, including travel purpose and mode, from raw trajectory data. The second module employs the extracted patterns for link prediction. We evaluate our method on two real data sets, GeoLife [15] and Reality Mining [5]. Experimental results show that our hybrid model significantly improves the accuracy of social link prediction, when comparing to primary topology-based solutions. Copyright 2014 ACM.

  13. The Glasgow 'Deep End' Links Worker Study Protocol: a quasi-experimental evaluation of a social prescribing intervention for patients with complex needs in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation.

    Mercer, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Grant, Lesley; Chng, Nai Rui; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mackenzie, Mhairi; McConnachie, Alex; Bakhshi, Andisheh; Wyke, Sally

    2017-01-01

    'Social prescribing' can be used to link patients with complex needs to local (non-medical) community resources. The 'Deep End' Links Worker Programme is being tested in general practices serving deprived populations in Glasgow, Scotland. To assess the implementation and impact of the intervention at patient and practice levels. Study design : Quasi-experimental outcome evaluation with embedded theory-driven process evaluation in 15 practices randomized to receive the intervention or not. Complex intervention : Comprising a practice development fund, a practice-based community links practitioner (CLP), and management support. It aims to link patients to local community organizations and enhance practices' social prescribing capacity. Study population : For intervention practices, staff and adult patients involved in referral to a CLP, and a sample of community organization staff. For comparison practices, all staff and a random sample of adult patients. Sample size : 286 intervention and 484 comparator patients. Outcomes : Primary patient outcome is health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). Secondary patient outcomes include capacity, depression/anxiety, self-esteem, and healthcare utilization. Practice outcome measures include team climate, job satisfaction, morale, and burnout. Outcomes measured at baseline and 9 months. Processes : Barriers and facilitators to implementation of the programme and possible mechanisms through which outcomes are achieved. Analysis plan : For outcome, intention-to-treat analysis with differences between groups tested using mixed-effects regression models. For process, case-study approach with thematic analysis. This evaluation will provide new evidence about the implementation and impact of social prescribing by general practices serving patients with complex needs living in areas of high deprivation.

  14. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Scherezade K Mama

    Full Text Available Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467 completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination, and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001 and U.S. (p < .001 and low social support (p < .001 were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  15. Design and Implementation of Davis Social Links OSN Kernel

    Tran, Thomas; Chan, Kelcey; Ye, Shaozhi; Bhattacharyya, Prantik; Garg, Ankush; Lu, Xiaoming; Wu, S. Felix

    Social network popularity continues to rise as they broaden out to more users. Hidden away within these social networks is a valuable set of data that outlines everyone’s relationships. Networks have created APIs such as the Facebook Development Platform and OpenSocial that allow developers to create applications that can leverage user information. However, at the current stage, the social network support for these new applications is fairly limited in its functionality. Most, if not all, of the existing internet applications such as email, BitTorrent, and Skype cannot benefit from the valuable social network among their own users. In this paper, we present an architecture that couples two different communication layers together: the end2end communication layer and the social context layer, under the Davis Social Links (DSL) project. Our proposed architecture attempts to preserve the original application semantics (i.e., we can use Thunderbird or Outlook, unmodified, to read our SMTP emails) and provides the communicating parties (email sender and receivers) a social context for control and management. For instance, the receiver can set trust policy rules based on the social context between the pair, to determine how a particular email in question should be prioritized for delivery to the SMTP layer. Furthermore, as our architecture includes two coupling layers, it is then possible, as an option, to shift some of the services from the original applications into the social context layer. In the context of email, for example, our architecture allows users to choose operations, such as reply, reply-all, and forward, to be realized in either the application layer or the social network layer. And, the realization of these operations under the social network layer offers powerful features unavailable in the original applications. To validate our coupling architecture, we have implemented a DSL kernel prototype as a Facebook application called CyrusDSL (currently about

  16. Putting people on the map: protecting confidentiality with linked social-spatial data

    Panel on Confidentiality Issues Arising from the Integration of Remotely Sensed and Self-Identifying Data, National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    Precise, accurate spatial information linked to social and behavioral data is revolutionizing social science by opening new questions for investigation and improving understanding of human behavior...

  17. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  18. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility: Linking Goals to Standards

    Radostina Bakardjieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is the core of sustainable development of companies. On one hand, the corporate social responsibility of companies is a prerequisite for sustainable business, on the other - sustainable development sets specific requirements for the development of businesses in the context of increasing requirements to the degree of quality and reliability of financial information. In recent years, sustainable development has become a strategic issue for companies and this trend applies to Bulgarian companies too. Development of non-financial reporting is a very dynamic process, whose peak is the establishment of an integrated system of accountability. Current paper makes analyses of advantages of CSR linking it to the implementation of sustainable development goals through the integrated reporting following the requirements of the standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI.

  19. Do other people's plights matter? A genetically informed twin study of the role of social context in the link between peer victimization and children's aggression and depression symptoms.

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2013-02-01

    Using a genetically informed design, this study examined the additive and interactive effects of genetic risk, personal peer victimization experiences, and peer victimization experienced by others on children's aggression and depression symptoms. Of major interest was whether these effects varied depending on whether or not the victimized others were children's close friends. The sample comprised 197 monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs reared together (95 female pairs) assessed in Grade 4. Each twin's victimization experiences and victimization experienced by his or her friends and other classmates were measured using individuals' reports about their own levels of peer victimization. Aggression was assessed using peer nominations, and depression was measured using self-reports. Indicative of a possible social-learning mechanism or the emotional contagion of anger, multilevel regressions showed that personal victimization experiences were related to especially high levels of aggression when close friends where also highly victimized, albeit only in boys. Moreover, in line with social comparison theory, the effect of frequent personal victimization experiences on depressive feelings was much weaker when close friends were also highly victimized than when close friends were not or were only rarely victimized. Finally, a high level of peer victimization experienced by other classmates was related to a lower level of aggression in girls and boys, possibly because of a heightened sense of threat in classrooms where many suffer attacks from bullies. All of these results were independent of children's genetic risk for aggression or depression. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Links Between Contexts and Middle to Late Childhood Social-Emotional Development.

    Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2017-12-01

    Guided by the social-emotional learning (SEL) framework, we studied developmental trajectory patterns of five key competency outcomes spanning middle through late childhood: altruism, empathy, self-efficacy, aggression, and hyperactivity. We then assessed their links to middle childhood home, parental, and community contexts. Data from the Institute of Education Sciences' Social and Character Development Program, which comprised nearly 2,400 elementary school students who were followed from Grades 3 through 5, were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. Three trajectory groups emerged for each outcome, which were linked to childhood contexts. Positive parenting was associated with a lower likelihood of following a negative empathy trajectory among children. Neighborhood intergenerational closure promoted a stable self-efficacy trajectory. Residing in a high-risk community was linked to increasing normative beliefs about aggression. These findings suggest an important role of contexts in influencing childhood social-emotional development in the later elementary school years. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  1. spiritually sensitive social work: a missing link in zimbabwe

    Mugumbate

    to research on spirituality and social work. Similarly ... BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY. Though ..... the ethical principle of client self-determination and support for diversity .... (2005) Handbook of psychology of religion and spirituality. New.

  2. Depression and social anxiety in children: Differential links with coping strategies

    Wright, M.; Banerjee, R.; Hoek, W.; Rieffe, C.J.; Novin Farahbakhsh, S.

    2010-01-01

    Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific types of coping strategies, and evaluated the direction of these associations over time. In Study 1, 404 children aged 8-13 years completed a coping scale modified from Kochendefer-Ladd and Skinner (...

  3. Link2U: un social network aumentato su dispositivi mobili

    Monica Sebillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni il connubio mobile entertainment e social network ha attirato un notevole interesse da parte dispecifici settori che, nonostante le criticità del momento, hanno deciso di investire nella realizzazione di ambienti esoluzioni di intrattenimento/divertimento, un fattore chiave alla base del miglioramento della tecnologia.Link2U: augmenting social networks on mobile devicesNowadays, modern mobile devices have become real person-al  computers  that  increase  the  ability  of  building/extending existing applications by combining several technologies such as camera, GPS, 3D graphics and permanent Internet connec-tion. The  resulting  integration  of  such  technologies  allows  to  run complex  applications,  such  as  augmented  reality  and  Social Networks. The goal of our current research is to support mobile users’ daily activities, by developing advanced solutions which take into account principles of human-computer interac-tion and usability. In this paper we propose to exploit the potential of the aug-mented reality and the ability to communicate of social net-works to create a mobile social network, where each commu-nity user may exploit advanced location based services, such as navigation through a two dimensional map, exploration of an area through a camera mode, and identification of points of interest embedded in an augmented reality environment.

  4. Link2U: un social network aumentato su dispositivi mobili

    Monica Sebillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni il connubio mobile entertainment e social network ha attirato un notevole interesse da parte dispecifici settori che, nonostante le criticità del momento, hanno deciso di investire nella realizzazione di ambienti esoluzioni di intrattenimento/divertimento, un fattore chiave alla base del miglioramento della tecnologia. Link2U: augmenting social networks on mobile devices Nowadays, modern mobile devices have become real person-al  computers  that  increase  the  ability  of  building/extending existing applications by combining several technologies such as camera, GPS, 3D graphics and permanent Internet connec-tion. The  resulting  integration  of  such  technologies  allows  to  run complex  applications,  such  as  augmented  reality  and  Social Networks. The goal of our current research is to support mobile users’ daily activities, by developing advanced solutions which take into account principles of human-computer interac-tion and usability. In this paper we propose to exploit the potential of the aug-mented reality and the ability to communicate of social net-works to create a mobile social network, where each commu-nity user may exploit advanced location based services, such as navigation through a two dimensional map, exploration of an area through a camera mode, and identification of points of interest embedded in an augmented reality environment.

  5. Selling the Social Studies.

    Girod, Gerald R.; Harmon, Gerald R.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains school-aged children would prefer not to study social studies. Presents several strategies to help encourage positive attitudes. Strategies include persuasion, reinforcement, enthusiasm, personalized contact. Stresses that negative attitudes must be changed in order for social studies to achieve its fundamental citizenship goals. (BR)

  6. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  7. Epidemics in Adaptive Social Networks with Temporary Link Deactivation

    Tunc, Ilker; Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-04-01

    Disease spread in a society depends on the topology of the network of social contacts. Moreover, individuals may respond to the epidemic by adapting their contacts to reduce the risk of infection, thus changing the network structure and affecting future disease spread. We propose an adaptation mechanism where healthy individuals may choose to temporarily deactivate their contacts with sick individuals, allowing reactivation once both individuals are healthy. We develop a mean-field description of this system and find two distinct regimes: slow network dynamics, where the adaptation mechanism simply reduces the effective number of contacts per individual, and fast network dynamics, where more efficient adaptation reduces the spread of disease by targeting dangerous connections. Analysis of the bifurcation structure is supported by numerical simulations of disease spread on an adaptive network. The system displays a single parameter-dependent stable steady state and non-monotonic dependence of connectivity on link deactivation rate.

  8. Legal Effects of Link Sharing in Social Networks

    Eugenio Gil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing among individuals has changed deeply with the advent of social networks in the environment of Web 2.0. Every user has the possibility of publishing what he or she deems of interest for their audience, regardless of the origin or authorship of the piece of knowledge. It is generally accepted that as the user is sharing a link to a document or video, for example, without getting paid for it, there is no point in worrying about the rights of the original author. It seems that the concepts of authorship and originality is about to disappear as promised the structuralists fifty years ago. Nevertheless the legal system has not changed, nor have the economic interests concerned. This paper explores the last developments of the legal system concerning these issues.

  9. Measuring online interpretations and attributions of social situations: Links with adolescent social anxiety.

    Haller, Simone P W; Raeder, Sophie M; Scerif, Gaia; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the utility of a novel, picture-based tool to measure how adolescents interpret and attribute cause to social exchanges and whether biases in these processes relate to social anxiety. Briefly presented ambiguous visual social scenes, each containing a photograph of the adolescent as the protagonist, were followed by three possible interpretations (positive, negative, neutral/unrelated) and two possible causal attributions (internal, external) to which participants responded. Ninety-five adolescents aged 14 to 17 recruited from mainstream schools, with varying levels of social anxiety rated the likelihood of positive, negative and unrelated interpretations before selecting the single interpretation they deemed as most likely. This was followed by a question prompting them to decide between an internal or external causal attribution for the interpreted event. Across scenarios, adolescents with higher levels of social anxiety rated negative interpretations as more likely and positive interpretations as less likely compared to lower socially anxious adolescents. Higher socially anxious adolescents were also more likely to select internal attributions to negative and less likely to select internal attributions for positive events than adolescents with lower levels of social anxiety. Adolescents with higher social anxiety display cognitive biases in interpretation and attribution. This tool is suitable for measuring cognitive biases of complex visual-social cues in youth populations with social anxiety and simulates the demands of daily social experiences more closely. As we did not measure depressive symptoms, we cannot be sure that biases linked to social anxiety are not due to concurrent low mood. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Censorship in Social Studies.

    Seiferth, Berniece B.

    In order to determine how much censorship was taking place in Illinois social studies classes, 200 principals were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding censorship of teaching methods and social studies textbooks. The principals were asked to respond to the following topics concerning the degree of censorship encountered for each item:…

  11. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Marian Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  12. Epigenetics: a link between addiction and social environment.

    Ajonijebu, Duyilemi C; Abboussi, Oualid; Russell, Vivienne A; Mabandla, Musa V; Daniels, William M U

    2017-08-01

    The detrimental effects of drug abuse are apparently not limited to individuals but may also impact the vulnerability of their progenies to develop addictive behaviours. Epigenetic signatures, early life experience and environmental factors, converge to influence gene expression patterns in addiction phenotypes and consequently may serve as mediators of behavioural trait transmission between generations. The majority of studies investigating the role of epigenetics in addiction do not consider the influence of social interactions. This shortcoming in current experimental approaches necessitates developing social models that reflect the addictive behaviour in a free-living social environment. Furthermore, this review also reports on the advancement of interventions for drug addiction and takes into account the emerging roles of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in the etiology of drug addiction and that HDAC may be a potential therapeutic target at nucleosomal level to improve treatment outcomes.

  13. A Neurobehavioral Mechanism Linking Behaviorally Inhibited Temperament and Later Adolescent Social Anxiety.

    Buzzell, George A; Troller-Renfree, Sonya V; Barker, Tyson V; Bowman, Lindsay C; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Henderson, Heather A; Kagan, Jerome; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2017-12-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified in early childhood that is a risk factor for later social anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying the development of social anxiety remain unclear. To better understand the emergence of social anxiety, longitudinal studies investigating changes at behavioral neural levels are needed. BI was assessed in the laboratory at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 268). Children returned at 12 years, and an electroencephalogram was recorded while children performed a flanker task under 2 conditions: once while believing they were being observed by peers and once while not being observed. This methodology isolated changes in error monitoring (error-related negativity) and behavior (post-error reaction time slowing) as a function of social context. At 12 years, current social anxiety symptoms and lifetime diagnoses of social anxiety were obtained. Childhood BI prospectively predicted social-specific error-related negativity increases and social anxiety symptoms in adolescence; these symptoms directly related to clinical diagnoses. Serial mediation analysis showed that social error-related negativity changes explained relations between BI and social anxiety symptoms (n = 107) and diagnosis (n = 92), but only insofar as social context also led to increased post-error reaction time slowing (a measure of error preoccupation); this model was not significantly related to generalized anxiety. Results extend prior work on socially induced changes in error monitoring and error preoccupation. These measures could index a neurobehavioral mechanism linking BI to adolescent social anxiety symptoms and diagnosis. This mechanism could relate more strongly to social than to generalized anxiety in the peri-adolescent period. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  14. Teaching Secondary Social Studies

    Colin Everett

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book, instructional strategies for middle and high school social studies: Methods, assessment, and classroom management, by Bruce E. Larson. The book has two goals: It situates the learning of social studies within the broader developmental context of learning and also focuses on “Instructional Strategies.” “Instructional Strategies for Middle and High School Social Studies: Methods, Assessment, and Classroom Management.” 2nd Edition. By Bruce E. Larson. New York: Routledge, 2017. ISBN: 978-1-138-84678-4

  15. Teacher's sleep quality: linked to social job characteristics?

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Gerhardt, Christin; Pereira, Diana; Iseli, Lionel; Elfering, Achim

    2018-02-07

    Besides dealing with high workload, being a teacher is challenging with respect to the social context. There is increasing evidence that adverse social job characteristics challenge sleep quality. The current study tests whether restraint sleep quality (defined as worse sleep quality before than during vacation) is related to time-related job stressors, job resources, and social job characteristics. Forty-eight elementary school teachers (42% women) participated both during the last week before and the first week after vacation. Before vacation, teachers were asked for demographics and working conditions with reference to the last 30 d, and sleep quality with reference to the last 7 d. After vacation sleep quality during vacation was assessed and used as reference for working time sleep quality. Results showed mean levels of sleep quality increased during vacation. In teachers with restrained working time sleep quality (38%), experiences of failure at work, social exclusion, and emotional dissonance were more frequent than in teachers with unrestrained working time sleep quality (Psquality in teachers.

  16. Socialism in High School Social Studies Textbooks

    Neumann, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns textbook analysis regarding the presentation of socialism in four leading high school social studies books, one in each of the following subjects: United States history, world history, United States government, and economics. Findings indicate that students relying on these texts to gain understanding of socialism and…

  17. Using Social Identity to Explore the Link between a Decline in Adolescent Smoking and an Increase in Mobile Phone Use

    Cassidy, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The study seeks to further explore the hypothesised link between the increase in mobile phone ownership and use and the reported decline in adolescent smoking. Evidence for the link was gathered by examining perceptions of mobile phone use in the context of social identity and adolescent smoking. Design/methodology/approach--The study…

  18. Exploring the significance of human mobility patterns in social link prediction

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    Link prediction is a fundamental task in social networks. Recently, emphasis has been placed on forecasting new social ties using user mobility patterns, e.g., investigating physical and semantic co-locations for new proximity measure. This paper

  19. Impression Management in Social Media: The Example of LinkedIn

    Joanna Paliszkiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the relationships are often initiated and maintained in online environments, the formation and management of online impressions have gained importance and become the subject of numerous studies. The impression management is a conscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of their image. They do it by controlling and managing information presented in social media. The presentation of identity is the key to success or failure for example in business life. In the article, the critical literature review related to impression management in social media is described. The example of the way of self-presentation in LinkedIn is presented. The future directions are indicated.

  20. Collecting data on leisure travel: The link between leisure contacts and social interactions

    Kowald, Matthias; Frei, Andreas; Hackney, Jeremy K.; Illenberger, J.; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of a new survey project is to collect data on the link between leisure contacts and leisure activities. The paper introduces briefly into former studies that applied the methods of social network analysis in transport planning. Using these projects as starting points the methodology and background of the new project are presented in detail. This is followed by first descriptive analyses checking how representative the data are for the Swiss population. The paper finishes by giving an ...

  1. Digging deeper into the link between socio-cognitive ability and social relationships.

    Mizokawa, Ai; Koyasu, Masuo

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary on 'Friendlessness and theory of mind: A prospective longitudinal study' by Fink, Begeer, Peterson, Slaughter, and de Rosnay (Brit. J. Dev. Psychol, 2015; 33, 1-17) we reconsider the link between early mastery of theory of mind (ToM) and social relationships by focusing on connections with other related areas of socio-cognitive ability such as emotional competence, ToM development across age, and the effect of interventions. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Evaluation of the Urban Green Infrastructure using Landscape Modules, GIS and a Population Survey: Linking Environmental with Social Aspects in Studying and Managing Urban Forests

    Gonzalez-Duque, Jose Antonio; Panagopoulos, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Modern cities have to reconcile the needs of the citizens for green areas considering the evolutionary trends of the city, especially in terms of growth and the required transformation in modern times. The present study attempts to analyze and evaluate the amount and distribution of the existing urban green space and the requirements of those green areas by the public. The green infrastructure of the city of Faro was evaluated with three methods: landscape assessment using modules, spatial as...

  3. The impact of social media on recruitment: Are you LinkedIn?

    Tanja Koch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: With many organisations vying for the same talent, it is important to ensure that the correct methods are utilised in identifying and attracting the best talent to an organisation. Research purpose: This research investigates the impact of social media on the recruitment process in South Africa. Motivation for the study: As the competition for qualified talent increases, organisations need to understand where to focus their resources to attract the best talent possible. The use of social media is growing daily and its use in the recruitment process seems to have grown exponentially. Research design, approach and method: The sample comprised 12 recruiters, spanning a wide range of industries in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and a thematic analysis was utilised to identify themes and subthemes. Main findings: Despite still utilising some traditional methods of recruiting, South African recruiters follow their international counterparts, with LinkedIn being central to their respective recruitment processes. The use of Twitter and Facebook for recruitment was found to be substantially lower in South Africa than elsewhere. Without following a focused approach, the volume of work that emanates from using social media may overwhelm a recruiter. Practical and managerial implications: Recruiters cannot execute effective recruitment without applying social media tools such as LinkedIn. However, training in the optimal use of social media is essential. Contribution: This study indicates that LinkedIn has a major impact on recruitment in South Africa, but that social media is not a panacea for recruitment issues.

  4. Social Capital as the Missing Link in Community Development ...

    found that social capital could facilitate the community development planning .... view of social capital as networks, relationships and norms that help citizens to ..... noted: I helped in weeding around the site for the school, market and chief ...

  5. Social cohesion: The missing link in overcoming violence and ...

    Researchers will test the hypothesis that social cohesion is a critical factor in ... to community members, and ethnographic social network analysis, to help map ... to identify the most effective strategies for addressing these challenges in Latin ...

  6. Linking Online and Offline Social Worlds: Opportunities and Threats

    Dong, Cailing

    2017-01-01

    Social networks bring both opportunities and threats to the users. On one hand, social networks provide a platform for users to build online profiles, make connections with others beyond geographical boundaries, enjoy the "openness" of social networks to meet their intrinsic need of "self-presentation", explore and strengthen…

  7. Function and structure in social brain regions can link oxytocin-receptor genes with autistic social behavior.

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2013-02-01

    Difficulties in appropriate social and communicative behaviors are the most prevalent and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although recent intensive research has focused on the neurobiological background of these difficulties, many aspects of them were not yet elucidated. Recent studies have employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices as intermediate phenotypes of this behavioral phenotype to link candidate genes with the autistic social difficulty. As MRI indices, functional MRI (fMRI), structural MRI, and MR-spectroscopy have been examined in subjects with autism spectrum disorders. As candidate genes, this mini-review has much interest in oxytocin-receptor genes (OXTR), since recent studies have repeatedly reported their associations with normal variations in social cognition and behavior as well as with their extremes, autistic social dysfunction. Through previous increasing studies, medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala have repeatedly been revealed as neural correlates of autistic social behavior by MRI multimodalities and their relationship to OXTR. For further development of this research area, this mini-review integrates recent accumulating evidence about human behavioral and neural correlates of OXTR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    Munch, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  9. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.

  10. Centrality Robustness and Link Prediction in Complex Social Networks

    Davidsen, Søren Atmakuri; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    . Secondly, we present a method to predict edges in dynamic social networks. Our experimental results indicate that the robustness of the centrality measures applied to more realistic social networks follows a predictable pattern and that the use of temporal statistics could improve the accuracy achieved......This chapter addresses two important issues in social network analysis that involve uncertainty. Firstly, we present am analysis on the robustness of centrality measures that extend the work presented in Borgati et al. using three types of complex network structures and one real social network...

  11. Understanding the links between ecosystem health and social system well-being: an annotated bibliography.

    Dawn M. Elmer; Harriet H. Christensen; Ellen M. Donoghue; [Compilers].

    2002-01-01

    This bibliography focuses on the links between social system well-being and ecosystem health. It is intended for public land managers and scientists and students of social and natural sciences. Multidisciplinary science that addresses the interconnections between the social system and the ecosystem is presented. Some of the themes and strategies presented are policy...

  12. Social networks and links to isolation and loneliness among elderly HCBS clients.

    Medvene, Louis J; Nilsen, Kari M; Smith, Rachel; Ofei-Dodoo, Samuel; DiLollo, Anthony; Webster, Noah; Graham, Annette; Nance, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the network types of HCBS clients based on the structural characteristics of their social networks. We also examined how the network types were associated with social isolation, relationship quality and loneliness. Forty personal interviews were carried out with HCBS clients to assess the structure of their social networks as indicated by frequency of contact with children, friends, family and participation in religious and community organizations. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to identify network types. Four network types were found including: family (n = 16), diverse (n = 8), restricted (n = 8) and religious (n = 7). Family members comprised almost half of participants' social networks, and friends comprised less than one-third. Clients embedded in family, diverse and religious networks had significantly more positive relationships than clients embedded in restricted networks. Clients embedded in restricted networks had significantly higher social isolation scores and were lonelier than clients in diverse and family networks. The findings suggest that HCBS clients' isolation and loneliness are linked to the types of social networks in which they are embedded. The findings also suggest that clients embedded in restricted networks are at high risk for negative outcomes.

  13. Oxytocin and Vasopressin: Linking Pituitary Neuropeptides and their Receptors to Social Neurocircuits

    Danielle Andrea Baribeau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal activity at the receptor level to complex human behavior remains elusive. The following review summarizes the known associations between the oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptide systems and social neurocircuits in the brain. Following a micro- to macro- level trajectory, current literature on the synthesis and secretion of these peptides, and the structure, function and distribution of their respective receptors is first surveyed. Next, current models regarding the mechanism of action of these peptides on microcircuitry and other neurotransmitter systems are discussed. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the acute effects of exogenous administration of these peptides on brain activity is then reviewed. Overall, a model in which the local neuromodulatory effects of pituitary neuropeptides on brainstem and basal forebrain regions strengthen signaling within social neurocircuits proves appealing. However, these findings are derived from animal models; more research is needed to clarify the relevance of these mechanisms to human behavior and treatment of social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Affective social ties - missing link in governance theory

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although governance is about interpersonal relationships, it appears that the antecedents and consequences of affective bonds (social ties) in social groups dealing with common-pool resources and public goods have been neglected. The welfare costs of the neglect of such bonds and their dynamic

  15. Identity and democracy: linking individual and social reasoning

    Davis, J.B.; Marin, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Following Amartya Sen's approach, John Davis and Solange Regina Marin look at individual and social reasoning when examining the complex relationship between identity and democracy. They characterize democracy as a process of social or public reasoning that combines the individual reasoning of all

  16. Build Locally, Link Globally: The Social Forum Process in Italy

    Donatella della Porta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considered an innovation because of its capacity to develop transnational processes, the World Social Forum however also has strong local roots as well as effects on organizational models and collective identities at the domestic level. Focusing on the Italian case, this article shows how local social forums, as arenas for exchanges of ideas, played a cognitive role in the import, but also the translation of new ideas, as well as helping the emergence of dense network structures and tolerant identities. The first section of the article examines how local social forums contributed to innovation in the organizational formulas of the Global Justice Movement—considering both structure (organizations and process (methodologies aspects—through the development of different, more participatory conceptions of internal decision making. It then addresses the innovations in the definition of collective identities, stressing the linkages of local struggles and global framing as well as the development of a cross-issue discourse around an anti-neoliberal frame. The final section will discuss the contribution of local social forums to contemporary social movements, stressing the role of these new arenas for the cross-fertilization among different movement families and spreading a method of working together that becomes part of the repertoire of action of local social movement organizations. The empirical research consists mainly of in-depth interviews and focus groups with activists from social movement organizations which were involved in local social forums.

  17. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  18. Social Anxiety-Linked Attention Bias to Threat Is Indirectly Related to Post-Event Processing Via Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Social Stress.

    Çek, Demet; Sánchez, Alvaro; Timpano, Kiara R

    2016-05-01

    Attention bias to threat (e.g., disgust faces) is a cognitive vulnerability factor for social anxiety occurring in early stages of information processing. Few studies have investigated the relationship between social anxiety and attention biases, in conjunction with emotional and cognitive responses to a social stressor. Elucidating these links would shed light on maintenance factors of social anxiety and could help identify malleable treatment targets. This study examined the associations between social anxiety level, attention bias to disgust (AB-disgust), subjective emotional and physiological reactivity to a social stressor, and subsequent post-event processing (PEP). We tested a mediational model where social anxiety level indirectly predicted subsequent PEP via its association with AB-disgust and immediate subjective emotional reactivity to social stress. Fifty-five undergraduates (45% female) completed a passive viewing task. Eye movements were tracked during the presentation of social stimuli (e.g., disgust faces) and used to calculate AB-disgust. Next, participants gave an impromptu speech in front of a video camera and watched a neutral video, followed by the completion of a PEP measure. Although there was no association between AB-disgust and physiological reactivity to the stressor, AB-disgust was significantly associated with greater subjective emotional reactivity from baseline to the speech. Analyses supported a partial mediation model where AB-disgust and subjective emotional reactivity to a social stressor partially accounted for the link between social anxiety levels and PEP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Individuals' quality of life linked to major life events, perceived social support, and personality traits.

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Preisig, Martin; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between major recent life events that occurred during the last 5 years, social and personal resources, and subjective quality of life (QoL). A total of 1801 participants from the general population (CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study) completed the Life Events Questionnaire, the Social Support Questionnaire, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory Revised, and the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Major life events were modestly associated with the QoL (about 5 % of the explained variance). However, QoL was significantly related to perceived social support and personality traits (about 37 % of the explained variance). Particularly, perceived social support, extraversion and conscientiousness personality dimensions were positively linked to life satisfaction, whereas a high level of neuroticism was negatively associated with QoL. This study highlights the negative but temporary association between critical events and QoL. However, a combination of high conscientiousness and extraversion, and positive social support may explain better variances for a high-perceived QoL.

  20. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    He Chen

    Full Text Available Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between

  1. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  2. Links between social environment and health care utilization and costs.

    Brault, Marie A; Brewster, Amanda L; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Keene, Danya; Tan, Annabel X; Curry, Leslie A

    2018-01-01

    The social environment influences health outcomes for older adults and could be an important target for interventions to reduce costly medical care. We sought to understand which elements of the social environment distinguish communities that achieve lower health care utilization and costs from communities that experience higher health care utilization and costs for older adults with complex needs. We used a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach. We classified community performance based on three outcomes: rate of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions, all-cause risk-standardized hospital readmission rates, and Medicare spending per beneficiary. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants (N = 245) from organizations providing health or social services. Higher performing communities were distinguished by several aspects of social environment, and these features were lacking in lower performing communities: 1) strong informal support networks; 2) partnerships between faith-based organizations and health care and social service organizations; and 3) grassroots organizing and advocacy efforts. Higher performing communities share similar social environmental features that complement the work of health care and social service organizations. Many of the supportive features and programs identified in the higher performing communities were developed locally and with limited governmental funding, providing opportunities for improvement.

  3. Time development in the early history of social networks: link stabilization, group dynamics, and segregation.

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early network formation. Changes in the weekly number of links show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. Using the Infomap community detection algorithm, we show that the networks exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in which students engage in problem solving and laboratory work), but not according to end-of-coure grade. Alluvial diagrams of consecutive weeks' communities show that while student movement between groups are erratic in the beginning of their studies, they stabilize somewhat towards the end of the course. Taken together, the analyses imply that student interaction networks stabilize quickly and that students establish collaborations based on who is immediately

  4. Constrained Active Learning for Anchor Link Prediction Across Multiple Heterogeneous Social Networks.

    Zhu, Junxing; Zhang, Jiawei; Wu, Quanyuan; Jia, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Xiaokai; Yu, Philip S

    2017-08-03

    Nowadays, people are usually involved in multiple heterogeneous social networks simultaneously. Discovering the anchor links between the accounts owned by the same users across different social networks is crucial for many important inter-network applications, e.g., cross-network link transfer and cross-network recommendation. Many different supervised models have been proposed to predict anchor links so far, but they are effective only when the labeled anchor links are abundant. However, in real scenarios, such a requirement can hardly be met and most anchor links are unlabeled, since manually labeling the inter-network anchor links is quite costly and tedious. To overcome such a problem and utilize the numerous unlabeled anchor links in model building, in this paper, we introduce the active learning based anchor link prediction problem. Different from the traditional active learning problems, due to the one-to-one constraint on anchor links, if an unlabeled anchor link a = ( u , v ) is identified as positive (i.e., existing), all the other unlabeled anchor links incident to account u or account v will be negative (i.e., non-existing) automatically. Viewed in such a perspective, asking for the labels of potential positive anchor links in the unlabeled set will be rewarding in the active anchor link prediction problem. Various novel anchor link information gain measures are defined in this paper, based on which several constraint active anchor link prediction methods are introduced. Extensive experiments have been done on real-world social network datasets to compare the performance of these methods with state-of-art anchor link prediction methods. The experimental results show that the proposed Mean-entropy-based Constrained Active Learning (MC) method can outperform other methods with significant advantages.

  5. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  6. Social Information Links Individual Behavior to Population and Community Dynamics.

    Gil, Michael A; Hein, Andrew M; Spiegel, Orr; Baskett, Marissa L; Sih, Andrew

    2018-05-07

    When individual animals make decisions, they routinely use information produced intentionally or unintentionally by other individuals. Despite its prevalence and established fitness consequences, the effects of such social information on ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesize results from ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behavior to show how the use of social information can profoundly influence the dynamics of populations and communities. We combine recent theoretical and empirical results and introduce simple population models to illustrate how social information use can drive positive density-dependent growth of populations and communities (Allee effects). Furthermore, social information can shift the nature and strength of species interactions, change the outcome of competition, and potentially increase extinction risk in harvested populations and communities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Mobility in Latin America: Links with Adolescent Schooling

    Lykke Andersen

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a new measure of social mobility. It is based on schooling gap regressions and uses the Fields decomposition to determine the importance of family background in explaining teenagers schooling gaps.

  8. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    Schiller, Frank [The Open University, Faculty of Maths, Computing and Technology, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  9. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    Schiller, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  10. Mining the Social Web Analyzing Data from Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Other Social Media Sites

    Russell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Want to tap the tremendous amount of valuable social data in Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google+? This refreshed edition helps you discover who's making connections with social media, what they're talking about, and where they're located. You'll learn how to combine social web data, analysis techniques, and visualization to find what you've been looking for in the social haystack-as well as useful information you didn't know existed. Each standalone chapter introduces techniques for mining data in different areas of the social Web, including blogs and email. All you need to get started

  11. Linking social capital, cultural capital and heterotopia at the folk festival

    Linda Wilks

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of folk festivals in transforming interconnections between people, space and culture. It interlinks three sets of theoretical ideas: social capital, cultural capital and heterotopia to suggest a new conceptual framework that will help to frame a deeper understanding of the nature of celebration. Qualitative data were collected at two long-established folk festivals, Sidmouth Folk Festival in southern England and the Feakle Traditional Music Festival in western Ireland, in order to investigate these potential links. Although Foucault did not fully develop the concept of heterotopia, his explanation that heterotopias are counter-sites, which, unlike utopias, are located in real, physical, space-time, has inspired others, including some festival researchers, to build on his ideas. This study concludes that the heterotopian concept of the festival as sacred space, with the stage as umbilicus, may be linked to the building of social capital; while it is suggested that both social capital and appropriate cultural capital are needed to gain full entry to the heterotopia.

  12. Links between attachment and social information processing: examination of intergenerational processes.

    Dykas, Matthew J; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes theory and research on intergenerational connections between parents' attachment and children's social information processing, as well as between parents' social information processing and children's attachment. The chapter begins with a discussion of attachment theorists' early insights into the role that social information processing plays in attachment processes. Next, current theory about the mechanisms through which cross-generational links between attachment and social information processing might emerge is presented. The central proposition is that the quality of attachment and/or the social information processing of the parent contributes to the quality of attachment and/or social information processing in the child, and these links emerge through mediating processes related to social learning, open communication, gate-keeping, emotion regulation, and joint attention. A comprehensive review of the literature is then presented. The chapter ends with the presentation of a current theoretical perspective and suggestions for future empirical and clinical endeavors.

  13. Linking ecological and social scales for natural resource management

    Kristiina A. Vogt; Morgan Grove; Heidi Asjornsen; Keely B. Maxwell; Daniel J. Vogt; Ragnhildur Sigurdardottir; Bruce C. Larson; Leo Schibli; Michael Dove

    2002-01-01

    Natural resource management has moved from a single disciplinary and one resource management approach to an interdisciplinary and ecosystem-based approach. Many conceptual models are being developed to understand and implement ecosystem management and forest certification initiatives that require an integration of data from both the social and natural systems (Vogt...

  14. Research explores links between social protection and poverty ...

    Their research is contributing to the debate on the role of social protection and ... It stresses the relevance of cash-transfer programs on inequality and poverty ... is the focus of a recent article in The Economist that builds on Gasparini's work.

  15. Semantic Linking and Contextualization for Social Forensic Text Analysis

    Ren, Z.; van Dijk, D.; Graus, D.; van der Knaap, N.; Henseler, H.; de Rijke, M.; Brynielsson, J.; Johansson, F.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of social media, forensic text analysis is becoming more and more challenging as forensic analysts have begun to include this information source in their practice. In this paper, we report on our recent work related to semantic search in e-discovery and propose the use of entity

  16. Parliamentarians play key role in linking population and social development.

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Hirofunti Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the UNFPA, delivered the statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UNFPA at the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo in September 1994 made a significant impact on the attitudes and support of parliamentarians regarding population issues. The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) brought together a group of parliamentarians from all over the world to discuss population issues and social development. The World Summit included in its deliberations the accumulated experiences of earlier international conferences dealing with social economic issues. The ICPD Program of Action addressed concerns relevant to the agenda of the Social Summit: the crucial contribution that early population stabilization will make towards the attainment of sustainable development; the significant role of integrated policies on population and development in creating employment; the importance of population policies and programs in alleviating poverty; the contributions of reproductive health policies, including high-quality family planning services, to the enhancement of the status of women and to the achievement of gender equality; the synergy between education, family planning, and the general improvement of the human condition; and the relationship between population pressures, poverty, and environmental degradation. The ICPD Program of Action also identified critically important population and development objectives, such as ensuring access to education, especially of girls; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health and family planning services. Now the challenge is to mobilize the necessary resources for the Social Summit.

  17. Leveraging Social Links for Trust and Privacy in Networks

    Cutillo, Leucio Antonio; Molva, Refik; Strufe, Thorsten

    Existing on-line social networks (OSN) such as Facebook suffer from several weaknesses regarding privacy and security due to their inherent handling of personal data. As pointed out in [4], a preliminary analysis of existing OSNs shows that they are subject to a number of vulnerabilities, ranging from cloning legitimate users to sybil attacks through privacy violations. Starting from these OSN vulnerabilities as the first step of a broader research activity, we came up with a new approach that is very promising in re-visiting security and privacy problems in distributed systems and networks. We suggest a solution that both aims at avoiding any centralized control and leverages on the real life trust between users, that is part of the social network application itself. An anonymization technique based on multi-hop routing among trusted nodes guarantees privacy in data access and, generally speaking, in all the OSN operations.

  18. Depression and Social Anxiety in Children: Differential Links with Coping Strategies

    Wright, Mark; Banerjee, Robin; Hoek, Willemijn; Rieffe, Carolien; Novin, Sheida

    2010-01-01

    Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific types of coping strategies, and evaluated the…

  19. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  20. Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues.

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce…

  1. Depression and social anxiety in children: Differential links with coping strategies

    Wright, M.; Banerjee, R.; Hoek, W.; Rieffe, C.J.; Novin Farahbakhsh, S.

    2010-01-01

    Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific

  2. Perceived social pressure not to experience negative emotion is linked to selective attention for negative information.

    Bastian, Brock; Pe, Madeline Lee; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Social norms and values may be important predictors of how people engage with and regulate their negative emotional experiences. Previous research has shown that social expectancies (the perceived social pressure not to feel negative emotion (NE)) exacerbate feelings of sadness. In the current research, we examined whether social expectancies may be linked to how people process emotional information. Using a modified classical flanker task involving emotional rather than non-emotional stimuli, we found that, for those who experienced low levels of NE, social expectancies were linked to the selective avoidance of negative emotional information. Those who experienced high levels of NE did not show a selective avoidance of negative emotional information. The findings suggest that, for people who experience many NEs, social expectancies may lead to discrepancies between how they think they ought to feel and the kind of emotional information they pay attention to.

  3. The Weakest Link: The Risks Associated with Social Networking Website

    Yosef Lehrman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively rapid rise in popularity of social networking services is now well known. MySpace, Twitter, and Facebook have become well known sites and terms. According to the Web traffic tracking site Alexa.com, as of December 2009, Facebook had 350 million registered users, MySpace just under 475 million, and Twitter 44.5 million. Many people think very little of posting prodigious amounts of personal information on social networking sites, not realizing that this information puts them at risk. Specifically, those in the law enforcement and military communities may not realize that information posted on these sites can compromise operational security and potentially endanger lives. In July 2009, the Associated Press ran a story which was picked up by most major news outlets in the USA, in which it was reported that the wife of the incoming head of Britain's MI6 intelligence agency had posted pictures and family details on her Facebook page. Astonishingly, there were those that argued that this was not a security breach! Although it is true that, in general, photos of a vacationing family would not be considered sensitive, when you consider that the family taking the vacation includes the head of the British foreign intelligence service, it is easy to see how this kind of exposure could open the door to potential blackmail.We are all too aware of the possibility of terrorist "sleeper cells" living among typical American families under false identities. It is vital to understand how these individuals melt into the crowd, hiding their true identities while they hatch their nefarious plots. Recent events in Denver and New York City only serve to underscore the urgency of this need. This article will examine social networking in the context of social engineering. There are no easy or fast solutions to this problem, and this paper does not pretend to propose any. Rather, it is the purpose of this paper to enhance understanding of this very critical

  4. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  5. The consequences of mimicry for prosocials and proselfs: effects of social value orientation on the mimicry-liking link

    Stel, M.; Rispens, S.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Leliveld, M.

    2011-01-01

    People often mimic each other's behaviors. As a consequence, they share each other's emotional and cognitive states, which facilitates liking. Mimicry, however, does not always affect liking. In two studies, we investigate whether the mimicry–liking link is influenced by people's social value

  6. Feminism, Neoliberalism, and Social Studies

    Schmeichel, Mardi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the sparse presence of women in social studies education and to consider the possibility of a confluence of feminism and neoliberalism within the most widely distributed National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) publication, "Social Education." Using poststructural conceptions of discourse, the author…

  7. Contribuciones al estudio de la formación académica de la Universidad de Costa Rica: sus vínculos con los problemas sociales y la pobreza / Contributions to the study of academic education for the University of Costa Rica: its links with social problems and poverty

    Esquivel Corella, Freddy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo, resultado parcial de un estudio más amplio, problematiza la importancia que adquieren los problemas sociales (y en especial la pobreza, en la formación académica de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Los datos se derivan de un total de 292 encuestas (mediante un muestreo por conveniencia, que se aplicaron a estudiantes de carreras de las facultades de Educación, Ciencias Sociales, Derecho y Ciencias Económicas, así como a 41 docentes de la misma universidad. Entre los principales hallazgos se encuentra que el tema de los problemas sociales, y en especial la pobreza, se constituye en un eje de interés para los y las estudiantes, aunque en sus planes de estudio parece no ser un contenido relevante. Tal situación puede no ser coherente con los fines y principios que orientan a la Universidad, sin diferencia del campo de conocimiento de cada carrera. A su vez, el contenido expuesto destaca la necesidad de establecer un programa, línea o núcleo de investigación que genere insumos sobre las relaciones entre la educación universitaria y la “cuestión social”, como forma de articularse con los currículos de las diferentes carreras.Abstract: This article, a result in part of a larger study, problematized the importance of social problems (especially poverty, in formal education at the University of Costa Rica. The data are derived from a total of 292 surveys, which were applied to students for careers in the faculties of Education, Social Sciences, Law and Economics, as well as 41 teachers from the same university. Among the major findings is that the theme of social problems, especially poverty, is an axis of interest to students and, although in their curricula do not seem to be a relevant content. Such a situation may not be consistent with the purposes and principles that guide the University, not unlike the area of knowledge. In turn, explained the content stresses the need to establish a program that

  8. Linking social and pathogen transmission networks using microbial genetics in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Atwill, Edward R; Isbell, Lynne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-03-01

    Although network analysis has drawn considerable attention as a promising tool for disease ecology, empirical research has been hindered by limitations in detecting the occurrence of pathogen transmission (who transmitted to whom) within social networks. Using a novel approach, we utilize the genetics of a diverse microbe, Escherichia coli, to infer where direct or indirect transmission has occurred and use these data to construct transmission networks for a wild giraffe population (Giraffe camelopardalis). Individuals were considered to be a part of the same transmission chain and were interlinked in the transmission network if they shared genetic subtypes of E. coli. By using microbial genetics to quantify who transmits to whom independently from the behavioural data on who is in contact with whom, we were able to directly investigate how the structure of contact networks influences the structure of the transmission network. To distinguish between the effects of social and environmental contact on transmission dynamics, the transmission network was compared with two separate contact networks defined from the behavioural data: a social network based on association patterns, and a spatial network based on patterns of home-range overlap among individuals. We found that links in the transmission network were more likely to occur between individuals that were strongly linked in the social network. Furthermore, individuals that had more numerous connections or that occupied 'bottleneck' positions in the social network tended to occupy similar positions in the transmission network. No similar correlations were observed between the spatial and transmission networks. This indicates that an individual's social network position is predictive of transmission network position, which has implications for identifying individuals that function as super-spreaders or transmission bottlenecks in the population. These results emphasize the importance of association patterns in

  9. Linking social and ecological systems to sustain coral reef fisheries.

    Cinner, Joshua E; McClanahan, Timothy R; Daw, Tim M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph; Wilson, Shaun K; Hughes, Terence P

    2009-02-10

    The ecosystem goods and services provided by coral reefs are critical to the social and economic welfare of hundreds of millions of people, overwhelmingly in developing countries [1]. Widespread reef degradation is severely eroding these goods and services, but the socioeconomic factors shaping the ways that societies use coral reefs are poorly understood [2]. We examine relationships between human population density, a multidimensional index of socioeconomic development, reef complexity, and the condition of coral reef fish populations in five countries across the Indian Ocean. In fished sites, fish biomass was negatively related to human population density, but it was best explained by reef complexity and a U-shaped relationship with socioeconomic development. The biomass of reef fishes was four times lower at locations with intermediate levels of economic development than at locations with both low and high development. In contrast, average biomass inside fishery closures was three times higher than in fished sites and was not associated with socioeconomic development. Sustaining coral reef fisheries requires an integrated approach that uses tools such as protected areas to quickly build reef resources while also building capacities and capital in societies over longer time frames to address the complex underlying causes of reef degradation.

  10. Linking Temperamental Shyness and Social Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescence: Moderating Influences of Sex and Age.

    Tsui, Tiffany Y L; Lahat, Ayelet; Schmidt, Louis A

    2017-10-01

    Although childhood shyness has been linked to social anxiety problems, the factors playing a role in this association have gone largely unexplored. Here we examined the potential moderating roles of sex and age on this relation in a sample of 119 (75 girls) children (10-12 years) and adolescents (14-16 years). As predicted, shyness was positively associated with social anxiety symptoms. Sex, but not age, served as a moderating factor in linking shyness and social anxiety. Specifically, shyness was more strongly associated with social anxiety symptoms among girls than boys. These results suggest the importance of considering sex differences when examining the relation between shyness and social anxiety in childhood and adolescence.

  11. Daily Social Interactions and the Biological Stress Response: Are There Age Differences in Links Between Social Interactions and Alpha-Amylase?

    Birditt, Kira S; Tighe, Lauren A; Nevitt, Michael R; Zarit, Steven H

    2017-12-12

    According to the strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI) model, older people are better able to avoid negative social interactions than younger people, but when they do experience negative interactions, they are equally or more emotionally and physiologically reactive than younger people. Less is known about the links between daily negative and positive social encounters and the sympathetic adrenal medullary system (a key stress pathway) and whether there are age differences in these links. This study considers whether negative and positive social interactions are associated with diurnal alpha-amylase (a measure of the sympathetic adrenal medullary system) and whether there are differences in these links by age. Participants were from the Daily Health, Stress, and Relationship Study, which includes a random sample of 89 individuals (aged 40-95) who completed 14 days of daily diary interviews and provided saliva samples four times a day (wake, 30 min after wake, lunch, and bedtime) for four of those days that were assayed for alpha-amylase. Days in which people reported more negative interactions were associated with flatter morning declines in alpha-amylase, indicating greater stress. Links between positive interactions and diurnal alpha-amylase varied by age group. Findings are consistent with the SAVI model indicating that older adults respond differently to social stimuli than younger people. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Social Studies Education and a New Social Studies Movement

    Bulent Tarman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze theoretically the need to improve Social Studies Education in Turkey in a pedagogical manner and on the basis of the intended contributions and goals of a New Social Studies Movement to the field.Social Studies Education is an important teaching discipline to equip individuals with the necessary knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to operate efficiently in a knowledge society.The New Social Studies movement of 1960s in the USA contributed to the development of Social Studies Education.This movement tried to establish a constructivist approach. They emphasized on the importance of an inquiry based approach, and rich and real life situation in the classrooms and skills such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, cooperation and collaboration in Social Studies Education. However, the movement diminished in a short while due to the lack of research to support their theoretically sound ideas, appropriate teaching resources for teachers and students and ill-equipped teachers while their ideas were and still are gaining impetus in many countries in the world.Social Studies Education is relatively new in Turkey. Social Studies Education in Turkey has weaknesses in terms of both in theoretically and practically. The quality of teaching resources and materials and teacher qualifications are not up-to-standards to carry out a constructivist Social Studies Education.A new movement has started in Turkey to improve Social Studies Education. This new Social Studies movement aims to do research in the field on the area, print books and teaching resource for both teachers and students, develop policies, hold academic meetings, publish high quality journals for both academics and practitioners, to create opportunities and gateways for networking. This article critically argues the proposed contribution of the new Social Studies movement to the field in Turkey drawing upon the experiences of the movement of 1960s in

  13. Studies of future readout links for the CMS experiment

    Bukowiec, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a possible replacement of the existing S-LINK64 implementation by an optical link, based on 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The new link will employ commercial protocols in order to be able to receive the data by standard hardware components like PCs or network switches. Currently prototypes using multiple Gigabit Ethernet links are being developed and tested. The paper summarizes the status of these studies.

  14. A Theory of Transformative Agency in Linked Social-Ecological Systems

    Frances R. Westley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the literature on leadership in linked social-ecological systems and combined it with the literature on institutional entrepreneurship in complex adaptive systems to develop a new theory of transformative agency in linked social-ecological systems. Although there is evidence of the importance of strategic agency in introducing innovation and transforming approaches to management and governance of such systems, there is no coherent theory to explain the wide diversity of strategies identified. Using Holling's adaptive cycle as a model of phases present in innovation and transformation of resilient social-ecological systems, overlaid by Dorado's model of opportunity context (opaque, hazy, transparent in complex adaptive systems, we propose a more coherent theory of strategic agency, which links particular strategies, on the part of transformative agents, to phases of system change.

  15. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J.; Domínguez D., Juan F.; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades—rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism—contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences—plural rationality theory—shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience. PMID:26441506

  16. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory.

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J; Domínguez D, Juan F; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades-rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism-contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences-plural rationality theory-shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.

  17. Is Social Capital an Effective Smoke Condenser? An Essay on Concept Linking the Social Sciences

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Paldam, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Social capital is defined as mutual trust. It is related to production by a key hypothesis: social capital determines how easily people work together. An easy-to-use proxy (Putnam's Instrument) is the density of voluntary organizations. Social capital might be a new production factor which must b...

  18. Emotion, rationality and decision-making: How to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    Marco eVerweij

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades –rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism– contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences –plural rationality theory– shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.

  19. The Social Intelligence of Principals: Links to Teachers' Continuous Improvement

    McQuade, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite multiple efforts to reform 21st education to better meet the needs of all students, school improvement successes have been sporadic and debatable. Research suggests that significant improvement lies within the purview of teachers and principals, and this current research provided the underpinnings for the study. Based on neuroscience…

  20. Linking communities to formal health care providers through village health teams in rural Uganda: lessons from linking social capital.

    Musinguzi, Laban Kashaija; Turinawe, Emmanueil Benon; Rwemisisi, Jude T; de Vries, Daniel H; Mafigiri, David K; Muhangi, Denis; de Groot, Marije; Katamba, Achilles; Pool, Robert

    2017-01-11

    Community-based programmes, particularly community health workers (CHWs), have been portrayed as a cost-effective alternative to the shortage of health workers in low-income countries. Usually, literature emphasises how easily CHWs link and connect communities to formal health care services. There is little evidence in Uganda to support or dispute such claims. Drawing from linking social capital framework, this paper examines the claim that village health teams (VHTs), as an example of CHWs, link and connect communities with formal health care services. Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork undertaken as part of a larger research program in Luwero District, Uganda, between 2012 and 2014. The main methods of data collection were participant observation in events organised by VHTs. In addition, a total of 91 in-depth interviews and 42 focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with adult community members as part of the larger project. After preliminary analysis of the data, we conducted an additional six in-depth interviews and three FGD with VHTs and four FGD with community members on the role of VHTs. Key informant interviews were conducted with local government staff, health workers, local leaders, and NGO staff with health programs in Luwero. Thematic analysis was used during data analysis. The ability of VHTs to link communities with formal health care was affected by the stakeholders' perception of their roles. Community members perceive VHTs as working for and under instructions of "others", which makes them powerless in the formal health care system. One of the challenges associated with VHTs' linking roles is support from the government and formal health care providers. Formal health care providers perceived VHTs as interested in special recognition for their services yet they are not "experts". For some health workers, the introduction of VHTs is seen as a ploy by the government to control people and hide its inability to provide health

  1. Corporate social responsibility practice of Malaysian public listed government-linked companies: A dimensional analysis

    Lim Boon Keong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the corporate social responsibility (CSR practices of the Malaysian public-listed government-linked companies (GLCs using a dimensional analysis. Four dimensions of CSR activities, namely community, employees, environment and governance, are investigated to study the latest CSR practice of GLCs in year 2016. Each dimension is divided into three subcategories to further examine the performance of GLCs on a particular CSR area. This is the first paper in Malaysia which uses CSR ratings (obtained from CSRHub database to proxy for CSR practice. None of the past literature has been found to adopt this approach. The findings show that Malay-sian public-listed GLCs performed better in community, employees and environment dimensions, whilst tend to underperform in governance dimension.

  2. MyGeneFriends: A Social Network Linking Genes, Genetic Diseases, and Researchers.

    Allot, Alexis; Chennen, Kirsley; Nevers, Yannis; Poidevin, Laetitia; Kress, Arnaud; Ripp, Raymond; Thompson, Julie Dawn; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2017-06-16

    The constant and massive increase of biological data offers unprecedented opportunities to decipher the function and evolution of genes and their roles in human diseases. However, the multiplicity of sources and flow of data mean that efficient access to useful information and knowledge production has become a major challenge. This challenge can be addressed by taking inspiration from Web 2.0 and particularly social networks, which are at the forefront of big data exploration and human-data interaction. MyGeneFriends is a Web platform inspired by social networks, devoted to genetic disease analysis, and organized around three types of proactive agents: genes, humans, and genetic diseases. The aim of this study was to improve exploration and exploitation of biological, postgenomic era big data. MyGeneFriends leverages conventions popularized by top social networks (Facebook, LinkedIn, etc), such as networks of friends, profile pages, friendship recommendations, affinity scores, news feeds, content recommendation, and data visualization. MyGeneFriends provides simple and intuitive interactions with data through evaluation and visualization of connections (friendships) between genes, humans, and diseases. The platform suggests new friends and publications and allows agents to follow the activity of their friends. It dynamically personalizes information depending on the user's specific interests and provides an efficient way to share information with collaborators. Furthermore, the user's behavior itself generates new information that constitutes an added value integrated in the network, which can be used to discover new connections between biological agents. We have developed MyGeneFriends, a Web platform leveraging conventions from popular social networks to redefine the relationship between humans and biological big data and improve human processing of biomedical data. MyGeneFriends is available at lbgi.fr/mygenefriends. ©Alexis Allot, Kirsley Chennen, Yannis

  3. Ability Grouping in Social Studies.

    Social Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a position statement of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Reports that the NCSS objects to ability grouping in social studies. Argues that ability grouping disadvantages minority, handicapped, and low ability students. Suggests that ability grouping undermines the democratic ideals that should be the basis of the social…

  4. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  5. When opportunity meets motivation: Neural engagement during social approach is linked to high approach motivation.

    Radke, Sina; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Eickhoff, Simon B; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-02-15

    Social rewards are processed by the same dopaminergic-mediated brain networks as non-social rewards, suggesting a common representation of subjective value. Individual differences in personality and motivation influence the reinforcing value of social incentives, but it remains open whether the pursuit of social incentives is analogously supported by the neural reward system when positive social stimuli are connected to approach behavior. To test for a modulation of neural activation by approach motivation, individuals with high and low approach motivation (BAS) completed implicit and explicit social approach-avoidance paradigms during fMRI. High approach motivation was associated with faster implicit approach reactions as well as a trend for higher approach ratings, indicating increased approach tendencies. Implicit and explicit positive social approach was accompanied by stronger recruitment of the nucleus accumbens, middle cingulate cortex, and (pre-)cuneus for individuals with high compared to low approach motivation. These results support and extend prior research on social reward processing, self-other distinctions and affective judgments by linking approach motivation to the engagement of reward-related circuits during motivational reactions to social incentives. This interplay between motivational preferences and motivational contexts might underlie the rewarding experience during social interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood Social Anxiety and Social Support-Seeking: Distinctive Links with Perceived Support from Teachers

    Leeves, Sylvia; Banerjee, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social support-seeking is recognised as an important strategy used by children to cope with negative emotions. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge about children's perceptions of different sources of social support, and the associations that these perceptions have with individual differences in socio-emotional functioning. The…

  7. Family and peer social support and their links to psychological distress among hurricane-exposed minority youth.

    Banks, Donice M; Weems, Carl F

    2014-07-01

    Experiencing a disaster such as a hurricane places youth at a heightened risk for psychological distress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Social support may contribute to resilience following disasters, but the interrelations of different types of support, level of exposure, and different symptoms among youth is not well understood. This study examined associations among family and peer social support, level of hurricane exposure, and their links to psychological distress using both a large single-time assessment sample (N = 1,098) as well as a longitudinal sample followed over a 6-month period (n = 192). Higher levels of hurricane exposure were related to lower levels of social support from family and peers. Higher levels of family and peer social support demonstrated both concurrent and longitudinal associations with lower levels of psychological distress, with associations varying by social support source and psychological distress outcome. Findings also suggested that the protective effects of high peer social support may be diminished by high hurricane exposure. The results of this study further our understanding of the role of social support in hurricane-exposed youths' emotional functioning and point to the potential importance of efforts to bolster social support following disasters.

  8. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Teaching Social Studies with Games

    Jancic, Polona; Hus, Vlasta

    2018-01-01

    Social studies is a class students encounter in the fourth and fifth grades of primary school in Slovenia. It includes goals from the fields of geography, sociology, history, ethnology, psychology, economy, politics, ethics, aesthetics, and ecology. Among other didactic recommendations in the national curriculum for teaching, social studies…

  10. Framing Social Values: An Experimental Study of Culture and Cognition

    Stolte, John F.; Fender, Shanon

    2007-01-01

    How and why does a given social value come to shape the way an individual thinks, feels, and acts in a specific social situation? This study links ideas from Goffman's frame analysis to other lines of research, proposing that dramatic narratives of variable content, vividness, and language-in-use produce variation in the accessibility of…

  11. Using nationwide ‘big data’ from linked electronic health records to help improve outcomes in cardiovascular diseases:33 studies using methods from epidemiology, informatics, economics and social science in the ClinicAl disease research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records (CALIBER) programme

    Hemingway, Harry; Feder, Gene; Fitzpatrick, Natalie; Denaxas, Spiros; Shah, Amit; Timmis, A D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Electronic health records (EHRs), when linked across primary and secondary care and curated for research use, have the potential to improve our understanding of care quality and outcomes.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate new opportunities arising from linked EHRs for improving quality of care and outcomes for patients at risk of or with coronary disease across the patient journey.DESIGN:Epidemiological cohort, health informatics, health economics and ethnographic approaches were used.SETTING:2...

  12. Influence of gender constancy and social power on sex-linked modeling.

    Bussey, K; Bandura, A

    1984-12-01

    Competing predictions derived from cognitive-developmental theory and social learning theory concerning sex-linked modeling were tested. In cognitive-developmental theory, gender constancy is considered a necessary prerequisite for the emulation of same-sex models, whereas according to social learning theory, sex-role development is promoted through a vast system of social influences with modeling serving as a major conveyor of sex role information. In accord with social learning theory, even children at a lower level of gender conception emulated same-sex models in preference to opposite-sex ones. Level of gender constancy was associated with higher emulation of both male and female models rather than operating as a selective determinant of modeling. This finding corroborates modeling as a basic mechanism in the sex-typing process. In a second experiment we explored the limits of same-sex modeling by pitting social power against the force of collective modeling of different patterns of behavior by male and female models. Social power over activities and rewarding resources produced cross-sex modeling in boys, but not in girls. This unexpected pattern of cross-sex modeling is explained by the differential sex-typing pressures that exist for boys and girls and socialization experiences that heighten the attractiveness of social power for boys.

  13. Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

  14. Social Studies Fail on Protectionism.

    Miller, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the costs of protectionism and the benefits of specialization and trade and concludes that current popular support for protectionist policies suggests a poor performance by social studies educators. (GEA)

  15. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  16. Social Networking Sites: Guidelines For Creating New Business Opportunities Through Facebook, Twitter And LinkedIn

    Rodica Maria Savulescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The world is swiftly evolving. We now face the challenge of adapting the business sector to the increasingly dynamic transformation brought about by Web 2.0 technologies and social networks in particular. The extensive use of social networking sites (SNSs such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn has spawned questions regarding the possibility of using such new platforms in order to generate more business revenue.While it is demonstrated that social networking can be profitable for companies and their brands in terms of exposure, brand awareness and actual sales, it can also prove detrimental if not managed correctly. At the same time, SNSs can affect every aspects of the business environment, like product development, marketing communication or the process of recruiting. This article explores the characteristics of social media and their impact on business and proposes several guidelines for companies that decide to employ SNSs in their activity.

  17. Teaching Social Studies Through Drama

    Anderson, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long discussed methods for improving student achievement in the social studies and history. Research on student attitudes reveals that the social studies suffers from a lack of interest among students. Common complaints among students are that the subject is tedious, does not relate to their lives, is not particularly useful for their future careers, is repetitive, or that it is simply boring (Schug et al., 1982}. Even when students recognize the utilitarian val...

  18. Attention bias for social threat in youth with tic disorders: Links with tic severity and social anxiety.

    Pile, Victoria; Robinson, Sally; Topor, Marta; Hedderly, Tammy; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2018-06-07

    Many individuals with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders (TS/CTDs) report poor social functioning and comorbid social anxiety. Yet limited research has investigated the role of cognitive factors that highlight social threats in youth with TS/CTD, and whether these biases underlie tic severity and co-occurring social anxiety. This study examined whether selective attention to social threat is enhanced young people with TS/CTDs compared to healthy controls, and whether attention biases are associated with tic severity and social anxiety. Twenty seven young people with TS/CTDs and 25 matched control participants completed an experimental measure of attention bias toward/away from threat stimuli. A clinician-rated interview measuring tic severity/impairment (YGTSS Total Score) and questionnaire measures of social anxiety were completed by participants and their parents. Young people with TS/CTD showed an attention bias to social threat words (relative to benign words) compared to controls but no such bias for social threat faces. Attention bias for social threat words was associated with increasing YGTSS Total Score and parent-reported social anxiety in the TS/CTDs group. Mediation analysis revealed a significant indirect path between YGTSS Total Score and social anxiety, via attention to social threat. Tentatively, these associations appeared to be driven by impairment rather than tic severity scores. Preliminary data suggests that youth with TS/CTD have enhanced attention to threat, compared to controls, and this is associated with impairment and social anxiety. Attention to threat could offer a cognitive mechanism connecting impairment and social anxiety, and so be a valuable trans-diagnostic treatment target.

  19. 2011 NAEP-TIMSS Linking Study: Linking Methodologies and Their Evaluations. NCES 2013-469

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 NAEP-TIMSS linking study conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) was designed to predict Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) scores for the U.S. states that participated in 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics and science assessment of eighth-grade students.…

  20. Creating a social work link to the burn community: a research team goes to burn camp.

    Williams, Nancy R; Reeves, Patricia M; Cox, Ellen R; Call, Serena B

    2004-01-01

    Social work faculty and graduate students conducted focus groups with 52 burn-injured adolescents from three burn camps to explore perceptions of their camp experience. Three themes emerged from data analysis that suggest burn camps play an important role in participants' lives. Camp is a place where burn-injured adolescents: (1) feel "normal" and accepted; (2) acquire insight in regard to self and meaning in life; and (3) gain confidence, increase self-esteem, and develop empathy. This project highlights how the use of qualitative research methods with grassroots organizations such as burn camps can serve as a link to greater social work involvement with this community.

  1. Day-care treatment for multiple drug abusing adolescents: social factors linked with completing treatment.

    Feigelman, W

    1987-01-01

    By identifying some of the social correlates linked with completing day-care drug abuse treatment, the present study has sought to broaden understanding of how drug rehabilitations are effected. As the findings have demonstrated, completing care is a result of a complex array of causes and their interaction. The disposition of the entering patient (i.e., their determination and other strengths) has a great bearing on treatment outcome. It is also a result of the patient's family, their motivations, resources and perseverance in enduring a long course of demanding therapeutic interventions. In addition, it is the product of meanings shared and transmitted between the patient's family and the treatment staff. Patients and their families project positive attitudes about the value of the therapeutic enterprise as well as a compliant demeanor. As staff recognize that patients and parents are acting cooperatively, then such perceptions tend to create self-fulfilling prophecies. The data has established that older adolescent patients are more likely to possess the motivational resources needed for program completion than younger patients. Apparently, self-referred patients are also more inclined to meet the demands of program requirements than those referred by the courts or other outside social agencies, although the differences fell short of the .05 level of statistical significance. Those completing the program are less likely to be diagnosed as depressed at intake. Parental characteristics comprise another group of variables that are related to treatment completion. Parents of higher occupational rank, who have had mental health care for themselves, and who are of Jewish ethnicity appear to possess useful strengths for meeting program challenges. The pattern of spouse mutuality in dealing with a child's needs as it exists preceding and during treatment seems to be another useful asset for successfully getting through this form of treatment. While parents with the

  2. Linking public sector corporate social responsibility with sustainable development: lessons from India

    Subhasis Ray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic think tanks predict India to be the world’s largest economy by 2050. This would require India to accelerate its industrial and infrastructure development. Industrialization based economic development will have a negative impact on the environment and hence sustainable development. Such steps could affect the social and environmental bottom line of the national economy. In recent years, a number of regulatory measures have been proposed by the Indian government to ensure corporate support to the goals of sustainable and inclusive development. The objective of these regulations is to achieve triple bottom line based growth. Notable among them is the mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR guidelines for public sector undertakings, first issued in April, 2010. I study the possibility and problems created by this effort by analyzing the policy documents and interviewing managers responsible for implementing CSR programmers in Indian public sector. Managers interviewed came from hydropower, coal, power distribution and shipping industries. Based on the study, four areas are identified that requires attention for effective linking between sustainable development and CSR; stakeholder engagement, institutional mechanisms, capacity building and knowledge management. Both government-public sector and public sector-community engagements have to be more streamlined. Institutional mechanisms have to be developed to see that CSR projects are effective and delivering. Importantly, managers at all levels need a better understanding of CSR and sustainable development. Since most projects are in rural areas, understanding of rural issues and sustainability is very important. Finally, such a large scale exercise in CSR should have a knowledge management mechanism to learn from the achievements and mistakes of the early years. I discuss the implication of the findings on India and other emerging economies many of which are struggling to balance

  3. Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis

    Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2013-04-01

    Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is

  4. Using of CBA Method for Evaluation of the Investments in the Link with Social Responsible Business

    Mrvová, Ľubica; Vaňová, Jaromíra

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents knowledge from the area of economic efficiency assessment of the environmental investments, in the link with environmental management with context of social responsible business and their mutual connection, on the base of CBA method. CBA method creates basis for the software CBA1.1, which was created for the needs of business practise for the small and medium enterprises in the Slovak Republic.

  5. The Ecology of Social Learning in Animals and its Link with Intelligence.

    van Schaik, Carel; Graber, Sereina; Schuppli, Caroline; Burkart, Judith

    2017-01-09

    Classical ethology and behavioral ecology did not pay much attention to learning. However, studies of social learning in nature reviewed here reveal the near-ubiquity of reliance on social information for skill acquisition by developing birds and mammals. This conclusion strengthens the plausibility of the cultural intelligence hypothesis for the evolution of intelligence, which assumes that selection on social learning abilities automatically improves individual learning ability. Thus, intelligent species will generally be cultural species. Direct tests of the cultural intelligence hypothesis require good estimates of the amount and kind of social learning taking place in nature in a broad variety of species. These estimates are lacking so far. Here, we start the process of developing a functional classification of social learning, in the form of the social learning spectrum, which should help to predict the mechanisms of social learning involved. Once validated, the categories can be used to estimate the cognitive demands of social learning in the wild.

  6. Social position, social ties and adult's oral health: 13 year cohort study.

    Vettore, Mario Vianna; Faerstein, Eduardo; Baker, Sarah Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This study explored different pathways by which social position and social ties influence adult's oral health over a 13-year period. A cohort investigation (Pro-Saúde Study) was conducted of non-faculty civil servants at a university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (N=1613). Baseline data collected in 1999 included age, social position, social ties, and access to dental care. Psychological factors and smoking were assessed in 2001, whereas tooth loss and self-rated oral health (SROH) were collected in 2012. A hypothesised model exploring different direct and indirect pathways was developed and tested using structural equation modelling. The model was a good fit to the data and accounted for 40% and 27% of the variance in tooth loss and SROH, respectively. A greater social position was linked to more social ties (β=0.31), health insurance (β=0.48), low psychological distress (β=0.07), less smoking (β=-0.21), more regular dental visiting (β=0.30), less tooth loss (β=-0.44) and better SROH (β=-0.25) over time. Social position (β=0.0005) and social ties (β=-0.0015) were linked indirectly with psychological distress, smoking and tooth loss. Social position was linked indirectly with social ties, psychological distress and SROH (β=-0.0071). Poor social position and weak social ties were important predictors for tooth loss and poor SROH in adults over the 13-year period. Direct and indirect pathways via psychological factors and smoking on the aforementioned relationships were identified, suggesting different areas of intervention to promote adults' oral health. Adult's oral health is influenced by social conditions through direct and indirect pathways, including via psychological factors and smoking. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Psychological Pathways Linking Social Support to Health Outcomes: A Visit with the “Ghosts” of Research Past, Present, and Future

    Uchino, Bert N.; Bowen, Kimberly; Carlisle, McKenzie; Birmingham, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models postulate the importance of psychological mechanisms linking perceived and received social support to physical health outcomes. In this review, we examine studies that directly tested the potential psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and health-relevant physiological processes (1980s to 2010). Inconsistent with existing theoretical models, no evidence was found that psychological mechanisms such as depression, perceived stress, and other affective processes are directly responsible for links between support and health. We discuss the importance of considering statistical/design issues, emerging conceptual perspectives, and limitations of our existing models for future research aimed at elucidating the psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and physical health outcomes. PMID:22326104

  8. Social Studies Teachers’ Perceptions and Experiences of Social Justice

    BURSA, Sercan; ERSOY, Arife Figen

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Social justice addresses inequality in society, including economic inequality, global migration, racism, xenophobia, prejudice against disabled people, and class discrimination. In Turkey, social studies curriculum aims to cultivate active, democratically minded citizens who value justice, independence, peace, solidarity, tolerance, freedom, and respect and demonstrate critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, social participation, and empathy. Purpose: Since social...

  9. The Influence of Social Networks on the Development of Recruitment Actions that Favor User Interface Design and Conversions in Mobile Applications Powered by Linked Data

    Palos-Sanchez, Pedro R.; Saura, Jose Ramon; Debasa, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzes the most important influence factors in the literature, which have the greatest influence on the conversions obtained in a mobile application powered by linked data. With the study of user interface design and a small user survey (n = 101,053), we studied the influence of social networks, advertising, and promotional and recruitment actions in conversions for mobile applications powered by linked data. The analysis of the users’ behavior and their application in the design...

  10. Aberrant link between empathy and social attribution style in borderline personality disorder.

    Homan, Philipp; Reddan, Marianne C; Brosch, Tobias; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Schiller, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    In social interactions, we often need to quickly infer why other people do what they do. More often than not, we infer that behavior is a result of personality rather than circumstances. It is unclear how the tendency itself may contribute to psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe interpersonal dysfunction. Here, we investigated if this dysfunction is related to the tendency to over-attribute behaviors to personality traits. Healthy controls and patients with BPD judged positive and negative behaviors presented within a situational constraint during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Before the experiment, we measured trait levels of empathy, paranoia, and need for cognition. Behaviorally, we found that empathy levels predicted the tendency to attribute behavior to traits in healthy controls, whereas in patients with BPD this relationship was significantly weakened. Whole brain analysis of group-by-empathy interaction revealed that when participants judged the behavior during the attribution phase, several brain regions implicated in mentalizing distinguished patients from controls: In healthy controls, neural activity scaled negatively with empathy, but this relationship was reversed in BPD patients. Due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot establish a causal link between empathy and social attributions. These findings indicate that the self-reported tendency to feel for others is related to the tendency to integrate situational information beyond personality. In BPD patients, by contrast, the association between empathy and attribution was significantly weaker, rendering empathy less informative in predicting the overall attribution style. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Support and Relationship Satisfaction as Moderators of the Stress-Mood-Alcohol Link Association in US Navy Members.

    Kelley, Michelle L; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Veprinsky, Anna; Robbins, Allison T; Snell, Alicia K

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined associations between stress and problematic alcohol use among US Navy members anticipating deployment, whether depressive symptoms mediated the stress-alcohol link, and whether social support and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between stress, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. Participants were 108 US Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Stress was indirectly related to problematic alcohol use such that higher levels of stress were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which were further associated with higher levels of alcohol use. The indirect effect of stress to problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms was tested at different levels of social support and relationship satisfaction. At higher levels of social support and relationship satisfaction, the association between stress and problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms decreased. Results help identify targets for alcohol prevention efforts among current military members.

  12. Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations among Rural African American Youth

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2008-01-01

    Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through youth self-pride, including racial identity and self-esteem, and academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization in order to better understand how these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride, as well as their orientation to education and academic success. PMID:19209975

  13. Scratch that itch: revisiting links between self-directed behaviour and parasitological, social and environmental factors in a free-ranging primate.

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J J

    2016-11-01

    Different hypotheses explain variation in the occurrence of self-directed behaviour such as scratching and self-grooming: a parasite hypothesis linked with ectoparasite load, an environmental hypothesis linked with seasonal conditions and a social hypothesis linked with social factors. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but are often considered separately. Here, we revisited these hypotheses together in female Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata fuscata ) of Kōjima islet, Japan. We input occurrences of scratching and self-grooming during focal observations in models combining parasitological (lice load), social (dominance rank, social grooming, aggression received and proximity), and environmental (rainfall, temperature and season) variables. Using an information-theory approach, we simultaneously compared the explanatory value of models against each other using variation in Akaike's information criterion and Akaike's weights. We found that evidence for models with lice load, with or without environmental-social parameters, was stronger than that for other models. In these models, scratching was positively associated with lice load and social grooming whereas self-grooming was negatively associated with lice load and positively associated with social grooming, dominance rank and number of female neighbours. This study indicates that the study animals scratch primarily because of an immune/stimulus itch, possibly triggered by ectoparasite bites/movements. It also confirms that self-grooming could act as a displacement activity in the case of social uncertainty. We advocate that biological hypotheses be more broadly considered even when investigating social processes, as one does not exclude the other.

  14. Human hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone levels are linked to emotion and social interaction.

    Blouin, Ashley M; Fried, Itzhak; Wilson, Charles L; Staba, Richard J; Behnke, Eric J; Lam, Hoa A; Maidment, Nigel T; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Lapierre, Jennifer L; Siegel, Jerome M

    2013-01-01

    The neurochemical changes underlying human emotions and social behaviour are largely unknown. Here we report on the changes in the levels of two hypothalamic neuropeptides, hypocretin-1 and melanin-concentrating hormone, measured in the human amygdala. We show that hypocretin-1 levels are maximal during positive emotion, social interaction and anger, behaviours that induce cataplexy in human narcoleptics. In contrast, melanin-concentrating hormone levels are minimal during social interaction, but are increased after eating. Both peptides are at minimal levels during periods of postoperative pain despite high levels of arousal. Melanin-concentrating hormone levels increase at sleep onset, consistent with a role in sleep induction, whereas hypocretin-1 levels increase at wake onset, consistent with a role in wake induction. Levels of these two peptides in humans are not simply linked to arousal, but rather to specific emotions and state transitions. Other arousal systems may be similarly emotionally specialized.

  15. Social Fitness and Resilience: A Review of Relevant Constructs, Measures, and Links to Well-Being.

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    This study is one of a series designed to support Air Force leadership in promoting resilience among Airmen, its civilian employees, and Air Force family members. One key component to resilience is social fitness, or the combined resources a person gets from his or her social world. This concept encompasses the availability and maintenance of social relationships, and the ability to utilize those ties to manage stressors and successfully perform tasks. Social fitness resources are the aspects of those relationships that strengthen a person's ability to withstand and rebound from challenges and even grow from them. U.S. Airmen and their families face several unique challenges that can strain the strength and accessibility of these resources, particularly geographic movement. This study identifies several scales and indexes used in social science research to measure three primary social fitness resources, emotional support, instrumental support, and informational support, and proposes that interventions aimed at increasing the quantity and quality of social support should focus on (1) sociodemographic characteristics and dispositional traits; (2) dynamics that strengthen social groups, support networks, and teams; (3) practices that improve social skills and promote more frequent and constructive interactions; and (4) activities that reduce conflict and group division. Particular attention is given to interventions that utilize cyber or virtual communities as an effective means of increasing social connectedness and social support among U.S. Airmen and their families.

  16. An Interpersonal Circumplex Model of Children's Social Goals: Links with Peer-Reported Behavior and Sociometric Status

    Ojanen, Tiina; Gronroos, Matti; Salmivalli, Christina

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to develop an assessment model for children's social goals. The aims were (a) to fit children's social goals to a circumplex model and to examine links between goals and peer-reported social behaviors (aggression, withdrawal, and prosocial behavior) in a sample of 276 participants (134 girls, 11- to…

  17. GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA

    JAROSLAVA KUBÁTOVÁ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Web-enabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works. Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

  18. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  19. The Link between Social Interaction with Adults and Adolescent Conflict Coping Strategy in School Context

    Yao, Zhuojun; Enright, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Based on social learning theory, this study aimed at providing a better understanding of the influence of social interaction on adolescents' conflict coping strategy. This study used the data from the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (N = 8717) to test the unique contribution of religious involvement, parent-child interaction, teacher-student…

  20. On Efficient Link Recommendation in Social Networks Using Actor-Fact Matrices

    Michał Ciesielczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Link recommendation is a popular research subject in the field of social network analysis and mining. Often, the main emphasis is put on the development of new recommendation algorithms, semantic enhancements to existing solutions, design of new similarity measures, and so forth. However, relatively little scientific attention has been paid to the impact that various data representation models have on the performance of recommendation algorithms. And by performance we do not mean the time or memory efficiency of algorithms, but the precision and recall of recommender systems. Our recent findings unanimously show that the choice of network representation model has an important and measurable impact on the quality of recommendations. In this paper we argue that the computation quality of link recommendation algorithms depends significantly on the social network representation and we advocate the use of actor-fact matrix as the best alternative. We verify our findings using several state-of-the-art link recommendation algorithms, such as SVD, RSVD, and RRI using both single-relation and multirelation dataset.

  1. The Effects of Environmental, Social and Governance on the Corporate Performance of Malaysian Government-Linked Companies

    Kweh Qian Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impacts of ESG on the corporate performance government-linked companies (GLCs in Malaysia. For the period 2006-2012, ESG disclosure data were extracted from the Sustainalytics ESG performance reports, while financial data were obtained from the Bloomberg database. Data development analysis (DEA was used to estimate efficiency in the first stage; a regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between ESG and efficiency in the second stage. The empirical results of this study show that GLCs focused more on governance disclosures, followed by social and environmental aspects. Moreover, governance will improve firm efficiency, but social and environmental factors have no similar effect. In conclusion, this study provides insight on the limited literature on ESG and informs the relevant stakeholders on the important ESG components for financial and investment decisions.

  2. Social Problems as a Mediator of the Link between Reactive Aggression and Withdrawn/Depressed Symptoms

    Fite, Paula J.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether social problems accounted for the relation between reactive aggression and withdrawn/depressed symptoms in a sample of 147 children (54.4% male) ranging from 5 to 13 years of age (M = 8.22 years) who attended a community based after-school program. Findings suggested that indeed social problems mediated the link…

  3. Clarifying the links between social support and health: culture, stress, and neuroticism matter.

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2013-02-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism.

  4. Telecare and Social Link Solution for Ambient Assisted Living Using a Robot Companion with Visiophony

    Varène, Thibaut; Hillereau, Paul; Simonnet, Thierry

    An increasing number of people are in need of help at home (elderly, isolated and/or disabled persons; people with mild cognitive impairment). Several solutions can be considered to maintain a social link while providing tele-care to these people. Many proposals suggest the use of a robot acting as a companion. In this paper we will look at an environment constrained solution, its drawbacks (such as latency) and its advantages (flexibility, integration…). A key design choice is to control the robot using a unified Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) solution, while addressing bandwidth limitations, providing good communication quality and reducing transmission latency

  5. Impaired Hippocampal Neuroligin-2 Function by Chronic Stress or Synthetic Peptide Treatment is Linked to Social Deficits and Increased Aggression

    van der Kooij, Michael A; Fantin, Martina; Kraev, Igor

    2014-01-01

    and are related to similar abnormalities in animal models. Chronic stress increases the likelihood for affective disorders and has been shown to induce changes in neural structure and function in different brain regions, with the hippocampus being highly vulnerable to stress. Previous studies have shown evidence......Neuroligins (NLGNs) are cell adhesion molecules that are important for proper synaptic formation and functioning and are critical regulators of the balance between neural excitation/inhibition (E/I). Mutations in NLGNs have been linked to psychiatric disorders in humans involving social dysfunction...

  6. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  7. Linking Local Food Systems and the Social Economy? Future Roles for Farmers' Markets in Alberta and British Columbia

    Wittman, Hannah; Beckie, Mary; Hergesheimer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Often organized as grassroots, nonprofit organizations, many farmers' markets serve as strategic venues linking producers and consumers of local food while fulfilling multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. This article examines the potential of farmers' markets to play a catalyst role in linking local food systems to the social…

  8. Loosening the link between childhood poverty and adolescent smoking and obesity: the protective effects of social capital.

    Evans, Gary W; Kutcher, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive, lifelong inequalities in physical health begin in early childhood and are driven, in part, by social gradients in risk factors such as smoking and obesity. Yet not all low-income children have elevated physical-health risks as adults. The relation between income-to-needs ratio at age 9 and smoking prevalence and body fat (body mass index) at age 17 was examined in a sample of 196 rural adolescents. Income-to-needs ratio is the U.S. federal government's defined index of household income as a proportion of the poverty line. This is the first study to show that links between childhood poverty and subsequent physical-health outcomes can be loosened. At-risk youth in communities with a relatively rich array of social capital did not smoke more or have greater excess body fat compared with their more affluent counterparts.

  9. Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance: A Link for the Indian Firms

    Rupal Tyagi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses the issue of the relationship between Corporate Social performance and corporate Financial Performance in Indian context under good management theory. The study used S&P ESG India Index as a proxy of CSP/ CSR (Corporate social performance or Corporate Social Responsibility of Indian firms for the first time over the 2005–2011 periods. We designed econometric models and controlled industry specific attributes and performed Weighted Least Square method for the analysis. Overall results show neutral though modest negative relationship between the CSP and CFP which eventually informs that if there would be any relationship, it would be negative.

  10. Monitoring of social networks and their links with the external communication plan of Cofrentes NPP

    Gomez Garcia, C.; Tejedor Garcia, E.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, new communication models are being established in the society. Companies, as part of society and as socially responsible entities should be part of these changes and, therefore, adapt themselves to these new models of communication. In one approach and study of this new model, some experiences obtained by Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant are studied, a SWOT analysis of the situation is made and are raised the three main objectives Cofrentes NPP should pursue if it enters in the social networks field. (Author)

  11. Links between Local Language Competence and Peer Relations among Swiss and Immigrant Children: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…

  12. Using LinkedIn in the Marketing Classroom: Exploratory Insights and Recommendations for Teaching Social Media/Networking

    McCorkle, Denny E.; McCorkle, Yuhua Li

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid growth of social networking and media comes their consideration for use in the marketing classroom. Social networking skills are becoming essential for personal branding (e.g., networking, self-marketing) and corporate/product branding (e.g., marketing communication). This paper addresses the use of LinkedIn (i.e., an online…

  13. Librarians as Advocates of Social Media for Researchers: A Social Media Project Initiated by Linköping University Library, Sweden

    Persson, Sassa; Svenningsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at Linköping University help researchers keep abreast of developments in their fields and to increase the visibility of their work. Strategic, professional use of social media ought to be an essential part of a researcher's communication strategy. This article investigates the level of awareness of the professional use of social media…

  14. Linking practice fields of social innovations in the domain of employment

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Torre, W. van

    2018-01-01

    Social innovations in Employment are scattered. If social innovations want to achieve sustainable, social changes, they require integration to create more coherent ‘social innovation of employment’.

  15. Exploratory behavior is linked to stress physiology and social network centrality in free-living house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus).

    Moyers, Sahnzi C; Adelman, James S; Farine, Damien R; Moore, Ignacio T; Hawley, Dana M

    2018-05-21

    Animal personality has been linked to individual variation in both stress physiology and social behaviors, but few studies have simultaneously examined covariation between personality traits, stress hormone levels, and behaviors in free-living animals. We investigated relationships between exploratory behavior (one aspect of animal personality), stress physiology, and social and foraging behaviors in wild house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). We conducted novel environment assays after collecting samples of baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations from a subset of house finches. We then fitted individuals with Passive Integrated Transponder tags and monitored feeder use and social interactions at radio-frequency identification equipped bird feeders. First, we found that individuals with higher baseline corticosterone concentrations exhibit more exploratory behaviors in a novel environment. Second, more exploratory individuals interacted with more unique conspecifics in the wild, though this result was stronger for female than for male house finches. Third, individuals that were quick to begin exploring interacted more frequently with conspecifics than slow-exploring individuals. Finally, exploratory behaviors were unrelated to foraging behaviors, including the amount of time spent on bird feeders, a behavior previously shown to be predictive of acquiring a bacterial disease that causes annual epidemics in house finches. Overall, our results indicate that individual differences in exploratory behavior are linked to variation in both stress physiology and social network traits in free-living house finches. Such covariation has important implications for house finch ecology, as both traits can contribute to fitness in the wild. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rearing Styles, Parents' Attachment Mental State,and Children's Social Abilities: The Link to Peer Acceptance

    Grazia Attili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discriminant effect of mothers' and fathers' attachment working models, the quality of their relationships in everyday settings, and children's social abilities on children's peer acceptance. Participants were thirty-four 7–9 year olds, their mothers, and fathers. Interactions were observed at home and coded on global measures of positive, negative, controlling, disconfirming, correcting behaviors, and neutral conversation. Parents' IWM were assessed by the AAI. Children's peer acceptance and behavioral orientations as a measure of a child's social competence at school were assessed by sociometric techniques. By using both traditional statistical analyses and a multidimensional scaling approach (MDS, in terms of “similarity structure analysis (SSA” and the “external variables as points technique,” it emerged that children's lack of success among peers associated with social behaviors which were linked to parents' rejecting/neglecting and directive interactive styles, mainly to negative, disconfirming, and a few positive interactions. These parenting styles were significantly affected by adults' insecure IWM.

  17. Link Prediction Methods and Their Accuracy for Different Social Networks and Network Metrics

    Fei Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, we are experiencing a rapid growth of the number of social-based online systems. The availability of the vast amounts of data gathered in those systems brings new challenges that we face when trying to analyse it. One of the intensively researched topics is the prediction of social connections between users. Although a lot of effort has been made to develop new prediction approaches, the existing methods are not comprehensively analysed. In this paper we investigate the correlation between network metrics and accuracy of different prediction methods. We selected six time-stamped real-world social networks and ten most widely used link prediction methods. The results of the experiments show that the performance of some methods has a strong correlation with certain network metrics. We managed to distinguish “prediction friendly” networks, for which most of the prediction methods give good performance, as well as “prediction unfriendly” networks, for which most of the methods result in high prediction error. Correlation analysis between network metrics and prediction accuracy of prediction methods may form the basis of a metalearning system where based on network characteristics it will be able to recommend the right prediction method for a given network.

  18. The Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: The Case of Malaysian Government-Linked Companies in Malaysia

    Baba Hanim Norza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Government-Linked Company (GLC Transformation Program 2005/06 by government is one effort to promote Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosures among its government-linked companies (GLCs. CSR issues are being stressed in the Silver Book included in the GLC Transformation Manual under the GLC Transformation Program 2005/06. It is questionable as to whether the introduction of the Silver Book really reflects goods prospects for government-linked companies to disclose their CSR, and whether there are any other factors that will influence the GLCs in Malaysia to disclose their CSR. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine whether the introduction of the Silver Book affect the CSR disclosure among Malaysian GLCs as well as to examine the determinants of CSR disclosure, focusing on the profitability, board size and board independence. Multiple linear regression analysis is being used to examine the relationship between all the independent variables and dependent variable. Findings show that there is an increasing trend in CSR disclosure among Malaysian GLCs from year 2011 until 2015. Two variables i.e. board size and board independence has been found to have a significant positive relationship with the CSR disclosure. This study gives implications to various parties such as Malaysian Government, Bursa Malaysia, Security Commission and other relevant parties in to improve CSR awareness, practices, disclosures and quality in GLCs.

  19. The Influence of Social Networks on the Development of Recruitment Actions that Favor User Interface Design and Conversions in Mobile Applications Powered by Linked Data

    Pedro R. Palos-Sanchez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the most important influence factors in the literature, which have the greatest influence on the conversions obtained in a mobile application powered by linked data. With the study of user interface design and a small user survey (n = 101,053, we studied the influence of social networks, advertising, and promotional and recruitment actions in conversions for mobile applications powered by linked data. The analysis of the users’ behavior and their application in the design of the actions to promote and capture constitutes an important part of the current theories of digital marketing. However, this study shows that its results may be contradictory and depend on other factors and circumstances when mobile applications powered by linked data are considered. The predictive value, reached by the developed model, may be useful for professionals and researchers in the field of digital marketing and the user interface design in mobile applications powered by linked data.

  20. Let the Weakest Link Go! Empirical Explorations on the Relative Importance of Weak and Strong Ties on Social Networking Sites

    Nicole C. Krämer; Leonie Rösner; Sabrina C. Eimler; Stephan Winter; German Neubaum

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical approaches as well as empirical results in the area of social capital accumulation on social networking sites suggest that weak ties/bridging versus strong ties/bonding social capital should be distinguished and that while bonding social capital is connected to emotional support, bridging social capital entails the provision of information. Additionally, recent studies imply the notion that weak ties/bridging social capital are gaining increasing importance in today’s social media...

  1. Teaching Social Interaction Skills in Social Studies Classroom and ...

    This study is a survey which was carried out with 110 sandwich students of university of Nigeria Nsukka. The focus was to ascertain the relevance of social studies programme of Nigerian universities in inculcating social interaction skills for maintaining peace and managing conflicts in the family. Four research questions ...

  2. THE EFFECT OF ADVERTISING ON SOCIAL NETWORKS ON THE MARKETING OF SPORTS SERVICES - CASE STUDY: SOCIAL TELEGRAM USERS

    Mahsa Nematzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Today, the number of social networks in which communications are made is increasing rapidly, and most teenagers and adults, as part of everyday life, use the benefits of knowing others and introducing themselves to others from social networks such as Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, YouTube, Weblogs and Wikiquote. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of advertising on social networks on the marketing of sports services. Methodologically, this descriptive study was of correlatio...

  3. Clarifying the links between social support and health: Culture, stress, and neuroticism matter

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2012-01-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism. PMID:22419414

  4. Fearfulness moderates the link between childhood social withdrawal and adolescent reward response.

    Morgan, Judith K; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-06-01

    Withdrawal from peers during childhood may reflect disruptions in reward functioning that heighten vulnerability to affective disorders during adolescence. The association between socially withdrawn behavior and reward functioning may depend on traits that influence this withdrawal, such as fearfulness or unsociability. In a study of 129 boys, we evaluated how boys' fearfulness and sociability at age 5 and social withdrawal at school at ages 6 to 10 and during a summer camp at age 9/10 were associated with their neural response to reward at age 20. Greater social withdrawal during childhood was associated with heightened striatal and mPFC activation when anticipating rewards at age 20. Fearfulness moderated this effect to indicate that social withdrawal was associated with heightened reward-related response in the striatum for boys high on fearfulness. Altered striatal response associated with social withdrawal and fearfulness predicted greater likelihood to have a lifetime history of depression and social phobia at age 20. These findings add greater specificity to previous findings that children high in traits related to fear of novelty show altered reward responses, by identifying fearfulness (but not low levels of sociability) as a potential underlying mechanism that contributes to reward alterations in withdrawn children. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  6. Social capital calculations in economic systems: Experimental study

    Chepurov, E. G.; Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Nazarova, Yu. Yu.; Chekmarev, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes the social capital study for a system where actors are engaged in an economic activity. The focus is on the analysis of communications structural parameters (transactions) between the actors. Comparison between transaction network graph structure and the structure of a random Bernoulli graph of the same dimension and density allows revealing specific structural features of the economic system under study. Structural analysis is based on SNA-methodology (SNA - Social Network Analysis). It is shown that structural parameter values of the graph formed by agent relationship links may well characterize different aspects of the social capital structure. The research advocates that it is useful to distinguish the difference between each agent social capital and the whole system social capital.

  7. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Who is good at this game? Linking an activity to a social category undermines children's achievement.

    Cimpian, Andrei; Mu, Yan; Erickson, Lucy C

    2012-05-01

    Children's achievement-related theories have a profound impact on their academic success. Children who adopt entity theories believe that their ability to perform a task is dictated by the amount of natural talent they possess for that task--a belief that has well-documented adverse consequences for their achievement (e.g., lowered persistence, impaired performance). It is thus important to understand what leads children to adopt entity theories. In the experiments reported here, we hypothesized that the mere act of linking success at an unfamiliar, challenging activity to a social group gives rise to entity beliefs that are so powerful as to interfere with children's ability to perform the activity. Two experiments showed that, as predicted, the performance of 4- to 7-year-olds (N = 192) was impaired by exposure to information that associated success in the task at hand with membership in a certain social group (e.g., "boys are good at this game"), regardless of whether the children themselves belonged to that group.

  9. The culture of social media at work place: Case study in the City of Medan

    Juliandi, Azuar

    2017-01-01

    Internet-based social media has become a part of life of the public society in this era. Many people use Facebook, Whatsapp, LinkedIn, Blogs and other social media to interact with each other. With social media, people exchange information and share experiences in cyberspace. Furthermore, at the present, social media is already becoming a part of the organizational culture in work place. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the culture of social media and knowledge transfer, t...

  10. Social Media and Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents: Is there a link?

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent sexual risk taking and its consequences remain a global public health concern. Empirical evidence on the impact that social media has on sexual health behaviors among youth is sparse. Objective The study aimed to examine the relationship between social media and the change in sexual risk over time and whether parental monitoring moderates this relationship. Methods This study comprised a sample of 555 Latino youth aged 13-19 years from Maryland, United States completing baseline and follow-up surveys. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to examine the relationship between social media and the change in sexual risk over time and whether parental monitoring moderated the relationship. Results Sexual risk behaviors significantly increased between baseline (T1) and follow up (T2) (mean=0.432 vs mean=0.734, Psocial influences increasing during adolescence. PMID:28526670

  11. Political Socialization and Social Studies Education: Reassessing the Conventional Wisdom.

    Nelson, Murry R.

    1989-01-01

    Critically examines the political socialization research over the past 30 years as to method, sample, size, and results. Reassesses studies that have been most cited and those that have been ignored. Raises questions about political socialization that have not been addressed or have been inadequately addressed. (KO)

  12. Social Studies Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences of Social Justice

    Bursa, Sercan; Ersoy, Arife Figen

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Social justice addresses inequality in society, including economic inequality, global migration, racism, xenophobia, prejudice against disabled people, and class discrimination. In Turkey, social studies curriculum aims to cultivate active, democratically minded citizens who value justice, independence, peace, solidarity,…

  13. Atypical Modulations of N170 Component during Emotional Processing and Their Links to Social Behaviors in Ex-combatants.

    Trujillo, Sandra P; Valencia, Stella; Trujillo, Natalia; Ugarriza, Juan E; Rodríguez, Mónica V; Rendón, Jorge; Pineda, David A; López, José D; Ibañez, Agustín; Parra, Mario A

    2017-01-01

    Emotional processing (EP) is crucial for the elaboration and implementation of adaptive social strategies. EP is also necessary for the expression of social cognition and behavior (SCB) patterns. It is well-known that war contexts induce socio-emotional atypical functioning, in particular for those who participate in combats. Thus, ex-combatants represent an ideal non-clinical population to explore EP modulation and to evaluate its relation with SCB. The aim of this study was to explore EP and its relation with SCB dimensions such as empathy, theory of mind and social skills in a sample of 50 subjects, of which 30 were ex-combatants from illegally armed groups in Colombia, and 20 controls without combat experience. We adapted an Emotional Recognition Task for faces and words and synchronized it with electroencephalographic recording. Ex-combatants presented with higher assertion skills and showed more pronounced brain responses to faces than Controls. They did not show the bias toward anger observed in control participants whereby the latter group was more likely to misclassify neutral faces as angry. However, ex-combatants showed an atypical word valence processing. That is, words with different emotions yielded no differences in N170 modulations. SCB variables were successfully predicted by neurocognitive variables. Our results suggest that in ex-combatants the links between EP and SCB functions are reorganized. This may reflect neurocognitive modulations associated to chronic exposure to war experiences.

  14. Atypical Modulations of N170 Component during Emotional Processing and Their Links to Social Behaviors in Ex-combatants

    Sandra P. Trujillo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing (EP is crucial for the elaboration and implementation of adaptive social strategies. EP is also necessary for the expression of social cognition and behavior (SCB patterns. It is well-known that war contexts induce socio-emotional atypical functioning, in particular for those who participate in combats. Thus, ex-combatants represent an ideal non-clinical population to explore EP modulation and to evaluate its relation with SCB. The aim of this study was to explore EP and its relation with SCB dimensions such as empathy, theory of mind and social skills in a sample of 50 subjects, of which 30 were ex-combatants from illegally armed groups in Colombia, and 20 controls without combat experience. We adapted an Emotional Recognition Task for faces and words and synchronized it with electroencephalographic recording. Ex-combatants presented with higher assertion skills and showed more pronounced brain responses to faces than Controls. They did not show the bias toward anger observed in control participants whereby the latter group was more likely to misclassify neutral faces as angry. However, ex-combatants showed an atypical word valence processing. That is, words with different emotions yielded no differences in N170 modulations. SCB variables were successfully predicted by neurocognitive variables. Our results suggest that in ex-combatants the links between EP and SCB functions are reorganized. This may reflect neurocognitive modulations associated to chronic exposure to war experiences.

  15. Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints of the Social Studies Lesson "Sample of Turkey and Afghanistan"

    Sonmez, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the perceptions of history, geography and social studies teachers giving the social studies lesson at primary schools in Turkey and Afghanistan towards the social studies lesson. The working group of the study involves history, geography and social studies teachers rendering service in Tokat and Kayseri provinces…

  16. Social Entrepreneurship in India: An Exploratory Study

    Hemantkumar P. Bulsara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Entrepreneurship is an all-encompassing nomenclature, used for depicting the process of, bringing about social change on a major and impactful scale compared to a traditional Non-Governmental Organization (NGO.  It is an increasingly important concept in the study of voluntary, non-profit and not-for -profit organizations. Earlier, organizations addressing key social issues were assumed to be idealistic, philanthropic with entrepreneurial skills. Social Entrepreneurship in India is emerging primarily because the government is very keen on its promotion, not necessarily by funding it or by advising on it but by enabling it. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of the private sector with clearly earmarked funds and full-fledged action teams have played an important role in sprucing up the image of Social Entrepreneurship. The focus of the paper is to study the growing trends of Social Entrepreneurship in India and the new initiatives taken by various Social Entrepreneurs. It also gives a brief idea of different Theories of Social Entrepreneurship. Efforts are made to provide information and an exploratory study, related to the support activities of Social Entrepreneurship and Social Entrepreneurial ventures in India. This may be beneficial in future empirical studies of the subject. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneur, NGO, Corporate Social Responsibility, India.

  17. The role of postdeployment social factors in linking deployment experiences and current posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology among male and female veterans.

    Smith, Brian N; Wang, Joyce M; Vaughn-Coaxum, Rachel A; Di Leone, Brooke A L; Vogt, Dawne

    2017-01-01

    The postdeployment social context is likely highly salient in explaining mental health symptoms following deployment. The aim of this study was to examine the role of postdeployment social factors (social support and social reintegration difficulty) in linking deployment-related experiences (warfare exposure, sexual harassment, concerns about relationship disruptions, and deployment social support) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in male and female veterans. A survey was administered to 998 potential participants (after accounting for undeliverable mail) who had returned from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq. Completed surveys were received from 469 veterans, yielding a response rate of 47%. Hypotheses were examined using structural equation modeling. For male and female veterans, deployment factors predicted later PTSD symptoms through postdeployment social support and social reintegration, with lower support and higher social reintegration difficulty both associated with higher PTSD symptomatology. While the final models for women and men indicated similar risk mechanisms, some differences in pathways were observed. Sexual harassment presented more of a risk for women, whereas lower social support was a greater risk factor for men. Postdeployment social factors appear to represent potentially important targets for interventions aiming to reduce the potential impact of stressful deployment experiences.

  18. Links between social information processing in middle childhood and involvement in bullying. [IF 0.95

    Camodeca, M.; Goossens, F.A.; Schuengel, C.; Meerum Terwogt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the way in which bullies, victims, bully/victims, and those not involved process social information. A peer nomination measure of bullying and victimization was administered twice over an interval of one year. The sample consisted of 236 (126 girls and 110

  19. Links between Preschool Children's Social Skills and Observed Pretend Play in Outdoor Childcare Environments

    Li, Jiayao; Hestenes, Linda L.; Wang, Yudan C.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most advanced play forms in childhood, pretend play often demonstrates positive associations with children's development. However, results from research that examines the association between social skills and pretend play are mixed, especially when the complexity of pretend play is taken into account. Moreover, few studies on pretend…

  20. Child maltreatment and social connectedness among formerly institutionalized females: Links with depression

    van Delft, I.; Finkenauer, C.; Verbruggen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly

  1. Intra- and Interracial Best Friendships during Middle School: Links to Social and Emotional Well-Being

    McGill, Rebecca Kang; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study examined patterns of intra- and interracial best friendships during middle school and their associations with social and emotional well-being. We hypothesized that intraracial friendships would be beneficial for racial or ethnic minority youth because such relationships provide protection and solidarity in a discriminatory society.…

  2. Social-Class Identity and English Learning: Studies of Chinese Learners

    Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    This article first looks at the complex conceptualization of Chinese learners' social-class identities with respect to a shifting Chinese class stratification. It then examines the link between social class and second-language learning in the Chinese context by reviewing several studies on Chinese learners' social-class backgrounds and their…

  3. Experimental Study of Short-Term Training in Social Cognition in Pre-Schoolers

    Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Jacobs, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental approach, our study examined the differentiated effects on pre-schoolers' social cognition of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions dealing with emotions and beliefs. The links between ToM, SIP, and social adjustment or externalizing behavior were examined. 47…

  4. Linking green space to neighborhood social capital in older adults: The role of perceived safety.

    Hong, Andy; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian; Cain, Kelli L; Fox, Eric H; Frank, Lawrence D

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the moderating effect of perceived safety on the association of green space with neighborhood social capital in older adults. Green space may play an important role for promoting neighborhood social capital and health for older adults; however, safety remains a significant challenge in maximizing the benefits of green space. Data were drawn from 647 independent-living seniors who participated in the Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study in the Seattle/King County and Baltimore/Washington DC region. The results suggest that certain green space elements, such as natural sights, may be beneficial to neighborhood social capital of older adults. However, other types of green space, such as parks and street trees, may be less advantageous to older adults who perceive their neighborhoods as unsafe for pedestrians. Findings highlight the importance of pedestrian safety in examining associations of green space with neighborhood social capital in older adults. Further studies using a longitudinal design are warranted to confirm the causality of the findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Patients requests and needs for culturally and individually adapted supportive care in type 2 diabetes patients: A comparative study between Nordic and non-Nordic patients in a social economical vulnerable area of Linköping, Sweden.

    Staff, Angelica; Garvin, Peter; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Yngman-Uhlin, Pia

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to determine and compare the metabolic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in non-Nordic immigrants and native Nordics. The aim was also to describe and compare the request of supportive care between these two groups. One hundred and eighty-four patients (n=184) coming to a routine check-up in a primary healthcare setting (PHC), were consecutively enrolled to the study during a period of one year. Data on therapeutic interventions, clinical measurements, healthcare consumption, and adherence to standard diabetes healthcare program were extracted from the patientś medical record. Structured interviews on supportive care were conducted by diabetes trained nurses. If needed, a qualified interpreter was used. Comparisons were made between Nordic patients (n=151) and non-Nordic patients (n=33). Among T2DM patients in a setting of PHC, there was a difference in meeting the metabolic target HbA1c, between native Nordics and non-Nordic immigrants. There was also a difference in request on supportive care. The non-Nordic group significantly requested more and different supportive care. They also attended the standard diabetes program to a lesser degree. Culturally/individually adapted prevention is not only medically warranted but also requested by the patients themselves. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The social and emotional context of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty: is there a link to adult interpersonal crimes?

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    The link between early animal abuse and later violence toward humans may depend on how acts of animal cruelty are experienced by those whose behavior demonstrates this graduation. Unfortunately, the research investigating the social and emotional context for the youthful commission of animal cruelty as it escalates to adult interpersonal violence is relatively nonexistent. Using 112 cases from a larger sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the effects of age of onset and frequency of animal cruelty, the covertness of animal cruelty, the commission of animal cruelty within a group or in isolation, and empathy for the abused animals. Inmates who had covered up their childhood and adolescent animal cruelty were more likely to have been convicted of repeated acts of interpersonal violence, demonstrating that the role of empathy and individuals present during acts of animal cruelty were less important than concealing those acts.

  7. The genetic basis of individual differences in reward processing and the link to addictive behavior and social cognition.

    Yacubian, J; Büchel, C

    2009-11-24

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission is widely recognized to be critical to the neurobiology of reward, motivation and addiction. Interestingly, social interactions and related behavior also activate the same neuronal system. Consequently, genetic variations of dopamine neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. This review focuses on advances made to date in an effort to link genetic individual variations and reward processing as a possible basis for addictive behaviors.

  8. Social Media and Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents: Is there a link?

    Landry, Megan; Turner, Monique; Vyas, Amita; Wood, Susan

    2017-05-19

    Adolescent sexual risk taking and its consequences remain a global public health concern. Empirical evidence on the impact that social media has on sexual health behaviors among youth is sparse. The study aimed to examine the relationship between social media and the change in sexual risk over time and whether parental monitoring moderates this relationship. This study comprised a sample of 555 Latino youth aged 13-19 years from Maryland, United States completing baseline and follow-up surveys. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to examine the relationship between social media and the change in sexual risk over time and whether parental monitoring moderated the relationship. Sexual risk behaviors significantly increased between baseline (T1) and follow up (T2) (mean=0.432 vs mean=0.734, PYouth sending more than 100 text messages per day had significantly higher sexual risk scores (beta=1.008, Pinfluence diminishing and peer pressure and social influences increasing during adolescence. ©Megan Landry, Monique Turner, Amita Vyas, Susan Wood. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 19.05.2017.

  9. Successful linking of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database to social security data to examine survival after cardiac operations.

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Edwards, Fred H; Shahian, David M; Prager, Richard L; Wright, Cameron D; Puskas, John D; Morales, David L S; Gammie, James S; Sanchez, Juan A; Haan, Constance K; Badhwar, Vinay; George, Kristopher M; O'Brien, Sean M; Dokholyan, Rachel S; Sheng, Shubin; Peterson, Eric D; Shewan, Cynthia M; Feehan, Kelly M; Han, Jane M; Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Williams, William G; Mayer, John E; Chitwood, W Randolph; Murray, Gordon F; Grover, Frederick L

    2011-07-01

    Long-term evaluation of cardiothoracic surgical outcomes is a major goal of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS). Linking the STS Database to the Social Security Death Master File (SSDMF) allows for the verification of "life status." This study demonstrates the feasibility of linking the STS Database to the SSDMF and examines longitudinal survival after cardiac operations. For all operations in the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database performed in 2008 in patients with an available Social Security Number, the SSDMF was searched for a matching Social Security Number. Survival probabilities at 30 days and 1 year were estimated for nine common operations. A Social Security Number was available for 101,188 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting, 12,336 patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement, and 6,085 patients undergoing isolated mitral valve operations. One-year survival for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting was 88.9% (6,529 of 7,344) with all vein grafts, 95.2% (84,696 of 88,966) with a single mammary artery graft, 97.4% (4,422 of 4,540) with bilateral mammary artery grafts, and 95.6% (7,543 of 7,890) with all arterial grafts. One-year survival was 92.4% (11,398 of 12,336) for isolated aortic valve replacement (95.6% [2,109 of 2,206] with mechanical prosthesis and 91.7% [9,289 of 10,130] with biologic prosthesis), 86.5% (2,312 of 2,674) for isolated mitral valve replacement (91.7% [923 of 1,006] with mechanical prosthesis and 83.3% [1,389 of 1,668] with biologic prosthesis), and 96.0% (3,275 of 3,411) for isolated mitral valve repair. Successful linkage to the SSDMF has substantially increased the power of the STS Database. These longitudinal survival data from this large multi-institutional study provide reassurance about the durability and long-term benefits of cardiac operations and constitute a contemporary benchmark for survival after cardiac operations. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by

  10. Assessing the links between punitive parenting, peer deviance, social isolation and bullying perpetration and victimization in South Korean adolescents.

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kim, Dong Ha; Piquero, Alex R

    2017-11-01

    Children who are abused at home are at an increased risk of bullying perpetration and bullying victimization. Within that context, the purpose of the present study was to test Agnew's general strain theory and the peer deviancy training hypothesis by utilizing structural equation modeling to empirically examine pathways linking punitive parenting to bullying perpetration and bullying victimization. This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, potential mediating linkages between punitive parenting and bullying perpetration and bullying victimization were examined, including socially withdrawn behavior and deviant peer affiliation. Second, these relationships were considered in a longitudinal sample of South Korean adolescents, which is a novel examination given that parenting in South Korea is guided largely by Confucianism which reinforces parental control, restrictiveness, and a punitive nature. Results indicate that: (1) punitive parenting is directly related to bullying perpetration but not bullying victimization; (2) punitive parenting was found to have indirect effects only on bullying perpetration; (3) deviant peer affiliation increased the likelihood of bullying perpetration and victimization; and (4) socially withdrawn behavior only affected bullying perpetration via its effect on deviant peer affiliation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Linking Literature and Art to the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Frezza, Yiota

    1982-01-01

    Describes a unit in which elementary students experience life in ancient Egypt by role playing different positions in society. Students research their role, prepare a paper doll dressed in the clothing of their role, analyze an opera, and paint a window in the stylized method used on Egyptian tomb paintings. (RM)

  12. Integrating Ethics into the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Urges incorporation of ethics into social studies curriculum. Provides an overview of ethical theory including principle-based theories of utilitarianism and deontology and virtue-based theories. Discusses philosophies of social science including positivism, interpretivism, and critical social science. Suggests teaching methods and curriculum…

  13. Teaching Social Studies with Video Games

    Maguth, Brad M.; List, Jonathan S.; Wunderle, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Today's youth have grown up immersed in technology and are increasingly relying on video games to solve problems, engage socially, and find entertainment. Yet research and vignettes of teachers actually using video games to advance student learning in social studies is scarce (Hutchinson 2007). This article showcases how social studies…

  14. Linking Big and Small Data Across the Social, Engineering, and Earth Sciences

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Levy, M. A.; Downs, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The challenges of sustainable development cut across the social, health, ecological, engineering, and Earth sciences, across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and across the spectrum from basic to applied research and decision making. The rapidly increasing availability of data and information in digital form from a variety of data repositories, networks, and other sources provides new opportunities to link and integrate both traditional data holdings as well as emerging "big data" resources in ways that enable interdisciplinary research and facilitate the use of objective scientific data and information in society. Taking advantage of these opportunities not only requires improved technical and scientific data interoperability across disciplines, scales, and data types, but also concerted efforts to bridge gaps and barriers between key communities, institutions, and networks. Given the long time perspectives required in planning sustainable approaches to development, it is also imperative to address user requirements for long-term data continuity and stewardship by trustworthy repositories. We report here on lessons learned by CIESIN working on a range of sustainable development issues to integrate data across multiple repositories and networks. This includes CIESIN's roles in developing policy-relevant climate and environmental indicators, soil data for African agriculture, and exposure and risk measures for hazards, disease, and conflict, as well as CIESIN's participation in a range of national and international initiatives related both to sustainable development and to open data access, interoperability, and stewardship.

  15. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  16. Impression Management in Social Media: The Example of LinkedIn

    Joanna Paliszkiewicz; Magdalena Madra-Sawicka

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the relationships are often initiated and maintained in online environments, the formation and management of online impressions have gained importance and become the subject of numerous studies. The impression management is a conscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of their image. They do it by controlling and managing information presented in social media. The presentation of identity is the key to success or failure for example i...

  17. Social Fitness and Resilience: A Review of Relevant Constructs, Measures, and Links to Well-Being

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Examines social fitness, the combination of resources from social connections that influence how individuals respond to stressful circumstances, to identify methods of increasing social connectedness and support among U.S. Airmen and their families.

  18. GABAergic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia: Linking Postmortem and In Vivo Studies

    de Jonge, Jeroen C.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Marsman, Anouk

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impairments in cognitive functioning. Evidence from postmortem studies suggests that alterations in cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons contribute to the clinical features of schizophrenia. In vivo measurement of brain GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers the possibility to provide more insight into the relationship between problems in GABAergic neurotransmission and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients. This study reviews and links alterations in the GABA system in postmortem studies, animal models, and human studies in schizophrenia. Converging evidence implicates alterations in both presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia, and GABA may thus play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. MRS studies can provide direct insight into the GABAergic mechanisms underlying the development of schizophrenia as well as changes during its course. PMID:28848455

  19. GABAergic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia: Linking Postmortem and In Vivo Studies

    Jeroen C. de Jonge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impairments in cognitive functioning. Evidence from postmortem studies suggests that alterations in cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic neurons contribute to the clinical features of schizophrenia. In vivo measurement of brain GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS offers the possibility to provide more insight into the relationship between problems in GABAergic neurotransmission and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients. This study reviews and links alterations in the GABA system in postmortem studies, animal models, and human studies in schizophrenia. Converging evidence implicates alterations in both presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia, and GABA may thus play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. MRS studies can provide direct insight into the GABAergic mechanisms underlying the development of schizophrenia as well as changes during its course.

  20. Gender differences in the social pathways linking neighborhood disadvantage to depressive symptoms in adults.

    Emma Bassett

    Full Text Available Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (n(ct = 300 and individuals within those tracts (ni = 2707. Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01-1.55. Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.003-0.04, p<0.05. Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs.

  1. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  2. Social Identity, Social Ties and Social Capital: A Study in Gaming Context

    Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This work will focus on how different social relationships, namely shared identity and personal tie, will impact cooperative behavior, a form of social capital. I designed and conducted an economic game study to show that shared identity and personal ties work differently on cooperation among people and resource flow in social groups. Many factors…

  3. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  4. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  5. Visual analytics for multimodal social network analysis: a design study with social scientists.

    Ghani, Sohaib; Kwon, Bum Chul; Lee, Seungyoon; Yi, Ji Soo; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2013-12-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is becoming increasingly concerned not only with actors and their relations, but also with distinguishing between different types of such entities. For example, social scientists may want to investigate asymmetric relations in organizations with strict chains of command, or incorporate non-actors such as conferences and projects when analyzing coauthorship patterns. Multimodal social networks are those where actors and relations belong to different types, or modes, and multimodal social network analysis (mSNA) is accordingly SNA for such networks. In this paper, we present a design study that we conducted with several social scientist collaborators on how to support mSNA using visual analytics tools. Based on an openended, formative design process, we devised a visual representation called parallel node-link bands (PNLBs) that splits modes into separate bands and renders connections between adjacent ones, similar to the list view in Jigsaw. We then used the tool in a qualitative evaluation involving five social scientists whose feedback informed a second design phase that incorporated additional network metrics. Finally, we conducted a second qualitative evaluation with our social scientist collaborators that provided further insights on the utility of the PNLBs representation and the potential of visual analytics for mSNA.

  6. Links between Family Gender Socialization Experiences in Childhood and Gendered Occupational Attainment in Young Adulthood.

    Lawson, Katie M; Crouter, Ann C; McHale, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    Gendered occupational segregation remains prevalent across the world. Although research has examined factors contributing to the low number of women in male-typed occupations - namely science, technology, engineering, and math - little longitudinal research has examined the role of childhood experiences in both young women's and men's later gendered occupational attainment. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining family gender socialization experiences in middle childhood - namely parents' attitudes and work and family life - as contributors to the gender typicality of occupational attainment in young adulthood. Using data collected from mothers, fathers, and children over approximately 15 years, the results revealed that the associations between childhood socialization experiences (∼10 years old) and occupational attainment (∼26 years old) depended on the sex of the child. For sons but not daughters, mothers' more traditional attitudes towards women's roles predicted attaining more gender-typed occupations. In addition, spending more time with fathers in childhood predicted daughters attaining less and sons acquiring more gender-typed occupations in young adulthood. Overall, evidence supports the idea that childhood socialization experiences help to shape individuals' career attainment and thus contribute to gender segregation in the labor market.

  7. Directory of Research in Social Studies/Social Sciences.

    Barret, Anna R.; Carnett, George S.

    Described are current trends in the social and behavioral sciences intended to meet the needs of the educational community. The projects listed include studies in anthropology, sociology, political science, history, geography, foreign area studies, economics, international relations, and environmental education. Part I of the directory lists…

  8. Does workplace social capital protect against long-term sickness absence? Linking workplace aggregated social capital to sickness absence registry data

    Hansen, Anne Sophie K.; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Thorsen, Sannie Vester

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Most previous prospective studies have examined workplace social capital as a resource of the individual. However, literature suggests that social capital is a collective good. In the present study we examined whether a high level of workplace aggregated social capital (WASC) predicts a dec...

  9. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  10. Students’ Motivations for Social Media Enhanced Studying and Learning

    Kirsi Silius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of social media enhanced learning are widely studied in Hypermedia Laboratory at Tampere University of Technology (TUT. In recent years Web 2.0 based social media services (e.g., Facebook®, LinkedIn®, Last.fm®, etc. have become popular, especially among young people. Based on this phenomenon TUT Hypermedia researchers have developed a social networking site for TUT freshmen aiming to provide convenient tools for interaction and study support. The first idea was to offer a free-of-charge social web site in the context of learning Basic Engineering Mathematics at TUT. This was thought to be an efficient tool to get new students studies off to a good start as mathematics courses play a significant role. However, the prediction failed, which caused us to study students‟ motivations for social network site usage in the study context. This paper describes research conducted in 2009. Moreover, a description of subsequent measures accomplished (e.g., web site development and social network analysis at TUT is included.

  11. What can animal research tell us about the link between androgens and social competition in humans?

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Trainor, Brian C; Marler, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). This species is highly territorial and monogamous, resembling the modern human social disposition. We review (i) how baseline and dynamic T levels predict and/or impact aggressive behavior and disposition; (ii) how factors related to social and physical context influence T and aggression; (iii) the reinforcing or "rewarding" aspects of aggressive behavior; and (iv) the function of T on aggression before and during a combative encounter. Included are areas that may need further research. We argue that animal studies investigating these topics fill in gaps to help paint a more complete picture of how androgenic steroids drive the output of aggressive behavior in all animals, including humans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Shuttle/TDRSS modelling and link simulation study

    Braun, W. R.; Mckenzie, T. M.; Biederman, L.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    A Shuttle/TDRSS S-band and Ku-band link simulation package called LinCsim was developed for the evaluation of link performance for specific Shuttle signal designs. The link models were described in detail and the transmitter distortion parameters or user constraints were carefully defined. The overall link degradation (excluding hardware degradations) relative to an ideal BPSK channel were given for various sets of user constraint values. The performance sensitivity to each individual user constraint was then illustrated. The effect of excessive Spacelab clock jitter on the return link BER performance was also investigated as was the problem of subcarrier recovery for the K-band Shuttle return link signal.

  13. Links between Childhood and Adult Social Circumstances and Obesity and Hypertension in the Mexican Population

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. Methods We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N=14, 280). Results We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Discussion Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults. PMID:21948773

  14. Developmental links between disobedient behavior and social classroom relationships in boys with psychiatric disorders in special education.

    Breeman, L D; van Lier, P A C; Wubbels, T; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T

    2015-05-01

    In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children's behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream education cannot be generalized to special education. The present study investigated the developmental links between disobedience and positive as well as negative relationships with teachers and peers among boys in restrictive special educational settings. At three assessment waves across one school year, teacher-reports of teacher-child closeness and conflict, and peer-reports of peer acceptance, rejection and disobedience were collected among 340 boys (mean age = 10.1 years, SD = 1.58, range = 5-13) with psychiatric disorders receiving special education. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were fitted to explore the nature of these developmental links. The impact of boys' age was examined using multiple group analyses. Findings supported the importance of teacher-child conflict, but not closeness, and positive and negative peer relationships for the development of boys' disobedience, with a stronger effect of negative than positive relationships. However, teacher-child and peer relationships were not longitudinally related and the effect of boys' age was minimal. This study extends prior research by suggesting that, despite differences in educational setting and severity of behavior problems between children in mainstream and special education, reducing negative classroom interactional patterns is most important in preventing the development of problematic classroom behavior in boys with severe social-emotional and behavioral difficulties.

  15. Social Studies Within A Global Education.

    Kniep, Willard M.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the extraordinary privileges and responsibilities attached to contemporary and future United States citizenship demands a more global approach to social studies. Proposes four essential elements and three major themes to set the boundary for the scope of the social studies. Provides an illustrative example of appropriate grade level…

  16. The Link between Corporate Social Performance and Financial Performance: Evidence from Indonesian Companies

    Hasan Fauzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship of corporate social performance (CSP to corporate financial performance (CFP to determine if CSP is related to firm performance.  Additionally, it examines whether firm size or industry affects the relationships between CSR and CSP. This study  advances the literature as it examines this relationship for companies in a developing country, Indonesia, along with examining the impact of moderating variables on this relationship. Two models were developed: the first model was derived using slack resource theory and the second model was developed using the good management theory. Through the examination of 383 firms, the result of the study failed to find a significant relationship between CSP and CFP in either model.  Further analysis, using the slack resource theory, did find that company size had a significant positive moderating effect on the relationship between CSP and CFP.

  17. Mimicking and anticipating others’ actions is linked to Social Information Processing

    Klomfar, Sophie; d’Haene, Ine; Brass, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    It is widely known that individuals frequently imitate each other in social situations and that such mimicry fulfills an important social role in the sense that it functions as a social glue. With reference to the anticipated action effect, it has recently been demonstrated that individuals do not only imitate others, but also engage in anticipated action before the observed person starts engaging in that action. Interestingly, both phenomena (i.e., mimicry and anticipated action) rely on tracking others’ social behavior. Therefore, in the present research we investigated whether mimicry and anticipated action are related to social abilities as indicated by measures of social intelligence. The results demonstrate for the first time that mimicry as well as anticipated action is correlated with an important aspect of social intelligence—namely the ability to process social information. Theoretical implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:29590127

  18. Coping on Women’s Back. Social capital-vulnerability links through a gender lens

    S. Thieme (Susan); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Processes of migration are embedded in social networks, more recently conceptualised as social capital, from sending households to migrants’ formal and informal associations at their destinations. These processes are often assumed to reduce individuals, households and economies’

  19. Seventh-Grade Social Studies versus Social Meliorism

    Greiner, Jeff A.

    2016-01-01

    The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), in the state of North Carolina, has gone through considerable recent effort to revise, support, and assess their seventh-grade social studies curriculum in an effort to serve three goals: comply with the Common Core State Standards (Common Core), comply with the North Carolina Essential Standards…

  20. Interdependence between the Social and Material Convoy: Links between Volunteering, Widowhood, and Housing Transitions

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Perry, Tam

    2016-01-01

    Relocation in older adulthood may occur due to triggering events, such as widowhood. Guided by Kahn and Antonucci’s convoy model, this study explores the influence of volunteering on decision to relocate following the death of a spouse. Using three waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study (2006, 2008, and 2010), 5,146 community-dwelling married older individuals who were 65 years or older in 2008 were included. Findings from two multinomial logistic regression models showed that widows and widowers who were not volunteering in 2008 were more likely to move out of area in 2010 than their married counterparts, whereas the relationship between widowhood and relocation was not detected among those involved in volunteering. This article emphasizes the interdependency of social relationships and residences, a fundamental of one’s material convoy, for older adults. Volunteering experiences may not only affect instrumental and emotional support after the loss of a key anchor in one’s social convoy, but may also facilitate a widowed older adult to age in place rather than relocate. PMID:27257361

  1. Linking Social Cohesion and Gender to Intrapersonal and Interactional Empowerment: Support and New Implications for Theory

    Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Aquilino, Mary L.; Schneider, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Empowerment is a social-action process through which people gain greater control, efficacy, and social justice. One way to develop empowerment is through active, meaningful participation in community groups and activities. Social cohesion is an emerging construct that expands the notion of community participation to include elements such as shared…

  2. Social Goals, Aggression, Peer Preference, and Popularity: Longitudinal Links during Middle School

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Social goals are associated with behaviors and adjustment among peers. However, it remains unclear whether goals predict adolescent social development. We examined prospective associations among goals, physical and relational aggression, social preference, and popularity during middle school (N = 384 participants, ages 12-14 years). Agentic…

  3. Census-linked Study on Ethnic Fertility Differentials in Lithuania

    Aiva Jasilioniene

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertility transformations observed since the early 1990s and their determinants have been rather thoroughly investigated in Lithuania. There are fairly numerous national and international studies devoted to this topic, mainly based on survey data. However, none of these studies looks into the effect of ethnicity on fertility. It is, to a large extent, caused by limitations of sample survey data. This study demonstrates potentials of census-linked fertility data to estimate robust and nationally representative parity-specific period fertility measures by ethnicity. The findings of this first systematic study of ethnicity-specific fertility differentials in Lithuania indicate that ethnicity does matter for fertility even in such ethnically homogenous country as Lithuania. Fertility among Lithuanians is higher than in the other ethnic groups, especially among Russians. Lower fertility in the Russian ethnic group is mainly explained by differences in the risk of having the second child. Importantly, this disadvantage remains significant even after controlling for selected compositional characteristics including urban-rural place of residence and education. The approach used in this study may be applied for Latvia and Estonia, where national minorities constitute substantial shares of the entire populations and significantly contribute to overall fertility levels.

  4. Representativeness of Social Media in Great Britain: Investigating Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Pinterest, Google+, and Instagram

    Blank, Grant; Lutz, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The accepted and peer reviewed manuscript to the article Sociological studies show that Internet access, skills, uses, and outcomes vary between different population segments. However, we lack differentiated statistical evidence of the social characteristics of users of distinct social media platforms. We address this issue using a representative survey of Great Britain and investigate the social characteristics of six major social media platforms. We find that age and socioeconomic status...

  5. Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging

    Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity. PMID:21577215

  6. Anger toward God: social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer.

    Exline, Julie J; Park, Crystal L; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many people see themselves as being in a relationship with God and see this bond as comforting. Yet, perceived relationships with God also carry the potential for experiencing anger toward God, as shown here in studies with the U.S. population (Study 1), undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3), bereaved individuals (Study 4), and cancer survivors (Study 5). These studies addressed 3 fundamental issues regarding anger toward God: perceptions and attributions that predict anger toward God, its prevalence, and its associations with adjustment. Social-cognitive predictors of anger toward God paralleled predictors of interpersonal anger and included holding God responsible for severe harm, attributions of cruelty, difficulty finding meaning, and seeing oneself as a victim. Anger toward God was frequently reported in response to negative events, although positive feelings predominated. Anger and positive feelings toward God showed moderate negative associations. Religiosity and age correlated negatively with anger toward God. Reports of anger toward God were slightly lower among Protestants and African Americans in comparison with other groups (Study 1). Some atheists and agnostics reported anger involving God, particularly on measures emphasizing past experiences (Study 2) and images of a hypothetical God (Study 3). Anger toward God was associated with poorer adjustment to bereavement (Study 4) and cancer (Study 5), particularly when anger remained unresolved over a 1-year period (Study 5). Taken together, these studies suggest that anger toward God is an important dimension of religious and spiritual experience, one that is measurable, widespread, and related to adjustment across various contexts and populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Emotional non-acceptance links early life stress and blunted cortisol reactivity to social threat.

    Cărnuţă, Mihai; Crişan, Liviu G; Vulturar, Romana; Opre, Adrian; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been recently associated with blunted cortisol reactivity and emotion dysregulation, but no study until now examined whether these characteristics are related. The main goal of this study was to examine the potential mediator role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between ELS and cortisol reactivity to social threat. Only women who were free of psychiatric and endocrine disorders, had regular menstrual cycle and did not use oral contraceptives were selected for this study (N=62). After filling in ELS and multidimensional emotion dysregulation measures, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test during which cortisol and autonomic responses were assessed. Most participants (85.5%) reported one or more major stressful events (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, major parental conflicts, death of a family or close friend, severe illness) experienced before age 17. ELS was negatively associated with cortisol reactivity and positively associated with skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity, but it did not influence heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In addition, ELS was positively related to emotional non-acceptance (i.e., a tendency to develop secondary emotional responses to one's negative emotions), and the latter was negatively related to cortisol responses and positively related to SCL responses. Bootstrapping analyses indicated that emotional non-acceptance was a significant mediator in the relationships between ELS and both cortisol and SCL responses. Emotional non-acceptance is thus one of the psychological mechanisms underlying blunted cortisol and increased sympathetic reactivity in young healthy volunteers with a history of ELS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  9. New measure and thresholds for inequality and its link with social conflict

    Benito Vinuesa Guerrero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an alternative methodology to analyze income inequality and its structure. The proposed approach allows us, among other things, to classify individuals into income groups endogenously. This classification of income groups will be used to study the structure of inequality and to find a relation between inequality and conflict and social unrest. This approach is applied to Spanish income data from the Income and Living Conditions survey (SILC conducted by the INE. We refer to the years 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011 with the aim of evaluating the impact of the economic crisis. The empirical results show an increase in inequality and a decrease in the share of total income of households classified as poor, lower middle class and middle class. On the contrary, the households located at the right end of the income distribution scale have improved. This fact leads to a more unstable society and one prone to conflict.

  10. Ecological study of dietary and smoking links to lymphoma

    Grant, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological approach is used to investigate dietary and smoking links to lymphoma. International mortality rate data for 1986 and 1994 by gender and age group are compared with national dietary supply values of various food components for up to 10 years prior to the mortality data as well as per capita cigarette consumption rates 5 and 15 years earlier. The non-fat portion of milk, 3-9 years prior to the 1986 mortality data and 4 years prior to the 1994 data, was found to have the highest association with lymphoma, with r as high as 0.89. The results imply that 70 percent of lymphoma mortality may be related to this dietary component. Cigarette smoking in 1980 was found to have a weaker association with 1994 lymphoma mortality rates, being most important for younger men and statistically insignificant for younger women. The non-fat milk result is consistent with both case-control studies and a Norwegian prospective study, and with the often-observed finding that abnormal calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria, and dysregulated calcitriol production are common in normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is hypothesized that excess dietary calcium from milk is a significant risk factor for lymphoma.

  11. Linking biomedical engineering ethics case study approach and policy.

    Dibrell, William; Dobie, Elizabeth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we link bioengineering case study methods to the development of policy. The case study approach to ethics is an excellent way to show the complex nature of practical/moral reasoning. This approach can, however, lead to a kind of overwhelming complexity. The individual nature of each case makes it difficult to identify the most important information and difficult to see what moral considerations are most relevant. In order to make the overwhelming complexity less debilitating, we present a framework for moral decision making derived from suggestions made by W.D. Ross and Virginia Held. Ross articulates the multiple sources of morality and Held deepens the discussion by reminding us of the foundational importance of care and sympathy to our moral natures. We show how to use the notion of prima facie duty and discuss moral conflict. In doing this, we show how the framework, applied to cases, can be of assistance in helping us develop policies and codes of ethics with sufficient plasticity to be useful in the complex world of the bioengineer.

  12. Social Media - DoD’s Greatest Information Sharing Tool or Weakest Security Link?

    2010-04-15

    or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. SOCIAL MEDIA – DOD’S GREATEST INFORMATION SHARING TOOL...appropriateness and effectiveness of these policies in securing the information network. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Social media , information...TYPE Civilian Research Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) August 2009-April 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Social Media

  13. Emotional Intelligence Construct; a Missing Link in Explanation of Social Physique Anxiety

    Mohammad Abbaszadeh; Marzieh Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In contemporary society, the mass media emphasizes the importance of physical appearance and provides unattainable standards of beauty which may lead to mental health and social problems for people, especially young women. Social physique anxiety is one of these mental disorders which can occur as the result of these social pressures. This anxiety arises when a person thinks that his or her body is evaluated negatively. Various issues may happen because of anxiety, so trying t...

  14. Social Customer Relationship Management: A Case Study

    Paliouras Konstantinos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Customer Relationships Management (CRM is a current business trend providing new channels of two-way communication with customers through social media sites, such as Facebook, Twitter etc. Social CRM enables companies to interact in an easy and contemporary way directly with customers as well as to track customer interactions and their social influence. In this paper we examine the importance of CRM, e-CRM and Social CRM for businesses. We provide perspectives on objectives and types of CRM, the working cycle of CRM, the stages of a CRM Strategy and technology tools that are used in CRM. Social CRM is in particularly analyzed, since this new trend requires active engagement by customers and other stakeholders. The engagement process is essential to successful Social CRM and to successful social business practices. Finally, we describe experiences from three family businesses that introduced Social CRM as a result of a project carried out as an assignment in the ‘Social Media Networking’ module of the MSc course in ‘Web Intelligence’ at the Department of Informatics of Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. The assignment of the groups was to create a Social CRM Strategy in collaboration with a company. This study is a follow-up of the outcome of the projects carried out in the autumn semester 2014 and 2015. The results show that all three companies consider that Social CRM is an excellent tool for obtaining real time valuable data about customers and a cheap way to reach them.

  15. Linking the teaching of professionalism to the social contract: a call for cultural humility.

    Cruess, Sylvia R; Cruess, Richard L; Steinert, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Professionalism, which is fundamental to medical practice, must be taught explicitly. It is the basis of medicine's relationship to society, which most observers call a "social contract." The social contract serves as the basis for society's expectations of medicine and medicine's of society. It therefore directly influences professionalism. The role of the healer is universal, but how professionalism is expressed will differ between countries and cultures due to differences in their social contracts. When professionalism is taught, it should be related to the different cultures and social contracts, respecting local customs and values.

  16. Social support, social strain and inflammation: Evidence from a national longitudinal study of U.S. adults

    Yang, Yang Claire; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships have long been held to have powerful effects on health and survival, but it remains unclear whether such associations differ by function and domain of relationships over time and what biophysiological mechanisms underlie these links. This study addressed these gaps by examining the longitudinal associations of persistent relationship quality across a ten year span with a major indicator of immune function. Specifically, we examined how perceived social support and social strain from relationships with family, friends, and spouse at a prior point in time are associated with subsequent risks of inflammation, as assessed by overall inflammation burden comprised of five markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, E-selectin, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1) in a national longitudinal study of 647 adults from the Midlife Development in the United States (1995–2009). Results from multivariate regression analysis show that (1) support from family, friends, and spouse modestly protected against risks of inflammation; (2) family, friend, and total social strain substantially increased risks of inflammation; and (3) the negative associations of social strain were stronger than the positive associations of social support with inflammation. The findings highlight the importance of enriched conceptualizations, measures, and longitudinal analyses of both social and biological stress processes to elucidate the complex pathways linking social relationships to health and illness. PMID:24607674

  17. Linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based protection for coastal communities.

    Arkema, Katie K; Griffin, Robert; Maldonado, Sergio; Silver, Jessica; Suckale, Jenny; Guerry, Anne D

    2017-07-01

    Interest in the role that ecosystems play in reducing the impacts of coastal hazards has grown dramatically. Yet the magnitude and nature of their effects are highly context dependent, making it difficult to know under what conditions coastal habitats, such as saltmarshes, reefs, and forests, are likely to be effective for saving lives and protecting property. We operationalize the concept of natural and nature-based solutions for coastal protection by adopting an ecosystem services framework that propagates the outcome of a management action through ecosystems to societal benefits. We review the literature on the basis of the steps in this framework, considering not only the supply of coastal protection provided by ecosystems but also the demand for protective services from beneficiaries. We recommend further attention to (1) biophysical processes beyond wave attenuation, (2) the combined effects of multiple habitat types (e.g., reefs, vegetation), (3) marginal values and expected damage functions, and, in particular, (4) community dependence on ecosystems for coastal protection and co-benefits. We apply our approach to two case studies to illustrate how estimates of multiple benefits and losses can inform restoration and development decisions. Finally, we discuss frontiers for linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based solutions to coastal protection. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Social Costs for Wannabes: Moderating Effects of Popularity and Gender on the Links between Popularity Goals and Negative Peer Experiences.

    Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Shoulberg, Erin K; McQuade, Julia D; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2018-02-05

    Youth in early adolescence are highly concerned with being popular in the peer group, but the desire to be popular can have maladaptive consequences for individuals. In fact, qualitative work suggests that youth with high popularity goals who are nonetheless unpopular have negative experiences with their peers. However, little quantitative work has examined this possibility. The purpose of the current study was to examine if popularity goals were linked with physical (e.g., being hit) and relational (e.g., being excluded) victimization and peer rejection, particularly for individuals who strived for popularity but were viewed by their peers as unpopular. Late elementary and early middle school participants (N = 205; 54% female) completed self-reports of popularity goals and peer nominations of popularity and peer rejection. Teachers reported on students' experiences of relational and physical victimization. Peer nominated popularity and gender were moderators of the association between popularity goals and negative peer experiences. Consistent with hypotheses, girls who were unpopular but wanted to be popular were more likely to experience peer rejection and relational victimization. Unexpectedly, boys who were unpopular but did not desire to be popular were more likely to be rejected and relationally victimized. The findings suggest that intervention and prevention programs may benefit from addressing the social status goals of low status youth in a gender-specific manner.

  19. Integrating Moral and Social Development within Middle School Social Studies: A Social Cognitive Domain Approach

    Nucci, Larry; Creane, Michael W.; Powers, Deborah W.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven teachers and 254 urban middle-school students comprised the sample of this study examining the social and moral development outcomes of the integration of social cognitive domain theory within regular classroom instruction. Participating teachers were trained to construct and implement history lessons that stimulated students' moral…

  20. Alternate Communications Spectrum Study (ACSS) for Aviation Data Links (ADL)

    Matolak, David W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work was to identify the key factors involved in the use of alternate spectrum in various bands for a future integrated CNS data link. The study focused on systems and spectral bands that can deliver VDL-or-higher data rates in a two-way communication setting (including air-ground, ground-air, and air-air modes of operation), with multiple platforms (aircraft) operating in the same local environment. We begin with a review of the initial task list, and the final task list. The final task list contained a focus upon spectral availability and related systems that could be affected by the deployment of a new aviation data link (ADL) system. Most of this addresses the lower few layers of the communications protocol stack. A brief review of current related efforts in the aeronautical community is then provided, in which we describe several systems and programs of interest. Participation in some of these efforts is recommended. We also delineate several of the advantages and disadvantages of these system/efforts, in view of anticipated requirements of a new ADL. Desired attributes of a new ADL system are then discussed, and a connection with existing systems is made. The need to consider a wider set of alternative systems and technologies is described, and the beneficial aspects of a particular transmission technique- spread spectrum-are discussed. We then discuss in more detail several potential spectral regions, in terms of propagation conditions, available technology, spectrum availability, and waveform selection. Some comments on the need for standardization are also provided. We note that none of the existing systems described will likely meet the full range of desired features of a new ADL, but that several systems and spectral regions offer promise in terms of one or more characteristics. A system design and analysis approach is then provided. In this, we again focus on the lower few layers of the protocol stack, and aim to capture the main features

  1. Social Justice: The Missing Link in School Administrators' Perspectives on Teacher Induction

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Portelli, John P.; Rottmann, Cindy; Pashby, Karen; Barrett, Sarah Elizabeth; Mujuwamariya, Donatille

    2012-01-01

    Critical scholars view schooling as one piece of a larger struggle for democracy and social justice. We investigated 41 school administrators' perceptions about the role and importance of equity, diversity and social justice in new teacher induction in the province of Ontario. Interviews reveal that principals were interested in shaping teacher…

  2. Gender Gap Linked to Differential Socialization for High-Achieving Senior Mathematics Students.

    Campbell, James R.; Beaudry, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether 11th-grade girls and boys enrolled in advanced mathematics courses nationwide were socialized in similar ways, using Campbell's differential socialization paradigm. Results uncovered a gender gap favoring boys. Self-imposed pressure and persistence had important direct effects on achievement. Self-concept had important direct…

  3. Student Attitudes: A Study of Social Class

    Hardy, Clifford A.

    1976-01-01

    Student attitudes toward current controversial problems (bussing for racial integration, legalization of abortion, and legalization of marijuana) were studied with regard to social class. The 1960 revision of the Purdue Master Attitude Scale was used. (LBH)

  4. Political Socialization Research and Canadian Studies

    Tomkins, George S.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a review of the burgeoning field of Canadian political socialization research as it applies to children and youth, and considers some implications of recent findings for the Canadian studies curriculum. (Editor)

  5. Note-Making in Social Studies.

    Fowler, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Note-making is one excellent method for helping students retain important points made by the teacher. Techniques that elementary and secondary social studies teacher can use to teach note-making skills are described. (RM)

  6. Making Social Studies Meaningful to Elementary Students.

    Klein, Susan

    1982-01-01

    Describes a unit on Ancient Greece designed to make social studies meaningful to fourth and fifth graders. Individual projects and group activities helped students learn about ancient Greek culture. (AM)

  7. Social Studies Online Resources. Media Corner.

    Wilson, Jeri, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that three types of social studies activities are found on the information highway: (1) electronic mail; (2) information; and (3) conferencing. Describes examples of each. Discusses commercial services and resource materials and provides references to online services. (CFR)

  8. African Arts and the Social Studies.

    Crane, Louise

    1982-01-01

    Suggests ways in which the rich resources of African arts--literature, sculpture, music, dance, theater--can be made more accessible to elementary and secondary social studies classrooms. A bibliography of print and nonprint materials is also provided. (RM)

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Social Skills during Early Childhood and Links to Parenting Practices in a Japanese Sample.

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Anme, Tokie

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from a nationwide survey in Japan to model the developmental course of social skills during early childhood. The goals of this study were to identify longitudinal profiles of social skills between 2 and 5 years of age using a group-based trajectory approach, and to investigate whether and to what extent parenting practices at 2 years of age predicted developmental trajectories of social skills during the preschool period. A relatively large sample of boys and girls (N > 1,000) was assessed on three social skill dimensions (Cooperation, Self-control, and Assertion) at four time points (ages 2, 3, 4, and 5), and on four parenting practices (cognitive and emotional involvement, avoidance of restriction and punishment, social stimulation, and social support for parenting) at age 2. The results indicated that for each social skill dimension, group-based trajectory models identified three distinct trajectories: low, moderate, and high. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that parenting practice variables showed differential contributions to development of child social skills. Specifically, Cooperation and Assertion were promoted by cognitive and emotional involvement, Self-control by social stimulation, and Assertion by avoidance of restriction and punishment. Abundant social support for parenting was not associated with higher child social skills trajectories. We found heterogeneity in developmental profiles of social skills during the preschool ages, and we identified parenting practices that contributed to different patterns of social skills development. We discussed the implications of higher-quality parenting practices on the improvement of child social skills across early childhood.

  10. Social insect genomes exhibit dramatic evolution in gene composition and regulation while preserving regulatory features linked to sociality

    Simola, Daniel F.; Wissler, Lothar; Donahue, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Genomes of eusocial insects code for dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity and social organization. We compared the genomes of seven ants, the honeybee, and various solitary insects to examine whether eusocial lineages share distinct features of genomic organization. Each ant lineage contain...

  11. Danish Approaches in Social Studies of Technology

    Munch, Birgitte

    1995-01-01

    Danish contribution to a EU-COST A4 action analysing the emergence of social studies of technology, the Science-Technology-Society field and the 'new sociology' of technology in Europe.......Danish contribution to a EU-COST A4 action analysing the emergence of social studies of technology, the Science-Technology-Society field and the 'new sociology' of technology in Europe....

  12. Ged® Completers' Perceptions of College Readiness and Social Capital: Linking Adult Literacy to a Greater Quality of Life

    Lott, Donalyn; O'Dell, Jade

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of general education development (GED®) acquisition and GED® completers' perceptions of college readiness and social capital using a quantitative methodology. Also, the study used a descriptive, cross-sectional research design framed by the social capital theoretical perspective. The conceptual framework developed…

  13. Linked hydrologic and social systems that support resilience of traditional irrigation communities

    Fernald, A.; Guldan, S.; Boykin, K.; Cibils, A.; Gonzales, M.; Hurd, B.; Lopez, S.; Ochoa, C.; Ortiz, M.; Rivera, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Steele, C.

    2015-01-01

    Southwestern US irrigated landscapes are facing upheaval due to water scarcity and land use conversion associated with climate change, population growth, and changing economics. In the traditionally irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico, these stresses, as well as instances of community longevity in the face of these stresses, are apparent. Human systems have interacted with hydrologic processes over the last 400 years in river-fed irrigated valleys to create linked systems. In this study, we ask if concurrent data from multiple disciplines could show that human-adapted hydrologic and socioeconomic systems have created conditions for resilience. Various types of resiliencies are evident in the communities. Traditional local knowledge about the hydrosocial cycle of community water management and ability to adopt new water management practices is a key response to disturbances such as low water supply from drought. Livestock producers have retained their irrigated land by adapting: changing from sheep to cattle and securing income from outside their livestock operations. Labor-intensive crops decreased as off-farm employment opportunities became available. Hydrologic resilience of the system can be affected by both human and natural elements. We find, for example, that there are multiple hydrologic benefits of traditional irrigation system water seepage: it recharges the groundwater that recharges rivers, supports threatened biodiversity by maintaining riparian vegetation, and ameliorates impacts of climate change by prolonging streamflow hydrographs. Human decisions to transfer water out of agriculture or change irrigation management, as well as natural changes such as long-term drought or climate change, can result in reduced seepage and the benefits it provides. We have worked with the communities to translate the multidisciplinary dimensions of these systems into a common language of causal loop diagrams, which form the basis for modeling future scenarios to

  14. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  15. A study of 60 Gigahertz intersatellite link applications

    Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.; Haugland, E. J.; Kosmahl, H. G.; Chitwood, J. S.

    Applications of intersatellite links operating at 60 GHz are reviewed. Likely scenarios, ranging from transmission of moderate and high data rates over long distances to low data rates over short distances are examined. A limited parametric tradeoff is performed with system variables such as radiofrequency power, receiver noise temperature, link distance, data rate, and antenna size. Present status is discussed and projections are given for both electron tube and solid state transmitter technologies. Monolithic transmit and receive module technology, already under development at 20 to 30 GHz, is reviewed and its extension to 60 GHz, and possible applicability is discussed.

  16. A study of 60 GHz intersatellite link applications

    Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.; Haugland, E. J.; Kosmahl, H. G.; Chitwood, J. S.

    Applications of intersatellite links operating at 60 GHz are reviewed. Likely scenarios, ranging from transmission of moderate and high data rates over long distances to low data rates over short distances are examined. A limited parametric tradeoff is performed with system variables such as radiofrequency power, receiver noise temperature, link distance, data rate, and antenna size. Present status is discussed and projections are given for both electron tube and solid state transmitter technologies. Monolithic transmit and receive module technology, already under development at 20 to 30 GHz, is reviewed and its extension to 60 GHz, and possible applicability is discussed.

  17. A study of 60 Gigahertz intersatellite link applications

    Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.; Haugland, E. J.; Kosmahl, H. G.; Chitwood, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of intersatellite links operating at 60 GHz are reviewed. Likely scenarios, ranging from transmission of moderate and high data rates over long distances to low data rates over short distances are examined. A limited parametric tradeoff is performed with system variables such as radiofrequency power, receiver noise temperature, link distance, data rate, and antenna size. Present status is discussed and projections are given for both electron tube and solid state transmitter technologies. Monolithic transmit and receive module technology, already under development at 20 to 30 GHz, is reviewed and its extension to 60 GHz, and possible applicability is discussed.

  18. A study of 60 GHz intersatellite link applications

    Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.; Haugland, E. J.; Kosmahl, H. G.; Chitwood, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of intersatellite links operating at 60 GHz are reviewed. Likely scenarios, ranging from transmission of moderate and high data rates over long distances to low data rates over short distances are examined. A limited parametric tradeoff is performed with system variables such as radiofrequency power, receiver noise temperature, link distance, data rate, and antenna size. Present status is discussed and projections are given for both electron tube and solid state transmitter technologies. Monolithic transmit and receive module technology, already under development at 20 to 30 GHz, is reviewed and its extension to 60 GHz, and possible applicability is discussed.

  19. Advocating for Health and Safety through Social Media--Linked In!

    Carreon, Amie Klein; Peoples, JaNiene; Shipley, Meagan; Wilson, Kelly; Ramirez, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Excessive drinking among college students, which is influenced by an array of factors ranging from campus norms to membership in student organizations, has been linked to consequences including motor vehicle accidents, cognitive deficits, arrests, overdoses, assaults, and death. Considering the severity of consequences related to drinking,…

  20. A Parent's Guide to the Social Studies. Revised.

    Roselle, Daniel; Singleton, Laurel R.

    This guide for parents seeks to answer seven questions concerning the social studies: (1) What is social studies? (2) Why is social studies important at every grade level? (3) What kinds of materials are used to teach social studies? (4) What teaching strategies are used in social studies classes? (5) What have the national reports on education…

  1. Social Studies: The Electoral Process.

    Schrager, Donald M.

    This quinmester course of study for grades seven through nine provides a framework for analyzing election processes in a democracy by investigating democratic societies of the past, and contrasting democracies with totalitarian types of government. Major emphasis is upon analyzing the system of institutionalized political parties, the…

  2. Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility.

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2006-12-01

    Governments, activists, and the media have become adept at holding companies to account for the social consequences of their actions. In response, corporate social responsibility has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders in every country. Frequently, though, CSR efforts are counterproductive, for two reasons. First, they pit business against society, when in reality the two are interdependent. Second, they pressure companies to think of corporate social responsibility in generic ways instead of in the way most appropriate to their individual strategies. The fact is, the prevailing approaches to CSR are so disconnected from strategy as to obscure many great opportunities for companies to benefit society. What a terrible waste. If corporations were to analyze their opportunities for social responsibility using the same frameworks that guide their core business choices, they would discover, as Whole Foods Market, Toyota, and Volvo have done, that CSR can be much more than a cost, a constraint, or a charitable deed--it can be a potent source of innovation and competitive advantage. In this article, Michael Porter and Mark Kramer propose a fundamentally new way to look at the relationship between business and society that does not treat corporate growth and social welfare as a zero-sum game. They introduce a framework that individual companies can use to identify the social consequences of their actions; to discover opportunities to benefit society and themselves by strengthening the competitive context in which they operate; to determine which CSR initiatives they should address; and to find the most effective ways of doing so. Perceiving social responsibility as an opportunity rather than as damage control or a PR campaign requires dramatically different thinking--a mind-set, the authors warn, that will become increasingly important to competitive success.

  3. Social network analysis of study environment

    Blaženka Divjak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Student working environment influences student learning and achievement level. In this respect social aspects of students’ formal and non-formal learning play special role in learning environment. The main research problem of this paper is to find out if students' academic performance influences their position in different students' social networks. Further, there is a need to identify other predictors of this position. In the process of problem solving we use the Social Network Analysis (SNA that is based on the data we collected from the students at the Faculty of Organization and Informatics, University of Zagreb. There are two data samples: in the basic sample N=27 and in the extended sample N=52. We collected data on social-demographic position, academic performance, learning and motivation styles, student status (full-time/part-time, attitudes towards individual and teamwork as well as informal cooperation. Afterwards five different networks (exchange of learning materials, teamwork, informal communication, basic and aggregated social network were constructed. These networks were analyzed with different metrics and the most important were betweenness, closeness and degree centrality. The main result is, firstly, that the position in a social network cannot be forecast only by academic success and, secondly, that part-time students tend to form separate groups that are poorly connected with full-time students. In general, position of a student in social networks in study environment can influence student learning as well as her/his future employability and therefore it is worthwhile to be investigated.

  4. Variables psicosociales del entorno comunitario asociadas a procesos de desadaptación social en adolescentes: reflexiones a partir de un estudio de caso / Psychosocial Variables of Community Environment Linked to Social Maladjustment Processes in Adolescents: Reflections from a Case Study

    Alba Zambrano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la incidencia de un conjunto de variables relacionales y del entorno social construido que actúan como factores de riesgo en procesos de desadaptación social de adolescentes en un barrio de Temuco, Chile. Como técnicas para la producción de datos, se emplearon: la observación participante, las entrevistas focalizadas, el análisis documental, los talleres de discusión grupal y el análisis estructural de redes. En un análisis en progreso de los datos, bajo la lógica de construcción de teoría desde la base, se caracteriza la dinámica barrial en cinco dimensiones: convivencia comunitaria, acción institucional en la comunidad, norma comunitaria, abordaje familiar del comportamiento infantil y adolescente y apropiación del espacio público. Se propone que estas dimensiones en el polo negativo actuarían como variables criminógenas en el espacio comunitario.

  5. Data collection in Internet environment in social representations studies

    Aline Vieira De Lima Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at comparing social representations structures concerning data collection procedures: through internet forms, diffused in the WWW, and through conventional paper and pencil questionnaire methods. O verall 893 individuals participated in the research, 58% of whom were female. A total of 217 questionnaires about the social representation on football (soccer and 218 about the representation on aging were answered by Brazilian university students in classrooms. Electronic versions of the same instrument were diffused through an internet forum linked to the same university. There were 238 answers for the football questionnaire and 230 for the aging one. The instrument asked participants to indicate five wordsor expressions related to one of the social objects. Sample characteristics and structural analyses were carried out separately for the two data collection procedures. Data indicated that internet-based research allows for higher sample diversity, but it is essential to guarantee the adoption of measures that can select only desired participants. Results also pointed out the need to take into account the nature of the social object to be investigated through internet research on representations, seeking to avoid self-selection effects, which can bias results, as it seems to have happened with the football social object.

  6. Analysis of risk factors linked to social educator profession in different residential settings of Alicante Province

    Jorge Heliz Llopis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important professions in the field of intervention with underage at social risk that are cared for in different residential settings is, undoubtedly, that of the social educator. In that sense, although there are many professionals involved with these underage (psychologists, social workers, psychiatrists, teachers, etc., social educators are the ones who, through the carrying out of functions specific to their profession, often work as the "front line" of action, given that they are the ones who are more in touch with the underage and therefore the most likely to be exposed to different variables that could eventually put them in a situation of risk of psycho-social problems related to their work. Hence, the task of identifying the risk variables related to the teaching profession becomes a key objective in order to prevent the occurrence of likely problems that could undermine their psychosocial health. Therefore, through this communication we intend to expose the results that we obtained with a sample of 50 educators who perform their work in different residential-type services in the province of Alicante.

  7. Peer Victimization and Social Dominance as Intervening Variables of the Link between Peer Liking and Relational Aggression

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…

  8. Online social networking in adolescence: patterns of use in six European countries and links with psychosocial functioning.

    Tsitsika, A.K.; Tzavela, E.C.; Janikian, M.; Olafsson, K.; Iordache, A.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Tzavara, C.; Richardson, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Online communication tools, such as social networking sites (SNS), have been comprehensively embraced by adolescents and have become a dominant daily social practice. Recognizing SNS as a key context of adolescent development, this study aimed to investigate associations between heavier SNS

  9. Evaluation of Social Studies Curriculum on Compassion ...

    This study examined the impact of social studies curriculum on the affective dispositions of students of Colleges of Education in North-West Zone of Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of NCE I and NCE III students' affective dispositions in the area of compassion. One research question and one ...

  10. Latina Social Studies Teachers Negotiating Public Institutions

    Rivas, Elizabeth D.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores the institutionalized master narrative of public institutions and how the mandated policies enacted by public institutions impact Latina social studies teachers when delivering instruction to their students. A socio-transformative constructivist framework guides this study to affirm that knowledge is socially…

  11. Scoping Study. Linking RE Promotion Policies with International Carbon Trade (LINK)

    Castro, Paula; Hayashi, Daisuke; Kristiansen, Kjell Olav; Michaelowa, Axel; Stadelmann, Martin

    2011-06-15

    Implementing national policies may threaten the eligibility of renewable energy projects for Clean Development Mechanism/Joint Implementation (CDM/JI), thus reducing international development financing. Countries hence need to be very careful when crafting their national promotion policies. The objectives of the Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) project were to perform a scoping study on the interplay between national Renewable Energy (RE) promotion policies and international carbon trade. The study summarizes the ongoing discussion, describes the main barriers that may hinder -- or at least not sufficiently support -- the implementation of national RE promotion policies, and provides suggestions for removing these barriers.

  12. Breaking the ice and forging links: the importance of socializing in research.

    Stobbe, Miranda; Mishra, Tarun; Macintyre, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    When meeting someone for the first time-whether another PhD student, or the Founding Editor-in-chief of PLOS Computational Biology-nothing breaks the ice like eating pancakes or having drinks together. A social atmosphere provides a relaxed, informal environment where people can connect, share ideas, and form collaborations. Being able to build a network and thrive in a social environment is crucial to a successful scientific career. This article highlights the importance of bringing people together who speak the same scientific language in an informal setting. Using examples of events held by Regional Student Groups of the ISCB's Student Council, this article shows that socializing is much more than simply sharing a drink.

  13. Breaking the Ice and Forging Links: The Importance of Socializing in Research

    Stobbe, Miranda; Mishra, Tarun; Macintyre, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    When meeting someone for the first time—whether another PhD student, or the Founding Editor-in-chief of PLOS Computational Biology—nothing breaks the ice like eating pancakes or having drinks together. A social atmosphere provides a relaxed, informal environment where people can connect, share ideas, and form collaborations. Being able to build a network and thrive in a social environment is crucial to a successful scientific career. This article highlights the importance of bringing people together who speak the same scientific language in an informal setting. Using examples of events held by Regional Student Groups of the ISCB's Student Council, this article shows that socializing is much more than simply sharing a drink. PMID:24282392

  14. Personality moderates the links of social identity with work motivation and job searching.

    Baay, Pieter E; van Aken, Marcel A G; van der Lippe, Tanja; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Work motivation is critical for successful school-to-work transitions, but little is known about its determinants among labor market entrants. Applying a social identity framework, we examined whether work motivation and job searching are social-contextually determined. We expected that some job seekers are more sensitive to contextual influence, depending on their personality. Mediation analyses on 591 Dutch vocational training students indicate that the perception of more positive work norms in someone's social context was related to higher levels of intrinsic motivation, which in turn predicted higher preparatory job search behavior and job search intentions. Multi-group analysis shows that perceived work norms more strongly predict work motivation among overcontrollers compared to resilients and undercontrollers. In conclusion, work motivation and job searching appear contextually determined: especially among those sensitive to contextual influence, people seem to work when they believe that is what people like them do.

  15. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: the roles of social connection and emotion regulation.

    Roberts, Nicole A; Burleson, Mary H

    2013-01-01

    Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18-30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities-including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group-relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders.

  16. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: the roles of social connection and emotion regulation

    Roberts, Nicole A.; Burleson, Mary H.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18–30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders. PMID:23450647

  17. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: The roles of social connection and emotion regulation

    Nicole A Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18 to 30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (n=82; MAs or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n=234 and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one’s own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders.

  18. New approach to training in citizen security from the social link university–community

    Edicta Gregoria González-Leal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article bases the need for a new conception in the training approaches in the training institutions of citizen security professionals, due to the present changes in the 21st century at the state, regional and local level, where the protagonism of the same lies In responding to the new challenges, trends and challenges present in society. It also analyzes the significance of the university's social connection with the communities, so that the praxis of the students goes beyond the understanding of the problems to the search for possible alternatives for their solution, with the consequent social transformations that this bring along.

  19. Identifying Links between Corporate Social Responsibility and Reputation: Some Considerations for Family Firms

    Iguácel Melero-Polo

    2017-07-01

    To this end—following consultations with a panel of internationally recognized scholars—a selection of leading management, marketing and ethics, corporate governance and family firm management journals were reviewed. The results—based on a content analysis of 55 articles considering the global link between RSC and reputation—allowed us to identify, among others, topics related to consumer attitude and market response to CSR activities (via brand value, along with the impact of CSR on financial value and risk management.

  20. Let the Weakest Link Go! Empirical Explorations on the Relative Importance of Weak and Strong Ties on Social Networking Sites

    Nicole C. Krämer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches as well as empirical results in the area of social capital accumulation on social networking sites suggest that weak ties/bridging versus strong ties/bonding social capital should be distinguished and that while bonding social capital is connected to emotional support, bridging social capital entails the provision of information. Additionally, recent studies imply the notion that weak ties/bridging social capital are gaining increasing importance in today’s social media environments. By means of a survey (N = 317 we challenged these presuppositions by assessing the social support functions that are ascribed to three different types of contacts from participants’ network (weak, medium, or strong tie. In contrast to theoretical assumptions, we do not find that weak ties are experienced to supply informational support whereas strong ties first and foremost provide emotional support. Instead we find that within social networking sites, strong ties are perceived to provide both emotional and informational support and weak ties are perceived as less important than recent literature assumes.

  1. An Experimental Study of FSO Link Performance in Desert Environment

    Esmail, Maged; Fathallah, Habib; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Free space optical (FSO) communication systems are affected by dust particles suspended in the atmosphere in arid and semi-arid regions. The presence of these particles in the air severely affects the optical link, reduces its availability and causes service outage. In the literature, the effect of dust on the microwave signals has been widely investigated. However, for FSO communication systems that exploit shorter wavelengths, information and research is still very limited yet almost inexistent. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the performance of FSO links under dust storms. We designed a chamber to emulate this specific environment and carry out measurements. From the experimental investigations, we derive and propose an empirical model for the signal attenuation as a function of the visibility range. The results show acceptable performance for FSO links, under moderate and light dust, with potential reach distance of hundreds of meters to few kilometers. Furthermore, a comparison analysis shows that the dust induces 7 times higher attenuation than fog.

  2. An Experimental Study of FSO Link Performance in Desert Environment

    Esmail, Maged

    2016-06-29

    Free space optical (FSO) communication systems are affected by dust particles suspended in the atmosphere in arid and semi-arid regions. The presence of these particles in the air severely affects the optical link, reduces its availability and causes service outage. In the literature, the effect of dust on the microwave signals has been widely investigated. However, for FSO communication systems that exploit shorter wavelengths, information and research is still very limited yet almost inexistent. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the performance of FSO links under dust storms. We designed a chamber to emulate this specific environment and carry out measurements. From the experimental investigations, we derive and propose an empirical model for the signal attenuation as a function of the visibility range. The results show acceptable performance for FSO links, under moderate and light dust, with potential reach distance of hundreds of meters to few kilometers. Furthermore, a comparison analysis shows that the dust induces 7 times higher attenuation than fog.

  3. Breaking the ice and forging links: the importance of socializing in research

    Stobbe, Miranda; Mishra, Tarun; Macintyre, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    When meeting someone for the first time-whether another PhD student, or the Founding Editor-in-chief of PLOS Computational Biology-nothing breaks the ice like eating pancakes or having drinks together. A social atmosphere provides a relaxed, informal environment where people can connect, share

  4. Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development

    Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and…

  5. Social dysfunction in bipolar disorder: pilot study.

    de Almeida Rocca, Cristiana Castanho; de Macedo-Soares, Marcia Britto; Gorenstein, Clarice; Tamada, Renata Sayuri; Issler, Cilly Kluger; Dias, Rodrigo Silva; Schwartzmann, Angela Maria; Lafer, Beny

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the social skills of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. A group of 25 outpatients with bipolar disorder type I were evaluated in comparison with a group of 31 healthy volunteers who were matched in terms of level of education, age, sex and intelligence. Both groups were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, the Brazilian Inventario de Habilidades Sociais (IHS, Social Skills Inventory). Two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests (Picture Arrangement and Comprehension) were also used in order to assess subject ability to analyse social situations and to make judgements, respectively. Patients with bipolar disorder had lower IHS scores for the domains that assessed conversational skills/social self-confidence and social openness to new people/situations. Patients with anxiety disorders had high scores for the domain that assessed self-confidence in the expression of positive emotions. No differences were found between patients and controls in performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Picture Arrangement and Comprehension subtests. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder present inhibited and overattentive behaviour in relation to other people and their environment. This behaviour might have a negative impact on their level of social functioning and quality of life.

  6. The Field Trip Book: Study Travel Experiences in Social Studies

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for social studies adventures to help students find connections to democratic citizenship? Look no further! This book provides just the answer teachers need for engaging students in field trips as researching learners with emphasis on interdisciplinary social studies plus skills in collecting and reporting data gathered from field…

  7. Digital Simulation Games for Social Studies Classrooms

    Devlin-Scherer, Roberta; Sardone, Nancy B.

    2010-01-01

    Data from ten teacher candidates studying teaching methods were analyzed to determine perceptions toward digital simulation games in the area of social studies. This research can be used as a conceptual model of how current teacher candidates react to new methods of instruction and determine how education programs might change existing curricula…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  9. Weak Links: Stabilizers of Complex Systems from Proteins to Social Networks

    Csermely, Peter

    Why do women stabilize our societies? Why can we enjoy and understand Shakespeare? Why are fruitflies uniform? Why do omnivorous eating habits aid our survival? Why is Mona Lisa's smile beautiful? -- Is there any answer to these questions? This book shows that the statement: "weak links stabilize complex systems" holds the answers to all of the surprising questions above. The author (recipientof several distinguished science communication prizes) uses weak (low affinity, low probability) interactions as a thread to introduce a vast varietyof networks from proteins to ecosystems.

  10. Pilot study protocol to inform a future longitudinal study of ageing using linked administrative data: Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS).

    Douglas, Elaine; Rutherford, Alasdair; Bell, David

    2018-01-10

    Population ageing is a welcome testament to improvements in the social, economic and health circumstances over the life course. However, these successes necessitate that we understand more about the pathways of ageing to plan and cost our health and social care services, to support our ageing population to live healthier for longer and to make adequate provisions for retirement. Longitudinal studies of ageing facilitate such understanding in many countries around the world. Scotland presently does not have a longitudinal study of ageing, despite dramatic increases to its ageing population and its poor health record. Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS) constitutes the launch of Scotland's first comprehensive longitudinal study of ageing. A sample of 1000 people aged 50+ years will be invited to take part in a household social survey. The innovative sampling procedure used administrative data to identify eligible households. Anonymised survey responses will be linked to administrative data. Ethics approval was obtained from the host institution for the study design and from the Public Benefits and Privacy Panel for administrative data linkage. Anonymised survey data will be deposited with the UK Data Service. A subset of survey data, harmonised with other global ageing studies, will be available via the Gateway to Global Aging platform. These data will enable powerful cross-country comparisons across the social, economic and health domains that will be relevant for national and international research.Research publications from the HAGIS team will be disseminated through journal articles and national and international conferences. The findings will support current and future research and policy debate on ageing populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: the roles of social connection and emotion regulation

    Roberts, Nicole A.; Burleson, Mary H.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and redu...

  12. Learning process in fashion design students: link with industry and social media

    Marques, António Manuel Dinis Ribeiro; Moschatou, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Portugal is today an important player in the European fashion industry. The Portuguese footwear industry, “low-tech”, mature and traditional, dominated by SMEs, is also a success case in the Portuguese economy. With own brands, own collections and own products, the quality, innovation and international image of the Portuguese clothes, accessories and shoes is increasing year by year in the most sophisticated markets worldwide. The new information economy and social media presen...

  13. Relationship orientation in social media: construct, measurement and link to company performance

    Fudurić, Morana; Snehota, Ivan; Mandelli, Andreina

    2014-01-01

    Today, companies operate in a dynamic environment, characterized by fast technological development, vast competition and globalization as well as constant changes in the market which has led to the growing awareness of the importance of developing long term, profitable relationships with various stakeholders or partners. Combined with the emergence of social media during the 1990s that facilitate the development and maintenance of such relationships, the two concepts gain even more imp...

  14. Learning process in fashion design students: link with industry and social media

    Marques, A. D.; Moschatou, A.

    2017-10-01

    Portugal is today an important player in the European fashion industry. The Portuguese footwear industry, “low-tech”, mature and traditional, dominated by SMEs, is also a success case in the Portuguese economy. With own brands, own collections and own products, the quality, innovation and international image of the Portuguese clothes, accessories and shoes is increasing year by year in the most sophisticated markets worldwide. The new information economy and social media presents a new set of opportunities and threats to established companies, new challenges and new markets, and demanding to all the companies to rethink their strategy and to prepare new business plans. Portuguese companies in the fashion industry are starting to perceive that the brand’s transition to social media means a transformation of the customer relationship, wherein social media and the community members is an ally of the brand and not an “audience”. Also the universities are preparing new professionals to the fashion industry and the learning process has to be managed according these new challenges. And the University of Minho has the Bachelor in Fashion Design and Marketing, an excellent course to prepare new skills to these fashion companies: textile, clothing and footwear industries.

  15. Critical Disability Studies and Socially Just Change in Higher Education

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Social justice is an ambiguous and contested term that is evoked in order to address issues of enhancing participation and eliminating discrimination across various markers of difference linked to race, social class, and so on. Historically, disability has been excluded from these analyses because it has been cast in the sphere of abnormality and…

  16. Adolescents' aggressive and prosocial behaviors: links with social information processing, negative emotionality, moral affect, and moral cognition.

    Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.

  17. Trade liberalization, social policies and health: an empirical case study.

    McNamara, Courtney

    2015-10-12

    This study investigates the health impacts of a major liberalization episode in the textile and clothing (T&C) sector. This episode triggered substantial shifts in employment across a wide range of countries. It is the first study to empirically link trade liberalization to health via changes in employment and offers some of the first empirical insights on how trade liberalization interacts with social policies to influence health. Data from 32 T&C reliant countries were analysed in reference to the pre- and post-liberalization periods of 2000-2004 and 2005-2009. Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to examine the association between countries' a) level of development b) labour market and welfare state protections c) T&C employment changes and d) changes in adult female and infant mortality rates. Process tracing was used to further investigate these associations through twelve in-depth country studies. Results from the fsQCA relate changes in employment after the phase-out to both changing adult female and infant mortality rates. Findings from the in-depth country studies suggest that the worsening of adult female mortality rates is related to workers' lack of social protection, both in the context of T&C employment growth and loss. Overall, it is found that social protection is often inaccessible to the type of workers who may be the most vulnerable to processes of liberalization and that many workers are particularly vulnerable due to the structure of social protection policies. Social policies are therefore found to both moderate pathways to health and influence the type of health-related pathways resulting from trade liberalizing policies.

  18. Conceptualizing Emotions in Social Studies Education

    Sheppard, Maia; Katz, Doran; Grosland, Tanetha

    2015-01-01

    This review of research investigates how the field of social studies education conceptualizes emotions within its literature. Analysis indicates a lack of theoretical and empirical engagement with emotions, even when the presence of emotions is explicitly acknowledged. Drawing on Michalinos Zembylas's framework for researching emotions in…

  19. Social Studies and the Problem of Evil.

    Parsons, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Explores the issue of whether evil exists in the world and the best ways to confront it. Claims that the ubiquitousness of evil places a responsibility on social studies educators to address it in the classroom. Offers six suggestions for teaching students about the existence and implications of evil. (CMK)

  20. Grand Challenges: Nanotechnology and the Social Studies

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a multidisciplinary lesson on nanotechnology that can provide an effective means for teaching about both STEM and social studies topics. This approach encourages students to consider the "role that science and technology play in our lives and in our cultures." The extraordinary promise of nanotechnology, however, is…

  1. Game Theory in the Social Studies Classroom

    Vesperman, Dean Patrick; Clark, Chris H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores using game theory in social studies classrooms as a heuristic to aid students in understanding strategic decision making. The authors provide examples of several simple games teachers can use. Next, we address how to help students design their own simple (2 × 2) games.

  2. Social Studies Fresh Frontier for Standards

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Feeling that social studies has been sidelined by a test-driven focus on math and English/language arts, subject-matter specialists from more than a dozen states met last week with representatives of content-area groups to brainstorm ways to improve academic standards in that subject. The two-day gathering in Charlotte, N.C., is the third convened…

  3. Study of Problems of Individual's Social Education

    Duisenbayev, Abay K.; Baltymova, Mira R.; Akzholova, Aktoty T.; Bazargaliyev, Gabit B.; Zhumagaziyev, Arman Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the study of social education of the individual as an integral process covering all stages of human development, supported by factors of modern development of children, adolescents, youth in the conditions of reforming education. Currently, the scientific literature has accumulated a sufficient fund of theoretical knowledge,…

  4. Successful linking of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database to Social Security data to examine the accuracy of Society of Thoracic Surgeons mortality data.

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; O'Brien, Sean M; Shahian, David M; Edwards, Fred H; Badhwar, Vinay; Dokholyan, Rachel S; Sanchez, Juan A; Morales, David L; Prager, Richard L; Wright, Cameron D; Puskas, John D; Gammie, James S; Haan, Constance K; George, Kristopher M; Sheng, Shubin; Peterson, Eric D; Shewan, Cynthia M; Han, Jane M; Bongiorno, Phillip A; Yohe, Courtney; Williams, William G; Mayer, John E; Grover, Frederick L

    2013-04-01

    The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database has been linked to the Social Security Death Master File to verify "life status" and evaluate long-term surgical outcomes. The objective of this study is explore practical applications of the linkage of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database to Social Securtiy Death Master File, including the use of the Social Securtiy Death Master File to examine the accuracy of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons 30-day mortality data. On January 1, 2008, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database began collecting Social Security numbers in its new version 2.61. This study includes all Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database records for operations with nonmissing Social Security numbers between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010, inclusive. To match records between the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database and the Social Security Death Master File, we used a combined probabilistic and deterministic matching rule with reported high sensitivity and nearly perfect specificity. Between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database collected data for 870,406 operations. Social Security numbers were available for 541,953 operations and unavailable for 328,453 operations. According to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database, the 30-day mortality rate was 17,757/541,953 = 3.3%. Linkage to the Social Security Death Master File identified 16,565 cases of suspected 30-day deaths (3.1%). Of these, 14,983 were recorded as 30-day deaths in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database (relative sensitivity = 90.4%). Relative sensitivity was 98.8% (12,863/13,014) for suspected 30-day deaths occurring before discharge and 59.7% (2120/3551) for suspected 30-day deaths occurring after discharge. Linkage to the Social Security Death Master File confirms the accuracy of

  5. Social networks and cooperation: a bibliometric study

    Ana Paula Lopes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The social network analysis involves social and behavioral science. The decentralization of productive activities, such as the formation of "network organizations" as a result of downsizing of large corporate structures of the past, marked by outsoucing and formation of alliances, shows the importance of this theme. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the theory of cooperation and social networks over a period of 24 years. For this, was performed a bibliometric study with content analysis. The database chosen for the initial sample search was ISI Web of Science. The search topics were “social network” and “cooperation”. Were analyzed 97 articles and their references, through networks of citations. The main identified research groups dealing with issues related to trust, strategic alliances, natural cooperation, game theory, social capital, intensity of interaction, reciprocity and innovation. It was found that the publications occurred in a large number of journals, which indicates that the theme is multidisciplinary, and only five journals published at least three articles. Although the first publication has occurred in 1987, was from 2006 that the publications effectively increased. The areas most related to the theme of the research were performance, evolution, management, graphics, model and game theory.

  6. RECRUITMENT PROCESS IN MNC'S THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA SITES - A STUDY

    Dr. B. L. Sairam Subramaniam; B. Naveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations are carrying out recruitment process by using social media networking sites. Social networking sites are used to facilitate and improve process of recruitment method in HR management. Social networking sites address the needs of employers and job-seekers via internetworking on electronic platform likes face book, twitter, LinkedIn, naukri.com, and monster.com which increase the speed of employment, reducing the cost of recruitment, huge availability of jobseekers and improv...

  7. The Linked CENTURY Study: linking three decades of clinical and public health data to examine disparities in childhood obesity.

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman, Ken P; Mariotti, Megan; Taveras, Elsie M

    2016-03-09

    Despite the need to identify the causes of disparities in childhood obesity, the existing epidemiologic studies of early life risk factors have several limitations. We report on the construction of the Linked CENTURY database, incorporating CENTURY (Collecting Electronic Nutrition Trajectory Data Using Records of Youth) Study data with birth certificates; and discuss the potential implications of combining clinical and public health data sources in examining the etiology of disparities in childhood obesity. We linked the existing CENTURY Study, a database of 269,959 singleton children from birth to age 18 years with measured heights and weights, with each child's Massachusetts birth certificate, which captures information on their mothers' pregnancy history and detailed socio-demographic information of both mothers and fathers. Overall, 74.2 % were matched, resulting in 200,343 children in the Linked CENTURY Study with 1,580,597 well child visits. Among this cohort, 94.0 % (188,334) of children have some father information available on the birth certificate and 60.9 % (121,917) of children have at least one other sibling in the dataset. Using maternal race/ethnicity from the birth certificate as an indicator of children's race/ethnicity, 75.7 % of children were white, 11.6 % black, 4.6 % Hispanic, and 5.7 % Asian. Based on socio-demographic information from the birth certificate, 20.0 % of mothers were non-US born, 5.9 % smoked during pregnancy, 76.3 % initiated breastfeeding, and 11.0 % of mothers had their delivery paid for by public health insurance. Using clinical data from the CENTURY Study, 22.7 % of children had a weight-for-length ≥ 95(th) percentile between 1 and 24 months and 12.0 % of children had a body mass index ≥ 95(th) percentile at ages 5 and 17 years. By linking routinely-collected data sources, it is possible to address research questions that could not be answered with either source alone. Linkage between a clinical

  8. Synthesis across social innovation case studies

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Avelino, Flor; Dorland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Part 1 is an overview and a comparative analysis of the findings from the 20 case study reports in TRANSIT about aspects of transformative social innovation (TSI). Each of the 20 reports, which the report is based on, includes an analysis of a transnational social innovation network and at least...... two local social innovation initiatives. Part 2 consists of extended abstracts of 8 papers which either focus on empirical phenomena surfacing in different TRANSIT cases (e.g. alternative economic arrangements), take a societal or methodological issue as starting point (e.g. inclusivity or research...... relations), address propositions from TRANSIT proto-theory (institutionalization dialectics, responses to crisis), build upon thematic clusters used for case selection (e.g. spaces for/of innovation, inclusive society, new economy, transformative science) or inductively develop specific sensitizing concepts...

  9. Social Studies Teachers’ Perceptions of Tolerance

    Hatice Türe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Tolerance is one of the values which citizens should have in today's multicultural and democratic society. Educational system should teach tolerance to the individuals in a democratic society. Tolerance can be given through curricula in educational process. Social studies is one of the courses for conducting tolerance education. Skills and perspectives of teachers are important for tolerance education in social studies. The purpose of this study is to understand social studies teachers' perceptions of tolerance. Method: In the study, qualitative research method and phenomenology that is one of the qualitative research designs was employed. The participants were determined using criterion sampling. 10 social studies teachers graduated from social studies education departments working at schools of Eskisehir Provincial Directorate of National Education participated in the study. The research process consisted of two phases. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. The interviews were conducted in two steps in order to make an in-depth analysis. In Phase I of the study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 teachers in December and January months during the 2012-2013 school year. The data obtained from the first interviews were also the base for the questions in the second interviews. In Phase II of the study, semi-structured interviews were again conducted with 10 teachers who participated in the first interviews in April and May months during the 2012-2013 school year. Teacher Interview Form-1 in the first interviews and Teacher Interview Form-2 in the second interviews were used for data collection. As for data analysis, thematic analysis technique was used. The data were analysed, the findings were defined and interpreted based on the research questions. Findings: The findings of the study revealed that the social studies teachers described tolerance as respecting ideas, values, beliefs and behaviors

  10. Socialism. Grade Ten, Unit Two, 10.2. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    Malone, Helen

    The socialism unit of the tenth grade level of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) explores a selected history of socialist thought and the theoretical model of socialism. Three case studies of socialism are explored: Great Britain, Sweden, and Israel. The case studies are designed to answer questions concerning…

  11. Knowledge Transmission versus Social Transformation: A Critical Analysis of Purpose in Elementary Social Studies Methods Textbooks

    Butler, Brandon M.; Suh, Yonghee; Scott, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate the extent to which 9 elementary social studies methods textbooks present the purpose of teaching and learning social studies. Using Stanley's three perspectives of teaching social studies for knowledge transmission, method of intelligence, and social transformation; we analyze how these texts prepare…

  12. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities

    Bozana Meinhardt-Injac

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM, understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009. To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  13. Isotopic examination of links between diet, social differentiation, and DISH at the post-medieval Carmelite Friary of Aalst, Belgium.

    Quintelier, Kim; Ervynck, Anton; Müldner, Gundula; Van Neer, Wim; Richards, Michael P; Fuller, Benjamin T

    2014-02-01

    Stable isotope ratios (δ(13) C and δ(15) N) were measured in human burials from the post-medieval (16th-18th c. AD) Carmelite friary burial grounds at Aalst, a town in Flanders, Belgium. Dietary patterns of 39 adult individuals were analyzed, from a mixed monastic and lay population buried in three different locations, reflecting groups with differing social status. The data show significant variation in the consumption of perhaps meat, but certainly also marine protein between females and males. This result represents a remarkable continuity with medieval dietary patterns, suggesting that the social and economic changes of the early modern period had a limited effect on everyday life. When both sexes were examined together, individuals buried in the cloister garth consumed significantly less marine protein compared to people buried in the church, likely reflecting social stratification. No statistical differences were observed between isotopic values from the church and the cloister alley, suggesting a similarly diverse diet of the monastic part of the buried population and that of the richer lay population. Finally, the hypothesis that diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is linked to a diet rich in animal protein was tested. No systematic or statistically significant differences between pathological and non-pathological bones from the same individuals affected with DISH were observed, and no statistical differences were found between individuals with DISH and individuals without DISH. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities.

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Daum, Moritz M; Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte

    2018-01-01

    According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related) and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related) path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  15. A Case Study in Corporate Social Responsibility

    Sharon K. Kendrick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This case study promotes analysis through a brief investigation into the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR in the operation of a multinational corporation as evidenced by Google, Inc. The study focuses on a transnational company in order to observe the impact of CSR practice on a global level. The study will present implications of CSR for corporate management, corporate employees, state regulators, shareholders, and customers in general. In addition, the study will discuss consequences of poor CSR compliance for a multinational corporation. Questions for analysis include implications of CSR, employee retention, development of corporate culture, and evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of different CSR approaches. Upon conclusion of the study, suggestions are made for future collaborative efforts in corporate social responsibility as applied to psychological, sociological, and economical motives. Recruiting and training possibilities also present partnership opportunities for best practice sharing in regards to community, civic, and service engagement.

  16. A Social Network Analysis of the Financial Links Backing Health and Fitness Apps.

    Grundy, Quinn; Held, Fabian; Bero, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    To identify the major stakeholders in mobile health app development and to describe their financial relationships using social network analysis. We conducted a structured content analysis of a purposive sample of prominent health and fitness apps available in November 2015 in the United States, Canada, and Australia. We conducted a social network analysis of apps' developers, investors, other funding sources, and content advisors to describe the financial relationships underpinning health app development. Prominent health and fitness apps are largely developed by private companies based in North America, with an average of 4.7 (SD = 5.5) financial relations, including founders, external investors, acquiring companies, and commercial partnerships. Network analysis revealed a core of 41 sampled apps connected to 415 other entities by 466 financial relations. This core largely comprised apps published by major technology, pharmaceutical, and fashion corporations. About one third of apps named advisors, many of whom had commercial affiliations. Public health needs to extend its scrutiny and advocacy beyond the health messages contained within apps to understanding commercial influences on health and, when necessary, challenging them.

  17. Social disadvantage and borderline personality disorder: A study of social networks.

    Beeney, Joseph E; Hallquist, Michael N; Clifton, Allan D; Lazarus, Sophie A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2018-01-01

    Examining differences in social integration, social support, and relationship characteristics in social networks may be critical for understanding the character and costs of the social difficulties experienced of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We conducted an ego-based (self-reported, individual) social network analysis of 142 participants recruited from clinical and community sources. Each participant listed the 30 most significant people (called alters) in their social network, then rated each alter in terms of amount of contact, social support, attachment strength and negative interactions. In addition, measures of social integration were determined using participant's report of the connection between people in their networks. BPD was associated with poorer social support, more frequent negative interactions, and less social integration. Examination of alter-by-BPD interactions indicated that whereas participants with low BPD symptoms had close relationships with people with high centrality within their networks, participants with high BPD symptoms had their closest relationships with people less central to their networks. The results suggest that individuals with BPD are at a social disadvantage: Those with whom they are most closely linked (including romantic partners) are less socially connected (i.e., less central) within their social network. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Linking social and vocal brains: could social segregation prevent a proper development of a central auditory area in a female songbird?

    Hugo Cousillas

    Full Text Available Direct social contact and social interaction affect speech development in human infants and are required in order to maintain perceptual abilities; however the processes involved are still poorly known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that social segregation during development would prevent the proper development of a central auditory area, using a "classical" animal model of vocal development, a songbird. Based on our knowledge of European starling, we raised young female starlings with peers and only adult male tutors. This ensured that female would show neither social bond with nor vocal copying from males. Electrophysiological recordings performed when these females were adult revealed perceptual abnormalities: they presented a larger auditory area, a lower proportion of specialized neurons and a larger proportion of generalist sites than wild-caught females, whereas these characteristics were similar to those observed in socially deprived (physically separated females. These results confirmed and added to earlier results for males, suggesting that the degree of perceptual deficiency reflects the degree of social separation. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first evidence that social segregation can, as much as physical separation, alter the development of a central auditory area.

  19. Pathways to Adolescents' Flourishing: Linking Self-Control Skills and Positivity Ratio through Social Support

    Orkibi, Hod; Hamama, Liat; Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Ronen, Tammie

    2018-01-01

    This study focused on the ability to experience a high ratio of positive to negative emotions in 807 Israeli adolescents aged 12 to 15 years (50% girls). While considering possible gender differences, we tested a model positing that adolescents' self-control skills would link to their positivity ratio and indirectly through perceived social…

  20. Specifying Links between Executive Functioning and Theory of Mind during Middle Childhood: Cognitive Flexibility Predicts Social Understanding

    Bock, Allison M.; Gallaway, Kristin C.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the development of and links between executive functioning and theory of mind during middle childhood. One hundred four 7- to 12-year-old children completed a battery of age-appropriate tasks measuring working memory, inhibition, flexibility, theory of mind, and vocabulary. As expected, spatial working…

  1. The Neurobiology and Psychiatric Perspective of Vaginismus: Linking the Pharmacological and Psycho-Social Interventions.

    Kadir, Zuri Shahidii; Sidi, Hatta; Kumar, Jaya; Das, Srijit; Midin, Marhani; Baharuddin, Najwa

    2018-01-01

    Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5), it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis. The etiology of vaginismus is complex: through multiple biopsycho- social processes, involving bidirectional connections between pelvic-genital (local) and higher mental function (central regulation). It has robust neural and psychological-cognitive loop feedback involvement. The internal neural circuit involves an inter-play of at least two-pathway systems, i.e. both "quick threat assessment" of occipital-limbic-occipital-prefrontal-pelvic-genital; and the chronic pain pathways through the genito-spinothalamic-parietal-pre-frontal system, respectively. In this review, a neurobiology root of vaginismus is deliberated with the central role of an emotional-regulating amygdala, and other neural loop, i.e. hippocampus and neo-cortex in the core psychopathology of fear, disgust, and sexual avoidance. Many therapists view vaginismus as a neglected art-and-science which demands a better and deeper understanding on the clinico-pathological correlation to enhance an effective model for the bio-psycho-social treatment. As vaginismus has a strong presentation in psychopathology, i.e. fear of penetration, phobic avoidance, disgust, and anticipatory anxiety, we highlighted a practical psychiatric approach to the clinical management of vaginismus, based on the current core knowledge in the perspective of neuroscience. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Does workplace social capital protect against long-term sickness absence? Linking workplace aggregated social capital to sickness absence registry data.

    Hansen, Anne-Sophie K; Madsen, Ida E H; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Melkevik, Ole; Bjørner, Jakob Bue; Andersen, Ingelise; Rugulies, Reiner

    2018-05-01

    Most previous prospective studies have examined workplace social capital as a resource of the individual. However, literature suggests that social capital is a collective good. In the present study we examined whether a high level of workplace aggregated social capital (WASC) predicts a decreased risk of individual-level long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in Danish private sector employees. A sample of 2043 employees (aged 18-64 years, 38.5% women) from 260 Danish private-sector companies filled in a questionnaire on workplace social capital and covariates. WASC was calculated by assigning the company-averaged social capital score to all employees of each company. We derived LTSA, defined as sickness absence of more than three weeks, from a national register. We examined if WASC predicted employee LTSA using multilevel survival analyses, while excluding participants with LTSA in the three months preceding baseline. We found no statistically significant association in any of the analyses. The hazard ratio for LTSA in the fully adjusted model was 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-1.13) per one standard deviation increase in WASC. When using WASC as a categorical exposure we found a statistically non-significant tendency towards a decreased risk of LTSA in employees with medium WASC (fully adjusted model: HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.48-1.27)). Post hoc analyses with workplace social capital as a resource of the individual showed similar results. WASC did not predict LTSA in this sample of Danish private-sector employees.

  3. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A Study on the Link between Moral Judgment Competences and Critical Thinking Skills

    Samanci, Nilay Keskin

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have established a direct link between moral judgment competences and critical thinking skills, none has been found to reveal the nature of the link between these two skills in the national and international literature. The present study looked at biology and primary education teacher candidates' moral judgment and critical…

  5. A Study of Social Information and Corporate Social Accounting

    Nakajima, Teruo

    1996-01-01

    This report shows the expansion of accounting information attempted in the course of remarkable development of social information. And, this maintains how the " popularization of social information and accounting information " is necessary for the present day society. Individuals - Such as consumers, employees, local residents, etc. - as well as corporations should be able to blend into this new citizen's society. It should be understood that the "market economy" itself becomes unstable witho...

  6. Corporations as social contractors : a study on corporate social responsibility

    Kalstad, Marius Aas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis takes up the issue of the role of business in today s society, in the form of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The research question is: Do corporations/does business have responsibilities beyond maximising profit for owners? Social contract theory, as presented by Hobbes and Locke, is used to morally justify a corporate responsibility that goes beyond the traditional business responsibility of maximising profit for stolckholders. Further, the stakeholder model is proscribed...

  7. The Warburg/Arnheim effect: Linking cultural/social and perceptual psychology of art

    Ladislav Kesner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aby Warburg and Rudolf Arnheim represent two, mutually complementary, ways of productive interfacing between art history/culture history on the one hand and psychology on the other. It is suggested that neither Warburg´s nor Arnheim´s ideas could have come to form a sustainable theory without taking into account the perspective and focus that preoccupied the other. The article points to possible ways of bridging the gap between the kind of visual cultural and social psychology pursued by Warburg and the perceptual psychology that concerned Arnheim. It is argued that, far from being a matter of just historiographic interest, the attempt to make such connections touches on some key issues and concepts of art theory and its relationship to sciences of the mind and brain today. A conceptual framework is presented in which the approaches of Warburg and Arnheim can be meaningfully integrated. Both thinkers were much preoccupied by the problem of expression. The final section establishes some connections between their respective theories of expression and shows how these theories can be productively extended to address current research on the affective and the empathic response to visual art.

  8. Odorant cues linked to social immunity induce lateralized antenna stimulation in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    McAfee, Alison; Collins, Troy F; Madilao, Lufiani L; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-04-07

    Hygienic behaviour (HB) is a social immunity trait in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) whereby workers detect, uncap and remove unhealthy brood, improving disease resistance in the colony. This is clearly economically valuable; however, the molecular mechanism behind it is not well understood. The freeze-killed brood (FKB) assay is the conventional method of HB selection, so we compared odour profiles of FKB and live brood to find candidate HB-inducing odours. Surprisingly, we found that significantly more brood pheromone (β-ocimene) was released from FKB. β-ocimene abundance also positively correlated with HB, suggesting there could be a brood effect contributing to overall hygiene. Furthermore, we found that β-ocimene stimulated worker antennae in a dose-dependent manner, with the left antennae responding significantly stronger than right antennae in hygienic bees, but not in non-hygienic bees. Five other unidentifiable compounds were differentially emitted from FKB which could also be important for HB. We also compared odour profiles of Varroa-infested brood to healthy brood and found an overall interactive effect between developmental stage and infestation, but specific odours did not drive these differences. Overall, the data we present here is an important foundation on which to build our understanding the molecular mechanism behind this complex behaviour.

  9. Linking evidence to action on social determinants of health using Urban HEART in the Americas.

    Prasad, Amit; Groot, Ana Maria Mahecha; Monteiro, Teofilo; Murphy, Kelly; O'Campo, Patricia; Broide, Emilia Estivalet; Kano, Megumi

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the experience of select cities in the Americas using the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) launched by the World Health Organization in 2010 and to determine its utility in supporting government efforts to improve health equity using the social determinants of health (SDH) approach. The Urban HEART experience was evaluated in four cities from 2010-2013: Guarulhos (Brazil), Toronto (Canada), and Bogotá and Medellín (Colombia). Reports were submitted by Urban HEART teams in each city and supplemented by first-hand accounts of key informants. The analysis considered each city's networks and the resources it used to implement Urban HEART; the process by which each city identified equity gaps and prioritized interventions; and finally, the facilitators and barriers encountered, along with next steps. In three cities, local governments spearheaded the process, while in the fourth (Toronto), academia initiated and led the process. All cities used Urban HEART as a platform to engage multiple stakeholders. Urban HEART's Matrix and Monitor were used to identify equity gaps within cities. While Bogotá and Medellín prioritized among existing interventions, Guarulhos adopted new interventions focused on deprived districts. Actions were taken on intermediate determinants, e.g., health systems access, and structural SDH, e.g., unemployment and human rights. Urban HEART provides local governments with a simple and systematic method for assessing and responding to health inequity. Through the SDH approach, the tool has provided a platform for intersectoral action and community involvement. While some areas of guidance could be strengthened, Urban HEART is a useful tool for directing local action on health inequities, and should be scaled up within the Region of the Americas, building upon current experience.

  10. Examining the link between adolescent brain development and risk taking from a social-developmental perspective.

    Willoughby, Teena; Good, Marie; Adachi, Paul J C; Hamza, Chloe; Tavernier, Royette

    2013-12-01

    The adolescent age period is often characterized as a health paradox because it is a time of extensive increases in physical and mental capabilities, yet overall mortality/morbidity rates increase significantly from childhood to adolescence, often due to preventable causes such as risk taking. Asynchrony in developmental time courses between the affective/approach and cognitive control brain systems, as well as the ongoing maturation of neural connectivity are thought to lead to increased vulnerability for risk taking in adolescence. A critical analysis of the frequency of risk taking behaviors, as well as mortality and morbidity rates across the lifespan, however, challenges the hypothesis that the peak of risk taking occurs in middle adolescence when the asynchrony between the different developmental time courses of the affective/approach and cognitive control systems is the largest. In fact, the highest levels of risk taking behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use, often occur among emerging adults (e.g., university/college students), and highlight the role of the social context in predicting risk taking behavior. Moreover, risk taking is not always unregulated or impulsive. Future research should broaden the scope of risk taking to include risks that are relevant to older adults, such as risky financial investing, gambling, and marital infidelity. In addition, a lifespan perspective, with a focus on how associations between neural systems and behavior are moderated by context and trait-level characteristics, and which includes diverse samples (e.g., divorced individuals), will help to address some important limitations in the adolescent brain development and risk taking literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Linking evidence to action on social determinants of health using Urban HEART in the Americas

    Amit Prasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the experience of select cities in the Americas using the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART launched by the World Health Organization in 2010 and to determine its utility in supporting government efforts to improve health equity using the social determinants of health (SDH approach METHODS: The Urban HEART experience was evaluated in four cities from 2010-2013: Guarulhos (Brazil, Toronto (Canada, and Bogotá and Medellín (Colombia. Reports were submitted by Urban HEART teams in each city and supplemented by first-hand accounts of key informants. The analysis considered each city's networks and the resources it used to implement Urban HEART; the process by which each city identified equity gaps and prioritized interventions; and finally, the facilitators and barriers encountered, along with next steps RESULTS: In three cities, local governments spearheaded the process, while in the fourth (Toronto, academia initiated and led the process. All cities used Urban HEART as a platform to engage multiple stakeholders. Urban HEART's Matrix and Monitor were used to identify equity gaps within cities. While Bogotá and Medellín prioritized among existing interventions, Guarulhos adopted new interventions focused on deprived districts. Actions were taken on intermediate determinants, e.g., health systems access, and structural SDH, e.g., unemployment and human rights CONCLUSIONS: Urban HEART provides local governments with a simple and systematic method for assessing and responding to health inequity. Through the SDH approach, the tool has provided a platform for intersectoral action and community involvement. While some areas of guidance could be strengthened, Urban HEART is a useful tool for directing local action on health inequities, and should be scaled up within the Region of the Americas, building upon current experience.

  12. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  13. Agricultural biodiversity as a link between traditional food systems and contemporary development, social integrity and ecological health.

    Johns, Timothy; Powell, Bronwen; Maundu, Patrick; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B

    2013-11-01

    Traditional food systems offer a key link between the social and economic resilience of smallholder farmers and pastoralists and the sustainable food and nutrition security of global populations. This paper addresses issues related to socio-cultural diversity and the continuing complex engagement of traditional and modern communities with the plants and animals that sustain them. In light of some of the unhealthful consequences of the 'nutrition transition' to globalized modern diets, the authors define and propose a process for a more successful food system transition that balances agro-biodiversity and processed commodities to support diet diversity, health and social equity alongside sustainable economic growth. We review empirical research in support of practice and policy changes in agriculture, economic development and health domains as well as cross-sectoral and community-based innovation. High-value food crops within domestic and global value chains can be an entry point for smallholders' participation as contributors and beneficiaries of development, while sustainable small farms, as purveyors of environmental and public health services, diversify global options for long-term adaptation in the face of environmental uncertainty. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluating age differences in coping motives as a mediator of the link between social anxiety symptoms and alcohol problems.

    Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C; Lindgren, Kristen P; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building on previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (aged 18-25 years; n = 148), young adults (aged 26-39 years; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (aged 40-65 years; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the Web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives.

  15. Voluntary Association Membership and Social Cleavages: A Micro-Macro Link in Generalized Trust

    Park, Chan-ung; Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Generalized trust varies across individuals and countries. Past studies on trust have demonstrated that voluntary association membership, inequality and ethnic homogeneity at country level are important. However, those studies examined either individual-level or country-level factors separately. In this paper, we conceptualized the emergence of…

  16. Studying and researching with social media

    Poore, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Wondering what your lecturers are looking for in a blog post? Asking yourself how that's different from writing an essay (or a wiki page)? Unsure if Twitter really can be used to build your online profile as a researcher? If you want -- or need -- to integrate social media tools into your studies and research, this practical book is your one-stop shop. Megan Poore shares the secrets of how to harness the power of social media tools to improve your academic productivity. Inside, you'll find out how to: ...write a good blog post ...contribute to a wiki ...maximise your grades when creating an audio-visual presentation ...find and share the latest research via Twitter ...keep safe online. Featuring handy illustrations and exercises, as well as guidance on broader issues such as copyright, avoiding plagiarism, and cyberbullying, you'll find out all you need to successfully use social media to support your study and research. Megan Poore is Assistant Professor in Teacher Education at the University of Canberra.

  17. Models for stiffening in cross-linked biopolymer networks : A comparative study

    van Dillen, T.; Onck, P. R.; Van der Giessen, E.

    In a recent publication, we studied the mechanical stiffening behavior in two-dimensional (2D) cross-linked networks of semiflexible biopolymer filaments under simple shear [Onck, P.R., Koeman, T., Van Dillen, T., Van der Giessen, E., 2005. Alternative explanation of stiffening in cross-linked

  18. Social media methods for studying rare diseases.

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Stringer, Kathleen A; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Shaver, Ashley; Caruthers, Regine L; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Fifer, Carlen; Goldberg, Caren; Russell, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    For pediatric rare diseases, the number of patients available to support traditional research methods is often inadequate. However, patients who have similar diseases cluster "virtually" online via social media. This study aimed to (1) determine whether patients who have the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis (PB) would participate in online research, and (2) explore response patterns to examine social media's role in participation compared with other referral modalities. A novel, internet-based survey querying details of potential pathogenesis, course, and treatment of PLE and PB was created. The study was available online via web and Facebook portals for 1 year. Apart from 2 study-initiated posts on patient-run Facebook pages at the study initiation, all recruitment was driven by study respondents only. Response patterns and referral sources were tracked. A total of 671 respondents with a Fontan palliation completed a valid survey, including 76 who had PLE and 46 who had PB. Responses over time demonstrated periodic, marked increases as new online populations of Fontan patients were reached. Of the responses, 574 (86%) were from the United States and 97 (14%) were international. The leading referral sources were Facebook, internet forums, and traditional websites. Overall, social media outlets referred 84% of all responses, making it the dominant modality for recruiting the largest reported contemporary cohort of Fontan patients and patients who have PLE and PB. The methodology and response patterns from this study can be used to design research applications for other rare diseases. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. GABAergic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia : Linking Postmortem and In Vivo Studies

    de Jonge, Jeroen C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Marsman, Anouk

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impairments in cognitive functioning. Evidence from postmortem studies suggests that alterations in cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons contribute to the clinical features of

  20. Links between Family Social Status and Preschoolers' Persistence: The Role of Maternal Values and Quality of Parenting

    Mokrova, Irina L.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Children who develop persistence in the preschool years are likely to function more effectively during the transition into school. In this study of 231 3-year-old children and their mothers, we examined the relations among family social status, maternal values of self-direction, quality of parenting, and children's persistence in challenging…

  1. Linking Social Environments with the Well-Being of Adolescents in Dual-Earner and Single Working Parent Families

    Tisdale, Sandee; Pitt-Catsuphes, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationships between middle school-aged children's perceptions of their social environments (home, school, neighborhood, and parental work) with self-reports of well-being. In the present study, well-being was defined by measures of physical health and psychological happiness. Data from the Nurturing Families Study…

  2. Studying social robots in practiced places

    Hasse, Cathrine; Bruun, Maja Hojer; Hanghøj, Signe

    2015-01-01

    values, social relations and materialities. Though substantial funding has been invested in developing health service robots, few studies have been undertaken that explore human-robot interactions as they play out in everyday practice. We argue that the complex learning processes involve not only so...... of technologies in use, e.g., technologies as multistable ontologies. The argument builds on an empirical study of robots at a Danish rehabilitation centre. Ethnographic methods combined with anthropological learning processes open up new way for exploring how robots enter into professional practices and change...

  3. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  4. Grade-School Children's Social Collaborative Skills: Links with Partner Preference and Achievement

    Ladd, Gary W.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Ettekal, Idean; Sechler, Casey M.; Cortes, Khaerannisa I.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the skills children need to successfully collaborate with classmates on academic assignments. The purposes of this study were to identify grade-schoolers' collaborative skills, evaluate the importance of identified skills for collaborative work, and determine whether differences in skill use were related to children's social…

  5. Islamic representation and urban space in Banda Aceh: Linking the social and spatial

    Istiqamah; Herlily

    2018-03-01

    Post conflict and tsunami; the city of Banda Aceh is experiencing a massive development as an effort to represent an Islamic city. Some strategic points have been chosen by the municipality to build architectural objects that are considered to represent Islam in the urban space. The issue of such representational practice is the development of neglecting the activities of local communities as users of urban public spaces. The purpose of this design study is to provide an alternative to the urban design of Banda Aceh to represent Islam that is not moving from physical development but by involving community activities. Establish and rediscover the relationship between Islam and urban life in Banda Aceh. This design study uses mental maps of 50 inhabitants of Banda Aceh city of various ages who live in 10 villages around the city center. We use mental maps as a tool to read the daily activities of the community and determine the familiar urban territory with the community. The results of this study will be used to form a Muslim community and present community activities to represent Islam in the urban space.

  6. A Sample Application for Use of Biography in Social Studies; Science, Technology and Social Change Course

    Er, Harun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the opinions of social studies teacher candidates on use of biography in science, technology and social change course given in the undergraduate program of social studies education. In this regard, convergent parallel design as a mixed research pattern was used to make use of both qualitative and quantitative…

  7. The Investigation of the Social Entrepreneurship Characteristics of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers

    Yazici, Kubilay; Uslu, Salih; Arik, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the social entrepreneurship characteristics of social studies pre-service teachers in terms of various variables (gender, defining oneself as a social entrepreneur and grade). The data of the research were obtained on a volunteer basis from 253 pre-service teachers studying at the departments of social…

  8. A study on relationship between social capital and sustainable development

    Shabnam Fotovvat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social capital components, social trust, social cohesion, social participation and social security, and sustainable development in city of Salmas, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who live in this city. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.92, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression technique, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between three components of social capital and sustainable development including social cohesion, social participation and social security. However, the study does not confirm the relationship between social trust and sustainable development.

  9. Model of Islamic Social Entrepreneurship: A Study on Successful Muslim Social Entrepreneur in Malaysia

    Boulven Mohd Adib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since research effort in the area is minimal, there is a clear need to examine the practice of Islamic social entrepreneurship among successful Muslim social entrepreneurs in Malaysia. One such practice is to organize charitable activities to benefit the community through the gains made from entrepreneurial activities that are based on social mission and vision. The research problem is lacking of model on Islamic social entrepreneurship. The main objective of this paper is to develop a Model of Islamic Social Entrepreneurship based on successful Muslim social entrepreneur in Malaysia. The research method used in this study is literature review, content analysis, and interview with 14 participants constituting nine successful Muslim social entrepreneurs and five experts with religious academic backgrounds participated in the study. The research finding shows that model of Islamic social entrepreneurship is the major contribution of the study which could serve as guidelines for successful Muslim social entrepreneurs, particularly young entrepreneurs.

  10. Study Regarding Socialization and Social Integration of Students

    Pomohaci Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor activities, whether organized sports and physical education, sports training, leisure activities or competition, have at this age level, primary education, a strong playful time, pursuing both development and motor skills, physical fitness and especially the psycho-social. Through play and sports competition, the child can gain confidence and try new forms of communications so that he can express his potential and qualities.

  11. Linking social and spatial networks to viral community phylogenetics reveals subtype-specific transmission dynamics in African lions.

    Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M; Packer, Craig; Troyer, Jennifer L; VanderWaal, Kimberly; Robinson, Stacie; Jacquot, Maude; Craft, Meggan E

    2017-10-01

    Heterogeneity within pathogen species can have important consequences for how pathogens transmit across landscapes; however, discerning different transmission routes is challenging. Here, we apply both phylodynamic and phylogenetic community ecology techniques to examine the consequences of pathogen heterogeneity on transmission by assessing subtype-specific transmission pathways in a social carnivore. We use comprehensive social and spatial network data to examine transmission pathways for three subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV Ple ) in African lions (Panthera leo) at multiple scales in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. We used FIV Ple molecular data to examine the role of social organization and lion density in shaping transmission pathways and tested to what extent vertical (i.e., father- and/or mother-offspring relationships) or horizontal (between unrelated individuals) transmission underpinned these patterns for each subtype. Using the same data, we constructed subtype-specific FIV Ple co-occurrence networks and assessed what combination of social networks, spatial networks or co-infection best structured the FIV Ple network. While social organization (i.e., pride) was an important component of FIV Ple transmission pathways at all scales, we find that FIV Ple subtypes exhibited different transmission pathways at within- and between-pride scales. A combination of social and spatial networks, coupled with consideration of subtype co-infection, was likely to be important for FIV Ple transmission for the two major subtypes, but the relative contribution of each factor was strongly subtype-specific. Our study provides evidence that pathogen heterogeneity is important in understanding pathogen transmission, which could have consequences for how endemic pathogens are managed. Furthermore, we demonstrate that community phylogenetic ecology coupled with phylodynamic techniques can reveal insights into the differential evolutionary pressures acting

  12. Social Media Marketing in a Small Business: A Case Study

    Cox, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In today’s social media driven environment, it is essential that small businesses understand Facebook, Twitter, and the strategies behind using social media for growing their business. Unfortunately, many small businesses do not have a strategy when they begin using social media. The purpose of this study is to understand how the owner of a small business, recognized for using social media to grow the business, uses social media to engage consumers. A case study is presented, followed by an i...

  13. Multiple levels of social disadvantage and links to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M; Lee, Joyce

    2013-03-01

    The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. We analyzed longitudinal data from Waves I (1994-1995), II (1996), and III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative population-based sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in 1995 who were followed into young adulthood. We assessed the relationship between obesity in adolescence and young adulthood, and disadvantage (measured by low parent education in adolescence) at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level using multilevel logistic regression. When all levels of disadvantage were modeled simultaneously, school-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in adolescence for males and females and family-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in young adulthood for females. Schools may serve as a primary setting for obesity prevention efforts. Because obesity in adolescence tracks into adulthood, it is important to consider prevention efforts at this stage in the life course, in addition to early childhood, particularly among disadvantaged populations. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  14. Healthcare benefits linked with Below Poverty Line registration in India: Observations from Maharashtra Anaemia Study (MAS).

    Ahankari, Anand; Fogarty, Andrew; Tata, Laila; Myles, Puja

    2017-01-01

    A 2015 Lancet paper by Patel et al. on healthcare access in India comprehensively discussed national health programmes where some benefits are linked with the country's Below Poverty Line (BPL) registration scheme. BPL registration aims to support poor families by providing free/subsidised healthcare. Technical issues in obtaining BPL registration by poor families have been previously reported in the Indian literature; however there are no data on family assets of BPL registrants. Here, we provide evidence of family-level assets among BPL registration holders (and non-BPL households) using original research data from the Maharashtra Anaemia Study (MAS). Social and health data from 287 pregnant women and 891 adolescent girls (representing 1178 family households) across 34 villages in Maharashtra state, India, were analysed. Several assets were shown to be similarly distributed between BPL and non-BPL households; a large proportion of families who would probably be eligible were not registered, whereas BPL-registered families often had significant assets that should not make them eligible. This is likely to be the first published evidence where asset distribution such as agricultural land, housing structures and livestock are compared between BPL and non-BPL households in a rural population. These findings may help planning BPL administration to allocate health benefits equitably, which is an integral part of national health programmes.

  15. Study on predicting residual life of elevator links by fracture mechanics approach

    Li Helin; Zhang Yi; Deng Zengjie [China National Petroleum Corp., Xi`an, Shaanxi (China). Tubular Goods Research Center; Jin Dazeng [Xi`an Jiaotong Univ., Xi`an, Shaanxi (China)

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of investigation, failure and fracture analysis of elevator links, residual life prediction of links using fracture mechanics approach is studied, and mechanical properties, fracture toughness value K{sub IC} and fatigue crack propagation rage da/dN of the steel for elevator links are determined. Using the relation between stress intensity factor K{sub I} and the strain-energy release rate, the two-dimensional conversion thickness finite element method has been used to calculate the stress intensity factors K{sub I} for dangerous sections in the ring part of links. Furthermore, the reliability of calculations of the finite element stress intensity factors K{sub I} for dangerous sections of elevator links and the residual life computation for links are verified by fatigue tests of actual links. Finally, the experimental verification of computed results by 150T link fractured at site indicates that the computed critical crack lengths and residual life tally well with those measured and meet the needs of oil drilling.

  16. Integration of a Social Skills Training: A Case Study of Children with Low Social Skills

    Choi, Dong Hwa; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2011-01-01

    This study explores changes in children's social skills after a cognitive-social skills model intervention. The intervention was conducted over a period of 12 weeks within a regular preschool setting. Sixteen children including four considered to have low social skills participated in the study. Data analysis revealed that the four children with…

  17. Social Studies, Social Competence and Citizenship in Early Childhood Education: Developmental Principles Guide Appropriate Practice

    Kemple, Kristen M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the nature of appropriate social studies education in the Kindergarten and Pre-Kindergarten years. The importance of social competence development as a basic foundation of the social studies in the early years of schooling is examined, with particular attention to the commonalities shared between goals and…

  18. Investigation of Social Studies Teachers' Intended Uses of Social Networks in Terms of Various Variables

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine Social Studies teacher candidates' intended uses of social networks in terms of various variables. The research was carried out by using screening model of quantitative research methods. In the study, "The Social Network Intended Use Scale" was used as a data collection tool. As a result of the…

  19. Correction of misclassification bias induced by the residential mobility in studies examining the link between socioeconomic environment and cancer incidence.

    Bryere, Josephine; Pornet, Carole; Dejardin, Olivier; Launay, Ludivine; Guittet, Lydia; Launoy, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Many international ecological studies that examine the link between social environment and cancer incidence use a deprivation index based on the subjects' address at the time of diagnosis to evaluate socioeconomic status. Thus, social past details are ignored, which leads to misclassification bias in the estimations. The objectives of this study were to include the latency delay in such estimations and to observe the effects. We adapted a previous methodology to correct estimates of the influence of socioeconomic environment on cancer incidence considering the latency delay in measuring socioeconomic status. We implemented this method using French data. We evaluated the misclassification due to social mobility with census data and corrected the relative risks. Inclusion of misclassification affected the values of relative risks, and the corrected values showed a greater departure from the value 1 than the uncorrected ones. For cancer of lung, colon-rectum, lips-mouth-pharynx, kidney and esophagus in men, the over incidence in the deprived categories was augmented by the correction. By not taking into account the latency period in measuring socioeconomic status, the burden of cancer associated with social inequality may be underestimated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Study of social network and its impact in the adolescence

    Isabel PAGADOR OTERO; Fátima LLAMAS SALGUERO

    2014-01-01

    In the following article the social networks and his implication are analyzed and approach in the teenagers since, nowadays, to belong to a social network in certain ages is a need to be able to be in touch with the company and the environment that surrounds us. This term, social network is linked to the integration of the technologies, technologies that accompany the teenagers in every moment since these have turned into the principal actors/consumers of this opportunity arisen in the Intern...

  2. Tradition and Change in the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Schneider, Donald O.

    1980-01-01

    The historical development of curriculum materials in the social studies is outlined. Principles offering the potential to effect major changes are described and a set of guidelines for a rational social studies curriculum is established. (JMF)

  3. Social amplification of risk: An empirical study

    Burns, W.; Slovic, P.; Kasperson, R.; Kasperson, J.; Renn, O.; Emani, S.

    1990-09-01

    The social amplification of risk is a theoretical framework that addresses an important deficiency of formal risk assessment methods and procedures. Typically assessments of risk from technological mishaps have been based upon the expected number of people who could be killed or injured or the amount of property that might be damaged. The diverse and consequential impacts that followed in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island accident make it clear that risk assessments that exclude the role of public perceptions of risk will greatly underestimate the potential costs of certain types of hazards. The accident at Three Mile Island produced no direct fatalities and few, if any, expected deaths due to cancer, yet few other accidents in history have had such costly societal impacts. The experience of amplified impacts argues for the development of a broadened theoretical and methodological perspective capable of integrating technical assessment of risk with public perceptions. This report presents the results to date in an ongoing research effort to better understand the complex processes by which adverse events produce impacts. In particular this research attempts to construct a framework that can account for those events that have produced, or are capable of producing, greater societal impacts than would be forecast by traditional risk assessment methods. This study demonstrates that the social amplification of risk involves interactions between sophisticated technological hazards, public and private institutions, and subtle individual and public perceptions and behaviors. These factors, and the variables underlying the intricate processes of social amplification that occur in modern society, are not fully defined and clarified in this report. 19 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Meerkat close calling patterns are linked to sex, social category, season and wind, but not fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations.

    Jelena Mausbach

    Full Text Available It is well established that animal vocalizations can encode information regarding a sender's identity, sex, age, body size, social rank and group membership. However, the association between physiological parameters, particularly stress hormone levels, and vocal behavior is still not well understood. The cooperatively breeding African meerkats (Suricata suricatta live in family groups with despotic social hierarchies. During foraging, individuals emit close calls that help maintain group cohesion. These contact calls are acoustically distinctive and variable in rate across individuals, yet, information on which factors influence close calling behavior is missing. The aim of this study was to identify proximate factors that influence variation in call rate and acoustic structure of meerkat close calls. Specifically, we investigated whether close calling behavior is associated with sex, age and rank, or stress hormone output (i.e., measured as fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM concentrations as individual traits of the caller, as well as with environmental conditions (weather and reproductive seasonality. To disentangle the effects of these factors on vocal behavior, we analyzed sound recordings and assessed fGCM concentrations in 64 wild but habituated meerkats from 9 groups during the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. Dominant females and one-year old males called at significantly higher rates compared to other social categories during the reproductive season. Additionally, dominant females produced close calls with the lowest mean fundamental frequencies (F0 and the longest mean pulse durations. Windy conditions were associated with significantly higher call rates during the non-reproductive season. Fecal GCM concentrations were unrelated to close calling behavior. Our findings suggest that meerkat close calling behavior conveys information regarding the sex and social category of the caller, but shows no association with f

  5. Social Support for Wives in Advanced Studies

    Icha Kusumadewi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze social support on the wife who studies the master. The approach employed in this study was qualitative phenomenological. Samples in this study as many as two respondents, female students master, career woman, and married. In addition, there were secondary informants that comes from the husband, classmates, and coworkers subject. There are 6 secondary informants this research. Data were collected used interviews and observation. Forms interviews used in this study are free guided interviews and using participant observation. The validity of the data in this study using triangulation of sources and methods. The study found that two subjects in the lead role as a wife, staff, and students were able to run third that role with the help of others. But despite the help of others, this study provides new findings that the success of subjects affected their spiritual support that makes the subject able to survive to make the subject is able to do their job

  6. Beyond the Textbook: Studying Roswell in the Social Studies Classroom

    Joseph, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Roswell has long been synonymous with aliens and UFOs, and people have been arguing over what happened that night in 1947 for many years. It is a topic left out of most textbooks and neglected in many social studies classrooms. However, Roswell has found a permanent place in American culture, and teaching about Roswell can be valuable to social…

  7. Environmental and Social Impact Study: Final Report

    2011-04-01

    The tsetse control project (commonly known as tsetse flies) is an initiative of the Directorate of Livestock (project coordinating institution) and the ISRA (Senegalese Agricultural Research Institute) Accompaniment and diagnosis of the project. It is part of the cooperation between Senegal and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).The method of control that will be applied is the technique of sterile males.This technique of sterile males, however, is coupled with the use of deltamethrin (D6), a neurotoxic chemical (in adult insects) that is fast and fairly rapidly biodegradable in the environment.This study is carried out with the aim of taking good account of the environmental impacts of the various activities envisaged by the project. Its objective is to assess the biophysical, social and economic impacts of the project and to propose measures to mitigate or compensate for negative impacts and to reinforce positive impacts within the framework of an Environmental Management Plan and (ESMP). It also presents an environmental and social monitoring and monitoring plan to assess the effectiveness of the proposed mitigation measures.

  8. Evolución de la sociabilidad en Hymenoptera: Rasgos conductuales vinculados a niveles sociales y precursores de sociabilidad en especies solitarias Evolution of sociality in Hymenoptera: Behavioural traits linked to social levels and precursors of sociality in solitary species

    LUIS FLORES-PRADO

    2012-09-01

    conductuales, se discuten rutas evolutivas hipotéticas, orígenes y reversiones en la evolución del comportamiento altamente social y se entrega información en grupos taxonómicos que han emergido como valiosos modelos para el estudio de la evolución de la sociabilidad. Adicionalmente, se comparan rasgos precursores de sociabilidad dentro de Xylocopinae, se examina evidencia reciente que demuestra reconocimiento de compañeras de nido en una especie de Manueliini, fenómeno por primera vez demostrado en una especie fundamentalmente solitaria y se analiza la evolución de la sociabilidad sobre la base de nuevas hipótesis filogenéticas para Xylocopinae.The levels of sociality in Hymenoptera have been associated with key behavioural traits, such as nesting and agonistic behaviour, and intraspecific recognition capacity. Nestmate recognition is a widespread condition among eusocial species, and can be inferred from the outcome of the interaction between females from the same or different nests; females are more tolerant towards nestmate than towards non-nestmate females. By contrast, in most solitary species females are aggressive towards conspecific females. In eusocial species, food for immature brood is directly provided by the mother or by workers; thus, the frequent contact of the brood with nursing adults may help our understanding of social recognition behaviours. At the other extreme, females in solitary species construct nests that do not allow physical interaction between adult and immature individuals. Despite this, recent studies suggest that self-referencing may contribute to overcoming the lack of stimulation with conspecific cues, and perhaps corresponds to the starting point in the development and evolution of sociality. The Xylocopinae (Apidae subfamily has emerged as a valuable model to study the transitions in social evolution because it contains species ranging from solitary to eusocial. The tribe Manueliini represents an interesting taxon in the study of

  9. The Use of Art Activities in Social Studies Classes

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure how effective the use of art activities is at achieving the goals of social studies program and to introduce a model practice that social studies teachers can follow. Accordingly, certain objectives were selected from among the main objectives of social studies program and the activities prepared for a…

  10. Preparation of Social Studies Teachers at Major Research Universities.

    Dumas, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of the preparation of secondary social studies teachers at major state-supported research universities. Finds relatively few institutions have followed the Holmes Group recommendations and many continue to prepare broad field social studies teachers leaving them deficient in some social science fields. (CFR)

  11. A Pilot Study Examining Physical and Social Warmth: Higher (Non-Febrile) Oral Temperature Is Associated with Greater Feelings of Social Connection.

    Inagaki, Tristen K; Irwin, Michael R; Moieni, Mona; Jevtic, Ivana; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth-the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during early experiences with a caregiver or via innate, co-evolved mechanisms, remain unclear. The current study examined the relationship between oral temperature and feelings of social connection as well as whether early caregiver experiences moderated this relationship. Extending the existing literature, higher oral temperature readings were associated with greater feelings of social connection. Moreover, early caregiver experiences did not moderate this association, suggesting that the physical-social warmth overlap may not be altered by early social experience. Results provide additional support for the link between experiences of physical warmth and social warmth and add to existing theories that highlight social connection as a basic need on its own.

  12. The Social Relations of a Health Walk Group: An Ethnographic Study.

    Grant, Gordon; Pollard, Nick; Allmark, Peter; Machaczek, Kasia; Ramcharan, Paul

    2017-09-01

    It is already well established that regular walks are conducive to health and well-being. This article considers the production of social relations of regular, organized weekly group walks for older people. It is based on an ethnographic study of a Walking for Health group in a rural area of the United Kingdom. Different types of social relations are identified arising from the walk experience. The social relations generated are seen to be shaped by organizational factors that are constitutive of the walks; the resulting culture having implications for the sustainability of the experience. As there appears to be no single uniting theory linking group walk experiences to the production of social relations at this time, the findings are considered against therapeutic landscape, therapeutic mobility, and social capital theorizing. Finally, implications for the continuance of walking schemes for older people and for further research are considered.

  13. Functional connectivity associated with social networks in older adults: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Pillemer, Sarah; Holtzer, Roee; Blumen, Helena M

    2017-06-01

    Poor social networks and decreased levels of social support are associated with worse mood, health, and cognition in younger and older adults. Yet, we know very little about the brain substrates associated with social networks and social support, particularly in older adults. This study examined functional brain substrates associated with social networks using the Social Network Index (SNI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting-state fMRI data from 28 non-demented older adults were analyzed with independent components analyses. As expected, four established resting-state networks-previously linked to motor, vision, speech, and other language functions-correlated with the quality (SNI-1: total number of high-contact roles of a respondent) and quantity (SNI-2: total number of individuals in a respondent's social network) of social networks: a sensorimotor, a visual, a vestibular/insular, and a left frontoparietal network. Moreover, SNI-1 was associated with greater functional connectivity in the lateral prefrontal regions of the left frontoparietal network, while SNI-2 was associated with greater functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal regions of this network. Thus, lateral prefrontal regions may be particularly linked to the quality of social networks while medial prefrontal regions may be particularly linked to the quantity of social networks.

  14. Study on the Workspace of a 6-DOF Parallel Topology Robot Related to Binary Link Lengths

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the workspace of a parallel topology robot with the structure FP3+6•SPS+MP3. The variable parameters are the binary link lengths, from both upper and lower levels, and the driving kinematical joint strokes. The workspace boundary is determined by SolidWorks software simulations. For different binary link lengths, workspace volume is determined and sections through the workspace are presented.

  15. Social Capital in the Classroom: A Study of In-Class Social Capital and School Adjustment

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Vermande, Marjolijn; Völker, Beate; Baerveldt, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Social capital is generally considered beneficial for students' school adjustment. This paper argues that social relationships among pupils generate social capital at both the individual and the class levels, and that each has its unique effect on pupils' performance and well-being. The sample in this study consists of 1036 children in 60…

  16. Social identity modifies face perception: an ERP study of social categorization

    Derks, Belle; Stedehouder, Jeffrey; Ito, T.

    Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of

  17. Social Networks and the Building of Learning Communities: An Experimental Study of a Social MOOC

    de Lima, Mariana; Zorrilla, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the student's behaviour in relation to their degree of commitment, participation, and contribution in a MOOC based on a social learning approach. Interaction data was collected on the learning platform and in social networks, both of which were used in the third edition of a social MOOC course. This data was then…

  18. Parents and the media. A study of social differentiation in parental media socialization.

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N = 2608), and analysed respondents’ reports of socialization practices in their parental

  19. Parents and the media: A study of social differentiation in parental media socialization

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N = 2608), and analysed respondents' reports of socialization practices in their parental

  20. Neural correlates of attention biases, behavioral inhibition, and social anxiety in children: An ERP study.

    Thai, Nhi; Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a biologically-based temperament characterized by vigilance toward threat. Over time, many children with BI increasingly fear social circumstances and display maladaptive social behavior. BI is also one of the strongest individual risk factors for developing social anxiety disorder. Although research has established a link between BI and anxiety, its causal mechanism remains unclear. Attention biases may underlie this relation. The current study examined neural markers of the BI-attention-anxiety link in children ages 9-12 years (N=99, Mean=9.97, SD=0.97). ERP measures were collected as children completed an attention-bias (dot-probe) task with neutral and angry faces. P2 and N2 amplitudes were associated with social anxiety and attention bias, respectively. Specifically, augmented P2 was related to decreased symptoms of social anxiety and moderated the relation between BI and social anxiety, suggesting that increasing attention mobilization may serve as a compensatory mechanism that attenuates social anxiety in individuals with high BI. The BI by N2 interaction found that larger N2 related to threat avoidance with increasing levels of BI, consistent with over-controlled socio-emotional functioning. Lastly, children without BI (BN) showed an augmented P1 to probes replacing angry faces, suggesting maintenance of attentional resources in threat-related contexts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The social media participation framework: studying the effects of social media on nonprofit communities

    Effing, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline community effects of social media use. Therefore, the main question of this study is: “How does the use of social media by members of nonprofit communities affect their offline participation?” The Social...

  2. Parents and the media. A study of social differentiation in parental media socialization.

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N = 2608), and analysed respondents’ reports of socialization practices in their parental home. Respondents from high-status families report more extensive parental media socialization in all highbrow and guidance activities. In contrast, a parental example of popular television viewing ...

  3. A population-based study of homicide deaths in Ontario, Canada using linked death records.

    Lachaud, James; Donnelly, Peter D; Henry, David; Kornas, Kathy; Calzavara, Andrew; Bornbaum, Catherine; Rosella, Laura

    2017-07-24

    Homicide - a lethal expression of violence - has garnered little attention from public health researchers and health policy makers, despite the fact that homicides are a cause of preventable and premature death. Identifying populations at risk and the upstream determinants of homicide are important for addressing inequalities that hinder population health. This population-based study investigates the public health significance of homicides in Ontario, Canada, over the period of 1999-2012. We quantified the relative burden of homicides by comparing the socioeconomic gradient in homicides with the leading causes of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neoplasm, and estimated the potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to homicide. We linked vital statistics from the Office of the Registrar General Deaths register (ORG-D) with Census and administrative data for all Ontario residents. We extracted all homicide, neoplasm, and cardiovascular deaths from 1999 to 2012, using International Classification of Diseases codes. For socioeconomic status (SES), we used two dimensions of the Ontario Marginalization Index (ON-Marg): material deprivation and residential instability. Trends were summarized across deprivation indices using age-specific rates, rate ratios, and PYLL. Young males, 15-29 years old, were the main victims of homicide with a rate of 3.85 [IC 95%: 3.56; 4.13] per 100,000 population and experienced an upward trend over the study period. The socioeconomic neighbourhood gradient was substantial and higher than the gradient for both cardiovascular and neoplasms. Finally, the PYLL due to homicide were 63,512 and 24,066 years for males and females, respectively. Homicides are an important cause of death among young males, and populations living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Our findings raise concerns about the burden of homicides in the Canadian population and the importance of addressing social determinants to address these premature deaths.

  4. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  5. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  6. Implications of Common Core State Standards on the Social Studies

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William B., III.

    2014-01-01

    Social studies teachers have often been on the outside looking in during much of the era billed as the standards-based educational reform (SBER), but with the adoption and implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), social studies teachers seem to have been invited back inside. Yet, how will the standards impact social studies…

  7. A Guide to Curriculum Planning in Social Studies Education.

    Hartoonian, H. Michael

    Designed to provide social studies educators with specific information for the development of local school district K-12 curriculum, this guide is organized into eight sections. Following an introduction, section 1 provides a rationale, goals, and major themes for the social studies and social sciences. Section 2 presents a scope and sequence…

  8. Social comparison and prosocial behavior: an applied study of social identity theory in community food drives.

    Shipley, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Social Identity Theory and the concept of social comparison have inspired research on individuals, addressing effects of personal and environmental factors in directing social attention. The theory's conceptual origins, however, suggest that social comparison may have behavioral implications as well. Such behaviors may include attempts by an individual to enhance the relative status of his ingroup on a salient dimension of comparison. Such behavior is referred to as "social competition." In two studies, the effects of social comparison and social competition were measured in the real-world environment of community food drives. Participants were aggregated by household; 600 households in upper middle-class neighborhoods in Eugene and Salem, Oregon, were contacted. In Study 1 of 300 households, it was hypothesized that inclusion of a social competition cue in requests for donation would significantly increase the likelihood of donation. This hypothesis was supported. Study 2 was done to clarify the possible role in a social comparison of perceived ingroup inferiority in the prior observed increase in donations. The inclusion of a social comparison cue in the donation request significantly increased donations in households of the second study. The findings suggest that researchers should expand study of the theory's behavioral implications, including the role of social comparison in prosocial behavior.

  9. Kognisi Sosial Melalui Situs Jejaring Youtube Pada Komunitas Online (Studi Kasus pada Komunitas Online LinkPictureID

    Fitria Ayuningtyas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Video portal known as Youtube has become one of the alternative broadcasting channels. As the Internet usage is increasing the use of visual form becomes a public space. A YouTuber, a popular slang for video producer on youtube has formed a style of its own, in which there are some interesting research studies, especially in the establishment of reality and social cognition. Videos that teached the perspective and expression of opinion is an example of how the youtuber shapes reality to the audience. This video was varied, ranging from animation, social experiment up to the high-level animation. Social cognition is becoming prominance, that the audience use video logic as a basis for understanding the various things in surrounding environment. However, the capacity and the youtuber background are very wide - range as they have no common standard to their profession as videographer. The aim of this study is an effort to observe how Youtube users see the social situation as a cognitive ability form the use of video. This study used theory about social cognition, social media and youtube. This study used qualitative method. The result of this study is an interaction between users and creators create a whole different kind of dialogue, given in this era of communication technology they are none other than Prosumen (producer-consumer. The rapid reproduction of this message is very dynamic, especially responding to social circumstances. This study focuses on an active online community focusing on the interaction CMC via youtube video portals as the establishment of social cognition.The conclusion this study was social cognition thru youtube give us new perspective that we can get creative as well as possible to be able to work freely. In this study, the community used youtube as reference and benchmark. In this case, LinkPicture ID community well understand about “upgrade” concept that required to speed up in taking a decision based on the

  10. Combination of supramolecular cross-linking with covalent cross-linking through epoxide ring-opening including gel studies

    Hofmeier, H.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Terpolymers based on poly(methyl methacrylate), containing terpyridine-moieties as well as epoxide groups, were synthesized via free-radical polymeri-zation. The products were cross-linked non-covalently with iron(II) ions and cova-lently by treatment with AlCl3. Both steps could be combined in

  11. Combination of supramolecular cross-linking with covalent cross-linking through epoxide ring-opening including gel studies

    Hofmeier, H.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Terpolymers based on poly(methyl methacrylate), containing terpyridinemoieties as well as epoxide groups, were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. The products were cross-linked non-covalently with iron(II) ions and covalently by treatment with AlCl3. Both steps could be combined in

  12. Green Mind Theory: How Brain-Body-Behaviour Links into Natural and Social Environments for Healthy Habits

    Jules Pretty

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Green Mind Theory (GMT to link the human mind with the brain and body, and connect the body into natural and social environments. The processes are reciprocal: environments shape bodies, brains, and minds; minds change body behaviours that shape the external environment. GMT offers routes to improved individual well-being whilst building towards greener economies. It builds upon research on green exercise and nature-based therapies, and draws on understanding derived from neuroscience and brain plasticity, spiritual and wisdom traditions, the lifeways of original cultures, and material consumption behaviours. We set out a simple metaphor for brain function: a bottom brain stem that is fast-acting, involuntary, impulsive, and the driver of fight and flight behaviours; a top brain cortex that is slower, voluntary, the centre for learning, and the driver of rest and digest. The bottom brain reacts before thought and directs the sympathetic nervous system. The top brain is calming, directing the parasympathetic nervous system. Here, we call the top brain blue and the bottom brain red; too much red brain is bad for health. In modern high-consumption economies, life has often come to be lived on red alert. An over-active red mode impacts the gastrointestinal, immune, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems. We develop our knowledge of nature-based interventions, and suggest a framework for the blue brain-red brain-green mind. We show how activities involving immersive-attention quieten internal chatter, how habits affect behaviours across the lifecourse, how long habits take to be formed and hard-wired into daily practice, the role of place making, and finally how green minds could foster prosocial and greener economies. We conclude with observations on twelve research priorities and health interventions, and ten calls to action.

  13. Green Mind Theory: How Brain-Body-Behaviour Links into Natural and Social Environments for Healthy Habits.

    Pretty, Jules; Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2017-06-30

    We propose a Green Mind Theory (GMT) to link the human mind with the brain and body, and connect the body into natural and social environments. The processes are reciprocal: environments shape bodies, brains, and minds; minds change body behaviours that shape the external environment. GMT offers routes to improved individual well-being whilst building towards greener economies. It builds upon research on green exercise and nature-based therapies, and draws on understanding derived from neuroscience and brain plasticity, spiritual and wisdom traditions, the lifeways of original cultures, and material consumption behaviours. We set out a simple metaphor for brain function: a bottom brain stem that is fast-acting, involuntary, impulsive, and the driver of fight and flight behaviours; a top brain cortex that is slower, voluntary, the centre for learning, and the driver of rest and digest. The bottom brain reacts before thought and directs the sympathetic nervous system. The top brain is calming, directing the parasympathetic nervous system. Here, we call the top brain blue and the bottom brain red; too much red brain is bad for health. In modern high-consumption economies, life has often come to be lived on red alert. An over-active red mode impacts the gastrointestinal, immune, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems. We develop our knowledge of nature-based interventions, and suggest a framework for the blue brain-red brain-green mind. We show how activities involving immersive-attention quieten internal chatter, how habits affect behaviours across the lifecourse, how long habits take to be formed and hard-wired into daily practice, the role of place making, and finally how green minds could foster prosocial and greener economies. We conclude with observations on twelve research priorities and health interventions, and ten calls to action.

  14. A Description of Advertisements for Alcohol on LinkNYC Kiosks in Manhattan, New York City: A Pilot Study.

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; LeBlanc, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2018-02-26

    Excessive alcohol consumption compromises health and increases risk of mortality. Advertisements for alcohol in city environments have been shown to influence consumption. The aim of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol advertisements displayed on LinkNYC kiosks, a new communication channel that provides outdoor Wi-Fi access and advertising on streets within urban environments. Direct observations were conducted to document advertisements on a 20% random sample of the 500 LinkNYC kiosks in Manhattan, NYC. From May to September of 2017, each of the 100 selected kiosks was observed for a 10-min period to document advertisements for alcohol. In addition, differences in prevalence of alcohol advertisements were examined by the location of the kiosk based on NYC zip codes' median annual income. Of the 2025 advertisements observed, 5.09% (N = 103) were for an alcohol product (including duplicates). Such advertisements were observed on 17% of the kiosks. No health warnings or age warnings were presented in any of the alcohol advertisements. Compared with kiosks located in zip codes with lower median annual income, significantly more alcohol advertisements were displayed in zip codes with higher median annual income. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of alcohol advertising on the LinkNYC Wi-Fi and telecommunication system, now ubiquitous on Manhattan's sidewalks. This study adds to the current literature that suggests New York City residents could benefit from health-promoting versus health-compromising advertising. The findings also highlight the potential of LinkNYC kiosk marketing to undermine health-related social marketing efforts by City government and other organizations.

  15. Linking national and global population agendas: case studies from eight developing countries.

    Lee, K; Walt, G

    1995-06-01

    This comparative study of the determinants of family planning policy initiation and implementation focuses on four pairs of countries: Zambia/Zimbabwe, Algeria/Tunisia, Pakistan/Bangladesh, and Philippines/Thailand. The conclusion is drawn that global efforts had an influence on national policy makers and on putting family planning issues on the policy agenda. Global impacts were affected by national economic and social conditions and the broader political and economic relations with Western countries. The absolute level of economic development was found to be unrelated to the timing of initiation of family planning on national policy agendas. Stronger national family planning programs occurred in countries where policy makers linked economic development at whatever level with the need to limit population growth. Pakistan and Thailand in the 1960s illustrated this commitment to family planning programs, and Zambia and Algeria illustrated the lack of connection between development and population growth at the policy level and the lack of family planning on the policy agenda. Affiliation with the West during the 1960s meant early initiation of family planning in Pakistan/Bangladesh and Philippines/Thailand. Stronger commitment to program implementation occurred only in Thailand during the 1970s and Zimbabwe during the 1980s. Commitment lessened in the Philippines and Pakistan. Program implementation and national support of family planning were viewed as also dependent upon domestic factors, such as sufficient resources. Algeria/Tunisia and Zambia/Zimbabwe were countries that promoted family planning only after national political ideology shifted and anti-imperialist sentiments subsided. The impact of the international Cairo conference on these countries was minimal in terms of policy change. Most of the countries however desired greater support from donors. Even objections from the Vatican and internal domestic pressures were insufficient to prevent countries such as

  16. A structural and kinetic study on myofibrils prevented from shortening by chemical cross-linking.

    Herrmann, C; Sleep, J; Chaussepied, P; Travers, F; Barman, T

    1993-07-20

    In previous work, we studied the early steps of the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils [Houadjeto, M., Travers, F., & Barman, T. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1564-1569]. The myofibrils were free to contract, and the results obtained refer to the ATPase cycle of myofibrils contracting with no external load. Here we studied the ATPase of myofibrils contracting isometrically. To prevent shortening, we cross-linked them with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the myosin rods were extensively cross-linked and that 8% of the myosin heads were cross-linked to the thin filament. The transient kinetics of the cross-linked myofibrils were studied in 0.1 M potassium acetate, pH 7.4 and 4 degrees C, by the rapid-flow quench method. The ATP binding steps were studied by the cold ATP chase and the cleavage and release of products steps by the Pi burst method. In Pi burst experiments, the sizes of the bursts were equal within experimental error to the ATPase site concentrations (as determined by the cold ATP chase methods) for both cross-linked (isometric) and un-cross-linked (isotonic) myofibrils. This shows that in both cases the rate-limiting step is after the cleavage of ATP. When cross-linked, the kcat of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils was reduced from 1.7 to 0.8 s-1. This is consistent with the observation that fibers shortening at moderate velocity have a higher ATPase activity than isometric fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Medial prefrontal cortex: genes linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have altered expression in the highly social maternal phenotype

    Brian E Eisinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for postpartum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for postpartum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Postpartum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET, we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets. In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum and medial preoptic area, enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets. Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3, platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb, and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1. RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1 and proenkephalin (Penk. Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for postpartum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia and BPD.

  18. The Index of Vulnerability: An anthropological method linking social-ecological systems to mental and physical health outcomes.

    Tallman, Paula Skye

    2016-08-01

    Researchers need measures of vulnerability that are grounded in explicit theoretical and conceptual frameworks, that are sensitive to local contexts, and that are easy to collect. This paper presents the Index of Vulnerability (IoV), a quantitative yet anthropologically-informed method connecting social-ecological systems to mental and physical health outcomes. The IoV combines measures of five life domains; food insecurity, water insecurity, access to healthcare, social support, and social status. Scores on this index increase for each life domain where the individual falls into a "high risk" category. Thus, individuals with the highest IoV scores are those who are at risk across multiple life domains. This approach makes the IoV malleable to local contexts, as scholars can choose which measure of each life domain is most appropriate for their study population. An anthropological study conducted among 225 Awajún adults living in the Peruvian Amazon from March to November of 2013 showed that men with higher IoV scores had significantly lower summary fat skinfolds, lower triglyceride levels, and a greater probability of reporting moderate to severe somatic symptoms and poor perceived health. Awajún women with higher IoV scores had significantly elevated perceived stress levels and a greater probability of reporting poor perceived health and moderate to severe somatic and depressive symptoms. Importantly, comparing the IoV to its constituent parts shows that it predicts a wider range of mental and physical health outcomes than any of the life domains alone. The IoV is presented here in relation to the broader political-economic and cultural context of the Awajún, forwarding a critical biocultural approach within anthropology, and demonstrating the IoV's utility for other scholars and practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Study on Recommendation Systems in Location Based Social Networking

    Ranganath Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart devices in the hands of people are revolutionizing the social lifestyle of one's self. Everyone across the world are using smart devices linked to their social networking activities one such activity is to share location data by uploading the tagged media content like photos, videos. The data is of surroundings, events attended/attending and travel experiences. Users share their experiences at a given location through localization techniques. Using such data from social networks an attempt is made to analyse tagged media content to acquire information on user context, individual’s interests, tastes, behaviours and derive meaningful relationships amongst them are referred to as Location Based Social Networks (LBSNs. The resulting information can be used to market a product and to improve business, as well recommend a travel and plan an itinerary. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of recommended systems for LBSNs covering the concepts of LBSNs, terminologies of LBSN and various recommendation systems.

  20. Social outcomes associated with alcohol-related diagnoses: a population-based analysis using linked administrative data

    Nathan Nickel

    2017-04-01

    Receiving an alcohol-related diagnosis is associated with subsequent increased use of social services and contacts with the justice system. Upstream efforts to reduce alcohol-related diagnoses may result in reduced use of social services and justice contacts.

  1. Societal determinants of corporate social disclosures : an international comparative study

    Orij, René Pieter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether corporate social disclosure levels are determined by society. A social accounting methodology is applied, consisting of a hypothetico-deductive approach. Social accounting research is a critical or interpretative branch of financial accounting

  2. An Exploratory Study on Multiple Intelligences and Social Work Education

    Matto, Holly; Berry-Edwards, Janice; Hutchison, Elizabeth D.; Bryant, Shirley A.; Waldbillig, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This study surveyed social work educators about the importance of multiple intelligences for social work practice and social work education. The sample consisted of 91 faculty members who responded to an online survey that asked them to rate the importance of 7 intelligences (linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial,…

  3. Linking Errors between Two Populations and Tests: A Case Study in International Surveys in Education

    Hastedt, Dirk; Desa, Deana

    2015-01-01

    This simulation study was prompted by the current increased interest in linking national studies to international large-scale assessments (ILSAs) such as IEA's TIMSS, IEA's PIRLS, and OECD's PISA. Linkage in this scenario is achieved by including items from the international assessments in the national assessments on the premise that the average…

  4. Conceptualizing Agency: Preservice Social Studies Teachers' Thinking about Professional Decisions

    Clark, J. Spencer

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated preservice social studies teachers' thinking about personal agency. This study used a case study design and was conducted in a semester long undergraduate social studies methods course. The findings drew upon data from eight participants. The participants were selected based on their stated purpose for teaching…

  5. The Use of Social Media Supporting Studying

    Sebastian Kot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the degree to which social media influence or support the learning process among students. The research was complex, involving three international panels, comprising students from Poland, China and Romania. Although intercultural differences between the three countries are evident, the attitudes and perceptions of the usefulness of social media in learning activities tend to be homogeneous, revealing not just the extensive use of this worldwide phenomenon amongst young people, but also its significance. Social media have impacted greatly on the way people relate, both positively and negatively. This research focuses on the analysis of the use of social networking in the process of training and self-training in youth education.

  6. A comparison of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn: Examining motivations and network externalities for the use of social networking sites

    Kim, Mijung; Cha, Jiyoung

    2017-01-01

    Although the winner-takes-all approach is often theorized in the use of an information communication technology, more than one popular social networking site exists in the market. Integrating uses and gratification (U&G) theory with network externalities, this study examines why social networking sites can coexist in the market and whether predictors of using social networking sites differ across popular social networking sites. Three separate surveys were conducted for Facebook, Twitter, and...

  7. Purchasing social responsibility : a conceptual study

    Mørk, Eirik; Solheim, Kristian Hauge

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on Purchasing Social Responsibility (PSR). Suppliers play an important role in the overall corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts of the purchasing firm. The purpose of this paper is to explore potential firm performance effects from PSR, which contributes to an area of research that is limited at this point. The aim is to develop a survey instrument based on a set of formulated hypotheses and a conceptual framework. These are grounded in a literature review of core ...

  8. Facilitating mental health help-seeking by young adults with a dedicated online program: a feasibility study of Link.

    Kauer, Sylvia D; Buhagiar, Kerrie; Blake, Victoria; Cotton, Sue; Sanci, Lena

    2017-07-09

    To explore the feasibility of a dedicated online youth mental health help-seeking intervention and to evaluate using a randomised controlled trial (RCT) study design in order to identify any modifications needed before commencement of the full-scale RCT. A pilot RCT with 1:1 randomisation to either the intervention or comparison arm. An online study conducted Australia-wide. 18-25 year olds living in Australia were recruited via social media. Link is a dedicated online mental health help-seeking navigation tool that matches user's mental health issues, severity and service-type preferences (online, phone and face-to-face) with appropriate youth-friendly services. The comparison arm was usual help-seeking strategies with a link to Google.com. The primary outcome was the number of acceptability and feasibility criteria successfully met. Intervention and study design acceptability and feasibility were assessed by nine criteria. Secondary outcomes, via online surveys (at baseline, 1 week and 1 month) measured service use, help-seeking intentions, psychological distress, barriers to help-seeking, attitudes towards mental health help-seeking, mental health literacy, satisfaction and trust. Fifty-one participants were randomised (intervention: n=24; comparison: n=27). Three out of four of the intervention and two out of five of the study design criteria were met. Unmet criteria could be addressed by modifications to the study design. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that Link was useful to participants and may have increased their positive experiences towards help-seeking. There were no observable differences between arms in any outcome measures and no harms were detected. Generally, the Link intervention and study design were acceptable and feasible with modifications suggested for the four out of nine unmet criteria. The main trial will hence have shorter surveys and a simpler recruitment process, use positive affect as the primary outcome and will not link to

  9. Data preparation techniques for a perinatal psychiatric study based on linked data.

    Xu, Fenglian; Hilder, Lisa; Austin, Marie-Paule; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2012-06-08

    In recent years there has been an increase in the use of population-based linked data. However, there is little literature that describes the method of linked data preparation. This paper describes the method for merging data, calculating the statistical variable (SV), recoding psychiatric diagnoses and summarizing hospital admissions for a perinatal psychiatric study. The data preparation techniques described in this paper are based on linked birth data from the New South Wales (NSW) Midwives Data Collection (MDC), the Register of Congenital Conditions (RCC), the Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) and the Pharmaceutical Drugs of Addiction System (PHDAS). The master dataset is the meaningfully linked data which include all or major study data collections. The master dataset can be used to improve the data quality, calculate the SV and can be tailored for different analyses. To identify hospital admissions in the periods before pregnancy, during pregnancy and after birth, a statistical variable of time interval (SVTI) needs to be calculated. The methods and SPSS syntax for building a master dataset, calculating the SVTI, recoding the principal diagnoses of mental illness and summarizing hospital admissions are described. Linked data preparation, including building the master dataset and calculating the SV, can improve data quality and enhance data function.

  10. The transcription factor Krüppel homolog 1 is linked to hormone mediated social organization in bees

    Fan Yongliang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of worker behavior by dominant queens or workers is a hallmark of insect societies, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and their evolutionary conservation are not well understood. Honey bee and bumble bee colonies consist of a single reproductive queen and facultatively sterile workers. The queens' influences on the workers are mediated largely via inhibition of juvenile hormone titers, which affect division of labor in honey bees and worker reproduction in bumble bees. Studies in honey bees identified a transcription factor, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1, whose expression in worker brains is significantly downregulated in the presence of a queen or queen pheromone and higher in forager bees, making this gene an ideal candidate for examining the evolutionary conservation of socially regulated pathways in Hymenoptera. Results In contrast to honey bees, bumble bees foragers do not have higher Kr-h1 levels relative to nurses: in one of three colonies levels were similar in nurses and foragers, and in two colonies levels were higher in nurses. Similarly to honey bees, brain Kr-h1 levels were significantly downregulated in the presence versus absence of a queen. Furthermore, in small queenless groups, Kr-h1 levels were downregulated in subordinate workers with undeveloped ovaries relative to dominant individuals with active ovaries. Brain Kr-h1 levels were upregulated by juvenile hormone treatment relative to a vehicle control. Finally, phylogenetic analysis indicates that KR-H1 orthologs are presence across insect orders. Though this protein is highly conserved between honey bees and bumble bees, there are significant differences between orthologs of insects from different orders. Conclusions Our results suggest that Kr-h1 is associated with juvenile hormone mediated regulation of reproduction in bumble bees. The expression of this transcription factor is inhibited by the queen and associated with endocrine mediated

  11. Study of social network and its impact in the adolescence

    Isabel PAGADOR OTERO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the following article the social networks and his implication are analyzed and approach in the teenagers since, nowadays, to belong to a social network in certain ages is a need to be able to be in touch with the company and the environment that surrounds us. This term, social network is linked to the integration of the technologies, technologies that accompany the teenagers in every moment since these have turned into the principal actors/consumers of this opportunity arisen in the Internet bosom. It has turned into a risky fact for a generation who are in a growing period, setting out values and forming their personality. It is here where the problems appear, these social networks could become a major enemy to youngsters. For it there will be approached each of the following questions: what sound the social networks and that you differentiate can we find between them?, how is friendship constituted in the social networks and the privacy?, what risks can they find when these social networks are in use with acquaintances or strangers?

  12. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Karlo Hock

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  13. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  14. Textbook vs. Historical Fiction: Impact on Social Studies Students

    Rider, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adding historical fiction novels as a supplement to the textbook in an eighth grade social studies course. This qualitative study focused on student interest and feedback as their social studies class was altered through the addition of historical fiction novels. The research questions were…

  15. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Views on Historical Thinking Skills

    Ozmen, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study aimed to present Social Studies teacher candidates' views on historical thinking skills. Study was conducted using qualitative design and working group was composed of a total of 121 teacher candidates (62 females and 59 males) attending Social Studies Teaching Department of Karadeniz Technical University and Adiyaman University…

  16. Uncovering noisy social signals : Using optimization methods from experimental physics to study social phenomena

    Kaptein, Maurits; Van Emden, Robin; Iannuzzi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out

  17. Uncovering noisy social signals: Using optimization methods from experimental physics to study social phenomena

    Kaptein, M.C.; Emden, R. van; Iannuzzi, D.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out

  18. Metapragmatic Explicitation and Social Attribution in Social Communication Disorder and Developmental Language Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Collins, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to investigate metapragmatic (MP) ability in 6-11-year-old children with social communication disorder (SCD), developmental language disorder (DLD), and typical language development and to explore factors associated with MP explicitation and social understanding (SU). Method: In this cross-sectional study,…

  19. Studies on Cross-linking of succinic acid with chitosan/collagen

    Tapas Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study summarizes the cross-linking property of succinic acid with chitosan /collagen. In detail, the chemistry behind the cross-linking and the improvement in mechanical and thermal properties of the cross-linked material were discussed with suitable instruments and bioinformatics tools. The concentration of succinic acid with reference to the chosen polymers was optimized. A 3D scaffold prepared using an optimized concentration of succinic acid (0.2% (w/v with chitosan (1.0% (w/v and similarly with collagen (0.5% (w/v, was subjected to surface morphology, FT-IR analysis, tensile strength assessment, thermal stability and biocompatibility. Results revealed, cross-linking with succinic acid impart appreciable mechanical strength to the scaffold material. In silico analysis suggested the prevalence of non-covalent interactions, which played a crucial role in improving the mechanical and thermal properties of the cross-linked scaffold. The resultant 3D scaffold may find application as wound dressing material, as an implant in clinical applications and as a tissue engineering material.

  20. Social identity modifies face perception: an ERP study of social categorization.

    Derks, Belle; Stedehouder, Jeffrey; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-05-01

    Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of Muslims and non-Muslims in an evaluative priming task while ERPs were measured and implicit evaluative bias was assessed. Study 1 revealed that non-Muslims showed stronger differentiation between ingroup and outgroup faces in both early (N200) and later processing stages (implicit evaluations) when they identified more strongly with their ethnic group. Moreover, identification effects on implicit bias were mediated by intergroup differentiation in the N200. In Study 2, social identity threat (vs control) was manipulated among Muslims. Results revealed that high social identity threat resulted in stronger differentiation of Muslims from non-Muslims in early (N200) and late (implicit evaluations) processing stages, with N200 effects again predicting implicit bias. Combined, these studies reveal how seemingly bottom-up early social categorization processes are affected by individual and contextual variables that affect the meaning of social identity. Implications of these results for the social identity perspective as well as social cognitive theories of person perception are discussed. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Use of Social Network Sites in the Workplace: a Case Study in Brazilian Companies

    Marcos Hideyuki Yokoyama; Tomoki Sekiguchi

    2014-01-01

    People are increasingly using Social Network Sites (SNS) through corporate platforms or open websites such as Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook. As a recent phenomenon, the potential benefits and risks of such tools are still not properly addressed in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how Brazilian companies are using this tool to achieve their corporate strategic objectives. We conducted a qualitative case study and proposed a framework that classified the companies into th...

  2. Social capital and adverse treatment outcomes of tuberculosis: a case-control study.

    Deshmukh, P R; Mundra, A; Dawale, A

    2017-08-01

    'Social capital' refers to social norms, relationships, networks and values that affect the functioning and development of society. Social capital influences health positively, but its role in the treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) is not known. To study the role of social capital in determining adverse TB treatment outcomes. Of 516 patients registered under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in 2014 in Wardha Tuberculosis Unit, Wardha, India, we included 88 patients with adverse treatment outcomes as cases and 187 controls from among those without adverse outcomes. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare standardised Z-scores. A greater proportion of controls than cases belonged to higher quartiles of social capital and its domains than cases, and the mean standardised Z-score was also consistently higher among controls than cases. Respectively 47% and 15% of cases and controls were in the poorest quartile of social capital, whereas respectively 10% and 33% of cases and controls were in the richest quartile. Each unit increase in Z-score of overall social capital reduced the odds of adverse treatment outcomes by 63.1%. Appropriate interventions for building social capital for TB patients and linking them with the programme would improve programme performance.

  3. Association between Social Relationship and Glycemic Control among Older Japanese: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study

    Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Nagamine, Yuiko; Tani, Yukako; Shirai, Kokoro; Tazuma, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Aim The present study examined whether social support, informal socializing and social participation are associated with glycemic control in older people. Methods Data for this population-based cross-sectional study was obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2010 linked to the annual health check-up data in Japan. We analyzed 9,554 individuals aged ≥65 years without the certification of needed long-term care. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of social support, informal socializing and social participations on glycemic control. The outcome measure was HbA1c ≥8.4%. Results 1.3% of the participants had a level of HbA1c over 8.4%. Better glycemic control was significantly associated with meeting with friends one to four times per month (odds ratio [OR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]0.30–0.89, compared to meeting with friends a few times per year or less) and participation in sports groups (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.97) even after adjusting for other variables. Meeting with friends more than twice per week, receiving social support, and being married were not associated with better control of diabetes. Conclusions Meeting with friends occasionally is associated with better glycemic control among older people. PMID:28060887

  4. Association between Social Relationship and Glycemic Control among Older Japanese: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study.

    Yokobayashi, Kenichi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Nagamine, Yuiko; Tani, Yukako; Shirai, Kokoro; Tazuma, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether social support, informal socializing and social participation are associated with glycemic control in older people. Data for this population-based cross-sectional study was obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2010 linked to the annual health check-up data in Japan. We analyzed 9,554 individuals aged ≥65 years without the certification of needed long-term care. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of social support, informal socializing and social participations on glycemic control. The outcome measure was HbA1c ≥8.4%. 1.3% of the participants had a level of HbA1c over 8.4%. Better glycemic control was significantly associated with meeting with friends one to four times per month (odds ratio [OR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]0.30-0.89, compared to meeting with friends a few times per year or less) and participation in sports groups (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26-0.97) even after adjusting for other variables. Meeting with friends more than twice per week, receiving social support, and being married were not associated with better control of diabetes. Meeting with friends occasionally is associated with better glycemic control among older people.

  5. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    Bergelt, Corinna; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten

    2009-01-01

    consisted of 8 548 Danes who had been examined in 1991-1994 within the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The median length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 0-11.2 years). Social ties were measured from answers to a questionnaire on social networks. Regression analyses for cancers at the most frequent sites......BACKGROUND: Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample...... (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. RESULTS: While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores...

  6. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.

    2009-01-01

    consisted of 8 548 Danes who had been examined in 1991-1994 within the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The median length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 0-11.2 years). Social ties were measured from answers to a questionnaire on social networks. Regression analyses for cancers at the most frequent sites......Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample...... (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. Results. While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores...

  7. Social media infleunce - a case study of LUSH's social media marketing strategy

    Belowska, Martyna; Løyche, Tanja Blomgaard; Szewczykowska, Karolina; Shore, Jonna Ellinor; Krejci, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    This research project is a case study of LUSH Cosmetics which aims to understand theinfluence in social media on consumers through the social media marketing strategy ofLUSH. This is done by first, explaining the social media marketing strategy of LUSH throughThe Theory of Influence by Robert Cialdini (1984) which has formed the theoreticalframework in this project. Second, an online individual survey has been conducted to deeperunderstand how potential consumers perceive the influence from L...

  8. Psychosocial work conditions, social participation and social capital: a causal pathway investigated in a longitudinal study.

    Lindström, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Social capital is often claimed to be promoted by stable social structures such as low migration rates between neighbourhoods and social networks that remain stable over time. However, stable social structures may also inhibit the formation of social capital in the form of social networks and social participation. One example is psychosocial conditions at work, which may be determined by characteristics such as demand and control in the work situation. The study examines the active workforce subpopulation within the Swedish Malmö Shoulder Neck Study. A total of 7836 individuals aged 45-69 years, were interviewed at baseline between 1992 and 1994, and at a 1-year follow-up. Four groups of baseline psychosocial work conditions categories defined by the Karasek-Theorell model (jobstrain, passive, active, relaxed) were analysed according to 13 different social participation items during the past year reported at the 1-year follow-up. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with the jobstrain group as a reference were estimated. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess differences in different aspects of social participation between the four psychosocial work conditions groups. The results show that the respondents within the active category in particular but also the relaxed category, have significantly higher participation in many of the 13 social participation items, even after multivariate adjustments. The results strongly suggest that psychosocial work conditions may be an important determinant of social capital measured as social participation, a finding of immediate public health relevance because of the well known positive association between social participation and health-related behaviours.

  9. Genetic studies and a search for molecular markers that are linked ...

    Molecular markers that are linked to witchweed resistance can expedite the development of resistant cultivars through adoption of appropriate markerassisted selection (MAS) strategies. The objectives of this investigation were to study the inheritance or low germination stimulant (lgs) production in cultivar SAR 29 and to ...

  10. Community-Based Cause of Death Study Linked to Maternal and ...

    Community-Based Cause of Death Study Linked to Maternal and Child ... newborn, and child health "Know-Do Gap" in Ethiopia by piloting a low-cost, ... platform to decrease the cost, while increasing the quality and feasibility, of COD surveys.

  11. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study

    Witvliet, M.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal

  12. Signs of testicular insufficiency in adrenomyeloneuropathy and neurologically asymptomatic X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: a retrospective study

    Assies, J.; Gooren, L. J.; van Geel, B.; Barth, P. G.

    1997-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is characterized by central nervous system demyelination, and impaired steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex and testis. Most patients develop adrenocortical insufficiency. We studied retrospectively the frequency and severity of testicular dysfunction in 26 men

  13. Radio Refractivity Study in Akure-Owo Digital Microwave Link in ...

    This work is a study of radio refractivity in Akure-Owo Digital Microwave Link in South Western Nigeria. Meteorological data of air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and water vapour pressure were measured between January and December 2006 at the observatory centre of the Nigerian meteorological ...

  14. A Study of the Demographics of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media Users.

    Sadah, Shouq A; Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2015-08-06

    The rapid spread of Web-based social media in recent years has impacted how patients share health-related information. However, little work has studied the demographics of these users. Our aim was to study the demographics of users who participate in health-related Web-based social outlets to identify possible links to health care disparities. We analyze and compare three different types of health-related social outlets: (1) general Web-based social networks, Twitter and Google+, (2) drug review websites, and (3) health Web forums. We focus on the following demographic attributes: age, gender, ethnicity, location, and writing level. We build and evaluate domain-specific classifiers to infer missing data where possible. The estimated demographic statistics are compared against various baselines, such as Internet and social networks usage of the population. We found that (1) drug review websites and health Web forums are dominated by female users, (2) the participants of health-related social outlets are generally older with the exception of the 65+ years bracket, (3) blacks are underrepresented in health-related social networks, (4) users in areas with better access to health care participate more in Web-based health-related social outlets, and (5) the writing level of users in health-related social outlets is significantly lower than the reading level of the population. We identified interesting and actionable disparities in the participation of various demographic groups to various types of health-related social outlets. These disparities are significantly distinct from the disparities in Internet usage or general social outlets participation.

  15. Cross-linked compared with historical polyethylene in THA: an 8-year clinical study.

    Geerdink, Carel H; Grimm, Bernd; Vencken, Wendy; Heyligers, Ide C; Tonino, Alphons J

    2009-04-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in THA. Increasing wear resistance of polyethylene (PE) occurs by increasing the cross-link density and early reports document low wear rates with such implants. To confirm longer-term reductions in wear we compared cross-linked polyethylene (irradiation in nitrogen, annealing) with historical polyethylene (irradiation in air) in a prospective, randomized clinical study involving 48 patients who underwent THAs with a minimum followup of 7 years (mean, 8 years; range, 7-9 years). The insert material was the only variable. The Harris hip score, radiographic signs of osteolysis, and polyethylene wear were recorded annually. Twenty-three historical and 17 moderately cross-linked polyethylene inserts were analyzed (five patients died, three were lost to followup). At 8 years, the wear rate was lower for cross-linked polyethylene (0.088 +/- 0.03 mm/year) than for the historical polyethylene (0.142 +/- 0.07 mm/year). This reduction (38%) did not diminish with time (33% at 5 years). Acetabular cyst formation was less frequent (39% versus 12%), affected fewer DeLee and Charnley zones (17% versus 4%), and was less severe for the cross-linked polyethylene. The only revision was for an aseptically loose cup in the historical polyethylene group. Moderately cross-linked polyethylene maintained its wear advantage with time and produced less osteolysis, showing no signs of aging at mid-term followup. Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. 'Welzijn op Recept' (Social Prescribing): a helping hand in re-establishing social contacts - an explorative qualitative study.

    Heijnders, Miriam L; Meijs, J J

    2018-05-01

    'Welzijn op Recept' is an intervention in which primary care providers refer patients with psychosocial problems to a community well-being organisation. Welzijn op Recept has been helping participants in the town of Nieuwegein, the Netherlands for more than three years. An impact study was carried out from September to December 2014. The qualitative study aimed to determine what happens in the chain of the social prescription and what changes the participant experiences in terms of social participation. The participants in this study were selected by the well-being coaches. A total of 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted. This study has shown that the participants had confidence in their referral to the community well-being organisation. The well-being coaches constitute a link between primary care providers, patients and the community well-being organisation. Participants have explicitly indicated that they experienced an increase in their own strength, self-confidence, self-reliance and the number of social contacts, and stated that they are experiencing better health. A point of special interest in the current programme is the planning of structured follow-up interviews after starting up an activity.

  17. Social capital, Chinese style: individualism, relational collectivism and the cultural embeddedness of the institutions-performance link

    Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    China is the odd man out in the research on social capital and economic performance. A brief survey of recent World Values Survey data depicts China to be a high-trust, achievement oriented society, which does not fit into popular pictures of rampant corruption and abuses of power. I argue that one difficulty results from methodological issues in research on social capital, where a universally accepted theory of social capital is lacking, including theoretically grounded methods of measuremen...

  18. A Big Social Media Data Study of the 2017 German Federal Election Based on Social Set Analysis of Political Party Facebook Pages with SoSeVi

    Flesch, Benjamin; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    We present a big social media data study that comprises of 1 million individuals who interact with Facebook pages of the seven major political parties CDU, CSU, SPD, FDP, Greens, Die Linke and AfD during the 2017 German federal election. Our study uses the Social Set Analysis (SSA) approach, which...... is based on the sociology of associations, mathematics of set theory, and advanced visual analytics of event studies. We illustrate the capabilities of SSA through the most recent version of our Social Set Analysis (SoSeVi) tool, which enables us to deep dive into Facebook activity concerning the election....... We explore a significant gender-based difference between female and male interactions with political party Facebook pages. Furthermore, we perform a multi-faceted analysis of social media interactions using gender detection, user segmentation and retention analysis, and visualize our findings...

  19. An Analysis of Social Studies Education Faculty Positions

    Bennett, Linda; Scholes, Roberta; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the responsibilities and qualifications of social studies education faculty positions as listed in The Chronicle of Higher Education during the 2004-2005 academic year. Many of the listings conveyed expectations for social studies educators to teach undergraduate courses, supervise interns, write grants…

  20. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  1. Temperature dependence of creep compliance of highly cross-linked epoxy: A molecular simulation study

    Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Ketan S.; Khare, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of temperature on the creep compliance of neat cross-linked epoxy. Experimental studies of mechanical behavior of cross-linked epoxy in literature commonly report creep compliance values, whereas molecular simulations of these systems have primarily focused on the Young’s modulus. In this work, in order to obtain a more direct comparison between experiments and simulations, atomistically detailed models of the cross-linked epoxy are used to study their creep compliance as a function of temperature using MD simulations. The creep tests are performed by applying a constant tensile stress and monitoring the resulting strain in the system. Our results show that simulated values of creep compliance increase with an increase in both time and temperature. We believe that such calculations of the creep compliance, along with the use of time temperature superposition, hold great promise in connecting the molecular insight obtained from molecular simulation at small length- and time-scales with the experimental behavior of such materials. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first reported effort that investigates the creep compliance behavior of cross-linked epoxy using MD simulations

  2. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  3. Global Health in the Social Studies Classroom

    Smith, David J.

    2005-01-01

    It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…

  4. Training Social Justice Journalists: A Case Study

    Nelson, Jacob L.; Lewis, Dan A.

    2015-01-01

    Journalism schools are in the midst of sorting through what it means to prepare journalists for a rapidly transitioning field. In this article, we describe an effort to train students in "social justice journalism" at an elite school of journalism. In our ethnographic analysis of its first iteration, we found that this effort failed to…

  5. Participation in Social Media: Studying Explicit and Implicit Forms of Participation in Communicative Social Networks

    Mikko Villi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The diverse forms of participation in social media raise many methodological and ethical issues that should be acknowledged in research. In this paper, participation in social media is studied by utilising the framework of explicit and implicit participation. The focus is on the communicative and communal aspects of social media. The aim of the paper is to promote the reconsideration of what constitutes participation when online users create connections rather than content. The underlying argument is that research on social media and the development of methods should concentrate more on implicit forms of participation.

  6. Social media for message testing: a multilevel approach to linking favorable viewer responses with message, producer, and viewer influence on YouTube.

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Jeon, Jehoon

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of social media for message testing, this study connects favorable viewer responses to antismoking videos on YouTube with the videos' message characteristics (message sensation value [MSV] and appeals), producer types, and viewer influences (viewer rating and number of viewers). Through multilevel modeling, a content analysis of 7,561 viewer comments on antismoking videos is linked with a content analysis of 87 antismoking videos. Based on a cognitive response approach, viewer comments are classified and coded as message-oriented thought, video feature-relevant thought, and audience-generated thought. The three mixed logit models indicate that videos with a greater number of viewers consistently increased the odds of favorable viewer responses, while those presenting humor appeals decreased the odds of favorable message-oriented and audience-generated thoughts. Some significant interaction effects show that videos produced by laypeople may hinder favorable viewer responses, while a greater number of viewer comments can work jointly with videos presenting threat appeals to predict favorable viewer responses. Also, for a more accurate understanding of audience responses to the messages, nuance cues should be considered together with message features and viewer influences.

  7. Social and psychological predictors of onset of anxiety disorders: results from a large prospective cohort study

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2012-01-01

    social and psychological factors are associated with the later risk of being admitted to a hospital and receive a diagnosis of anxiety disorders. METHOD: The study population comprised 4,497 members of The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort (CPC) who in 1993 answered a mailed questionnaire containing questions...... on a range of social and psychological factors. In 2007, the study population was linked to The Danish Hospital Discharge Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to obtain information on registration with anxiety disorders. Multiple Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the risk of anxiety...... disorders according to social and psychological factors. RESULTS: A total of 5.3% of the study population had lifetime registration with an anxiety disorder diagnosis. The risk of admission for anxiety disorders was significantly associated with previous: discontentedness with partner-status, loneliness...

  8. A study on the social behavior and social isolation of the elderly Korea.

    Yi, Eun-Surk; Hwang, Hee-Joung

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed at presenting what factors are to predict the social isolation of the elderly as an element to prevent the problem of why various matters related to old people are inevitably taking place by carefully examining the meaning of social isolation and the conditions of social isolation that the South Korean senior citizens go through after working on previous studies. This section discusses the results obtained through document analysis. First, the aspects of the elderly's social isolation arising from the changes of the South Korean society are changes of family relationship, the social structure, the economic structure and the culture. Second, the social isolation and social activity of the elderly are problems (suicide, criminals, dementia, depression and medical costs) of the elderly, change trend of the elderly issues related to social isolation and prediction factors that personal and regional. Lastly, as a role and challenges of the field of rehabilitation exercise aimed at resolving social isolation should be vitalized such as the development and provision of various relationship-building programs.

  9. The bright side of social economy sector’s projectification: a study of successful social enterprises

    Beata Jalocha

    2016-11-01

    -funded projects, which aimed at increasing the level of development and improving the condition of social economy, were implemented. Some of these projects have resulted in the creation of durable, dynamically operating social enterprises, and some of them did not produce any long-term results. In case of successful projects, we can observe an unusual effect of projectification process: the creation of permanent structures, sustainable social economy organizations through the implementation of projects. Although we can identify examples of interesting research on impact of project work on NGOs (Brière, Proulx, Navaro, & Laporte, 2015; Golini, Kalchschmidt, Landoni, 2015 or critical success factors of non-governmental projects (Khang & Moe, 2008, there is a research gap which we would like to address in this paper: lack of research on project management best practices in social enterprises. Thus, the main research question we would like to investigate in the paper is: What are the factors that lead to creation of durable, permanent social economy enterprises from projects? This paper draws on set of qualitative data from broader research on social economy sector conducted in Poland in years 2011-2013 by researchers from the Institute of Public Affairs (IPA. For the purpose of this paper we have conducted multiple case study analysis and analysed 36 case studies of existing social enterprises. One of our research goals was to find out, which factors are critical in the process of creation durable social enterprises from projects. Also, we wanted to understand how projectification, influenced strongly by the EU policies, changes the landscape of social enterprises in Poland and helps them achieve success.

  10. An evolutionary framework for studying mechanisms of social behavior.

    Hofmann, Hans A; Beery, Annaliese K; Blumstein, Daniel T; Couzin, Iain D; Earley, Ryan L; Hayes, Loren D; Hurd, Peter L; Lacey, Eileen A; Phelps, Steven M; Solomon, Nancy G; Taborsky, Michael; Young, Larry J; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2014-10-01

    Social interactions are central to most animals and have a fundamental impact upon the phenotype of an individual. Social behavior (social interactions among conspecifics) represents a central challenge to the integration of the functional and mechanistic bases of complex behavior. Traditionally, studies of proximate and ultimate elements of social behavior have been conducted by distinct groups of researchers, with little communication across perceived disciplinary boundaries. However, recent technological advances, coupled with increased recognition of the substantial variation in mechanisms underlying social interactions, should compel investigators from divergent disciplines to pursue more integrative analyses of social behavior. We propose an integrative conceptual framework intended to guide researchers towards a comprehensive understanding of the evolution and maintenance of mechanisms governing variation in sociality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social media use in German visceral surgeons: a cross-sectional study of a national cohort.

    Boßelmann, C M; Griffiths, B; Gallagher, H J; Matzel, K E; Brady, R R W

    2018-02-01

    Engagement in social media is increasing. Medical professionals have been adapting LinkedIn, a professional networking site, and Twitter, a microblogging service, for a number of uses. This development has been described for a number of medical specialties, but there remains a paucity of European data. A study was undertaken to measure the engagement and activity of German visceral surgeons on social media platforms. Visceral surgeons were identified from 15 regional Associations of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (Kassenärztliche Vereinigungen) opt-in registers. A manual search was subsequently performed across key professional social media platforms. The presence of a profile and key markers of use were recorded. In total, 575 visceral surgeons were identified. 523 (93%) were men. 183 (31%) surgeons engaged in professional social media. 22 (3.8%) used Twitter, producing a mean of 16.43 tweets with a mean of 7.57 followers. 137 (24%) surgeons had a profile on LinkedIn with a mean of 46.36 connections. Female surgeons were less connected on LinkedIn (P social media between surgeons from Eastern and Western Germany (P = 0.262) or male and female surgeons (P = 0.399). German visceral surgeons are less engaged and less active on social media than previously examined cohorts. Loco-regional, cultural, demographic and regulatory matters may have a significant influence on uptake. If this surgical cohort wishes to have a wider international presence then education on the potential benefits of these tools may be needed. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. The Public Positioning of Refugees in the Quasi-Education Market: Linking Mediascapes and Social Geographies of Schooling

    Windle, Joel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses some ways in which racialising discourses around refugees interact with the spatial and social dynamics of marketised schooling. It identifies conflicting discourses that contribute to the polarisation of school social composition and resourcing in the Australian state of Victoria. Media narratives around "ethnic"…

  13. Participatory Learning through Social Media: How and Why Social Studies Educators Use Twitter

    Krutka, Daniel G.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The microblogging service Twitter offers a platform that social studies educators increasingly use for professional development, communication, and class activities, but to what ends? The authors drew on Deweyan conceptions of participatory learning and citizenship aims of the field as lenses through which to consider social media activities. To…

  14. Social Amplification of Risk and Crisis Communication Planing - Case Study

    Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.

    2012-04-01

    Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The

  15. Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence: differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?

    de Jong, P J; Sportel, B E; de Hullu, E; Nauta, M H

    2012-03-01

    Social anxiety and depression often co-occur. As low self-esteem has been identified as a risk factor for both types of symptoms, it may help to explain their co-morbidity. Current dual process models of psychopathology differentiate between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Explicit self-esteem would reflect deliberate self-evaluative processes whereas implicit self-esteem would reflect simple associations in memory. Previous research suggests that low explicit self-esteem is involved in both social anxiety and depression whereas low implicit self-esteem is only involved in social anxiety. We tested whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression can indeed be explained by low explicit self-esteem, whereas low implicit self-esteem is only involved in social anxiety. Adolescents during the first stage of secondary education (n=1806) completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) to measure symptoms of social anxiety and depression, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) to index explicit self-esteem and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit self-esteem. There was a strong association between symptoms of depression and social anxiety that could be largely explained by participants' explicit self-esteem. Only for girls did implicit self-esteem and the interaction between implicit and explicit self-esteem show small cumulative predictive validity for social anxiety, indicating that the association between low implicit self-esteem and social anxiety was most evident for girls with relatively low explicit self-esteem. Implicit self-esteem showed no significant predictive validity for depressive symptoms. The findings support the view that both shared and differential self-evaluative processes are involved in depression and social anxiety.

  16. Twitter: A Novel Tool for Studying the Health and Social Needs of Transgender Communities.

    Krueger, Evan A; Young, Sean D

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has examined the health and social needs of transgender and gender nonconforming populations. Due to high levels of stigma, transgender individuals may avoid disclosing their identities to researchers, hindering this type of work. Further, researchers have traditionally relied on clinic-based sampling methods, which may mask the true heterogeneity of transgender and gender nonconforming communities. Online social networking websites present a novel platform for studying this diverse, difficult-to-reach population. The objective of this study was to attempt to examine the perceived health and social needs of transgender and gender nonconforming communities by examining messages posted to the popular microblogging platform, Twitter. Tweets were collected from 13 transgender-related hashtags on July 11, 2014. They were read and coded according to general themes addressed, and a content analysis was performed. Qualitative and descriptive statistics are presented. There were 1135 tweets that were collected in total. Both "positive" and "negative" events were discussed, in both personal and social contexts. Violence, discrimination, suicide, and sexual risk behavior were discussed. There were 34.36% (390/1135) of tweets that addressed transgender-relevant current events, and 60.79% (690/1135) provided a link to a relevant news article or resource. This study found that transgender individuals and allies use Twitter to discuss health and social needs relevant to the population. Real-time social media sites like Twitter can be used to study issues relevant to transgender communities.

  17. Socializing Anxiety through Narrative: A Case Study

    Capps, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    paper examines the socialization of anxiety based interactions between an agoraphobic woman daughter, who has been diagnosed with separation characterized by irrational fear of panic, feelings of situations outside the home. Although children of developing anxiety, little is known about the storytelling interactions in the Logan family suggest in the children as I) Meg portrays herself or others as protagonists helpless in a world spinning out of control; 2) the children re- mom...

  18. Social identity, social networks and recovery capital in emerging adulthood: A pilot study.

    Mawson, E; Best, D; Beckwith, M; Dingle, G A; Lubman, D I

    2015-11-11

    It has been argued that recovery from substance dependence relies on a change in identity, with past research focused on 'personal identity'. This study assessed support for a social identity model of recovery in emerging adults through examining associations between social identity, social networks, recovery capital, and quality of life. Twenty participants aged 18-21 in residential treatment for substance misuse were recruited from four specialist youth drug treatment services - three detoxification facilities and one psychosocial rehabilitation facility in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a detailed social network interview exploring the substance use of groups in their social networks and measures of quality of life, recovery capital, and social identity. Lower group substance use was associated with higher recovery capital, stronger identification with non-using groups, and greater importance of non-using groups in the social network. Additionally, greater identification with and importance of non-using groups were associated with better environmental quality of life, whereas greater importance conferred on using groups was associated with reduced environmental quality of life. Support was found for the role of social identity processes in reported recovery capital and quality of life. Future research in larger, longitudinal samples is required to improve understanding of social identity processes during treatment and early recovery and its relationship to recovery stability.

  19. Internet and social network recruitment: two case studies.

    Johnson, Kathy A; Peace, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment of study participants is a significant research challenge. The Internet, with its ability to reach large numbers of people in networks connected by email, Facebook and other social networking mechanisms, appears to offer new avenues for recruitment. This paper reports recruitment experiences from two research projects that engaged the Internet and social networks in different ways for study recruitment. Drawing from the non-Internet recruitment literature, we speculate that the relationship with the source of the research and the purpose of the engaged social network should be a consideration in Internet or social network recruitment strategies.

  20. Social Studies Review, Numbers 1-12, 1989-1992.

    Sewall, Gilbert T., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This documents consists of 12 issues of a journal that seeks to provide information and reviews concerning social studies textbooks; each issue consists of 16 pages. Contents in the 12 issues include: (1) California control over textbook content; (2) "skills" teaching in elementary-level social studies texts; (3) readability formulas;…