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Sample records for linking personality type

  1. Potential biological pathways linking Type-D personality and poor health: A cross-sectional investigation.

    Vera K Jandackova

    Full Text Available Type-D personality, defined as a combination of high negative affect and high social isolation, has been associated with poor health outcomes. However, pathways underlying this association are largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between Type-D personality and several biological and behavioral pathways including the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, glucose regulation and sleep in a large, apparently healthy sample.Data from a total of 646 respondents (age 41.6±11.5, 12,2% women were available for analysis. Persons with Type-D (negative affect and social isolation score ≥10 were contrasted with those without Type-D. Measures of plasma fibrinogen levels, white blood cell count, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, creatinine, triglycerides, and albumin were derived from fasting blood samples. Urine norepinephrine and free cortisol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV measures were calculated for the 24hr recording period and for nighttime separately.Persons with Type-D had higher HbA1c, FPG, and fibrinogen, and lower nighttime HRV than those without Type-D, suggesting worse glycemic control, systemic inflammation and poorer autonomic nervous system modulation in Type-D persons. In addition, those with Type-D reported less social support and greater sleep difficulties while no group differences were observed for alcohol and cigarette consumption, physical activity and body mass index.Findings provide some of the first evidence for multiple possible biological and behavioral pathways between Type-D personality and increased morbidity and mortality.

  2. The link between personality type and the risk of occupational electrical injury

    Howe, Gavan

    2011-09-15

    Personality type has a very important impact on many occupations and on day-to-day life. A 2006 survey found that over 80% of all electricians have an extrovert profile which is related to risk-bearing (agreeableness) and risk-taking. Non-critical, occupational electrical and powerline accidents doubled from 1998 to 2006. Other trade workers (not electricians) suffer 80% of all occupational deaths due to electrical contact. And young, single, male, extroverted, electrical apprentices are the most vulnerable workers when around electricity. Electricians are vulnerable to electrical accidents. They lack in-depth, day-to-day, supervised training around electricity. By researching the link between personality type and the risk of occupational electrical injury, we can determine which types of workers' profile we need on the job site. Training, education, communications and rehabilitation plans can be modified to safeguard workers' safety.

  3. Personality and personal network type

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal

  4. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) personalities: Linking behavioural types to ecologically relevant traits at different ontogenetic stages.

    Bajer, Katalin; Horváth, Gergely; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-02-01

    Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2-3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Beyond Type D personality

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  6. Personality types of entrepreneurs.

    Müller, Günter F; Gappisch, Cathrin

    2005-06-01

    85 German entrepreneurs were psychometrically assessed on 12 primary trait characteristics. The sample consisted of 49 men and 36 women whose mean age was 45.6 yr. (SD= 10.3). Occupational domains were production (40%) and services (60%). The mean duration of entrepreneurship within these domains was 13.1 yr. (SD=9.3). By factor analysis five personality types of entrepreneurs could be identified: Creative Acquisitor, Controlled Perseverator, Distant Achiever, Rational Manager, and Egocentric Agitator. These types correspond with types found in research by Miner and with the Myer-Briggs Indicator. In addition, correlations between general type potential and both job and life satisfaction of entrepreneurs were found. The results are discussed with regard to intercultural stability of personality types and implications for research and application.

  7. Linking person perception and person knowledge in the human brain.

    Greven, Inez M; Downing, Paul E; Ramsey, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Neuroscience research has examined separately how we detect human agents on the basis of their face and body (person perception) and how we reason about their thoughts, traits or intentions (person knowledge). Neuroanatomically distinct networks have been associated with person perception and person knowledge, but it remains unknown how multiple features of a person (e.g. thin and kind) are linked to form a holistic identity representation. In this fMRI experiment, we investigated the hypothesis that when encountering another person specialised person perception circuits would be functionally coupled with circuits involved in person knowledge. In a factorial design, we paired bodies or names with trait-based or neutral statements, and independent localiser scans identified body-selective and mentalising networks. When observing a body paired with a trait-implying statement, functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that body-selective patches in bilateral fusiform gyri were functionally coupled with nodes of the mentalising network. We demonstrate that when forming a representation of a person circuits for representing another person's physical appearance are linked to circuits that are engaged when reasoning about trait-based character. These data support the view that a 'who' system for social cognition involves communication between perceptual and inferential mechanisms when forming a representation of another's identity. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Florence Nightingale: her personality type.

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  9. Psychoanalytical personality types and agoraphobia.

    Hoffart, A

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychoanalytical personality types and agoraphobia. Thirty-two panic disorder with agoraphobia patients and 18 agoraphobia without panic disorder patients attending an inpatient 11-week behavioral-psychodynamic treatment program were assessed repeatedly from pretreatment to 2 years after the end of treatment. On personality scales measuring oral, obsessive, hysterical, and reality-weak traits, there were no differences between agoraphobic patients with and without panic disorder. The examined traits correlated across the period from pretreatment to 2-year follow-up, although the potential influence of symptoms were controlled for. Higher scores on the oral scale predicted poorer course of symptoms in the year immediately after treatment. Scores on the oral scale decreased with the improvements of agoraphobic and general symptoms, but did not attain a normal level. The results supported a combined predisposition-state model for the relationship between oral traits and agoraphobia.

  10. Linking Career Counseling to Personality Disorders.

    Kjos, Diane

    1995-01-01

    Relates personality disorders to career development issues and counseling interventions. Case examples suggesting career-focused treatment interventions for dependent, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and passive-aggressive personality disorders are presented. (Author/JBJ)

  11. DefenseLink Feature: Personal Finance

    Multimedia / Photos Videos Publications Bloggers DoD Websites Personal Finance Resources As part of the finance director said here recently. Story Security Expert Advises Troops to Safeguard Personal, Financial education in personal finance that commanders say goes a long way in promoting battle readiness. Story

  12. The Missing Curriculum Link: Personal Financial Planning

    Neidermeyer, Adolph A.; Neidermeyer, Presha E.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing personal and business financial challenges facing today's professionals, we, as business school faculty, have a responsibility to offer the educational background that should enable rising professionals to successfully manage finances. Unfortunately, the results of a recent analysis of curriculum offerings in Personal Financial…

  13. Searching for the Prosocial Personality: A Big Five Approach to Linking Personality and Prosocial Behavior.

    Habashi, Meara M; Graziano, William G; Hoover, Ann E

    2016-09-01

    The search for the prosocial personality has been long and controversial. The current research explores the general patterns underlying prosocial decisions, linking personality, emotion, and overt prosocial behavior. Using a multimethod approach, we explored the links between the Big Five dimensions of personality and prosocial responding. Across three studies, we found that agreeableness was the dimension of personality most closely associated with emotional reactions to victims in need of help, and subsequent decisions to help those individuals. Results suggest that prosocial processes, including emotions, cognitions, and behaviors, may be part of a more general motivational process linked to personality. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Local Type Checking for Linked Data Consumers

    Gabriel Ciobanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Web of Linked Data is the cumulation of over a decade of work by the Web standards community in their effort to make data more Web-like. We provide an introduction to the Web of Linked Data from the perspective of a Web developer that would like to build an application using Linked Data. We identify a weakness in the development stack as being a lack of domain specific scripting languages for designing background processes that consume Linked Data. To address this weakness, we design a scripting language with a simple but appropriate type system. In our proposed architecture some data is consumed from sources outside of the control of the system and some data is held locally. Stronger type assumptions can be made about the local data than external data, hence our type system mixes static and dynamic typing. Throughout, we relate our work to the W3C recommendations that drive Linked Data, so our syntax is accessible to Web developers.

  15. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in

  16. Psychological Type of Person-Centered Counselors.

    Robbins, Mandy; Turley, Joanne

    2016-02-01

    There are various models and approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. Important characteristics of therapists include psychological type. This study aimed to investigate the psychological type profile of person-centered counselors. The psychological type of 85 counselors (63 women, 22 men) was measured with the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS). Results indicate that the FPTS can reliably measure psychological type among counselors, and the most common psychological type was introvert, intuitive, feeling, and judging (INFJ). The relation of these psychological types with a person-centered approach is further discussed.

  17. Prevalence and relevance of Type D personality in fibromyalgia

    van Middendorp, H.; Kool, M.B.; van Beugen, S.; Denollet, J.; Lumley, M.A.; Geenen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Distressed (Type D) personality, combining high negative affectivity and social inhibition, is linked to poor health in various populations. Because patients with fibromyalgia experience high negative affect and show signs of social inhibition, this study aimed to examine the prevalence of

  18. Time perspective: its link to personality traits, age, and gender

    Kairys, Antanas

    2010-01-01

    In Lithuania, as well as in other countries, psychological studies on time perspective are still making their first steps. Currently, no theoretical paradigm is extensive enough to serve well as a basis for further fundamental and applied research in this field. The goal of this study was to explore the link between time perspective and personality traits in different gender and age groups. To analyse time perspective and personality traits, two independent studies were carried out (N=636 in ...

  19. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D......Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D...

  20. Personality type influence the gestational weight gain.

    Franik, Grzegorz; Lipka, Nela; Kopyto, Katarzyna; Kopocińska, Joanna; Owczarek, Aleksander; Sikora, Jerzy; Madej, Paweł; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy is frequently followed by the development of obesity. Aside from psychological factors, hormonal changes influence weight gain in pregnant women. We attempted to assess the potential association between personality type and the extent of gestational weight gain. The study group involved 773 women after term delivery (age 26.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass before pregnancy 61.2 ± 11.1 kg). Weight gain during pregnancy was calculated by using self-reported body mass prior to and during the 38th week of pregnancy. Personality type was assessed using the Polish version of the Framingham Type A Behavior Patterns Questionnaire (adapted by Juczynski). Two hundred forty-six (31.8%) study subjects represented type A personalities, 272 (35.2%) type B and 255 (33.0%) an indirect type. Gestational weight gain was related to the behavior patterns questionnaire score and age. In women gain was higher than in women with type B behavior of the same age. In women >30, the gestational weight gain was larger for type B personalities. Type A personality and increased urgency in younger pregnant women increases the risk of developing obesity during pregnancy in women below 30 years old. A higher level of competitiveness demonstrates a risk factor of excessive weight gain during pregnancy regardless of age.

  1. Self-Renewal, Personal Development and Change: An Inexorable Link.

    Krupp, Judy-Arin

    1995-01-01

    Self-renewal, personal development, and change create an inexorable link. Change management processes include the following: (1) internal locus of control; (2) freedom from institutional crutches; (3) flexible teaching; (4) recognition of emotional reactions to change; and (5) identification of the causes of indecisiveness and insecurities. (JOW)

  2. Personality perception based on LinkedIn profiles

    van de Ven, Niels; Bogaert, Aniek; Serlie, Alec; Brandt, Mark; Denissen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Job-related social networking websites (e.g., LinkedIn) are often used in the recruitment process because the profiles contain valuable information such as education level and work experience. We investigated whether people can accurately infer a profile owner’s self-rated personality

  3. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type

    ... Cleft Lip and Palate MalaCards: x-linked intellectual disability, siderius type March of Dimes: Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Merck Manual Consumer Version: Intellectual Disability Orphanet: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Patient ...

  4. Relationship of self-management to personality types and indices.

    Williams, R L; Verble, J S; Price, D E; Layne, B H

    1995-06-01

    This study addressed the relationship between self-management (as measured by the Lifestyle Approaches Inventory, Williams, Moore, Pettibone, & Thomas, 1992) and personality types and indexes (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Myers & McCaulley, 1985) in a sample of 347 university students. Correlational analyses indicated that the self-management factor most consistently linked to the Myers-Briggs indices was Organization of Physical Space. The Myers-Briggs index most consistently correlated with the self-management factors was Judgment-Perception. Overall, male and female subjects showed similar patterns of relationships between the self-management and personality indices. When the self-management scores were compared for the various Myers-Briggs types, the analysis indicated that types having a J (planful and organized) or S (precise and practical) in the typology tended to score higher than those having a P (spontaneous and flexible) or N (imaginative and insightful).

  5. Accused Murderers: Five MMPI Personality Types.

    Anderson, Wayne P.; Holcomb, William R.

    1983-01-01

    Identified five types of violent criminals (N=110) using cluster analysis of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores, and compared them on 24 sociological and behavioral variables. Results showed differences on 16 items including family history, drug and alcohol use, events preceding the crime, and relationship between offender and…

  6. On the classification of links up to finite type

    Habegger, Nathan; Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste

    We use an action, of 2l-component string links on l-component string links, defined by the first author and Xiao-Song Lin, to lift the indeterminacy of finite type link invariants. The set of links up to this new indeterminacy is in bijection with the orbit space of the restriction of this action...

  7. Reliving emotional personal memories: affective biases linked to personality and sex-related differences.

    Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Sanda; Dolcos, Florin

    2012-06-01

    Although available evidence suggests that the emotional valence and recollective properties of autobiographical memories (AMs) may be influenced by personality- and sex-related differences, overall these relationships remain poorly understood. The present study investigated these issues by comparing the effect of general personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) and specific traits linked to emotion regulation (ER) strategies (reappraisal and suppression) on the retrieval of emotional AMs and on the associated postretrieval emotional states, in men and women. First, extraversion predicted recollection of positive AMs in both men and women, whereas neuroticism predicted the proportion of negative AMs in men and the frequency of rehearsing negative AMs in women. Second, reappraisal predicted positive AMs in men, and suppression predicted negative AMs in women. Third, while reliving of positive memories had an overall indirect effect on postretrieval positive mood through extraversion, reliving of negative AMs had a direct effect on postretrieval negative mood, which was linked to inefficient engagement of suppression in women. Our findings suggest that personality traits associated with positive affect predict recollection of positive AMs and maintenance of a positive mood, whereas personality traits associated with negative affect, along with differential engagement of habitual ER strategies in men and women, predict sex-related differences in the recollection and experiencing of negative AMs. These findings provide insight into the factors that influence affective biases in reliving AMs, and into their possible link to sex-related differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders.

  8. Influence of Personal Preferences on Link Dynamics in Social Networks

    Ashwin Bahulkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a unique network dataset including periodic surveys and electronic logs of dyadic contacts via smartphones. The participants were a sample of freshmen entering university in the Fall 2011. Their opinions on a variety of political and social issues and lists of activities on campus were regularly recorded at the beginning and end of each semester for the first three years of study. We identify a behavioral network defined by call and text data, and a cognitive network based on friendship nominations in ego-network surveys. Both networks are limited to study participants. Since a wide range of attributes on each node were collected in self-reports, we refer to these networks as attribute-rich networks. We study whether student preferences for certain attributes of friends can predict formation and dissolution of edges in both networks. We introduce a method for computing student preferences for different attributes which we use to predict link formation and dissolution. We then rank these attributes according to their importance for making predictions. We find that personal preferences, in particular political views, and preferences for common activities help predict link formation and dissolution in both the behavioral and cognitive networks.

  9. Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting

    Joanna Cewińska; Lena Grzesiak; Przemysław Kabalski; Ewa Kusidel

    2017-01-01

    Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting The article presents the results of research on the relationship between personality according to the typol-ogy of Holland with preferences in accounting. In his theory, Holland distinguished six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. The authors formulated a general hypothesis that these different personality types have different preferences and views on certain issues in ...

  10. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and ...

    Keywords: HIV, trafficking in persons, labour, Tanzania ..... Myths about HIV transmission and AIDS cure in some parts of the world are likely to fuel trafficking in persons. Surfacing beliefs among men that 'having sex with virgin girls could.

  11. Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting

    Joanna Cewińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting The article presents the results of research on the relationship between personality according to the typol-ogy of Holland with preferences in accounting. In his theory, Holland distinguished six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. The authors formulated a general hypothesis that these different personality types have different preferences and views on certain issues in accounting. They also formulated several detailed hypotheses related to two personality types: Conven-tional and Enterprising. In order to verify the hypotheses, the authors carried out quantitative research (a questionnaire survey and focus interviews. Generally speaking, these hypotheses were confirmed.

  12. Consumers in Slovenia: values, personality types and consumerist attitudes

    Tomaž Kolar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to investigate the links between terminal and instrumental values, personality types, consumer attitudes and behavior that are relevant to marketing decision-making. The understanding of the personality and values of individual consumers should enable us to predict their preferences and behavior. Our set of consumer attitudes and behavior includes reported peer influence on shopping behavior, consumer ethnocentrism, value shopping and hedonism in shopping. Two multidimensional statistical approaches are considered: a cluster analysis of the individual’s personality and values and a factor analysis of consumer attitudes and behavior. An analysis of data from a representative sample of 1,094 Slovenian consumers (PGM, Valicon, 2007 reveals five clusters: conscientious-non-agreeable consumers differ in their consumer attitudes from extroversive consumers, neurotic-with-low-values, open-with-high-values and agreeable-conscious-non-open consumers. Implications for marketing decision-making and strategy development are considered, together with a possible extension of the study to multiple national groups of consumers from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE.

  13. Personality traits of competitive athletes according to type of ...

    Personality traits of competitive athletes according to type of pressure exerted on ... create the psychological profiles of the personality of athletes practising individual and ... There are differences between the sport disciplines where pressure is ...

  14. Childhood Personality Types: Vulnerability and Adaptation over Time

    De Clercq, Barbara; Rettew, David; Althoff, Robert R.; De Bolle, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Substantial evidence suggests that a Five-Factor Model personality assessment generates a valid description of childhood individual differences and relates to a range of psychological outcomes. Less is known, however, about naturally occurring profiles of personality and their links to psychopathology. The current study explores…

  15. How Reading Strategy Use and Personality Types Are Related?

    Safdarian, Zahra; Ghyasi, Majid; Farsani, Mohammad Amini

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to uncover the reading strategies utilized by Iranian undergraduate English Foreign Language (EFL) learners and their relationship with personality types. To this end, 194 university EFL learners were asked to fill out the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to identify their personality types and answer a reading strategy…

  16. Personality types and Facebook advertising::an exploratory study

    Clark, Lillian; Calli, Levent

    2014-01-01

    The Five-Factor Model of personality types has been utilized by a number of computer science and psychology academics as a framework to explore aspects of internet adoption and, more recently, social media adoption and behaviours. While the use of personality type models in research has been less popular with marketing academics, the Five-Factor Model has been used to predict the emotional appeal of advertising based on personality types and potentially to provide guidelines for tailoring adv...

  17. Establishing a communications link between two different, incompatible, personal computers: with practical examples and illustrations and program code.

    Davidson, R W

    1985-01-01

    The increasing need to communicate to exchange data can be handled by personal microcomputers. The necessity for the transference of information stored in one type of personal computer to another type of personal computer is often encountered in the process of integrating multiple sources of information stored in different and incompatible computers in Medical Research and Practice. A practical example is demonstrated with two relatively inexpensive commonly used computers, the IBM PC jr. and the Apple IIe. The basic input/output (I/O) interface chip for serial communication for each computer are joined together using a Null connector and cable to form a communications link. Using BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) Computer Language and the Disk Operating System (DOS) the communications handshaking protocol and file transfer is established between the two computers. The BASIC programming languages used are Applesoft (Apple Personal Computer) and PC BASIC (IBM Personal computer).

  18. Type D personality as a predictor of self-efficacy and social support in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Shao Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yechang Shao,1,2 Honglei Yin,3 Chengsong Wan4 1School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Psychiatry, Nanfang Hospital, 4Department of Microbiology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type D personality and assess the relationship between this personality type and self-efficacy/social support in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Patients and methods: From January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2014, 532 consecutive patients with T2DM were recruited from two hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The participants completed questionnaires containing questions about sociodemographic characteristics, Type D personality, self-efficacy, and social support scales, and their medical records were reviewed for additional data.Results: Of the 532 patients, 18.2% had Type D personality. Patients with this personality type reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy (P<0.001, total social support (P<0.001, subjective support (P<0.001, and support utilization (P=0.003, but similar level of objective support (P=0.314, compared to those of patients without Type D personality. Negative affectivity and social inhibition, two intrinsic traits of Type D personality, negatively correlated with self-efficacy and social support scores. Type D personality was significantly associated with less self-efficacy and social support (P<0.001, controlling for other sociodemographic factors. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients with Type D personality than in patients with non-Type D personality.Conclusion: This study provides new evidence linking Type D personality with self-efficacy, social support, and poor

  19. The Relationship Between Personality Type And Leadership Focus

    Grant Sieff

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimising focus is a key success driver for many organisation leaders. The relationship between personality type and leadership focus is examined. Personality type is assessed with Form M of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator instrument, and leadership focus is explored through the development and application of a Leadership Focus Questionnaire. South African executives form the target population for this study. Both functionalist and interpretive approaches are applied. Three primary theoretical hypotheses about leadership focus, concerning (1 optimising the balance of focus between external and internal priorities, (2 the fit between the leadership personality type and the organisation type, and (3 the capacity to manage a multiple focus, are considered. Results show that Extraverted personality types are more comfortable with the challenges of focus in the leadership role than are Introverted types, and Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking and Judging types experience a greater degree of fit with their organisations than do Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling and Perceiving types.

  20. Trauma-Related Dissociation Is Linked With Maladaptive Personality Functioning

    Antonella Granieri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive research has demonstrated the positive associations among the exposure to traumatic experiences, the levels of dissociation, and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in adults. However, it has been hypothesized in clinical literature that an excessive activation of the dissociative processes following multiple traumatic experiences may jeopardize the psychological and behavioral functioning of the individuals, fostering higher levels of maladaptive personality functioning.Methods: The study involved 322 adult volunteers from Italy. Participants completed measures on traumatic experiences, dissociation, and maladaptive personality traits.Results: The number of traumatic experiences reported by participants were positively associated with dissociation scores and maladaptive personality scores. Mediation analyses showed that dissociation acted as a partial mediator in the relationship between traumatic experiences and overall maladaptive personality functioning. Regression curve analyses showed that the positive association between maladaptive personality functioning and dissociation was stronger among participants with higher exposure to traumatic experiences.Conclusion: Exposure to multiple traumatic experiences may increase the risk for an excessive activation of the dissociative processes, which in turn may generate severe impairments in multiple domains of personality functioning.

  1. Personality at Work: A Study of Type A-B

    Amber Raza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the impact of stressors on personality types in Call Centers. Based on literature survey five potential workplace stressors were identified, namely (1 Task Demands, (2 Role Demands, (3 Interpersonal Demands, (4 Organizational Structure and (5 Organizational Leadership. Based on the literature survey, a relationship model was developed that was inclusive of the above stressors, and three personality types, which were Type A, Type AB and Type B.The sample size for the study was 100. The subjects were supervisors and agents drawn non-randomly from various Call Centers of Karachi. All the subjects completed a questionnaire comprised of 27 questions based on occupational stress index (Srivasta and Singh 1981 and AB Personality Continuum (National Institute of Safety and Health 1975. The three personality types A, B & AB all go through stress, however it is the Type A, which thrives on stress. The sources of stress measured in the study were Task Demand, Role Demand, Interpersonal Demands, Organizational Structure and Organizational Leadership.The stressor that most contributed to the Personality type A’s stress in the study was Interpersonal Demand (0.38, which is justified by the literature review as Personality type A are not team players and prefer to work alone.Whereas Personality type B was stressed because of Role Demand (0.38 which is also proved by the literature review as personality type B are laid back and do not take there roles seriously. Hence it can be concluded that it type A tends to cope well with stress as compared to type AB and type B. The performance of the respondents can be made better if the supervisors are aware of the personality types and thereby motivate them according.

  2. PERSONALITY TYPE AND TRANSLATION PERFORMANCE OF PERSIAN TRANSLATOR TRAINEES

    Reza Shaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between the personality typology of a sample of Iranian translation students and their translation quality in terms of expressive, appellative, and informative text types. The study also attempted to identify the personality types that can perform better in English to Persian translation of the three text types. For that purpose, the personality type and the translation quality of the participants was assessed using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI personality test and translation quality assessment (TQA, respectively. The analysis of the data revealed that the personality type of the participants seemed relevant to the translation quality of all the text types. The translation quality of the participants with intuitive and thinking types was significantly better than the sensing type counterparts in translating expressive texts. The participants with intuitive and feeling types also performed better than their counterparts with sensing type in translation of the informative text. Moreover, the participants with intuitive, feeling, and thinking personality types performed more successfully than the participants with sensing type in translation of the appellative text. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the existing research literature.

  3. PTSD and depressive symptoms are linked to DHEAS via personality.

    Savic, Danka; Knezevic, Goran; Matic, Gordana; Damjanovic, Svetozar

    2018-06-01

    Research results on dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ester (DHEAS) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are inconsistent. We hypothesized that personality traits could be the confounders of DHEAS levels and disease symptoms, which could in part explain the discrepancy in findings. This study was a part of a broader project in which simultaneous psychological and biological investigations were carried out in hospital conditions. 380 male subjects were categorized in four groups: A) current PTSD (n = 132), B) lifetime PTSD (n = 66), C) trauma controls (n = 101), and D) healthy controls (n = 81), matched by age. The level of DHEAS is significantly lower in the current PTSD group than in trauma controls. All groups significantly differ in personality traits Disintegration and Neuroticism (current PTSD group having the highest scores). DHEAS is related to both PTSD and depressive symptoms; however, Structural Equation Model (SEM) shows that the relations are indirect, realized via their confounder - personality trait Disintegration. According to our project results, DHEAS is the second putative biomarker for trauma-related disorders that fails to fulfil this expectation. It appears to be more directly related to personality than to the disease symptoms (the first one being basal cortisol). Our data promote personality as a biologically based construct with seemingly important role in understanding the mental health status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Personality Types, Learning Styles, and Educational Goals.

    Miller, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a new personality typology that provides a coherent system for construing and conducting research on learning styles. Discusses analytic, holistic, objective, and subjective styles as the affect versatility. Presents implications for educational goals, such as determining which students can benefit from stylistic versatility and which…

  5. Dominant Personality Types in Public Accounting: Selection Bias or Indoctrinated?

    Burton, Hughlene; Daugherty, Brian; Dickins, Denise; Schisler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies concerning the personality type and preferences of accountants generally draw conclusions based upon the reports of either practicing accountants, or accounting students, at a single point in time. So while much is known about the personality type of accountants in general, left unexplored is the question of whether public…

  6. The effect of counsellors' personality types on interpersonal skills in ...

    The result indicated that personality types (introvert and extrovert) do not affect counsellors' interpersonal skill in counselling therapy. It was also concluded that counsellor personality types do not have much implication on the use of interpersonal skills. The researcher, therefore, recommended that mastering interpersonal ...

  7. Reciprocal link for a coupled Camassa–Holm type equation

    Li, Nianhua; Zhang, Jinshun; Wu, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We construct a reciprocal transformation for a coupled Camassa–Holm type equation proposed by Geng and Xue. • The transformed coupled Camassa–Holm type system is a reduction of the first negative flow in a modified Drinfeld–Sokolov III hierarchy. • The Lax pair and bi-Hamiltonian structure behaviors of the coupled Camassa–Holm type equation under the reciprocal transformation are analyzed. - Abstract: A coupled Camassa–Holm type equation is linked to the first negative flow in a modified Drinfeld–Sokolov III hierarchy by a transformation of reciprocal type. Meanwhile the Lax pair and bi-Hamiltonian structure behaviors of this coupled Camassa–Holm type equation under the reciprocal transformation are analyzed.

  8. Personality perception based on LinkedIn profiles

    N. van de Ven (Niels); A. Bogaerts (Aniek); A.W. Serlie (Alec); M.J. Brandt (Mark); J.A. Denissen (Jaap)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Purpose:__ Job-related social networking websites (e.g. LinkedIn) are often used in the recruitment process because the profiles contain valuable information such as education level and work experience. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether people can accurately infer

  9. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and ...

    ... the underground nature of the trafficking in persons process increases health problems and risks, including the vulnerability to HIV infection. More tailored research is needed, especially to find means of how to reach out and provide services to this particular vulnerable population, validate labour forms of exploitation into ...

  10. Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in patients with heart failure-A mediation analysis.

    Wu, Jia-Rong; Song, Eun Kyeung; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Type D personality is associated with medication non-adherence. Both Type D personality and non-adherence are predictors of poor outcomes. Self-efficacy, which is modifiable, is also associated with medication adherence. To determine the relationships among Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in 84 heart failure patients. Self-efficacy, Type D personality, medication adherence, demographic and clinical data were collected. Hierarchical linear regression was used. Type D patients were more likely to have lower self-efficacy (p = .023) and medication non-adherence (p = .027) than non-Type D patients. Low self-efficacy was associated with medication non-adherence (p mediation. Self-efficacy mediates the relationship between Type D personality and medication adherence. Developing and applying interventions to enhance self-efficacy may help to sever the link between Type D personality and poor outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How physicians identify with predetermined personalities and links to perceived performance and wellness outcomes: a cross-sectional study.

    Lemaire, Jane B; Wallace, Jean E

    2014-11-29

    Certain personalities are ascribed to physicians. This research aims to measure the extent to which physicians identify with three predetermined personalities (workaholic, Type A and control freak) and to explore links to perceptions of professional performance, and wellness outcomes. This is a cross-sectional study using a mail-out questionnaire sent to all practicing physicians (2957 eligible, 1178 responses, 40% response rate) in a geographical health region within a western Canadian province. Survey items were used to assess the extent to which participants felt they are somewhat of a workaholic, Type A and/or control freak, and if they believed that having these personalities makes one a better doctor. Participants' wellness outcomes were also measured. Zero-order correlations were used to determine the relationships between physicians identifying with a personality and feeling it makes one a better doctor. T-tests were used to compare measures of physician wellness for those who identified with the personality versus those who did not. 53% of participants identified with the workaholic personality, 62% with the Type A, and 36% with the control freak. Identifying with any one of the personalities was correlated with feeling it makes one a better physician. There were statistically significant differences in several wellness outcomes comparing participants who identified with the personalities versus those who did not. These included higher levels of emotional exhaustion (workaholic, Type A and control freak), higher levels of anxiety (Type A and control freak) and higher levels of depression, poorer mental health and lower levels of job satisfaction (control freak). Participants who identified with the workaholic personality versus those who did not reported higher levels of job satisfaction, rewarding patient experiences and career commitment. Most participants identified with at least one of the three personalities. The beliefs of some participants that

  12. Career Self-Efficacy and Personality: Linking Career Confidence and the Healthy Personality

    Borgen, Fred H.; Betz, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This article extends recent work on the relationship between personality and career self-efficacy by examining relationships across two new inventories with scales for identifying human strengths. The Healthy Personality Inventory (HPI) has 17 content scales tapping an array of positive personality measures. The CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI) has…

  13. [Binge eating disorder: Links with personality and emotionality].

    Dorard, G; Khorramian-Pour, M

    2017-04-01

    Our two objectives were: (1) to investigate the relationship between binge eating disorder, dimensions of personality (according to the Big Five model of Costa and McCrae) and those of emotionality in the "tripartite" model of emotions of Watson and Clark; (2) to evaluate the correspondence between the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) scores. Four self-administered questionnaires were completed on a shared doc website: the EDI-2, the BES, the BFI-Fr (Big Five Inventory-French version) and the EPN-31 (Positive and Negative Emotionality Scale). The analyses were conducted in a sample of 101 participants (36 men and 65 women), aged 20-59 years (mean age=35.28±9.76) from the general population. We found that 11% of the participants had moderate to severe binge eating disorder. Among them, nearly 4% were overweight and 4% were obese. The correlations analyses indicated that binge eating disorder was associated with two dimensions of personality, the neuroticism (P=0.001) and the consciousness (P=0.010), and with the emotions of joy (P=0.008), tenderness (P=0.036), fear (P=0.011), shame (Pbinge eating disorder get higher scores on EDI-2 subscales: search for thinness (P=0.001), bulimia (Pbinge eating disorder is associated with negative affectivity both as a personality dimension and as an emotional feeling. The patterns of associations, observed with the EDI scale, seem to confirm the good convergent validity of the Binge Eating Scale. Thus, like other eating disorders, emotional functioning should be a prime target for prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations linking parenting styles and offspring personality disorder are moderated by parental personality disorder, evidence from China.

    Cheng, Hui Green; Huang, Yueqin; Liu, Zhaorui; Liu, Baohua

    2011-08-30

    The aim of the study is to examine the association linking parenting and personality disorder controlling for parental personality disorder, and whether this association is moderated by parental PD. Data were from community-dwelling high school students aged 18 and above and their parents living in Beijing, China. A total of 181 cases and 2,605 controls were included in this study. Personality disorder in students was assessed via a two-stage approach, Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire as a screening tool and International Personality Disorder Examination as the diagnostic tool. Information about parenting was collected from students using Egna Minnen av. Betraffande Uppfostran. Negative parenting styles, e.g. rejective or over-protective parenting, were found to be associated with the occurrence of personality disorder. Conflictive parenting styles were also found to be associated with personality disorder. Generally stronger associations were found for students with parental personality disorder as compared to students without parental personality disorder. Findings from this study support the role of parenting in the occurrence of PD, especially for children with family history of personality disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the links between personality traits and motivations to play online games.

    Park, Jowon; Song, Yosep; Teng, Ching-I

    2011-12-01

    The present study explores the links between personality traits and motivations to play online games. We identified the underlying dimensions of motivations to play online games, examined how personality traits predict motivation, and investigated how personality traits predict online gaming behavior (i.e., playing time and preference for game genres). Factor analyses identified five motivational factors: relationships, adventure, escapism, relaxation, and achievement. The regression analyses indicated that two personality traits, extraversion and agreeableness, predicted various motivations; however, personality traits did not affect the playing time and game genre preference.

  16. Linking Extroversion and Proactive Personality to Career Success: The Role of Mentoring Received and Knowledge

    Turban, Daniel B.; Moake, Timothy R.; Wu, Sharon Yu-Hsien; Cheung, Yu Ha

    2017-01-01

    Although extroversion and proactive personality are related to career success, the mechanisms through which the relationships occur are unclear. Based on the contest- and sponsored-mobility processes, we examine a model linking extroversion and proactive personality to career success through the mediating effects of mentoring received and…

  17. Links between sex-typed time use in middle childhood and gender development in early adolescence.

    McHale, Susan M; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Whiteman, Shawn; Crouter, Ann C

    2004-09-01

    The authors studied sex-typing in the kinds (e.g., sports, handicrafts) and social contexts (same- vs. other-sex companions) of children's free time activities, and the links between sex-typed activities and gender development over 2 years. Participants were 200 White, working- and middle-class children (103 girls, 97 boys; mean age = 10.86 years). In annual home interviews, children rated their self-esteem, gender role attitudes and sex-typed personality qualities, academic interests, and school grades. During 7 nightly phone interviews each year, children reported on their activities. Boys were more sex-typed than girls in their peer activities, and children were least sex-typed in their activities with siblings. Sex-typed activities in middle childhood predicted individual differences in gender development in early adolescence. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  18. The Association of Childhood Personality Type with Volunteering during Adolescence

    Atkins, Robert; Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, we investigated the relation of childhood personality type to volunteering during adolescence. We hypothesized that participants with more adaptive personality functioning during childhood would be more likely to volunteer during adolescence and that membership in social organizations would mediate the relation of…

  19. Personality Type and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students

    Lawrence, Arul A. S.; Lawrence, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality is the man. The successful living of an individual, as a man, depends to a large extent on the academic achievement of that individual, as a student. This article attempts to find out personality type, academic achievement of secondary school students and relationship between them by selecting a sample of 300 secondary school students…

  20. Personality profiles of children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Prinzie, P.; Descheemaeker, M.J.; Vogels, A.; Cleymans, T.; Haselager, G.J.T.; Curfs, L.M.G.; Hellinckx, W.; Onghena, P.; Legius, E.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Fryns, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The personality profile of 44 youngsters (24 males, 20 females; mean age 11 years, 3 months) with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was compared with a group of 220 non-NF1 control youngsters (matched on age and gender). Personality characteristics of each youngster were rated by both parents, using

  1. Personality Types and Development of Adolescents' Conflict with Friends

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan J. T.; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    This study examined the development of adolescents' conflict frequency and conflict resolution with their best friends, and tested whether adolescents with different personality types differed in these developmental changes from early to middle adolescence. Dutch adolescents (N = 922, 468 boys;

  2. Parental rearing style: examining for links with personality vulnerability factors for depression.

    Parker, G

    1993-07-01

    Recent research provides evidence of links between anomalous parenting experiences in childhood and subsequent depression. A study was designed to pursue the possibility that anomalous parenting effects a diathesis to depression by inducing a vulnerable cognitive style rather than by disposing directly to depression. Possible mediating personality style variables were explored in a study of 123 depressed subjects who scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), as well as completing a state depression and several relevant personality measures. Low self-esteem and a related dysfunction cognitive style were the personality variables most clearly linked with PBI scores, with links persisting after partialling out state levels of depression. Failure to find links between PBI scores and depression levels limited explication of the diathesis stress model.

  3. Underlay of low-rate machine-type D2D links on downlink cellular links

    Pratas, Nuno K.; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    Wireless cellular networks feature two emerging technological trends: direct Device-to-Device (D2D) communications and Machine-Type Communications (MTC). MTC devices (MTDs) pose new challenges to the cellular network, such as low transmission power and massive access that can lead to overload...... probability for the MTC link. The results show that SIC is an important enabler of low-power underlay D2D transmission for low-rate machine-type traffic; however, it may incur a significant rate penalty for the cellular users when trying to meet the outage requirements of the MTC link....... of the radio interface. In this paper we explore the opportunity opened by D2D links for supporting Low-rate Low-power MTDs that are connected to a nearby device, such as an on-body MTD connected to a mobile phone that acts as a relay towards the Base Station (BS). The low-rate requirement for this D2D...

  4. Personality types and student performance in an introductory physics course

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Justason, Michael; Meyertholen, Andrew; Wilson, Brian

    2017-12-01

    We measured the personality type of the students in a large introductory physics course of mostly life science students using the True Colors instrument. We found large correlations of personality type with performance on the precourse Force Concept Inventory (FCI), both term tests, the postcourse FCI, and the final examination. We also saw correlations with the normalized gain on the FCI. The personality profile of the students in this course is very different from the profile of the physics faculty and graduate students, and also very different from the profile of students taking the introductory physics course intended for physics majors and specialists.

  5. Type-D personality is a stable taxonomy in post-MI patients over an 18-month period

    Martens, Elisabeth J; Kupper, Nina; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2007-01-01

    type-D personality comprises a risk factor for adverse prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, concerns that type-D personality may not be a stable personality taxonomy and that progression of CVD may contribute to the manifestation of type-D personality have been voiced...

  6. Development and commissioning of a links type inspection manipulator

    Whitcomb, H.M.; Ford, G.T.

    1988-01-01

    In order to access a number of tortuous inspection routes in the Heysham II/Torness reactors, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) Remote Inspection Group (RIG) have developed a 'links' type manipulator in conjunction with Babcock Power Ltd. This manipulator operates from the reactor pile cap and allows placement of a television camera within the pressure vessel up to 4m laterally from a standpipe of only 140mm in diameter. The design features of this novel manipulator are described together with the solutions developed to overcome particular difficulties experienced during commissioning. (author)

  7. Protective personality traits: High openness and low neuroticism linked to better memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Leavitt, Victoria M; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Inglese, Matilde; Sumowski, James F

    2017-11-01

    Memory impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common, although few risk/protective factors are known. To examine relationships of personality to memory/non-memory cognition in MS. 80 patients completed a cognitive battery and a personality scale measuring the "Big 5" traits: openness, neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Memory was most related to openness, with higher openness linked to better memory and lower risk for memory impairment, controlling for age, atrophy, education, and intelligence quotient (IQ). Lower neuroticism was also related to better memory, and lower conscientiousness to memory impairment. Non-memory cognition was unrelated to personality. Personality may inform predictive models of memory impairment in MS.

  8. Working Effectively with Different Personality Types: A Look at the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    Khanagov, Diana

    2007-01-01

    In 1921, Carl Jung wrote about four different types of personality, identified 24 centuries ago by Hippocrates. He theorized that these differences were not abnormalities in personality. Instead, he maintained that human behavior is predictable and classifiable that everyone has and acts upon personal preferences, established in early childhood.…

  9. Type D Personality : a five-factor model perspective

    de Fruyt, F.; Denollet, J.K.L.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the position of Type D (high Negative Affectivity and high Social Inhibition) within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality. A sample of 155 healthy subjects were administered the Type D Scale and the NEO-FFI, assessing the FFM traits. Subjects also filled out the General

  10. Type D personality and health status in cardiovascular disease populations

    Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the factors associated with individual differences in patient-reported outcomes is essential to identify high-risk patients and improve secondary prevention. Design: In this meta-analysis, we examined the association between Type D personality and the individual differences...... in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health...... status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated...

  11. Prediction of elders′ general health based on positive and negative perfectionism and type-D personality

    Reza Karaminia

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Positive perfectionism decreases mental disorder of the elders by creating optimistic attitudes and enhancing social functions. On the other hand, type-D personality, unlike positive perfectionism, makes elders susceptible to physical illness and mental disorder.

  12. Linking remotely sensed aerosol types to their chemical composition

    Dawson, K. W.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Johnson, M. S.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Meskhidze, N.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol types measured during the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) experiment are related to GEOS-Chem model chemical composition. The application for this procedure to link model chemical components to aerosol type is desirable for understanding aerosol evolution over time. The Mahalanobis distance (DM) statistic is used to cluster model groupings of five chemical components (organic carbon, black carbon, sea salt, dust and sulfate) in a way analogous to the methods used by Burton et al. [2012] and Russell et al. [2014]. First, model-to-measurement evaluation is performed by collocating vertically resolved aerosol extinction from SABOR High Spectral Resolution LiDAR (HSRL) to the GEOS-Chem nested high-resolution data. Comparisons of modeled-to-measured aerosol extinction are shown to be within 35% ± 14%. Second, the model chemical components are calculation into five variables to calculate the DM and cluster means and covariances for each HSRL-retrieved aerosol type. The layer variables from the model are aerosol optical depth (AOD) ratios of (i) sea salt and (ii) dust to total AOD, mass ratios of (iii) total carbon (i.e. sum of organic and black carbon) to the sum of total carbon and sulfate (iv) organic carbon to black carbon, and (v) the natural log of the aerosol-to-molecular extinction ratio. Third, the layer variables and at most five out of twenty SABOR flights are used to form the pre-specified clusters for calculating DM and to assign an aerosol type. After determining the pre-specified clusters, model aerosol types are produced for the entire vertically resolved GEOS-Chem nested domain over the United States and the model chemical component distributions relating to each type are recorded. Resulting aerosol types are Dust/Dusty Mix, Maritime, Smoke, Urban and Fresh Smoke (separated into `dark' and `light' by a threshold of the organic to black carbon ratio). Model-calculated DM not belonging to a specific type (i.e. not meeting a threshold

  13. Personalized Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes

    Raz, Itamar; Riddle, Matthew C.; Rosenstock, Julio; Buse, John B.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Home, Philip D.; Del Prato, Stefano; Ferrannini, Ele; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; LeRoith, Derek; DeFronzo, Ralph; Cefalu, William T.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, 13 thought leaders convened in a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum to discuss the concept of personalized medicine in the wake of a recently published American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes position statement calling for a patient-centered approach to hyperglycemia management in type 2 diabetes. This article, an outgrowth of that forum, offers a clinical translation of the underlying issues that need to be considered for effectively person...

  14. Do Dental Students' Personality Types and Group Dynamics Affect Their Performance in Problem-Based Learning?

    Ihm, Jung-Joon; An, So-Youn; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the personality types of dental students and their group dynamics were linked to their problem-based learning (PBL) performance. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument was used with 263 dental students enrolled in Seoul National University School of Dentistry from 2011 to 2013; the students had participated in PBL in their first year. A four-session PBL setting was designed to analyze how individual personality types and the diversity of their small groups were associated with PBL performance. Overall, the results showed that the personality type of PBL performance that was the most prominent was Judging. As a group became more diverse with its different constituent personality characteristics, there was a tendency for the group to be higher ranked in terms of PBL performance. In particular, the overperforming group was clustered around three major profiles: Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging (ENTJ), Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ), and Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ). Personality analysis would be beneficial for dental faculty members in order for them to understand the extent to which cooperative learning would work smoothly, especially when considering group personalities.

  15. Association of Type D personality with increased vulnerability to depression

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Verhey, Frans R J; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type D personality - the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) - has been associated with depression but little is known about underlying mechanisms. We examined whether (1) Type D is a vulnerability factor for depression in general, (2) Type D is associa......BACKGROUND: Type D personality - the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) - has been associated with depression but little is known about underlying mechanisms. We examined whether (1) Type D is a vulnerability factor for depression in general, (2) Type D...... was associated with inflammation (β=0.228, p=0.014) and endothelial dysfunction (β=0.216, p=0.022). After adjustment for these biomarkers, Type D remained independently associated with increased vulnerability to depressive disorder (OR=13.20, p...: The cross-sectional design restrained us to draw any conclusions on causality. The relatively low prevalence of depressive disorder restrained us to adjust for more potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Type D personality may be a vulnerability factor for depression, irrespective of levels of inflammation...

  16. Leukocyte telomere length and personality: associations with the Big Five and Type D personality traits.

    Schoormans, D; Verhoeven, J E; Denollet, J; van de Poll-Franse, L; Penninx, B W J H

    2018-04-01

    Backgrounds Accelerated cellular ageing, which can be examined by telomere length (TL), may be an overarching mechanism underlying the association between personality and adverse health outcomes. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the relation between personality and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) across time among adults with a wide age-range. Data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used and included patients with a depression and/or anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Overall, 2936 persons (18-65 years, 66% female) had data on LTL at baseline and 1883 persons had LTL at 6-year follow-up. The Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and Type D personality were assessed. Neuroticism was negatively (B = -2.11, p = 0.03) and agreeableness was positively (B = 3.84, p = 0.03) related to LTL measured across two time points, which became just non-significant after adjusting for somatic health, lifestyle factors, and recent life stress (B = -1.99, p = 0.06; and B = 3.01, p = 0.10). Type D personality was negatively (B = -50.16, p Big Five traits high neuroticism and low agreeableness, and Type D personality were associated with shorter LTL measured across a 6-year period. Associations with the Big Five traits became non-significant after controlling for somatic health, lifestyle factors, and recent life stress, yet similar trends were observed. Type D personality remained independently associated with shorter LTL after full adjustment.

  17. Personalized links recommendation based on data mining in adaptive educational hypermedia systems

    Romero, C.; Ventura, S.; Delgado, J.A.; De Bra, P.M.E.; Duval, E.; Klamma, R.; Wolpers, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a personalized recommender system that uses web mining techniques for recommending a student which (next) links to visit within an adaptable educational hypermedia system. We present a specific mining tool and a recommender engine that we have integrated in the AHA! system

  18. Transformational leadership sub-dimensions and their link to leaders' personality and performance

    Deinert, A.; Homan, A.C.; Boer, D.; Voelpel, S.C.; Gutermann, D.

    2015-01-01

    The multi-dimensionality of the transformational leadership construct has been under debate in the last decades. To shed more light on this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis (k = 58 studies), examining the transformational leadership sub-dimensions and their links to leader personality and

  19. Linking personality to larval energy reserves in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Höglund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    in larvae with small yolks. The relationship between social dominance and yolk size was present in siblings, demonstrating a link between interfamily variation in energy reserves and aggression, and suggests that larger yolk reserves fuel a more aggressive personality during the initial territorial...

  20. Type testing of the Siemens Plessey electronic personal dosemeter.

    Hirning, C R; Yuen, P S

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory assessment of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter, the Electronic Personal Dosemeter made by Siemens Plessey Controls Limited. Twenty pre-production dosimeters and a reader were purchased by Ontario Hydro for the assessment. Tests were performed on radiological performance, including reproducibility, accuracy, linearity, detection threshold, energy response, angular response, neutron response, and response time. There were also tests on the effects of a variety of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pulsed magnetic and electric fields, low- and high-frequency electromagnetic fields, light exposure, drop impact, vibration, and splashing. Other characteristics that were tested were alarm volume, clip force, and battery life. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards: an Ontario Hydro standard for personal alarming dosimeters, an International Electrotechnical Commission draft standard for direct reading personal dose monitors, and an International Electrotechnical Commission standard for thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal monitoring. In general, the performance of the Electronic Personal Dosemeter was found to be quite acceptable: it met most of the relevant requirements of the three standards. However, the following deficiencies were found: slow response time; sensitivity to high-frequency electromagnetic fields; poor resistance to dropping; and an alarm that was not loud enough. In addition, the response of the electronic personal dosimeter to low-energy beta rays may be too low for some applications. Problems were experienced with the reliability of operation of the pre-production dosimeters used in these tests.

  1. Associations between Modifiable Health-Risk Behaviors and Personality Types

    Jon C. Schommer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The first objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire are associated with the following modifiable health-risk behaviors: smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, nutrition, sleep, depression-related stress, anxiety-related stress, healthcare professional usage, and self-discipline. The second objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type are associated with (1 the quality of patient-physician relationships, (2 patient-physician communication, and (3 preferred method for receiving information. Methods: Data were collected from 10,500 adult individuals residing in the United States via an on-line, self-administered survey coordinated by Qualtrics Panels from March 14-30, 2016. Chi-square analysis was used for making comparisons between categories of personality types and items related to health-risk behaviors. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. However, chi-square analysis with large sample sizes (e.g. 10,500 in this study readily yields statistical significance. Practical significance was set at four or more percentage points above or below the overall mean. Results: Regarding objective 1, personality type was associated with all nine health-risk behaviors studied. Personality types within the Experiencer temperament (17% of the U.S. population accounted for 46% of the undesirable scores we computed for health-risk behaviors. The Idealist temperament (17% of population accounted for 32% of the undesirable scores. Conceptualizers (10% of population accounted for 17% of the undesirable scores and Traditionalists (46% of population accounted for 5% of the undesirable scores. Regarding objective 2, the findings showed that personality type was associated with (1 the importance people place on the patient-physician relationship, (2 which characteristics of that relationship are most desirable, (3 desire for

  2. Type D personality is associated with the development of stress cardiomyopathy following emotional triggers.

    Compare, Angelo; Bigi, Riccardo; Orrego, Pedro Silva; Proietti, Riccardo; Grossi, Enzo; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) can be triggered by emotional events. Recently, type D personality has been established as an independent predictor of acute cardiac adverse events. We sought to examine whether type D personality can be identified in SCM patients. A case-control study with 37 SCM patients, 37 myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, who both experienced emotional triggering, and 37 SCM patients without emotional triggers was performed. The DS14 and Interview for Recent Life Events were administered. Twenty-eight (76 %) SCM emotional trigger patients were categorized as type D compared with 13 (43 %) SCM patients without emotional trigger and 12 (32 %) AMI patients (p emotional triggers had higher scores on the social inhibition subscale than the other patient groups. The present study highlights the possible link between type D, with a specific key role for social inhibition component, and increased biological reactivity to acute emotional stress.

  3. The characteristics of medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs.

    Hur, Yera; Cho, A-Ra; Kim, Sun

    2013-12-01

    Medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs must be considered. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs. A total of 171 students in Konyang University College of Medicine were examined using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B). The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, t-test, and one-sample proportion test. The proportion of the 4 pairs of MBTI dimensions were Extroversion (E)-Introversion (I) (53.2% vs. 46.8%), Sensing (S)-Intuition (N) (63.2% vs. 36.8%), Thinking (T)-Feeling (F) (59.7% vs. 40.4%), and Judging (J)-Perceiving (P) (56.1% vs. 43.9%). The predominant personality types were ISTJ (16.4%), ESTJ (14.0%), and ESFJ (10.5%). The level of interpersonal needs were medium rage that was inclusion (mean=8.1), control (mean=8.8), affection (mean=8.1), expressed behavior (mean=12.1), wanted behavior (mean=12.9), and overall interpersonal needs (mean=25.0). Of the basic social needs, males and females differed significantly with regard to control needs (p=0.028). Educational programs that take into account personality types and characteristics of interpersonal needs are crucial in providing effective medical education. Our results suggest that the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs should be considered in developing an interpersonal relations improvement program for medical students.

  4. Teaching Techniques, Types of Personality, and English Listening Skill

    Ni Made Ratminingsih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Teaching Techniques, Types of Personality, and English Listening Skill. This study inves­tigated the effect of teaching techniques and types of personality on English listening skill. This experi­mental study involved 88 students under investigation, which were determined randomly through multi-stage random sampling technique. The results of the research indicate that there is an interaction effect between the teaching techniques and types of personality on the English listening skill; there is no significant difference in the listening skill between the group of students who learn using the game technique and those who learn using the song technique; the listening skill of students having extrovert personality is better than those having introvert personality; the listening skill of students having extrovert personality who learn using the game technique is lower than those who learn using the song technique; and the listen­ing skill of students having introvert personality who learn using the game technique is higher than those who learn using the song technique. Abstrak: Teknik Pembelajaran, Tipe Kepribadian, dan Keterampilan Mendengarkan Bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh teknik pembelajaran dan tipe kepribadian terhadap keterampilan mendengarkan bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini melibatkan 88 orang siswa, yang ditentukan secara acak melalui multi stage random sampling technique. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh interaksi antara teknik pembelajaran dan tipe kepribadian terhadap keterampilan mendengarkan bahasa Inggris; tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada keterampilan mendengarkan antara siswa yang belajar dengan teknik pembelajaran permainan dan lagu; keterampilan mendengarkan siswa yang berkepribadian ekstroversi lebih baik daripada yang berkepribadian introversi; keterampilan mendengarkan siswa yang berkepribadian ekstroversi, yang belajar dengan teknik pembelajaran

  5. Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder-a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R

    2013-06-01

    Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective and cognitive functioning that can influence the sense of self-agency and narcissistic self-regulation. Attention can play a crucial role in moderating fear and self-regulatory deficits, and the interaction between experience and emotion can be central for decision-making. In this review we will explore fear as a motivating factor in narcissistic personality functioning, and the impact fear may have on decision-making in people with pathological narcissism and NPD. Understanding the processes and neurological underpinnings of fear and decision-making can potentially influence both the diagnosis and treatment of NPD.

  6. Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder—a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.

    2013-01-01

    Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective and cognitive functioning that can influence the sense of self-agency and narcissistic self-regulation. Attention can play a crucial role in moderating fear and self-regulatory deficits, and the interaction between experience and emotion can be central for decision-making. In this review we will explore fear as a motivating factor in narcissistic personality functioning, and the impact fear may have on decision-making in people with pathological narcissism and NPD. Understanding the processes and neurological underpinnings of fear and decision-making can potentially influence both the diagnosis and treatment of NPD. PMID:24174893

  7. Family and Friends: Which Types of Personal Relationships Go Together in a Network?

    Rözer, Jesper; Mollenhorst, Gerald; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    We examine the link between family and personal networks. Using arguments about meeting opportunities, competition and social influence, we hypothesise how the presence of specific types of family members (i.e., a partner, children, parents and siblings) and non-family members (i.e., friends, neighbours and colleagues) in the network mutually affect one another. In addition, we propose that-beyond their mere presence-the active role of family members in the network strongly affects the presence of non-family members in the network. Data from the third wave of the Survey on the Social Networks of the Dutch, collected in 2012 and 2013, show that active involvement is of key importance; more than merely having family members present in one's personal network, the active involvement of specific types of family members in the personal network is associated with having disproportionally more other family members and having somewhat fewer non-family members in the network.

  8. Influence of academic procrastination and personality types on ...

    The study examined the influence of academic procrastination and personality types on the academic achievement and efficacy of In-school adolescents in Ibadan, Oyo state. Two hundred participants were randomly selected from four schools in Akinyele Local Government area of Oyo state. Multiple regression analysis ...

  9. Interactions between Personality Type and the Experimental Methods

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; Taylor, Beck A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors bring together two research streams in the literature that examine separately the effectiveness of using experiments in the principles classroom and the relationship between different personality types and student achievement. Using a sample of 255 principles of microeconomics students, 48 of whom were enrolled in sections that relied…

  10. Type D personality, cardiac events, and impaired quality of life

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Psychological distress has been associated with the pathogenesis and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about the determinants of distress as a coronary risk factor. Although it has become unfashionable to focus on personality factors since research on Type A behaviour...

  11. Personality types and development of adolescents' conflict with friends

    Yu, R.; Branje, S.T.J.; Keijsers, L.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the development of adolescents' conflict frequency and conflict resolution with their best friends, and tested whether adolescents with different personality types differed in these developmental changes from early to middle adolescence. Dutch adolescents (N = 922, 468 boys;

  12. The Relationship Between Personality Types and Career Choice of ...

    The study was carried out to investigate the Relationship between Personality Types and Career Choice of Secondary School Students in Nigeria. The researchers formulated one research question and one hypothesis to guide the study. The researchers employed two sampling techniques, cluster and random sampling ...

  13. Siblings' personality traits and types of sibling relationship in childhood

    Tina Kavčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a follow-up study of sibling relationship and personality in 87 sibling dyads in early/middle childhood from parental perspective. At Time 1 all siblings attended pre-school and one year later approximately half of the older siblings entered compulsory school. At both times of measurement siblings' mothers and fathers independently reported on their children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003; Slovene adaptation, Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and on the observed sibling warmth, agonism, and rivalry using the Parental Expectations and Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships Questionnaire (Kramer, 2001. The predictive relationship obtained by two sets of cross-rater analyses (between maternal ratings of child personality and paternal reports on sibling relationship, and vice versa suggested that (a personality traits of both siblings and (b the match between siblings' personalities are associated with sibling type (affectionate, involved or average membership. Among personality traits, disagreeableness seems to be an especially significant contributor to sibling relationship quality.

  14. LINKING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND THEIR RESULTING EXPLOSIONS

    Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M.; Shields, Gregory A.; Sternberg, Assaf

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the ejecta velocities at maximum brightness and narrow circumstellar/interstellar Na D absorption line profiles of a sample of 23 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we determine that the properties of SN Ia progenitor systems and explosions are intimately connected. As demonstrated by Sternberg et al., half of all SNe Ia with detectable Na D absorption at the host-galaxy redshift in high-resolution spectroscopy have Na D line profiles with significant blueshifted absorption relative to the strongest absorption component, which indicates that a large fraction of SN Ia progenitor systems have strong outflows. In this study, we find that SNe Ia with blueshifted circumstellar/interstellar absorption systematically have higher ejecta velocities and redder colors at maximum brightness relative to the rest of the SN Ia population. This result is robust at a 98.9%-99.8% confidence level, providing the first link between the progenitor systems and properties of the explosion. This finding is further evidence that the outflow scenario is the correct interpretation of the blueshifted Na D absorption, adding additional confirmation that some SNe Ia are produced from a single-degenerate progenitor channel. An additional implication is that either SN Ia progenitor systems have highly asymmetric outflows that are also aligned with the SN explosion or SNe Ia come from a variety of progenitor systems where SNe Ia from systems with strong outflows tend to have more kinetic energy per unit mass than those from systems with weak or no outflows.

  15. The genetic links between the big five personality traits and general interest domains.

    Kandler, Christian; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M

    2011-12-01

    This is the first genetically informative study in which multiple informants were used to quantify the genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in general interests as well as the phenotypic and genetic links between general interests and Big Five personality traits. Self-reports and two peer ratings from 844 individuals, including 225 monozygotic and 113 dizygotic complete twin pairs, were collected. Multiple-rater scores (composites) revealed that the averaged levels of genetic and environmental effects on seven broad interest domains were similar to those on personality traits. Multivariate analyses showed that about 35% of the genetic and 9% of the environmental variance in interests were explained by personality domains, in particular by Openness. The findings suggest that interests cannot easily be considered as a byproduct of the interactions between personality genotypes and the environmental influences but rather as an internal regulation of behavior with an own genetic basis.

  16. The relationship between disease activity, quality of life, and personality types in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients.

    Donisan, T; Bojincă, V C; Dobrin, M A; Bălănescu, D V; Predețeanu, D; Bojincă, M; Berghea, F; Opriș, D; Groșeanu, L; Borangiu, A; Constantinescu, C L; Ionescu, R; Bălănescu, A R

    2017-07-01

    We hypothesized that clinical outcomes might be influenced by personality type (A, B, C, D) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred ninety-four patients (104 with RA, 90 with AS) participated in a questionnaire study. We evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36), personality type A/B with the Jenkins Activity Survey, type C with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory Anger-in Scale, type D with the Type D Personality Scale, and disease activity with Disease Activity Score with 28 joints for RA and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index for AS. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient, independent samples t tests, and multivariate analyses of variance. In the RA group, type D personality was significantly correlated with 7/12 SF-36 components. AS patients with type D personality had deficits in all SF-36 subscales. Type D was related with higher disease activity in RA and AS. Both RA and AS type C patients had more active disease forms and negatively affected HRQoL subscales. In the RA group, type A personality did not correlate with HRQoL, but it positively influenced pain visual analog scale scores. In AS patients, type A personality was linked with higher HRQoL and with less active disease. Type C and type D personality types were correlated with decreased HRQoL and higher disease activity in RA and AS patients. Type A personality was associated with less active disease and higher HRQoL in AS patients and with less pain in RA patients.

  17. The relationship between personality types and reward preferences

    R. Nienaber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research has shown that total rewards models structured according to individual preferences, positively influence efforts to attract, retain and motivate key employees. Yet, this is seldom done. Structuring total rewards models according to the preferences of employee segments is a viable alternative to accommodate individual preferences. Research purpose: The primary aim of the study was to determine the relationship between personality types and reward preferences. The secondary aim was to determine the reward preferences for different demographic groups. Motivation for the study: An enhanced understanding of reward preferences for different employee segments will enable employers to offer more competitive reward options to their employees. This may, in turn, have a positive impact on retention. Research design, approach and method: Two measuring instruments, the MBTI® Form GRV and the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire, were distributed electronically to 5 000 potential respondents. The results from 589 sets of questionnaires were used in the data analyses. Primary and secondary factor analyses were done on the items in the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire. Main findings/results: The study confirmed that individuals with certain personality types and personality preferences, have different preferences for certain reward categories. There was a stronger relationship between reward preferences and personality preferences than for reward preferences and personality types. Preferences for reward categories by different demographic groups were confirmed. The significant difference in reward preferences between Black and White respondents in particular was noteworthy, with Black respondents indicating significantly higher mean scores for all reward categories than White respondents. Finally, a total rewards framework influenced by the most prominent preferences for reward categories, was designed. Practical/Managerial implications

  18. Personal Identification by Keystroke Dynamics in Japanese Free Text Typing

    Samura, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Haruhiko

    Biometrics is classified into verification and identification. Many researchers on the keystroke dynamics have treated the verification of a fixed short password which is used for the user login. In this research, we pay attention to the identification and investigate several characteristics of the keystroke dynamics in Japanese free text typing. We developed Web-based typing software in order to collect the keystroke data on the Local Area Network and performed experiments on a total of 112 subjects, from which three groups of typing level, the beginner's level and above, the normal level and above and the middle level and above were constructed. Based on the identification methods by the weighted Euclid distance and the neural network for the extracted feature indexes in Japanese texts, we evaluated identification performances for the three groups. As a result, high accuracy of personal identification was confirmed in both methods, in proportion to the typing level of the group.

  19. Personomics: The Missing Link in the Evolution from Precision Medicine to Personalized Medicine

    Roy C. Ziegelstein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines have been developed for many common conditions based on data from randomized controlled trials. When medicine is informed solely by clinical practice guidelines, however, the patient is not treated as an individual, but rather a member of a group. Precision medicine, as defined herein, characterizes unique biological characteristics of the individual or of specimens obtained from an individual to tailor diagnostics and therapeutics to a specific patient. These unique biological characteristics are defined by the tools of precision medicine: genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, pharmacogenomics, and other “-omics.” Personalized medicine, as defined herein, uses additional information about the individual derived from knowing the patient as a person. These unique personal characteristics are defined by tools known as personomics which takes into account an individual’s personality, preferences, values, goals, health beliefs, social support network, financial resources, and unique life circumstances that affect how and when a given health condition will manifest in that person and how that condition will respond to treatment. In this paradigm, precision medicine may be considered a necessary step in the evolution of medical care to personalized medicine, with personomics as the missing link.

  20. Identity processes and personality traits and types in adolescence : Directionality of effects and developmental trajectories

    Luyckx, K.; Teppers, E.; Klimstra, T.A.; Rassart, J.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are

  1. Personality, personal model beliefs, and self-care in adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes

    Chas Skinner, T.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2002-01-01

    This study compared 3 models of association between personality, personal model beliefs, and self-care in a cross-sectional design. These models were as follows: (a) Emotional stability determines self-care indirectly through personal model beliefs, and conscientiousness is a direct predictor of ....... Participants (N = 358, aged 12-30 years) with Type 1 diabetes completed measures of personality, personal model beliefs, and self-care. Structural equation modeling indicated that Model C was the best fit to the data....

  2. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

    Wilson, V.; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S. F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but also in capuchin monkeys. Here we test the association of personality (assertiveness, openness, attentiveness, neuroticism, and sociability) with fWHR, face width/lower-face height, and lower face/face height ratio in 64 capuchins (Sapajus apella). In a structural model of personality and facial metrics, fWHR was associated with assertiveness, while lower face/face height ratio was associated with neuroticism (erratic vs. stable behaviour) and attentiveness (helpfulness vs. distractibility). Facial morphology thus appears to associate with three personality domains, which may act as a signal of status in capuchins. PMID:24347756

  3. DOING BUSINESS IN ROMANIA - PART I: PERSPECTIVES ON THE TYPES OF DOING BUSINESS. TYPES OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMPANY ENTITIES WITHOUT LEGAL PERSONALITY. TYPES OF ENTITIES WITH LEGAL PERSONALITY

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis in the present study integrates the types of trading entities in order to clearly determine them. A first reference theme when setting-up a business is that of the legal personality it would take. The new Civil Code, acting as common law in the field of trading entities, determines the realignment and balancing of the regulations on types of business. Company Law 31 of 1990 preserves the types of trading entities with legal personality regulated here: general partnership, limited partnership, limited partnership by shares, limited liability company, joint-stock company. The simple partnership which can gain legal personality is widely regulated, and for the partnership are mainly preserved the landmarks drawn by the Commercial Code of 1886 that is presently repealed. In conclusion, the present study analyses and answers the question – who are the legal trading entities and what are the regulated types of business.

  4. Diabetes Distress Among Persons With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Powers, Margaret A; Richter, Sara A; Ackard, Diann M; Craft, Cheryl

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate associations between diabetes distress and a range of psychological health behaviors and concerns among persons with type 1 diabetes for the benefit of enhancing early identification and intervention of at-risk individuals. Methods Persons with type 1 diabetes (n = 268; 57.1% female, 91.0% white, 76.8% satisfaction with life, self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, perfectionism, body image satisfaction, dietary restraint and eating, and shape and weight concerns. Each subscale score was compared within age groups (depression scores and eating, and shape and weight concerns than those with low or moderate distress. For patients satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and self-efficacy and higher on dietary restraint and several areas of perfectionism than those with low or moderate distress. Conclusions Individuals with type 1 diabetes who have high diabetes distress also report higher A1C values and poorer psychological health concerns. A brief diabetes distress questionnaire can help to identify those who need additional screening, education and support, and treatment for overall health and well-being.

  5. What Is Engagement? Proactivity as the Missing Link in the HEXACO Model of Personality.

    de Vries, Reinout E; Wawoe, Kilian W; Holtrop, Djurre

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that proactivity represents the engagement vector in the HEXACO model of personality. Questionnaire data were obtained in five studies, three of which consisted (mostly) of students: Study 1 (N = 188, Mage  = 20.0, 89.4% women), Study 3 (N = 315, Mage  = 20.4, 80.6% women), and Study 4 (N = 309 self-ratings, Mage  = 20.0, 78.3% women; N = 307 other-ratings, Mage  = 24.5, 62.2% women). Participants in the other two studies came from an ISO-certified representative community panel: Study 2 (N = 525, Mage  = 51.2, 52.0% women) and Study 5 (N = 736, Mage  = 42.2, 48.0% women). Proactive Personality and Proactivity were positively related to Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience, but only weakly related or unrelated to Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, and Agreeableness, supporting the alignment of Proactive Personality/Proactivity with the hypothesized HEXACO engagement vector. Additionally, Proactivity explained incremental variance in self-rated job performance on top of the HEXACO facets that were most closely associated with Proactive Personality/Proactivity, that is, Social Boldness (an Extraversion facet), Diligence (a Conscientiousness facet), and Creativity (an Openness to Experience facet), but not in entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship. Proactivity is the missing engagement link in the HEXACO model of personality. The results are discussed in light of higher-order factors (e.g., general factor of personality and Alpha and Beta) of personality and bandwidth-fidelity controversies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Value-Personality Link Measured With Novel Instruments Developed With an Emic Perspective

    Suna Tevrüz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study is to investigate whether instruments developed with an emic approach in Turkey produce the same trait-value links obtained with studies using near universal instruments, and if emic traits and value concepts are composed under agency and communal conceptions. So, the first aim of this study is to inspect the conceptual similarities in the links between traits and values. The second aim is to examine the moderating effect of disposable income on the strength of the trait-value relationship. Undergraduate and graduate students (N = 595 from six universities in Istanbul responded to the Personality Profile Scale (PPS and the Life Goal Values (LGV questionnaire. Second order factor analysis indicated that indigenous value and trait items were representative of communal and agency conceptions. Furthermore, most of the value-trait links revealed with regression analysis, and the sinusoid relationships revealed with Pearson correlation coefficients were consistent with the findings measured with near universal instruments. Additionally found relationships between traits and especially conservation values can be interpreted as the instrumentality of agentic traits for personal as well for social focused values. Disposable income had a moderating effect on five trait-value relationships and three out of five were weaker in the low-income group.

  7. Type D (distressed) personality in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, Francois; Pop, Victor J M

    2012-01-01

    D Scale-14 (DS14) in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: 1553 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed for demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychological characteristics in 2007. A subgroup (n=1012) completed the DS14 again 1 year later. RESULTS: The two-factor model of the Type D...... or physiological risk factors, but Type D women had a more sedentary lifestyle (p=.003). Type D patients experienced less social support and more stressful life events, loneliness, and more depressed mood, anhedonia and anxiety (p0......OBJECTIVE: In cardiovascular research, Type D personality (high negative affectivity and social inhibition) has been associated with a more than 3-fold increased risk of adverse health outcomes. This study examined the validity and clinical correlates of the Type D construct as assessed by the Type...

  8. Elucidating the Dark Side of Envy: Distinctive Links of Benign and Malicious Envy With Dark Personalities

    Lange, Jens; Paulhus, Delroy L.; Crusius, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have recently drawn a contrast between two forms of envy: benign and malicious envy. In three studies (total N = 3,123), we challenge the assumption that malicious envy is destructive, whereas benign envy is entirely constructive. Instead, both forms have links with the Dark Triad of personality. Benign envy is associated with Machiavellian behaviors, whereas malicious envy is associated with both Machiavellian and psychopathic behaviors. In Study 1, this pattern emerged from meta-analyzed trait correlations. In Study 2, a manipulation affecting the envy forms mediated an effect on antisocial behavioral intentions. Study 3 replicated these patterns by linking envy to specific antisocial behaviors and their impact on status in the workplace. Together, our correlational and experimental results suggest that the two forms of envy can both be malevolent. Instead of evaluating envy’s morality, we propose to focus on its functional value. PMID:29271287

  9. Childhood maltreatment and its link to borderline personality disorder features in children: A systematic review approach.

    Ibrahim, Jeyda; Cosgrave, Nicola; Woolgar, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder has repeatedly been associated with a history of maltreatment in childhood; however, research on maltreatment and its link to borderline features in children is limited. The aim of this review is to synthesise the existing data on the association between maltreatment and borderline features in childhood. In total, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. Studies indicated that children with borderline features were more likely to have a history of maltreatment, and that children who had been maltreated were more likely to present with borderline features. Other risk factors such as cognitive and executive functioning deficits, parental dysfunction and genetic vulnerability were also identified across studies. This review adds to the literature by highlighting maltreatment as a risk factor for borderline features in childhood. Longitudinal research is required to establish the link between childhood borderline features and adult borderline features. Implications for early identification, prevention and intervention services are discussed.

  10. Review of English Language Library and Information Science Weblogs: Analyzing the Link between Weblog Types and Their Technical /Content Structure

    Tahereh Karami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Weblog has become well established as one of the Web 2.0 products. Given the essential nature of their job, librarians and information professionals, can use weblog as a quick and easy mean for information and knowledge sharing. The present study reviews some 150 LIS weblogs in order to examine and analyze the link between weblog types (personal, library-owned or group operated with their content and technical structure. Webometric methods were deployed for selection of the sample. The findings indicated that there is a significant correlation between the weblog types and their update frequency. The same holds between the weblog types and their content. But no such significance was observed with respect to the weblog publishing tools. The investigators believe that the links uncovered could also hold true for Iranian LIS weblogs.

  11. Early Puberty Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  12. Segmenting consumers according to experiential preferences based on personality type vs. personality traits – a latent class analysis

    Sørensen, Jeanne

    Differences in consumers’ preferences for experiences have been suggested to be based on personality among other things. Personality in consumer research has primarily been operationalized as personality traits using the Five Factor theory. An old, re-emerged discussion in psychology is pointing...... at personality type rather than single personality traits to better understand behavior. Personality type represents “typical configurations of the dispositional attributes that define individuals” (Donnellan and Robins, 2010: 1). Type accounts for the necessity of understanding not only a person’s defining...... trait but also how this interacts with other traits providing a person centered rather than an attribute centered understanding. This allows for a classification of people rather than a classification of attributes of people. In the context of segmentation the objective is classifying people rather than...

  13. Eliminating barriers to personalized medicine: learning from neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Gutmann, David H

    2014-07-29

    With the emergence of high-throughput discovery platforms, robust preclinical small-animal models, and efficient clinical trial pipelines, it is becoming possible to envision a time when the treatment of human neurologic diseases will become personalized. The emergence of precision medicine will require the identification of subgroups of patients most likely to respond to specific biologically based therapies. This stratification only becomes possible when the determinants that contribute to disease heterogeneity become more fully elucidated. This review discusses the defining factors that underlie disease heterogeneity relevant to the potential for individualized brain tumor (optic pathway glioma) treatments arising in the common single-gene cancer predisposition syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In this regard, NF1 is posited as a model genetic condition to establish a workable paradigm for actualizing precision therapeutics for other neurologic disorders. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. New diagnostic perspectives on obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and its links with other conditions.

    Starcevic, Vladan; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the conceptualization of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), its epidemiology and efforts to better understand the relationships between OCPD and other conditions. The alternative Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders conceptualization of OCPD is radically different in that it combines categorical and dimensional diagnostic approaches and introduces a hierarchy of diagnostic criteria. OCPD is one of the most common personality disorders in the general population. The relationship between OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is important, but to a large extent obfuscated by the overlap between their diagnostic criteria. Frequent changes in the OCPD diagnostic criteria make it difficult to ascertain the 'true' relationship between OCPD and OCD. It is not uncommon for OCPD to occur with anorexia nervosa, depression, hypochondriasis, certain other personality disorders and Parkinson's disease, but further research is necessary to understand the implications of these links. OCPD is yet to be conceptualized consistently and in the manner that would make a clear and well supported distinction between its core and peripheral features. Future studies need to separate a genuine from overlap-driven co-occurrence of OCPD and other conditions, as that would give a better insight into the way in which OCPD relates to other disorders.

  15. Individuals' quality of life linked to major life events, perceived social support, and personality traits.

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Preisig, Martin; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between major recent life events that occurred during the last 5 years, social and personal resources, and subjective quality of life (QoL). A total of 1801 participants from the general population (CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study) completed the Life Events Questionnaire, the Social Support Questionnaire, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory Revised, and the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Major life events were modestly associated with the QoL (about 5 % of the explained variance). However, QoL was significantly related to perceived social support and personality traits (about 37 % of the explained variance). Particularly, perceived social support, extraversion and conscientiousness personality dimensions were positively linked to life satisfaction, whereas a high level of neuroticism was negatively associated with QoL. This study highlights the negative but temporary association between critical events and QoL. However, a combination of high conscientiousness and extraversion, and positive social support may explain better variances for a high-perceived QoL.

  16. Aberrant link between empathy and social attribution style in borderline personality disorder.

    Homan, Philipp; Reddan, Marianne C; Brosch, Tobias; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Schiller, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    In social interactions, we often need to quickly infer why other people do what they do. More often than not, we infer that behavior is a result of personality rather than circumstances. It is unclear how the tendency itself may contribute to psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe interpersonal dysfunction. Here, we investigated if this dysfunction is related to the tendency to over-attribute behaviors to personality traits. Healthy controls and patients with BPD judged positive and negative behaviors presented within a situational constraint during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Before the experiment, we measured trait levels of empathy, paranoia, and need for cognition. Behaviorally, we found that empathy levels predicted the tendency to attribute behavior to traits in healthy controls, whereas in patients with BPD this relationship was significantly weakened. Whole brain analysis of group-by-empathy interaction revealed that when participants judged the behavior during the attribution phase, several brain regions implicated in mentalizing distinguished patients from controls: In healthy controls, neural activity scaled negatively with empathy, but this relationship was reversed in BPD patients. Due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot establish a causal link between empathy and social attributions. These findings indicate that the self-reported tendency to feel for others is related to the tendency to integrate situational information beyond personality. In BPD patients, by contrast, the association between empathy and attribution was significantly weaker, rendering empathy less informative in predicting the overall attribution style. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gallstone disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus-the link

    Olokoba, A.B.; Bojuwoye, B.J.; Olokoba, K.B.; Braimoh, K.T.; Inikori, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the factors predisposing patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus to gallstone disease. One hundred type 2 diabetic patients and 100 age and gender-matched controls underwent real time ultrasonography to study factors predisposing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to gallstone disease. The age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes mellitus and serum lipids were determined in the individuals enrolled for the study. Fifteen percent of the diabetic patients had ultrasound evidence of gallstone disease as compared to 7% in non-diabetic controls. There was a steady increase in the incidence of gallstone disease in diabetic patients with age with a peak incidence in the seventh decade i.e. 60-69 years, and a decline in the eighth decade i.e. 70 - 79 years. The average age of the diabetic patients with gallstone disease - 59.1+ 9.5 years was significantly higher than in those without gallstone disease - 51.8 + 10.5 years (p 0.014). The mean duration of disease in the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was 5.0 + 4.9 years compared with 4.5 + 3.8 years in the diabetic patients without gallstone disease (p=0.772). The mean serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels - 4.3 + 1.3 mmol/L and 1.5 + 0.8 mmol/L respectively in the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was higher than in those without gallstone disease - 3.4 + 0.5 mmol/L (p=0.0941) and 1.4 + 0.7 mmol/L (p=0.712) respectively. The mean body mass index for the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was 26.2 + 5.5 kg /m 2 compared with 25.7 + 6.7 kg/m2 in those without gallstone disease (p=0.755) . Increasing age is a risk factor for gallstone disease in diabetic patients. Hyperlipidaemia, female gender, heavier weight and a longer duration of diabetes mellitus appear to be associated risk factors. (author)

  18. Innovation in European food SMEs: determinants and links between types

    Francesca Minarelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The food sector has traditionally been considered one with the lowest research and development expenditure to value added ratio. In recent decades, however, the business environment has become more demanding in terms of technological inputs for reasons related to food safety, quality and also the globalisation of the food market. This provides a strong incentive to innovate, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME seeking to remain in business.Most businesses operating in the food sector belong to the SME category which, based on the literature, tends to have a low level of research capacity.This study seeks to identify determinants of the types of innovation adopted and associations between them by analysing a sample of European food SMEs. For this purpose a non-parametric analysis, namely the classification tree technique, is carried out. The main finding is that due to the technological factors inherent in the food industry, a tight linkage exists between product, process and market innovation. Moreover, the study shows that collaboration between competitors encourages SMEs to engage in market, process and business model innovation. Conversely, synergy with suppliers and customers supports product innovation.

  19. Ribonucleotides Linked to DNA of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Hirsch, Ivan; Vonka, Vladimír

    1974-01-01

    Cells of a continuous cell line derived from rabbit embryo fibroblasts were infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1) and maintained in the presence of either [5-3H]uridine or [methyl-3H]thymidine or 32PO43−. Nucleocapsids were isolated from the cytoplasmic fraction, partially purified, and treated with DNase and RNase. From the pelleted nucleocapsids, DNA was extracted and purified by centrifugation in sucrose and cesium sulfate gradients. The acid-precipitable radioactivity of [5-3H]uridine-labeled DNA was partially susceptible to pancreatic RNase and alkaline treatment; the susceptibility to the enzyme decreased with increasing salt concentration. No drop of activity of DNA labeled with [3H]thymidine was observed either after RNase or alkali treatment. Base composition analysis of [5-3H]uridine-labeled DNA showed that the radioactivity was recovered as uracil and cytosine. In the cesium sulfate gradient, the purified [5-3H]uridine-labeled DNA banded at the same position as the 32P-labeled DNA. The present data tend to suggest that ribonucleotide sequences are present in HSV DNA, that they are covalently attached to the viral DNA, and that they can form double-stranded structures. PMID:4364894

  20. Type D Personality Predicts Poor Medication Adherence in Patients with Heart Failure in the USA

    Wu, Jia-Rong; Moser, Debra K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Type D (distressed) personality and medication nonadherence have been associated with poor health outcomes. Type D personality is associated with poor medication adherence in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the relationship between type D personality and medication adherence in patients with heart failure (HF) remains unknown. Purpose Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the association between type D personality and medication adherence in patients with HF. Method This was a sub-analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial with 84 patients with HF in the USA. Demographic, clinical, and psychological data were collected at baseline by interview, questionnaires, and medical record review. Type D personality was assessed using the Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Medication adherence was measured using both objective (Medication Event Monitoring System, MEMS) and self-reported (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, MMAS-4) measures. Patients started medication adherence monitoring with the MEMS bottle at baseline and is used continuously for a month. Multiple regressions were used to explore the relationships between type D personality and medication adherence while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological factors. Results Patients with type D personality were more likely to have poor medication adherence. Type D personality was associated with medication adherence before and after adjusting for covariates when it was analyzed as a categorical variable. However, type D personality was not associated with medication adherence when analyzed as a dimensional construct. Negative affectivity, a component of type D personality, was associated with medication adherence. Conclusion As a dimensional construct, type D personality may not reflect the components of the personality associated with poor outcomes. Negative affectivity was associated with medication adherence in patients with HF. Interventions aiming

  1. Holland Type as a Moderator of Personality-Performance Predictions.

    Fritzsche, Barbara A.; McIntire, Sandra A.; Yost, Amy Powell

    2002-01-01

    Data from 559 undergraduates provided modest evidence that Holland's taxonomy of work environments moderated the relationship between personality and performance. The traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were better predictors of performance in certain environments. The important relationship between personality and performance may be…

  2. Type D personality and physical inactivity: The mediating effects of low self-efficacy.

    Wiencierz, Stacey; Williams, Lynn

    2017-07-01

    Type D personality is associated with health-damaging behaviours among the general population. This study assessed the relationship between Type D personality, physical activity and self-efficacy. A total of 189 participants completed measures of Type D personality, physical activity and self-efficacy. Type D individuals had significantly lower levels of self-efficacy and engaged in significantly less walking and total exercise compared to non-Type D's. Furthermore, self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between Type D and physical activity. Low levels of self-efficacy may be one mechanism to help explain why Type D individuals engage in more disease-promoting behaviours.

  3. [Links between depressive disorders and dependent personality disorders: The important effect of locus of control].

    Versaevel, C; Martin, J-B; Lajugie, C

    2017-05-01

    Empirical researches have proved that there are powerful correlations between dependent personality and depression. Different hypotheses were described to conceptualize links between these two entities. The dysfunction of attributive style seems to be linked to dependency and to depression. Interpersonal dependency can be considered to be a mode of adaptation to the external direction of the locus of control. The self-esteem so subjected to the climate of social interactions can lead, by the discontinuity of its protective relations, to the depression. In a coordinated model, this study explores psychopathological aspects between depressive cognition, self-esteem and interpersonal dependency. This study tries to support the hypothesis that depression and dependency are consequences of an external locus of control, secondary in deterioration of the self-esteem and the main objective is to highlight correlations between external locus of control, interpersonal dependency, hopelessness and depressive affect. The regrouping of 42 patients in a protocol of psychotherapeutic practices allowed the realization of this retrospective study, multicentric within different hospitals or ambulant psychiatric structures of the agglomeration of Lille, during a period of 6 months. The administration of questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory/Dependent Personality Questionnaire by Tyrer, translated by Loas/Hopelessness Scale by Beck/Powerful others and Chance Scale [IPC] of Levenson, translated by Loas) was included into clinical practice. The main results indicate that external locus of control "powerful others" is significantly correlated with pathological dependency (Pcognitive aspect manifests vulnerability in the depression of the patients suffering from pathological dependency. Also, the place of external locus of control ("powerful others" and "chance") seems to be a cognitive dimension more pathogenic than the internal locus of control. It will be necessary to investigate

  4. The association between type D personality, and depression and anxiety ten years after PCI.

    Al-Qezweny, M N A; Utens, E M W J; Dulfer, K; Hazemeijer, B A F; van Geuns, R-J; Daemen, J; van Domburg, R

    2016-09-01

    There are indications that type D personality and depression are associated in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, at present it is unclear whether this relationship holds in the long term. This study's aim was to investigate the association between type D personality at 6 months post-PCI (baseline), and depression at 10-year follow-up. A secondary aim was to test the association between type D personality at baseline and anxiety at 10-year follow-up. A cohort of surviving consecutive patients (N = 534) who underwent PCI between October 2001 and October 2002. Patients completed the type D personality scale (DS14) measuring type D personality at baseline, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measuring anxiety and depression at baseline and at 10 years post-PCI. At baseline, the prevalence of type D personality was 25 % (135/534). Type D personality patients were more often depressed (42 %) than non-type D personality patients (9 %). Response rate of anxiety and depression questionnaires at 10 years was 75 %. At 10-year follow-up, 31 % of type D personality patients were depressed versus 13 % of non-type D personality patients. After adjustments, baseline type D personality remained independently associated with depression at 10 years (OR = 3.69; 95 % CI [1.89-7.19]). Type D showed a similar association with anxiety at 10 years, albeit somewhat lower (OR = 2.72; 95 % CI [1.31-5.63]). PCI patients with type D personality had a 3.69-fold increased risk for depression and a 2.72-fold increased risk for anxiety at 10 years of follow-up.

  5. Measurement of temperament and character in mood disorders: a model of fundamental states as personality types.

    Cloninger, C R; Bayon, C; Svrakic, D M

    1998-10-01

    Personality assessment may allow reliable measurement of risk of mood disorders. A group of adults (804) representative of the general population were assessed by questionnaire. Personality types were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Specific TCI configurations define personality types that can be described as hyperthymic, cyclothymic, irritable, and depressive. Each type had a unique profile of emotions, suicide attempts, and hospitalization. TCI traits are associated with mood disorders. Different ways of measuring Kraepelinean subtypes may disagree. Whether differences in personality cause psychopathology, or vice versa, remains uncertain. Personality profiles help in assessing suicidality and planning treatment.

  6. An empirical study on measuring the impact of personality type on employee capabilities

    N. Sha’bani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies, which specifies similarities, and differences of people' psychological behavior. Personality is normally a permanent behavior through time and may not be comprehended easily or recognized as immediate or direct situations due to some environmental and social stresses. In this paper, we study the relationship between employees' personality and ability types. The paper identifies that there are some relationships between employees' personality type and their ability. There is also a relationship between introvert, extrovert, sensitive, emotive, thoughtful, considerate and judging personality type and employees' ability.

  7. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  8. Identity Processes and Personality Traits and Types in Adolescence: Directionality of Effects and Developmental Trajectories

    Luyckx, Koen; Teppers, Eveline; Klimstra, Theo A.; Rassart, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are distinguished) are largely lacking. To gain more…

  9. Verification of Ca F2:Mn type of dosemeters for personal dosimetry purposes

    Misovic, M.; Boskovic, Z.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    1995-01-01

    Verification results of CaF2:Mn type of dosemeters for personal dosimetry purposes are presented in this paper. Tree types of irradiations are proceeded due to verification of relevant features of TLD. It is concluded that mentioned type of dosemeter can be used for purpose of personal dosimetry. (author)

  10. Linking variability in soil solution dissolved organic carbon to climate, soil type, and vegetation type

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Gielen, Bert; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Vicca, Sara; Guenet, Bertrand; Vos, Bruno De; Cools, Nathalie; Ahrens, Bernhard; Altaf Arain, M.; Borken, Werner; Clarke, Nicholas; Clarkson, Beverley; Cummins, Thomas; Don, Axel; Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Laudon, Hjalmar; Moore, Tim; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Nilsson, Mats B.; Peichl, Matthias; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Siemens, Jan; Janssens, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Lateral transport of carbon plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. There is, however, a lack of information on the factors controlling one of the main C sources of this lateral flux, i.e., the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in

  11. USING BAYESIAN NETWORKS TO UNDERSTAND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MATH ANXIETY, GENDERS, PERSONALITY TYPES, AND STUDY HABITS AT A UNIVERSITY IN JORDAN

    Linda Smail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is the foundation of all sciences, but most students have problems learning math. Although students’ success in life related to their success in learning, many would not take a math course unless it is their university’s core requirements. Multiple reasons exist for students’ poor performance in mathematics, but one prevalent variable worth consideration is the personality type. This work seeks to uncover relationships, if any, between students’ math anxiety and the students’ learning type in learning math and preparing for exams and tests. We use Bayesian networks to link those different variables and detect possible relationships among these variables. The data was obtained from population of 468 students during spring in 2009 at a U.S. institution in Jordan. Not many researches have been performed in the area of math study and personality types so we undertook this study to add to this area of knowledge. The study reveals that math anxiety related to gender, personality type, and study habits among this group of university students. Keywords: Mathematics Anxiety, MBTI, Personality Types, Bayesian Networks DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3405.17-34

  12. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension...... and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire...... for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical...

  13. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory.

    Emons, Wilco H M; Meijer, Rob R; Denollet, Johan

    2007-07-01

    Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)-referred to as type-D personality-are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the relative contribution of individual items to the measurement precision at the cutoff to distinguish type-D from non-type-D personality and (b) to investigate the comparability of NA, SI, and type-D constructs across the general population and clinical populations. Data from representative samples including 1316 respondents from the general population, 427 respondents diagnosed with coronary heart disease, and 732 persons suffering from hypertension were analyzed using the graded response IRT model. In Study 1, the information functions obtained in the IRT analysis showed that (a) all items had highest measurement precision around the cutoff and (b) items are most informative at the higher end of the scale. In Study 2, the IRT analysis showed that measurements were fairly comparable across the general population and clinical populations. The DS14 adequately measures NA and SI, with highest reliability in the trait range around the cutoff. The DS14 is a valid instrument to assess and compare type-D personality across clinical groups.

  14. Leukocyte telomere length and personality : Associations with the big five and type d personality traits

    Schoormans, D.; Verhoeven, J.E.; Denollet, J.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2018-01-01

    Accelerated cellular ageing, which can be examined by telomere length (TL), may be an overarching mechanism underlying the association between personality and adverse health outcomes. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the relation between personality and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) across

  15. Behavior of Personality Type Toward Stress and Job Performance: A Study of Healthcare Professionals

    Yasmin Janjhua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present paper has examined the sources of stress among the healthcare professionals and the difference between responses of personality type A and type B healthcare professionals toward stressful situations. Further, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress and performance among the healthcare professionals in general and with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals in particular has also been investigated. Methods: A total of 160 healthcare professionals of Post Graduate Institute (PGI, Chandigarh, were subjects of this study. Results: Identification with patients, deterioration and complication in the patient condition, and job criticism emerged to be the sources of stress. Significant difference between personality type A and personality type B professionals′ response pertaining to identification with the patients only has been reported. However, type A individuals showed slightly higher inclination as compared to type B individuals on majority of stressful situations. It was further noted that type A individuals had scored higher on almost all the performance indicators as compared to personality type B individuals. The mean difference between the personality types was found to be significant for two performance dimensions, i.e., relationship with colleagues, and teaching and training. Conclusions: The stressful situation relationship with patients was found to have significantly negative impact on the performance factors such as good clinical care and rapport with patients. Daily work was also found to be negatively related to good medical practice.

  16. Behavior of personality type toward stress and job performance: a study of healthcare professionals.

    Janjhua, Yasmin; Chandrakanta

    2012-07-01

    The present paper has examined the sources of stress among the healthcare professionals and the difference between responses of personality type A and type B healthcare professionals toward stressful situations. Further, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress and performance among the healthcare professionals in general and with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals in particular has also been investigated. A total of 160 healthcare professionals of Post Graduate Institute (PGI), Chandigarh, were subjects of this study. Identification with patients, deterioration and complication in the patient condition, and job criticism emerged to be the sources of stress. Significant difference between personality type A and personality type B professionals' response pertaining to identification with the patients only has been reported. However, type A individuals showed slightly higher inclination as compared to type B individuals on majority of stressful situations. It was further noted that type A individuals had scored higher on almost all the performance indicators as compared to personality type B individuals. The mean difference between the personality types was found to be significant for two performance dimensions, i.e., relationship with colleagues, and teaching and training. The stressful situation relationship with patients was found to have significantly negative impact on the performance factors such as good clinical care and rapport with patients. Daily work was also found to be negatively related to good medical practice.

  17. Links between personality, time perspective, and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment: an exploratory study.

    Villaron, Charlène; Marqueste, Tanguy; Eisinger, François; Cappiello, Maria-Antonietta; Therme, Pierre; Cury, François

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze links between personality, time perspective, and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment. One hundred forty-three patients participated in survey by questionnaire. Intention to practice physical activity, time perspective using Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and personality with the Big Five Inventory were measured. Structural equation models using Lisrel were developed to examine hypothetical links between the variables. The adjusted model evidenced an excellent fit (comparative fit index = 0.92; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.076; P = .014). Results showed that intention to practice exercise was positively linked with openness to experience and negatively with present fatalist time perspective. Moreover, conscientiousness and neuroticism were found to be linked with future time perspective, which was positively related with intention to practice physical activity. The present exploratory study with patients suffering from cancer underlined the importance of considering jointly time perspective dimensions and personality factors for health behavior recommendations. Based on our results, we propose some reflections on practice to help nurses and physicians increase patient's motivation to be physically active. Taking into account patients' personality and time perspective, we would be able to propose specific awareness messages and offer short interventions to have an impact on patients' motivation to practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The relationship between childhood trauma and type D personality in university students.

    Demirci, Kadir; Yıldız, Mesut; Selvi, Cansu; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    There has been increasing evidence that childhood traumas are related to reduced health-related quality of life, neurobiological changes and long-term adverse effects, such as an increase in the likelihood of psychiatric disorders in adulthoods. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between childhood traumas and type D personality. In total, 187 university students (64 males and 123 females; mean age = 21.69 ± 2.00) were included in the study. All participants were evaluated using the Type D Personality Scale (DS-14), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The participants were divided into the two groups according to the presence of type D personality. Then, statistical analyses were performed. The frequency of type D personality in participants was 43.3% (n = 81). The emotional neglect, physical neglect, emotional abuse component of the CTQ-28, total CTQ-28 scores and BDI scores were higher in the group with type D personality than in the group without type D personality (p personality scores and BDI scores, emotional neglect, physical neglect, emotional abuse and childhood trauma total scores (p Childhood trauma may be associated with type D personality, and there is predictive value of the childhood trauma on the scores of type D personality. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Are there differential relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and different types of adult personality pathology?

    Cohen, Lisa Janet; Tanis, Thachell; Bhattacharjee, Reetuparna; Nesci, Christina; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor

    2014-01-30

    While considerable data support the relationship between childhood trauma and adult personality pathology in general, there is little research investigating the specific relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders. The present study tested a model incorporating five a priori hypotheses regarding the association between distinct forms of childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in 231 psychiatric patients using multiple self-report measures (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Conflict in Tactics Scale Parent-Child Child-Adult, and Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale). Step-wise linear regressions supported three out of five hypotheses, suggesting independent relationships between: physical abuse and antisocial personality disorder traits; emotional abuse and Cluster C personality disorder traits; and maternal neglect and Cluster A personality disorder traits after controlling for co-occurring maltreatment types and personality disorder traits. Results did not support an independent relationship between sexual abuse and borderline personality traits nor between emotional abuse and narcissistic personality disorder traits. Additionally, there were three unexpected findings: physical abuse was independently and positively associated with narcissistic and paranoid traits and negatively associated with Cluster C traits. These findings can help refine our understanding of adult personality pathology and support the future development of clinical tools for survivors of childhood maltreatment. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types

    Baams, L.; Overbeek, G.; Dubas, J.S.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling

  1. Early environmental conditions shape personality types in a jumping spider

    Jannis eLiedtke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of many species across the animal kingdom are found to be less plastic than expected, even in behavioral traits. The existence of consistent behavioral differences between individuals, termed personality differences, is puzzling, since plastic behavior is considered ideal to enable animals to adaptively respond to changes in environmental conditions. In order to elucidate which mechanisms are important for the evolution of personality differences, it is crucial to understand which aspects of the environment are important for the development of personality differences. Here, we tested whether physical or social aspects of the environment during development influence individual differentiation (mean level of behavior using the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. Furthermore, we assessed whether those behaviors were repeatable, i.e. whether personalities existed. We applied a split-brood design and raised spider siblings in three different environments: a deprived environment with no enrichment, a socially and a physically enriched environment. We focused on exploratory behavior and repeatedly assessed individual behavior in a novel environment and a novel object test. Results show that the environment during development influenced spiders’ exploratory tendencies: spiders raised in enriched environments tended to be more exploratory. Most investigated behaviors were repeatable (i.e. personalities existed across all individuals tested, whereas only few behaviors were also repeatable across individuals that had experienced the same environmental condition. Taken together, our results indicate that external stimuli can influence the development of one aspect of personality, the inter-individual variation (mean level of behavior, in a jumping spider. We also found family by environment interactions on behavioral traits potentially suggesting genetic variation in developmental plasticity.

  2. Different fits satisfy different needs: linking person-environment fit to employee commitment and performance using self-determination theory.

    Greguras, Gary J; Diefendorff, James M

    2009-03-01

    Integrating and expanding upon the person-environment fit (PE fit) and the self-determination theory literatures, the authors hypothesized and tested a model in which the satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence partially mediated the relations between different types of perceived PE fit (i.e., person-organization fit, person-group fit, and job demands-abilities fit) with employee affective organizational commitment and overall job performance. Data from 163 full-time working employees and their supervisors were collected across 3 time periods. Results indicate that different types of PE fit predicted different types of psychological need satisfaction and that psychological need satisfaction predicted affective commitment and performance. Further, person-organization fit and demands-abilities fit also evidenced direct effects on employee affective commitment. These results begin to explicate the processes through which different types of PE fit relate to employee attitudes and behaviors. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Type D personality, temperament, and mental health in military personnel awaiting deployment

    Mommersteeg, P.M.C.; Denollet, J.; Kavelaars, A.; Geuze, E.; Vermetten, E.; Heijnen, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Type D (distressed) personality refers to a general propensity to psychological distress defined by the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition. Type D personality predicts poor mental and physical health in cardiac patients, but it has been argued that its assessment is affected by the state of illness. Therefore, validation of the Type D construct in healthy adults remains essential. Purpose The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Type D personalit...

  4. The distressed (Type D) personality. A risk marker for poor health outcomes in ICD patients

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Schiffer, A A

    2011-01-01

    The distressed (Type D) personality is an emerging risk marker for poor health outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Patients with this personality disposition are typified by a general propensity to experience psychological distress. The contribution focuses on the impact of Type D p...

  5. The Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Vocational Personality Type

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) model. It was hypothesized that individuals resembling Social and Enterprising vocational personality types would report higher SWB than those resembling other personality types.…

  6. The influence of personality type on decision making in the physical therapy admission process.

    Bezner, J R; Boucher, B K

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the personality types of physical therapy (PT) interviewers and applicants, using the Personality Styles (PS) assessment tool, and to determine whether an interview team's personality type influences the rating score given. The PS was validated in a study of 298 students who completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form G and a PS assessment. By chi-square analysis the PS model appears to be a valid representation of the MBTI (chi 2 = 86.62, p personality type in relation to faculty/clinician team (same, different from both, like one) and 2) applicant personality type as the independent variables. Internal consistency of the interview rating form was alpha = 0.89. Mean interview score was 33.97/42 (SD 4.59). Interview scores were not significantly different between applicants who interviewed with clinician/faculty teams that were "like" compared with "not like" the applicants (F0.864; p = 0.423), but were significantly different between applicants with different PS personality types (F3.159; p = 0.026). Although personality type of the interview team did not impact the score given, thereby refuting the presence of interviewer bias, the rating scores did vary according to personality type of the applicant, suggesting a possible stereotyping bias in the criteria used to rate applicants.

  7. Quality Reform: Personality Type, Preferred Learning Style and Majors in a Business School

    Fallan, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The quality reform of higher education in Norway has generally recommended a substitution of classroom teaching with more active forms of learning in higher education. This study reveals that ignoring the student's personality type may be in conflict with the purpose of the reform. The student's personality type affects both the most effective…

  8. 38 CFR 74.25 - What types of personally identifiable information will VA collect?

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.25 What types of personally identifiable information will VA collect? In order to establish owner... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of personally...

  9. Study on Personality Types of Dentists in different Disciplines of Dentistry.

    Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H; Alahmari, Albatool S; Almubarak, Sara H; Alateeq, Sahar A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the most common personality type among dentists in seven selected clinical dentistry specialties using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and to compare between these different types of personalities. A survey containing the MBTI and demographic and practice questions was used to assess the personality styles of 243 dental specialists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results of the MBTI for 243 specialist dentists revealed, generally, a higher percentage of scoring for introversion (I) with an average of 65% than extroversion (E). The study identified 10 common personality types among these specialists: ISTJ, ISFJ, INFJ, ISTP, INFP, INTP, ENFP, ENTP, ENFJ, and ENTJ (extraversion-introversion (E-I), sensing-intuition (S-N), thinking-feeling (T-F), and judging-perception (J-P)). The dominant personality type in all seven clinical specialties in dentistry was ISTJ, with an average of 54%. The personality types showed variation among the seven clinical dentistry specialties. However, among these seven clinician's specialties in dentistry, more than 50% of the individuals shared one common type of personality (ISTJ). The identification of the personality type might help in their association with coworkers, students, and patients as well as knowing the individual preferences toward different specialties in dentistry.

  10. Type D personality and the development of PTSD symptoms: a prospective study.

    Rademaker, Arthur R; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-05-01

    Psychological trauma and prolonged stress may cause mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma personality is an important determinant of posttraumatic adjustment. Specifically, trait neuroticism has been identified as a risk factor for PTSD. Additionally, the combination of high negative affectivity or neuroticism with marked social inhibition or introversion, also called Type D personality (Denollet, 2000), may compose a risk factor for PTSD. There is no research available that examined pretrauma Type D personality in relation to PTSD. The present study examined the predictive validity of the Type D personality construct in a sample of Dutch soldiers. Data were collected prior to and 6 months after military deployment to Afghanistan. Separate multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the predictive validity of Type D personality. First, Type D personality was defined as the interaction between negative affect and social inhibition (Na × Si). In a second analysis, Type D was defined following cutoff criteria recommended by Denollet (2000). Results showed that negative affectivity was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms. Social inhibition and the interaction Na × Si did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, negative affectivity, and prior psychological symptoms. A second analysis showed that Type D personality (dichotomous) did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, and prior psychological symptoms. Therefore, Type D personality appears to be of limited value to explain development of combat-related PTSD symptoms.

  11. THE APPLICATION OF GRAPHOLOGY AND ENNEAGRAM TECHNIQUES IN DETERMINING PERSONALITY TYPE BASED ON HANDWRITING FEATURES

    Dian Pratiwi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the aim of developing previous studies that have successfully applied the science of graphology to analyze digital handwriting and characteristics of his personality through shape based feature extraction, which in the present study will be applied one method of psychological tests commonly used by psychologists to recognize human’s personality that is Enneagram. The Enneagram method in principle will classify the personality traits of a person into nine types through a series of questions, which then calculated the amount of the overall weight of the answer. Thickness is what will provide direction personality type, which will then be matched with the personality type of the result of the graphology analysis of the handwriting. Personality type of handwritten analysis results is processed based on the personality traits that are the result of the identification of a combination of four dominant form of handwriting through the software output of previous studies, that Slant (tilt writing, Size (font size, Baseline, and Breaks (respite each word. From the results of this research can be found there is a correlation between personality analysis based on the psychology science to the graphology science, which results matching personality types by 81.6% of 49  respondents data who successfully tested.

  12. Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Svansdottir, Erla; van den Broek, Krista C; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Denollet, Johan

    2012-01-18

    Type D (distressed) personality has been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis and poor emotional well-being in cardiac patients, but it is still unclear what mechanisms link Type D personality with poor clinical outcomes in cardiac patients. In the present cohort of Icelandic cardiac patients, we examined potential pathways that may explain this relationship. The objectives were to examine 1) the association between Type D personality and impaired psychological status, and to explore whether this association is independent of disease severity; and 2) the association between Type D personality and an unhealthy lifestyle. A sample of 268 Icelandic coronary angiography patients (74% males (N = 199); mean age 62.9 years (SD 10.5), range 28-85 years) completed the Type D Scale (DS14), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) at hospitalization. Health-related behaviors were assessed 4 months following angiography. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Type D personality was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.55-5.69), depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.42-11.29), and stress (OR 5.99, 95% CI:3.08-11.63), independent of demographic variables and disease severity. Furthermore, fish consumption was lower among Type Ds, as 21% of Type Ds versus 5% of non-Type Ds consumed fish unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients. Future studies should further investigate the association between Type D personality and health-related behaviors.

  13. The use of subcutaneous fat tissue for amyloid typing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1999-01-01

    for typing the most common systemic amyloidoses of AL, AA, and transthyretin types by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy specimens. The method was tested on 21 abdominal fat biopsy specimens that were sent to the laboratory. Of these, 15 contained amyloid......The amyloidoses are biochemically heterogeneous diseases with pathophysiologic deposits of various proteins. The clinical course, prognosis, and therapy are different for each type of amyloidosis and, therefore, a type-specific diagnosis is demanded as early as possible. We describe a method...

  14. [Personality traits of perpetrators of various types of crimes].

    Skoczek, Adrianna; Gancarczyk, Urszula; Prochownik, Paweł; Sobień, Bartosz; Podolec, Piotr; Komar, Monika

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted in Nowy Wiśnicz, with prisoners sentenced for: murders, sex crimes, theft and robbery, maintenance, bullying. A Polish adaptation of PAI test, made by the author of the study, was used. The study results and its statistical analysis showed characteristic personality features of particular criminal groups can be used in rehabilitation of disturbed people, addicts, and become the basis for preparing actions reducing frequency of committing crimes.

  15. Predicting criminals' personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime

    Mustafa Mohebbi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding criminals' personality characteristics could engender appropriate solutions for preventing crimes and treating criminals and the aim of the current work is to predict criminals' (robbers, swindlers and smugglers personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime. The research falls under the applied category in terms of goal while in terms of nature it is among surveydescriptive researches. The sample under investigation includes 480 people who were selected by way of classified random sampling method in a systematic form from among the population of criminals in the Central Prison, province of Kermanshah. The tool used in this paper is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI (short form of 71 questions. The results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI indicated that prevalence of anti-social personalitycharacteristics and mental weakness among robbers; depression, anti-social personality and schizophrenia among swindlers as well as anti-social traits, mental weakness and schizophrenia among smugglers are seen significantly. Also, the results of the variance analysis demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the (MMPI clinical scales among three groups of criminals (robbers, swindlers and smugglers on D scales (depression, Pd (Psychopathy deviation, Pt (Anxiety and psychosis, Sc (Schizophrenia and Ma (Hypomania (p<%5. Research findings revealed that criminals enjoy lower level of normal and positive personality dimensions. To sum up, we can infer that all personality characteristics exist in the population of criminals and therapy experts need to pay attention to all sorts of personalities for treating criminals affected with personality disorder.

  16. Negative affectivity in cardiovascular disease: Evaluating Type D personality assessment using item response theory

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, R.R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The

  17. Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease

    Yu, Doris S F; Thompson, David R; Yu, Cheuk Man

    2010-01-01

    Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Typ...

  18. Multipoint linkage analysis in X-linked ocular albinism of the Nettleship-Falls type

    Bergen, A. A.; Samanns, C.; Schuurman, E. J.; van Osch, L.; van Dorp, D. B.; Pinckers, A. J.; Bakker, E.; Gal, A.; van Ommen, G. J.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive linkage analysis was performed by studying ten Xp22 loci in ten families segregating for X-linked ocular albinism of the Nettleship-Falls type (XOA). Linkage was confirmed between the XOA locus (OA1) and both DXS16 (theta max = 0.10, zeta max = 4.09) and DXS237 (theta max = 0.12, zeta

  19. Examining Culturally Structured Learning Environments with Different Types of Music-Linked Movement Opportunity

    Cole, Juanita M.; Boykin, A. Wade

    2008-01-01

    This study describes two experiments that extended earlier work on the Afrocultural theme Movement Expression. The impact of various learning conditions characterized by different types of music-linked movement on story recall performance was examined. African American children were randomly assigned to a learning condition, presented a story, and…

  20. Is type-D personality trait(s or state? An examination of type-D temporal stability in older Israeli adults in the community

    Ada H. Zohar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Type D personality was suggested as a marker of poorer prognosis for patients of cardiovascular disease. It is defined by having a score of 10 or more on both sub-scales of the DS14 questionnaire, Social Inhibition (SI and Negative Affectivity (NA. As Type D was designed to predict risk, its temporal stability is of prime importance. Methods. Participants in the current study were 285 community volunteers, who completed the DS14, and other personality scales, at a mean interval of six years. Results. The prevalence of Type D did not change. The component traits of Type D showed rank order stability. Type D caseness temporal stability was improved by using the sub-scales product as a criterion. Logistic hierarchical regression predicting Type D classification from Time1 demonstrated that the best predictors were Time1 scores on NA and SI, with the character trait of Cooperation, and the alexithymia score adding some predictive power. Conclusions. The temporal stability of the component traits, and of the prevalence of Type D were excellent. Temporal stability of Type D caseness may be improved by using a product threshold, rather than the current rule. Research is required in order to formulate the optimal timing for Type D measurement for predictive purposes.

  1. The primipara respons based on individual personality type to the intensity of delivery pain

    Gita N Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery period is one of periods that can cause stress to the mother and the fetus. This period is the natural common phenomenon that for some women subjectively can be considered as pain process that can cause simultaneous anxiety and pain. Psychology research has shown that pain is not only connected to physical respond, the culture that teaches and nurtures us also play important role in coping the pain. These two factors shape different personality for each individual. The objective of this study is to find out the primipara respons based on individual personality type to the intensity of delivery pain. The method of this study was analytical method with survey cross sectional approach. The data was collected prospectively from interview and questionnaire in the same time to find out the correlation between individual personality type and the intensity of delivery pain based on inclusive and exclusive period February 1st 2009 to April 30th 2009. The result with chi-square test and spearman rank test showed significant correlation between individual personality type and the intensity of delivery pain (X2= 8,571 ; p = 0,014. There is the negative correlation between extrovert individual personality and intensity of delivery pain (rs= -0,730; p <0,001, and there is the positive correlation between introvert individual personality type and intensity of delivery pain (rs = 0,726; p <0,001. Based on mann whitney, showed significant difference between extrovert personality type and introverts personality type to intensity of delivery pain (Z M-W: 3,050, p: 0,002. Based on chi-square test showed significant correlation between knowledge based on individual personality type to the intensity of delivery pain (X2= 4,418; p = 0,036 The conclusion of these study are the more extrovert individual personality type the less intense the delivery pain would be, the more introvert individual personality type then the more intense delivery pain would be. The

  2. Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: A cross-sectional study

    Svansdottir Erla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type D (distressed personality has been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis and poor emotional well-being in cardiac patients, but it is still unclear what mechanisms link Type D personality with poor clinical outcomes in cardiac patients. In the present cohort of Icelandic cardiac patients, we examined potential pathways that may explain this relationship. The objectives were to examine 1 the association between Type D personality and impaired psychological status, and to explore whether this association is independent of disease severity; and 2 the association between Type D personality and an unhealthy lifestyle. Methods A sample of 268 Icelandic coronary angiography patients (74% males (N = 199; mean age 62.9 years (SD 10.5, range 28-85 years completed the Type D Scale (DS14, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS at hospitalization. Health-related behaviors were assessed 4 months following angiography. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Results Type D personality was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.55-5.69, depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.42-11.29, and stress (OR 5.99, 95% CI:3.08-11.63, independent of demographic variables and disease severity. Furthermore, fish consumption was lower among Type Ds, as 21% of Type Ds versus 5% of non-Type Ds consumed fish p p = 0.024 and to use antidepressants (17% versus 9%, p = 0.049 and sleeping pills (49% versus 33%, p = 0.019 compared to non-Type Ds. Type D personality was not associated with other health-related behaviors, aside from trends towards less fruit and vegetable consumption, and more weight gain. Conclusion Type D personality was associated with psychological distress and an unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients. Future studies should further investigate the association between Type D personality and health-related behaviors.

  3. Cross-cultural analysis of Type D (distressed) personality in 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease

    Kupper, Nina; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Höfer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet in a dir......Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet...

  4. Alternative Personality Variables and the Relationship to Holland's Personality Types in College Students.

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Fox, Daniel J.; Tunick, Roy H.

    2003-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory, two personality questionnaires, and the Sensation-Seeking Scale were completed by 126 college students. Younger students had undifferentiated vocational profiles. Men tended toward Realistic, Enterprising, and Investigative occupations, women toward Social, Enterprising, and Artistic. Significant convergence…

  5. Personality correlates of type 1 diabetes in a national representative sample

    Čukić, Iva; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional relationships between personality traits and type 1 diabetes. The sample (N=8490) was taken from the 1982-84 wave of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-up Study. We fit three logistic regression models to test whether neuroticism, extraversion, openness, or the Type A behavior pattern were associated with type 1 diabetes. Model 1 included sex, age, race/ethnicity and all four personality traits. Model 2 added depressive symp...

  6. The Types of Personal Networks in the Texts Containing Descriptions of Dematerialization of a Subject

    Ella V. Nesterik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the types of personal networks found in the descriptions of dematerialization of a subject and reveals the role of the linguistic means expressing the category of personality in the linguistic embodiment of this phenomenon. The research is conducted at the junction of several disciplines, among which text linguistics takes the leading place. The authors come to the conclusion that dematerialization is formed in a literary text by explicit means of expression of personality – predicates of a certain type and pronominal personal network.

  7. Family-Work Conflict and Type-E Personality as Stress Inducers in Married Female Nigerian University Administrators

    Shobola, A. A.; Nwoha, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This piece of article is culled from a larger study. The study investigated the relationship between family-work conflict, Type-E personality and stress in married female Nigerian University Administrators. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The sample consisted of 800 female administrators in the senior cadre of executive/administrative…

  8. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents : Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van Aken, Marcel A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of

  9. LINKING PERSONAL COMPETENCIES WITH TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE EVIDENCE FROM THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN THAILAND

    Kedsuda Limsila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the linkage between personal competencies and leadership behaviours as well as their influences on leadership outcomes and subordinates’ work performance. Personal competencies were measured using the Project Manager Competency Development (PMCD tool. Leadership behaviours and outcomes were measured using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ. Data was collected from construction projects in Thailand. Findings revealed that leadership outcomes have significant positive relationship with all personal competencies specified in the PMCD framework, every factor in the transformational style and contingent reward factor in the transactional style. Transformational leaders tend to produce high work quality, work quantity, and problem solving creativity from subordinates. Findings further verified that all PMCD personal competencies have significant positive relationship with every factor in the transformational style. It implies that project managers who apply the transformational style and/or have high personal competencies indicated in PMCD framework are likely to generate greater leadership outcomes and work performance on construction projects.

  10. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease: Genetic and Epigenetic Links

    Salvatore De Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a common metabolic disorder predisposing to diabetic cardiomyopathy and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD, which could lead to heart failure through a variety of mechanisms, including myocardial infarction and chronic pressure overload. Pathogenetic mechanisms, mainly linked to hyperglycemia and chronic sustained hyperinsulinemia, include changes in metabolic profiles, intracellular signaling pathways, energy production, redox status, increased susceptibility to ischemia, and extracellular matrix remodeling. The close relationship between type 2 DM and CVD has led to the common soil hypothesis, postulating that both conditions share common genetic and environmental factors influencing this association. However, although the common risk factors of both CVD and type 2 DM, such as obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and thrombophilia, can be identified in the majority of affected patients, less is known about how these factors influence both conditions, so that efforts are still needed for a more comprehensive understanding of this relationship. The genetic, epigenetic, and environmental backgrounds of both type 2 DM and CVD have been more recently studied and updated. However, the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms have seldom been investigated within the broader shared background, but rather studied in the specific context of type 2 DM or CVD, separately. As the precise pathophysiological links between type 2 DM and CVD are not entirely understood and many aspects still require elucidation, an integrated description of the genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences involved in the concomitant development of both diseases is of paramount importance to shed new light on the interlinks between type 2 DM and CVD. This review addresses the current knowledge of overlapping genetic and epigenetic aspects in type 2 DM and CVD, including microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, whose

  11. Types, Patterns and Outcomes of Personal Watercraft- Related ...

    related injuries. Patients injured in Jet Ski accidents were younger than those involved in motorboat accidents (mean age (SD); 25(7.6) vs 32.6(6), p=0.01). Chest injury was the most common type of injury; however, the severity of injury was ...

  12. Assessment of Personality Types and Locus of Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Sh. Mazaheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with unknown cause. MS is one of the disabling neurologic diseases in adult especially young range that myelin part of central nervous system (CNS is destructed. The aim of this study was assessment of types A and B personality and internal and external locus of control in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and comparison of the results with control group.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 30 patients with MS and 30 normal persons as control group evaluated with neurological examination, Rotter locus of control test and Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire for detection of types A and B personality. We employed to analyze the results.Results: 43 percent and 57 percent of MS patients had internal and external locus of control respectively. 63 percent and 37 percent of MS patients had type A and B personality respectively. 60 percent and 40 percent of control group had internal and external locus of control respectively. 20 percent and 80 percent of control group had type A and B personality respectively. Difference between personality type in two groups was significant (P<0.01.Conclusions: In this study, MS patients had more type A personality in comparison to control group.

  13. A critical assessment of two types of personal UV dosimeters.

    Seckmeyer, Gunther; Klingebiel, Marcus; Riechelmann, Stefan; Lohse, Insa; McKenzie, Richard L; Liley, J Ben; Allen, Martin W; Siani, Anna-Maria; Casale, Giuseppe R

    2012-01-01

    Doses of erythemally weighted irradiances derived from polysulphone (PS) and electronic ultraviolet (EUV) dosimeters have been compared with measurements obtained using a reference spectroradiometer. PS dosimeters showed mean absolute deviations of 26% with a maximum deviation of 44%, the calibrated EUV dosimeters showed mean absolute deviations of 15% (maximum 33%) around noon during several test days in the northern hemisphere autumn. In the case of EUV dosimeters, measurements with various cut-off filters showed that part of the deviation from the CIE erythema action spectrum was due to a small, but significant sensitivity to visible radiation that varies between devices and which may be avoided by careful preselection. Usually the method of calibrating UV sensors by direct comparison to a reference instrument leads to reliable results. However, in some circumstances the quality of measurements made with simple sensors may be over-estimated. In the extreme case, a simple pyranometer can be used as a UV instrument, providing acceptable results for cloudless skies, but very poor results under cloudy conditions. It is concluded that while UV dosimeters are useful for their design purpose, namely to estimate personal UV exposures, they should not be regarded as an inexpensive replacement for meteorological grade instruments. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study.

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V; White, Letitia; Franklin, Clay; Smith-Olinde, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more noise and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less noise and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background noise. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids.

  15. Combinations of Injunctions and Personality Types Determining Forms of Self-Destructive Behaviour in Alcohol-Dependent Clients: Findings of a Russian Observational Study

    Dmitri Shustov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This observational study, conducted 2009-2012 with 190 male out-patient clients diagnosed with alcohol dependence and receiving psychotherapeutic treatment in Ryazan, Russia, investigated whether the patterns of self-destructive behaviours exhibited by the subjects were linked to their Personality Types and which combinations of injunctions were reflected in their main personality traits. Self-destructive behaviour was measured according to the 7 Alcoholic Self-Destructiveness Dimensions (ASD (Shustov 2005; data on alcohol abuse and preferred ASD were gathered through semi-structured interview; personality patterns and psychosocial functioning were assessed by means of clinical observation, semi-structured interview, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire: Version 4+ (Hyler, 1994 (Russian version and ICD-10 criteria except for Narcissistic Disorder diagnosed according to DSM-IV; 12 injunctions were assessed with The Drego Injunction Scale (Drego, 1994 (Russian version. When correlations were analysed, it was found that injunctions had a significant impact on the hamartic alcoholic script of the out-patient alcohol-dependent clients on the following continuum: Don’t Be, Don’t Think, Don’t Be a Child, Don’t Trust, Don’t Feel, Don’t Grow Up; client personality types had direct relationship with specific injunction patterns. Personality Types mediated the Alcoholic Self-Destructiveness Dimensions: the Classical Suicidal Dimension being associated with Borderline personality traits; Antisocial with the Antisocial personality; and Professional with the Narcissistic Personality.

  16. A Correlational Study: Personality Types and Foreign Language Acquisition in Undergraduate Students

    Capellan, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality types and second language acquisition. The study addressed a problem that is inadequately investigated in foreign language acquisition research; specifically, personality traits as predictors of language learning in college students studying Spanish as a foreign…

  17. Which Types of Activities Are Associated With Risk of Recurrent Falling in Older Persons?

    Peeters, G.M.E.E.; Verweij, L.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Pluijm, S.M.F.; Visser, M.; Lips, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background.This study explored the associations between various types of activities, their underlying physical components, and recurrent falling in community-dwelling older persons.Methods.This study included 1,329 community-dwelling persons (≥65 years) of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

  18. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  19. Replicable personality types in childhood and adolescence: A Slovenian cross-sectional study

    Maja Zupančič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored individual constellations of five personality dimensions (personality types and their internal replicability with a sample of 4- to 14-year-olds (N = 1341. Employing an age- and culture-decentered assessment tool the target participants were rated by their mothers and the procedure by Asendorpf et al. (2001 was followed to derive personality types. Several cluster solutions were investigated with the one representing four personality types appearing the most interpretable. The average type included individuals (26% expressing mean levels of conscientiousness, extraversion, openness/intellect, and neuroticism, and a relatively high level of agreeableness. The reserved children/adolescents (35 % scored below-average in openess/intellect, relatively low in conscientiousness and extraversion, and they were rated relatively high for neuroticism. The wilful participants (30 % were high in openness/intelect and within the average range they appeared relatively extraverted and disagreeable. The resilient type turned out to be the least capacious as it captured extremly conscientious, extraverted, open, emotionally stable and relatively high agreeable individuals. More girls than boys were classified as average and the boys were, in comparison to the girls, more often assigned to the wilful and to the reserved personality types. The wilful type was the most common in early childhood, the reserved type memberhip was the most frequent in middle and late childhood, and early adolesscents were the most frequently classified to the average type.

  20. Auditors’ Personal Values and Ethical Judgement at Different Levels of Ethical Climate: A Conceptual Link

    Ahmed Mohamed Alteer; Sofri Bin Yahya; Md Harashid Haron

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is come up with theoretical model through understanding the causes and motives behind the auditor judgements. The finding of this study that there are several ethical theories a models provide a significant understanding of ethical issues and suggested factors that may affect ethical judgement decision. The suggestion model proposes that ethical judgements are influenced by personal values via ethical sensitivity. Nonetheless, the influence of personal values on ethi...

  1. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting.......08-1.41). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.......Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...

  2. Validity of the Type D personality construct in Danish post-MI patients and healthy controls

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with increased risk of depression, vital exhaustion, social alienation, a higher number of reinfarctions, and higher mortality rates in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of traditional biomedical risk factors. The construct ...

  3. A novel UBE2A mutation causes X-linked intellectual disability type Nascimento.

    Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Ohashi, Ikuko; Enomoto, Yumi; Naruto, Takuya; Mitsui, Jun; Aida, Noriko; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability (ID) type Nascimento (MIM #300860), also known as ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 A (UBE2A) deficiency syndrome, is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by moderate to severe ID, speech impairment, dysmorphic facial features, genital anomalies and skin abnormalities. Here, we report a Japanese patient with severe ID and congenital cataract. We identified a novel hemizygous mutation (c.76G>A, p.Gly26Arg) in UBE2A by whole-exome sequencing.

  4. Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests.

    Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S

    2014-04-01

    Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.

  5. Type II diabetes and personality; a study to explore other psychosomatic aspects of diabetes

    Esmaeilinasab, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Mokarrar, Mohsen Heidari; Rahmati, Leila; Mahjouri, Mohammad Yoosef; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background As one of the most common chronic diseases, diabetes and its control are affected by the patients? psychological and spiritual attributes. The present study investigates the relationship between glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes and personality traits, defense mechanisms and spirituality. Method The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 Iranian patients with type II diabetes, 64% were men. Participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory, the Defen...

  6. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen; Zou, Shaohong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the con...

  7. Type D personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and perceived health

    van den Broek, Krista C; Smolderen, Kim G; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2014-01-01

    Type D personality (a joint tendency to experience negative emotions and inhibit self-expression) has been associated with adverse outcomes across cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about its association with remembered parenting.......Type D personality (a joint tendency to experience negative emotions and inhibit self-expression) has been associated with adverse outcomes across cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about its association with remembered parenting....

  8. Dynamic Use of Digital Library Material - Supporting Users with Typed Links in Open Hypermedia

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Yndigegn, Christian

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to supporting digital library users in organising and annotating material. We have extended the concept of open hypermedia by introducing typed links, which support: addition of (user-defined) semantics to hypertexts, user navigation, and machine supported...... analysis and synthesis of hypermedia structures. The Webvise open hypermedia system is integrated with the World Wide Web, and has been augmented with a type system. We illustrate the potential use in the context of digital libraries with a scenario of teachers jointly preparing a course based on digital...... library material....

  9. Links Among High EPDS Scores, State of Mind Regarding Attachment, and Symptoms of Personality Disorder.

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Steele, Howard; Mehlhase, Heike; Cordes, Katharina; Steele, Miriam; Harder, Susanne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard

    2015-12-01

    Underlying persistent psychological difficulties have been found to moderate potential adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) on parenting and infant development. The authors examined whether mothers presenting postpartum depressive symptoms showed higher levels of personality pathology and more insecure state of mind regarding attachment compared to nondepressed mothers. Participants (N = 85) were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Present State Examination, the Adult Attachment Interview, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II. Mothers with high EPDS scores were more likely to have a preoccupied insecure state of mind and to have personality disorder compared with mothers scoring below clinical cutoff. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that personality disorder and AAI classification were independently related to EPDS score, and that these two factors together accounted for 48% of the variance in EPDS score. Findings are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in PPD populations and underline the importance of examining potential coexisting psychological difficulties when studying PPD.

  10. The relationship between Type D personality and physical health complaints is mediated by perceived stress and anxiety but not diurnal cortisol secretion.

    Smith, Michael A; Riccalton, Victoria C; Kelly-Hughes, Denise H; Craw, Olivia A; Allen, Sarah F; O'Connor, Daryl B; Wetherell, Mark A

    2018-05-01

    Type D personality has been associated with minor health complaints in the general population and dysregulation of basal cortisol secretion in coronary patients. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) whether there is an association between Type D personality and basal cortisol secretion in the general population, and (ii) whether subjective measures of stress and anxiety, as well as indices of basal cortisol secretion, mediate the relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms in this group. Self-report measures of stress, trait anxiety and physical symptoms were provided by 101 individuals aged 18-45 years. Saliva samples were also provided over two consecutive "typical" days, to enable indices of the cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol profile to be determined. There was a significant relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms, which was fully mediated by subjective stress and anxiety. However, there were no significant relationships between Type D personality and the basal cortisol indices. These findings suggest that the association between Type D personality and minor health complaints in the general population can be explained by feelings of stress and anxiety, but a precise biological mechanism for this link is yet to be elucidated.

  11. Type D personality, illness perception, social support and quality of life in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Li, Jianying; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianxiong; Zou, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Shouzhen; Guo, Qunying

    2017-02-01

    The previous studies reported Type D was associated with poor quality of life (QoL), increased psychological distress, and impaired health status in cardiac patients. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships among Type D personality, illness perception, social support, and investigate the impact of Type D personality on QoL in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Type D personality was assessed by the Chinese 14-item Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Illness perceptions were assessed using the Chinese version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Social support status was assessed by the well-validated social support rating scale (SSRS). Patients' QoL was assessed by using Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively. The Type Ds had significantly lower objective support score (8.18 ± 2.56 vs. 9.67 ± 3.28, p = 0.0001), subjective support score (6.71 ± 2.0 vs. 7.62 ± 1.93, p = 0.0001) and utilization of social support score (6.76 ± 2.0 vs. 7.61 ± 1.94, p = 0.0001) than that of the non-type Ds. Type Ds believed their illness had much more serious consequences (7.67 ± 2.64 vs. 6.27 ± 3.45, p illness (6.65 ± 2.54 vs. 7.31 ± 2.36, p = 0.023). Significant differences were found between Type Ds and non-Type Ds in PCS (40.53 ± 6.42 vs. 48.54 ± 6.21 p mental component score (MCS) (r = -0.31, p social support (r = -0.24, p illness perceptions, social support and QoL in CAPD patients. The worse illness perceptions and lower social support level therefore represent possible mechanisms to explain the link between Type D and poor QoL in CAPD patients.

  12. Burnout Syndrome Among Health Care Students: The Role of Type D Personality.

    Skodova, Zuzana; Lajciakova, Petra; Banovcinova, Lubica

    2016-07-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Type D personality, along with other personality traits (resilience and sense of coherence), on burnout syndrome and its counterpart, engagement, among students of nursing, midwifery, and psychology. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 97 university students (91.9% females; M age = 20.2 ± 1.49 years). A Type D personality subscale, School Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, and Baruth Protective Factor Inventory were used. Linear regression models, Student's t test, and Pearson's correlation analysis were employed. Negative affectivity, a dimension of Type D personality, was a significant personality predictor for burnout syndrome (β = .54; 95% CI = [0.33, 1.01]). The only significant personality predictor of engagement was a sense of coherence. Students who were identified as having Type D personality characteristics scored significantly higher on the burnout syndrome questionnaire (t = -2.58, p burnout. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Linking perceptions of role stress and incivility to workplace aggression: the moderating role of personality.

    Taylor, Shannon G; Kluemper, Donald H

    2012-07-01

    Although research on workplace aggression has long recognized job stressors as antecedents, little is known about the process through which employee responses to stressful workplace demands escalate from relatively mild interactions into more intense behaviors. This study investigates the influence that employees' perceptions of role stress (ambiguity, conflict, overload) have on their aggressive behavior by affecting their perceptions of incivility, and whether these downstream effects depend on personality traits (neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness). Results supported moderated mediation, such that the indirect effects of perceived role ambiguity and role conflict on enacted aggression through experienced incivility varied according to individual differences in personality.

  14. On the cross-cultural replicability of the resilient, undercontrolled, and overcontrolled personality types.

    Alessandri, Guido; Vecchione, Michele; Donnellan, Brent M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Cieciuch, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Personality types reflect typical configurations of personality attributes within individuals. Over the last 20 years, researchers have identified a set of three replicable personality types: resilient (R), undercontrolled (U), and overcontrolled (O) types. In this study, we examined the cross-cultural replicability of the RUO types in Italy, Poland, Spain, and the United States. Personality types were identified using cluster analyses of Big Five profiles in large samples of college students from Italy (n = 322), the United States (n = 499), Spain (n = 420), and Poland (n = 235). Prior to clustering the profiles, the measurement invariance of the Big Five measure across samples was tested. We found evidence for the RUO types in all four samples. The three-cluster solution showed a better fit over alternative solutions and had a relatively high degree of cross-cultural generalizability. The RUO types are evident in samples from four countries with distinct linguistic and cultural traditions. Results were discussed in light of the importance of considering how traits are organized within individuals for advancing contemporary personality psychology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  16. Type D or 'distressed' personality in sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Elfferich, M D P; De Vries, J; Drent, M

    2011-07-01

    Personality factors have shown to be related to mortality, morbidity, and psychological aspects in chronic disorders. Little is known about the effect of personality on disease severity in sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Type D personality and its relation with relevant clinical characteristics in sarcoidosis and IPF patients. The study included 441 sarcoidosis and 49 IPF patients from the outpatient clinic of the ild care team of the MUMC, the Netherlands. They completed the DS14 (Type D questionnaire), the fatigue assessment scale (FAS), the WHO quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Moreover, relevant clinical data were collected. The control group consisted of 3678 subjects from a general population. Type D personality was found in 25.6% of the sarcoidosis patients compared to 21% in the controls, but only in 18.8% of the IPF patients. No relation with disease severity was found in either of these disorders. Fatigue was a substantial problem in both populations. Depressive symptoms but not Type D personality predicted fatigue and poorer QOL in sarcoidosis and IPF. Prevalence of Type D personality is not higher in sarcoidosis and IPF patients than in the general population and does not explain QOL impairment. Depressive symptoms explain QOL impairment and fatigue substantially. Therefore, in the multidisciplinary management of sarcoidosis and IPF psychological screening and psychological counselling concerning adequate coping strategies should be incorporated.

  17. What Is Engagement? Proactivity as the Missing Link in the HEXACO Model of Personality

    de Vries, Reinout Everhard; Wawoe, Kilian W.; Holtrop, Djurre

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that proactivity represents the engagement vector in the HEXACO model of personality. Questionnaire data were obtained in five studies, three of which consisted (mostly) of students: Study 1 (N = 188, Mage = 20.0, 89.4% women), Study 3 (N = 315, Mage = 20.4, 80.6% women),

  18. Developing human capital by linking emotional intelligence with personal competencies in Indian business organizations

    Singh, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of emotional intelligence has become so popular in the management literature that it has become imperative to understand and leverage it for the sake of enhancing the capacity of human capital in organizations. As the pace of change is increasing and world of work is making ever greater demands on a person’s cognitive, emotional and physical resources, this particular set of abilities are becoming increasingly important. Since majority of the concerns in organization involve people in different roles, emotional intelligence must become a determining factor for their effective management. It has also been found that ultimately it is the emotional and personal competencies that we need to identify and measure if we want to be able to predict performance at workplace resulting in its effectiveness, thereby enhancing the worth of the human capital. In this scenario the competencies possessed by the people will have a bearing on the extent to which they can actualize their emotional intelligence. The current paper sets out to examine the relationship between the emotional intelligence of executives in Indian business organizations with their personal competencies. The result suggests that emotional intelligence is significantly related with the personal competencies of employees and the variables of personal competency namely, people success, system success and self success have a predictive relationship with emotional intelligence.

  19. Dispositional resistance to change: Measurement equivalence and the link to personal values across 17 nations

    Oreg, S.; Bayazit, M.; Vakola, M.; Arciniega, L.; Armenakis, A.; Barkauskiene, R.; Bozionelos, N.; Ferič, I.; Fujimoto, Y.; Gonzáles, L.; Han, J.; Hetland, H.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jimmieson, N.; Kordačová, J.; Kotrla Topič, M.; Mitsuhashi, H.; Mlacić, B.; Ohly, S.; Saksvik, I.; Saksvik, P.O.; van Dam, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2008), s. 935-944 ISSN 0021-9010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700250702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : resistance to change * personal values * measurement equivalence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.769, year: 2008

  20. Cortisol dysregulation: the bidirectional link between stress, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Joseph, Joshua J; Golden, Sherita H

    2017-03-01

    Controversy exists over the role of stress and depression in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression has been shown to increase the risk for progressive insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple studies, whereas the association of stress with diabetes is less clear, owing to differences in study designs and in forms and ascertainment of stress. The biological systems involved in adaptation that mediate the link between stress and physiological functions include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous and immune systems. The HPA axis is a tightly regulated system that represents one of the body's mechanisms for responding to acute and chronic stress. Depression is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal alterations in the diurnal cortisol curve, including a blunted cortisol awakening response and flattening of the diurnal cortisol curve. Flattening of the diurnal cortisol curve is also associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this article, we review and summarize the evidence supporting HPA axis dysregulation as an important biological link between stress, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Type A personality and mortality: Competitiveness but not speed is associated with increased risk.

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Richard, Aline; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2017-07-01

    Type A behavior pattern (TABP) is a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, existing evidence is conflicting, also because studies did not examine underlying traits separately. In this study, we investigated whether all-cause and CVD mortality were associated with the Bortner Scale, a measure of TABP, in particular with its subscales competitiveness and speed. Information on Bortner Scale and covariates of 9921 participants was collected at baseline in two cross-sectional studies that were linked with mortality information, yielding a follow-up of up to 37 years. We analyzed the Bortner Scale and its two subscales competitiveness and speed. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, CVD, and specific CVD type mortality. During follow-up, 3469 deaths were observed (1118 CVD deaths). The total Bortner Scale was not associated with mortality, only its subscales. In women, competitiveness was positively associated with all-cause mortality (highest category vs. the lowest, HR 1.25 [95% CI 1.08,1.44]), CVD mortality (1.39 [1.07,1.81]), and ischemic heart disease mortality (intermediate category vs. the lowest, 1.46 [1.02,2.10]). In men, CVD mortality was inversely associated with speed (highest category vs. the lowest, 0.74 [0.59,0.93]). The subscales of the Bortner Scale may be associated with CVD in an opposed manner and may therefore have to be analyzed separately. More studies are needed to further investigate this association, also considering differences by sex. Persons scoring high in the competitiveness subscale ought to be screened and counselled in order to reduce their CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents: Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations.

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2017-10-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of callous-unemotional (CU), grandiose manipulative (GM), and dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) traits and (b) whether these groups differ in their problem behaviors and parent-adolescent relationship quality. Latent class growth analyses on 4-wave data of 1,131 Dutch adolescents revealed 3 personality profiles: (1) a dark impulsive group (13.9%), with high scores on all 3 traits (CU, GM, and DI) that were stable over time; (2) an impulsive group (26.1%), with high and increasing levels of impulsivity and relatively low scores on CU and GM; and (3) and a low risk group (60.0%), with relatively low levels on all 3 personality characteristics, with impulsivity decreasing over time. Compared with adolescents in the low risk group, adolescents in the dark impulsive and impulsive groups reported higher initial levels of substance use, sexual risk behaviors, permissive sexual attitudes, parent-adolescent conflict, and lower parent-adolescent satisfaction, as well as greater increases in sexual risk behavior over time. Compared with adolescents in the impulsive group, those in the dark impulsive group showed the highest levels of risk behaviors. Hence, dark personality traits coupled with impulsivity may be indicative of an earlier and more severe trajectory of problem behaviors that may differ from the trajectory of youth who are only impulsive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Personality development from adolescence to emerging adulthood: linking trajectories of ego development to the family context and identity formation.

    Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx Project: Linking Clinical Data with Molecular Analysis to Advance Personalized Medicine

    Judy C. Keen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of how genetic mutations or variability can directly affect phenotypic outcomes, the development of disease, or determination of a tailored treatment protocol is fundamental to advancing personalized medicine. To understand how a genotype affects gene expression and specific phenotypic traits, as well as the correlative and causative associations between such, the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx Project was initiated The GTEx collection of biospecimens and associated clinical data links extensive clinical data with genotype and gene expression data to provide a wealth of data and resources to study the underlying genetics of normal physiology. These data will help inform personalized medicine through the identification of normal variation that does not contribute to disease. Additionally, these data can lead to insights into how gene variation affects pharmacodynamics and individualized responses to therapy.

  5. Endothelial perturbation: a link between non-dipping and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes?

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Jeppesen, Peter; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz

    2007-01-01

    -six subjects, stratified to 4 gender-, age-, and duration-matched groups of 19 subjects each, were studied (group A: non-diabetic subjects; group B to D, type 2 diabetic subjects; group B: no retinopathy; group C: minimal background retinopathy; group D: diabetic maculopathy). All subjects underwent a 24-hour......Reduced diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation ("non-dipping") is associated with both micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. The relation between endothelial perturbation and diurnal BP variation in diabetic subjects has not previously been studied. Seventy...... to endothelial cell activation as well as with retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes. This finding suggests a possible mechanism linking non-dipping with microvascular complications in these subjects....

  6. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  7. Probable neuroimmunological link between Toxoplasma and cytomegalovirus infections and personality changes in the human host

    Roubalová Kateřina

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a negative association between Toxoplasma-infection and novelty seeking was reported. The authors suggested that changes of personality trait were caused by manipulation activity of the parasite, aimed at increasing the probability of transmission of the parasite from an intermediate to a definitive host. They also suggested that low novelty seeking indicated an increased level of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain of infected subjects, a phenomenon already observed in experimentally infected rodents. However, the changes in personality can also be just a byproduct of any neurotropic infection. Moreover, the association between a personality trait and the toxoplasmosis can even be caused by an independent correlation of both the probability of Toxoplasma-infection and the personality trait with the third factor, namely with the size of living place of a subject. To test these two alternative hypotheses, we studied the influence of another neurotropic pathogen, the cytomegalovirus, on the personality of infected subjects, and reanalyzed the original data after the effect of the potential confounder, the size of living place, was controlled. Methods In the case-control study, 533 conscripts were tested for toxoplasmosis and presence of anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies and their novelty seeking was examined with Cloninger's TCI questionnaire. Possible association between the two infections and TCI dimensions was analyzed. Results The decrease of novelty seeking is associated also with cytomegalovirus infection. After the size of living place was controlled, the effect of toxoplasmosis on novelty seeking increased. Significant difference in novelty seeking was observed only in the largest city, Prague. Conclusion Toxoplasma and cytomegalovirus probably induce a decrease of novelty seeking. As the cytomegalovirus spreads in population by direct contact (not by predation as with Toxoplasma, the observed changes are

  8. Proportional-Type Performance Recovery DC-Link Voltage Tracking Algorithm for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators

    Seok-Kyoon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a disturbance observer-based proportional-type DC-link voltage tracking algorithm for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs. The proposed technique feedbacks the only proportional term of the tracking errors, and it contains the nominal static and dynamic feed-forward compensators coming from the first-order disturbance observers. It is rigorously proved that the proposed method ensures the performance recovery and offset-free properties without the use of the integrators of the tracking errors. A wind power generation system has been simulated to verify the efficacy of the proposed method using the PSIM (PowerSIM software with the DLL (Dynamic Link Library block.

  9. Developmental Personality Types from Childhood to Adolescence: Associations with Parenting and Adjustment

    de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether changes in children's self-reported Big Five dimensions are represented by (developmental) personality types, using a cohort-sequential design with three measurement occasions across 5 years (four cohorts, 9-12 years at T1; N = 523). Correlates of, and gender differences in, type membership were examined. Latent…

  10. The lack of theoretical support for using person trade-offs in QALY-type models

    Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    -adjusted life years (DALYs). This paper discusses the theoretical support for the use of person trade-offs in QALY-type measurement of (changes in) population health. It argues that measures of this type based on such quality-adjustment factors almost always violate the Pareto principle, and so lack normative...

  11. Personality Types and Learners' Interaction in Web-Based Threaded Discussion

    Lee, JeongMin; Lee, Youngmin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of group composition based on the learners' personality types as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator as they interacted in threaded discussions. Three groups comprised introverts, extroverts, and mixed introvert-extrovert classifications. Ninety-six participants were divided into 24 groups of 4 participants…

  12. Different types of interactions of links in artificial and natural ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure

    Somova, Lydia; Pisman, Tamara; Mikheeva, Galina; Pechurkin, Nickolay

    The life of organisms in an ecosystem depends not only on abiotic factors, but also on the interaction of organisms in which they come with each other. The study of mechanisms of the bioregulation based on ecological - biochemical interactions of ecosystem links is necessary to know the ecosystem development, its stability, survival of ecosystem organisms. It is of high importance as for the creation of artificial ecosystems, and also for the study of natural ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure on them. To create well-functioning ecosystems is necessary to study and consider the basic types of relationships between organisms. The basic types of interactions between organisms have been studied with simple terrestrial and water ecosystems. 1. The interaction of microbiocenoses and plants were studied in experiments with agrocenoses. Microbiocenosis proposed for increase of productivity of plants and for obtaining ecologically pure production of plants has been created taking into account mutual relationships between species of microorganisms. 2. The experimental model of the atmosphere closed «autotroph - heterotroph» system in which heterotrophic link was the mixed population of yeasts (Candida utilis and Candida guilliermondii) was studied. The algae Chlorella vulgaris was used as an autotroph link. It was shown, that the competition result for heterotrophic link depended on strategy of populations of yeast in relation to a substrate and oxygen utilization. 3. As a result of experimental and theoretical modelling of a competition of algae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda at continuous cultivation, the impossibility of their coexistence in the conditions of limitation on nitrogen was shown. 4. Pray-predator interactions between algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus quadricauda) and invertebrates (Paramecium caudatum, Brachionus plicatilis) were studied in experimental closed ecosystem. This work was partly supported by the Russian Foundation for

  13. Differences between individual and societal health state valuations: any link with personality?

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R; Jerant, Anthony

    2009-08-01

    The concept of "adaptation" has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies.

  14. Type D personality and coronary atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability: The potential mediating effect of health behavior.

    Cheng, Fangman; Lin, Ping; Wang, Yini; Liu, Guojie; Li, Ling; Yu, Huai; Yu, Bo; Zhao, Zhenjuan; Gao, Xueqin

    2018-05-01

    The association between type D personality and coronary plaque vulnerability has been suggested. The objective of the study was to evaluate the potential mediating effects of health behavior on the association between type D personality and plaque vulnerability in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. A total of 319 CAD patients were assessed for type D personality and health behavior via self-administered questionnaires. The plaque vulnerability, evaluated according to characteristics, accompaniment, and outcomes of plaque, was assessed by optical coherence tomography. Regression analysis showed that type D personality was independently associated with lipid plaque (odds ratio [OR] = 2.387, p = 0.001), thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) (OR = 2.366, p = 0.001), rupture (OR = 2.153, p = 0.002), and lipid arc (β = -0.291, p vulnerability. Psychological stress mediated the relationship between type D and lipid plaque (p = 0.030), TCFA (p = 0.034), and rupture (p = 0.013). Living habits significantly mediated the relationship between type D and lipid plaque (p = 0.028), TCFA (p = 0.036), but not rupture (p = 0.066). Participating in activities was not a significant mediator of the relationship between type D personality and lipid plaque (p = 0.115), TCFA (p = 0.115), or rupture (p = 0.077). Health behaviors (psychological stress and living habits) may be mediators of the association between type D personality and plaque vulnerability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal functional brain connectivity and personality traits in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Serra, Laura; Silvestri, Gabriella; Petrucci, Antonio; Basile, Barbara; Masciullo, Marcella; Makovac, Elena; Torso, Mario; Spanò, Barbara; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Harrison, Neil A; Bianchi, Maria L E; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the most common muscular dystrophy observed in adults, is a genetic multisystem disorder affecting several other organs besides skeletal muscle, including the brain. Cognitive and personality abnormalities have been reported; however, no studies have investigated brain functional networks and their relationship with personality traits/disorders in patients with DM1. To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the potential relationship between personality traits/disorders and changes to functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with DM1. We enrolled 27 patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 matched healthy control individuals. Patients underwent personality assessment using clinical interview and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 administration; all participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Investigations were conducted at the Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Santa Lucia Foundation, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, and Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Measures of personality traits in patients and changes in functional connectivity within the DMN in patients and controls. Changes in functional connectivity and atypical personality traits in patients were correlated. We combined results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and clinical interview to identify a continuum of atypical personality profiles ranging from schizotypal personality traits to paranoid personality disorder within our DM1 patients. We also demonstrated an increase in functional connectivity in the bilateral posterior cingulate and left parietal DMN nodes in DM1 patients compared with controls. Moreover, patients with DM1 showed strong associations between DMN functional connectivity and schizotypal-paranoid traits. Our findings provide novel

  16. Arsenic Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes: MicroRNAs as Mechanistic Links?

    Beck, Rowan; Styblo, Miroslav; Sethupathy, Praveen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review The goal of this review is to delineate the following: (1) the primary means of inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure for human populations, (2) the adverse public health outcomes associated with chronic iAs exposure, (3) the pathophysiological connection between arsenic and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and (4) the incipient evidence for microRNAs as candidate mechanistic links between iAs exposure and T2D. Recent Findings Exposure to iAs in animal models has been associated with the d...

  17. EFL Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence and Their Personality Types: Exploring Possible Relations

    Roya Razavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers’ emotional intelligence and their personality traits in an Iranian context. To this end, 85 Iranian EFL teachers were asked to fill out The Big Five Inventory Personality Test (John & Srivastava, 1999 and The Bar-On Emotional Intelligences test (1997. The results showed both negative and positive correlations among different subscales of the variables under study. It was found that among the 15 components of EI, problem solving has the highest positive correlation with personality types (i.e., agreeableness. Also, problem solving was found to have the highest negative significant correlation with personality types (i.e., neuroticism. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  18. Personality traits, self-care behaviours and glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes

    Skinner, T. C.; Bruce, D. G.; Davis, T. M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether the personality traits of conscientiousness and agreeableness are associated with self-care behaviours and glycaemia in Type 2 diabetes. Methods: The Big Five Inventory personality traits Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Neuroticism and Openness were...... modelling was used to determine whether personality was associated with BMI, smoking, self-monitoring of blood glucose and medication taking. Multivariable regression was used to investigate which traits were independently associated with these self-care behaviours and HbA1c. Results: Patients with higher......, longer diabetes duration, diabetes treatment, self-monitoring of blood glucose (negatively) and less medication taking (P ≤ 0.009), but no personality trait added to the model. Conclusions: Although there was no independent association between personality traits and HbA1c, the relationship between high...

  19. Relationship between the nurses’ subjective and objective career success and extraversion and introversion personality types

    Reza Najjari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Career success is an evaluating and relational concept between someone's current progress and his/her future ideals of occupation. Researchers have shown personality characteristics are one of the main predictors of success and favorable job performance. Thus, the aim of present study was to determine the relationship between extraversion and introversion personality types and subjective and objective career success among nurses of selected private hospitals in Tehran. Methods: This research was a descriptive correlational study in which 230 nurses were selected from five private hospitals in Tehran as the study sample through Cochran sampling technique. Proportional to the number of nurses at each hospital, samples were selected via convenient random sampling. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Golparvar and Ghazavi career success scale and personal information form were utilized to collect the data. The collected data wereanalyzed by SPSS-19 software using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between personality type and subjective and objective career success of the nurses. Further, there was a negatively significant relationship between subjective and objective career success and introversion personality type (sig=0/004, r=-0.391 and sig=0.001, r=-0.415, respectively. However, there was a positively significant relationship between subjective and objective career success and extraversion personality type (sig=0.001, r=0.473 and sig=0.001, r=0.545, respectively. Conclusion: It is essential to take into account the relationship between career success and related factors such as personality in the planning, decisions and technical choices. Besides, favorable environmental factors and effective factors such as knowledge, attitudes and cognitive, emotional and behavioral skills, activity level and the situation of the organization should also be taken into

  20. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V.; White, Letitia; Franklin, Clay; Smith-Olinde, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person’s most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation bet...

  1. Forgiveness and Personality Type among Men and Women Suffering from Cardiovascular Diseases

    Elham Foroozandeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of personality and some components of behaviors, traits and emotions as effective factors on coronary heart diseases (CHD were presented nearly 50 years ago with the concept of “type A” behavior, a compound of hostility, impatience, competitiveness and dominance. Later studies showed crucial role of other traits and behaviors like anger, introversion, depression and forgiveness. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare personality type and forgiveness in the patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases based on gender. Materials and method: The cross sectional study was designed and sample was collected from men and women referred to cardiologists (within the age range of 23-75 years old from the patients of Shahid Rajaee Heart Hospital of Tehran, Iran from December 2010 to March 2011. Total 87 subjects were selected using random method. The study subjects were given two questionnaires: personality type A (with two factors: TA1, pathologic behaviors of type A personality and TA2, non pathologic behaviors of type A personality and Interpersonal Forgiveness Inventory (IFI, with three subscales namely reestablishment of relationship, control of revenge and realistic perception. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Mean(±SD age of men was 50.5±11.6 years (n=33 and 55.7±14.4 years in women (n=54. Mean duration of suffering from cardiovascular diseases in men was 7.8 years and in women was 9.10 years. The study found high mean scores of type A pathologic but not non pathologic type A among women compared to men (p<0.038 and no statistically significant differences in forgiveness subscales. Conclusion: The study revealed significant difference between women and men suffering from cardiovascular disease in pathologic type A (TA1 and negative relationship between pathologic type A and forgiveness.

  2. Personal and cultural identity development in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with psychosocial functioning.

    Meca, Alan; Sabet, Raha F; Farrelly, Colleen M; Benitez, Cynthia G; Schwartz, Seth J; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Picariello, Simona; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M

    2017-07-01

    This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. The sample consisted of 302 recent (identity coherence and both ethnic and U.S. identity. Ethnic and U.S. affirmation/commitment (A/C) positively and indirectly predicted optimism and negatively predicted rule breaking and aggression through coherence. However, confusion predicted lower self-esteem and optimism and higher depressive symptoms, rule breaking, unprotected sex, and cigarette use. Results further indicated significant site differences. In Los Angeles (but not Miami), ethnic A/C also negatively predicted confusion. Given the direct effects of coherence and confusion on nearly every outcome, it may be beneficial for interventions to target personal identity. However, in contexts such as Los Angeles, which has at least some ambivalence toward recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents, it may be more beneficial for interventions to also target cultural identity to reduce confusion and thus promote positive development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Intense-personal celebrity worship and body image: evidence of a link among female adolescents.

    Maltby, John; Giles, David C; Barber, Louise; McCutcheon, Lynn E

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between celebrity worship and body image within the theoretical perspective of intense para-social relationships with celebrities. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between celebrity worship and body image. Three samples, 229 (102 males and 127 females) adolescents, 183 (88 males and 95 females) full-time university undergraduate students, and 289 (126 males and 163 females) adults were administered an amended version of the Celebrity Attitude Scale, the Attention to Body Shape Scale, and the Body Shape Questionnaire-Revised. Significant relationships were found between attitudes toward celebrities and body image only among female adolescents. Multiple regression analyses suggested that Intense-personal celebrity worship accounted for unique variance in scores in body image. Findings suggest that in female adolescents, there is an interaction between Intense-personal celebrity worship and body image between the ages of 14 and 16 years, and some tentative evidence has been found to suggest that this relationship disappears at the onset of adulthood, 17 to 20 years. Results are consistent with those authors who stress the importance of the formation of para-social relationships with media figures, and suggest that para-social relationships with celebrities perceived as having a good body shape may lead to a poor body image in female adolescents.

  4. The relationship between Type D personality, affective symptoms and hemoglobin levels in chronic heart failure.

    Nina Kupper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF patients. Contributors to the risk of anemia in HF include hemodilution, renal dysfunction and inflammation. Hemoglobin levels may also be negatively affected by alterations in stress regulatory systems. Therefore, psychological distress characterized by such alterations may adversely affect hemoglobin in HF. The association between hemoglobin and Type D personality and affective symptomatology in the context of HF is poorly understood. AIM: To examine the relationship between Type D personality and affective symptomatology with hemoglobin levels at inclusion and 12-month follow-up, controlling for relevant clinical factors. METHODS: Plasma levels of hemoglobin and creatinine were assessed in 264 HF patients at inclusion and at 12-month follow-up. Type D personality and affective symptomatology were assessed at inclusion. RESULTS: At inclusion, hemoglobin levels were similar for Type D and non-Type D HF patients (p = .23, and were moderately associated with affective symptomatology (r = -.14, p = .02. Multivariable regression showed that Type D personality (β = -.15; p = .02, was independently associated with future hemoglobin levels, while controlling for renal dysfunction, gender, NYHA class, time since diagnosis, BMI, the use of angiotensin-related medication, and levels of affective symptomatology. Change in renal function was associated with Type D personality (β = .20 and hemoglobin at 12 months (β = -.25. Sobel mediation analysis showed significant partial mediation of the Type D - hemoglobin association by renal function deterioration (p = .01. Anemia prevalence increased over time, especially in Type D patients. Female gender, poorer baseline renal function, deterioration of renal function and a longer HF history predicted the observed increase in anemia prevalence over time, while higher baseline hemoglobin was protective

  5. Analytical expression for an optimised link bar mechanism for a beta-type Stirling engine

    Carlsen, Henrik; Bovin, Jonas Kabell

    2007-01-01

    The design of a mechanism for kinematic beta-type Stirling engines, where the displacer piston and the working piston share the same cylinder, is complicated. A well-known solution is the rhombic drive, but this solution depends on oil lubrication because of the gear wheels connecting the two...... counter rotating crank shafts. In a hermetically sealed Stirling engine it is an advantage to avoid oil in the crank case, making the application of the rhombic drive difficult. In this paper, another crank mechanism is presented, which has been developed for a 9 kW single cylinder engine. The new crank...... mechanism is a further development of the mechanism in a previous 9 kW engine. The crank mechanism for the beta-type Stirling engine is based on two four-link straight line mechanisms pointing up and down, respectively. The mechanism pointing upwards is connected to the working piston, while the mechanism...

  6. Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality

    mahin soheili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results showed that rejecting/neglecting parenting style and emotional warmth were positively and negatively correlated with addiction potential, respectively. Conclusion: The child-parent relationship and also the relationship between stress and type D personality can be considered as predictive factors in addiction potential.

  7. Incompleteness as a link between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and specific symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Ecker, Willi; Kupfer, Jochen; Gönner, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs) to an understanding of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). It investigates the association of specific OCD symptom dimensions with OCPTs, conceptualized as continuous phenomena that are also observable below the diagnostic threshold. As empirical findings and clinical observation suggest that incompleteness feelings/NJREs may play a significant affective and motivational role for certain OCD subtypes, but also for patients with accentuated OCPTs, we hypothesized that OCPTs are selectively linked with incompleteness-associated OCD symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting). Moreover, we assumed that this selective relationship cannot be demonstrated any more after statistical control of incompleteness, whereas it is preserved after statistical control of anxiety, depression, pathological worry and harm avoidance. Results from a study with a large clinical sample (n = 185) partially support these hypotheses and suggest that NJREs may be an important connecting link between specific OCD symptom dimensions, in particular ordering and checking, and accentuated OCPTs. Obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) are positively related to obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting) hypothesized or found to be associated with incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs), but not to washing and obsessions. This positive relationship, which is strongest for ordering and checking, is eliminated when NJREs are statistically controlled. Ordering, checking and accentuated OCPTs may share NJREs as a common affective-motivational underpinning.Dysfunctional behaviour patterns of people with accentuated OCPTs or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) may be viewed as efforts to avoid or reduce subjectively intolerable NJREs

  8. The relationship between type D personality and perceived social support in myocardial infarction patients

    Reza Bagherian Sararoudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type D personality is based on two global and stable personality traits, including negative affectivity (NA and social inhibition (SI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between type D personality and perceived social support in post myocardial infarction (MI patients. Methods: One hundred seventy six consecutive patients following MI admitted to the cardiac care unit (CCU of nine hospitals in Isfahan, Iran from April to September 2006 were selected based on the inclusive and exclusive criteria. The patients completed the Persian version of type D personality scale and the Persian version of multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS. Also, demographic and medical questionnaire was completed for each patient. Chi-squared test, t-test and MANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The findings indicated that 35.8% patients (35.8 % were classified as type D. The results of MANOVA showed that type D patients were significantly different from non-type D patients (F = 8.72, p = 0.0001 on MSPSS scores and on all dimensions including family subscale (F = 11.52, p = 0.001, friends subscale (F= 16.16, p = 0.0001 and significant others subscale (F = 5.04, p = 0.026. Conclusions: Type D personality substantially affects the way MI patients perceive availability of social support from different sources including family, friends, and significant others. One implication of this finding may be to develop tailor-made interventions for MI patients with type D.

  9. Type D Personality in infarcted patients a study with the Rorschach projective technique

    Irene Pagano Dritto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Type D personality is a vulnerability factor associated with the psychological suffering that affects the physical and mental health state. Literature shows that the Type D personality is defined by a combination of two independent constructs: the negative affectivity (NA which refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions over time and in several situations; and the social inhibition (SI or the tendency to inhibit emotions and behaviors in social interactions. Objective: The present study aims to explore the emotions of a group of patients with heart disease, through the use of the Rorschach projective tecnique. Method: Fourty subjects with an history of heart attack, aged between 32 and 76 years, were evaluated in order to find some possible indicators of Type D personality such as the quality of contents, movements response, popular responses and Erlebnistypus. Results: Findings shows that the majority of patients present a prevalence of responses belonging to Animal and Anatomy contents and the Erlebnistypus is mostly introversive. Conclusions: The study points out some scientific element useful both in research and in clinical practice, confirming the Rorschach potential in the assessment and identification of specific personality traits, involved in the Type D personality, that characterizes the majority of cardiac impared patients.

  10. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population.

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more often lived without a partner (SDC, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.49-2.06; WP, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43-1.87), met with family less than once a month (SDC, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27; WP, OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.94-2.84) and were less certain they could count on help from others in case of illness (WP, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Anesthesiology resident personality type correlates with faculty assessment of resident performance.

    Schell, Randall M; Dilorenzo, Amy N; Li, Hsin-Fang; Fragneto, Regina Y; Bowe, Edwin A; Hessel, Eugene A

    2012-11-01

    To study the association between anesthesiology residents' personality preference types, faculty evaluations of residents' performance, and knowledge. Convenience sample and prospective study. Academic department of anesthesiology. Consenting anesthesiology residents (n = 36). All participants completed the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®). All residents' 6-month summation of daily focal evaluations completed by faculty [daily performance score (DPS); 1 = unsatisfactory, 2 = needs improvement, 3 = meets expectations, 4 = exceeds expectations], as well as a global assessment of performance (GAP) score based on placement of each resident into perceived quartile compared with their peers (ie,1 = first, or top, quartile) by senior faculty (n = 7) who also completed the MBTI, were obtained. The resident MBTI personality preferences were compared with the DPS and GAP scores, the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) I and II scores, and faculty MBTI personality type. There was no association between personality preference type and performance on standardized examinations (USMLE I, II). The mean GAP score was better (higher quartile score) for Extraverts than Introverts (median 2.0 vs 2.6, P = 0.0047) and for Sensing versus Intuition (median 2.0 vs 2.6, P = 0.0206) preference. Faculty evaluator MBTI preference type did not influence the GAP scores they assigned residents. Like GAP, the DPS was better for residents with Sensing versus Intuition preference (median 3.5 vs 3.3, P = 0.0111). No difference in DPS was noted between Extraverts and Introverts. Personality preference type was not associated with resident performance on standardized examinations, but it was associated with faculty evaluations of resident performance. Residents with Sensing personality preference were evaluated more favorably on global and focal faculty evaluations than those residents who chose the Intuition preference. Extraverted residents were evaluated more favorably on

  12. Personality moderates the links of social identity with work motivation and job searching.

    Baay, Pieter E; van Aken, Marcel A G; van der Lippe, Tanja; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Work motivation is critical for successful school-to-work transitions, but little is known about its determinants among labor market entrants. Applying a social identity framework, we examined whether work motivation and job searching are social-contextually determined. We expected that some job seekers are more sensitive to contextual influence, depending on their personality. Mediation analyses on 591 Dutch vocational training students indicate that the perception of more positive work norms in someone's social context was related to higher levels of intrinsic motivation, which in turn predicted higher preparatory job search behavior and job search intentions. Multi-group analysis shows that perceived work norms more strongly predict work motivation among overcontrollers compared to resilients and undercontrollers. In conclusion, work motivation and job searching appear contextually determined: especially among those sensitive to contextual influence, people seem to work when they believe that is what people like them do.

  13. Resilience linked to personality dimensions, alexithymia and affective symptoms in motor functional neurological disorders.

    Jalilianhasanpour, Rozita; Williams, Benjamin; Gilman, Isabelle; Burke, Matthew J; Glass, Sean; Fricchione, Gregory L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; LaFrance, W Curt; Perez, David L

    2018-04-01

    Reduced resilience, a construct associated with maladaptive stress coping and a predisposing vulnerability for Functional Neurological Disorders (FND), has been under-studied compared to other neuropsychiatric factors in FND. This prospective case-control study investigated self-reported resilience in patients with FND compared to controls and examined relationships between resilience and affective symptoms, personality traits, alexithymia, health status and adverse life event burden. 50 individuals with motor FND and 47 healthy controls participated. A univariate test followed by a logistic regression analysis investigated group-level differences in Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) scores. For within-group analyses performed separately in patients with FND and controls, univariate screening tests followed by multivariate linear regression analyses examined factors associated with self-reported resilience. Adjusting for age, gender, education status, ethnicity and lifetime adverse event burden, patients with FND reported reduced resilience compared to controls. Within-group analyses in patients with FND showed that individual-differences in mental health, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness positively correlated with CD-RISC scores; post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depression, anxiety, alexithymia and neuroticism scores negatively correlated with CD-RISC scores. Extraversion independently predicted resilience scores in patients with FND. In control subjects, univariate associations were appreciated between CD-RISC scores and gender, personality traits, anxiety, alexithymia and physical health; conscientiousness independently predicted resilience in controls. Patients with FND reported reduced resilience, and CD-RISC scores covaried with other important predisposing vulnerabilities for the development of FND. Future research should investigate if the CD-RISC is predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with FND. Copyright

  14. A Research into the Relationship Between Type a Personality and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Development

    Gökhan İncebacak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, which is conducted on male and femaleparticipants and managers from different departments and sectors, is to inves-tigate the relationship between Type A personality traits and emotional intelligence dimensions.In addition, for male and female managers, the emotional intelligence dimensions that are effective on type A personality traits are tried to be determined according to each department. In the results of the analysis conducted on 205 participant managers and the survey used as the data collection tool, different findings were obtained for different departments in male and female managers, and the hypotheses proposed for inter-variable effects and relationships were partially accepted.

  15. 25 CFR 900.234 - What types of personal conflicts of interest involving tribal officers, employees or...

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of personal conflicts of interest involving... ASSISTANCE ACT Conflicts of Interest § 900.234 What types of personal conflicts of interest involving tribal... in which that person has a financial or employment interest that conflicts with that of the trust...

  16. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  17. Type D personality, stress, coping and performance on a novel sport task.

    Erika Borkoles

    Full Text Available We investigated (1 the relationship between Type D personality, stress intensity appraisal of a self-selected stressor, coping, and perceived coping effectiveness and (2 the relationship between Type D personality and performance. In study one, 482 athletes completed the Type D personality questionnaire (DS14, stress thermometer and MCOPE in relation to a recently experienced sport stressor. Type D was associated with increased levels of perceived stress and selection of coping strategies (more emotion and avoidance coping as well as perceptions of their effectiveness. In study two, 32 participants completed a rugby league circuit task and were assessed on pre-performance anxiety, post-performance affect and coping. Type D was associated with poorer performance (reduced distance; more errors, decreases in pre-performance self-confidence and more use of maladaptive resignation/withdrawal coping. Findings suggest that Type D is associated with maladaptive coping and reduced performance. Type D individuals would benefit from interventions related to mood modification or enhancing interpersonal functioning.

  18. Genetic relationships and epidemiological links between wild type 1 poliovirus isolates in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

    Angez, Mehar; Shaukat, Shahzad; Alam, Muhammad M; Sharif, Salmaan; Khurshid, Adnan; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2012-02-22

    Efforts have been made to eliminate wild poliovirus transmission since 1988 when the World Health Organization began its global eradication campaign. Since then, the incidence of polio has decreased significantly. However, serotype 1 and serotype 3 still circulate endemically in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries constitute a single epidemiologic block representing one of the three remaining major global reservoirs of poliovirus transmission. In this study we used genetic sequence data to investigate transmission links among viruses from diverse locations during 2005-2007. In order to find the origins and routes of wild type 1 poliovirus circulation, polioviruses were isolated from faecal samples of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) patients. We used viral cultures, two intratypic differentiation methods PCR, ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to determine the genetic relatedness. One hundred eleven wild type 1 poliovirus isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing for genetic variation study. Considering the 15% divergence of the sequences from Sabin 1, Phylogenetic analysis by MEGA software revealed that active inter and intra country transmission of many genetically distinct strains of wild poliovirus type 1 belonged to genotype SOAS which is indigenous in this region. By grouping wild type 1 polioviruses according to nucleotide sequence homology, three distinct clusters A, B and C were obtained with multiple chains of transmission together with some silent circulations represented by orphan lineages. Our results emphasize that there was a persistent transmission of wild type 1 polioviruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2005-2007. The epidemiologic information provided by the sequence data can contribute to the formulation of better strategies for poliomyelitis control to those critical areas, associated with high risk population groups which include migrants

  19. Personality correlates of revenge-seeking: Multidimensional links to physical aggression, impulsivity, and aggressive pleasure.

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2018-05-01

    People differ in how much they seek retribution for interpersonal insults, slights, rejections, and other antagonistic actions. Identifying individuals who are most prone towards such revenge-seeking is a theoretically-informative and potentially violence-reducing endeavor. However, we have yet to understand the extent to which revenge-seeking individuals exhibit specific features of aggressiveness, impulsivity, and what motivates their hunt for retribution. Toward this end, we conducted three studies (total N = 673), in which revenge-seeking was measured alongside these other constructs. Analyses repeatedly demonstrated that revenge-seeking was associated with greater physical (but not verbal) aggressiveness, anger, and hostility. Revenge-seeking's link to physical aggression was partially accounted for by impulses toward enjoying aggression and the tendency to use aggression to improve mood. Dominance analyses revealed that sadism explained the most variance in revenge-seeking. Revenge-seeking was associated with greater impulsive responses to negative and positive affect, as well as greater premeditation of behavior. These findings paint a picture of revenge-seekers as physically aggressive curators of anger, whose retributive acts are performed with planned malice and motivated by the act's entertaining and therapeutic qualities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The real-time link between person perception and action: brain potential evidence for dynamic continuity.

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2011-01-01

    Using event-related potentials, we investigated how the brain extracts information from another's face and translates it into relevant action in real time. In Study 1, participants made between-hand sex categorizations of sex-typical and sex-atypical faces. Sex-atypical faces evoked negativity between 250 and 550 ms (N300/N400 effects), reflecting the integration of accumulating sex-category knowledge into a coherent sex-category interpretation. Additionally, the lateralized readiness potential revealed that the motor cortex began preparing for a correct hand response while social category knowledge was still gradually evolving in parallel. In Study 2, participants made between-hand eye-color categorizations as part of go/no-go trials that were contingent on a target's sex. On no-go trials, although the hand did not actually move, information about eye color partially prepared the motor cortex to move the hand before perception of sex had finalized. Together, these findings demonstrate the dynamic continuity between person perception and action, such that ongoing results from face processing are immediately and continuously cascaded into the motor system over time. The preparation of action begins based on tentative perceptions of another's face before perceivers have finished interpreting what they just saw. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  1. Getting connected: Both associative and semantic links structure semantic memory for newly learned persons.

    Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether semantic memory for newly learned people is structured by visual co-occurrence, shared semantics, or both. Participants were trained with pairs of simultaneously presented (i.e., co-occurring) preexperimentally unfamiliar faces, which either did or did not share additionally provided semantic information (occupation, place of living, etc.). Semantic information could also be shared between faces that did not co-occur. A subsequent priming experiment revealed faster responses for both co-occurrence/no shared semantics and no co-occurrence/shared semantics conditions, than for an unrelated condition. Strikingly, priming was strongest in the co-occurrence/shared semantics condition, suggesting additive effects of these factors. Additional analysis of event-related brain potentials yielded priming in the N400 component only for combined effects of visual co-occurrence and shared semantics, with more positive amplitudes in this than in the unrelated condition. Overall, these findings suggest that both semantic relatedness and visual co-occurrence are important when novel information is integrated into person-related semantic memory.

  2. Psychopathic traits linked to alterations in neural activity during personality judgments of self and others

    Philip Deming

    Full Text Available Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their grandiose sense of self-worth and disregard for the welfare of others. One potential psychological mechanism underlying these traits is the relative consideration of “self” versus “others”. Here we used task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify neural responses during personality trait judgments about oneself and a familiar other in a sample of adult male incarcerated offenders (n = 57. Neural activity was regressed on two clusters of psychopathic traits: Factor 1 (e.g., egocentricity and lack of empathy and Factor 2 (e.g., impulsivity and irresponsibility. Contrary to our hypotheses, Factor 1 scores were not significantly related to neural activity during self- or other-judgments. However, Factor 2 traits were associated with diminished activation to self-judgments, in relation to other-judgments, in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and right temporoparietal junction. These findings highlight cortical regions associated with a dimension of social-affective cognition that may underlie psychopathic individuals' impulsive traits. Keywords: Psychopathy, fMRI, Social cognition, Self-referential processing, Emotion, Psychopathology

  3. Preschoolers' conformity (and its motivation) is linked to own and parents' personalities.

    Hellmer, Kahl; Stenberg, Gunilla; Fawcett, Christine

    2018-03-31

    Previous studies on conformity have primarily focused on factors that moderate conformity rates overall and paid little attention to explaining the individual differences. In this study, we investigate five-factor model personality traits of both parents and children and experimentally elicited conformity in 3.5-year-olds (N = 59) using an Asch-like paradigm with which we measure both overt conformity (public responses) and covert opinions (private beliefs after conformist responses): A correct covert opinion after an incorrect conformist response results from a socially normative motivation, whereas an incorrect covert opinion results from an informational motivation. Our data show (1) low parental extroversion is associated with participants' overall rate of conformity, (2) and low participant extroversion and high openness are associated with an informational instead of a normative motivation to conform. This suggests that sensitivity to the social context or social engagement level, as manifested through extroversion, could be an important factor in conformist behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? We all conform, from early in life - and even when we should know better We can conform for normative and informational motivations Some are more prone to conform than others What does this study add? This is the first study to take an individual differences approach to developmental conformity Social engagement (extroversion) is an important factor in conformity. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Psychopathic traits linked to alterations in neural activity during personality judgments of self and others.

    Deming, Philip; Philippi, Carissa L; Wolf, Richard C; Dargis, Monika; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their grandiose sense of self-worth and disregard for the welfare of others. One potential psychological mechanism underlying these traits is the relative consideration of "self" versus "others". Here we used task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural responses during personality trait judgments about oneself and a familiar other in a sample of adult male incarcerated offenders ( n  = 57). Neural activity was regressed on two clusters of psychopathic traits: Factor 1 (e.g., egocentricity and lack of empathy) and Factor 2 (e.g., impulsivity and irresponsibility). Contrary to our hypotheses, Factor 1 scores were not significantly related to neural activity during self- or other-judgments. However, Factor 2 traits were associated with diminished activation to self-judgments, in relation to other-judgments, in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and right temporoparietal junction. These findings highlight cortical regions associated with a dimension of social-affective cognition that may underlie psychopathic individuals' impulsive traits.

  5. Personality types in childhood: relations to latent trajectory classes of problem behavior and overreactive parenting across the transition into adolescence

    van den Akker, A.L.; Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Shiner, R.L.; Prinzie, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher

  6. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients.

    Damen, N.L.; Versteeg, H.; Helmondt, S.J. van; Jaegere, P.P. de; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Meine, M.M.; Domburg, R.T. van; Pedersen, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting

  7. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  8. Student Performance in Principles of Macroeconomics: the Importance of Gender and Personality Type

    Leiv Opstad; Lars Fallan

    2010-01-01

    Several studies indicate that females perform more poorly in economic courses than their male counterparts. Other studies reveal that students' personality types affect their performance in economic courses, as well. The present study explores this issue by testing a number of interactions between gender and the Kersey-Bates temperament types in an ordered probit model explaining students' grades in Principles of Macroeconomics. The results confirm that the interaction of gender and temperame...

  9. Type D personality and cardiac mortality in patients with chronic heart failure

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Smith, Otto R F; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical predictors of cardiac mortality in chronic heart failure (CHF) are established, but less is known about chronic psychological predictors. Therefore, we examined the prognostic value of Type D personality (tendency to experience negative feelings and inhibit self-expression) in CHF patients....

  10. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Advanced Learners' Personality Types, Motivation and Language Learning Success

    Marzieh Ebrahimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective factors are the most important factors in SLA and EFL studies. These factors include motivation, self-confidence, anxiety, etc. Researches on learners’ characteristics have been investigated for over a century. In the same vein, the present research, strived at exploring Iranian’s EFL learners personality types and motivation. In the article, the personality types and motivation of students were examined using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI and motivation questionnaire of Laine. For this purpose, 60 EFL students from one of the language institutions Mashhad (located in Iran were chosen as  the participants of this study. Through two instruments and considering the participants’ previous semester scores, the data were gathered and analyzed by means of SPSS software. The correctional analyses revealed a significant relationship among motivation, personality and students’ success. Multiple regression analysis was also conducted to examine the strength of the relationship among the variables. Among the affective factors, personality type was found to be the best predictor of students’ success. The study provides some pedagogical implications and suggestions for future research.

  11. Personality, birth order and attachment styles as related to various types of jealousy

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between jealousy, personality, attachment styles and birth order were examined in a sample of 100 Dutch men and 100 Dutch women. Three types of jealousy were examined: reactive jealousy (a negative response to the emotional or sexual involvement of the partner with someone else),

  12. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents

    Yong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the controls were investigated cross-sectionally with life orientation test-revised (LOT-R, type D personality Scale-14 (DS14, family environment scale (FES, and Zung self-depression scale (SDS; respectively, all scales were administered in Chinese. Results. Chinese-depressed adolescents showed more cognitive distortion, type D personality, and adverse family environment than control groups. Furthermore, lower level of Optimism, negative affectivity, and poor family cohesion may increase the risk of depression in Chinese adolescents. Conclusions. Our study indicates that lower level of Optimism, Negative Affectivity, and poor Family Cohesion factors were implicated to contribute to depression in Chinese adolescents. Lower level of optimism and negative affectivity may be crucial associated factors of depression among these samples. our findings pointed to the importance of broad screening and intervention of vulnerable population.

  13. Exercise practices among persons with Type-I diabetes in South ...

    The current study examined the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices among 200 persons with type-1 diabetes mellitus who have completed outpatient counseling. The results indicated that providing education and support for exercise will over-come barriers to exercise and may increase compliance of exercise to ...

  14. 259 “Team Pair Solo” Cooperative Learning and Personality Type ...

    User

    learning strategy and students' personality type on achievement and attitude to Chemistry. 175 SS2 ... There is increasing concern among practitioners and educational researchers about the .... Teachers' role in a cooperative learning classroom involves a careful design of meaningful ..... Classroom Management. Harry K.

  15. The Role of Personality in Stress Perception across Different Vocational Types

    Saksvik, Ingvild Berg; Hetland, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between personality (measured by the subscales of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]; Costa & McCrae, 1992) and stress (measured by the Overall Job Satisfaction scale [Warr, Cook, & Wall, 1979], and Cooper's Job Stress Scale [Cooper, 1981]) across different vocational types as…

  16. Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Kept Personal Health Information Items as Expressions of Need

    Whetstone, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated personal information behavior and information needs that 21 adults managing life with Type 2 diabetes identify explicitly and implicitly during discussions of item acquisition and use of health information items that are kept in their homes. Research drew upon a naturalistic lens, in that semi-structured interviews were…

  17. The Importance of Soft Skills and it Project Managers’ Personality Type

    Cíntia Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT is a strategic element in business as it is fundamental to create value to organizations. To be efficient, project managers need to develop other competencies besides their technical skills (“hard skills”. This paper aims to show the importance of soft skills in the development of IT project managers’ competencies by answering the following questions (1 “which is the impact of “soft skills” on IT projects management?” and (2 “the personality type of the project manager can influence the development of his/her soft skills?”. To answer these questions, we conducted an exploratory and qualitative research. To collect data, we interviewed IT project managers and applied the MBTI test to identify their personality type. As we crossed the results of MBTI tests and content of the interviews, we noticed that some professionals have a personality type that might hinder them from developing some soft skills. Another important finding is that leadership and communication are the most important soft skills in project management according to IT project managers.  This research contributes to the academia as it indicates opportunities for further studies on the relationship of personality type and competence development. A managerial implication of research results is that managers and leaders can use personality tests such as MBTI to prevent relationship conflicts in teams as well as to design training programs that best suit their subordinates’ personality traits.

  18. Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism.

    Gan, Zhenji; Rumsey, John; Hazen, Bethany C; Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C; Vega, Rick B; Xie, Hui; Conley, Kevin E; Auwerx, Johan; Smith, Steven R; Olson, Eric N; Kralli, Anastasia; Kelly, Daniel P

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure.

  19. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: Coincidence or Possible Link

    Junaid Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common form of chronic autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD and often coexists with other autoimmune diseases, but Hashimoto’s thyroiditis associated with an autosomal dominant neurofibromatosis type 1 is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation. A 30-year-old Bengali woman presented to the OPD with complaints of aching pain and tingling sensation in her hands and feet. Physical examination revealed dysmorphic facies, nodular swelling in the neck, cafe-au-lait spots, and neurofibromas covering the entire surface of her body. Her thyroid hormones were within normal limits. Thyroid ultrasound revealed a cystic area in the left lobe of the gland, and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology revealed lymphocytic infiltration of the gland, suggesting Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. High levels of autoimmune antibodies such as antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion. When encountered with a patient of Neurofibromatosis type 1, a physician should be careful about the possibility of a concomitant autoimmune disease. Clinical presentation of neurofibromatosis and Noonan syndrome often overlaps and recent studies have implicated a mutation in NF1 gene in the etiology of NFNS. More extensive reports and further investigations of such patients having combination of neurofibromatosis type 1 and autoimmune thyroiditis will certainly provide better understanding of this link in the near future.

  20. Organization of extracting molecules of the diamide type: link with the extracting properties?

    Meridiano, Y.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of these studies is to establish a link between the different organizations of diamide extractants (used in the DIAMEX process) and their extracting properties. The effects of the key parameters leading the liquid-liquid extraction (concentration of extractant, nature of solute, activity of the aqueous phase, nature of the diluent and temperature) are studied: 1) at the supramolecular scale, with the characterization of the extractant organizations by vapor-pressure osmometry (VPO) and small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS/SAXS) experiments; 2) at the molecular scale, with the quantification of the extracted solutes (water, nitric acid, metal nitrate) and the determination of extracted complexes stoichiometries by electro-spray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) experiments. The DMDOHEMA molecule acts as a classical surfactant and forms aggregates of the reverse micelle type. Taking into account the established supramolecular diagrams, a quantitative link between the extractants structures and their extracting properties has been brought to light. To model the europium nitrate extraction, two approaches have been developed: - an approach based on mass action laws. Extractions equilibria have been proposed taking into account the supramolecular speciation; - an innovative approach considering the extracted ions as adsorbed on a specific surface of the extractant molecule which depends on the extractant organization state. The ion extraction can be considered as a sum of isotherms corresponding to the different states of organization. This approach allows to compare the extraction efficiency of an extracting molecule as a function of its organization state. (author)

  1. Modulation of type II TGF-β receptor degradation by integrin-linked kinase.

    Vi, Linda; Boo, Stellar; Sayedyahossein, Samar; Singh, Randeep K; McLean, Sarah; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M; Dagnino, Lina

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous responses to injury, infection, and tumor formation involve the activation of resident dermal fibroblasts and subsequent transition to myofibroblasts. The key for induction of myofibroblast differentiation is the activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors and stimulation of integrins and their associated proteins, including integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Cross-talk processes between TGF-β and ILK are crucial for myofibroblast formation, as ILK-deficient dermal fibroblasts exhibit impaired responses to TGF-β receptor stimulation. We now show that ILK associates with type II TGF-β receptors (TβRII) in ligand- and receptor kinase activity-independent manners. In cells with targeted Ilk gene inactivation, cellular levels of TβRII are decreased, through mechanisms that involve enhanced ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Partitioning of TGF-β receptors into membrane has been linked to proteasome-dependent receptor degradation. We found that interfering with membrane raft formation in ILK-deficient cells restored TβRII levels and signaling. These observations support a model whereby ILK functions in fibroblasts to direct TβRII away from degradative pathways during their differentiation into myofibroblasts.

  2. A Modular PV System Using Chain-Link-Type Multilevel Converter

    Hatano, Nobuhiko; Ise, Toshifumi

    This paper presents a modular photovoltaic system (MPVS) that uses a chain-link-type multilevel converter (CLMC). In large-scale PV generating systems, the DC power supply is generally composed of a large number of PV panels. Hence, losses are caused by differences in the maximum power point at each PV panel. An MPVS has been proposed to address the above mentioned problem. It helps improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency by applying maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control to each group of PV panels. In addition, if a CLMC is used in an MPVS, a high voltage can be output from the AC side and transmission losses can be decreased. However, with this circuit configuration, the current output from the AC side may be unbalanced. Therefore, we propose a method to output balanced current from the AC side, even if the output of the DC power supply is unbalanced. The validity of the proposed method is examined by digital simulation.

  3. Identification of AFLP molecular linked to row- type gene in barley

    Sayed- Tabatabaei, B.E.

    2005-01-01

    Formation of the two-and six-rowed types in barley is predominantly controlled by alleles at a single locus (vrzl) which is located in long armn of chromosome 2H. This gene is a key character on the study of barley domestication and yield. Near-isogenic lines of barley were produced from crosses between Kanto Nakate Gold (tow-rowed) and Azumamugi (six-rowed). The selected lines were used for screening of AFLP polymorphic bands which are linked to vrs1 locus. After screening of a total of 1792 primer combination, five polymorphic bands were identified. A construction of high resolution map around the vrs1 locus was made using recombinant inbred lines. These markers can be used for a map-based cloning of the genes at the vrsl locus

  4. A Variation in the Cerebroside Sulfotransferase Gene Is Linked to Exercise-Modified Insulin Resistance and to Type 2 Diabetes

    A. Roeske-Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The glycosphingolipid β-galactosylceramide-3-O-sulfate (sulfatide is present in the secretory granules of the insulin producing β-cells and may act as a molecular chaperone of insulin. The final step in sulfatide synthesis is performed by cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST (EC 2.8.2.11. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, rs2267161 located in an exon or rs42929 located in an intron, in the gene encoding CST are linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods. As a population survey, 265 male and female patients suffering from T2D and 291 gender matched controls were examined. Results. A higher proportion of T2D patients were heterozygous at SNP rs2267161 with both T (methionine and C (valine alleles present (49.8% versus 41.3%, P=.04. The calculated odd risk for T2D was 1.47 (1.01–2.15, P=.047. Among female controls, the homozygous CC individuals displayed lower insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR (P=.05 than the C/T or TT persons; this was particularly prevalent in individuals who exercise (P=.03. Conclusion. Heterozygosity at SNP rs2267161 in the gene encoding the CST enzyme confers increased risk of T2D. Females with the CC allele showed lower insulin resistance.

  5. Repertoires of emotion regulation: A person-centered approach to assessing emotion regulation strategies and links to psychopathology.

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing research on emotion regulation (ER) strategies and psychopathology, research has primarily focused on identifying one-to-one associations between ER strategies and symptoms. Thus, little is known about how patterns in the repertoires of ER strategies are associated with different mental disorders. We utilised latent class analysis to identify distinct repertoires of ER strategies, and their links with various psychopathology domains (i.e., anxiety, depression, disordered eating, borderline personality). Participants (N = 531) reported on their use of seven ER strategies in six recalled stressful contexts, as well as on their symptoms of psychopathology. We identified five classes of ER strategies: Low Regulators (n = 168), High Regulators (n = 140), Adaptive Regulators (n = 99), Worriers/Ruminators (n = 96) and Avoiders (n = 28). Generally, High Regulators and Worriers/Ruminators endorsed greater levels of psychopathology, relative to Low and Adaptive Regulators. Our findings underscore the importance of characterising the dynamics of ER repertoires when seeking to understand links between ER strategies and psychopathology.

  6. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p < .0005; SPS(11): β = .27, p < .0005; BFNE-II: β = .11, p = .007) independent of demographics and the scores on the individual Type D components. This interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated

  7. Personality assessment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I.

    Monti, D A; Herring, C L; Schwartzman, R J; Marchese, M

    1998-12-01

    There is controversy regarding the importance of psychological/psychiatric factors in the development of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). Our objective was to determine whether CRPS type I patients were psychiatrically different from other chronic pain patients, with particular attention to personality pathology. A standardized clinical assessment of all major psychiatric categories, including personality disorders, was performed on 25 CRPS type I patients and a control group of 25 patients with chronic low back pain from disc-related radiculopathy. Both sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd ed., rev.) and the visual analog scale. Both groups were similar in terms of pain intensity and duration. Statistical analysis showed both groups to have a significant amount of major psychiatric comorbidity, in particular major depressive disorder, and a high incidence of personality disorders. Therefore, intense chronic pain was associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity in both groups and in similar proportions. The high incidence of personality pathology in both groups may represent an exaggeration of maladaptive personality traits and coping styles as a result of a chronic, intense, state of pain.

  8. Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease.

    Yu, Doris S F; Thompson, David R; Yu, Cheuk Man; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2010-08-01

    Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Type D discrepancies in depression/anxiety, among Chinese patients with CHD. Patients with CHD (N=326) completed the Chinese version of the DS14. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Stress Symptom Checklist (SSC) were administered to subsamples to establish construct and discriminant validity. Administration of the DS14, HADS, and SSC was repeated at 1 month after hospital discharge in 66 patients, and stability of the DS14 was examined in another subsample of 100 patients. The theoretical structure of the Type D construct in the Chinese culture was supported (chi(2)/df=2.89, root mean square error of approximation=0.08, normal fit index=0.91, non-normal fit index=0.91, comparative fit index=0.93). The Negative Affectivity (NA) and Social Inhibition (SI) subscales of the DS14 in the entire sample were internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha=0.89/0.81), measured stable traits (3-month test-retest ICC=0.76/0.74), and correlated significantly with the neuroticism (NA/neuroticism, r=0.78, Ppersonality was 31%. Type D was not related to transient emotional states. However, Chinese patients with a Type D personality were at increased concurrent risk of anxiety (P=.002) and depression (P=.016). Type D personality is a cross-culturally valid construct, is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression, and deserves prompt attention in estimating the prognostic risk of Chinese CHD patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: a six-year longitudinal and nationwide study.

    Tyssen, Reidar; Dolatowski, Filip C; Røvik, Jan Ole; Thorkildsen, Ruth F; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Grønvold, Nina T; Vaglum, Per

    2007-08-01

    Personality types (combinations of traits) that take into account the interplay between traits give a more detailed picture of an individual's character than do single traits. This study examines whether both personality types and traits predict stress during medical school training. We surveyed Norwegian medical students (n = 421) 1 month after they began medical school (T1), at the mid-point of undergraduate Year 3 (T2), and at the end of undergraduate Year 6 (T3). A total of 236 medical students (56%) responded at all time-points. They were categorised according to Torgersen's personality typology by their combination of high and low scores on the 'Big Three' personality traits of extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. We studied the effects of both personality types (spectator, insecure, sceptic, brooder, hedonist, impulsive, entrepreneur and complicated) and traits on stress during medical school. There was a higher level of stress among female students. The traits of neuroticism (P = 0.002) and conscientiousness (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of stress, whereas female gender was absorbed by neuroticism in the multivariate model. When controlled for age and gender, 'brooders' (low extroversion, high neuroticism, high conscientiousness) were at risk of experiencing more stress (P = 0.02), whereas 'hedonists' (high extroversion, low neuroticism, low conscientiousness) were more protected against stress (P = 0.001). This is the first study to show that a specific combination of personality traits can predict medical school stress. The combination of high neuroticism and high conscientiousness is considered to be particularly high risk.

  10. Type D Personality Predicts Poor Medication Adherence in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Six-Month Follow-Up Study.

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Type D personality and medication nonadherence have been shown to be associated with poor health outcomes. Type D personality is associated with poor medication adherence in patients with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. However, the relationship between type D personality and medication adherence in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM remains unknown. This study aims to examine whether type D personality was associated with medication adherence in patients with T2DM.A follow-up study was conducted in general hospital of the People's Liberation Army in Beijing.412 T2DM patients (205 females, who were recruited by circular systematic random sampling, provided demographic and baseline data about medical information and completed measures of Type D personality. Then, 330 patients went on to complete a self-report measure of medication adherence at the sixth month after baseline data collection. Chi-square test, t tests, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted, as needed.Patients with type D personality were significantly more likely to have poor medication adherence (p<0.001. Type D personality predicts poor medication adherence before and after controlling for covariates when it was analyzed as a categorical variable. However, the dimensional construct of type D personality was not associated with medication adherence when analyzed as a continuous variable.Although, as a dimensional construct, type D personality may not reflect the components of the personality associated with poor medication adherence in patients with T2DM, screening for type D personality may help to identify those who are at higher risk of poor medication adherence. Interventions, aiming to improve medication adherence, should be launched for these high-risk patients.

  11. Genetic relationships and epidemiological links between wild type 1 poliovirus isolates in Pakistan and Afghanistan

    Angez Mehar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aim Efforts have been made to eliminate wild poliovirus transmission since 1988 when the World Health Organization began its global eradication campaign. Since then, the incidence of polio has decreased significantly. However, serotype 1 and serotype 3 still circulate endemically in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries constitute a single epidemiologic block representing one of the three remaining major global reservoirs of poliovirus transmission. In this study we used genetic sequence data to investigate transmission links among viruses from diverse locations during 2005-2007. Methods In order to find the origins and routes of wild type 1 poliovirus circulation, polioviruses were isolated from faecal samples of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP patients. We used viral cultures, two intratypic differentiation methods PCR, ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to determine the genetic relatedness. Results One hundred eleven wild type 1 poliovirus isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing for genetic variation study. Considering the 15% divergence of the sequences from Sabin 1, Phylogenetic analysis by MEGA software revealed that active inter and intra country transmission of many genetically distinct strains of wild poliovirus type 1 belonged to genotype SOAS which is indigenous in this region. By grouping wild type 1 polioviruses according to nucleotide sequence homology, three distinct clusters A, B and C were obtained with multiple chains of transmission together with some silent circulations represented by orphan lineages. Conclusion Our results emphasize that there was a persistent transmission of wild type1 polioviruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2005-2007. The epidemiologic information provided by the sequence data can contribute to the formulation of better strategies for poliomyelitis control to those critical areas

  12. [Compliance with process indicators in people with type 2 diabetes and linking incentives in Primary Care].

    Pascual de la Pisa, Beatriz; Márquez Calzada, Cristina; Cuberos Sánchez, Carla; Cruces Jiménez, José Miguel; Fernández Gamaza, Manuel; Martínez Martínez, María Isabel

    2015-03-01

    Pay-for-performance programs to improve the quality of health care are extending gradually, particularly en Primary Health Care. Our aim was to explore the relationship between the degree of compliance with the process indicators (PrI) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Primary Care and linkage to incentives. Cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study. Six Primary Health Care centers in Seville Aljarafe District randomly selected and stratified by population size. From 3.647 adults included in Integrated Healthcare Process of T2DM during 2008, 366 patients were included according sample size calculation by stratified random sampling. PrI: eye and feet examination, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, microalbuminuria and electrocardiogram. Confounding: Age, gender, characteristics town for patients and professional variables. The mean age was 66.36 years (standard deviation [DE]: 11,56); 48.9% were women. PrI with better compliance were feet examination, glycated hemoglobin and lipid profile (59.6%, 44.3% and 44%, respectively). 2.7% of patients had simultaneous compliance of the six PrI and 11.74% of patients three PrI linkage to incentives. Statistical association was observed in the compliance of the PrI incentives linked or not (P=.001). The degree of compliance with the PrI for screening chronic complications of T2DM is mostly low but this was higher on indicators linked to incentives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between personality types and leisure time activities amongst Casino employees’ workplace expectations

    Rosa Naude

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Associations between a person’s character strengths, happiness and well-being can be explained with the overlap that they have with personality. Casino employees’ working hours were and are increasing, which means that their leisure time is decreasing concomitantly, with only 20 hours per week being used in pursuit of leisure activities. Research purpose: The primary purpose of this research was to investigate 1502 casino employees’ personality types and the relationship it has on their leisure life and overall happiness. Motivation for the study: The importance of leisure participation and time to take part in leisure activities, and the effect it has on casino employees’ happiness in the workplace, warrants further investigation. If human resources managers and general management want happier casino employees in the workplace, they should focus on their personality types and make more leisure activities available to them; which will result in a happier workforce. Research design, approach and method: The target population consisted of 3032 casino employees, who received the questionnaires and were given the opportunity to complete the questionnaires anonymously. An availability sampling technique was used, based on the number of casino employees who were willing and available to complete the questionnaires. Main findings and practical/managerial implications: In terms of the structural equation modelling, it was found that the positive personalities such as extraversion and openness to experience correlated well with leisure life and happiness. In this study, the standardised regression weights showed that if an individual has a negative personality, he or she will not necessarily be unhappy. A positive relationship was found between positive personality traits such as cooperativeness and agreeableness and leisure life and happiness. Considering mediation effects, leisure preference was the greatest partial mediator

  14. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study.

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Sep, Simone J S; Henry, Ronald M A; Kremers, Stef P J; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Koster, Annemarie; Pouwer, Frans; Schram, Miranda T

    2016-01-27

    Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice. We measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level. Individuals with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, odds ratios (95 % CI) were 3.15 (1.49; 6.67), 1.73 (0.83-3.60), 1.50 (0.72-3.12), for PHQ-9 ≥ 10, current depressive disorder and GAD-7 ≥ 10, respectively. Type D personality, social inhibition and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23-3.10), 1.35 (0.93-1.94) and 1.70 (1.14-2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals without type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were small. Individuals with type 2 diabetes experience more psychological distress and have different personality traits compared to individuals

  15. The distressed (Type D) personality factor of social inhibition, but not negative affectivity, enhances eyeblink conditioning.

    Allen, M T; Handy, J D; Blankenship, M R; Servatius, R J

    2018-06-01

    Recent work has focused on a learning diathesis model in which specific personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI) may influence associative learning and in turn increase risk for the development of anxiety disorders. We have found in a series of studies that individuals self-reporting high levels of BI exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks. In the study reported here, hypotheses were extended to include distressed (Type D) personality which has been found to be related to BI. Type D personality is measured with the DS-14 scale which includes two subscales measuring negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI). We hypothesized that SI, which is similar to BI, would result in enhanced acquisition while the effect of NA is unclear. Eighty nine participants completed personality inventories including the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI) and DS-14. All participants received 60 acquisition trials with a 500 ms, 1000 Hz, tone CS and a co-terminating 50 ms, 5 psi corneal airpuff US. Participants received either 100% CS-US paired trials or a schedule of partial reinforcement where 50% US alone trials were intermixed into CS-US training. Acquisition of CRs did not differ between the two training protocols. Whereas BI was significantly related to Type D, SI, and NA, only BI and SI individuals exhibited enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as compared to non-inhibited individuals. Personality factors now including social inhibition can be used to identify individuals who express enhanced associative learning which lends further support to a learning diathesis model of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Personalized management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: reflections from a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum.

    Raz, Itamar; Riddle, Matthew C; Rosenstock, Julio; Buse, John B; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Home, Philip D; Del Prato, Stefano; Ferrannini, Ele; Chan, Juliana C N; Leiter, Lawrence A; Leroith, Derek; Defronzo, Ralph; Cefalu, William T

    2013-06-01

    In June 2012, 13 thought leaders convened in a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum to discuss the concept of personalized medicine in the wake of a recently published American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes position statement calling for a patient-centered approach to hyperglycemia management in type 2 diabetes. This article, an outgrowth of that forum, offers a clinical translation of the underlying issues that need to be considered for effectively personalizing diabetes care. The medical management of type 2 diabetes has become increasingly complex, and its complications remain a great burden to individual patients and the larger society. The burgeoning armamentarium of pharmacological agents for hyperglycemia management should aid clinicians in providing early treatment to delay or prevent these complications. However, trial evidence is limited for the optimal use of these agents, especially in dual or triple combinations. In the distant future, genotyping and testing for metabolomic markers may help us to better phenotype patients and predict their responses to antihyperglycemic drugs. For now, a personalized ("n of 1") approach in which drugs are tested in a trial-and-error manner in each patient may be the most practical strategy for achieving therapeutic targets. Patient-centered care and standardized algorithmic management are conflicting approaches, but they can be made more compatible by recognizing instances in which personalized A1C targets are warranted and clinical circumstances that may call for comanagement by primary care and specialty clinicians.

  17. From Nutty Professor to Buddy Love--Personality types in modern science.

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    People often suggest that scientists should have a specific personality type, usually conscientious and self-critical. But this is a mistake. Science as a social system needs to be conscientious and self-critical, but scientists as people do not necessarily have to conform to that stereotype. Since science works by a process of selection, it makes sense to have a wide range of personalities in science. It takes all types. However, the selection pressures within science have changed over recent decades. In the past, a successful scientist often resembled the white-coated, bespectacled and introverted Nutty Professor in Jerry Lewis's movie of that name. But the modern science superstar is more like the Nutty Professor's alter ego, nightclub singer 'Buddy Love': a sharp-suited, good-looking and charismatic charmer. While Nutty was dull but impartial, Buddy is compelling but self-seeking. Our attitude towards public scientific pronouncements should be adjusted accordingly.

  18. THE EFFECT OF TYPE A PERSONALITY ON AUDITOR BURNOUT: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    Intiyas Utami; Ertambang Nahartyo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effect of type A personality on the influence of role stressors (role conflict, role overload, and role ambiguity) on burnout. Most burnout research has focused on various environmental factors, while individual differences also play an important role in the development of burnout (Maslach et al., 2001). Participants of this study are 58 auditors (junior, senior and manager) who work at public accounting firms in Yogyakarta, Semarang, Jakarta and Palembang. ...

  19. Early development influences ontogeny of personality types in young laboratory rats.

    Rödel, Heiko G; Meyer, Susann

    2011-09-01

    Features of an individual's early development are frequently reported to alter the postnatal ontogeny in litter-bearing mammals with respect to various physiological parameters. We hypothesized that such effects might also apply to the ontogeny of personality types. On the one hand, litter size effects by means of more contacts with littermates, might lead to the development of more offensive types. On the other hand, smaller and less developed young from larger litters might be less offensive due to their lower physical capabilities to deal with challenging situations. We studied these contrasting hypotheses in young rats, which we tested in a battery of emotionality tests. There were clear indications for the existence of distinct behavioral types by means of consistencies in behavioral responses within and across contexts. Based on these responses, we calculated three new variables by PCA, which we interpreted to mainly reflect boldness, exploration, and anxiety. Overall, our results strongly suggest that the early development alters the ontogeny of personality types, with heavier individuals being bolder and more explorative. Furthermore, body mass and litter size influenced the changes in the behavioral responses in successive tests, further supporting the importance of the litter size-dependent body mass for the ontogeny of personalities. Anxiety also depended on litter size, however, in a nonlinear way. Animals born to litters of small or large sizes had higher scores, whereas individuals from medium-sized litters were less anxious. This optimum curve indicates that opposing effects of litter size are involved in shaping personalities in young rats. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators

    Steca, Patrizia; D’Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:27589065

  1. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    Patrizia Steca

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men. Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.

  2. Preliminary evidence for the cross-cultural utility of the type D personality construct in the Ukraine

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Yagensky, Andriy; Smith, Otto R F

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality is a risk indicator in cardiac patients. The validity and reliability of the Type D Scale (DS14) have been confirmed in Western Europe but not outside this context.......Type D personality is a risk indicator in cardiac patients. The validity and reliability of the Type D Scale (DS14) have been confirmed in Western Europe but not outside this context....

  3. The effect of personality type and musical task on self-perceived arousal.

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the level of arousal influenced by 4 different musical experiences classified by task difficulty and to examine the relationship between music-induced arousal level and personality type. Participants included 32 university students who were neither musicians nor music majors. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) was used to identify participants as either extravert or introvert. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 types of musical tasks: listening, singing, rhythm tapping, or keyboard playing. Arousal level was measured using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (ADACL) (Thayer, 1978) before and after the musical task. The ADACL is a self-report scale consisting of a list of 20 adjectives which describe various transitory arousal states, including energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness. Results showed no significant difference between personality types and the changes in arousal level. Result indicated a significant effect of listening on decreased tension arousal. Singing and rhythm tapping, which are regarded as having a relatively moderate task difficulty, increased energy arousal significantly and decreased tiredness arousal significantly. Participants' tiredness arousal levels also decreased significantly after keyboard playing. These findings suggest that engaging in musical experience that has a moderate level of task difficulty makes individuals more energetic and less tired.

  4. Types of phone usage: Age differences between younger and older persons

    Simona-Nicoleta Vulpe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available I Even if more and more people use mobile phones, the gap between younger and older age groups persists and its importance is timely and widened given the present ageing and digital inequality phenomena. How wide is the difference on types of phone usage between different age groups? For answering this research question, we employ binary logistic regressions on several types of phone usage keeping into account age and controlling for region, education, income and whether respondents use a feature phone or a smartphone. The analysed data come from the Spring Change Assessment Survey 2010 provided by the Pew Research Center and it is representative for the United States of America. Our results show that, net of the all the variables included in the model, older persons are less likely than younger persons to use such phone functions, but the strength of association is low. Education and income are relevant for these functions. Using a smartphone in comparison with using a feature phone is important in all the situations included, as well as income. Considering models only for older persons, over 65 years of age, college and income are less relevant. Using a smartphone is more likely than using a feature phone to encourage all types of phone usage, independently of age.

  5. Personality characteristics of hospice volunteers as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Mitchell, C W; Shuff, I M

    1995-12-01

    A sample of hospice volunteers (n = 99) was administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers & McCaulley, 1985). Frequencies of types observed were compared to population sample (n = 1,105) frequencies. Results indicated that, as a whole, hospice volunteers preferred extraversion over introversion, intuition over sensing, and feeling over thinking. Analysis of four-and two-letter preference combinations also yielded statistically significant differences. Most notably, the sensing-intuitive function appeared pivotal in determining of hospice volunteering. Suggestions are offered as to why the sensing-intuition function appeared central to hospice volunteering. Results appeared consistent with Jungian personality theory.

  6. Single- and double-ion type cross-linked polysiloxane solid electrolytes for lithium cells

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Asai, Hiroyuki

    Polymeric solid electrolytes, that have poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMS) backbone and cross-linked network, were applied to a rechargeable lithium battery system. Single- (PMS-Li) and double-ion type (PMS-LiClO 4) electrolytes were prepared from the same prepolymers. Lithium electrode in the both electrolytes showed reversible stripping and deposition of lithium. Intercalation and deintercalation processes of lithium ion between lithium-manganese composite oxide (Li xMnO 2) electrode and the electrolytes were also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, however, peak current decreased with several cycles in both cases. The model cell, Li/PMS-Li/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.4 mA h g -1 (per 1 g of active material, current density: 3.77 μA cm -2), and the Li/PMS-LiClO 4/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.6 mA h g -1 (current density: 75.3 μA cm -2).

  7. Immune Cells Link Obesity-associated Type 2 Diabetes and Periodontitis

    Zhu, M.; Nikolajczyk, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical association between obesity-associated type 2 diabetes (T2D) and periodontitis, coupled with the increasing prevalence of these diseases, justifies studies to identify mechanisms responsible for the vicious feed-forward loop between systemic and oral disease. Changes in the immune system are critical for both obesity-associated T2D and periodontitis and therefore may link these diseases. Recent studies at the intersection of immunology and metabolism have greatly advanced our understanding of the role the immune system plays in the transition between obesity and obesity-associated T2D and have shown that immune cells exhibit similar functional changes in obesity/T2D and periodontitis. Furthermore, myeloid and lymphoid cells likely synergize to promote obesity/T2D-associated periodontitis despite complexities introduced by disease interaction. Thus the groundwork is being laid for researchers to exploit existing models to understand immune cell dysfunction and break the devastating relationship between obesity-associated T2D and oral disease. PMID:24393706

  8. Effect of disease duration on personality type in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy individual

    Sahar Vesal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis may have profound emotional consequences. The relation between psychological and physical factors could lead patients toward unforeseen disease. This study focuses on multiple sclerosis (MS disease duration on personality type A and B in relation to individuals' behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Isfahan Alzahra hospital in 2013. Three hundred MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were determined. The distributed questionnaires related to MS patients and considering the descriptive statistics such as demographic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 based on Chi-square test and independent T-test. Results: Disease duration varied between 1 to 38 years: 30% (1-4 years, 38% (5-10 years, 20% (10-20 years, and 12% (more than 20 years. Significant relationship was observed between disease duration and tendency to type A (higher stress. This relation was positive and significant in Relapsing Remitting MS patients; but negative correlation was seen in Secondary Progressive MS patients. These patients tended to type B (lower stress when disease duration increased. Conclusions: Individuals with disease duration of one year and less than one year tend to type A personality, while patients with increment of disease duration have tendency to type B.

  9. Personality Type and Student Performance in Upper-Level Economics Courses: The Importance of Race and Gender.

    Borg, Mary O.; Stranahan, Harriet A.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates that personality type is an important explanatory variable in student performance in upper level economics courses. Finds that certain personality types, combined with race and gender effects, produce students who outperform other students. Introverts and those with the Keirsey-Bates temperament combination of sensing/judging…

  10. Type D personality and depressive symptoms are independent predictors of impaired health status in chronic heart failure

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, Jos W

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether Type D personality exerts a stable, independent effect on health status in CHF over time, adjusted for depressive symptoms.......To examine whether Type D personality exerts a stable, independent effect on health status in CHF over time, adjusted for depressive symptoms....

  11. 25 CFR 1000.463 - What types of personal conflicts of interest involving tribal officers, employees or...

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of personal conflicts of interest involving...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Conflicts of Interest § 1000.463 What types of personal conflicts of interest... financial or employment interest that conflicts with that of the trust beneficiary, whether the tribe...

  12. Type D personality, suboptimal health behaviors and emotional distress in adults with diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES–The Netherlands

    Nefs, G.M.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.; Pop, V.J.M.; Bot, M.; Denollet, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Type D personality – defined as high negative affectivity (NA) and high social inhibition (SI) – has been associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. We explored the differential associations of Type D personality and its constituent components with health behaviors, emotional distress

  13. Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?

    Seddigh, Aram; Berntson, Erik; Platts, Loretta G.; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex) and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy). Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the c...

  14. Caring for persons with schizophrenia at home:examining the link between family caregivers’ role distress and quality of life.

    Quah, Stella

    2014-05-01

    This article re-examines the link between role distress and quality of life of family caregivers of a loved one with schizophrenia by exploring the impact of role overload (defined as spending 7 or more hours daily looking after the care recipient). Role theory and symbolic interactionism provide the conceptual background to this study. The research question is: under what conditions does role distress reduce quality of life? The answer helps us identify circumstances under which caregivers may be able to carry out their stressful caregiving role while minimising a decline in their quality of life. The data are from a purposive sample of 47 family caregivers in Singapore who were interviewed in person using a semi-structured questionnaire. The data analysis includes non-parametric tests,exploratory factor analysis and relative risks estimates. The findings show that the inverse association between role distress and quality of life found in most studies of family caregivers changes when hours of care are taken into consideration.While role distress is found among all family caregivers it only reduces the family caregiver’s quality of life in situations of role overload. The implications for the situation of family caregivers are discussed.

  15. The Relationship between Personality Types and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Language Learners

    Majid Ghyasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between personality traits, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory, and different learning strategies, measured by the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, that foreign language student may employ to help them learn the language.  A sample of 231 undergraduate students of English in Iran was administered the Inventory and the MSLQ.  This study is the first to connect learners’ personality traits with general learning strategies, which can be specifically applied to foreign language learning.  Analyzing the data using multiple regressions, the authors found that personality type was able to predict the tendency to use different learning strategies.  Specifically, students who scored high on “conscientiousness” were more likely to use all strategies, particularly managing time and study environment.  Students high on extraversion were more likely to use peer learning and help seeking strategies.  The authors conclude that language teachers could benefit from assessing their students’ personalities and matching strategies to their students’ tendencies.

  16. Health, work, social trust, and financial situation in persons with Usher syndrome type 1.

    Ehn, Mattias; Wahlqvist, Moa; Danermark, Berth; Dahlström, Örjan; Möller, Claes

    2018-05-28

    Research has demonstrated that persons with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) have significantly poorer physical and psychological health compared to a reference group. To explore the relation between work, health, social trust, and financial situation in USH1 compared to a reference group. Sixty-six persons (18-65 y) from the Swedish Usher database received a questionnaire and 47 were included, 23 working and 24 non-working. The reference group comprised 3,049 working and 198 non-working persons. The Swedish Health on Equal Terms questionnaire was used and statistical analysis with multiple logistic regression was conducted. The USH1 non-work group had a higher Odds ratio (95% CI) in poor psychological and physical health, social trust, and financial situation compared to the USH1 work group and reference groups. Age, gender, hearing, and vision impairment did not explain the differences. The relation between the USH1 work and non-work groups showed the same pattern as the reference groups, but the magnitude of problems was significantly higher. Both disability and unemployment increased the risk of poor health, social trust and financial situation in persons with USH1, but having an employment seemed to counteract the risks related to disability.

  17. Personalized therapy algorithms for type 2 diabetes: a phenotype-based approach

    Ceriello A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Ceriello,1,2 Marco Gallo,3 Riccardo Candido,4 Alberto De Micheli,5 Katherine Esposito,6 Sandro Gentile,6 Gerardo Medea71Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi iSunyer, 2Centro de Investigacion Biomèdica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabolicas Asociadas, Barcelona, Spain; 3Oncological Endocrinology, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza-Molinette, Turin, 4Diabetes Center, ASS 1 Triestina, Trieste, 5Ligurian Health Agency, Genoa, 6Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, 7Italian College of General Practitioners, Florence, ItalyAbstract: Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease with a complex and multifactorial pathophysiology. Patients with type 2 diabetes show a variety of clinical features, including different "phenotypes" of hyperglycemia (eg, fasting/preprandial or postprandial. Thus, the best treatment choice is sometimes difficult to make, and treatment initiation or optimization is postponed. This situation may explain why, despite the existing complex therapeutic armamentarium and guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, a significant proportion of patients do not have good metabolic control and at risk of developing the late complications of diabetes. The Italian Association of Medical Diabetologists has developed an innovative personalized algorithm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which is available online. According to the main features shown by the patient, six algorithms are proposed, according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, ≥9% or ≤9%, body mass index (≤30 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2, occupational risk potentially related to hypoglycemia, chronic renal failure, and frail elderly status. Through self-monitoring of blood glucose, patients are phenotyped according to the occurrence of fasting/preprandial or postprandial hyperglycemia. In each of these six algorithms, the gradual choice of

  18. Type II diabetes and personality; a study to explore other psychosomatic aspects of diabetes.

    Esmaeilinasab, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Mokarrar, Mohsen Heidari; Rahmati, Leila; Mahjouri, Mohammad Yoosef; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common chronic diseases, diabetes and its control are affected by the patients' psychological and spiritual attributes. The present study investigates the relationship between glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes and personality traits, defense mechanisms and spirituality. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 Iranian patients with type II diabetes, 64% were men. Participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory, the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) and the Spiritual Assessment Inventory (SAI) and then underwent a blood sampling for the assessment of HbA1C levels. Of the five personality traits, extraversion ( r =  -0.13 and P impression management had significant relationship with glycemic control ( r =  0.17 and P <  0.001). According to data, Extraversion and conscientiousness can help control blood sugar while anxiety and negative emotions have detrimental effects on glycemic control. As a result considering psychological counselling beside medical interventions can help to better treatment.

  19. Student’s Critical Thinking in Solving Open-Ended Problems Based on Their Personality Type

    Fitriana, L. D.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.

    2018-01-01

    Critical thinking plays an important role for students in solving open-ended problems. This research aims at describing student’s critical thinking in solving open-ended problems based on Keirsey’s personality types, namely rational, idealist, guardian, and artisan. Four students, with the higher rank in the mathematics’ test and representing each type of Keirsey personality, were selected as the research subjects. The data were collected from the geometry problem and interviews. The student’s critical thinking is described based on the FRISCO criteria. The result underlines that rational and idealist students fulfilled all FRISCO criteria, and but not for guardian and artisan students. Related to the inference criteria, guardian and artisan students could not make reasonable conclusions and connect the concepts. Related to the reason of criteria, rational student performed critical thinking by providing logical reason that supported his strategy to solve the problem. In contrast, the idealist student provided subjective reason. This results suggest that teachers should frequently train the students’ logical thinkingin every lesson and activity to develop student’s critical thinking and take the student’s personality character into account, especially for guardian and artisan students.

  20. Experience of dietary advice among Pakistani-born persons with type 2 diabetes in Oslo.

    Fagerli, Rønnaug Aa; Lien, Marianne E; Wandel, Margareta

    2005-12-01

    Experience and implementation of dietary advice are influenced by various factors including ethnic, cultural and religious background. The aim is to explore how ethnic minority persons with diabetes experience dietary advice given by Norwegian health-workers, which strategies they have in response to the advice and how they explain their actions. In-depth interviews were performed with 15 Pakistani-born persons with type 2 diabetes living in Oslo. The analyses are based on the principles of Giorgi's interpretation of phenomenology. The participants expressed great concern to follow the advice. However, narratives about constraints were numerous. These concerned different life-situational factors, but more importantly they were related to communication problems arising from discontinuities between universalising medical knowledge and lay knowledge, as well as between different types of culturally defined lay knowledge. As a consequence, advice was generally experienced as inadequately based on the participant's food-cultural background, leaving the person with diabetes to do the translation between different levels of knowledge. In general health-workers would benefit from expanding their knowledge of the many positive aspects of their patients' cultural background, and apply their knowledge thereafter, whether it concerns (food)-culture or the impact of religion in everyday life.

  1. The Relationship between Personality Disorders and the Type of Crime Committed and Substance Used among Prisoners.

    Fakhrzadegan, Shahin; Gholami-Doon, Hossein; Shamloo, Bagher; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz

    2017-04-01

    Prisoners are a vulnerable group within societies, and also threaten society due to their dangerous behavior. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between prisoners' personality disorders and their crime and substance use. This was a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population consisted of all prisoners of Kerman, Iran. Through stratified random sampling, 228 prisoners (114 women and 114 men) were selected as the study subjects. Data were collected through clinical interviews by a psychiatrist [structured interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4 th Edition (DSM-IV)], a social worker, and a physician and using a demographic characteristics questionnaire and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-2 nd Edition (MCMI-II) (the 175-item Persian version). Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, and Fisher's z-distribution in SPSS software. The results showed that 87.3% of women and 83.3% of men had a personality disorder at the time of committing the crime. Moreover, 46.5% of the target population had developed substance dependence at the time of committing the crime. The highest percentage of substance abuse in both women and men was related to opium, especially in the age group of 18-28 years. The highest rates of mental disorders were related to major depressive disorder (MDD), dependent personality disorder (DPD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), respectively. In these personality disorders, opium, methamphetamine, heroin, and alcohol, respectively, had the highest rates of use. The results of Fisher's z-distribution illustrated a significant relationship between personality disorders and type of crime committed and substance used. The total rate of substance abuse was lower in sexual offenses and fraud, but was the highest in theft and drug trafficking. The presence of personality disorders in the target population is

  2. Problem drinking among Flemish students: beverage type, early drinking onset and negative personal & social consequences.

    De Bruyn, Sara; Wouters, Edwin; Ponnet, Koen; Van Damme, Joris; Maes, Lea; Van Hal, Guido

    2018-02-12

    Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds?', measuring alcohol use among students in Flanders (Belgium). In total, a large dataset consisting of information from 19,253 anonymously participating students was available. Negative consequences were measured using a shortened version of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS_D). Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Results vary depending on the type of alcohol-related consequences: Personal negative consequences occur frequently among daily beer drinkers. However, a high rate of social negative consequences was recorded for both daily beer drinkers and daily spirits drinkers. Finally, early drinking onset was significantly associated with both personal and social negative consequences, and this association was especially strong between beer and spirits drinking onset and social negative consequences. Numerous negative consequences, both personal and social, are related to frequent beer and spirits drinking. Our findings indicate a close association between drinking beer and personal negative consequences as well as between drinking beer and/or spirits and social negative consequences. Similarly, early drinking onset has a major influence on the rates of both personal and social negative consequences

  3. Diurnal, seasonal, and interannual differences in the links of probabilities of derivation of different types Es with solar activity

    Petrukhin, Venedict F.; Poddubnaya, I. V.; Ponomarev, Evgenij A.; Sutyrin, Nicolaj A.

    2004-12-01

    The analysis of the ionospheric data on Irkutsk obtained from 1960 to 1996 was made. Was shown, that the link of probabilities of observation of the sporadic derivations in E-region of ionosphere with solar activity (SA) essentially depends on time of day, season and correlation between solar and geophysical parameters. For different types of sporadic derivations this link has different character and with a different image varies with current of time. It is necessary to mark, that the link of night sporadic derivations (Es such as "f") with solar activity in the summer very high and practically does not vary in time (r=-0.897-/+0.04). The temporary course of coefficients of correlation between solar activity and probability of observation of sporadic stratums (r) of a different type varies depending on the season. Further, for stratums of a type "cl" and "l" the change r happens within increase of SA. At the same time, there is an abnormal behavior of height so f sporadic stratums such as "cl". There is an impression that in a considered time frame there is competition of two factors. One of them - solar activity, which in the norm supports the negative correlation link with frequency of observation and second - a factor of an unknown nature, which has caused evocative anomaly of altitude, becomes dominant above natural negative link.

  4. [The relationship between cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of type A personality pattern].

    Hisli Sahin, Nesrin; Güler, Murat; Basim, H Nejat

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationships between cognitive and emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of Type A personality pattern. The Raven Progressive Matrices, Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Inventory, Stress Symptoms Scale, and Type A Personality Scale were administered to 271 university students. Two groups, Type As and Type Bs were created according to the Type A Personality Scale scores and were compared in terms of their scores on the other scales that were administered. Our analyses showed that stress symptoms were negatively correlated with effective coping, stress management, and general mood dimensions of the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. They were also positively correlated with ineffective coping and Type A behaviors. Being female also significantly predicted stress symptoms. When the participants were grouped according to Type A Personality Scale scores as Type As and Type Bs, the regression analysis showed that the stress symptoms of Type As were significantly predicted by the insufficient use of effective coping styles and deficiencies in the general mood component of emotional intelligence, whereas the stress symptoms of Type Bs were predicted by the insufficient use of effective coping styles, overuse of ineffective coping styles, and increase in the intrapersonal abilities component of emotional intelligence. Stress symptoms can be related to the variables associated with personality styles. It is suggested that stress management programs for Type As should include exercises that increase emotional intelligence, especially the components of drawing pleasure from their life situation, being more positive, hopeful and optimistic.

  5. Nursing interventions for promoting self-care of persons with type 2 diabetes: an integrative review

    Glória Yanne Martins de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an integrative review aiming at analyzing and identifying the evidence available in the literature on nursing interventions to promote self-care for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data collection occurred in the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, MEDLINE (via EBSCO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL and SCOPUS. The survey of articles occurred in July and August 2015 by two independent reviewers. The initial search identified 239 articles and eight of them met the selection criteria. Health education has emerged as a strategic field for implementing nursing interventions. Interventions with patient monitoring and that provided more care time were more satisfactory regarding self-care practices. The Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory is indicated as a guide to direct the educator in self-care of diabetic persons.

  6. Analysis of difficulties in mathematics learning on students with guardian personality type in problem-solving HOTS geometry test

    Karimah, R. K. N.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-04-01

    Learning in the current 2013 curriculum is based on contextual issues based on questions that can encourage students to think broadly. HOTS is a real-life based assessment of everyday life, but in practice, the students are having trouble completing the HOTS issue. Learning difficulty is also influenced by personality type Based on the fact that the real difference one can see from a person is behavior. Kersey classifies the personality into 4 types, namely Idealist, Rational, Artisan, and Guardian. The researcher focuses on the type of guardian personality that is the type of personality that does not like the picture. This study aims to describe the difficulty of learning mathematics in students with a type of guardian personality in the completion of Geometry materials especially in solving HOTS. This research type is descriptive qualitative research. Instruments used in this study were the researchers themselves, personality class test sheets, learning difficulty test sheets in the form of HOTS Geometry test, and interview guides. The results showed that students with guardian personality it was found that a total of 3.37 % difficulties of number fact skill, 4.49 % difficulties of arithmetics skill, 37.08 % difficulties of information skill, 31.46% difficulties of language skill, 23.60 % difficulties of visual-spatial skill.

  7. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland: association with disease severity and risk markers in cardiac patients

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D.; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Olason, Daniel T.; Thorgilsson, Hordur; Sigtryggsdottir, Unnur; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    textabstractType D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. Th...

  8. Personal characteristics of effective managers in organizational cultures of different types.

    Zakharova L.N.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s Russian enterprises have been experiencing difficulties in transitioning to the market-innovative model of development. In the context of the current variability of management paradigms, we had an opportunity to study the internal and external regulators of organizational changes that are typical for a transitioning economy. Organizational culture (ОС was studied as an external factor, while the personal traits of middle managers were viewed as internal factors because these managers are the agents for values and for behavior models, from corporate directives to “front-desk’ personnel. The goal of this theoretical and empirical study was to determine the personality traits of middle managers who were deemed effective by top management in companies transitioning to the market-innovative model of development in the context of different types of OCs. During the preliminary stage, we conducted a comparative analysis of the requirements for the personal traits of middle managers who are working in stable conditions as well as in conditions of transfer to the market-innovative model of development, and we selected the relevant methods of empirical research. During the first stage of the empirical part of our research we defined a group of four enterprises with OCs of different types, identified their effective mid-level managers based on expert evaluations by the top leadership, and formed test groups. During the second stage we studied the personal characteristics of these managers. We determined that the personality traits of managers deemed effective by their leaders form integral complexes, which in turn correlate in a certain way with the type of ОС of an enterprise. We identified four models of an effective manager: Mentor, Dictator, Innovator, and Businessman; these managers have varying degrees of work productivity, value priorities in the development of ОС, personal self-concepts, organizational leadership skills

  9. Algorithms for assessing person-based consistency among linked records for the investigation of maternal use of medications and safety

    Duong Tran

    2017-04-01

    Quality assessment indicated high consistency among linked records. The set of algorithms developed in this project can be applied to similar linked perinatal datasets to promote a consistent approach and comparability across studies.

  10. Is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus More Prevalent Than Expected in Transgender Persons? A Local Observation.

    Defreyne, Justine; De Bacquer, Dirk; Shadid, Samyah; Lapauw, Bruno; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2017-09-01

    The International Diabetes Federation estimates that approximately 0.4% of the Belgian population is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is similar to other industrialized countries. The prevalence of transgenderism is estimated at 0.6% to 0.7% of all adults in Western populations. In this study, we evaluated whether there was an increased prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in transgender people in the local cohort. Medical records of transgender patients were analyzed retrospectively. From January 1, 2007 until October 10, 2016, 1,081 transgender patients presented at a tertiary reference center to start hormonal treatment. Nine of these 1,081 patients were previously diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 1 was diagnosed with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. A 2.3-fold higher prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus was observed in transgender patients. We concluded that type 1 diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in transgender patients than one would expect from population prevalences. This could be a spurious result in a local cohort, because a causal relation seems unlikely, but our finding might encourage other centers to investigate this putative association. Defreyne J, De Bacquer D, Shadid S, et al. Is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus More Prevalent Than Expected in Transgender Persons? A Local Observation. Sex Med 2017;5:e215-e218. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Carrier detection in X-linked ocular albinism of the Nettleship-Falls type by DNA analysis

    Bergen, A. A.; Schuurman, E. J.; van den Born, L. I.; Samanns, C.; van Dorp, D. B.; Pinckers, A. J.; Bakker, E.; van Ommen, G. J.; Gal, A.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    X-linked ocular albinism (XOA) is characterized by anomalies of the eyes and hypopigmentation or absence of pigment in skin, hair and eyes due to a hereditary inborn error of metabolism affecting the pigment cells. The gene of XOA of the Nettleship-Falls type (OA1) has been mapped to Xp22.3, and

  12. Identification during imposed change: the roles of personal values, type of change, and anxiety.

    Sverdlik, Noga; Oreg, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    Using a person-situation perspective, we explain what happens to individuals' identification with a collective in the context of a change. We propose that given the anxiety that often emerges during change, individuals' personal values (conservation and openness to change) interact with type of change (imposed vs. voluntary) in predicting identification following change. In a pilot, longitudinal field study (N = 61, 67% female) of an imposed university campus relocation, we measured employees' values and identification with the university before and several months after the relocation. In two lab experiments (Study 1: N = 104, 91.3% female; Study 2: N = 113, 75.2% female), we manipulated a change to be either imposed or voluntary and compared the relationships between values and identification across types of change. In Study 2, we also measured anxiety from the change. When change was imposed (all three studies), but not when voluntary (Studies 1 and 2), individuals' conservation was positively, and openness negatively, related to individuals' post-change identification. The effects emerged only for individuals who experienced change-related anxiety (Study 2). Our findings demonstrate that individuals' identification with a changing collective depends on the amount of anxiety change elicits and on the particular combination of their values and type of change. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The burden of suicidal ideation among persons with type II diabetes: A scoping review.

    Tabb, Karen M; Perez-Flores, Nancy; Wang, Yang; Huang, Hsiang

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes is a major global health concern. People with diabetes have worse mental health outcomes than those without diabetes. Researchers have recently sought to examine the relationship between diabetes and suicidal ideation. The aim of this study is to determine the burden of suicidal ideation among adults with type II diabetes from existing literature. We conducted a scoping review of published literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar published before March 2017. To identify relevant literature, search terms included suicidal ideation and type II diabetes. The search was limited to English language peer-reviewed journal articles. The main outcome of interest was suicidal ideation captured on a validated scale in a population with type II diabetes. This review resulted in 10 relevant studies, which reported the prevalence of suicidal ideation ranging from 2.5-51.4% with a median prevalence of 18.6% among adults with diabetes. Across the five studies reporting the associated risks, all but one study found a significant risk for persons with diabetes to endorse suicidal ideation and only three studies adjusted for depression. This review demonstrates the need for future studies to investigate potential mechanistic pathways of suicidality among persons with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Raj, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity

  15. Type D personality is associated with delaying patients to medical assessment and poor quality of life among rectal cancer survivors.

    Zhang, Jia-kui; Fang, Li-li; Zhang, De-wei; Jin, Qiu; Wu, Xiao-mei; Liu, Ji-chao; Zhang, Chun-dong; Dai, Dong-qiu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore quality of life (QoL), mental health status, type D personality, symptom duration, and emergency admissions of Chinese rectal cancer patients as well as the relationship between these factors. Type D personality was measured with the 14-item Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Mental health status was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The QoL outcomes were assessed longitudinally using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires at the baseline and 6 months after diagnosis. Of the 852 survivors who responded (94 %), 187 (22 %) had a type D personality. The proportion of patients with duration of symptoms >1 month and being diagnosed after emergency admissions in type D group is significantly higher than that in non-type D group. At both of the time points, type D patients reported statistically significant lower scores on most of the functional scales, global health status/QoL scales, and worse symptom scores compared to patients without a type D personality. At the 6-month time point, a higher percentage of patients in the type D group demonstrated QoL deterioration. Clinically elevated levels of anxiety and depression were more prevalent in type D than in non-type D survivors. Type D personality was associated with poor QoL and mental health status among survivors of rectal cancer, even after adjustment for confounding background variables. Type D personality might be a general vulnerability factor to screen for subgroups at risk for longer symptom duration and emergency admissions in clinical practice.

  16. Applying Personality Type Theory to Develop Individualized Wellness Plans for Reducing Chronic Diseases

    Jon C. Schommer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire are associated with activities people prefer for getting adequate exercise, losing weight, managing stress, quitting smoking, reducing alcohol consumption, and taking medications as prescribed. Methods: The data source for this study was the 2016 National Consumer Survey of the Medication Experience and Pharmacists’ Roles. Data were collected via an on-line, self-administered survey conducted from March 14-30, 2016. Data were obtained from 10,500 adults residing in the United States. Chi-square analysis was used for making comparisons between categories of personality types and how respondents believed they could best reach their personal goals. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Practical significance was set at five or more percentage points above or below the overall mean. Results: Findings showed that (1 there are key differences between individuals that impact their behavior and (2 these differences can be easily and accurately identified using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire. The findings supported the notion that individuals are more likely to experience success in changing health-risk behaviors if they engage in activities that are consistent with (i how they are energized, (ii the kind of information they naturally notice, (iii how they prefer to make decisions, and (iv their preferences to live in a more structured way or in a more spontaneous way. Conclusions: Personality type characteristics can be used to develop and implement successful change strategies and intervention tools, such as individualized wellness plans (IWPTM that help promote intention stability, create implementation intention, resist situational pressure, reduce the impact of past habits on future performances, and improve change maintenance. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of

  17. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population: a validation study of the Korean DS14.

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Min; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical disorders, especially cardiovascular disease, in Korea.

  18. Social support and personal models of diabetes in relation to self-care and well-being in adolescents with type I diabetes mellitus

    Skinner, T. Chas; Hampson, Sarah E.

    1998-01-01

    , anxiety, perceived social support and personal models of diabetes. Perceived impact of diabetes, but not perceived seriousness, and peer support were significant predictors of depression. Family support was a significant predictor of all self-management measures. However, for dietary self......This study set out to examine whether peer support and illness representation mediates the link between family support, self-management and well-being. Seventy-four participants (12-18-years-old) with type I diabetes mellitus completed questionnaires assessing their self-management, depression...

  19. Scaffold protein harmonin (USH1C) provides molecular links between Usher syndrome type 1 and type 2.

    Reiners, J.; Wijk, E. van; Marker, T.; Zimmermann, U.; Jurgens, K.; Brinke, H. te; Overlack, N.; Roepman, R.; Knipper, M.; Kremer, J.M.J.; Wolfrum, U.

    2005-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is the most frequent cause of combined deaf-blindness in man. USH is clinically and genetically heterogeneous with at least 11 chromosomal loci assigned to the three USH types (USH1A-G, USH2A-C, USH3A). Although the different USH types exhibit almost the same phenotype in human,

  20. Relationship Between Personality Types Conceptualized by C. G. Jung and Emotional Intelligence

    Natasha Virmozelova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to present the results from a study of the relationship between personality types described by C. G. Jung and emotional intelligence. The investigated subjects were 150 at the age of 18 – 50. The methods of research were MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - Bulgarian adaptation (Rusinova, 1992 and one psychological questionnaire measuring emotional intelligence -Bulgarian adaptation (Stoyanova, 2008. The received data indicated that the functions of thinking and sensing, and introversion correlated inversely with the factors of emotional intelligence “Sharing emotions and empathy”, “Motivation to overcome difficulties and optimisms” and extroversion correlated proportionally with them. The function feeling correlated proportionally with the factor “Sharing emotions and empathy” and it correlated inversely with the factor “Recognition of nonverbal expression of emotion of the other people”.

  1. The relationship between parenting types and older adolescents' personality, academic achievement, adjustment, and substance use.

    Weiss, L H; Schwarz, J C

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine Baumrind's T3 conceptual framework using a multiple informant design and an older adolescent population. With 178 college students and their families as participants, the present study found many of the predicted relations between parents' child-rearing style (Authoritative, Democratic, Nondirective, Nonauthoritarian-Directive, Authoritarian-Directive, and Unengaged) and their adolescent children's behavior in the 4 domains assessed: personality, adjustment, academic achievement, and substance use. The differences between parenting types on the criterion measures were not as large as reported in Baumrind's study, and significant effects were predominantly due to the poor scores from children with Unengaged and Authoritarian-Directive parents. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the Authoritative parenting type, the utility of using a typology, and areas for future research.

  2. Performance in College Chemistry: a Statistical Comparison Using Gender and Jungian Personality Type

    Greene, Susan V.; Wheeler, Henry R.; Riley, Wayne D.

    This study sorted college introductory chemistry students by gender and Jungian personality type. It recognized differences from the general population distribution and statistically compared the students' grades with their Jungian personality types. Data from 577 female students indicated that ESFP (extroverted, sensory, feeling, perceiving) and ENFP (extroverted, intuitive, feeling, perceiving) profiles performed poorly at statistically significant levels when compared with the distribution of females enrolled in introductory chemistry. The comparable analysis using data from 422 male students indicated that the poorly performing male profiles were ISTP (introverted, sensory, thinking, perceiving) and ESTP (extroverted, sensory, thinking, perceiving). ESTJ (extroverted, sensory, thinking, judging) female students withdrew from the course at a statistically significant level. For both genders, INTJ (introverted, intuitive, thinking, judging) students were the best performers. By examining the documented characteristics of Jungian profiles that correspond with poorly performing students in chemistry, one may more effectively assist the learning process and the retention of these individuals in the fields of natural science, engineering, and technology.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness Offered by Different Types of Personal Protective Clothing Against Nanoaerosols

    Domat, M.; Pla, J.; Cadavid-Rodríguez, M. C.; Fito, C.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid expansion of nanotechnology is outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. Thus, there is a lack of information about the effects that nanomaterials can induce in the human health. Nevertheless, workers in nanotechnology-related industries are potentially at risk of being exposed to nanomaterials. Therefore, there is a need of characterize the behaviour of personal protective equipment against penetration nanoparticles, in order to provide an adequate protection to the workers. In this study, the efficiency of several protective dermal equipment against water-based NaCl aerosol was evaluated. For this purpose, different protective clothing and gloves were selected to carry out the assays, simulating typical use conditions of protective equipment under occupational settings. Results obtained exposed that the level of protection offered by the distinct types of personal protective coveralls depended not only on the fabric, but also on their fitting to the body of the subject. On the other hand, the efficiency of the protective gloves was set in the range from 95% to 99%, depending on the thickness and the type of material.

  4. The Effect of Mortality Salience and Type of Life on Personality Evaluation

    Fernando Gordillo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mortality salience, or awareness of the inevitability of one’s own death, generates a state of anxiety that triggers a defense mechanism for the control of thinking that affects different human activities and psychological processes. This study aims to analyze the effect of mortality salience on the formation of impressions. The sample comprised 135 women who made inferences about a woman’s personality from information about her life (type of life, LT: positive, negative, provided through five words, all positive or negative, that appeared surrounding a photograph, together with a sixth word that indicated whether she was “dead” or “alive” at the time (mortality manipulation, MM: dead, alive. The results pointed to a more negative assessment of life (Dead M - Alive M = -1.16, SE = .236, p < .001, emotional stability (Dead M - Alive M = -1.13, SE = .431, p = .010, and responsibility (Dead M - Alive M = -1.14, SE = .423, p = .008 only when the participants had access to negative information about the person assessed, and she was known to be dead. We discuss the results within the framework of Terror Management Theory, and analyze the different effects that the manipulation of mortality has on the formation of impressions depending on the type of information available.

  5. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; van Helmondt, Sanne J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting...... styles may also be associated with Type D personality. We examined whether remembered parenting was associated with anxiety and depression in cardiac patients and whether Type D personality mediated this relationship. Methods: Our sample comprised 435 patients treated with percutaneous coronary...... intervention (PCI) and 123 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Type D Scale (DS14), and Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale. Results: Remembered parenting was significantly associated with higher anxiety and depression...

  6. Repeatable aversion across threat types is linked with life-history traits but is dependent on how aversion is measured.

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Reichert, Michael S; Crane, Jodie M S; O'Shea, William; Quinn, John L

    2018-02-01

    Personality research suggests that individual differences in risk aversion may be explained by links with life-history variation. However, few empirical studies examine whether repeatable differences in risk avoidance behaviour covary with life-history traits among individuals in natural populations, or how these links vary depending on the context and the way risk aversion is measured. We measured two different risk avoidance behaviours (latency to enter the nest and inspection time) in wild great tits ( Parus major ) in two different contexts-response to a novel object and to a predator cue placed at the nest-box during incubation---and related these behaviours to female reproductive success and condition. Females responded equally strongly to both stimuli, and although both behaviours were repeatable, they did not correlate. Latency to enter was negatively related to body condition and the number of offspring fledged. By contrast, inspection time was directly explained by whether incubating females had been flushed from the nest before the trial began. Thus, our inferences on the relationship between risk aversion and fitness depend on how risk aversion was measured. Our results highlight the limitations of drawing conclusions about the relevance of single measures of a personality trait such as risk aversion.

  7. Type-D personality but not depression predicts severity of anxiety in heart failure patients at 1-year follow-up

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Broers, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a debilitating condition associated with poor outcome, including increased anxiety. However, anxiety and its determinants have not yet been studied systematically in CHF. We examined whether type-D personality and depressive symptoms would predict clinically signifi...

  8. The Comparison of Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionism and Type A Personality in The Perceived Parenting Styles in University Students

    مریم جهان بخش

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive and negative perfectionism scale and type A personality. The collected data was analyzed by statistical tests MANOVA and ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. Results indicated that healthy perfectionism in the authoritative parenting style is more and in negligent parenting style is lower than the other parenting styles. The unhealthy perfectionism of the boys was more than girls. The interactive effect of the two variables namely parenting styles and gender upon healthy perfectionism was significant. Healthy­ perfectionism in authoritative parenting style in girls was more than boys and in permissive parenting style healthy perfectionism in boys was more than girls. The general effect of parenting styles and general effect of gender in score of type A personality did not show significant difference; however, the interactive effect of parenting styles and gender upon type A personality was supported. Here in permissive parenting style the type A personality in boys is higher than girls and in authoritarian parenting style the type A personality in girls is higher than boys. Conclusion: Due to the crucial role of parents' parenting styles in creating healthy and unhealthy perfectionism and also due to interactive effect of parenting style and gender on the healthy perfectionism and type A personality, educating parents on parenting styles and also giving instruction to the families for raising healthy persons in the society is a high priority.

  9. Personality Facets and RIASEC Interests: An Integrated Model

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Anthoney, Sarah Fetter

    2009-01-01

    Research examining links between personality and interest have typically focused on links between measures of the five factor model and Holland's RIASEC types. However, the five factor model of personality can be divided in to a larger set of narrow domain personality scales measuring facets of the "big five" traits. Research in a number of fields…

  10. It Takes Two to Tango: How Parents' and Adolescents' Personalities Link to the Quality of Their Mutual Relationship

    Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dubas, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    According to J. Belsky's (1984) process model of parenting, both adolescents' and parents' personality should exert a significant impact on the quality of their mutual relationship. Using multi-informant, symmetric data on the Big Five personality traits and the relationship quality of mothers, fathers, and two adolescent children, the current…

  11. It takes two to tango: How parents' and adolescents' personalities link to the quality of their mutual relationship

    Denissen, J.J.A.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Dubas, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    According to Belsky’s (1984) process model of parenting, both adolescents’ and parents’ personality should exert a significant impact on the quality of their mutual relationship. Using multi-informant, symmetric data on the Big Five personality traits and relationship quality of mothers, fathers,

  12. Uncovering the Links between Prospective Teachers' Personal Responsibility, Academic Optimism, Hope, and Emotions about Teaching: A Mediation Analysis

    Eren, Altay

    2014-01-01

    Prospective teachers' sense of personal responsibility has not been examined together with their academic optimism, hope, and emotions about teaching in a single study to date. However, to consider hope, academic optimism, and emotions about teaching together with personal responsibility is important to uncover the factors affecting…

  13. Likelihood ratio-based integrated personal risk assessment of type 2 diabetes.

    Sato, Noriko; Htun, Nay Chi; Daimon, Makoto; Tamiya, Gen; Kato, Takeo; Kubota, Isao; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Fukao, Akira; Kayama, Takamasa; Muramatsu, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate personalized health care for multifactorial diseases, risks of genetic and clinical/environmental factors should be assessed together for each individual in an integrated fashion. This approach is possible with the likelihood ratio (LR)-based risk assessment system, as this system can incorporate manifold tests. We examined the usefulness of this system for assessing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our system employed 29 genetic susceptibility variants, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension as risk factors whose LRs can be estimated from openly available T2D association data for the Japanese population. The pretest probability was set at a sex- and age-appropriate population average of diabetes prevalence. The classification performance of our LR-based risk assessment was compared to that of a non-invasive screening test for diabetes called TOPICS (with score based on age, sex, family history, smoking, BMI, and hypertension) using receiver operating characteristic analysis with a community cohort (n = 1263). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the LR-based assessment and TOPICS was 0.707 (95% CI 0.665-0.750) and 0.719 (0.675-0.762), respectively. These AUCs were much higher than that of a genetic risk score constructed using the same genetic susceptibility variants, 0.624 (0.574-0.674). The use of ethnically matched LRs is necessary for proper personal risk assessment. In conclusion, although LR-based integrated risk assessment for T2D still requires additional tests that evaluate other factors, such as risks involved in missing heritability, our results indicate the potential usability of LR-based assessment system and stress the importance of stratified epidemiological investigations in personalized medicine.

  14. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress: A six-year longitudinal study.

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by maladaptive personality. A sample of 2947 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history or current episode of depressive and/or anxiety disorders according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument were assessed in six waves at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 years (T6) later. At each wave psychological distress was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Fear Questionnaire. At T0 childhood maltreatment types were measured with a semi-structured interview (Childhood Trauma Interview) and personality traits with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Using latent variable analyses, we found that severity of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect and abuse in particular) predicted higher initial levels of psychological distress and that this effect was mediated by maladaptive personality types. Differences in trajectories of distress between persons with varying levels of childhood maltreatment remained significant and stable over time. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively and maladaptive personality types and level of psychological distress at study entry were assessed concurrently. Routine assessment of maladaptive personality types and possible childhood emotional maltreatment in persons with severe and prolonged psychological distress seems warranted to identify persons who may need a different or more intensive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing the Innovative Personality Type as the Priority Direction of Political Modernization in Russia

    Chernykh Natalya Sergeevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the necessity to modernize the Russian political system and to implement the national innovative strategy. The need to strengthen and to develop the fundamentals of innovative-typed society – human potential and social capital – is analyzed on the basis of national empirical research. Today, humanity has entered the innovative information stage of development, where creative and active potential of a nation signifies one of the primary resources for achieving the status of a competitive state. The following characteristics become of the utmost value in such a society: independent and critical thinking, responsibility for the decisions, leadership and mobility. Unfortunately, the conditions for transitioning to the innovative type of society are not so favorable in Russia. Low birth rate, high mortality rate, underdeveloped state institutions, bureaucratization of goverment apparatus, brain drain from the periphery to the centre and abroad, weak legal culture and other social problems hinder the development of the innovative characteristics among Russian citizens. Russia needs to strengthen the fundamentals of the innovative-typed society, as there are positive impulses for its development (energy and raw material resources, high scientific potential, recognition by the most active part of society that the systemic transformations are necessary. The article presents the statistical data, which points to the need to invest in the development of the innovative personality characteristics, and the necessity to implement structural modernization of the specific areas of human capital.

  16. A case of stiff-person syndrome, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2009-05-01

    Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are involved in the pathophysiology of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) and type 1 diabetes. GAD catalyses the conversion of glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA acts as a neurotransmitter between neurones, while in pancreatic beta cells it plays an integral role in normal insulin secretion, hence the clinical presentation of muscular spasms in SPS and insulin deficiency in diabetes. Despite this apparent major overlap in pathophysiology, SPS only rarely occurs in individuals with type 1 diabetes. We report the case of a 41-year-old man presenting with a simultaneous diagnosis of both these conditions. His case is unusual in that it is the first reported case in the literature of these conditions occurring in someone with celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis. We discuss why SPS and type 1 diabetes co-exist in only a minority of cases and speculate on the underlying mechanism of the association with CD and dermatitis herpetiformis in our patient.

  17. Adenovirus type 5 DNA-protein complexes from formaldehyde cross-linked cells early after infection

    Spector, David J.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Baird, Nicholas L.; Engel, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    We report here the properties of viral DNA-protein complexes that purify with cellular chromatin following formaldehyde cross-linking of intact cells early after infection. The cross-linked viral DNA fractionated into shear-sensitive (S) and shear- resistant (R) components that were separable by sedimentation, which allowed independent characterization. The R component had the density and sedimentation properties expected for DNA-protein complexes and contained intact viral DNA. It accounted for about 50% of the viral DNA recovered at 1.5 h after infection but less than 20% by 4.5 h. The proportion of R component was independent of multiplicity of infection, even at less than one particle per cell. Viral hexon and protein VII, but not protein VI, were detected in the fractions containing the R component. These properties are consistent with those of partially uncoated virions associated with the nuclear envelope. A substantial proportion of the S component viral DNA had the same density as cellular chromatin. Protein VII was the most abundant viral protein present in gradient fractions that contained the S component. Complexes containing USF transcription factor cross-linked to the adenovirus major late promoter were detected by viral chromatin immunoprecipitation of the fractions containing S component. The S component probably contained uncoated nuclear viral DNA that assembles into early viral transcription complexes

  18. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may...... contribute to elevated risk of CVD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA 2D (HIV + T2D+), n = 25 without T2D (HIV + T2D-)) and 50 uninfected persons (n = 22 with T2D (HIV-T2D+) and n = 28...... without T2D (HIV-T2D-)). Groups were matched on age and sex. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used to determine inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine...

  19. Change in neurocognition by housing type and substance abuse among formerly homeless seriously mentally ill persons.

    Caplan, Brina; Schutt, Russell K; Turner, Winston M; Goldfinger, Stephen M; Seidman, Larry J

    2006-03-01

    To test the effect of living in group housing rather than independent apartments on executive functioning, verbal memory and sustained attention among formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness and to determine whether substance abuse modifies this effect. In metropolitan Boston, 112 persons in Department of Mental Health shelters were randomly assigned to group homes ("Evolving Consumer Households", with project facilitator, group meetings, resident decision-making) or independent apartments. All were case managed. A neuropsychological test battery was administered at baseline, at 18 months (Time 2), with an 81% follow-up rate, and at 48 months (Time 3), with a 59% follow-up rate. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was applied to executive functioning--assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Perseverations)-Logical Memory story recall, and an auditory Continuous Performance Test (CPT) for sustained attention. Subject characteristics were controlled. When moved to group homes, subjects without a lifetime substance abuse history improved on Perseverations, while those who moved to independent apartments deteriorated on Perseverations. Across the two housing conditions, subjects showed no change in Perseverations, but improved on Logical Memory story recall and the CPT. Type of housing placement can influence cognitive functioning; notably, socially isolating housing is associated with weakened executive functioning. Substance abuse significantly diminishes environmental effects. These are important factors to consider in housing placement and subsequent treatment.

  20. Informing cancer patient based on his type of personality: the suspicious (paranoid) patient.

    Kallergis, G

    2013-01-01

    Imparting bad news had always been an unpleasant task for the physician, as shown from ancient years to our days. In the healthcare sector and as far as the cancer patient is concerned, the imparting of bad news is performed by the patient's doctor within a therapeutic relationship of course. The fundamental question is how a therapist could tailor the information to any patient and if "Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how ?". The aim of this paper was to describe the suspicious character or type of personality thoroughly so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of informing of the suspicious personality in the range "minimal - small - medium - large - very large" is : the degree of denial varies between large and very large. The degree of informing varies between medium and small and sometimes minimal. Informing the Family: The hardest family to deal with. Pay attention to litigious mania. Avoid confrontation or be drawn into agreeing with the family views.

  1. Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?

    Aram Seddigh

    Full Text Available This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy. Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the cases of professional efficacy and job satisfaction, several were observed between personality traits and office type on the level of distraction reported. Specifically, more emotionally stable participants reported lower distraction, particularly those working in flex offices. Both agreeableness and openness to experience were associated with higher levels of distraction among participants in open-plan compared to cell offices.

  2. Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?

    Seddigh, Aram; Berntson, Erik; Platts, Loretta G; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex) and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy). Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the cases of professional efficacy and job satisfaction, several were observed between personality traits and office type on the level of distraction reported. Specifically, more emotionally stable participants reported lower distraction, particularly those working in flex offices. Both agreeableness and openness to experience were associated with higher levels of distraction among participants in open-plan compared to cell offices.

  3. Successful holistic management of type 2 diabetes with depression: a very personal story.

    Oakley, Linda Denise; Aekwarangkoon, Saifon; Ward, Earlise C

    2011-01-01

    We used illness narrative methods to evaluate the retrospective illness story of a bereaved woman who has recovered from type 2 diabetes and depression with comorbid hypertension, hyperlipidemia, vertigo, and obesity. Her spoken illness story was obtained with a single interview question: What happened? Our findings show that the patient searched for and found personal meaning in her illness. The finding of meaning in her illness appears to have supported her efforts to adopt more positive health beliefs and health behaviors. Although she received excellent health care throughout her illness, she attributes her return to good health to spiritual growth. We discuss the practice implications of this patient's illness story for clinicians who seek new insights into patients who have complex illness stories.

  4. Effectiveness of remote feedback on physical activity in persons with type 2 diabetes

    Kongstad, Malte Bue; Valentiner, Laura Staun; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of remote feedback intervention compared with standardized treatment on physical activity levels in persons with type 2 diabetes. Further, to investigate the influence of the length of intervention...... diabetes, using physical activity as outcome. The effect size was calculated as standardized mean difference (SMD) and was pooled in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Meta-regression analyses were performed to examine if the observed effect size could be attributed to study- or intervention...... characteristics using these as covariates. Results The literature search identified 4455 articles of which 27 met the eligibility criteria. The meta-analysis including a total of 4215 participants found an overall effect size in favour of remote feedback interventions compared to standardized treatment, SMD = 0...

  5. Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

    Bradley Curtis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes

  6. DNA methylation links genetics, fetal environment, and an unhealthy lifestyle to the development of type 2 diabetes.

    Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a complex trait with both environmental and hereditary factors contributing to the overall pathogenesis. One link between genes, environment, and disease is epigenetics influencing gene transcription and, consequently, organ function. Genome-wide studies have shown altered DNA methylation in tissues important for glucose homeostasis including pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue from subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with nondiabetic controls. Factors predisposing for type 2 diabetes including an adverse intrauterine environment, increasing age, overweight, physical inactivity, a family history of the disease, and an unhealthy diet have all shown to affect the DNA methylation pattern in target tissues for insulin resistance in humans. Epigenetics including DNA methylation may therefore improve our understanding of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis, contribute to development of novel treatments, and be a useful tool to identify individuals at risk for developing the disease.

  7. Genetic and environmental etiology of stability and changes in self-esteem linked to personality: A Japanese twin study

    Shikishima, Chizuru; Hiraishi, Kai; Takahashi, Yusuke; Yamagata, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Ando, Juko

    2018-01-01

    This study used a behavioral genetic approach to examine the genetic and environmental etiology of stability and changes in self-esteem in relation to personality. Multiple genetic analyses were conducted on a longitudinal dataset of self-esteem and Big Five personality scores among young adult Japanese twins over the course of a decade. There were 1221 individuals for whom data were available on both self-esteem and the Big Five personality test at Time 1 and 365 at Time 2. The mean interval...

  8. Association of Type D personality to perceived side effects and adherence in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS.

    Broström, Anders; Strömberg, Anna; Mårtensson, Jan; Ulander, Martin; Harder, Lena; Svanborg, Eva

    2007-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but side effects are common and long-term adherence low. The Type D (distressed) personality is defined as a combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The association of Type D personality with adherence has not been studied in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of Type D personality in OSAS patients with CPAP treatment longer than 6 months and the association with self-reported side effects and adherence. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 247 OSAS patients with a mean use of CPAP treatment for 55 months (6-182 months) were included. Data collection was achieved by two questionnaires; the Type D scale 14 (DS14) (Type D personality), SECI (side effects of CPAP), as well as from medical records (clinical variables and objective adherence to CPAP treatment). Type D personality occurred in 30% of the patients with OSAS and significantly (P < 0.05-0.001) increased the perceived frequency and severity of a broad range of side effects. The objective adherence was significantly lower (P < 0.001) for OSAS patients with Type D compared to OSAS patients without Type D, both with regard to a mean use of 4 h per night and 85% of the self-rated sleep time per night. The additional effect of a Type D personality on perceived side effects and adherence to CPAP treatment found in this study could be used by healthcare personnel when evaluating patients waiting for treatment.

  9. Association of Type D personality with unhealthy lifestyle, and estimated risk of coronary events in the general Icelandic population

    Svansdóttir, E.; Denollet, J.; Thorsson, B.; Gudnason, T.; Halldorsdottir, S.; Gudnason, V.; van den Broek, K.C.; Karlsson, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Type D personality is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality risk in cardiovascular disease patients, but the mechanisms explaining this risk are unclear. We examined whether Type D was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, estimated risk of developing

  10. Effects of Type A Personality and Leisure Ethic on Chinese College Students' Leisure Activities and Academic Performance.

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping

    In an earlier laboratory experiment using university students in the United States, Tang and Baumeister (1984) examined the effects of the Leisure Ethic, Type A personality, and task labels on subjects' task performance. The results showed that the interaction between Leisure Ethic endorsement and task label was significant among Type A…

  11. Type D personality predicts death or myocardial infarction after bare metal stent or sirolimus-eluting stent implantation

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Lemos, Pedro A; van Vooren, Priya R

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Type D personality on the occurrence of adverse events at nine months in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) or bare stents. Type D patients experience increased negative...

  12. Type D personality is associated with low cardiovascular reactivity to acute mental stress in heart failure patients

    Kupper, N.; Denollet, J.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Kop, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The distressed (Type D) personality is associated with adverse coronary heart disease outcomes, but the mechanisms accounting for this association remain to be elucidated. We examined whether myocardial and hemodynamic responses to mental stress are disrupted in Type D patients with

  13. Scaffold protein harmonin (USH1C) provides molecular links between Usher syndrome type 1 and type 2.

    Reiners, Jan; van Wijk, Erwin; Märker, Tina; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Jürgens, Karin; te Brinke, Heleen; Overlack, Nora; Roepman, Ronald; Knipper, Marlies; Kremer, Hannie; Wolfrum, Uwe

    2005-12-15

    Usher syndrome (USH) is the most frequent cause of combined deaf-blindness in man. USH is clinically and genetically heterogeneous with at least 11 chromosomal loci assigned to the three USH types (USH1A-G, USH2A-C, USH3A). Although the different USH types exhibit almost the same phenotype in human, the identified USH genes encode for proteins which belong to very different protein classes and families. We and others recently reported that the scaffold protein harmonin (USH1C-gene product) integrates all identified USH1 molecules in a USH1-protein network. Here, we investigated the relationship between the USH2 molecules and this USH1-protein network. We show a molecular interaction between the scaffold protein harmonin (USH1C) and the USH2A protein, VLGR1 (USH2C) and the candidate for USH2B, NBC3. We pinpoint these interactions to interactions between the PDZ1 domain of harmonin and the PDZ-binding motifs at the C-termini of the USH2 proteins and NBC3. We demonstrate that USH2A, VLGR1 and NBC3 are co-expressed with the USH1-protein harmonin in the synaptic terminals of both retinal photoreceptors and inner ear hair cells. In hair cells, these USH proteins are also localized in the signal uptaking stereocilia. Our data indicate that the USH2 proteins and NBC3 are further partners in the supramolecular USH-protein network in the retina and inner ear which shed new light on the function of USH2 proteins and the entire USH-protein network. These findings provide first evidence for a molecular linkage between the pathophysiology in USH1 and USH2. The organization of USH molecules in a mutual 'interactome' related to the disease can explain the common phenotype in USH.

  14. Association of Emotional Labor, Self-efficacy, and Type A Personality with Burnout in Korean Dental Hygienists.

    Jeung, Da Yee; Lee, Hyun Ok; Chung, Won Gyun; Yoon, Jin Ha; Koh, Sang Baek; Back, Chi Yun; Hyun, Dae Sung; Chang, Sei Jin

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional labor and burnout, and whether the levels of self-efficacy and type A personality characteristics increase the risk of burnout in a sample of Korean female dental hygienists. Participants were 807 female dental hygienists with experience in performing customer service for one year or more in dental clinics, dental hospitals, or general hospitals in Korea. Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the effects of emotional labor on burnout, and to elucidate the additive effects of self-efficacy and type A personality on burnout. The results showed that "overload and conflict in customer service," "emotional disharmony and hurt," and "lack of a supportive and protective system in the organization" were positively associated with burnout. With reference to the relationship between personality traits and burnout, we found that personal traits such as self-efficacy and type A personality were significantly related to burnout, which confirmed the additive effects of self-efficacy and type A personality on burnout. These results indicate that engaging in excessive and prolonged emotional work in customer service roles is more likely to increase burnout. Additionally, an insufficient organizational supportive and protective system toward the negative consequences of emotional labor was found to accelerate burnout. The present findings also revealed that personality traits such as self-efficacy and type A personality are also important in understanding the relationship between emotional labor and burnout. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  15. Psychopathological manifestations of joint hypermobility and joint hypermobility syndrome/ Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: The link between connective tissue and psychological distress revised.

    Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Ursini, Gianluca; Castori, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Psychological distress is a known feature of generalized joint hypermobility (gJHM), as well as of its most common syndromic presentation, namely Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (a.k.a. joint hypermobility syndrome - JHS/EDS-HT), and significantly contributes to the quality of life of affected individuals. Most published articles dealt with the link between gJHM (or JHS/EDS-HT) and anxiety-related conditions, and a novel generation of studies is emerging aimed at investigating the psychopathologic background of such an association. In this paper, literature review was carried out with a semi-systematic approach spanning the entire spectrum of psychopathological findings in gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT. Interestingly, in addition to the confirmation of a tight link between anxiety and gJHM, preliminary connections with depression, attention deficit (and hyperactivity) disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder were also found. Few papers investigated the relationship with schizophrenia with contrasting results. The mind-body connections hypothesized on the basis of available data were discussed with focus on somatotype, presumed psychopathology, and involvement of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system. The hypothesis of positive Beighton score and alteration of interoceptive/proprioceptive/body awareness as possible endophenotypes in families with symptomatic gJHM or JHS/EDS-HT is also suggested. Concluding remarks addressed the implications of the psychopathological features of gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT in clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Designing an ICT self-management service: suggestions from persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Gardsten, Cecilia; Mörtberg, Christina; Blomqvist, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the wishes and needs of people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for a future information and communication technology (ICT) self-management service to help manage their condition and their everyday life. Diabetes is a chronic disease affecting more and more people and placing increasing demands on health care. The self-management of diabetes includes instrumental and, decision-making skills and skills in managing daily activities, which may be supported by an ICT service. In this study we used a participatory design including two sessions of Future Workshop (FW) as part of a larger research project on the self-management of diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes participated in two FW sessions in which their expressed wishes and needs for an ICT service all fell under the broad category of Acceptance of the diagnosis, with three other suggestions; Trust in partnerships, Communication, and Individualized information. The participants' experience of the FW as a democratic process and their appreciation of mutual learning contributed to these results, which are consistent with the aims of person-centred care.

  17. Type D personality, stress coping strategies and self-efficacy as predictors of Facebook intrusion.

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Czuczwar, Stanisław Jerzy

    2017-07-01

    Recently, Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking sites. People use it more and more often. A number of studies have recently addressed the issue of excessive Facebook use, showing this phenomenon to be a spreading problem. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether Type D personality, self-efficacy and coping strategies are related to Facebook intrusion. The participants were 882 students of Polish universities, all of them Facebook users (72% women, mean age: 22.25 years, SD =2.06). We used the Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Facebook Intensity Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Type D Scale. We applied the pen-and-paper procedure. Our results indicate that emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented strategies of coping in stressful situations are predictors of Facebook intrusion and Facebook intensity. The relations between both Facebook intrusion and intensity and social inhibition are significant only when emotion-oriented coping strategy is controlled. The knowledge of whether coping strategies in stressful situations, such as focus on emotions or avoidance, are related to Facebook intrusion might be useful for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The capacity of radar, crowdsourced personal weather stations and commercial microwave links to monitor small scale urban rainfall

    Uijlenhoet, R.; de Vos, L. W.; Leijnse, H.; Overeem, A.; Raupach, T. H.; Berne, A.

    2017-12-01

    For the purpose of urban rainfall monitoring high resolution rainfall measurements are desirable. Typically C-band radar can provide rainfall intensities at km grid cells every 5 minutes. Opportunistic sensing with commercial microwave links yields rainfall intensities over link paths within cities. Additionally, recent developments have made it possible to obtain large amounts of urban in situ measurements from weather amateurs in near real-time. With a known high resolution simulated rainfall event the accuracy of these three techniques is evaluated, taking into account their respective existing layouts and sampling methods. Under ideal measurement conditions, the weather station networks proves to be most promising. For accurate estimation with radar, an appropriate choice for Z-R relationship is vital. Though both the microwave links and the weather station networks are quite dense, both techniques will underestimate rainfall if not at least one link path / station captures the high intensity rainfall peak. The accuracy of each technique improves when considering rainfall at larger scales, especially by increasing time intervals, with the steepest improvements found in microwave links.

  20. A comparison of music education and music therapy majors: personality types as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and demographic profiles.

    Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop both personality and demographic profiles for students who are interested in majoring in music education or music therapy. Two primary questions were addressed in the study: (a) Are there similarities and differences in the personality types of music education and music therapy majors as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI )? (b) Are there similarities and differences in demographic characteristics of music education and music therapy majors in regard to (i) principal instrument studied in college, (ii) grade point average, (iii) scholarship awards, (iv) high school participation in private study and (v) ensembles, (vi) church/community participation, and (vii) volunteerism in high school?

  1. Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes: is oxidative stress the mechanistic link?

    Allen, E M

    2009-05-01

    Periodontitis is a common, chronic inflammatory disease initiated by bacteria which has an increased prevalence and severity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recent studies indicate that the co-morbid presence of periodontitis can, in turn, adversely affect diabetic status and the treatment of periodontitis can lead to improved metabolic control in diabetes patients. Current evidence points to a bidirectional interrelationship between diabetes and inflammatory periodontitis. The importance of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and periodontitis has recently received attention. Given the bidirectional relationship between these two conditions, this review discusses the potential synergistic interactions along the oxidative stress-inflammation axis common to both type 2 diabetes and periodontitis, and the implications of this relationship for diabetic patients.

  2. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the peninsula (i.e., cyclonic, anticyclonic and directional). These large-scale patterns were first defined for the observed climate (1960-2013), allowing for an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in circulation-rainfall relationships over the peninsula using rainfall data from 209 weather observatories. The same methodology was then applied to assess how the defined weather types will be presented in future climate simulations (under RCP45 and RCP85 emission scenarios) and to explore their probable dependency with rainfall characteristics. In this regard, daily simulated SLP derived from an ensemble of 12 climate models within the CMIP5 project were used for two future time-slices (2035-2060 and 2075-2100). Our findings indicate that the cyclonic (C) type represented the most frequent classification with 69.2% of days, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also found that the main circulation features influencing winter (spring) rainfall across the peninsula are the strong influence of the anticyclonic (easterly and southeasterly) air masses. Generally, the role of airflows originating from the Indian Ocean is larger than those of the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. The trend results of defined weather types show that the cyclonic (anticyclonic) conditions tend to decrease (increase). This picture is likely to continue during the 21st century. The only exception corresponds to the summer season. Here, understanding the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in the Arabian Peninsula can be important for the understanding of climatic variability and thus developing circulation-based downscaling methods in this region.

  3. Using linked data to evaluate severity and outcome of injury by type of object struck (first object struck only) for motor vehicle crashes in Connecticut : Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) linked data demonstration project

    1999-09-01

    A deterministic algorithm was developed which allowed data from Department of Transportation motor vehicle crash records, state mortality registry records, and hospital admission and emergency department records to be linked for analysis of the types...

  4. Assessment of Personality Types in an Urban Community of District Dehradun, Uttarakhand using Introversion- Extroversion Inventory

    Madhavi Bhargava, Jayanti Semwal, Ruchi Juyal, Shaili Vyas, Deepshikha Varshney

    2015-01-01

    "Introduction: Personality can be defined as a person’s pattern of internal experience and social interaction that arises from his action. The trait of extroversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories. Objectives: To study the difference in personality in adults according to age and sex and the association of education and personality. Methods: The study was conducted in Rishikesh, Dehradun. A judgemental-purposive sampling was done in view of explor...

  5. Chromosome region 2p25 is linked and associated with type 1 ...

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a heterogeneous disorder which in- volves both genetic and ... 1) started treatment along with diet for the first two years; for the following three years she ... was over 0.85 at different recombination fractions. These re-.

  6. Usher syndrome type III (USH3) linked to chromosome 3q in an Italian family.

    Gasparini, P; De Fazio, A; Croce, A I; Stanziale, P; Zelante, L

    1998-08-01

    We report an Italian family affected by Usher type III syndrome. Linkage study, performed using markers corresponding to the Usher loci already mapped, clearly showed linkage with markers on chromosome 3q24-25. Our data further support the presence of an Usher III locus on chromosome 3, as recently reported in a Finnish population.

  7. Usher syndrome type III (USH3) linked to chromosome 3q in an Italian family.

    Gasparini, P; De Fazio, A; Croce, A I; Stanziale, P; Zelante, L

    1998-01-01

    We report an Italian family affected by Usher type III syndrome. Linkage study, performed using markers corresponding to the Usher loci already mapped, clearly showed linkage with markers on chromosome 3q24-25. Our data further support the presence of an Usher III locus on chromosome 3, as recently reported in a Finnish population.

  8. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products

    de Boer, J.; Schosler, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different

  9. Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene links increased in vivo insulin synthesis to type 2 diabetes

    S. Jainandunsing (Sjaam); Koole, H.R. (H. Rita); van Miert, J.N.I. (Joram N.I.); T. Rietveld (Trinet); J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); F.W.M. de Rooij (Felix)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractTranscription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is the main susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes, primarily through impairing the insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells. However, the exact in vivo mechanisms remain poorly understood. We performed a family study and determined if the T risk

  10. Pain and functional impairment as mediators of the link between medical symptoms and depression in type 2 diabetes.

    Sacco, William P; Bykowski, Cathy A; Mayhew, Laura L

    2013-03-01

    Among people with diabetes, depression is more common and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying the link between poor health and depression is needed. Pain and functional impairment may account for the effect of poor health on depression in diabetes. The purpose of the study was to examine whether pain and functional impairment mediate the association between diabetes-related medical symptoms and depression in type 2 diabetes. Adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (N = 77) completed the following measures: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), Diabetes Symptom Checklist (DSC), and Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Body mass index (BMI) was computed using height and weight data from medical records. Mediation and linear regression analyses were conducted. Pain and functional impairment made significant, independent contributions to depression. Functional impairment mediated the link between diabetes-related medical symptoms and depression. Pain mediated the association between higher BMI and depression. Pain and functional impairment appear to play important, independent roles in depression in type 2 diabetes. Mediation analyses suggest the following: 1. diabetes-related medical problems increase functional impairment, which in turn leads to greater depression; and 2. the burden of carrying greater body mass (higher BMI) increases pain, which leads to increased depression.

  11. Serum cross-linked n-telopeptides of type 1 collagen (NTx in patients with solid tumors

    Fernando Jablonka

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx increase in concentration in situations in which bone resorption is increased, such as osteoporosis and bone metastasis (BM. We aimed to evaluate the serum concentrations of NTx in a sample of patients with several types of solid tumors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study with a control group in a tertiary public hospital. METHODS: We performed the quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA on serum NTx levels in 19 subjects without a history of cancer and 62 patients with various solid tumors who had been referred for a bone scan. Three experienced analysts read all bone scans. RESULTS: The serum NTx levels in patients with cancer and BM, with cancer but without BM and without cancer were 46.77 ± 2.58, 32.85 ± 2.05 and 22.32 ± 2.90 respectively (P < 0.0001. We did not find any significant correlations of serum NTx with age, gender, history of bone pain, tumor type and bone alkaline phosphatase levels. We found a significant correlation between serum NTx and alkaline phosphatase levels (R² = 0.08; P = 0.022. CONCLUSIONS: Serum NTx levels are significantly higher in patients with solid tumors and bone metastases than they are in patients without bone metastases and in normal controls.

  12. Prevalence of Depressive Disorder in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes: A National Population-Based Cohort Study 2000-2010.

    Tu, Hung-Pin; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Liu, Tai-Ling; Jiang, He-Jiun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Huang, Chun-Jen

    Diabetes mellitus, a chronic and disabling disease, is epidemic worldwide. Depressive disorder affects the productivity of workers and leads to disability. This study investigated the prevalence of depressive disorder among persons with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. We extracted service claims data for subjects who had at least 2 ambulatory care service claims or 1 inpatient service claim with a principal diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and at least 1 ambulatory or inpatient service claim with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorder from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database. From 2000-2010, the prevalence of depressive disorder increased from 3.50-4.07% in people with type 2 diabetes, and from 1.05-2.27% in the general population. The higher prevalence of depressive disorder in persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with being female; residence in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan; residence in urban areas; the comorbidities of hemiplegia or paraplegia, cerebrovascular disease, and anxiety disorder; Charlson Comorbidity Index scores ≥1; diabetes duration >9 years; and the use of rapid-acting insulin injection therapy. The prevalence of depressive disorder is higher among persons with type 2 diabetes than the general population. Consequently, more public health attention should be devoted to the prevention and treatment of this debilitating disease in persons with type 2 diabetes, especially those with the earlier mentioned risk factors. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Type D personality predicts chronic anxiety following percutaneous coronary intervention in the drug-eluting stent era

    Spindler, Helle; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

      Background: Anxiety is an often overlooked risk factor in coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, little is known about predictors of unremitting chronic anxiety in CAD patients. This study examined whether the distressed personality (Type D) predicts chronic anxiety post percutaneous coronary...... months post-PCI. Results: Of 167 patients anxious at 6 months, 108 (65%) were still anxious 12 months post-PCI. Significant univariable predictors of chronic anxiety were Type D personality (OR:3.17: 95% CI:1.64-6.14) and sirolimus-eluting stents (OR:0.51; 95% CI:0.27-0.98), with sirolimus-eluting stents...... showing a protective effect. In multivariable analyses, Type D personality (OR:3.31; 95% CI:1.59-6.87) and sirolimus-eluting stents (OR:0.44; 95% CI:0.21-0.92) remained significant independent predictors of chronic anxiety adjusting for depressive symptoms at 6 months, and demographic and clinical risk...

  14. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  15. Extreme wildfire events are linked to global-change-type droughts in the northern Mediterranean

    Ruffault, Julien; Curt, Thomas; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K.; Moron, Vincent; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2018-03-01

    Increasing drought conditions under global warming are expected to alter the frequency and distribution of large and high-intensity wildfires. However, our understanding of the impact of increasing drought on extreme wildfires events remains incomplete. Here, we analyzed the weather conditions associated with the extreme wildfires events that occurred in Mediterranean France during the exceptionally dry summers of 2003 and 2016. We identified that these fires were related to two distinct shifts in the fire weather space towards fire weather conditions that had not been explored before and resulting from specific interactions between different types of drought and different fire weather types. In 2016, a long-lasting press drought intensified wind-driven fires. In 2003, a hot drought combining a heat wave with a press drought intensified heat-induced fires. Our findings highlight that increasing drought conditions projected by climate change scenarios might affect the dryness of fuel compartments and lead to a higher frequency of extremes wildfires events.

  16. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  17. Cooperative roles of glucose and asparagine-linked glycosylation in T-type calcium channel expression

    Lazniewska, Joanna; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Zhang, F. X.; Zamponi, G. W.; Weiss, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 468, 11/12 (2016), s. 1837-1851 ISSN 0031-6768 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * T-type channel * Ca(v)3.2 * glucose * N-glycosylation * trafficking Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.156, year: 2016

  18. Evidence for a link between mortality in acute COPD and hospital type and resources

    Roberts, C; Barnes, S; Lowe, D; Pearson, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: The 1997 BTS/RCP national audit of acute care of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) found wide variations in mortality between hospitals which were only partially explained by known audit indicators of outcome. It was hypothesised that some of the unexplained variation may result from differences in hospital type, organisation and resources. This pilot study examined the hypothesis as a factor to be included in a future national audit programme.

  19. A Study Of The Relation Between IQ And Personality Types Among Male And Female Students Of Tabriz

    Vafaee D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologists have been thinking that some personality types may have a higher IQ comparing with the other types, and this could be considered as a general belief. Eysenck, the eminent British psychologist, described the introverted people to have a higher. Intelligence comparing with the extroverted people. Materials and Methods: We maintain two objectives from this study. Firstly if there is a relation between the IQ and personality types or not and secondly the mean IQ of which group is higher and thirdly, what is the relation between sexes. Results: 297 students were selected randomly from Tabriz University and Tabriz Medical Sciences University. Every examination was given both Raven IQ test and Eysenck personality inventory and examination answered the both tests at the same time. Both tests were evaluated by the standard scoring system. The results of both tests were extracted then statistical evaluations ofx and t-test were done. No significant and meaningful relation was found between IQ and personality types pf Eysenck ( introversion- extroversion, neuroticism, emotion stability among male and female students. Also introverted students and extroverted students did not have significant differences in the mean of IQ. Conclusion: Altogether these kinds of findings seem to be interesting, judging about psychological and behavioral characteristic of people needs more studies, and a single IQ or personality test is not sufficient. Therefore reaching an exact conclusion as a scientific fact will be possible by further researches.

  20. Linking market interaction intensity of 3D Ising type financial model with market volatility

    Fang, Wen; Ke, Jinchuan; Wang, Jun; Feng, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Microscopic interaction models in physics have been used to investigate the complex phenomena of economic systems. The simple interactions involved can lead to complex behaviors and help the understanding of mechanisms in the financial market at a systemic level. This article aims to develop a financial time series model through 3D (three-dimensional) Ising dynamic system which is widely used as an interacting spins model to explain the ferromagnetism in physics. Through Monte Carlo simulations of the financial model and numerical analysis for both the simulation return time series and historical return data of Hushen 300 (HS300) index in Chinese stock market, we show that despite its simplicity, this model displays stylized facts similar to that seen in real financial market. We demonstrate a possible underlying link between volatility fluctuations of real stock market and the change in interaction strengths of market participants in the financial model. In particular, our stochastic interaction strength in our model demonstrates that the real market may be consistently operating near the critical point of the system.

  1. How Well Do Trait Measures of Achievement Predict Students' Perceptions of the Link between Personal Effort and Academic Performance?

    Gray, Jennifer P.; Mannahan, Kimberly Kinsey

    2017-01-01

    The concept of Grit has gained momentum in the last several years as a better predictor of achievement than traditional measures, such as IQ. Duckworth, et al. (2007) found grit to be positively correlated to the Big Five personality dimension of conscientiousness, but not to IQ, causing the authors to hypothesize that grit is a good noncognitive…

  2. Pain processing in a social context and the link with psychopathic personality traits: An event-related potential study

    Heck, C.H. van; Driessen, J.M.A.; Amato, M.; Berg, M.N. van den; Bhandari, P.; Bilbao-Broch, L.; Farres-Casals, J.; Hendriks, M.; Jodzio, A.C.J.; Luque-Ballesteros, L.; Schöchl, C.A.; Velasco-Angeles, L.R.; Weijer, R.H.A.; Rijn, C.M. van; Jongsma, M.L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Empathy describes the ability to understand another person's feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to

  3. Linking job-relevant personality traits, transformational leadership, and job performance via perceived meaningfulness at work: A moderated mediation model.

    Frieder, Rachel E; Wang, Gang; Oh, In-Sue

    2018-03-01

    By integrating the fundamental principles of the theory of purposeful work behavior (TPWB; Barrick, Mount, & Li, 2013) with cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) theory (Mischel, 1977; Mischel & Shoda, 1995), we examine how and when salespeople's job-relevant personality traits relate to their performance. We argue that individuals with personality traits that fit outdoor sales jobs (i.e., conscientious, extraversion, openness to experience) will perceive their work as more meaningful and as a result achieve heightened performance. Moreover, drawing from TPWB and CAPS theory, we expect that as an important element of the social context, transformational leadership moderates the indirect effect of salespeople's job-relevant personality traits on their job performance via enhanced perceptions of meaningfulness at work. Results based on data from 496 outdoor salespeople and their 218 supervisors and regional managers provide support for the hypotheses pertaining to conscientiousness and openness, but not extraversion. Specifically, the conditional indirect effects of conscientiousness or openness on performance through perceived meaningfulness are more positive under low, rather than high, levels of transformational leadership. Implications for research and practice are discussed along with study limitations and future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. THE DOCTOR’S PERSONALITY IN MODERN SOCIETY: THE IDEAL TYPE AND PROFESSIONAL DEFORMATION

    N. G. Osipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems associated with the construction of the ideal type of the modern physician, as well as the identification of the key aspects of professional deformations of his personality and the analysis of the effects of these strains on the principles of conduct in relation to a patient. The introduction of market relations in health care system caused the competition between medical institutions, forcing them to look for additional ways to attract patients and as a result, the range of medical services to the population has significantly expended. A positive consequence has become a trend, expressed in an effort to improve the skills of doctors, the quality of work with patients. On the other hand, liberal globalization has led to the devaluation of the structure of the individual doctor and the public interest has strengthened the role and importance of individualistic interests. The result was the alienation of the doctors from the patients took on a mass character, which led to a degradation of the professional medical community and health care system in general. The authors are regarded as normative characteristics of medical practice, and indicators related to the subjectivity of doctor’s behavior, which reflects the perceived boundaries of the doctor’s professional and personal effects to the patient; attitude toward himself as a person and a professional; professional attitude of the society to the doctors and to the prevailing social and historical traditions of healing. The main characteristics that allow to construct an ideal type of physician are: high professionalism and its use for the benefit of man and society; rules of communicating with people who are sick; ethics in relationships in a professional environment; moral principles and ethics of the individual and the social order: the observance of a number of limitations and restrictions. However, under the pressure of contemporary

  5. Pharmacogenomics in type II diabetes mellitus management: Steps toward personalized medicine

    Peter Avery

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Peter Avery, Shaymaa S Mousa, Shaker A MousaThe Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Advances in genotype technology in the last decade have put the pharmacogenomics revolution at the forefront of future medicine in clinical practice. Discovery of novel gene variations in drug transporters, drug targets, effector proteins and metabolizing enzymes in the form of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs continue to provide insight into the biological phenomena that govern drug efficacy and toxicity. To date, novel gene discoveries extracted from genome-wide association scans and candidate gene studies in at least four antidiabetic drug classes have helped illuminate possible causes of interindividual variability in response. Inadequate protocol guidelines for pharmacogenomics studies often leads to poorly designed studies, making it hard to formulate a definitive conclusion regarding the clinical relevance of the information at hand. These issues, along with the ethical, social, political, legislative, technological, and economic challenges associated with pharmacogenomics have only delayed its entry to mainstream clinical practice. On the other hand, these issues are being actively pursued and rapid progress is being made in each area which assures the possibility of gaining widespread acceptance in clinical practice.Keywords: pharmacogenomics, genetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, personalized medicine, type 2 diabetes, pharmacotherapy, antidiabetic drugs, efficacy, and safety

  6. Effects of electromagnetic shielding cases for semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters on preventing electromagnetic interference

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Nishizawa, Kunihide; Saze, Takuya; Mori, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Performance of electromagnetic shielding cases for preventing malfunction of semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters (SEPDs) caused by high frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from a digital cellular telephone (cell phone) and a card reader of access control system were analyzed. The cases were handcrafted by using cloth of activated carbon fiber, polyester film laminated metal, and two kinds of metal netting. Five kinds of SEPDs put in the cases were exposed to the high frequency electromagnetic fields for 50 sec or 1 min. The cases prevented perfectly the malfunction due to the cell phone. The cases shortened distances required to prevent the malfunction due to the card reader, but did not prevent the malfunction. The electromagnetic immunity level of SEPD inserted in the cases increased from greater than 11.2 to greater than 18.7 times for the cell phone and from 1.1 to greater than 4.3 times for the card reader. The maximum of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of each case was greater than 18.7 times for the cell phone and greater than 4.3 times for the card reader. (author)

  7. Evidence for a link between mortality in acute COPD and hospital type and resources.

    Roberts, C M; Barnes, S; Lowe, D; Pearson, M G

    2003-11-01

    The 1997 BTS/RCP national audit of acute care of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) found wide variations in mortality between hospitals which were only partially explained by known audit indicators of outcome. It was hypothesised that some of the unexplained variation may result from differences in hospital type, organisation and resources. This pilot study examined the hypothesis as a factor to be included in a future national audit programme. Thirty hospitals in England and Wales were randomly selected by geographical region and hospital type (teaching, large district general hospital (DGH), small DGH). Data on process and outcome of care (death and length of stay) were collected retrospectively at 90 days on all prospectively identified COPD admissions over an 8 week period. Each centre completed a questionnaire relating to organisation and resources available for the care of COPD patients. Eleven teaching hospitals, nine large DGHs, and 10 small DGHs provided data on 1274 cases. Mortality was high (14%) with wide variation between centres (IQR 9-19%). Small DGHs had a higher mortality (17.5%) than teaching hospitals (11.9%) and large DGHs (11.2%). When corrected for confounding factors, an excess of deaths in small DGHs was still observed (OR 1.56 (CI 1.04 to 2.35)) v teaching hospitals. Analysis of resource and organisational factors suggested higher mortality was associated with fewer doctors (OR 1.5) and with fewer patients being under the care of a specialist physician (OR 1.8). Small DGHs had fewest resources. Significant differences in mortality may exist between hospital types. The findings justify further study in a proposed national audit.

  8. Oculocutaneous albinism type 1: link between mutations, tyrosinase conformational stability, and enzymatic activity.

    Dolinska, Monika B; Kus, Nicole J; Farney, S Katie; Wingfield, Paul T; Brooks, Brian P; Sergeev, Yuri V

    2017-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the tyrosinase gene. Two subtypes of OCA1 have been described: severe OCA1A with complete absence of tyrosinase activity and less severe OCA1B with residual tyrosinase activity. Here, we characterize the recombinant human tyrosinase intramelanosomal domain and mutant variants, which mimic genetic changes in both subtypes of OCA1 patients. Proteins were prepared using site-directed mutagenesis, expressed in insect larvae, purified by chromatography, and characterized by enzymatic activities, tryptophan fluorescence, and Gibbs free energy changes. The OCA1A mutants showed very low protein expression and protein yield and are enzymatically inactive. Mutants mimicking OCA1B were biochemically similar to the wild type, but exhibited lower specific activities and protein stabilities. The results are consistent with clinical data, which indicates that OCA1A mutations inactivate tyrosinase and result in severe phenotype, while OCA1B mutations partially inactivate tyrosinase and result in OCA1B albinism. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Nutrigenetics: links between genetic background and response to Mediterranean-type diets.

    Lairon, Denis; Defoort, Catherine; Martin, Jean-Charles; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Jo; Gastaldi, Marguerite; Planells, Richard

    2009-09-01

    It has been substantiated that the onset of most major diseases (CVD, diabetes, obesity, cancers, etc.) is modulated by the interaction between genetic traits (susceptibility) and environmental factors, especially diet. We aim to report more specific observations relating the effects of Mediterranean-type diets on cardiovascular risk factors and the genetic background of subjects. In the first part, general concepts about nutrigenetics are briefly presented. Human genome has, overall, only marginally changed since its origin but it is thought that minor changes (polymorphisms) of common genes that occurred during evolution are now widespread in human populations, and can alter metabolic pathways and response to diets. In the second part, we report the data obtained during the Medi-RIVAGE intervention study performed in the South-East of France. Data obtained in 169 subjects at moderate cardiovascular risk after a 3-month dietary intervention indicate that some of the twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) studied exhibit interactions with diets regarding changes of particular parameters after 3-month regimens. Detailed examples are presented, such as interactions between SNP in genes coding for microsomial transfer protein (MTTP) or intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) and triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol or Framigham score lowering in responses to Mediterranean-type diets. The data provided add further evidence of the interaction between particular SNP and metabolic responses to diets. Finally, improvement in dietary recommendations by taking into account known genetic variability has been discussed.

  10. Linking soil type and rainfall characteristics towards estimation of surface evaporative capacitance

    Or, D.; Bickel, S.; Lehmann, P.

    2017-12-01

    Separation of evapotranspiration (ET) to evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) components for attribution of surface fluxes or for assessment of isotope fractionation in groundwater remains a challenge. Regional estimates of soil evaporation often rely on plant-based (Penman-Monteith) ET estimates where is E is obtained as a residual or a fraction of potential evaporation. We propose a novel method for estimating E from soil-specific properties, regional rainfall characteristics and considering concurrent internal drainage that shelters soil water from evaporation. A soil-dependent evaporative characteristic length defines a depth below which soil water cannot be pulled to the surface by capillarity; this depth determines the maximal soil evaporative capacitance (SEC). The SEC is recharged by rainfall and subsequently emptied by competition between drainage and surface evaporation (considering canopy interception evaporation). We show that E is strongly dependent on rainfall characteristics (mean annual, number of storms) and soil textural type, with up to 50% of rainfall lost to evaporation in loamy soil. The SEC concept applied to different soil types and climatic regions offers direct bounds on regional surface evaporation independent of plant-based parameterization or energy balance calculations.

  11. Association of type D personality with unhealthy lifestyle, and estimated risk of coronary events in the general Icelandic population.

    Svansdottir, Erla; Denollet, Johan; Thorsson, Bolli; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Halldorsdottir, Sigrun; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van den Broek, Krista C; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D

    2013-04-01

    Type D personality is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality risk in cardiovascular disease patients, but the mechanisms explaining this risk are unclear. We examined whether Type D was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, estimated risk of developing CAD, and previous cardiac events. Cross-sectional study in the general Icelandic population. A random sample of 4753 individuals (mean age 49.1 ± 12.0 years; 49% men) from the REFINE-Reykjavik study completed assessments for Type D personality and conventional CAD risk factors. Ten-year risk of developing CAD was estimated with the Icelandic risk calculator. Type D personality (22% of sample) was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension (35 vs. 31%, p = 0.009), but less use of hypertension medication (58 vs. 65%, p = 0.013) in hypertensives, more diabetes (6 vs. 4%, p = 0.023), wider waist circumference (p = 0.007), and elevated body mass index (p = 0.025) and blood lipids (p lifestyle-related CAD risk factors, a higher estimated risk of developing CAD, and higher incidence of previous cardiac events. Unhealthy lifestyles may partly explain the adverse cardiovascular effect of Type D personality.

  12. The Effect of Positive and Negative Perfectionism and Type D Personality on General Health of the Aged

    M. Ahamadi Tahoor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Many factors such as retirement, work disability, being isolated from the society, physical illness… affect the general health of the aged , one factor among many, is the role of psychological variables. The purpose of this study has been the investigation of the effect of positive and negative perfectionism and type D personality on general health of the aged. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 80 subjects (47 males and 33 females were selected through available sampling method among the aged in nursing homes in Hamadan and Malayer. Then the positive and negative perfectionism questionnaire of Terry- Short et al, that of type D personality and Goldberg and Hiller's general health questionnaire were administered to them. Results: Positive perfectionism (r=-0.30 and type D personality (r=0.32 had significant correlations with general health. Multiple regression analysis also revealed that positive perfectionism and type D could explain at least 49 percent of the variance of general health. The females’ mean was higher than that of males concerning the variables of depression-anxiety, speech inhibition and irritability and in positive perfectionism, general health and social function variables the males’ mean was higher than that of females. Conclusion: Creating optimistic attitudes and enhancing social functions, positive perfectionism may cause the mental disorder to be decreased in old age and type D personality; however, positive perfectionism makes the aged apt to physical illness and mental disorder. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3: 64-69

  13. Increased anxiety and depression in Danish cardiac patients with a type D personality: cross-validation of the Type D Scale (DS14)

    Spindler, Helle; Kruse, Charlotte; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Type D Scale (DS14) and the impact of Type D on anxiety and depression in cardiac patients. METHOD: Cardiac patients (n = 707) completed the DS14......, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. A subgroup (n = 318) also completed the DS14 at 3 or 12 weeks. RESULTS: The two-factor structure of the DS14 was confirmed; the subscales negative affectivity and social inhibition were shown to be valid, internally...... consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87/0.91; mean inter-item correlations = 0.49/0.59), and stable over 3 and 12 weeks (r = 0.85/0.78; 0.83/0.79; ps depression (beta, 0.47; p

  14. The moderating effects of sample type as evidence of the effects of faking on personality scale correlations and factor structure

    KEVIN M. BRADLEY

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivational differences as a function of sample type (applicants versus incumbents have frequently been suspected of causing meaningful differences in the psychometric properties of personality inventories due to the effects of faking. In this quantitative review, correlations among the Big Five personality constructs were estimated and sample type was examined as a potential moderator of the personality construct inter-correlations. The resulting subgroup meta-analytic correlation matrices were factor-analyzed, and the second order factor solutions for job incumbents and job applicants were compared. Results of the meta-analyses indicate frequent, but small moderating effects. The second order factor analyses indicated that the observed moderation had little effect on the congruence of factor loadings. Together, the results are consistent with the position that faking is of little practical consequence in selection settings.

  15. [Type 2 dens fracture in the elderly and therapy-linked mortality : Conservative or operative treatment].

    Stein, G; Meyer, C; Marlow, L; Christ, H; Müller, L P; Isenberg, J; Eysel, P; Schiffer, G; Faymonville, C

    2017-02-01

    Type II fractures of the odontoid process of the axis are the most common injury of the cervical spine in elderly patients. Only little evidence exists on whether elderly patients should be treated conservatively or surgically. The mortality and survival probability of 51 patients were determined in a retrospective study. The range of motion, pain and the neck disability index were clinically investigated. Of the 51 patients 37 were treated surgically and 14 conservatively. The conservatively treated group showed a higher mortality (64 % vs. 32 %). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a median survival of the conservatively treated group of 29 months, whereby during the first 3 months of treatment this group showed a higher survival probability and afterwards the surgically treated group showed a higher survival probability. The clinical examination of 20 patients revealed limited range of motion of the cervical spine. Additionally, moderate levels of pain and complaints were recorded using the neck disability index. Fractures of the odontoid process pose a far-reaching danger for elderly patients. A balanced assessment of the general condition should be carried out at the beginning of treatment of these patients. In the early phase following trauma no differences were found with respect to survival rates but for long-term survival the operatively treated group showed advantages; however, these advantages cannot be causally attributed to the choice of therapy.

  16. Four linked outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 infection--the continuing egg threat.

    Ejidokun, O O; Killalea, D; Cooper, M; Holmyard, S; Cross, A; Kemp, C

    2000-06-01

    Four outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 4 occurred among guests at functions for which a single commercial caterer supplied food. Retrospective cohort studies were used to describe the epidemiology of three of these outbreaks and identify the vehicle(s) responsible. Of 172 guests at these three events, 47 fitted the clinical case definition for illness and 24 cases were confirmed to have S. enteritidis PT4 infection. Food containing raw egg was identified epidemiologically as the likely vehicle of infection in two of the three outbreaks (odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals 9.1 (2.2-39.9) and 6.9 (1.2-46.4)). Logistic regression analysis yielded OR = 10.7 (p = 0.0022) and OR = 9.3 (p = 0.015) for egg consumption in two of the outbreaks. These outbreaks highlighted the continuing need to remind the public and commercial caterers of the potential high risks of contracting salmonella from shell eggs. Education of caterers includes advice to obtain eggs and other products from reputable and identifiable suppliers.

  17. Establishing links between alcohol intake, cognitive functions and type 2 diabetes

    Toarba Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we studied the associations that might exist between alcohol consumption, cognitive functions and diabetic pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. The alcohol intake of 219 patients diagnosed with diabetes was classified into 6 groups: nondrinkers, 0.1-9.9, 10.0-14.9, 15.0-29.9, 30.0-49.9 and ≥ 50.0, according to the total amount (grams/day of alcohol consumption. Our results mainly confirm that moderate alcohol consumption can reduce some of the neuropathological aspects of T2D, as demonstrated by the decrease in glycemic levels in patients that consumed higher levels of alcohol (30.0-49.9 g/day, when compared to non-drinkers (p=0.04 or groups in which individuals consumed 0.1-9.9 g/day (p=0.01 and 10.0-14.9 g/day (p=0.02. Regarding the results of cognitive testing, we noticed a significant increase in the values of the MMSE score a lower dose of alcohol intake (0.1-9.9 g/day was compared with higher doses: 30.0-49.9 g/day (p=0.008 and ≥ 50.0 g/day (p=0.047.

  18. MULTI - multifunctional interface of the IBM XT and AT type personal computers

    Gross, T.; Kalavski, D.; Rubin, D.; Tulaev, A.B.; Tumanov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    MULTI multifunctional interface which enables to solve problems of personal computer connestion with physical equipment without application of intermediate buses is described. Parallel 32-digit bidirectional 1/10 register and buffered bus of personal computer represent MULTI base. Ways of MULTI application are described

  19. EFL Teachers' Emotional Intelligence and Their Personality Types: Exploring Possible Relations

    Razavi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' emotional intelligence and their personality traits in an Iranian context. To this end, 85 Iranian EFL teachers were asked to fill out The Big Five Inventory Personality Test (John & Srivastava, 1999) and The Bar-On Emotional Intelligences test (1997). The results…

  20. Peer Victimization, Self-esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-context Interactions

    Overbeek, G.J.; Zeevalkink, H.; Vermulst, A.A.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16

  1. Type D (distressed) personality and its assessment with the DS14 in Lithuanian patients with coronary artery disease

    Bunevicius, A.; Staniute, M.; Brozaitiene, J.; Stropute, D.; Bunevicius, R.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined Type D personality (combination of negative affectivity with social inhibition) and its assessment with the DS14 in 543 Lithuanian coronary patients. Psychometric analyses confirmed the two-factor structure, internal consistency (α = 0.84/α = 0.75), and test–retest reliability (r =

  2. An Investigation of the Problematic Internet Use of Teacher Candidates Based on Personality Types, Shyness and Demographic Factors

    Ozturk, Ebru; Kaymak Ozmen, Suna

    2011-01-01

    Researches proved that a new psychological disorder of problematic Internet use was associated with individual characteristics as loneliness, shyness, anxiety, depression, personality type, and self-cognition. But there appears to be little consensus about Problematic Internet Use disorder. Consequently the aim of study was to investigate…

  3. Explaining emotional exhaustion and work engagement : The role of job demands-resources and Type D personality

    van den Tooren, M.; Rutte, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to show that Type D personality—a personality trait characterized by high levels of negative affectivity and high levels of social inhibition—can explain a significant amount of variance in emotional exhaustion and work engagement above and beyond the variance

  4. Creative Thinking of University Teachers in the Age of Intellectual Capital: Is It Affected by Personality Types and Traits?

    AlFuqaha, Isam Najib; Tobasi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to probe the level of creative thinking of teachers at Philadelphia University in Jordan, and to define its relation with several independent demographic variables, namely age, gender, duration of experience, specialization, and personality types and traits. To accomplish this purpose, three questionnaires are administered on…

  5. What works best: objective statistics or a personal testimonial? An assessment of different types of message evidence on risk perception

    de Wit, J.B.F.; Das, E.; Vet, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In an experimental online study we compared the effects of different types of persuasive evidence in promoting the acceptance of a personal health risk. Design: 118 men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) were recruited via a range of

  6. Moderating Effect of Personality Type on the Relation between Sensation Seeking and Illegal Substance Use in Adolescents

    Roth, Marcus; Liebe, Nico

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of big-five based personality types on the relation between sensation seeking and three adolescent marijuana use outcomes (lifetime use, current use, attraction to marijuana use). 1,236 German adolescents, aged 14 to 16 years, participated in the current study. The results show that sensation seeking is…

  7. Design and evaluation of a personal robot playing a self-management education game with children with diabetes type 1

    Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Bierman, B.P.B.; Janssen, J.; Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Dooren, M.M.M. van; Vries, J.L.E. de; Burg, G.J. van der; Huisman, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a personal robot, providing diabetes self-management education in a clinical setting on the pleasure, engagement and motivation to play a diabetes quiz of children (7–12) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and on their acquisition of knowledge about their

  8. The Experience of Contrasting Learning Styles, Learning Preferences, and Personality Types in the Community College English Classroom

    Lawrence, William K.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the classroom experiences of students who identify themselves as learning best as reflective-observers (Assimilators) in contrast to those who learn best as active- experimenters (Accommodators), with additional consideration for their self-identified personality type (introvert vs. extrovert) as well as one of the VARK…

  9. Peer Victimization, Self-Esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-Context Interactions

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Zeevalkink, Herma; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16 years who participated in a three-wave (i.e., 2005,…

  10. Corticosterone stress response shows long-term repeatability and links to personality in free-living Nazca boobies.

    Grace, Jacquelyn K; Anderson, David J

    2014-11-01

    The concept of "coping styles", or consistently different responses to stressors, is of broad interest in behavioral ecology and biomedicine. Two critical predictions of this concept are individual consistency of neurophysiological and behavioral responses (relative to population variability) and a negative relationship between aggression/proactivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Recent studies failed to provide strong support for these predictions, especially outside of strictly controlled conditions, and long-term measures to test the first prediction are rare. Here, we demonstrate individual repeatability across 2-3years of maximum circulating corticosterone concentration [CORT] and area under the [CORT] response curve (AUCI) during a standard capture-restraint test in wild, free-living adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti). We also show that the stress response predicts the personality traits aggression and anxiety in these birds (measured in the wild); however, the strength of these results was weak. Maximum [CORT] and AUCI showed higher repeatability between years than baseline [CORT]. After controlling breeding status, sex, mass, date sampled, and their interactions, baseline [CORT] was most closely related to personality traits, followed by AUCI, and then maximum [CORT]. The direction of these relationships depended on whether the testing context was social or non-social. [CORT] parameters had little to no relationship with cross-context plasticity in personality traits. Our results generally affirm two critical predictions of coping styles, but match the emerging trend that these relationships are weak in the wild, and may depend on testing context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Postabsorptive hyperglucagonemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus analyzed with a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Matsuo, Toshihiro; Miyagawa, Jun-Ichiro; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Ikawa, Takashi; Akagami, Takafumi; Tokuda, Masaru; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Kushida, Akira; Inagaki, Takashi; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the performance of a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring glucagon (1-29) with monoclonal antibodies against both the C- and N-terminal regions of glucagon (1-29), and to analyze the differences in plasma levels and responses of glucagon (1-29) to oral glucose loading in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The cross-reactivity against proglucagon fragments using the ELISA kit and two types of conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits was evaluated. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was carried out with NGT subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the glucagon (1-29) concentration was measured using three types of kit. The ELISA kit clearly had the lowest cross-reactivity against miniglucagon (19-29) and glicentin (1-61). The oral glucose tolerance test was carried out with 30 NGT and 17 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The glucagon (1-29) levels measured by the ELISA kit after glucose loading were significantly higher at all time-points in the type 2 diabetes mellitus group than in the NGT group. However, the glucagon (1-29) levels measured by one RIA kit were significantly higher in the NGT group, and those measured with the other RIA kit were approximately the same among the groups. The novel sandwich ELISA accurately determines plasma glucagon (1-29) concentrations with much less cross-reactivity against other proglucagon fragments than conventional RIA kits.

  12. Pain Processing in a Social Context and the Link with Psychopathic Personality Traits—An Event-Related Potential Study

    Casper H. van Heck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy describes the ability to understand another person’s feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to investigate pain empathy and pain sensitivity by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs extracted from the ongoing EEG in an interactive setup. Each participant fulfilled subsequently the role of “villain” and “victim”. In addition, mode of control was modulated resulting in four different conditions; passive villain, active villain, active victim and passive victim. Response-, visual- and pain ERPs were compared between the four conditions. Furthermore, the role of psychopathic traits in these outcomes was investigated. Our findings suggested that people experience more conflict when hurting someone else than hurting themselves. Furthermore, our results indicated that self-controlled pain was experienced as more painful than uncontrolled pain. People that scored high on psychopathic traits seemed to process and experience pain differently. According to the results of the current study, social context, attention and personality traits seem to modulate pain processing and the empathic response to pain in self and others. The within-subject experimental design described here provides an excellent approach to further unravel the influence of social context and personality traits on social cognition.

  13. Assessment of personality type and medical specialty choice among medical students from Karachi; using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) tool.

    Jafrani, Sana; Zehra, Nosheen; Zehra, Muneeza; Abuzar Ali, Syed Muhmmad; Abubakar Mohsin, Saiyed Abdullah; Azhar, Rasheed

    2017-04-01

    To assess personality type of medical students and associate it with their choice of medical specialty. This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2014 at one public and one private medical university of Karachi, and comprised medical students. A self- administered questionnaire based on Myers-Briggs type indicator was used to collect data which was analysed using SPSS 20. Of the 400 participants, there were 200(50%) each from public and private universities. Of all, 201(50.3%) students were found to be extroverted and 199(49.8%) were introverted personality types. Clinical fields were the main preference of students after their medical degree as selected by 317(79.2%) students; of the, Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceptive was the most common type identified in39(7.2%) students. Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceptive 11(2.8%), Extroverted-Sensing-Thinking-Judging 12(3%), Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Judging 5(1.3%), Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Judging 6(1.5%), Introverted-Sensing-Thinking-Perceptive 7(1.8%) had preference for surgery, medicine, gynaecology, paediatrics and cardiology, respectively. Personality had significant impact on specialty and career choice.

  14. Emotion detection deficits and changes in personality traits linked to loss of white matter integrity in primary progressive aphasia

    Namita Multani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-cognitive features including personality changes are increasingly recognized in the three PPA variants (semantic-svPPA, non fluent-nfvPPA, and logopenic-lvPPA. However, differences in emotion processing among the PPA variants and its association with white matter tracts are unknown. We compared emotion detection across the three PPA variants and healthy controls (HC, and related them to white matter tract integrity and cortical degeneration. Personality traits in the PPA group were also examined in relation to white matter tracts. Thirty-three patients with svPPA, nfvPPA, lvPPA, and 32 HC underwent neuropsychological assessment, emotion evaluation task (EET, and MRI scan. Patients' study partners were interviewed on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR and completed an interpersonal traits assessment, the Interpersonal Adjective Scale (IAS. Diffusion tensor imaging of uncinate fasciculus (UF, superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, and voxel-based morphometry to derive gray matter volumes for orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, anterior temporal lobe (ATL regions were performed. In addition, gray matter volumes of white matter tract-associated regions were also calculated: inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, posterior temporal lobe (PTL, inferior parietal lobe (IPL and occipital lobe (OL. ANCOVA was used to compare EET performance. Partial correlation and multivariate linear regression were conducted to examine association between EET and neuroanatomical regions affected in PPA. All three variants of PPA performed significantly worse than HC on EET, and the svPPA group was least accurate at recognizing emotions. Performance on EET was related to the right UF, SLF, and ILF integrity. Regression analysis revealed EET performance primarily relates to the right UF integrity. The IAS subdomain, cold-hearted, was also associated with right UF integrity. Disease-specific emotion recognition and personality changes occur

  15. Assessment of job stress factors and organizational personality types for procedure-based jobs in nuclear power plants

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Lee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jung-Woon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the organizational types and the job stress factors that affect procedure-based job performances in nuclear power plants. We derived 24 organizational factors affecting job stress level in nuclear power plants from the job stress analysis models developed by NIOSH, JDI, and IOR. Considering the safety characteristics in the operating tasks of nuclear power plants, we identified the job contents and characteristics through the analyses of job assignments that appeared in the organizational chart and the results of an activity-based costing. By using questionnaire surveys and structured interviews with the plant personnel and expert panels, we assessed 70 jobs among the 777 jobs managed officially in accordance with the procedures. They consist of the representative jobs of each department and are directly related to safety. We utilized the organizational personality type indicators to characterize the personality types of each organization in nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Incidence, prevalence and seasonal onset variation of Addison's disease among persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus: nationwide, matched cohort studies.

    Chantzichristos, Dimitrios; Persson, Anders; Eliasson, Björn; Miftaraj, Mervete; Franzén, Stefan; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2018-01-01

    We determined the incidence and prevalence of Addison's disease (AD) among persons with or without type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in nationwide, matched cohort studies. Persons with T1DM were identified from the Swedish National Diabetes Register and each was matched for age, sex, year and county to five controls randomly selected from the general population. Persons with AD were identified from the Swedish National Inpatient Register. Baseline demographics and seasonal onset variation of AD were presented by descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence were estimated by proportions and incidence rates, respectively. Times to AD were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Between 1998 and 2013, 66 persons with T1DM were diagnosed with AD at a mean age (s.d.) of 36.4 (13.0) years among 36 514 persons with T1DM, while 32 were diagnosed with AD at a mean age of 42.7 (15.2) years among 182 570 controls. The difference in mean age at diagnosis of AD between the groups was 6.3 years ( P value = 0.036). The incidence of AD for a person with or without T1DM was therefore 193 and 18 per million person-years, respectively. The adjusted relative risk increase of developing AD in T1DM was 10.8 (95% CI: 7.1-16.5). The highest incidence of AD was observed during February-March and September-October. The prevalence of AD in persons with or without T1DM in December 2012 was 3410 and 208 per million, respectively. The odds ratio for AD in persons with T1DM vs controls was 16.5 (95% CI: 11.1-24.5). The risk to develop AD among persons with T1DM is more than 10 times higher than in persons without T1DM. Persons with T1DM develop AD at a younger age. The incidence of AD may have a seasonal pattern. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Correlation Among the Army Combat Identifier, Personality Type, and Career Satisfaction

    Garren, Laura J

    2005-01-01

    Retaining quality officers in today's volunteer Army is critical. Personality should be considered during the selection process to assist in placing officers in a career branch suited to their character...

  18. Performance testing of selected types of electronic personal dosimeters used in Sudan

    Suliman, I.I.; Yousif, E.H.; Beineen, A.A.; Yousif, B.E.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements were carried out for calibration and performance testing of a set of 10 electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. Calibrations were carried out at three X-ray beam qualities described in ISO standard 4037 in addition to 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma ray beams. The experimental was performed with EPDs mounted on ICRU Slab phantom. X-ray and γ-ray beams were characterized in terms of air kerma free-in-air which were converted to the known delivered personal dose equivalent, H p (10) using appropriate the air kerma to personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Dosimeters tested showed excellent energy and angular response and relative error of indication within the recommended limit for photon energies from 65 keV to 1.25 MeV. The study showed encouraging results for using electronic dosimeters in personal dosimetry.

  19. Influence of Personality Type and Anonymity on Participation in a Group Support System

    Hartmann, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A group support system (GSS) uses a combination of networked personal computers, software that collects, manipulates, and aggregates member's individual input, and human facilitation to improve the group decision-making process...

  20. Type D personality and the development of PTSD symptoms: a prospective study

    Rademaker, Arthur R.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-01-01

    Psychological trauma and prolonged stress may cause mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma personality is an important determinant of posttraumatic adjustment. Specifically, trait neuroticism has been identified as a risk factor for PTSD. Additionally, the

  1. DC-DC Type High-Frequency Link DC for Improved Power Quality of Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

    Sadikin, Muhammad; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    Multilevel inverters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for power system applications. Recent advances in power switching devices enabled the suitability of multilevel inverters for high voltage and high power applications because they are connecting several devices in series without the need of component matching. Usually, a transformerless battery energy storage system, based on a cascaded multilevel inverter, is used as a measure for voltage and frequency deviations. System can be reduced in size, weight, and cost of energy storage system. High-frequency link circuit topology is advantageous in realizing compact and light-weight power converters for uninterruptible power supply systems, new energy systems using photovoltaic-cells, fuel-cells and so on. This paper presents a DC-DC type high-frequency link DC (HFLDC) cascaded multilevel inverter. Each converter cell is implemented a control strategy for two H-bridge inverters that are controlled with the same multicarrier pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The proposed cascaded multilevel inverter generates lower voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) in comparison with conventional cascaded multilevel inverter. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter.

  2. A variation in the cerebroside sulfotransferase gene is linked to exercise-modified insulin resistance and to type 2 diabetes

    Roeske-Nielsen, A.; Buschard, K.; Manson, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    .8.2.11). The aim of this study was to investigate whether two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), rs2267161 located in an exon or rs42929 located in an intron, in the gene encoding CST are linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: As a population survey, 265 male and female patients suffering from T2D and 291...... gender matched controls were examined. RESULTS: A higher proportion of T2D patients were heterozygous at SNP rs2267161 with both T (methionine) and C (valine) alleles present (49.8% versus 41.3%, P = .04). The calculated odd risk for T2D was 1.47 (1.01-2.15, P = .047). Among female controls...

  3. Success of nutrition-therapy interventions in persons with type 2 diabetes: challenges and future directions

    Franz MJ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marion J Franz,1 Janice MacLeod2 1Nutrition Concepts by Franz, Minneapolis, MN, 2Clinical Innovation, WellDoc, Columbia, MD, USA Abstract: A systematic review was conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to determine the evidence for the effectiveness of individualized nutrition therapy provided by a dietitian nutritionist and evidence-based (EB nutrition-therapy interventions in adults with diabetes. This article briefly reviews the systematic process used and summarizes the effectiveness evidence and intervention recommendations. In persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D, 18 studies met study criteria for the effectiveness question. A 0.3%–2.0% decrease from baseline in glycated hemoglobin was reported at 3 months in 13 study arms, a 0.3%–1.8% decrease at 6 months in 12 study arms, a 0.3%–1.6% decrease at 12 months with ongoing support in six study arms, and a 0.6%–1.8% decrease at >12 months in four study arms. An initial series of encounters with follow-up visits and implementation of a variety of nutrition-therapy interventions, all of which reduced energy intake, were reported. Nutrition therapy also significantly decreased doses or number of glucose-lowering medications used and resulted in improvements in quality of life. Mixed effects on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight were reported. Fourteen questions were identified related to nutrition-therapy interventions. A total of 38 studies met study criteria for the nutrition-intervention questions, from which 30 conclusion statements and 19 nutrition-practice guideline recommendations for T2D were written. Three additional NPG recommendations for T2D were written based on evidence reviewed by the American Diabetes Association. The 22 nutrition-intervention recommendations for T2D are summarized. How to implement nutrition-practice guideline recommendations effectively by health care providers and individuals with T2D remains challenging. Of importance, it is

  4. Ion torrent personal genome machine sequencing for genomic typing of Neisseria meningitidis for rapid determination of multiple layers of typing information.

    Vogel, Ulrich; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Claus, Heike; Jünemann, Sebastian; Prior, Karola; Harmsen, Dag

    2012-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes invasive meningococcal disease in infants, toddlers, and adolescents worldwide. DNA sequence-based typing, including multilocus sequence typing, analysis of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance, and sequence typing of vaccine antigens, has become the standard for molecular epidemiology of the organism. However, PCR of multiple targets and consecutive Sanger sequencing provide logistic constraints to reference laboratories. Taking advantage of the recent development of benchtop next-generation sequencers (NGSs) and of BIGSdb, a database accommodating and analyzing genome sequence data, we therefore explored the feasibility and accuracy of Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing for genomic typing of meningococci. Three strains from a previous meningococcus serogroup B community outbreak were selected to compare conventional typing results with data generated by semiconductor chip-based sequencing. In addition, sequencing of the meningococcal type strain MC58 provided information about the general performance of the technology. The PGM technology generated sequence information for all target genes addressed. The results were 100% concordant with conventional typing results, with no further editing being necessary. In addition, the amount of typing information, i.e., nucleotides and target genes analyzed, could be substantially increased by the combined use of genome sequencing and BIGSdb compared to conventional methods. In the near future, affordable and fast benchtop NGS machines like the PGM might enable reference laboratories to switch to genomic typing on a routine basis. This will reduce workloads and rapidly provide information for laboratory surveillance, outbreak investigation, assessment of vaccine preventability, and antibiotic resistance gene monitoring.

  5. A unique combination of autoimmune limbic encephalitis, type 1 diabetes, and Stiff person syndrome associated with GAD-65 antibody

    Chandra Mohan Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to GAD-65 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes , limbic encephalitis and Stiff person syndrome, however these diseases rarely occur concurrently. We intend to present a rare case of 35 year old female who was recently diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes presented with 1½ month history of recurrent seizures, subacute onset gait ataxia, dysathria, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive decline. No tumor was found on imaging and the classic paraneoplastic panel was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood was positive for GAD-65 antibodies.Patient showed significant improvement with immunomodulatory therapy. Association of GAD-65 antibodies has been found with various disorders including type 1 diabetes, limbic encephalitis, Stiff person syndrome,cerebellar ataxia and palatal myoclonus.This case presents with unique combination of type 1 diabetes, Stiff person syndrome and limbic encephalitis associated with GAD-65 antibodies that is responsive to immunotherapy. It also highlights the emerging concept of autoimmunity in the causation of various disorders and there associations.

  6. Field assessment of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for foot-and-mouth disease virus diagnosis and typing

    Smitsaart, E.; Fondevila, N.; Compaired, D.; Maradei, E.; Fernandez, E.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in comparison with the complement fixation test (CFT) for the diagnosis and typing of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV). Diagnostic material was epithelium from either suspected cases of FMD or from animals experimentally infected with FMDV. Epithelial suspensions and supernatant fluids from cell culture passage were assayed by CFT and ELISA. The superiority of the ELISA over the CFT was demonstrated: 1) the detection rate was 23% higher than that of CFT on original (epithelial) suspensions (OS) submissions of all sample (positive and negative) and 30% higher on supernatant fluids from cell culture passage, 2) the detection rate of ELISA on OS of confirmed positive samples was 28% higher than that of CFT, 3) no significant differences were observed in the detection and typing rates between the PANAFTOSA and FAO/IAEA ELISA kits (P<0.05) and 4) the sensitivity of the ELISA was 16 to 85 times higher than that of CFT when serial dilutions of sample homogenates were examined. (author)

  7. Project Engage: Snowball Sampling and Direct Recruitment to Identify and Link Hard-to-Reach HIV-Infected Persons Who Are Out of Care.

    Wohl, Amy Rock; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Kulkarni, Sonali; Bendetson, Jesse; Jordan, Wilbert; Bolan, Robert; Smith, Terry; Cunningham, William; Pérez, Mario J

    2017-06-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to identify and link hard-to-find persons living with HIV (PLWH) who are out of care (OOC). Project Engage, a health department-based project in Los Angeles County, used a mixed-methods approach to locate and provide linkage for PLWH who have limited contact with HIV medical and nonmedical services. Incentivized social network recruitment (SNR) and direct recruitment (DR) was used to identify eligible OOC alters for a linkage intervention that included HIV clinic selection, appointment and transportation support, reminder calls/texts, and clinic navigation. Between 2012 and 2015, 112 alters were identified using SNR (n = 74) and DR (n = 38). Most alters were male (80%), African American (38%), and gay (60%). Sizable percentages were homeless (78%), had engaged in sex work (32%) in the previous 6 months, had injected drugs (47%), were incarcerated in the previous 12 months (50%), and had only received HIV care during the previous 5 years while incarcerated (24%). SNR alters were more likely than DR alters to be African American, uninsured, unemployed, homeless, sex workers, injection drug users, recently incarcerated, and have unmet service needs. Alters linked to care within 3 (69%), 4-6 (5%), and 7-12 months (8%), and 72% were retained at 6-12 months. The percent virally suppressed increased (27% vs. 41%) and the median viral load decreased (P = 0.003) between linkage and follow-up at 6-12 months. The alternative approaches presented were effective at locating marginalized HIV-positive persons who are OOC for linkage and retention. The SNR approach was most successful at identifying alters with serious social challenges and gaps in needed medical/ancillary services.

  8. The Comparison of Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionism and Type A Personality in The Perceived Parenting Styles in University Students

    مریم جهان بخش; ابوالقاسم خوش کنش; محمود حیدری

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive...

  9. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  10. The Distressed (Type D) Personality Is Independently Associated With Tinnitus : A Case-Control Study

    Bartels, Hilke; Middel, Berrie; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Staal, Michiel J.; Albers, Frans W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tinnitus is a common and disturbing condition, reported by 10% to 20% of the general population. Objective: The authors sought to determine personality characteristics associated with tinnitus patients versus a control group of ear-nose-throat (ENT) patients without tinnitus. Method:

  11. Different types of out-of-home activities and well-being amongst urban residing old persons with mobility impediments

    Siren, Anu; Hjorthol, Randi; Levin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    , a complex one. The present study explicates this by focusing on how utilitarian and discretionary activities—representing different types out-of-home activities—contribute to well-being, using data from individual interviews with persons aged 80–95, living in Copenhagen, Denmark. We structured the material...... by the two activity types and found both to contribute to participants׳ well-being by representing different sides of ‘being’. Utilitarian activities were important in maintaining independence and fulfilling basic needs, while discretionary activities were important for the individual existing in relation...

  12. The distressed (Type D) and Five-Factor Models of personality in young, healthy adults and their association with emotional inhibition and distress

    Svansdóttir, E.; van den Broek, K.C.; Karlsson, H.D.; Olason, D.T.; Thorgilsson, H.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The distressed (Type D) personality (the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) has been associated with adverse health outcomes. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct against the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality, and its association with

  13. Development of a prototype continuity of care record with context-specific links to meet the information needs of case managers for persons living with HIV.

    Schnall, Rebecca; Cimino, James J; Bakken, Suzanne

    2012-08-01

    (1) To develop a prototype Continuity of Care Record (CCR) with context-specific links to electronic HIV information resources; and (2) to assess case managers' perceptions regarding the usability of the prototype. We integrated context-specific links to HIV case management information resources into a prototype CCR using the Infobutton Manager and Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment (LITE). Case managers (N=9) completed a think-aloud protocol and the Computer System Usability Questionnaire (CSUQ) to evaluate the usability of the prototype. Verbalizations from the think-aloud protocol were summarized using thematic analysis. CSUQ data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Although participants expressed positive comments regarding the usability of the prototype, the think-aloud protocol also identified the need for improvement in resource labels and for additional resources. On a scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 7 (strongly disagree), the average CSUQ overall satisfaction was 2.25 indicating that users (n=9) were generally satisfied with the system. Mean CSUQ factor scores were: System Usefulness (M=2.13), Information Quality (M=2.46), and Interface Quality (M=2.26). Our novel application of the Infobutton Manager and LITE in the context of case management for persons living with HIV in community-based settings resulted in a prototype CCR with infobuttons that met the majority of case managers' information needs and received relatively positive usability ratings. Findings from this study inform future integration of context-specific links into CCRs and electronic health records and support their use for meeting end-users information needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Type D personality is associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and an unhealthy lifestyle in a cross-sectional Dutch community sample

    Denollet Johan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Type D-Distressed-personality have a general tendency towards increased negative affectivity (NA, while at the same time inhibiting these emotions in social situations (SI. Type D personality is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether Type D personality is a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy populations remains to be investigated. In the present study, the relations between Type D personality and classical cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. metabolic syndrome and lifestyle were investigated in a Dutch community sample. Methods In a cross-sectional study 1592 participants were included, aged 20-80 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by self-report, following the International Diabetes Federation-IDF-guidelines including an increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. In addition lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol use, exercise and dietary habits were examined. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was stratified by Type D personality (a high score on both NA and SI, lifestyle and confounders age, gender, having a partner, higher education level, cardiac history, family history of cardiovascular disease. Results Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in persons with a Type D personality (13% vs. 6%. Persons with Type D personality made poorer lifestyle choices, adhered less to the physical activity norm (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.1-2.0, p = .02, had a less varied diet (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.70, p p = .01. Type D personality was related to a twofold increased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.2, 95%CI = 1.2-4.0, p = .011, independent of lifestyle factors and confounders. Conclusions Type D personality is related to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and unhealthy lifestyle, which suggests both behavioral and biological vulnerability for development of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Myers-Briggs Personality Types in Air Traffic Controllers

    Dollar, Carolyn S; Schroeder, David J

    2004-01-01

    .... The study investigated the relationship between MBTI types and initial success in the Air Traffic Control Academy Screen Program, subsequent field training outcomes, and transition to a supervisory...

  16. Personality variables and compliance with insulin therapy in Type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Gentili, P; Maldonato, A; Bloise, D; Burla, F; Coronel, G; Di Paolantonio, T

    2000-02-01

    Forty-five diabetic patients were studied to evaluate adaptation and coping strategies. The authors have also analysed personality traits mainly to study different behaviour in compliance conduct. The results revealed an important psychological dimension made up of difficulties in accepting insulin immediately, in fear of addiction and doubts about the therapy. On the basis of these results the sample was then divided into two subgroups, which were then tested and compared with the Adjective Check List. The subgroup that showed more fear, insecurity and initial resistance towards insulin therapy appeared to be more rigid and seemingly conforming. These people also revealed personality aspects compatible with the presence of passive-aggressive and avoidant traits.

  17. Type tests to the automatic thermoluminescent dosimetry system acquired by the CPHR for personal dosimetry

    Molina P, D.; Pernas S, R.; Martinez G, A.

    2006-01-01

    The CPHR individual monitoring service acquired an automatic RADOS TLD system to improve its capacities to satisfy the increasing needs of their national customers. The TLD system consists of: two automatic TLD reader, model DOSACUS, a TLD irradiator and personal dosimeters card including slide and holders. The dosimeters were composed by this personal dosimeters card and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (model GR-200) detectors. These readers provide to detectors a constant temperature readout cycle using hot nitrogen gas. In order to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system, different performance tests recommended by the IEC 1066 standard were carried out. Important dosimetric characteristics evaluated were batch homogeneity, reproducibility, detection threshold, energy dependence, residual signal and fading. The results of the tests showed good performance characteristics of the system. (Author)

  18. HTLV-1 Tax-induced NFκB activation is independent of Lys-63-linked-type polyubiquitination

    Gohda, Jin; Irisawa, Masato; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Sato, Shintaro; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Inoue, Jun-ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) is thought to play a critical role in T-cell transformation and onset of adult T-cell leukemia. However, the molecular mechanism of the Tax-induced NFκB activation remains unknown. One of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinses (MAP3Ks) members, TAK1, plays a critical role in cytokine-induced activation of NFκB, which involves lysine 63-linked (K63) polyubiquitination of NEMO, a noncatalytic subunit of the IκB kinase complex. Here we show that Tax induces K63 polyubiquitination of NEMO. However, TAK1 is dispensable for Tax-induced NFκB activation, and deubiquitination of the K63 polyubiquitin chain failed to block Tax-induced NFκB activation. In addition, silencing of other MAP3Ks, including MEKK1, MEKK3, NIK, and TPL-2, did not affect Tax-induced NFκB activation. These results strongly suggest that unlike cytokine signaling, Tax-induced NFκB activation does not involve K63 polyubiquitination-mediated MAP3K activation

  19. Abnormal late visual responses and alpha oscillations in neurofibromatosis type 1: a link to visual and attention deficits

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) affects several areas of cognitive function including visual processing and attention. We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the visual deficits of children and adolescents with NF1 by studying visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and brain oscillations during visual stimulation and rest periods. Methods Electroencephalogram/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) responses were measured during visual processing (NF1 n = 17; controls n = 19) and idle periods with eyes closed and eyes open (NF1 n = 12; controls n = 14). Visual stimulation was chosen to bias activation of the three detection mechanisms: achromatic, red-green and blue-yellow. Results We found significant differences between the groups for late chromatic VEPs and a specific enhancement in the amplitude of the parieto-occipital alpha amplitude both during visual stimulation and idle periods. Alpha modulation and the negative influence of alpha oscillations in visual performance were found in both groups. Conclusions Our findings suggest abnormal later stages of visual processing and enhanced amplitude of alpha oscillations supporting the existence of deficits in basic sensory processing in NF1. Given the link between alpha oscillations, visual perception and attention, these results indicate a neural mechanism that might underlie the visual sensitivity deficits and increased lapses of attention observed in individuals with NF1. PMID:24559228

  20. A possible link of gut microbiota alteration in type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease pathogenicity: an update.

    Alam, Mohammad Z; Alam, Qamre; Kamal, Mohammad A; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Haque, Absarul

    2014-04-01

    Imbalances in gut microbiota are associated with metabolic disorder, which are a group of obesity-related metabolic abnormalities that increase an individual's risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although a number of risk factors have been postulated that may trigger the development of AD, the root cause of this disease is still a matter of debate. This review further investigates the etiology of AD by accumulating the current role played by gut microbiota in human, and trying to establish an inter-link between T2D and AD pathogenesis. There is a growing body of evidence which suggests that obesity is associated with alteration in the normal gut flora, reduced bacterial diversity, metabolic pathways and altered representation of bacterial genes. Obesity and T2D are considered to be induced as a result of changes within the composition of gut microbiota. The evidence gathered so far clearly advocates the involvement of gut microbes in causing obesity, a state of chronic and low-grade inflammation. Hence, understanding the microbiota of the gut is significant in relation to inflammation, as it is a key contributor for diabetes which has a direct relation to the AD pathogenesis. Comparative analysis of gut microbiota may enable further novel insight into the complex biology of AD, which is very important in order to take preventive measure such as early diagnosis, identification of new therapeutic targets and development of novel drugs.

  1. Influence of the linking spacer length and type on the enantioseparation ability of β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths.

    Guo, Jialiang; Xiao, Yuan; Lin, Yuanjing; Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Chang, Yiqun; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-05-15

    In order to investigate the effect of the linking spacer on the enantioseparation ability of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized polymeric monoliths, three β-CD-functionalized organic polymeric monoliths with different spacer lengths were prepared by using three amino-β-CDs, i.e. mono-6-amino-6-deoxy-β-CD, mono-6-ethylenediamine-6-deoxy-β-CD, mono-6-hexamethylenediamine-6-deoxy-β-CD, as starting materials. These amino-β-CDs reacted with glycidyl methacrylate to produce functional monomers which were then copolymerized with ethylene dimethacrylate. The enantioseparation ability of the three monoliths was evaluated using 14 chiral acidic compounds, including mandelic acid derivatives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, N-derivatized amino acids, and chiral herbicides under optimum chromatographic conditions. Notably, the poly(GMA-NH2-β-CD-co-EDMA) column provides higher enantioresolution and enantioselectivity than the poly(GMA-EDA-β-CD-co-EDMA) and poly(GMA-HDA-β-CD-co-EDMA) columns for most tested chiral analytes. Furthermore, the enantioseparation performance of triazole-linker containing monoliths was compared to that of ethylenediamine-linker containing monoliths. The results indicate that the enantioselectivity of β-CD monolithic columns is strongly related to the length and type of spacer tethering β-CD to the polymeric support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. APC and Smad7 link TGFβ type I receptors to the microtubule system to promote cell migration

    Ekman, Maria; Mu, Yabing; Lee, So Young; Edlund, Sofia; Kozakai, Takaharu; Thakur, Noopur; Tran, Hoanh; Qian, Jiang; Groeden, Joanna; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Landström, Maréne

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration occurs by activation of complex regulatory pathways that are spatially and temporally integrated in response to extracellular cues. Binding of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) to the microtubule plus ends in polarized cells is regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). This event is crucial for establishment of cell polarity during directional migration. However, the role of APC for cellular extension in response to extracellular signals is less clear. Smad7 is a direct target gene for transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and is known to inhibit various TGFβ-induced responses. Here we report a new function for Smad7. We show that Smad7 and p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase together regulate the expression of APC and cell migration in prostate cancer cells in response to TGFβ stimulation. In addition, Smad7 forms a complex with APC and acts as an adaptor protein for p38 and GSK-3β kinases to facilitate local TGFβ/p38–dependent inactivation of GSK-3β, accumulation of β-catenin, and recruitment of APC to the microtubule plus end in the leading edge of migrating prostate cancer cells. Moreover, the Smad7–APC complex links the TGFβ type I receptor to the microtubule system to regulate directed cellular extension and migratory responses evoked by TGFβ. PMID:22496417

  3. Predictive biomarkers for type 2 of diabetes mellitus: Bridging the gap between systems research and personalized medicine.

    Kraniotou, Christina; Karadima, Vasiliki; Bellos, George; Tsangaris, George Th

    2018-03-05

    The global incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) has assumed epidemic proportions, leading to adverse health and socio-economic impacts. It is therefore of critical importance the early diagnosis of DM2 patients and the detection of those at increased risk of disease. In this respect, Precision Medicine (PM) is an emerging approach that includes practices, tests, decisions and treatments adapted to the characteristics of each patient. With regard to DM2, PM manages a wealth of "omics" data (genomic, metabolic, proteomic, environmental, clinical and paraclinical) to increase the number of clinically validated biomarkers in order to identify patients in early stage even before the prediabetic phase. In this paper, we discuss the epidemic dimension of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the urgent demand for novel biomarkers to reduce the incidence or even delay the onset of DM2. Recent research data produced by "multi-omics" technologies (genomics/epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics), suggest that many potential biomarkers might be helpful in the prediction and early diagnosis of DM2. Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine (PPPM) manages and integrates these data to apply personalized, preventive, and therapeutic approaches. This is significant because there is an emerging need for establishing channels for communication and personalized consultation between systems research and precision medicine, as the medicine of the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Within-person relationship between self-efficacy and performance across trials. Effect of task objective and task type.

    Hepler, Teri J; Ritchie, Jason; Hill, Christopher R

    2017-07-05

    Self-efficacy has been shown to be a consistent, positive predictor of between-persons performance in sport. However, there have been equivocal results regarding the influence of self-efficacy on a person's performance over time. This study investigated the influence of self-efficacy on motor skill performance across trials with respect to two different task objectives and task types. Participants (N=84) performed 4 blocks of 10 trials of a dart throwing (closed skill) and a hitting (open skill) task under 2 different task objectives: competitive and goal-striving. For the goal-striving condition, success was defined as reaching a pre-determined performance level. The competitive condition involved competing against an opponent. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the influence of past performance and self-efficacy on the within-person performance across multiple trials. Previous performance was negatively related with subsequent performance on all conditions. Self-efficacy was not a significant predictor of performance on any of the conditions. While task objective and task type did not moderate the efficacy-performance relationship in the current study, it is important to consider the role of other moderators in future research.

  5. Effect of Perceived Politics and Perceived Support on Bullying and Emotional Exhaustion: The Moderating Role of Type A Personality.

    Naseer, Saima; Raja, Usman; Donia, Magda Bezerra Leite

    2016-07-03

    Recognizing that bullying can occur in varying degrees of severity, the current study suggest the importance of individual traits in individual perceptions of being targets of bullying and ensuing emotional exhaustion. The present study extends the work environment hypothesis and trait activation theory by a joint investigation of the mediating role of (a) workplace bullying in linking perceived organization politics and perceived organization support with emotional exhaustion and (b) the moderating role of Type A behavioral pattern in influencing the mediation. Using a field sample of 262 employees working in different organizations of Pakistan, this study tested a moderated mediation model. Results were consistent with the hypothesized model, in that workplace bullying mediated the relationship of perceived organization politics and perceived organization support with emotional exhaustion. Type A behavior moderated the perceived politics-bullying, perceived support-bullying, and bullying-emotional exhaustion relationships. The mediation of bullying varied with levels of Type A behavior in these relationships.

  6. Type D (distressed) personality and its assessment with the DS14 in Lithuanian patients with coronary artery disease.

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Staniute, Margarita; Brozaitiene, Julija; Stropute, Dalia; Bunevicius, Robertas; Denollet, Johan

    2013-09-01

    We examined Type D personality (combination of negative affectivity with social inhibition) and its assessment with the DS14 in 543 Lithuanian coronary patients. Psychometric analyses confirmed the two-factor structure, internal consistency (α = 0.84/α = 0.75), and test-retest reliability (r = 0.69/0.81) of the DS14 negative affectivity and inhibition components. Negative affectivity correlated (r = -0.58) with emotional stability and social inhibition (r = -0.46) with extraversion; correlations with other Big-Five traits ranged between r = -0.11 and -0.19. Type D patients (34%) had a ninefold increased odds of depression (95% confidence interval = 5.01-17.36) and a fivefold increased odds of anxiety (95% confidence interval = 3.47-7.97). These findings support the validity of the Type D construct in Lithuania.

  7. Vascular effects of ultrafine particles in persons with type 2 diabetes

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes confers an increased risk for cardiovascular effects of airborne particles. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) would activate blood platelets and vascular endothelium in people with type 2 diabetes. ...

  8. “Team Pair Solo” Cooperative Learning and Personality Type as ...

    ... Type as Determinants of Students' Achievement and Attitude to Chemistry. ... 2x3 factorial setting and a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design. ... recommended that Chemistry teachers should adopt the TPS strategy with

  9. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.

  10. An Investigation into the Role of Mobile Technology in Collaborative Disease Management for Persons Living with Type 2 Diabetes

    S. Sultan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and other chronic non-communicable diseases represent a leading threat to health care and human development. The authors discusses how mobile technology can achieve collaborative disease management (CDM within a population living with Type 2 diabetes. We introduces a framework for CDM using mobile technologies. While it can be applied to the management of any disease, we describe a specific instance for diabetes peer-support. In this paper, we validate the framework through the development and testing of a Mobile Health initiative called Mobile Diabetes Self-Management Support (DSMS. It allows persons living with diabetes to learn from each others’ experiences through a virtual support group. The paper presents two user studies conducted. The first study captured the participants’ initial perceptions of the application in a controlled environment and the second study investigated system usage and collaboration when the application was used in their personal settings.

  11. Influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction in clinical nurses: the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-04-01

    To test a hypothetical path model evaluating the influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction and to identify the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among clinical nurses in South Korea. Personalities susceptible to stress, compassion fatigue, and burnout in clinical nurses have negative effects on the job stress and job satisfaction. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 875 clinical nurses was recruited between December 2014 - February 2015. The structured questionnaires included the Type D personality scale-14, Professional Quality of Life, job stress, job satisfaction, and general characteristics. To test the hypothetical path model, we performed a path analysis by using the AMOS 18·0 program. Based on the path model, type D personality was significantly associated with compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in our study subjects. Type D personality was significantly associated with job stress and job satisfaction via the effect of burnout, compassion satisfaction, and job stress. Since type D personality is associated with job stress and job satisfaction, identifying personalities vulnerable to stress would help to address job stress and to enhance job satisfaction when nurses have a high level of compassion fatigue and burnout and a low level of compassion satisfaction. The development of interventions that can reduce negative affect and social inhibition of nurses with type D personality and investigation of methods to decrease their compassion fatigue and burnout and to increase compassion satisfaction should be encouraged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cyclophilin-B Modulates Collagen Cross-linking by Differentially Affecting Lysine Hydroxylation in the Helical and Telopeptidyl Domains of Tendon Type I Collagen.

    Terajima, Masahiko; Taga, Yuki; Chen, Yulong; Cabral, Wayne A; Hou-Fu, Guo; Srisawasdi, Sirivimol; Nagasawa, Masako; Sumida, Noriko; Hattori, Shunji; Kurie, Jonathan M; Marini, Joan C; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2016-04-29

    Covalent intermolecular cross-linking provides collagen fibrils with stability. The cross-linking chemistry is tissue-specific and determined primarily by the state of lysine hydroxylation at specific sites. A recent study on cyclophilin B (CypB) null mice, a model of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, demonstrated that lysine hydroxylation at the helical cross-linking site of bone type I collagen was diminished in these animals (Cabral, W. A., Perdivara, I., Weis, M., Terajima, M., Blissett, A. R., Chang, W., Perosky, J. E., Makareeva, E. N., Mertz, E. L., Leikin, S., Tomer, K. B., Kozloff, K. M., Eyre, D. R., Yamauchi, M., and Marini, J. C. (2014) PLoS Genet 10, e1004465). However, the extent of decrease appears to be tissue- and molecular site-specific, the mechanism of which is unknown. Here we report that although CypB deficiency resulted in lower lysine hydroxylation in the helical cross-linking sites, it was increased in the telopeptide cross-linking sites in tendon type I collagen. This resulted in a decrease in the lysine aldehyde-derived cross-links but generation of hydroxylysine aldehyde-derived cross-links. The latter were absent from the wild type and heterozygous mice. Glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues was moderately increased in the CypB null tendon. We found that CypB interacted with all lysyl hydroxylase isoforms (isoforms 1-3) and a putative lysyl hydroxylase-2 chaperone, 65-kDa FK506-binding protein. Tendon collagen in CypB null mice showed severe size and organizational abnormalities. The data indicate that CypB modulates collagen cross-linking by differentially affecting lysine hydroxylation in a site-specific manner, possibly via its interaction with lysyl hydroxylases and associated molecules. This study underscores the critical importance of collagen post-translational modifications in connective tissue formation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Cyclophilin-B Modulates Collagen Cross-linking by Differentially Affecting Lysine Hydroxylation in the Helical and Telopeptidyl Domains of Tendon Type I Collagen*

    Terajima, Masahiko; Taga, Yuki; Chen, Yulong; Cabral, Wayne A.; Hou-Fu, Guo; Srisawasdi, Sirivimol; Nagasawa, Masako; Sumida, Noriko; Hattori, Shunji; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Marini, Joan C.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Covalent intermolecular cross-linking provides collagen fibrils with stability. The cross-linking chemistry is tissue-specific and determined primarily by the state of lysine hydroxylation at specific sites. A recent study on cyclophilin B (CypB) null mice, a model of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, demonstrated that lysine hydroxylation at the helical cross-linking site of bone type I collagen was diminished in these animals (Cabral, W. A., Perdivara, I., Weis, M., Terajima, M., Blissett, A. R., Chang, W., Perosky, J. E., Makareeva, E. N., Mertz, E. L., Leikin, S., Tomer, K. B., Kozloff, K. M., Eyre, D. R., Yamauchi, M., and Marini, J. C. (2014) PLoS Genet. 10, e1004465). However, the extent of decrease appears to be tissue- and molecular site-specific, the mechanism of which is unknown. Here we report that although CypB deficiency resulted in lower lysine hydroxylation in the helical cross-linking sites, it was increased in the telopeptide cross-linking sites in tendon type I collagen. This resulted in a decrease in the lysine aldehyde-derived cross-links but generation of hydroxylysine aldehyde-derived cross-links. The latter were absent from the wild type and heterozygous mice. Glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues was moderately increased in the CypB null tendon. We found that CypB interacted with all lysyl hydroxylase isoforms (isoforms 1–3) and a putative lysyl hydroxylase-2 chaperone, 65-kDa FK506-binding protein. Tendon collagen in CypB null mice showed severe size and organizational abnormalities. The data indicate that CypB modulates collagen cross-linking by differentially affecting lysine hydroxylation in a site-specific manner, possibly via its interaction with lysyl hydroxylases and associated molecules. This study underscores the critical importance of collagen post-translational modifications in connective tissue formation. PMID:26934917

  14. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits...... in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly....... Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex...

  15. A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures.

    Allik, Jüri

    2014-01-01

    Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter-the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models.

  16. Type D personality is associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and an unhealthy lifestyle in a cross-sectional Dutch community sample.

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2010-11-19

    People with Type D-Distressed-personality have a general tendency towards increased negative affectivity (NA), while at the same time inhibiting these emotions in social situations (SI). Type D personality is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether Type D personality is a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy populations remains to be investigated. In the present study, the relations between Type D personality and classical cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. metabolic syndrome and lifestyle were investigated in a Dutch community sample. In a cross-sectional study 1592 participants were included, aged 20-80 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by self-report, following the International Diabetes Federation-IDF-guidelines including an increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. In addition lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol use, exercise and dietary habits were examined. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was stratified by Type D personality (a high score on both NA and SI), lifestyle and confounders age, gender, having a partner, higher education level, cardiac history, family history of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in persons with a Type D personality (13% vs. 6%). Persons with Type D personality made poorer lifestyle choices, adhered less to the physical activity norm (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.1-2.0, p = .02), had a less varied diet (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.70, p lifestyle factors and confounders. Type D personality is related to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and unhealthy lifestyle, which suggests both behavioral and biological vulnerability for development of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

  17. Possible genetic link between I-type granite and orogenic gold deposits in Egypt (metamorphic-magmatic interaction?)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    ores revealed two main groups of fluid inclusions in both areas: A) Aqueous inclusions (H2O-NaCl±KCl system), and B) Carbonic inclusions (H2O-CO2-NaCl±CH4). A drop of pressure during the migration of these fluids to shallower depths along the shear zones was the main reason for phase separation. Isochores calculation from microthermometric results proved that, the P-T boundary conditions outlined for Fatira gold deposits are of 275° to 297° C and between (0.2 - 1.2 Kbar); and of 277° to 300° C and between (0.2 - 1 Kbar) for Gidami gold deposits. The normalization Chondrite patterns of rare earth elements (REEs) for the gold-ore deposits with the surrounding I-type granitic rocks exhibit an obvious similarity and positive correlation. The geological, mineralogical, geochemical and fluid inclusions studies revealed a genetic link between gold mineralization and intrusion of calc-alkaine granitic magma. Whereas, The granitic magma acts as a supplier for the ore-bearing fluid and as a heat source for metamorphic processes, leading to hydrothermal convection currents.

  18. Analysis of cardiac images of radionuclide ventriculography in AT-Type personal computer

    Lillo, R.; Gonzalez, P.; Ehijo, A.; Otarola, T.M.S.; Ortiz, M.; Silva, A.M.; Ortiz, M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this research was to produce software for the processing of Cardiac Phase images in personal computers. The results of standard radionuclide Ventriculography and Fourier analysis, got on gamma camera Ohio Nuclear 410 Sygma and Digital PDP 11/34 computer were coded into ASCII file and then transfered via Smarterm 220/Kermit to an Accel 900 AT PC. After decoding the images they were processed with a program develope in C Lenguaje obtaining the values of Phase Angles in the whole phase images and in regions of interest drawn around the cardiac chambers. The images and values were the same as those obtained by conventional processing in the PDP 11/34 computer. This is considered a first stage for the use of PC to Nuclear Medicine imaging studies. (author)

  19. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of folate-linked liposomal doxorubicin with TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor

    Taniguchi, Yukimi; Kawano, Kumi; Minowa, Takuya; Shimojo, Yuki; Maitani, Yoshie; Sugino, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Tumor cell targeting of drug carriers is a promising strategy and uses the attachment of various ligands to enhance the therapeutic potential of chemotherapy agents. Folic acid is a high-affinity ligand for folate receptor, which is a functional tumor-specific receptor. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type I receptor (TβR-I) inhibitor A-83-01 was expected to enhance the accumulation of nanocarriers in tumors by changing the microvascular environment. To enhance the therapeutic effect of folate-linked liposomal doxorubicin (F-SL), we co-administrated F-SL with A-83-01. Intraperitoneally injected A-83-01-induced alterations in the cancer-associated neovasculature were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. The targeting efficacy of single intravenous injections of F-SL combined with A-83-01 was evaluated by measurement of the biodistribution and the antitumor effect in mice bearing murine lung carcinoma M109. A-83-01 temporarily changed the tumor vasculature around 3 h post injection. A-83-01 induced 1.7-fold higher drug accumulation of F-SL in the tumor than liposome alone at 24 h post injection. Moreover F-SL co-administrated with A-83-01 showed significantly greater antitumor activity than F-SL alone. This study shows that co-administration of TβR-I inhibitor will open a new strategy for the use of folate receptor (FR)-targeting nanocarriers for cancer treatment. (author)

  20. Social inhibition and emotional distress in patients with coronary artery disease : The type D personality construct

    Timmermans, I.A.L.; Versteeg, H.; Duijndam, S.N.C.; Graafmans, C.; Polak, P.; Denollet, J.K.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the validity of the social inhibition component of Type D, its distinctiveness from negative affectivity, and value regarding emotional distress as measured with the DS14 in 173 coronary artery disease patients. In dimensional analysis, social inhibition and negative affectivity emerged

  1. [Two scales for job stress and psychological health investigation: type-A personality and job satisfaction].

    Batigün, Ayşegül Durak; Sahin, Nesrin H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of two instruments developed to measure Type-A behaviors and job satisfaction, two important variables mentioned in the stress literature. The data were collected from two different samples, one composed of 426 bank personnel, the other composed of 94 adults working in a private company. The findings are presented separately under the titles Study I and Study II. In both of the studies the assessment instruments used were: Stress Audit (Symptoms), Stress Audit (Vulnerability), Stress Coping Behaviors, Job Satisfaction Scale, and Type-A Behaviors Inventory. For both of the instruments, the studies were based on factor analyses. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory the analyses revealed 4 factors, while for Job Satisfaction Scale they revealed 6 factors. The factor subscales developed from these factors were found to have satisfactory Cronbach's alphas. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory they ranged between .40 and .90; whereas for Job Satisfaction Inventory these values were between .53 and .94. Both studies also included correlational analyses to specify the criterion validity values of the two instruments. The findings revealed that both of the instruments had satisfactory psychometric values, indicating that they can be reliably used in health psychology and job stress studies.

  2. The role of DSM-5 borderline personality symptomatology and traits in the link between childhood trauma and suicidal risk in psychiatric patients.

    Bach, Bo; Fjeldsted, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood traumas appear to be linked to suicidal behavior. However, the factors that mediate between these two phenomena are not sufficiently understood. Recent findings suggest that borderline personality disorder (BPD) may explain some of the association. The present study investigated the potential mediating role of BPD symptomatology and traits between reported childhood trauma and suicidal risk in adult psychiatric outpatients ( N  = 124). BPD symptomatology was measured with DSM-5 Section II criterion-counts (SCID-II; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II), whereas BPD traits were measured with specified DSM-5 Section III traits (PID-5; Personality Inventory for DSM-5). Childhood traumas were self-reported (CTQ; Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), whereas level of suicidal risk was measured with a structured interview (MINI Suicidality Module; Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). Mediation effects were tested by bias-corrected (10.000 boot-strapped samples) confidence intervals. BPD features account for a considerable part of the cross-sectional association between childhood trauma and level of suicidal risk, even when controlling for the influence of gender, age, and educational level. This finding remained stable when testing the model without the suicidality-related BPD criterion and PID-5 items. DSM-5 Section II BPD criterion-counts explained 67% of the total effect, whereas DSM-5 Section III BPD traits accounted for 82% of the total effect. The specific DSM-5 Section III trait facets of "Depressivity" (52%) and "Perceptual Dysregulation" (37%) accounted for most of this effect. The findings provide preliminary support for the proposed mediation model indicating that BPD features may help explain relations between childhood trauma and elevated suicidal risk in adult life, in particular for DSM-5 Section III personality traits of depressivity (e.g., pessimism, guilt, and shame) and perceptual dysregulation (e.g., dissociation). To

  3. DC-Link Voltage Coordinated-Proportional Control for Cascaded Converter With Zero Steady-State Error and Reduced System Type

    Tian, Yanjun; Loh, Poh Chiang; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    Cascaded converter is formed by connecting two subconverters together, sharing a common intermediate dc-link voltage. Regulation of this dc-link voltage is frequently realized with a proportional-integral (PI) controller, whose high gain at dc helps to force a zero steady-state tracking error....... The proposed scheme can be used with either unidirectional or bidirectional power flow, and has been verified by simulation and experimental results presented in this paper........ Such precise tracking is, however, at the expense of increasing the system type, caused by the extra pole at the origin introduced by the PI controller. The overall system may, hence, be tougher to control. To reduce the system type while preserving precise dc-link voltage tracking, this paper proposes...

  4. Effect of Low Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Glucose Profile of Persons with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    Georges Jabbour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES on glucose profile in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Eight persons with T2DM (41 to 65 years completed a glucose tolerance test with and without NMES delivered to the knee extensors for a 1-hour period at 8 Hz. Three blood samples were collected: at rest, and then 60 and 120 minutes after consumption of a glucose load on the NMES and control days. In NMES groups glucose concentrations were significantly lower (P<0.01 than in the control conditions. Moreover, a significant positive correlation (r=0.9, P<0.01 was obtained between the intensity of stimulation and changes in blood glucose. Our results suggest that low-frequency stimulation seem suitable to induce enhance glucose uptake in persons with T2DM. Moreover, the intensity of stimulation reflecting the motor contraction should be considered during NMES procedure.

  5. Mortality reduction among persons with type 2 diabetes: (-)-Epicatechin as add-on therapy to metformin?

    Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Moreno-Ulloa, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes has become a worldwide epidemic, and is growing at a rapid rate with drastic projections for developing countries. Mexico occupies the ninth place worldwide for type 2 diabetes prevalence, and in the foreseeable future, it is expected rise to the seventh place. Myocardial infarction is the most common cause of death in these patients. Although several drugs are approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that reduce factors associated with myocardial infarction, an excess risk of death is still present. In this regard, the American Diabetes Association recommends metformin (oral glucose lowering drug) as the first-line therapy in type 2 diabetic subjects, based on its amply confirmed positive metabolic effects; however, its capacity to reduce cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic subjects is inconclusive. Thus, mortality reduction in these patients has been an elusive goal, and is therefore, imperative to evaluate new pharmacological interventions that may favorably impact mortality in these individuals. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of cacao-derived products (i.e., chocolate and cocoa) may reduce the risk of diabetes, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular disease-associated mortality. Moreover, interventional studies have also suggested that dark chocolate and cocoa consumption is vasculoprotective in normal and type 2 diabetic individuals. (-)-Epicatechin ((-)-EPI) is the main flavanol present in cacao, and suggested to be responsible for the beneficial effects observed after dark chocolate/cocoa consumption. Interestingly, in vivo studies have evidenced the capacity of (-)-EPI to reduce infarct size, and preserve cardiac mechanics in rodent models of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Nonetheless, long-term studies using (-)-EPI and evaluating its effects on mortality are lacking. Thus, based on their particular properties, it is valid to speculate that (-)-EPI and metformin in conjunction may

  6. Low sensitivity of type VII collagen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita : serration pattern analysis on skin biopsy is required for diagnosis

    Terra, J. B.; Jonkman, M. F.; Diercks, G. F. H.; Pas, H. H.

    BackgroundThe type VII collagen (coll VII) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been reported to have high sensitivity (>93%) and specificity (>96%) for diagnosing epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) in patients who are seropositive on indirect immunofluorescence on salt-split skin (SSS).

  7. Absence of nocturnal fall in blood pressure in elderly persons with Alzheimer-type dementia.

    Otsuka, A; Mikami, H; Katahira, K; Nakamoto, Y; Minamitani, K; Imaoka, M; Nishide, M; Ogihara, T

    1990-09-01

    Circadian changes of the blood pressure and heart rate in elderly normotensive bedridden patients with severe dementia of the Alzheimer type (group D) were compared with those in elderly normotensive bedridden patients without dementia (group R), normotensive subjects with normal daily activity (group N), and hypertensive patients with normal daily activity (group H). In groups R, N, and H, the blood pressure increased in the afternoon and decreased at midnight; in group D, however, although it increased in the afternoon, it did not decrease at night. The circadian changes of the heart rate were similar in all four groups, showing maxima in the afternoon and minima at midnight. Thus, a specific alteration was found in the circadian rhythm of the blood pressure in patients with Alzheimer-type dementia.

  8. Feature Extraction with GMDH-Type Neural Networks for EEG-Based Person Identification.

    Schetinin, Vitaly; Jakaite, Livija; Nyah, Ndifreke; Novakovic, Dusica; Krzanowski, Wojtek

    2018-08-01

    The brain activity observed on EEG electrodes is influenced by volume conduction and functional connectivity of a person performing a task. When the task is a biometric test the EEG signals represent the unique "brain print", which is defined by the functional connectivity that is represented by the interactions between electrodes, whilst the conduction components cause trivial correlations. Orthogonalization using autoregressive modeling minimizes the conduction components, and then the residuals are related to features correlated with the functional connectivity. However, the orthogonalization can be unreliable for high-dimensional EEG data. We have found that the dimensionality can be significantly reduced if the baselines required for estimating the residuals can be modeled by using relevant electrodes. In our approach, the required models are learnt by a Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) algorithm which we have made capable of discovering reliable models from multidimensional EEG data. In our experiments on the EEG-MMI benchmark data which include 109 participants, the proposed method has correctly identified all the subjects and provided a statistically significant ([Formula: see text]) improvement of the identification accuracy. The experiments have shown that the proposed GMDH method can learn new features from multi-electrode EEG data, which are capable to improve the accuracy of biometric identification.

  9. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder According to the Crime Types

    Hasan KARADAG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the relation between the crimes committed, and the childhood behavioral problems, current clinical characteristics and anger levels of patients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD. One hundred and fifty-three patients with ASPD were enrolled. The diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV criteria. DSM-IV conduct disorder criteria and life history inventory was used to assess childhood characteristics. The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS was used to assess experience, expression, and control of anger. The main differences between crime groups were as follows: A head trauma history was more frequent in ASPD patients who had a crime history of physical assault. Loss of a parent in childhood was more frequent in individuals who committed burglary. Divorce or separation of the parents in childhood was more frequent in those who committed murder. The usage of weapons in fight during childhood was significantly higher in those who committed murder and aggravated assault. According to STAS scores, the anger control scores were significantly lower in those who committed murder. Childhood and behavioral characteristics of ASPD patients is not homogenous. There is a need for further studies to demonstrate these differences and make a new classification for ASPD. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 13-21

  10. Association of Type D personality with increased vulnerability to depression : Is there a role for inflammation or endothelial dysfunction? - The Maastricht Study

    van Dooren, F.E.P.; Verhey, Frans R J; Pouwer, Frans; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Sep, Simone J S; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Henry, Ronald M A; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Koster, Annemarie; Schram, Miranda T; Denollet, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Type D personality – the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) – has been associated with depression but little is known about underlying mechanisms. We examined whether (1) Type D is a vulnerability factor for depression in general, (2) Type D is associated

  11. Predicting the Air Quality, Thermal Comfort and Draught Risk for a Virtual Classroom with Desk-Type Personalized Ventilation Systems

    Eusébio Z. E. Conceição

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the prediction of indoor air quality (IAQ, thermal comfort (TC and draught risk (DR for a virtual classroom with desk-type personalized ventilation system (PVS. This numerical study considers a coupling of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD, human thermal comfort (HTC and building thermal behavior (BTB numerical models. The following indexes are used: the predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD index is used for the evaluation of the TC level; the carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration in the breathing zone is used for the calculation of IAQ; and the DR level around the occupants is used for the evaluation of the discomfort due to draught. The air distribution index (ADI, based in the TC level, the IAQ level, the effectiveness for heat removal and the effectiveness for contaminant removal, is used for evaluating the performance of the personalized air distribution system. The numerical simulation is made for a virtual classroom with six desks. Each desk is equipped with one PVS with two air terminal devices located overhead and two air terminal devices located below the desktop. In one numerical simulation six occupants are used, while in another simulation twelve occupants are considered. For each numerical simulation an air supply temperature of 20 °C and 24 °C is applied. The results obtained show that the ADI value is higher for twelve persons than for six persons in the classroom and it is higher for an inlet air temperature of 20 °C than for an inlet air temperature of 24 °C. In future works, more combinations of upper and lower air terminal devices located around the body area and more combinations of occupants located in the desks will be analyzed.

  12. Texting for Health: An Evaluation of a Population Approach to Type 2 Diabetes Risk Reduction With a Personalized Message.

    Khurshid, Anjum; Brown, Lisanne; Mukherjee, Snigdha; Abebe, Nebeyou; Kulick, David

    2015-11-01

    txt4health is an innovative, 14-week, interactive, population-based mobile health program for individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes, developed under the Beacon Community Program in the Greater New Orleans, La., area. A comprehensive social marketing campaign sought to enroll hard-to-reach, at-risk populations using a combination of mass media and face-to-face engagement in faith-based and retail environments. Little is known about the effectiveness of social marketing for mobile technology application in the general population. A systematic evaluation of the campaign identified successes and barriers to implementing a population-based mobile health program. Face-to-face engagement helped increase program enrollment after the initial launch; otherwise, enrollment leveled off over time. Results show positive trends in reaching target populations and in the use of mobile phones to record personal health information and set goals for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. The lessons from the txt4health campaign can help inform the development and programmatic strategies to provide a person-level intervention using a population-level approach for individuals at risk for diabetes as well as aid in chronic disease management.

  13. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Recognition of a Person Wearing Sport Shoes or High Heels through Gait Using Two Types of Sensors

    Marcin Derlatka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is currently an area that is both very interesting as well as rapidly growing. Among various types of biometrics the human gait recognition seems to be one of the most intriguing. However, one of the greatest problems within this field of biometrics is the change in gait caused by footwear. A change of shoes results in a significant lowering of accuracy in recognition of people. The following work presents a method which uses data gathered by two sensors: force plates and Microsoft Kinect v2 to reduce this problem. Microsoft Kinect is utilized to measure the body height of a person which allows the reduction of the set of recognized people only to those whose height is similar to that which has been measured. The entire process is preceded by identifying the type of footwear which the person is wearing. The research was conducted on data obtained from 99 people (more than 3400 strides and the proposed method allowed us to reach a Correct Classification Rate (CCR greater than 88% which, in comparison to earlier methods reaching CCR’s of <80%, is a significant improvement. The work presents advantages as well as limitations of the proposed method.

  15. Recognition of a Person Wearing Sport Shoes or High Heels through Gait Using Two Types of Sensors.

    Derlatka, Marcin; Bogdan, Mariusz

    2018-05-21

    Biometrics is currently an area that is both very interesting as well as rapidly growing. Among various types of biometrics the human gait recognition seems to be one of the most intriguing. However, one of the greatest problems within this field of biometrics is the change in gait caused by footwear. A change of shoes results in a significant lowering of accuracy in recognition of people. The following work presents a method which uses data gathered by two sensors: force plates and Microsoft Kinect v2 to reduce this problem. Microsoft Kinect is utilized to measure the body height of a person which allows the reduction of the set of recognized people only to those whose height is similar to that which has been measured. The entire process is preceded by identifying the type of footwear which the person is wearing. The research was conducted on data obtained from 99 people (more than 3400 strides) and the proposed method allowed us to reach a Correct Classification Rate (CCR) greater than 88% which, in comparison to earlier methods reaching CCR’s of <80%, is a significant improvement. The work presents advantages as well as limitations of the proposed method.

  16. Uptake and Effects of the e-Vita Personal Health Record with Self-Management Support and Coaching, for Type 2 Diabetes Patients Treated in Primary Care

    van Vugt, M.; de Wit, M.; Sieverink, Floor; Roelofsen, Y.; Hendriks, S.H.; Bilo, H.J.G.; Snoek, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the use, uptake, and effects of e-Vita, a personal health record, with self-management support and personalized asynchronized coaching, for type 2 diabetes patients treated in primary care. Patients were invited by their practice nurse to join the study aimed at testing use and effects of

  17. Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance.

    Griffiths, R R; Richards, W A; McCann, U; Jesse, R

    2006-08-01

    Although psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes, little is known scientifically about its acute and persisting effects. This double-blind study evaluated the acute and longer-term psychological effects of a high dose of psilocybin relative to a comparison compound administered under comfortable, supportive conditions. The participants were hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious or spiritual activities. Two or three sessions were conducted at 2-month intervals. Thirty volunteers received orally administered psilocybin (30 mg/70 kg) and methylphenidate hydrochloride (40 mg/70 kg) in counterbalanced order. To obscure the study design, six additional volunteers received methylphenidate in the first two sessions and unblinded psilocybin in a third session. The 8-h sessions were conducted individually. Volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. Study monitors rated volunteers' behavior during sessions. Volunteers completed questionnaires assessing drug effects and mystical experience immediately after and 2 months after sessions. Community observers rated changes in the volunteer's attitudes and behavior. Psilocybin produced a range of acute perceptual changes, subjective experiences, and labile moods including anxiety. Psilocybin also increased measures of mystical experience. At 2 months, the volunteers rated the psilocybin experience as having substantial personal meaning and spiritual significance and attributed to the experience sustained positive changes in attitudes and behavior consistent with changes rated by community observers. When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences. The ability to occasion such experiences prospectively will allow rigorous scientific investigations of their causes and consequences.

  18. Sequencing and association analysis of the type 1 diabetes – linked region on chromosome 10p12-q11

    Barratt Bryan J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to locate susceptibility genes for type 1 diabetes (T1D several genome-wide linkage scans have been undertaken. A chromosomal region designated IDDM10 retained genome-wide significance in a combined analysis of the main linkage scans. Here, we studied sequence polymorphisms in 23 Mb on chromosome 10p12-q11, including the putative IDDM10 region, to identify genes associated with T1D. Results Initially, we resequenced the functional candidate genes, CREM and SDF1, located in this region, genotyped 13 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and found no association with T1D. We then undertook analysis of the whole 23 Mb region. We constructed and sequenced a contig tile path from two bacterial artificial clone libraries. By comparison with a clone library from an unrelated person used in the Human Genome Project, we identified 12,058 SNPs. We genotyped 303 SNPs and 25 polymorphic microsatellite markers in 765 multiplex T1D families and followed up 22 associated polymorphisms in up to 2,857 families. We found nominal evidence of association in six loci (P = 0.05 – 0.0026, located near the PAPD1 gene. Therefore, we resequenced 38.8 kb in this region, found 147 SNPs and genotyped 84 of them in the T1D families. We also tested 13 polymorphisms in the PAPD1 gene and in five other loci in 1,612 T1D patients and 1,828 controls from the UK. Overall, only the D10S193 microsatellite marker located 28 kb downstream of PAPD1 showed nominal evidence of association in both T1D families and in the case-control sample (P = 0.037 and 0.03, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that polymorphisms in the CREM and SDF1 genes have no major effect on T1D. The weak T1D association that we detected in the association scan near the PAPD1 gene may be either false or due to a small genuine effect, and cannot explain linkage at the IDDM10 region.

  19. Pre-implantation implantable cardioverter defibrillator concerns and Type D personality increase the risk of mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on prognosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the influence of the distressed personality (Type D) and pre-implantation device concerns on short-term mortality in ICD patients.......Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on prognosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the influence of the distressed personality (Type D) and pre-implantation device concerns on short-term mortality in ICD patients....

  20. Perception of persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia

    Moudi Albargawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To explore how perceptions of self-efficacy, health locus of control and outcome expectancy impact the adherence of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabiato self-care activities. Methods: A descriptive correlation design was used to analyse self-report questionnaires completed by a convenience sample of Arabic-speaking individuals (n = 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus from King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh. Results: More than half (53% of participants reported high self-efficacy, and the majority (77% valued health and believed that effective diabetes management was important. Although the vast majority (93% of participants believed that their doctor influenced their diabetes management, 90% and 80% also acknowledged themselves and God, respectively, as the health locus of control. Participants who perceived that they or their doctors were in control of their health condition were more likely to adhere to self-care activities, such as follow a specific diet and perform foot care (p < 0.05. Furthermore, female participants reported significantly greater adherence to medication than male participants (6.91 ± 0.29 vs 5.14 ± 2.44; p = 0.02, and unmarried participants reported greater adherence to exercise than married participants (4.15 ± 2.22 vs 1.60 ± 1.43; p = 0.001. Finally, self-efficacy had a significant, positive correlation with participants' adherence to exercise (r = 0.491; p = 0.006 and performing their foot care (r = 0.586; p = 0.001. Conclusion: Patients' perceptions of their health should be considered by healthcare providers to maximize adherence to effective self-care management. Keywords: Health locus of control, Saudi Arabia, Self-care activities, Type 2 diabetes mellitus

  1. Toward a more personalized motor function rehabilitation in Myotonic dystrophy type 1: The role of neuroplasticity.

    Simona Portaro

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is the most prevalent adult muscular dystrophy, often accompanied by impairments in attention, memory, visuospatial and executive functions. Given that DM1 is a multi-system disorder, it requires a multi-disciplinary approach, including effective rehabilitation programs, focusing on the central nervous system neuroplasticity, in order to develop patient-tailored rehabilitative procedures for motor function recovery. Herein, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS study aimed at investigating central motor conduction time, sensory-motor plasticity, and cortical excitability in 7 genetically defined DM1 patients. As compared to healthy individuals, DM1 patients showed a delayed central motor conduction time and an abnormal sensory-motor plasticity, with no alteration of cortical excitability. These findings may be useful to define patient-tailored motor rehabilitative programs.

  2. On congruence between brand and human personalities

    Maehle, Natalia; Shneor, Rotem

    2010-01-01

    Accepted version of a paper from the journal: Journal of Product and Brand Management. Published version available from Emerald at:http://dx-doi.org/10.1108/10610421011018383 Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to uncover the relations between brand and human personality by identifying brand preferences of consumers with different personality types. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the existing literature, 15 propositions are suggested linking Ekelund's DI types as parsimon...

  3. What type of person are you? Old-fashioned thinking even in modern science.

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Lambert, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    People around the world have folk origin myths, stories that explain where they came from and account for their place in the world and their differences from other peoples. As scientists, however, we claim to be seeking literal historical truth. In Western culture, typological ideas about human variation are at least as ancient as written discussion of the subject, and have dominated both social and scientific thinking about race. From Herodotus to the Biblical lost tribes of Israel, and surprisingly even to today, it has been common to view our species as composed of distinct, or even discrete groups, types, or "races," with other individuals admixed from among those groups. Such rhetoric goes so much against the well-known evolutionary realities that it must reflect something deep about human thought, at least in Western culture. Typological approaches can be convenient for some pragmatic aspects of scientific analysis, but they can be seductively deceiving. We know how to think differently and should do so, given the historical abuses that have occurred as a result of typological thinking that seem always to lurk in the human heart.

  4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gliadin assessment in processed food products available for persons with celiac disease: a feasibility study for developing a gluten-free food database.

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Kalaitsidou, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Savvidou, Afroditi; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dimitrios, Triantafyllou

    2011-12-01

    Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the Greek National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a gluten-free food product database based on the assessment of the gluten content in processed foods available for CDP. Gluten was assessed in 41 processed food products available for CDP. Group A consisted of 26 products for CDP included in the NFID, and group B contained 15 food products for CDP not registered in the NFID but listed in the safe lists of the local Celiac Association (CA). High-sensitivity ω-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. Gluten was lower than 20 ppm in 37 of 41 analyzed products (90.2%): in 24 of 26 (92.3%) products in group A and in 13 of 15 (86.7%) products in group B (P = .61). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups regarding gluten content. No product in either group contained gluten in excess of 100 ppm. Most of the analyzed products included in the Greek NFID or listed in the lists of the local CA, even those not officially labeled "gluten free," can be safely consumed by CDP. The use of commercially available ω-gliadin ELISA is able to identify those products that contain inappropriate levels of gluten, making feasible it to develop an integrated gluten-free processed food database.

  5. Design of analog-type high-speed SerDes using digital components for optical chip-to-chip link

    Sangirov, Jamshid; Nguyen, Nga T. H.; Ngo, Trong-Hieu; Im, Dong-min; Ukaegbu, Augustine I.; Lee, Tae-Woo; Cho, Mu Hee; Park, Hyo-Hoon

    2010-02-01

    An analog-type high-speed serializer/deserializer (SerDes) has been designed for optical links especially between CPU and memory. The circuit uses a system clock and its phases to multiplex data to the serial link which avoids the need for a PLL-based high frequency clock generation used in serializing parallel data as in conventional SerDes design. The multiplexed link combined with the de-serializing clock is used as a reference signal for de-serialization. The SerDes is being designed in a 0.13 μm Si-CMOS technology. The fabricated serializer has a core chip size of 360 x750 μm2. Power dissipation for the SerDes is 71.4 mW operating up to 6.5 Gbps.

  6. Investigating measurement equivalence of visual analogue scales and Likert-type scales in Internet-based personality questionnaires.

    Kuhlmann, Tim; Dantlgraber, Michael; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    Visual analogue scales (VASs) have shown superior measurement qualities in comparison to traditional Likert-type response scales in previous studies. The present study expands the comparison of response scales to properties of Internet-based personality scales in a within-subjects design. A sample of 879 participants filled out an online questionnaire measuring Conscientiousness, Excitement Seeking, and Narcissism. The questionnaire contained all instruments in both answer scale versions in a counterbalanced design. Results show comparable reliabilities, means, and SDs for the VAS versions of the original scales, in comparison to Likert-type scales. To assess the validity of the measurements, age and gender were used as criteria, because all three constructs have shown non-zero correlations with age and gender in previous research. Both response scales showed a high overlap and the proposed relationships with age and gender. The associations were largely identical, with the exception of an increase in explained variance when predicting age from the VAS version of Excitement Seeking (B10 = 1318.95, ΔR(2) = .025). VASs showed similar properties to Likert-type response scales in most cases.

  7. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) project. In this paper, we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey - all observed with the SAURON

  8. Co-occupant's exposure to exhaled pollutants with two types of personalized ventilation strategies under mixing and displacement ventilation systems.

    Li, X; Niu, J; Gao, N

    2013-04-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) system in conjunction with total ventilation system can provide cleaner inhaled air for the user. Concerns still exist about whether the normally protecting PV device, on the other hand, facilitates the dispersion of infectious agents generated by its user. In this article, two types of PV systems with upward supplied fresh air, namely a chair-based PV and one kind of desk-mounted PV systems, when combined with mixing ventilation (MV) and displacement ventilation (DV) systems, are investigated using simulation method with regard to their impacts on co-occupant's exposure to the exhaled droplet nuclei generated by the infected PV user. Simulation results of tracer gas and particles with aerodynamic diameter of 1, 5, and 10 μm from exhaled air show that, when only the infected person uses a PV, the different PV air supplying directions present very different impacts on the co-occupant's intake under DV, while no apparent differences can be observed under MV. The findings demonstrate that better inhaled air quality can always be achieved under DV when the adopted PV system can deliver conditioned fresh air in the same direction with the mainly upward airflow patterns of DV. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Cross-cultural analysis of type D (distressed) personality in 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease: a study from the International HeartQoL Project.

    Kupper, Nina; Pedersen, Susanne S; Höfer, Stefan; Saner, Hugo; Oldridge, Neil; Denollet, Johan

    2013-06-20

    Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet in a direct comparison of countries. To examine the cross-cultural validity of the Type D construct and its relation with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac symptom severity, and depression/anxiety. In 22 countries, 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease (angina, 33%; myocardial infarction, 37%; or heart failure, 30%) completed the DS14 as part of the International HeartQoL Project. Type D personality was assessed reliably across countries (αNA>.80; αSI>.74; except Russia, which was excluded from further analysis). Cross-cultural measurement equivalence was established for Type D personality at all measurement levels, as the factor-item configuration, factor loadings, and error structure were not different across countries (fit: CFI=.91; NFI=.88; RMSEA=.018), as well as across gender and diagnostic subgroups. Type D personality was more prevalent in Southern (37%) and Eastern (35%) European countries compared to Northern (24%) and Western European and English-speaking (both 27%) countries (pcultural measurement equivalence was demonstrated for the Type D scale in 21 countries. There is a pan-cultural relationship between Type D personality and some cardiovascular risk factors, supporting the role of Type D personality across countries and cardiac conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiological links between tuberculosis cases identified twice as efficiently by whole genome sequencing than conventional molecular typing: A population-based study.

    Jajou, Rana; de Neeling, Albert; van Hunen, Rianne; de Vries, Gerard; Schimmel, Henrieke; Mulder, Arnout; Anthony, Richard; van der Hoek, Wim; van Soolingen, Dick

    2018-01-01

    Patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates sharing identical DNA fingerprint patterns can be epidemiologically linked. However, municipal health services in the Netherlands are able to confirm an epidemiological link in only around 23% of the patients with isolates clustered by the conventional variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) genotyping. This research aims to investigate whether whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a more reliable predictor of epidemiological links between tuberculosis patients than VNTR genotyping. VNTR genotyping and WGS were performed in parallel on all Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates received at the Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in 2016. Isolates were clustered by VNTR when they shared identical 24-loci VNTR patterns; isolates were assigned to a WGS cluster when the pair-wise genetic distance was ≤ 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Cluster investigation was performed by municipal health services on all isolates clustered by VNTR in 2016. The proportion of epidemiological links identified among patients clustered by either method was calculated. In total, 535 isolates were genotyped, of which 25% (134/535) were clustered by VNTR and 14% (76/535) by WGS; the concordance between both typing methods was 86%. The proportion of epidemiological links among WGS clustered cases (57%) was twice as common than among VNTR clustered cases (31%). When WGS was applied, the number of clustered isolates was halved, while all epidemiologically linked cases remained clustered. WGS is therefore a more reliable tool to predict epidemiological links between tuberculosis cases than VNTR genotyping and will allow more efficient transmission tracing, as epidemiological investigations based on false clustering can be avoided.

  11. The effects of aerobic exercise for persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. A randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Linde, Mattias

    2018-01-01

    Aim To evaluate aerobic exercise in migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. Methods Consecutively recruited persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain were randomized into an exercise group or control group. Aerobic exercise consisted of bike...

  12. Linking maternal and somatic 5S rRNA types with different sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons.

    Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M

    2017-04-01

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. © 2017 Locati et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in T$h$e role of $E$nvironment in shaping $L$ow-mass $E$arly-type $N$earby g$a$laxies (hELENa) project. In this paper we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS$^{\\mathrm{3D}}$ survey - all observed with the SAURON integral field unit (IFU) - to investigate early-type galaxies' stellar population scaling relations and the dependence of the population properties on local environment, exten...

  14. Personality Types and Burnout Syndrome in Primary School Teachers in Chile [Tipos de personalidad y síndrome de burnout en Educadoras de Párvulos

    Manuel Salvador Ortiz Parada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to determine differences in burnout’s level as function of personalities types and attendance in public or private school, a non-experimental study was designed. Burnout levels were measured with the MBI teacher’s version and personalities types with the NEO-Five Factors Inventory (n = 133. A set of socio-demographic variables was included. By means of ANOVA ONEWAY, differences were found in emotional exhaustion among kindergarten teachers who work in public and private school (p ≤ 0,05. Differences were also found between spectator and skeptic personality types in burnout levels, and between skeptic and complicated types in emotional exhaustion (p ≤ 0,05. These results emphasize the relevance to give attention to public school’s educator and those who had high neuroticism’s levels because they tend to have more burnout

  15. Usefulness of type D personality in predicting five-year cardiac events above and beyond concurrent symptoms of stress in patients with coronary heart disease

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2006-01-01

    Psychological stress and type D personality have been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis, but little is known about their relative effect on the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). "Type D" refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit the expression...... of these emotions in social interactions. We investigated the relative effect of stress and type D personality on prognosis at 5-year follow-up. At baseline, 337 patients with CHD who participated in cardiac rehabilitation filled in the General Health Questionnaire (psychological stress) and the Type D personality.......001) were related to an increased risk of developing a major adverse cardiac event after adjusting for gender, age, and biomedical risk factors. Multivariate analysis yielded left ventricular ejection fraction...

  16. Divergence in Forest-Type Response to Climate and Weather: Evidence for Regional Links Between Forest-Type Evenness and Net Primary Productivity

    Bradford, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is altering long-term climatic conditions and increasing the magnitude of weather fluctuations. Assessing the consequences of these changes for terrestrial ecosystems requires understanding how different vegetation types respond to climate and weather. This study examined 20 years of regional-scale remotely sensed net primary productivity (NPP) in forests of the northern Lake States to identify how the relationship between NPP and climate or weather differ among forest types, and if NPP patterns are influenced by landscape-scale evenness of forest-type abundance. These results underscore the positive relationship between temperature and NPP. Importantly, these results indicate significant differences among broadly defined forest types in response to both climate and weather. Essentially all weather variables that were strongly related to annual NPP displayed significant differences among forest types, suggesting complementarity in response to environmental fluctuations. In addition, this study found that forest-type evenness (within 8 ?? 8 km2 areas) is positively related to long-term NPP mean and negatively related to NPP variability, suggesting that NPP in pixels with greater forest-type evenness is both higher and more stable through time. This is landscape- to subcontinental-scale evidence of a relationship between primary productivity and one measure of biological diversity. These results imply that anthropogenic or natural processes that influence the proportional abundance of forest types within landscapes may influence long-term productivity patterns. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  17. A qualitative study of how patients with type 2 diabetes use an electronic stand-alone personal health record.

    Fuji, Kevin T; Abbott, Amy A; Galt, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Patient use of personal health records (PHRs) to manage their health information has been proposed to enhance patient knowledge and empower patients to make changes in their self-care behaviors. However, there remains a gap in understanding about patients' actual PHR use behaviors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how patients with type 2 diabetes used a PHR to manage their diabetes-related health information for self-care. Fifty-nine patients with type 2 diabetes were interviewed 3-6 months after receiving initial training on a free-of-charge, Web-based PHR. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an iterative process of in vivo coding, categorization, and theme development. Nine themes emerged, three of which expressed positive experiences: complete and accessible record; increased awareness; and behavioral changes. The remaining six themes expressed negative experiences: out of sight, out of mind; I would have used it if I were sicker; economic, infrastructure, and computer literacy barriers; lack of patient-provider engagement; double tracking; and privacy and security concerns. Despite some potential positive benefits resulting from PHR use, several barriers inhibited sustained and effective use over time. Provider and patient education about the benefits of PHR use and about the potential for filling in information gaps in the provider-based record is key to engage patients and stimulate PHR adoption and use.

  18. Empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads: affective type of social action by M. Weber (results of applied researches

    A. A. Oseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological foundations of research of leader’s personal qualities. In difference from the previous work, which was devoted to a research of personal qualities of heads, including civil officers, at works of Plato, Aristotle and M. Weber, where were shown empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads: instrumental-rational and value-rational social actions. This publication presents the empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads of affective type of M. Weber’s social action. Thanks to it, M. Weber’s concept about social action receives one more approach to verification in practice. The following directions of social researches are allocated. The first direction. When in structure of personal qualities the emotional component is a dominant (“emotional unbalance”, in comparison with intellectual, moral, strong-willed and other personal qualities (diplomacy, social experience, and so forth. Those people, whose indicators of emotional unbalance are in extreme, in maximum borders - carry to psychopaths and they are an object of clinical psychology and medicine. The second direction. When in structure of personal qualities emotional unbalance competes on equal terms (equally has bright difference, a deviation from average values to intellectual, moral and strong-willed qualities. The third direction. When in structure of personal qualities intellectual, moral and strong-willed and others personal qualities dominate over affective lines.

  19. The influence of motor imagery on postural sway: Differential effects of type of body movement and person perspective

    Stins, J.F.; Schneider, I.K.; Koole, S.L.; Beek, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the differential effects of kinesthetic imagery (first person perspective) and visual imagery (third person perspective) on postural sway during quiet standing. Based on an embodied cognition perspective, the authors predicted that kinesthetic imagery would lead to

  20. Creating Aerosol Types from CHemistry (CATCH): A New Algorithm to Extend the Link Between Remote Sensing and Models

    Dawson, K. W.; Meskhidze, N.; Burton, S. P.; Johnson, M. S.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hu, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Current remote sensing methods can identify aerosol types within an atmospheric column, presenting an opportunity to incrementally bridge the gap between remote sensing and models. Here a new algorithm was designed for Creating Aerosol Types from CHemistry (CATCH). CATCH-derived aerosol types—dusty mix, maritime, urban, smoke, and fresh smoke—are based on first-generation airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1) retrievals during the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) campaign, July/August 2014. CATCH is designed to derive aerosol types from model output of chemical composition. CATCH-derived aerosol types are determined by multivariate clustering of model-calculated variables that have been trained using retrievals of aerosol types from HSRL-1. CATCH-derived aerosol types (with the exception of smoke) compare well with HSRL-1 retrievals during SABOR with an average difference in aerosol optical depth (AOD) methods. In the future, spaceborne HSRL-1 and CATCH can be used to gain insight into chemical composition of aerosol types, reducing uncertainties in estimates of aerosol radiative forcing.