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Sample records for linked function approach

  1. Functional Enzyme-Based Approach for Linking Microbial Community Functions with Biogeochemical Process Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minjing [School; Qian, Wei-jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Gao, Yuqian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Shi, Liang [School; Liu, Chongxuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; School

    2017-09-28

    The kinetics of biogeochemical processes in natural and engineered environmental systems are typically described using Monod-type or modified Monod-type models. These models rely on biomass as surrogates for functional enzymes in microbial community that catalyze biogeochemical reactions. A major challenge to apply such models is the difficulty to quantitatively measure functional biomass for constraining and validating the models. On the other hand, omics-based approaches have been increasingly used to characterize microbial community structure, functions, and metabolites. Here we proposed an enzyme-based model that can incorporate omics-data to link microbial community functions with biogeochemical process kinetics. The model treats enzymes as time-variable catalysts for biogeochemical reactions and applies biogeochemical reaction network to incorporate intermediate metabolites. The sequences of genes and proteins from metagenomes, as well as those from the UniProt database, were used for targeted enzyme quantification and to provide insights into the dynamic linkage among functional genes, enzymes, and metabolites that are necessary to be incorporated in the model. The application of the model was demonstrated using denitrification as an example by comparing model-simulated with measured functional enzymes, genes, denitrification substrates and intermediates

  2. A Dyadic Approach to Understanding the Link Between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Satisfaction in Heterosexual Couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascoal, Patrícia M.; Byers, E. Sandra; Alvarez, Maria-João; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Nobre, Pedro J.; Pereira, Cicero Roberto; Laan, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that several dimensions of sexual functioning (e.g., sexual desire, arousal, orgasm) are associated with the sexual satisfaction of individuals in a committed mixed-sex (male-female) relationship. We extended this research by comparing a dyadic model that included both

  3. Spiraling in Urban Streams: A Novel Approach to Link Geomorphic Structure with Ecosystem Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, R. A.; Lafrenz, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the relationship between channel complexity and nutrient spiraling along several reaches of an urbanized watershed in Portland, Oregon. Much research points to the effect urbanization has on watershed hydrology and nutrient loading at the watershed scale for various sized catchments. However the flux of nutrients over short reaches within a stream channel has been less studied because of the effort and costs associated with fieldwork and subsequent laboratory analysis of both surface and hyporheic water samples. In this study we explore a novel approach at capturing connectivity though nutrient spiraling along several short reaches (less than 100-meter) within the highly urbanized Fanno Creek watershed (4400 hectares). We measure channel complexity-sinuosity, bed material texture, organic matter-and use these measurements to determine spatial autocorrelation of 50 reaches in Fanno Creek, a small, urban watershed in Portland, Oregon. Using ion-selective electrodes, the fluxes of nitrate and ammonia are measured within each reach, which when combined with channel geometry and velocity measurements allow us to transform the values of nitrate and ammonia fluxes into spiraling metrics. Along each sampled reach, we collected three surface water samples to characterize nutrient amounts at the upstream, midstream, and downstream position of the reach. Two additional water samples were taken from the left and right bank hyporheic zones at a depth just below the armor layer of the channel bed using mini-piezometers and a hand-pumped vacuum device, which we constructed for this purpose. Adjacent to the hyporheic samples soil cores were collected and analyzed for organic matter composition, bulk density, and texture. We hypothesize that spiral metrics will respond significantly to the measured channel complexity values and will be a more robust predictor of nutrient flux than land cover characteristics in the area draining to each reach

  4. Linked functional network abnormalities during intrinsic and extrinsic activity in schizophrenia as revealed by a data-fusion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryu-Ichiro; Itahashi, Takashi; Okada, Rieko; Hasegawa, Sayaka; Tani, Masayuki; Kato, Nobumasa; Mimura, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    Abnormalities in functional brain networks in schizophrenia have been studied by examining intrinsic and extrinsic brain activity under various experimental paradigms. However, the identified patterns of abnormal functional connectivity (FC) vary depending on the adopted paradigms. Thus, it is unclear whether and how these patterns are inter-related. In order to assess relationships between abnormal patterns of FC during intrinsic activity and those during extrinsic activity, we adopted a data-fusion approach and applied partial least square (PLS) analyses to FC datasets from 25 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-matched normal controls. For the input to the PLS analyses, we generated a pair of FC maps during the resting state (REST) and the auditory deviance response (ADR) from each participant using the common seed region in the left middle temporal gyrus, which is a focus of activity associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). PLS correlation (PLS-C) analysis revealed that patients with schizophrenia have significantly lower loadings of a component containing positive FCs in default-mode network regions during REST and a component containing positive FCs in the auditory and attention-related networks during ADR. Specifically, loadings of the REST component were significantly correlated with the severities of positive symptoms and AVH in patients with schizophrenia. The co-occurrence of such altered FC patterns during REST and ADR was replicated using PLS regression, wherein FC patterns during REST are modeled to predict patterns during ADR. These findings provide an integrative understanding of altered FCs during intrinsic and extrinsic activity underlying core schizophrenia symptoms.

  5. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR LINKED DATA BROWSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Beek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands' Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency – in short Kadaster – collects and registers administrative and spatial data on property and the rights involved. Currently, the Kadaster is publishing its geo-spatial data assets as Linked Open Data. The Kadaster manages hundreds of datasets that describe hundreds of millions of geospatial objects, including all Dutch buildings, roads, and forests. The Kadaster exposes this large collection of data to thousands of daily users that operate from within different contexts and that need to be supported in different use cases. Therefore, Kadaster must offer diverse, yet complementary, approaches for browsing and exploring the data it publishes. Specifically, it supports the following paradigms for browsing and exploring its data assets: hierarchical browsing, graph navigation, faceted browsing, and tabular browsing. These paradigms are useful for different tasks, cover different use cases, and are implemented by reusing and/or developing Open Source libraries and applications.

  6. A novel time series link prediction method: Learning automata approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-09-01

    Link prediction is a main social network challenge that uses the network structure to predict future links. The common link prediction approaches to predict hidden links use a static graph representation where a snapshot of the network is analyzed to find hidden or future links. For example, similarity metric based link predictions are a common traditional approach that calculates the similarity metric for each non-connected link and sort the links based on their similarity metrics and label the links with higher similarity scores as the future links. Because people activities in social networks are dynamic and uncertainty, and the structure of the networks changes over time, using deterministic graphs for modeling and analysis of the social network may not be appropriate. In the time-series link prediction problem, the time series link occurrences are used to predict the future links In this paper, we propose a new time series link prediction based on learning automata. In the proposed algorithm for each link that must be predicted there is one learning automaton and each learning automaton tries to predict the existence or non-existence of the corresponding link. To predict the link occurrence in time T, there is a chain consists of stages 1 through T - 1 and the learning automaton passes from these stages to learn the existence or non-existence of the corresponding link. Our preliminary link prediction experiments with co-authorship and email networks have provided satisfactory results when time series link occurrences are considered.

  7. Hacking 360 Link: A hybrid approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Durno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When the University of Victoria Libraries switched from a locally-hosted link resolver (SFX to a vendor-hosted link resolver (360Link, new strategies were required to effectively integrate the vendor-hosted link resolver with the Libraries' other systems and services. Custom javascript is used to add links to the 360Link page; these links then point at local PHP code running on UVic servers, which can then redirect to appropriate local service or display a form directly. An open source PHP OpenURL parser class is announced. Consideration is given to the importance of maintaining open protocols and standards in the transition to vendor-hosted services.

  8. Integration a functional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bichteler, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    This book covers Lebesgue integration and its generalizations from Daniell's point of view, modified by the use of seminorms. Integrating functions rather than measuring sets is posited as the main purpose of measure theory. From this point of view Lebesgue's integral can be had as a rather straightforward, even simplistic, extension of Riemann's integral; and its aims, definitions, and procedures can be motivated at an elementary level. The notion of measurability, for example, is suggested by Littlewood's observations rather than being conveyed authoritatively through definitions of (sigma)-algebras and good-cut-conditions, the latter of which are hard to justify and thus appear mysterious, even nettlesome, to the beginner. The approach taken provides the additional benefit of cutting the labor in half. The use of seminorms, ubiquitous in modern analysis, speeds things up even further. The book is intended for the reader who has some experience with proofs, a beginning graduate student for example. It might...

  9. Using ecological production functions to link ecological ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem services (ES) production. Although EPFs are acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, their use in ecological risk assessment has received relatively little attention. Ecological production functions may be defined as usable expressions (i.e., models) of the processes by which ecosystems produce ES, often including external influences on those processes. We identify key attributes of EPFs and discuss both actual and idealized examples of their use to inform decision making. Whenever possible, EPFs should estimate final, rather than intermediate, ES. Although various types of EPFs have been developed, we suggest that EPFs are more useful for decision making if they quantify ES outcomes, respond to ecosystem condition, respond to stressor levels or management scenarios, reflect ecological complexity, rely on data with broad coverage, have performed well previously, are practical to use, and are open and transparent. In an example using pesticides, we illustrate how EPFs with these attributes could enable the inclusion of ES in ecological risk assessment. The biggest challenges to ES inclusion are limited data sets that are easily adapted for use in modeling EPFs and generally poor understanding of linkages among ecological components and the processes that ultimately deliver the ES. We conclude by advocating for the incorporation into E

  10. density functional theory approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YOGESH ERANDE

    2017-07-27

    Jul 27, 2017 ... a key role in all optical switching devices, since their optical properties can be .... optimized in the gas phase using Density Functional Theory. (DFT).39 The ...... The Mediation of Electrostatic Effects by Sol- vents J. Am. Chem.

  11. Multi-Functional Fibre-Optic Microwave Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1998-01-01

    The multi-functionality of microwave links based on remote heterodyne detection of signals from a dual-frequency laser transmitter is discussed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. Typically, direct detection in conjunction with optical intensity modulation is used to implement fibre......-optic microwave links. The resulting links are inherently transparent and mainly used for signal transmission. As opposed to direct detection links, remote heterodyne detection links can directly perform functionalities such as modulation, frequency conversion, and transparent signal recovery in addition...

  12. a Web Service Approach for Linking Sensors and Cellular Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikdag, U.

    2013-09-01

    More and more devices are starting to be connected to the Internet. In the future the Internet will not only be a communication medium for people, it will in fact be a communication environment for devices. The connected devices which are also referred as Things will have an ability to interact with other devices over the Internet, i.) provide information in interoperable form and ii.) consume /utilize such information with the help of sensors embedded in them. This overall concept is known as Internet-of- Things (IoT). This requires new approaches to be investigated for system architectures to establish relations between spaces and sensors. The research presented in this paper elaborates on an architecture developed with this aim, i.e. linking spaces and sensors using a RESTful approach. The objective is making spaces aware of (sensor-embedded) devices, and making devices aware of spaces in a loosely coupled way (i.e. a state/usage/function change in the spaces would not have effect on sensors, similarly a location/state/usage/function change in sensors would not have any effect on spaces). The proposed architecture also enables the automatic assignment of sensors to spaces depending on space geometry and sensor location.

  13. The XML approach to implementing space link extension service management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, W.; Welz, G. A.; Theis, G.; Yamada, T.

    2001-01-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted at JPL, ESOC, and ISAS to assess the possible applications of the eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML) capabilities to the implementation of the CCSDS Space Link Extension (SLE) Service Management function.

  14. The Link between Thyroid Function and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella P. Hage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between thyroid function and depression has long been recognized. Patients with thyroid disorders are more prone to develop depressive symptoms and conversely depression may be accompanied by various subtle thyroid abnormalities. Traditionally, the most commonly documented abnormalities are elevated T4 levels, low T3, elevated rT3, a blunted TSH response to TRH, positive antithyroid antibodies, and elevated CSF TRH concentrations. In addition, thyroid hormone supplements appear to accelerate and enhance the clinical response to antidepressant drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between thyroid function and depression remain to be further clarified. Recently, advances in biochemical, genetic, and neuroimaging fields have provided new insights into the thyroid-depression relationship.

  15. Linking Data and Publications: Towards a Cross-Disciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Hoogerwerf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tackle the challenge of linking scholarly information in multi-disciplinary research infrastructures. There is a trend towards linking publications with research data and other information, but, as it is still emerging, this is handled differently by various initiatives and disciplines. For OpenAIRE, a European cross-disciplinary publication infrastructure, this poses the challenge of supporting these heterogeneous practices. Hence, OpenAIRE wants to contribute to the development of a common approach for discipline-independent linking practices between publications, data, project information and researchers. To this end, we constructed two demonstrators to identify commonalities and differences. The results show the importance of stable and unique identifiers, and support a ‘by reference’ approach of interlinking research results. This approach allows discipline-specific research information to be managed independently in distributed systems and avoids redundant maintenance. Furthermore, it allows these disciplinary systems to manage the specialized structures of their contents themselves.

  16. A hybrid linked data approach to support asset management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, G.T.; Bohms, H.M.; O'Keeffe, A.; Nederveen, S. van; Bakker, J.; Wikstrom, L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates experiences with applying a linked data approach for coping with the many challenges for information management in asset management from the perspective of National Road Authorities (NRAs). As influential players, NRAs are often the initiators of innovation in the civil

  17. New approaches to e-reserve linking, sharing and streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Ophelia; Patrick, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at academic library practitioners, this book describes how e-reserve services can evolve and adapt to the changing virtual learning environment of higher education. New approaches discussed include: the integration of subscribed, free, and copyrighted resources within course management systems; innovative employment of open URL link resolvers to connect e-reserve with library e-resources and services; video streaming within course documents; and the creative use of bibliographic software to produce customized reading lists. New Approaches to E-Reserve includes detailed descriptions and e

  18. Deep-Sea Microbes: Linking Biogeochemical Rates to -Omics Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndl, G. J.; Sintes, E.; Bayer, B.; Bergauer, K.; Amano, C.; Hansman, R.; Garcia, J.; Reinthaler, T.

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade substantial progress has been made in determining deep ocean microbial activity and resolving some of the enigmas in understanding the deep ocean carbon flux. Also, metagenomics approaches have shed light onto the dark ocean's microbes but linking -omics approaches to biogeochemical rate measurements are generally rare in microbial oceanography and even more so for the deep ocean. In this presentation, we will show by combining metagenomics, -proteomics and biogeochemical rate measurements on the bulk and single-cell level that deep-sea microbes exhibit characteristics of generalists with a large genome repertoire, versatile in utilizing substrate as revealed by metaproteomics. This is in striking contrast with the apparently rather uniform dissolved organic matter pool in the deep ocean. Combining the different -omics approaches with metabolic rate measurements, we will highlight some major inconsistencies and enigmas in our understanding of the carbon cycling and microbial food web structure in the dark ocean.

  19. Acetone-Linked Peptides: A Convergent Approach for Peptide Macrocyclization and Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assem, Naila; Ferreira, David J; Wolan, Dennis W; Dawson, Philip E

    2015-07-20

    Macrocyclization is a broadly applied approach for overcoming the intrinsically disordered nature of linear peptides. Herein, it is shown that dichloroacetone (DCA) enhances helical secondary structures when introduced between peptide nucleophiles, such as thiols, to yield an acetone-linked bridge (ACE). Aside from stabilizing helical structures, the ketone moiety embedded in the linker can be modified with diverse molecular tags by oxime ligation. Insights into the structure of the tether were obtained through co-crystallization of a constrained S-peptide in complex with RNAse S. The scope of the acetone-linked peptides was further explored through the generation of N-terminus to side chain macrocycles and a new approach for generating fused macrocycles (bicycles). Together, these studies suggest that acetone linking is generally applicable to peptide macrocycles with a specific utility in the synthesis of stabilized helices that incorporate functional tags. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Linking biomedical engineering ethics case study approach and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrell, William; Dobie, Elizabeth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we link bioengineering case study methods to the development of policy. The case study approach to ethics is an excellent way to show the complex nature of practical/moral reasoning. This approach can, however, lead to a kind of overwhelming complexity. The individual nature of each case makes it difficult to identify the most important information and difficult to see what moral considerations are most relevant. In order to make the overwhelming complexity less debilitating, we present a framework for moral decision making derived from suggestions made by W.D. Ross and Virginia Held. Ross articulates the multiple sources of morality and Held deepens the discussion by reminding us of the foundational importance of care and sympathy to our moral natures. We show how to use the notion of prima facie duty and discuss moral conflict. In doing this, we show how the framework, applied to cases, can be of assistance in helping us develop policies and codes of ethics with sufficient plasticity to be useful in the complex world of the bioengineer.

  1. Linking Design to Business Strategy Through Functional Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses how designers, conducting design projects in specific organization's, can assure that the design of IT is appropriately linked to the organizations overall business strategy. A case study is presented in the form of a design project in a small public organization. Functional...... analysis was used as a means to clarify how a specific needed information system could support the organization's new business strategy. Using functional analysis in the design project had a powerful effect: it seriously challenged the organization's business strategy and revealed that the system...... to the relation between an organization's IT-projects and its business strategy and by suggesting that it is the responsibility of the designers, conducting design projects, to assure that this task is taken proper care of. Practical guidelines for this purpose are given....

  2. When opportunity meets motivation: Neural engagement during social approach is linked to high approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Sina; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Eickhoff, Simon B; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-02-15

    Social rewards are processed by the same dopaminergic-mediated brain networks as non-social rewards, suggesting a common representation of subjective value. Individual differences in personality and motivation influence the reinforcing value of social incentives, but it remains open whether the pursuit of social incentives is analogously supported by the neural reward system when positive social stimuli are connected to approach behavior. To test for a modulation of neural activation by approach motivation, individuals with high and low approach motivation (BAS) completed implicit and explicit social approach-avoidance paradigms during fMRI. High approach motivation was associated with faster implicit approach reactions as well as a trend for higher approach ratings, indicating increased approach tendencies. Implicit and explicit positive social approach was accompanied by stronger recruitment of the nucleus accumbens, middle cingulate cortex, and (pre-)cuneus for individuals with high compared to low approach motivation. These results support and extend prior research on social reward processing, self-other distinctions and affective judgments by linking approach motivation to the engagement of reward-related circuits during motivational reactions to social incentives. This interplay between motivational preferences and motivational contexts might underlie the rewarding experience during social interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Publication, discovery and interoperability of Clinical Decision Support Systems: A Linked Data approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Ruiz, Luis; Pedrinaci, Carlos; Maldonado, J A; Panziera, Luca; Chen, Rong; Bellika, J Gustav

    2016-08-01

    The high costs involved in the development of Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) make it necessary to share their functionality across different systems and organizations. Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) have been proposed to allow reusing CDSS by encapsulating them in a Web service. However, strong barriers in sharing CDS functionality are still present as a consequence of lack of expressiveness of services' interfaces. Linked Services are the evolution of the Semantic Web Services paradigm to process Linked Data. They aim to provide semantic descriptions over SOA implementations to overcome the limitations derived from the syntactic nature of Web services technologies. To facilitate the publication, discovery and interoperability of CDS services by evolving them into Linked Services that expose their interfaces as Linked Data. We developed methods and models to enhance CDS SOA as Linked Services that define a rich semantic layer based on machine interpretable ontologies that powers their interoperability and reuse. These ontologies provided unambiguous descriptions of CDS services properties to expose them to the Web of Data. We developed models compliant with Linked Data principles to create a semantic representation of the components that compose CDS services. To evaluate our approach we implemented a set of CDS Linked Services using a Web service definition ontology. The definitions of Web services were linked to the models developed in order to attach unambiguous semantics to the service components. All models were bound to SNOMED-CT and public ontologies (e.g. Dublin Core) in order to count on a lingua franca to explore them. Discovery and analysis of CDS services based on machine interpretable models was performed reasoning over the ontologies built. Linked Services can be used effectively to expose CDS services to the Web of Data by building on current CDS standards. This allows building shared Linked Knowledge Bases to provide machine

  4. Diagnostic Approach to Functional Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Christensen, Hanne Krarup

    2013-01-01

    available and does not pose any adverse effects, repeated fMRI measurements provide unprecedented possibilities to prospectively assess the time course of reorganization in functional neural networks after stroke and relate the temporospatial dynamics of reorganization at the systems level to functional...

  5. Linking biological soil crust diversity to ecological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Karin; Borchhardt, Nadine; Schulz, Karoline; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Ulf, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions. Our aim was to determine and compare the biodiversity of all occurring organisms in biogeographically different habitats, ranging from polar (both Arctic and Antarctic), subpolar (Scandinavia), temperate (Germany) to dry regions (Chile). The combination of microscopy and molecular techniques (next-generation sequencing) revealed highly diverse crust communities, whose composition clustered by region and correlates with habitat characteristics such as water content. The BSC biodiversity was then linked to the ecological function of the crusts. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous is evaluated using an array of state of the art soil chemistry methods including Py-FIMS (pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry) and XANES (x-ray absorbance near edge structure). Total P as well as P fractions were quantified in all BSCs, adjacent soil underneath and comparable nearby soil of BSC-free areas revealing a remarkable accumulation of total phosphorous and a distinct pattern of P fractions in the crust. Further, we observed an indication of a different P-speciation composition in the crust compared with BSC-free soil. The data allow answering the question whether BSCs act as sink or source for these compounds, and how biodiversity controls the biogeochemical function of BSCs.

  6. Link prediction boosted psychiatry disorder classification for functional connectivity network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Mei, Xue; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Jiashuang

    2017-02-01

    Functional connectivity network (FCN) is an effective tool in psychiatry disorders classification, and represents cross-correlation of the regional blood oxygenation level dependent signal. However, FCN is often incomplete for suffering from missing and spurious edges. To accurate classify psychiatry disorders and health control with the incomplete FCN, we first `repair' the FCN with link prediction, and then exact the clustering coefficients as features to build a weak classifier for every FCN. Finally, we apply a boosting algorithm to combine these weak classifiers for improving classification accuracy. Our method tested by three datasets of psychiatry disorder, including Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The experimental results show our method not only significantly improves the classification accuracy, but also efficiently reconstructs the incomplete FCN.

  7. Transient management using the safety function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.; Barrow, J.H.; Bischoff, G.C.; Callaghan, V.M.; Pearce, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    The safety function approach is described. Its use in the development of a transient management procedures system includes optimal recovery procedures tailored to specific, anticipated symptom sets and a functional recovery procedure which is more general. Simulator evaluations are described

  8. Linking density functional and mode coupling models for supercooled liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premkumar, Leishangthem; Bidhoodi, Neeta; Das, Shankar P. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-03-28

    We compare predictions from two familiar models of the metastable supercooled liquid, respectively, constructed with thermodynamic and dynamic approaches. In the so called density functional theory the free energy F[ρ] of the liquid is a functional of the inhomogeneous density ρ(r). The metastable state is identified as a local minimum of F[ρ]. The sharp density profile characterizing ρ(r) is identified as a single particle oscillator, whose frequency is obtained from the parameters of the optimum density function. On the other hand, a dynamic approach to supercooled liquids is taken in the mode coupling theory (MCT) which predict a sharp ergodicity-non-ergodicity transition at a critical density. The single particle dynamics in the non-ergodic state, treated approximately, represents a propagating mode whose characteristic frequency is computed from the corresponding memory function of the MCT. The mass localization parameters in the above two models (treated in their simplest forms) are obtained, respectively, in terms of the corresponding natural frequencies depicted and are shown to have comparable magnitudes.

  9. Linking density functional and mode coupling models for supercooled liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Leishangthem; Bidhoodi, Neeta; Das, Shankar P

    2016-03-28

    We compare predictions from two familiar models of the metastable supercooled liquid, respectively, constructed with thermodynamic and dynamic approaches. In the so called density functional theory the free energy F[ρ] of the liquid is a functional of the inhomogeneous density ρ(r). The metastable state is identified as a local minimum of F[ρ]. The sharp density profile characterizing ρ(r) is identified as a single particle oscillator, whose frequency is obtained from the parameters of the optimum density function. On the other hand, a dynamic approach to supercooled liquids is taken in the mode coupling theory (MCT) which predict a sharp ergodicity-non-ergodicity transition at a critical density. The single particle dynamics in the non-ergodic state, treated approximately, represents a propagating mode whose characteristic frequency is computed from the corresponding memory function of the MCT. The mass localization parameters in the above two models (treated in their simplest forms) are obtained, respectively, in terms of the corresponding natural frequencies depicted and are shown to have comparable magnitudes.

  10. Protein functional links in Trypanosoma brucei, identified by gene fusion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimpalis Philip

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domain or gene fusion analysis is a bioinformatics method for detecting gene fusions in one organism by comparing its genome to that of other organisms. The occurrence of gene fusions suggests that the two original genes that participated in the fusion are functionally linked, i.e. their gene products interact either as part of a multi-subunit protein complex, or in a metabolic pathway. Gene fusion analysis has been used to identify protein functional links in prokaryotes as well as in eukaryotic model organisms, such as yeast and Drosophila. Results In this study we have extended this approach to include a number of recently sequenced protists, four of which are pathogenic, to identify fusion linked proteins in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. We have also examined the evolution of the gene fusion events identified, to determine whether they can be attributed to fusion or fission, by looking at the conservation of the fused genes and of the individual component genes across the major eukaryotic and prokaryotic lineages. We find relatively limited occurrence of gene fusions/fissions within the protist lineages examined. Our results point to two trypanosome-specific gene fissions, which have recently been experimentally confirmed, one fusion involving proteins involved in the same metabolic pathway, as well as two novel putative functional links between fusion-linked protein pairs. Conclusions This is the first study of protein functional links in T. brucei identified by gene fusion analysis. We have used strict thresholds and only discuss results which are highly likely to be genuine and which either have already been or can be experimentally verified. We discuss the possible impact of the identification of these novel putative protein-protein interactions, to the development of new trypanosome therapeutic drugs.

  11. Developmental imaging genetics: linking dopamine function to adolescent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of development characterized by numerous neurobiological changes that significantly influence behavior and brain function. Adolescence is of particular interest due to the alarming statistics indicating that mortality rates increase two to three-fold during this time compared to childhood, due largely to a peak in risk-taking behaviors resulting from increased impulsivity and sensation seeking. Furthermore, there exists large unexplained variability in these behaviors that are in part mediated by biological factors. Recent advances in molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging have provided a unique and exciting opportunity to non-invasively study the influence of genetic factors on brain function in humans. While genes do not code for specific behaviors, they do determine the structure and function of proteins that are essential to the neuronal processes that underlie behavior. Therefore, studying the interaction of genotype with measures of brain function over development could shed light on critical time points when biologically mediated individual differences in complex behaviors emerge. Here we review animal and human literature examining the neurobiological basis of adolescent development related to dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine is of critical importance because of (1) its role in cognitive and affective behaviors, (2) its role in the pathogenesis of major psychopathology, and (3) the protracted development of dopamine signaling pathways over adolescence. We will then focus on current research examining the role of dopamine-related genes on brain function. We propose the use of imaging genetics to examine the influence of genetically mediated dopamine variability on brain function during adolescence, keeping in mind the limitations of this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Link removal for the control of stochastically evolving epidemics over networks: a comparison of approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Eva A; Brandeau, Margaret L

    2015-04-21

    For many communicable diseases, knowledge of the underlying contact network through which the disease spreads is essential to determining appropriate control measures. When behavior change is the primary intervention for disease prevention, it is important to understand how to best modify network connectivity using the limited resources available to control disease spread. We describe and compare four algorithms for selecting a limited number of links to remove from a network: two "preventive" approaches (edge centrality, R0 minimization), where the decision of which links to remove is made prior to any disease outbreak and depends only on the network structure; and two "reactive" approaches (S-I edge centrality, optimal quarantining), where information about the initial disease states of the nodes is incorporated into the decision of which links to remove. We evaluate the performance of these algorithms in minimizing the total number of infections that occur over the course of an acute outbreak of disease. We consider different network structures, including both static and dynamic Erdös-Rényi random networks with varying levels of connectivity, a real-world network of residential hotels connected through injection drug use, and a network exhibiting community structure. We show that reactive approaches outperform preventive approaches in averting infections. Among reactive approaches, removing links in order of S-I edge centrality is favored when the link removal budget is small, while optimal quarantining performs best when the link removal budget is sufficiently large. The budget threshold above which optimal quarantining outperforms the S-I edge centrality algorithm is a function of both network structure (higher for unstructured Erdös-Rényi random networks compared to networks with community structure or the real-world network) and disease infectiousness (lower for highly infectious diseases). We conduct a value-of-information analysis of knowing which

  13. Applying linked data approaches to pharmacology: Architectural decisions and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, A.J.G; Groth, P.T.; Loizou, A.; Askjaer, S; Brenninkmeijer, C; Burger, K.; Chichester, C.; Evelo, C.T.; Goble, C.A.; Harland, L; Pettifier, S; Thompson, M.; Waagmeester, A; William, A.J

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new medicines requires pharmacologists to interact with a number of information sources ranging from tabular data to scientific papers, and other specialized formats. In this application report, we describe a linked data platform for integrating multiple pharmacology datasets that

  14. Linking stem cell function and growth pattern of intestinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalheim, Torsten; Quaas, Marianne; Herberg, Maria; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kerner, Christiane; Loeffler, Markus; Aust, Gabriela; Galle, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) require well-defined signals from their environment in order to carry out their specific functions. Most of these signals are provided by neighboring cells that form a stem cell niche, whose shape and cellular composition self-organize. Major features of this self-organization can be studied in ISC-derived organoid culture. In this system, manipulation of essential pathways of stem cell maintenance and differentiation results in well-described growth phenotypes. We here provide an individual cell-based model of intestinal organoids that enables a mechanistic explanation of the observed growth phenotypes. In simulation studies of the 3D structure of expanding organoids, we investigate interdependences between Wnt- and Notch-signaling which control the shape of the stem cell niche and, thus, the growth pattern of the organoids. Similar to in vitro experiments, changes of pathway activities alter the cellular composition of the organoids and, thereby, affect their shape. Exogenous Wnt enforces transitions from branched into a cyst-like growth pattern; known to occur spontaneously during long term organoid expansion. Based on our simulation results, we predict that the cyst-like pattern is associated with biomechanical changes of the cells which assign them a growth advantage. The results suggest ongoing stem cell adaptation to in vitro conditions during long term expansion by stabilizing Wnt-activity. Our study exemplifies the potential of individual cell-based modeling in unraveling links between molecular stem cell regulation and 3D growth of tissues. This kind of modeling combines experimental results in the fields of stem cell biology and cell biomechanics constituting a prerequisite for a better understanding of tissue regeneration as well as developmental processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional integral approach to classical statistical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.V.

    1980-04-01

    A functional integral method is developed for the statistical solution of nonlinear stochastic differential equations which arise in classical dynamics. The functional integral approach provides a very natural and elegant derivation of the statistical dynamical equations that have been derived using the operator formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose

  16. Educability as a Link of Contemporary Civil Experience: Research Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Groppa Aquino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This text argues that the educability of citizens is objectified in terms of a demand for diffuse and perpetual training, which has become a foundational link of social existence. This statement is based upon the results of twelve researches carried out by a group from the school of Education of the University of São Paulo, devoted to Foucaultian studies in education. It is an effort to analyze the relationship between contemporary governmentality and certain ongoing educational imperatives from different social fields.

  17. An inverse approach for elucidating dendritic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Torben-Nielsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We outline an inverse approach for investigating dendritic function-structure relationships by optimizing dendritic trees for a-priori chosen computational functions. The inverse approach can be applied in two different ways. First, we can use it as a `hypothesis generator' in which we optimize dendrites for a function of general interest. The optimization yields an artificial dendrite that is subsequently compared to real neurons. This comparison potentially allows us to propose hypotheses about the function of real neurons. In this way, we investigated dendrites that optimally perform input-order detection. Second, we can use it as a `function confirmation' by optimizing dendrites for functions hypothesized to be performed by classes of neurons. If the optimized, artificial, dendrites resemble the dendrites of real neurons the artificial dendrites corroborate the hypothesized function of the real neuron. Moreover, properties of the artificial dendrites can lead to predictions about yet unmeasured properties. In this way, we investigated wide-field motion integration performed by the VS cells of the fly visual system. In outlining the inverse approach and two applications, we also elaborate on the nature of dendritic function. We furthermore discuss the role of optimality in assigning functions to dendrites and point out interesting future directions.

  18. Linking vegetation structure, function and physiology through spectroscopic remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, S.; Singh, A.; Couture, J. J.; Shiklomanov, A. N.; Rogers, A.; Desai, A. R.; Kruger, E. L.; Townsend, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem process models require detailed information on ecosystem states and canopy properties to properly simulate the fluxes of carbon (C), water and energy from the land to the atmosphere and assess the vulnerability of ecosystems to perturbations. Current models fail to adequately capture the magnitude, spatial variation, and seasonality of terrestrial C uptake and storage, leading to significant uncertainties in the size and fate of the terrestrial C sink. By and large, these parameter and process uncertainties arise from inadequate spatial and temporal representation of plant traits, vegetation structure, and functioning. With increases in computational power and changes to model architecture and approaches, it is now possible for models to leverage detailed, data rich and spatially explicit descriptions of ecosystems to inform parameter distributions and trait tradeoffs. In this regard, spectroscopy and imaging spectroscopy data have been shown to be invaluable observational datasets to capture broad-scale spatial and, eventually, temporal dynamics in important vegetation properties. We illustrate the linkage of plant traits and spectral observations to supply key data constraints for model parameterization. These constraints can come either in the form of the raw spectroscopic data (reflectance, absorbtance) or physiological traits derived from spectroscopy. In this presentation we highlight our ongoing work to build ecological scaling relationships between critical vegetation characteristics and optical properties across diverse and complex canopies, including temperate broadleaf and conifer forests, Mediterranean vegetation, Arctic systems, and agriculture. We focus on work at the leaf, stand, and landscape scales, illustrating the importance of capturing the underlying variability in a range of parameters (including vertical variation within canopies) to enable more efficient scaling of traits related to functional diversity of ecosystems.

  19. Androgen receptor function links human sexual dimorphism to DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Ammerpohl

    Full Text Available Sex differences are well known to be determinants of development, health and disease. Epigenetic mechanisms are also known to differ between men and women through X-inactivation in females. We hypothesized that epigenetic sex differences may also result from sex hormone functions, in particular from long-lasting androgen programming. We aimed at investigating whether inactivation of the androgen receptor, the key regulator of normal male sex development, is associated with differences of the patterns of DNA methylation marks in genital tissues. To this end, we performed large scale array-based analysis of gene methylation profiles on genomic DNA from labioscrotal skin fibroblasts of 8 males and 26 individuals with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS due to inactivating androgen receptor gene mutations. By this approach we identified differential methylation of 167 CpG loci representing 162 unique human genes. These were significantly enriched for androgen target genes and low CpG content promoter genes. Additional 75 genes showed a significant increase of heterogeneity of methylation in AIS compared to a high homogeneity in normal male controls. Our data show that normal and aberrant androgen receptor function is associated with distinct patterns of DNA-methylation marks in genital tissues. These findings support the concept that transcription factor binding to the DNA has an impact on the shape of the DNA methylome. These data which derived from a rare human model suggest that androgen programming of methylation marks contributes to sexual dimorphism in the human which might have considerable impact on the manifestation of sex-associated phenotypes and diseases.

  20. Quantum functional analysis non-coordinate approach

    CERN Document Server

    Helemskii, A Ya

    2010-01-01

    This book contains a systematic presentation of quantum functional analysis, a mathematical subject also known as operator space theory. Created in the 1980s, it nowadays is one of the most prominent areas of functional analysis, both as a field of active research and as a source of numerous important applications. The approach taken in this book differs significantly from the standard approach used in studying operator space theory. Instead of viewing "quantized coefficients" as matrices in a fixed basis, in this book they are interpreted as finite rank operators in a fixed Hilbert space. This allows the author to replace matrix computations with algebraic techniques of module theory and tensor products, thus achieving a more invariant approach to the subject. The book can be used by graduate students and research mathematicians interested in functional analysis and related areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Prerequisites include standard courses in abstract algebra and functional analysis.

  1. a Task-Driven Disaster Data Link Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L. Y.; Zhu, Q.; Gu, J. Y.; Du, Z. Q.

    2015-08-01

    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, cases data, simulation data, disaster products and so on. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly serious due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, data searching mainly relies on artificial experience based on simple metadata index, whose high time-consuming and low accuracy cannot satisfy the requirements of disaster products on velocity and veracity. In this paper, a task-oriented linking method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service, with the objectives of 1) putting forward ontologies of disaster task and data to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the degree of correlation between each data and a target task. The method breaks through traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a base for intelligent retrieval and active push of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method with a flood emergency relief task.

  2. Capacity-Approaching Superposition Coding for Optical Fiber Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of superposition coded modulation (SCM) for polarization-multiplexed coherent-detection optical fiber links. The proposed coded modulation scheme is combined with phase-shifted bit-to-symbol mapping (PSM) in order to achieve geometric and passive......-SCM) is employed in the framework of bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding (BICM-ID) for forward error correction. The fiber transmission system is characterized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio for back-to-back case and correlated with simulated results for ideal transmission over additive...... white Gaussian noise channel. Thereafter, successful demodulation and decoding after dispersion-unmanaged transmission over 240-km standard single mode fiber of dual-polarization 6-Gbaud 16-, 32- and 64-ary SCM-PSM is experimentally demonstrated....

  3. The Effect of Error in Item Parameter Estimates on the Test Response Function Method of Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskowitz, Gary S.; De Ayala, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the effect of item parameter estimation for computation of linking coefficients for the test response function (TRF) linking/equating method. Simulation results showed that linking was more accurate when there was less error in the parameter estimates, and that 15 or 25 common items provided better results than 5 common items under both…

  4. Anilinopyrimidine Resistance in Botrytis cinerea Is Linked to Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Mosbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Crop protection anilinopyrimidine (AP fungicides were introduced more than 20 years ago for the control of a range of diseases caused by ascomycete plant pathogens, and in particular for the control of gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Although early mode of action studies suggested an inhibition of methionine biosynthesis, the molecular target of this class of fungicides was never fully clarified. Despite AP-specific resistance having been described in B. cinerea field isolates and in multiple other targeted species, the underlying resistance mechanisms were unknown. It was therefore expected that the genetic characterization of resistance mechanisms would permit the identification of the molecular target of these fungicides. In order to explore the widest range of possible resistance mechanisms, AP-resistant B. cinerea UV laboratory mutants were generated and the mutations conferring resistance were determined by combining whole-genome sequencing and reverse genetics. Genetic mapping from a cross between a resistant field isolate and a sensitive reference isolate was used in parallel and led to the identification of an additional molecular determinant not found from the characterized UV mutant collection. Together, these two approaches enabled the characterization of an unrivaled diversity of resistance mechanisms. In total, we report the elucidation of resistance-conferring mutations within nine individual genes, two of which are responsible for almost all instances of AP resistance in the field. All identified resistance-conferring genes encode proteins that are involved in mitochondrial processes, suggesting that APs primarily target the mitochondria. The functions of these genes and their possible interactions are discussed in the context of the potential mode of action for this important class of fungicides.

  5. A Functional Approach to User Guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    to fulfil the requirements of users. By applying the functional approach lexicographers are forced to reconsider the scope of the user guide. The user guide has traditionally centred on the structures of entries - and consequently on the word list - but its scope should be widened, so as to include all......The functional approach opens up exciting new possibilities for theoretical and practical lexicography. It encourages lexicographers to adopt a new way of thinking when planning and compiling dictionaries and when discussing and developing new lexicographic principles. One area in which it impacts...... on lexicography and lexicographic products is the writing of a really crafted and valuable user guide for instance by giving increased consideration to the user perspective. This involves the identification of the functions of the dictionary in terms of communication-oriented and cognitive functions, which helps...

  6. Biocatalytic cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides for designed food functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz Abang; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    the mechanisms of formation of functional pectic polysaccharide cross-links, including covalent cross-links (notably phenolic esters and uronyl ester linkages) and non-covalent, ionic cross-links (which involve calcium and borate ester links). The treatise examines how such cross-links can be designed via......Recent research has demonstrated how cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides to obtain gel formation can be promoted by enzymatic catalysis reactions, and provide opportunities for functional upgrading of pectic polysaccharides present in agro-industrial sidestreams. This review highlights...... specific enzymatic reactions, and highlights the most recent data concerning enzyme catalyzed engineering of cross-links for in situ structural design of functional properties of foods....

  7. A Novel Synchronization-Based Approach for Functional Connectivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lombardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex network analysis has become a gold standard to investigate functional connectivity in the human brain. Popular approaches for quantifying functional coupling between fMRI time series are linear zero-lag correlation methods; however, they might reveal only partial aspects of the functional links between brain areas. In this work, we propose a novel approach for assessing functional coupling between fMRI time series and constructing functional brain networks. A phase space framework is used to map couples of signals exploiting their cross recurrence plots (CRPs to compare the trajectories of the interacting systems. A synchronization metric is extracted from the CRP to assess the coupling behavior of the time series. Since the functional communities of a healthy population are expected to be highly consistent for the same task, we defined functional networks of task-related fMRI data of a cohort of healthy subjects and applied a modularity algorithm in order to determine the community structures of the networks. The within-group similarity of communities is evaluated to verify whether such new metric is robust enough against noise. The synchronization metric is also compared with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detected communities seem to better reflect the functional brain organization during the specific task.

  8. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  9. Introducing linear functions: an alternative statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be `threshold concepts'. There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear modelling examples, but this has its limitations. Currently, statistical data is easily attainable, and graphics or computer algebra system (CAS) calculators are common in many classrooms. The use of this technology provides ease of access to different representations of linear functions as well as the ability to fit a least-squares line for real-life data. This means these calculators could support a possible alternative approach to the introduction of linear functions. This study compares the results of an end-of-topic test for two classes of Australian middle secondary students at a regional school to determine if such an alternative approach is feasible. In this study, test questions were grouped by concept and subjected to concept by concept analysis of the means of test results of the two classes. This analysis revealed that the students following the alternative approach demonstrated greater competence with non-standard questions.

  10. Linking structural features of protein complexes and biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, Gopichandran; Breen, Edmond J; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2015-09-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) establishes the central basis for complex cellular networks in a biological cell. Association of proteins with other proteins occurs at varying affinities, yet with a high degree of specificity. PPIs lead to diverse functionality such as catalysis, regulation, signaling, immunity, and inhibition, playing a crucial role in functional genomics. The molecular principle of such interactions is often elusive in nature. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of known protein complexes from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) is essential for the characterization of structural interface features to determine structure-function relationship. Thus, we analyzed a nonredundant dataset of 278 heterodimer protein complexes, categorized into major functional classes, for distinguishing features. Interestingly, our analysis has identified five key features (interface area, interface polar residue abundance, hydrogen bonds, solvation free energy gain from interface formation, and binding energy) that are discriminatory among the functional classes using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Significant correlations between these PPI interface features amongst functional categories are also documented. Salt bridges correlate with interface area in regulator-inhibitors (r = 0.75). These representative features have implications for the prediction of potential function of novel protein complexes. The results provide molecular insights for better understanding of PPIs and their relation to biological functions. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  11. Parallel interconnect for a novel system approach to short distance high information transfer data links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Glenn; Lebby, Michael S.; Carney, F.; Kazakia, M.; Schwartz, Daniel B.; Gaw, Craig A.

    1997-04-01

    The OPTOBUSTM family of products provides for high performance parallel interconnection utilizing optical links in a 10-bit wide bi-directional configuration. The link is architected to be 'transparent' in that it is totally asynchronous and dc coupled so that it can be treated as a perfect cable with extremely low skew and no losses. An optical link consists of two identical transceiver modules and a pair of connectorized 62.5 micrometer multi mode fiber ribbon cables. The OPTOBUSTM I link provides bi- directional functionality at 4 Gbps (400 Mbps per channel), while the OPTOBUSTM II link will offer the same capability at 8 Gbps (800 Mbps per channel). The transparent structure of the OPTOBUSTM links allow for an arbitrary data stream regardless of its structure. Both the OPTOBUSTM I and OPTOBUSTM II transceiver modules are packaged as partially populated 14 by 14 pin grid arrays (PGA) with optical receptacles on one side of the module. The modules themselves are composed of several elements; including passives, integrated circuits optoelectronic devices and optical interface units (OIUs) (which consist of polymer waveguides and a specially designed lead frame). The initial offering of the modules electrical interface utilizes differential CML. The CML line driver sinks 5 mA of current into one of two pins. When terminated with 50 ohm pull-up resistors tied to a voltage between VCC and VCC-2, the result is a differential swing of plus or minus 250 mV, capable of driving standard PECL I/Os. Future offerings of the OPTOBUSTM links will incorporate LVDS and PECL interfaces as well as CML. The integrated circuits are silicon based. For OPTOBUSTM I links, a 1.5 micrometer drawn emitter NPN bipolar process is used for the receiver and an enhanced 0.8 micrometer CMOS process for the laser driver. For OPTOBUSTM II links, a 0.8 micrometer drawn emitter NPN bipolar process is used for the receiver and the driver IC utilizes 0.8 micrometer BiCMOS technology. The OPTOBUSTM

  12. Systemic-Functional Approach to Utilities Supplys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay I. Komkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of the article consists in statement of management approach to development of utilities supply processes based on conflict situations decision – making search. It had appeared in the period of the transition from the planned and directive management to market development. Methods: the research methodology is based on the system analysis of full life cycle processes functioning, forecasting of complex systems development, mathematical modeling of processes of services supply and innovative and investment projects modeling as well as development of supplying services processes. Results: the results of the work are concentrated in the presentation of systemic-functional approach to managing the development of processes of municipal services, able to resolve conflict situations in this sphere. Conclusions and Relevance: the traditional management approach on the basis of elimination of "bottlenecks" and emergencies prevailing within planned and directive system at its transformation in the market conditions has led to accumulation of conflict situations and unsolvable problems. The offered systemic-functional approach based on forecasting of full life cycle of the modernized processes and the services providing systems allows to consider costs of modernization, prime cost and quality of the rendered services. 

  13. Plant Metabolomics : the missiong link in functional genomics strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Beale, M.; Fiehn, O.; Hardy, N.; Summer, L.; Bino, R.

    2002-01-01

    After the establishment of technologies for high-throughput DNA sequencing (genomics), gene expression analysis (transcriptomics), and protein analysis (proteomics), the remaining functional genomics challenge is that of metabolomics. Metabolomics is the term coined for essentially comprehensive,

  14. A Novel Topology Link-Controlling Approach for Active Defense of a Node in a Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of virtual machine technology and cloud computing, distributed denial of service (DDoS attacks, or some peak traffic, poses a great threat to the security of the network. In this paper, a novel topology link control technique and mitigation attacks in real-time environments is proposed. Firstly, a non-invasive method of deploying virtual sensors in the nodes is built, which uses the resource manager of each monitored node as a sensor. Secondly, a general topology-controlling approach of resisting the tolerant invasion is proposed. In the proposed approach, a prediction model is constructed by using copula functions for predicting the peak of a resource through another resource. The result of prediction determines whether or not to initiate the active defense. Finally, a minority game with incomplete strategy is employed to suppress attack flows and improve the permeability of the normal flows. The simulation results show that the proposed approach is very effective in protecting nodes.

  15. A functional approach for managing ITER operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtte, Didier van; Sagot, François; Okayama, Katsumi; Blackler, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A function-oriented approach for defining and organizing all the functions required to perform the mission has been developed. ► A Functional Breakdown Structure providing a complete hierarchy of functions on multiple levels is presented. ► The FBS is used for giving a good visibility of ITER project needs and requirements. ► Reliability (R) and Inherent Availability (A I ) of basic functions are calculated from data on the structures, systems and components (failure rate and time to repair) for obtaining the Availability objectives of the ITER project. - Abstract: ITER is currently the most ambitious project on nuclear fusion research. Its objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion as an energy source for the future. The complexity of the systems required to meet this challenge present many opportunities for omissions or incorrect assumptions. System engineering allows the engineer to deal with such a complexity by developing a Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS). Unlike a Plant Breakdown Structure (PBS), the FBS is a function-oriented tree, not a product-oriented tree. It details operations or activities that have to be performed as needed functions of the architecture, allowing identification of any missing elements, defining the personnel skills required to operate the architecture and managing the machine availability.

  16. Trauma-Related Dissociation Is Linked With Maladaptive Personality Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Granieri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive research has demonstrated the positive associations among the exposure to traumatic experiences, the levels of dissociation, and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in adults. However, it has been hypothesized in clinical literature that an excessive activation of the dissociative processes following multiple traumatic experiences may jeopardize the psychological and behavioral functioning of the individuals, fostering higher levels of maladaptive personality functioning.Methods: The study involved 322 adult volunteers from Italy. Participants completed measures on traumatic experiences, dissociation, and maladaptive personality traits.Results: The number of traumatic experiences reported by participants were positively associated with dissociation scores and maladaptive personality scores. Mediation analyses showed that dissociation acted as a partial mediator in the relationship between traumatic experiences and overall maladaptive personality functioning. Regression curve analyses showed that the positive association between maladaptive personality functioning and dissociation was stronger among participants with higher exposure to traumatic experiences.Conclusion: Exposure to multiple traumatic experiences may increase the risk for an excessive activation of the dissociative processes, which in turn may generate severe impairments in multiple domains of personality functioning.

  17. Cognitive function is linked to adherence to bariatric postoperative guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Galioto, Rachel; Limbach, Kristen; Gunstad, John; Heinberg, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Impairment in cognitive function is found in a significant subset of individuals undergoing bariatric surgery, and recent work shows this impairment is associated with smaller postoperative weight loss. Reduced cognitive function could contribute to poorer adherence to postoperative guidelines, although this has not been previously examined. The present study examined the relationship between cognitive function and adherence to bariatric postoperative guidelines. We expected that higher cognitive function would be associated with better adherence to postoperative guidelines. Thirty-seven bariatric surgery patients completed cognitive testing and a self-report measure of adherence to postoperative bariatric guidelines during their 4- to 6-week postoperative appointment. Strong correlations were observed between adherence to postoperative guidelines and cognitive indices of attention, executive function, and memory. Results show that cognitive performance is strongly associated with adherence to postoperative guidelines shortly after bariatric surgery. Further work is needed to clarify whether this relationship is present at later postoperative stages and the degree to which this relationship mediates postoperative weight loss outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating Function Approaches for Spatial Point Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chong

    Spatial point pattern data consist of locations of events that are often of interest in biological and ecological studies. Such data are commonly viewed as a realization from a stochastic process called spatial point process. To fit a parametric spatial point process model to such data, likelihood-based methods have been widely studied. However, while maximum likelihood estimation is often too computationally intensive for Cox and cluster processes, pairwise likelihood methods such as composite likelihood, Palm likelihood usually suffer from the loss of information due to the ignorance of correlation among pairs. For many types of correlated data other than spatial point processes, when likelihood-based approaches are not desirable, estimating functions have been widely used for model fitting. In this dissertation, we explore the estimating function approaches for fitting spatial point process models. These approaches, which are based on the asymptotic optimal estimating function theories, can be used to incorporate the correlation among data and yield more efficient estimators. We conducted a series of studies to demonstrate that these estmating function approaches are good alternatives to balance the trade-off between computation complexity and estimating efficiency. First, we propose a new estimating procedure that improves the efficiency of pairwise composite likelihood method in estimating clustering parameters. Our approach combines estimating functions derived from pairwise composite likeli-hood estimation and estimating functions that account for correlations among the pairwise contributions. Our method can be used to fit a variety of parametric spatial point process models and can yield more efficient estimators for the clustering parameters than pairwise composite likelihood estimation. We demonstrate its efficacy through a simulation study and an application to the longleaf pine data. Second, we further explore the quasi-likelihood approach on fitting

  19. Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies—which have mostly focused on morphological traits—could become more apparent when behaviour, ‘the integrator of form and function’, is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed. PMID:21690124

  20. The origin and function of mirror neurons: the missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingnau, Angelika; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2014-04-01

    We argue, by analogy to the neural organization of the object recognition system, that demonstration of modulation of mirror neurons by associative learning does not imply absence of genetic adaptation. Innate connectivity defines the types of processes mirror neurons can participate in while allowing for extensive local plasticity. However, the proper function of these neurons remains to be worked out.

  1. Bayesian inference in an item response theory model with a generalized student t link function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Caio L. N.; Migon, Helio S.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a new item response theory (IRT) model with a generalized Student t-link function with unknown degrees of freedom (df), named generalized t-link (GtL) IRT model. In this model we consider only the difficulty parameter in the item response function. GtL is an alternative to the two parameter logit and probit models, since the degrees of freedom (df) play a similar role to the discrimination parameter. However, the behavior of the curves of the GtL is different from those of the two parameter models and the usual Student t link, since in GtL the curve obtained from different df's can cross the probit curves in more than one latent trait level. The GtL model has similar proprieties to the generalized linear mixed models, such as the existence of sufficient statistics and easy parameter interpretation. Also, many techniques of parameter estimation, model fit assessment and residual analysis developed for that models can be used for the GtL model. We develop fully Bayesian estimation and model fit assessment tools through a Metropolis-Hastings step within Gibbs sampling algorithm. We consider a prior sensitivity choice concerning the degrees of freedom. The simulation study indicates that the algorithm recovers all parameters properly. In addition, some Bayesian model fit assessment tools are considered. Finally, a real data set is analyzed using our approach and other usual models. The results indicate that our model fits the data better than the two parameter models.

  2. A Curriculum-Linked Professional Development Approach to Support Teachers' Adoption of Web GIS Tectonics Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Anastasio, David; Sahagian, Dork; Henry, Jill Burrows

    2016-01-01

    A curriculum-linked professional development approach designed to support middle level science teachers' understandings about tectonics and geospatial pedagogical content knowledge was developed. This approach takes into account limited face-to-face professional development time and instead provides pedagogical support within the design of a…

  3. Exploring Alternative Characteristic Curve Approaches to Linking Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James S.; Bao, Han; Huang, Chun-Wei; Gagne, Phill

    Characteristic curve approaches for linking parameters from the generalized partial credit model were examined for cases in which common (anchor) items are calibrated separately in two groups. Three of these approaches are simple extensions of the test characteristic curve (TCC), item characteristic curve (ICC), and operating characteristic curve…

  4. From the genome to the phenome and back: linking genes with human brain function and structure using genetically informed neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, H R; Callicott, J H; Sommer, T

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an array of brain mapping techniques has been successfully employed to link individual differences in circuit function or structure in the living human brain with individual variations in the human genome. Several proof-of-principle studies provided converging evidence that brain...... imaging can establish important links between genes and behaviour. The overarching goal is to use genetically informed brain imaging to pinpoint neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to behavioural intermediate phenotypes or disease states. This special issue on "Linking Genes to Brain Function...... in Health and Disease" provides an overview over how the "imaging genetics" approach is currently applied in the various fields of systems neuroscience to reveal the genetic underpinnings of complex behaviours and brain diseases. While the rapidly emerging field of imaging genetics holds great promise...

  5. Links between CD147 Function, Glycosylation, and Caveolin-1

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei; Chang, Sharon B.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2004-01-01

    Cell surface CD147 shows remarkable variations in size (31-65 kDa) because of heterogeneous N-glycosylation, with the most highly glycosylated forms functioning to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. Here we show that all three CD147 N-glycosylation sites make similar contributions to both high and low glycoforms (HG- and LG-CD147). l-Phytohemagglutinin lectin binding and swainsonine inhibition experiments indicated that HG-CD147 contains N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V-cataly...

  6. Multiple Time Series Forecasting Using Quasi-Randomized Functional Link Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Moudiki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are interested in obtaining forecasts for multiple time series, by taking into account the potential nonlinear relationships between their observations. For this purpose, we use a specific type of regression model on an augmented dataset of lagged time series. Our model is inspired by dynamic regression models (Pankratz 2012, with the response variable’s lags included as predictors, and is known as Random Vector Functional Link (RVFL neural networks. The RVFL neural networks have been successfully applied in the past, to solving regression and classification problems. The novelty of our approach is to apply an RVFL model to multivariate time series, under two separate regularization constraints on the regression parameters.

  7. Linking geodiversity and biodiversity in protected area management: developing a more integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John

    2014-05-01

    The ecosystem approach is now a key driver for conservation policy globally. By definition an ecosystem includes both abiotic and biotic components interacting as a functional unit. However, the role of geodiversity generally remains poorly recognised both at a policy level and in the practical management of protected areas. This presentation examines key links between geodiversity and biodiversity, and demonstrates the benefits of better integration both to enhance conservation of geoheritage and the role of geodiversity in ecosystem management. Geodiversity contributes essentially to most of the ecosystem services recognised in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. It underpins biodiversity from micro- to macro-scales through the influence of factors such as lithology, topography, sediments, soils and hydrology. Most habitats and species depend on the abiotic 'stage' on which they exist. Active geological processes also help to determine the heterogeneity of the physical environment, creating mosaics of landforms, surface deposits and dynamic environments that support a range of biodiversity. In the face of climate change and other human pressures, maintaining and enhancing geodiversity should help to 'future-proof' biodiversity in the longer term. Learning from the past through palaeoenvironmental records can also enable better understanding of ecosystem dynamics. As well as recognising the value of geoheritage in its own right, a more integrated approach to conservation in protected areas would benefit both biodiversity and geodiversity, incorporating the concept of 'conserving the stage' (Anderson & Ferree, 2010) and the maintenance of natural processes. As part of developing the scientific framework of geodiversity, this requires geoscience engagement in the ecosystem approach, including evidence-based interdisciplinary research on the functional links between geodiversity and biodiversity across a range of spatial and temporal scales both to inform policy and

  8. Linking biogeomorphic feedbacks from ecosystem engineer to landscape scale: a panarchy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Jana

    2017-04-01

    Scale is a fundamental concept in both ecology and geomorphology. Therefore, scale-based approaches are a valuable tool to bridge the disciplines and improve the understanding of feedbacks between geomorphic processes, landforms, material and organisms and ecological processes in biogeomorphology. Yet, linkages between biogeomorphic feedbacks on different scales, e.g. between ecosystem engineering and landscape scale patterns and dynamics, are not well understood. A panarchy approach sensu Holling et al. (2002) can help to close this research gap and explain how structure and function are created in biogeomorphic ecosystems. Based on results from previous biogeomorphic research in Turtmann glacier foreland (Switzerland; Eichel, 2017; Eichel et al. 2013, 2016), a panarchy concept is presented for lateral moraine slope biogeomorphic ecosystems. It depicts biogeomorphic feedbacks on different spatiotemporal scales as a set of nested adaptive cycles and links them by 'remember' and 'revolt' connections. On a small scale (cm2 - m2; seconds to years), the life cycle of the ecosystem engineer Dryas octopetala L. is considered as an adaptive cycle. Biogeomorphic succession within patches created by geomorphic processes represents an intermediate scale adaptive cycle (m2 - ha, years to decades), while geomorphic and ecologic pattern development at a landscape scale (ha - km2, decades to centuries) can be illustrated by an adaptive cycle of ‚biogeomorphic patch dynamics' (Eichel, 2017). In the panarchy, revolt connections link the smaller scale adaptive cycles to larger scale cycles: on lateral moraine slopes, the development of ecosystem engineer biomass and cover controls the engineering threshold of the biogeomorphic feedback window (Eichel et al., 2016) and therefore the onset of the biogeomorphic phase during biogeomorphic succession. In this phase, engineer patches and biogeomorphic structures can be created in the patch mosaic of the landscape. Remember connections

  9. A density functional approach to ferrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, P.; Heinen, M.; Menzel, A. M.; Löwen, H.

    2017-07-01

    Ferrogels consist of magnetic colloidal particles embedded in an elastic polymer matrix. As a consequence, their structural and rheological properties are governed by a competition between magnetic particle-particle interactions and mechanical matrix elasticity. Typically, the particles are permanently fixed within the matrix, which makes them distinguishable by their positions. Over time, particle neighbors do not change due to the fixation by the matrix. Here we present a classical density functional approach for such ferrogels. We map the elastic matrix-induced interactions between neighboring colloidal particles distinguishable by their positions onto effective pairwise interactions between indistinguishable particles similar to a ‘pairwise pseudopotential’. Using Monte-Carlo computer simulations, we demonstrate for one-dimensional dipole-spring models of ferrogels that this mapping is justified. We then use the pseudopotential as an input into classical density functional theory of inhomogeneous fluids and predict the bulk elastic modulus of the ferrogel under various conditions. In addition, we propose the use of an ‘external pseudopotential’ when one switches from the viewpoint of a one-dimensional dipole-spring object to a one-dimensional chain embedded in an infinitely extended bulk matrix. Our mapping approach paves the way to describe various inhomogeneous situations of ferrogels using classical density functional concepts of inhomogeneous fluids.

  10. Searching for the Prosocial Personality: A Big Five Approach to Linking Personality and Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Meara M; Graziano, William G; Hoover, Ann E

    2016-09-01

    The search for the prosocial personality has been long and controversial. The current research explores the general patterns underlying prosocial decisions, linking personality, emotion, and overt prosocial behavior. Using a multimethod approach, we explored the links between the Big Five dimensions of personality and prosocial responding. Across three studies, we found that agreeableness was the dimension of personality most closely associated with emotional reactions to victims in need of help, and subsequent decisions to help those individuals. Results suggest that prosocial processes, including emotions, cognitions, and behaviors, may be part of a more general motivational process linked to personality. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Using ecological production functions to link ecological processes to ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem services (ES) production. Although EPFs are acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, their use in ecological risk assessment has received relatively ...

  12. Linking microbial diversity and functionality of arctic glacial surface habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M; Edwards, Arwyn; Benning, Liane G

    2017-02-01

    Distinct microbial habitats on glacial surfaces are dominated by snow and ice algae, which are the critical players and the dominant primary colonisers and net producers during the melt season. Here for the first time we have evaluated the role of these algae in association with the full microbial community composition (i.e., algae, bacteria, archaea) in distinct surface habitats and on 12 glaciers and permanent snow fields in Svalbard and Arctic Sweden. We cross-correlated these data with the analyses of specific metabolites such as fatty acids and pigments, and a full suite of potential critical physico-chemical parameters including major and minor nutrients, and trace metals. It has been shown that correlations between single algal species, metabolites, and specific geochemical parameters can be used to unravel mixed metabolic signals in complex communities, further assign them to single species and infer their functionality. The data also clearly show that the production of metabolites in snow and ice algae is driven mainly by nitrogen and less so by phosphorus limitation. This is especially important for the synthesis of secondary carotenoids, which cause a darkening of glacial surfaces leading to a decrease in surface albedo and eventually higher melting rates. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Transceptors as a functional link of transporters and receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Diallinas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cells need to communicate with their environment in order to obtain nutrients, grow, divide and respond to signals related to adaptation in changing physiological conditions or stress. A very basic question in biology is how cells, especially of those organisms living in rapidly changing habitats, sense their environment. Apparently, this question is of particular importance to all free-living microorganisms. The critical role of receptors, transporters and channels, transmembrane proteins located in the plasma membrane of all types of cells, in signaling environmental changes is well established. A relative newcomer in environment sensing are the so called transceptors, membrane proteins that possess both solute transport and receptor-like signaling activities. Now, the transceptor concept is further enlarged to include micronutrient sensing via the iron and zinc high-affinity transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interestingly, what seems to underline the transport and/or sensing function of receptors, transporters and transceptors is ligand-induced conformational alterations recognized by downstream intracellular effectors.

  14. Study on predicting residual life of elevator links by fracture mechanics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Helin; Zhang Yi; Deng Zengjie [China National Petroleum Corp., Xi`an, Shaanxi (China). Tubular Goods Research Center; Jin Dazeng [Xi`an Jiaotong Univ., Xi`an, Shaanxi (China)

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of investigation, failure and fracture analysis of elevator links, residual life prediction of links using fracture mechanics approach is studied, and mechanical properties, fracture toughness value K{sub IC} and fatigue crack propagation rage da/dN of the steel for elevator links are determined. Using the relation between stress intensity factor K{sub I} and the strain-energy release rate, the two-dimensional conversion thickness finite element method has been used to calculate the stress intensity factors K{sub I} for dangerous sections in the ring part of links. Furthermore, the reliability of calculations of the finite element stress intensity factors K{sub I} for dangerous sections of elevator links and the residual life computation for links are verified by fatigue tests of actual links. Finally, the experimental verification of computed results by 150T link fractured at site indicates that the computed critical crack lengths and residual life tally well with those measured and meet the needs of oil drilling.

  15. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Prosanta [Louisiana Radiation Protection Div., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The radiological emergency response program in the State of Louisiana is discussed. The improved approach intends to maximize the efficiency for both nuclear power plant and radiological emergency response as a whole. Several broad-based components are identified: cluster of `nodes` are generated for each component; these `nodes` may be divided into `sub-nodes` which will contain some `attributes`; `relational bonds` among the `attributes` will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the `nodes` assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the `attributes`. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is eliminated; overlapping of functions is avoided, and is produced a well-structure and efficient organization 1 ref., 6 figs.; e-mail: prosanta at deq.state.la.us

  16. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Prosanta

    1997-01-01

    The radiological emergency response program in the State of Louisiana is discussed. The improved approach intends to maximize the efficiency for both nuclear power plant and radiological emergency response as a whole. Several broad-based components are identified: cluster of 'nodes' are generated for each component; these 'nodes' may be divided into 'sub-nodes' which will contain some 'attributes'; 'relational bonds' among the 'attributes' will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the 'nodes' assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the 'attributes'. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is eliminated; overlapping of functions is avoided, and is produced a well-structure and efficient organization

  17. Functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, J; Lee, E F; Fairlie, W D; Kalinna, B H

    2012-01-01

    As research on parasitic helminths is moving into the post-genomic era, an enormous effort is directed towards deciphering gene function and to achieve gene annotation. The sequences that are available in public databases undoubtedly hold information that can be utilized for new interventions and control but the exploitation of these resources has until recently remained difficult. Only now, with the emergence of methods to genetically manipulate and transform parasitic worms will it be possible to gain a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in nutrition, metabolism, developmental switches/maturation and interaction with the host immune system. This review focuses on functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths that are currently used, to highlight potential applications of these technologies in the areas of cell biology, systems biology and immunobiology of parasitic helminths. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Linking Neurons to Network Function and Behavior by Two-Photon Holographic Optogenetics and Volumetric Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maschio, Marco; Donovan, Joseph C; Helmbrecht, Thomas O; Baier, Herwig

    2017-05-17

    We introduce a flexible method for high-resolution interrogation of circuit function, which combines simultaneous 3D two-photon stimulation of multiple targeted neurons, volumetric functional imaging, and quantitative behavioral tracking. This integrated approach was applied to dissect how an ensemble of premotor neurons in the larval zebrafish brain drives a basic motor program, the bending of the tail. We developed an iterative photostimulation strategy to identify minimal subsets of channelrhodopsin (ChR2)-expressing neurons that are sufficient to initiate tail movements. At the same time, the induced network activity was recorded by multiplane GCaMP6 imaging across the brain. From this dataset, we computationally identified activity patterns associated with distinct components of the elicited behavior and characterized the contributions of individual neurons. Using photoactivatable GFP (paGFP), we extended our protocol to visualize single functionally identified neurons and reconstruct their morphologies. Together, this toolkit enables linking behavior to circuit activity with unprecedented resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Density functional approach for pairing in finite size systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hupin, G.

    2011-09-01

    The combination of functional theory where the energy is written as a functional of the density, and the configuration mixing method, provides an efficient description of nuclear ground and excited state properties. The specific pathologies that have been recently observed, show the lack of a clear underlying justification associated to the breaking and the restoration of symmetries within density functional theory. This thesis focuses on alternative treatments of pairing correlations in finite many body systems that consider the breaking and the restoration of the particle number conservation. The energy is written as a functional of a projected quasi-particle vacuum and can be linked to the one obtained within the configuration mixing framework. This approach has been applied to make the projection either before or after the application of the variational principle. It is more flexible than the usual configuration mixing method since it can handle more general effective interactions than the latter. The application to the Krypton isotopes shows the feasibility and the efficiency of the method to describe pairing near closed shell nuclei. Following a parallel path, a theory where the energy is written as a functional of the occupation number and natural orbitals is proposed. The new functional is benchmarked in an exactly solvable model, the pairing Hamiltonian. The efficiency and the applicability of the new theory have been tested for various pairing strengths, single particle energy spectra and numbers of particles. (author)

  20. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, P.

    1998-01-01

    The state of Louisiana's radiological emergency response programme is based on the federal guidance 'Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants' (NUREG-0654, FEMA-REP-1 Rev. 1). Over the past 14 years, the planning and implementation of response capabilities became more organized and efficient; the training programme has strengthened considerably; co-ordination with all participating agencies has assumed a more co-operative role, and as a result, a fairly well integrated response planning has evolved. Recently, a more 'functional' approach is being adopted to maximize the programme's efficiency not only for nuclear power plant emergency response, but radiological emergency response as a whole. First, several broad-based 'components' are identified; clusters of 'nodes' are generated for each component; these 'nodes' may be divided into 'sub-nodes' which will contain some 'attributes'; 'relational bonds' among the 'attributes' will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the 'nodes' assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the 'attributes'. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is thus eliminated, the overlapping of functions is avoided, and a well structured and efficient organization is produced, that is essential for today's complex nature of emergency response. (author)

  1. Identifying the Critical Links in Road Transportation Networks: Centrality-based approach utilizing structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Supriya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Surface transportation road networks share structural properties similar to other complex networks (e.g., social networks, information networks, biological networks, and so on). This research investigates the structural properties of road networks for any possible correlation with the traffic characteristics such as link flows those determined independently. Additionally, we define a criticality index for the links of the road network that identifies the relative importance in the network. We tested our hypotheses with two sample road networks. Results show that, correlation exists between the link flows and centrality measures of a link of the road (dual graph approach is followed) and the criticality index is found to be effective for one test network to identify the vulnerable nodes.

  2. Flexible link functions in nonparametric binary regression with Gaussian process priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xia; Lin, Lizhen; Dey, Dipak K

    2016-09-01

    In many scientific fields, it is a common practice to collect a sequence of 0-1 binary responses from a subject across time, space, or a collection of covariates. Researchers are interested in finding out how the expected binary outcome is related to covariates, and aim at better prediction in the future 0-1 outcomes. Gaussian processes have been widely used to model nonlinear systems; in particular to model the latent structure in a binary regression model allowing nonlinear functional relationship between covariates and the expectation of binary outcomes. A critical issue in modeling binary response data is the appropriate choice of link functions. Commonly adopted link functions such as probit or logit links have fixed skewness and lack the flexibility to allow the data to determine the degree of the skewness. To address this limitation, we propose a flexible binary regression model which combines a generalized extreme value link function with a Gaussian process prior on the latent structure. Bayesian computation is employed in model estimation. Posterior consistency of the resulting posterior distribution is demonstrated. The flexibility and gains of the proposed model are illustrated through detailed simulation studies and two real data examples. Empirical results show that the proposed model outperforms a set of alternative models, which only have either a Gaussian process prior on the latent regression function or a Dirichlet prior on the link function. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Approach to ''Mind'' using functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    This review mainly describes authors' recent investigations concerning neuroimages approaching to even human ''mind'' using techniques of PET, SPECT and functional MRI (fMRI). Progress of such studies greatly owes to the development of image statistics of the brain like statistical parametric mapping (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/), and brain standards (www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/Imaging/mnispace.html, and ric.uthscsa.edu/projects/talairach daemon.html). The author discusses and presents images in cases of hallucinations (SPECT and H 2 15 O-PET), autism (SPECT), sleep, depression, and its therapy by transcaranial magnetic stimulation. These studies are expected to contribute to diagnosis and therapy of endogenous neurological disorders. (T.I.)

  4. Approach to ''Mind'' using functional neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medical School, Hospital, Moroyama, Saitama (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    This review mainly describes authors' recent investigations concerning neuroimages approaching to even human ''mind'' using techniques of PET, SPECT and functional MRI (fMRI). Progress of such studies greatly owes to the development of image statistics of the brain like statistical parametric mapping (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/), and brain standards (www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/Imaging/mnispace.html, and ric.uthscsa.edu/projects/talairach daemon.html). The author discusses and presents images in cases of hallucinations (SPECT and H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET), autism (SPECT), sleep, depression, and its therapy by transcaranial magnetic stimulation. These studies are expected to contribute to diagnosis and therapy of endogenous neurological disorders. (T.I.)

  5. Quantum anharmonic oscillator: The airy function approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, PO Box 9004, Abha 61413, Asseer (Saudi Arabia); University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); AlFaify, S. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, PO Box 9004, Abha 61413, Asseer (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-05-15

    New and simple numerical method is being reported to solve anharmonic oscillator problems. The method is setup to approach the real potential V(x) of the anharmonic oscillator system as a piecewise linear potential u(x) and to solve the Schrödinger equation of the system using the Airy function. Then, solutions continuity conditions lead to the energy quantification condition, and consequently, the energy eigenvalues. For testing purpose, the method was applied on the sextic and octic oscillators systems. The proposed method is found to be realistic, computationally simple, and having high degrees of accuracy. In addition, it can be applied to any form of potential. The results obtained by the proposed method were seen closely agreeing with results reached by other complicated methods.

  6. Effective teaching: Linking teaching to learning functions | Grösser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this regard, it is important that teachers are able to link teaching to learning functions in order to facilitate the optimal realization of learning outcomes. In this study the extent to which teaching assists the development of learning functions was examined by means of a quantitative research project. The findings indicated ...

  7. Super-resolution links vinculin localization to function in focal adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Grégory

    2015-07-01

    Integrin-based focal adhesions integrate biochemical and biomechanical signals from the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton. The combination of three-dimensional super-resolution imaging and loss- or gain-of-function protein mutants now links the nanoscale dynamic localization of proteins to their activation and function within focal adhesions.

  8. ``Green's function'' approach & low-mode asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Clark, Dan; Salmonson, Jay; MacLaren, Steve; Ma, Tammy; Khan, Shahab; Pino, Jesse; Ralph, Jo; Czajka, C.; Tipton, Robert; Landen, Otto; Kyrala, Georges; 2 Team; 1 Team

    2017-10-01

    Long wavelength, low mode asymmetries are believed to play a leading role in limiting the performance of current ICF implosions on NIF. These long wavelength modes are initiated and driven by asymmetries in the x-ray flux from the hohlraum; however, the underlying hydrodynamics of the implosion also act to amplify these asymmetries. The work presented here aim to deepen our understanding of the interplay of the drive asymmetries and the underlying implosion hydrodynamics in determining the final imploded configuration. This is accomplished through a synthesis of numerical modeling, analytic theory, and experimental data. In detail, we use a Green's function approach to connect the drive asymmetry seen by the capsule to the measured inflight and hot spot symmetries. The approach has been validated against a suite of numerical simulations. Ultimately, we hope this work will identify additional measurements to further constrain the asymmetries and increase hohlraum illumination design flexibility on the NIF. The technique and derivation of associated error bars will be presented. LLC, (LLNS) Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Application of Functional Link Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Machinery Noise in Opencast Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Nanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional link-based neural network models were applied to predict opencast mining machineries noise. The paper analyzes the prediction capabilities of functional link neural network based noise prediction models vis-à-vis existing statistical models. In order to find the actual noise status in opencast mines, some of the popular noise prediction models, for example, ISO-9613-2, CONCAWE, VDI, and ENM, have been applied in mining and allied industries to predict the machineries noise by considering various attenuation factors. Functional link artificial neural network (FLANN, polynomial perceptron network (PPN, and Legendre neural network (LeNN were used to predict the machinery noise in opencast mines. The case study is based on data collected from an opencast coal mine of Orissa, India. From the present investigations, it could be concluded that the FLANN model give better noise prediction than the PPN and LeNN model.

  10. Socioeconomic risk moderates the link between household chaos and maternal executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-06-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for Hypothesis 1, and consistent with Hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for hypothesis 1, and consistent with hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

  12. Link Performance Analysis and monitoring - A unified approach to divergent requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, G. A.

    Link Performance Analysis and real-time monitoring are generally covered by a wide range of equipment. Bit Error Rate testers provide digital link performance measurements but are not useful during real-time data flows. Real-time performance monitors utilize the fixed overhead content but vary widely from format to format. Link quality information is also present from signal reconstruction equipment in the form of receiver AGC, bit synchronizer AGC, and bit synchronizer soft decision level outputs, but no general approach to utilizing this information exists. This paper presents an approach to link tests, real-time data quality monitoring, and results presentation that utilizes a set of general purpose modules in a flexible architectural environment. The system operates over a wide range of bit rates (up to 150 Mbs) and employs several measurement techniques, including P/N code errors or fixed PCM format errors, derived real-time BER from frame sync errors, and Data Quality Analysis derived by counting significant sync status changes. The architecture performs with a minimum of elements in place to permit a phased update of the user's unit in accordance with his needs.

  13. Linking phylogenetic and functional diversity to nutrient spiraling in microbial mats from Lower Kane Cave (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annette Summers; Meisinger, Daniela B; Porter, Megan L; Payn, Robert A; Schmid, Michael; Stern, Libby A; Schleifer, K H; Lee, Natuschka M

    2010-01-01

    Microbial mats in sulfidic cave streams offer unique opportunities to study redox-based biogeochemical nutrient cycles. Previous work from Lower Kane Cave, Wyoming, USA, focused on the aerobic portion of microbial mats, dominated by putative chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing groups within the Epsilonproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. To evaluate nutrient cycling and turnover within the whole mat system, a multidisciplinary strategy was used to characterize the anaerobic portion of the mats, including application of the full-cycle rRNA approach, the most probable number method, and geochemical and isotopic analyses. Seventeen major taxonomic bacterial groups and one archaeal group were retrieved from the anaerobic portions of the mats, dominated by Deltaproteobacteria and uncultured members of the Chloroflexi phylum. A nutrient spiraling model was applied to evaluate upstream to downstream changes in microbial diversity based on carbon and sulfur nutrient concentrations. Variability in dissolved sulfide concentrations was attributed to changes in the abundance of sulfide-oxidizing microbial groups and shifts in the occurrence and abundance of sulfate-reducing microbes. Gradients in carbon and sulfur isotopic composition indicated that released and recycled byproduct compounds from upstream microbial activities were incorporated by downstream communities. On the basis of the type of available chemical energy, the variability of nutrient species in a spiraling model may explain observed differences in microbial taxonomic affiliations and metabolic functions, thereby spatially linking microbial diversity to nutrient spiraling in the cave stream ecosystem.

  14. An Integrated Approach for Reliable Facility Location/Network Design Problem with Link Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Shishebori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Proposing a robust designed facility location is one of the most effective ways to hedge against unexpected disruptions and failures in a transportation network system. This paper considers the combined facility location/network design problem with regard to transportation link disruptions and develops a mixed integer linear programming formulation to model it. With respect to the probability of link disruptions, the objective function of the model minimizes the total costs, including location costs, link construction costs and also the expected transportation costs. An efficient hybrid algorithm based on LP relaxation and variable neighbourhood search metaheuristic is developed in order to solve the mathematical model. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid algorithm has suitable efficiency in terms of duration of solution time and determining excellent solution quality.

  15. Ecosystem Functions across Trophic Levels Are Linked to Functional and Phylogenetic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patrick L.; Davies, T. Jonathan; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In experimental systems, it has been shown that biodiversity indices based on traits or phylogeny can outperform species richness as predictors of plant ecosystem function. However, it is unclear whether this pattern extends to the function of food webs in natural ecosystems. Here we tested whether zooplankton functional and phylogenetic diversity explains the functioning of 23 natural pond communities. We used two measures of ecosystem function: (1) zooplankton community biomass and (2) phytoplankton abundance (Chl a). We tested for diversity-ecosystem function relationships within and across trophic levels. We found a strong correlation between zooplankton diversity and ecosystem function, whereas local environmental conditions were less important. Further, the positive diversity-ecosystem function relationships were more pronounced for measures of functional and phylogenetic diversity than for species richness. Zooplankton and phytoplankton biomass were best predicted by different indices, suggesting that the two functions are dependent upon different aspects of diversity. Zooplankton community biomass was best predicted by zooplankton trait-based functional richness, while phytoplankton abundance was best predicted by zooplankton phylogenetic diversity. Our results suggest that the positive relationship between diversity and ecosystem function can extend across trophic levels in natural environments, and that greater insight into variation in ecosystem function can be gained by combining functional and phylogenetic diversity measures. PMID:25693188

  16. Linking genes to microbial growth kinetics: an integrated biochemical systems engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Lam, Ming-Chi; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; de Lorenzo, Victor; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2011-07-01

    The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is proposed, linking biomass growth and substrate consumption rates to the gene regulatory programmes that control these processes. A dynamic model of the TOL (pWW0) plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 has been developed, describing the molecular interactions that lead to the transcription of the upper and meta operons, known to produce the enzymes for the oxidative catabolism of m-xylene. The genetic circuit model was combined with a growth kinetic model decoupling biomass growth and substrate consumption rates, which are expressed as independent functions of the rate-limiting enzymes produced by the operons. Estimation of model parameters and validation of the model's predictive capability were successfully performed in batch cultures of mt-2 fed with different concentrations of m-xylene, as confirmed by relative mRNA concentration measurements of the promoters encoded in TOL. The growth formation and substrate utilisation patterns could not be accurately described by traditional Monod-type models for a wide range of conditions, demonstrating the critical importance of gene regulation for the development of advanced models closely predicting complex bioprocesses. In contrast, the proposed strategy, which utilises quantitative information pertaining to upstream molecular events that control the production of rate-limiting enzymes, predicts the catabolism of a substrate and biomass formation and could be of central importance for the design of optimal bioprocesses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Linking advanced biofuels policies with stakeholder interests: A method building on Quality Function Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillo, R. Sandra; Isabelle, Diane A.; Shakiba, Abtin

    2017-01-01

    The field of renewable energy policy is inherently complex due to the long-term impacts of its policies, the broad range of potential stakeholders, the intricacy of scientific, engineering and technological developments, and the interplay of complex policy mixes that may result in unintended consequences. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) provides a systematic consideration of all relevant stakeholders, a rigorous analysis of the needs of stakeholders, and a prioritization of design features based on stakeholders needs. We build on QFD combined with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to develop a novel method applied to the area of advanced biofuel policies. This Multi-Stakeholder Policy QFD (MSP QFD) provides a systematic approach to capture the voice of the stakeholders and align it with the broad range of potential advanced biofuels policies. To account for the policy environment, the MSP QFD utilizes a novel approach to stakeholder importance weights. This MSP QFD adds to the literature as it permits the analysis of the broad range of relevant national policies with regards to the development of advanced biofuels, as compared to more narrowly focused typical QFD applications. It also allows policy developers to gain additional insights into the perceived impacts of policies, as well as international comparisons. - Highlights: • Advanced biofuels are mostly still in research and early commercialization stages. • Government policies are expected to support biofuels stakeholders in market entry. • A Multi-Stakeholder Policy QFD (MSP QFD) links biofuels policies with stakeholders. • MSP QFD employs novel stakeholder weights method. • The case of advanced biofuels in Canada shows comparative importance of policies.

  18. Nonlinear degradation of a visible-light communication link: A Volterra-series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakis, Thomas; Dede, Georgia

    2018-06-01

    Visible light communications can be used to provide illumination and data communication at the same time. In this paper, a reverse-engineering approach is presented for assessing the impact of nonlinear signal distortion in visible light communication links. The approach is based on the Volterra series expansion and has the advantage of accurately accounting for memory effects in contrast to the static nonlinear models that are popular in the literature. Volterra kernels describe the end-to-end system response and can be inferred from measurements. Consequently, this approach does not rely on any particular physical models and assumptions regarding the individual link components. We provide the necessary framework for estimating the nonlinear distortion on the symbol estimates of a discrete multitone modulated link. Various design aspects such as waveform clipping and predistortion are also incorporated in the analysis. Using this framework, the nonlinear signal-to-interference is calculated for the system at hand. It is shown that at high signal amplitudes, the nonlinear signal-to-interference can be less than 25 dB.

  19. Building policy capacities: an interactive approach for linking knowledge to action in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Gelius, Peter

    2014-09-01

    This article outlines a theoretical framework for an interactive, research-driven approach to building policy capacities in health promotion. First, it illustrates how two important issues in the recent public health debate, capacity building and linking scientific knowledge to policy action, are connected to each other theoretically. It then introduces an international study on an interactive approach to capacity building in health promotion policy. The approach combines the ADEPT model of policy capacities with a co-operative planning process to foster the exchange of knowledge between policy-makers and researchers, thus improving intra- and inter-organizational capacities. A regional-level physical activity promotion project involving governmental and public-law institutions, NGOs and university researchers serves as a case study to illustrate the potential of the approach for capacity building. Analysis and comparison with a similar local-level project indicate that the approach provides an effective means of linking scientific knowledge to policy action and to planning concrete measures for capacity building in health promotion, but that it requires sufficiently long timelines and adequate resources to achieve adequate implementation and sustainability. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mesoscale structure and techno-functional properties of enzymatically cross-linked a-lactalbumin nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhayal, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the connection between molecular, meso and macroscales of enzymatically cross-linked proteins. It was hypothesised that the techno-functional properties at macroscale, such as bulk rheology and foam stability, are affected

  1. Geochip: A high throughput genomic tool for linking community structure to functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Liang, Yuting; He, Zhili; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-30

    GeoChip is a comprehensive functional gene array that targets key functional genes involved in the geochemical cycling of N, C, and P, sulfate reduction, metal resistance and reduction, and contaminant degradation. Studies have shown the GeoChip to be a sensitive, specific, and high-throughput tool for microbial community analysis that has the power to link geochemical processes with microbial community structure. However, several challenges remain regarding the development and applications of microarrays for microbial community analysis.

  2. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups ...

  3. A statistical mechanical approach to restricted integer partition functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    The main aim of this paper is twofold: (1) suggesting a statistical mechanical approach to the calculation of the generating function of restricted integer partition functions which count the number of partitions—a way of writing an integer as a sum of other integers under certain restrictions. In this approach, the generating function of restricted integer partition functions is constructed from the canonical partition functions of various quantum gases. (2) Introducing a new type of restricted integer partition functions corresponding to general statistics which is a generalization of Gentile statistics in statistical mechanics; many kinds of restricted integer partition functions are special cases of this restricted integer partition function. Moreover, with statistical mechanics as a bridge, we reveal a mathematical fact: the generating function of restricted integer partition function is just the symmetric function which is a class of functions being invariant under the action of permutation groups. Using this approach, we provide some expressions of restricted integer partition functions as examples.

  4. Midlife managerial experience is linked to late life hippocampal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, C; Gates, N; Fiatarone Singh, M; Saigal, N; Wilson, G C; Meiklejohn, J; Sachdev, P; Brodaty, H; Wen, W; Singh, N; Baune, B T; Baker, M; Foroughi, N; Wang, Y; Valenzuela, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    An active cognitive lifestyle has been suggested to have a protective role in the long-term maintenance of cognition. Amongst healthy older adults, more managerial or supervisory experiences in midlife are linked to a slower hippocampal atrophy rate in late life. Yet whether similar links exist in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is not known, nor whether these differences have any functional implications. 68 volunteers from the Sydney SMART Trial, diagnosed with non-amnestic MCI, were divided into high and low managerial experience (HME/LME) during their working life. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing, structural and resting-state functional MRI. Group comparisons were performed on hippocampal volume, morphology, hippocampal seed-based functional connectivity, memory and executive function and self-ratings of memory proficiency. HME was linked to better memory function (p = 0.024), mediated by larger hippocampal volume (p = 0.025). More specifically, deformation analysis found HME had relatively more volume in the CA1 sub-region of the hippocampus (p < 0.05). Paradoxically, this group rated their memory proficiency worse (p = 0.004), a result correlated with diminished functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.001). Finally, hierarchical regression modelling substantiated this double dissociation.

  5. Executive Function and Food Approach Behavior in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline eGroppe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating ‘hot’ affective and ‘cool’ cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations.First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1,657 elementary-school children (aged 6-11 years. The ‘food approach’ behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires.Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of

  6. Introducing Linear Functions: An Alternative Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be "threshold concepts". There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear…

  7. Summary goodness-of-fit statistics for binary generalized linear models with noncanonical link functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canary, Jana D; Blizzard, Leigh; Barry, Ronald P; Hosmer, David W; Quinn, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    Generalized linear models (GLM) with a canonical logit link function are the primary modeling technique used to relate a binary outcome to predictor variables. However, noncanonical links can offer more flexibility, producing convenient analytical quantities (e.g., probit GLMs in toxicology) and desired measures of effect (e.g., relative risk from log GLMs). Many summary goodness-of-fit (GOF) statistics exist for logistic GLM. Their properties make the development of GOF statistics relatively straightforward, but it can be more difficult under noncanonical links. Although GOF tests for logistic GLM with continuous covariates (GLMCC) have been applied to GLMCCs with log links, we know of no GOF tests in the literature specifically developed for GLMCCs that can be applied regardless of link function chosen. We generalize the Tsiatis GOF statistic originally developed for logistic GLMCCs, (TG), so that it can be applied under any link function. Further, we show that the algebraically related Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) and Pigeon-Heyse (J(2) ) statistics can be applied directly. In a simulation study, TG, HL, and J(2) were used to evaluate the fit of probit, log-log, complementary log-log, and log models, all calculated with a common grouping method. The TG statistic consistently maintained Type I error rates, while those of HL and J(2) were often lower than expected if terms with little influence were included. Generally, the statistics had similar power to detect an incorrect model. An exception occurred when a log GLMCC was incorrectly fit to data generated from a logistic GLMCC. In this case, TG had more power than HL or J(2) . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/London School of Economics.

  8. Multiscale approach to link red blood cell dynamics, shear viscosity, and ATP release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alison M; Wan, Jiandi; Owrutsky, Philip D; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A

    2011-07-05

    RBCs are known to release ATP, which acts as a signaling molecule to cause dilation of blood vessels. A reduction in the release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced deformation of RBCs has been correlated with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Because ATP release has been linked to cell deformation, we undertook a multiscale approach to understand the links between single RBC dynamics, ATP release, and macroscopic viscosity all at physiological shear rates. Our experimental approach included microfluidics, ATP measurements using a bioluminescent reaction, and rheology. Using microfluidics technology with high-speed imaging, we visualize the deformation and dynamics of single cells, which are known to undergo motions such as tumbling, swinging, tanktreading, and deformation. We report that shear thinning is not due to cellular deformation as previously believed, but rather it is due to the tumbling-to-tanktreading transition. In addition, our results indicate that ATP release is constant at shear stresses below a threshold (3 Pa), whereas above the threshold ATP release is increased and accompanied by large cellular deformations. Finally, performing experiments with well-known inhibitors, we show that the Pannexin 1 hemichannel is the main avenue for ATP release both above and below the threshold, whereas, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator only contributes to deformation-dependent ATP release above the stress threshold.

  9. Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kussmaul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for transposition, we are faced with a translation problem. In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for

  10. A systemic approach for modeling soil functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Bartke, Stephan; Daedlow, Katrin; Helming, Katharina; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Lang, Birgit; Rabot, Eva; Russell, David; Stößel, Bastian; Weller, Ulrich; Wiesmeier, Martin; Wollschläger, Ute

    2018-03-01

    The central importance of soil for the functioning of terrestrial systems is increasingly recognized. Critically relevant for water quality, climate control, nutrient cycling and biodiversity, soil provides more functions than just the basis for agricultural production. Nowadays, soil is increasingly under pressure as a limited resource for the production of food, energy and raw materials. This has led to an increasing demand for concepts assessing soil functions so that they can be adequately considered in decision-making aimed at sustainable soil management. The various soil science disciplines have progressively developed highly sophisticated methods to explore the multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes in soil. It is not obvious, however, how the steadily improving insight into soil processes may contribute to the evaluation of soil functions. Here, we present to a new systemic modeling framework that allows for a consistent coupling between reductionist yet observable indicators for soil functions with detailed process understanding. It is based on the mechanistic relationships between soil functional attributes, each explained by a network of interacting processes as derived from scientific evidence. The non-linear character of these interactions produces stability and resilience of soil with respect to functional characteristics. We anticipate that this new conceptional framework will integrate the various soil science disciplines and help identify important future research questions at the interface between disciplines. It allows the overwhelming complexity of soil systems to be adequately coped with and paves the way for steadily improving our capability to assess soil functions based on scientific understanding.

  11. Linking epigenetic function to electrostatics: The DNMT2 structural model example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gilberto Cavalheiro; Vieira, Gustavo Fioravanti; Sinigaglia, Marialva; Silva Valente, Vera Lúcia da

    2017-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of DNMT2 is very similar to the catalytic domains of bacterial and eukaryotic proteins. However, there is great variability in the region of recognition of the target sequence. While bacterial DNMT2 acts as a DNA methyltransferase, previous studies have indicated low DNA methylation activity in eukaryotic DNMT2, with preference by tRNA methylation. Drosophilids are known as DNMT2-only species and the DNA methylation phenomenon is a not elucidated case yet, as well as the ontogenetic and physiologic importance of DNMT2 for this species group. In addition, more recently study showed that methylation in the genome in Drosophila melanogaster is independent in relation to DNMT2. Despite these findings, Drosophilidae family has more than 4,200 species with great ecological diversity and historical evolution, thus we, therefore, aimed to examine the drosophilids DNMT2 in order to verify its conservation at the physicochemical and structural levels in a functional context. We examined the twenty-six DNMT2 models generated by molecular modelling and five crystallographic structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) using different approaches. Our results showed that despite sequence and structural similarity between species close related, we found outstanding differences when they are analyzed in the context of surface distribution of electrostatic properties. The differences found in the electrostatic potentials may be linked with different affinities and processivity of DNMT2 for its different substrates (DNA, RNA or tRNA) and even for interactions with other proteins involved in the epigenetic mechanisms.

  12. Mechanistic links between gut microbial community dynamics, microbial functions and metabolic health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Connie WY; Lam, Yan Y; Holmes, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbes comprise a high density, biologically active community that lies at the interface of an animal with its nutritional environment. Consequently their activity profoundly influences many aspects of the physiology and metabolism of the host animal. A range of microbial structural components and metabolites directly interact with host intestinal cells and tissues to influence nutrient uptake and epithelial health. Endocrine, neuronal and lymphoid cells in the gut also integrate signals from these microbial factors to influence systemic responses. Dysregulation of these host-microbe interactions is now recognised as a major risk factor in the development of metabolic dysfunction. This is a two-way process and understanding the factors that tip host-microbiome homeostasis over to dysbiosis requires greater appreciation of the host feedbacks that contribute to regulation of microbial community composition. To date, numerous studies have employed taxonomic profiling approaches to explore the links between microbial composition and host outcomes (especially obesity and its comorbidities), but inconsistent host-microbe associations have been reported. Available data indicates multiple factors have contributed to discrepancies between studies. These include the high level of functional redundancy in host-microbiome interactions combined with individual variation in microbiome composition; differences in study design, diet composition and host system between studies; and inherent limitations to the resolution of rRNA-based community profiling. Accounting for these factors allows for recognition of the common microbial and host factors driving community composition and development of dysbiosis on high fat diets. New therapeutic intervention options are now emerging. PMID:25469018

  13. Single proteins that serve linked functions in intracellular and extracellular microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisky, Derek C.; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hirai, Yohei; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    Maintenance of organ homeostasis and control of appropriate response to environmental alterations requires intimate coordination of cellular function and tissue organization. An important component of this coordination may be provided by proteins that can serve distinct, but linked, functions on both sides of the plasma membrane. Here we present a novel hypothesis in which non-classical secretion can provide a mechanism through which single proteins can integrate complex tissue functions. Single genes can exert a complex, dynamic influence through a number of different processes that act to multiply the function of the gene product(s). Alternative splicing can create many different transcripts that encode proteins of diverse, even antagonistic, function from a single gene. Posttranslational modifications can alter the stability, activity, localization, and even basic function of proteins. A protein can exist in different subcellular localizations. More recently, it has become clear that single proteins can function both inside and outside the cell. These proteins often lack defined secretory signal sequences, and transit the plasma membrane by mechanisms separate from the classical ER/Golgi secretory process. When examples of such proteins are examined individually, the multifunctionality and lack of a signal sequence are puzzling - why should a protein with a well known function in one context function in such a distinct fashion in another? We propose that one reason for a single protein to perform intracellular and extracellular roles is to coordinate organization and maintenance of a global tissue function. Here, we describe in detail three specific examples of proteins that act in this fashion, outlining their specific functions in the extracellular space and in the intracellular space, and we discuss how these functions may be linked. We present epimorphin/syntaxin-2, which may coordinate morphogenesis of secretory organs (as epimorphin) with control of

  14. Childhood maltreatment and its link to borderline personality disorder features in children: A systematic review approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jeyda; Cosgrave, Nicola; Woolgar, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder has repeatedly been associated with a history of maltreatment in childhood; however, research on maltreatment and its link to borderline features in children is limited. The aim of this review is to synthesise the existing data on the association between maltreatment and borderline features in childhood. In total, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. Studies indicated that children with borderline features were more likely to have a history of maltreatment, and that children who had been maltreated were more likely to present with borderline features. Other risk factors such as cognitive and executive functioning deficits, parental dysfunction and genetic vulnerability were also identified across studies. This review adds to the literature by highlighting maltreatment as a risk factor for borderline features in childhood. Longitudinal research is required to establish the link between childhood borderline features and adult borderline features. Implications for early identification, prevention and intervention services are discussed.

  15. Multiconfigurational Green's function approaches in quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses multiconfigurational Green's function techniques and generalizations. In particular he is interested in developing and applying these techniques for isolated atoms and small molecules. Furthermore, he develops formalisms that are fairly clear, accurate, and capable of being applied to open-shell and highly-correlated systems as well as to closed-shell systems with little electronic correlation. The two kinds of Green's functions that this article discusses are the single-particle Green's function and the retarded two-time Green's function in the energy representation. The poles of the former give the ionization potentials and electron affinities while the poles of the latter give the excitation energies. The multiconfigurational approximations are known as the multiconfigurational electron propagator (MCEP) and the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) (also known as the multiconfigurational random phase approximation (MCRPA) or the multiconfigurational linear response), respectively. 44 references

  16. Transfer function of radio over fiber multimode fiber optic links considering third-order dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Gasulla, Ivana

    2007-08-20

    Although a considerable number of multimode fiber (MMF) links operate in a wavelength region around 850 nm where chromatic dispersion of a given modal group mu is described adequately by the second derivative beta(mu) (2) of the propagation constant beta(mu)(omega), there is also an increasing interest in MMF links transmitting in the second spectral window (@1300nm) where this second derivative vanishes being thus necessary to consider the third derivative beta(mu) (3) in the evaluation of the transfer function of the multimode fiber link. We present in this paper, for the first time to our knowledge, an analytical model for the transfer function of a multimode fiber (MMF) optic link taken into account the impact of third-order dispersion. The model extends the operation of a previously reported one for second-order dispersion. Our results show that the performance of broadband radio over fiber transmission through middle-reach distances can be improved by working at the minimum-dispersion wavelength as long as low-linewidth lasers are employed.

  17. Form Follows Function. A new approach to determining vessel function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent van der Veen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article I present a theoretical model for assigning functions to categories of Roman ceramics. This model was designed to make broad statements about assemblages that are too large to analyse in detail. It is therefore based on the 'ideal use' of a vessel - i.e. the function the potter had in mind when he chose the clay, temper, forming techniques and so on - rather than 'non-ideal' or actual use. Characteristics considered are, among others, shape, size, weight, surface treatment and wall thickness. Seven distinct functions have been identified, taking the inherent multi-functionality of certain vessels into account. In many cases an individual vessel type will be suitable for more than one function. In a case study the commonly made functional distinction between smooth-tempered one-handled flagons (kruiken as tableware and two-handled flagons (kruikamforen as storage vessels is challenged. Furthermore, differences in their deposition within both grave and settlement assemblages are explored.

  18. Cross-linking of rubber in the presence of multi-functional cross-linking aids via thermoreversible Diels-Alder chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polgar, L. M.; Fortunato, G.; Araya-Hermosilla, R.; van Duin, M.; Pucci, A.; Picchioni, F.

    Furan-functionalized polyketone (PK-FU) was added to a furan-functionalized ethylene-propylene rubber (EPM-FU). The mixture was subsequently cross-linked with a bismaleimide through Diels-Alder chemistry in order to improve the mechanical properties of the rubber. Infrared spectroscopy showed the

  19. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  20. Integral equations of hadronic correlation functions a functional- bootstrap approach

    CERN Document Server

    Manesis, E K

    1974-01-01

    A reasonable 'microscopic' foundation of the Feynman hadron-liquid analogy is offered, based on a class of models for hadron production. In an external field formalism, the equivalence (complementarity) of the exclusive and inclusive descriptions of hadronic reactions is specifically expressed in a functional-bootstrap form, and integral equations between inclusive and exclusive correlation functions are derived. Using the latest CERN-ISR data on the two-pion inclusive correlation function, and assuming rapidity translational invariance for the exclusive one, the simplest integral equation is solved in the 'central region' and an exclusive correlation length in rapidity predicted. An explanation is also offered for the unexpected similarity observed between pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ and pi /sup -/ pi /sup -/ inclusive correlations. (31 refs).

  1. Function of dynamic models in systems biology: linking structure to behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüpfer, Christian; Beckstein, Clemens

    2013-10-08

    Dynamic models in Systems Biology are used in computational simulation experiments for addressing biological questions. The complexity of the modelled biological systems and the growing number and size of the models calls for computer support for modelling and simulation in Systems Biology. This computer support has to be based on formal representations of relevant knowledge fragments. In this paper we describe different functional aspects of dynamic models. This description is conceptually embedded in our "meaning facets" framework which systematises the interpretation of dynamic models in structural, functional and behavioural facets. Here we focus on how function links the structure and the behaviour of a model. Models play a specific role (teleological function) in the scientific process of finding explanations for dynamic phenomena. In order to fulfil this role a model has to be used in simulation experiments (pragmatical function). A simulation experiment always refers to a specific situation and a state of the model and the modelled system (conditional function). We claim that the function of dynamic models refers to both the simulation experiment executed by software (intrinsic function) and the biological experiment which produces the phenomena under investigation (extrinsic function). We use the presented conceptual framework for the function of dynamic models to review formal accounts for functional aspects of models in Systems Biology, such as checklists, ontologies, and formal languages. Furthermore, we identify missing formal accounts for some of the functional aspects. In order to fill one of these gaps we propose an ontology for the teleological function of models. We have thoroughly analysed the role and use of models in Systems Biology. The resulting conceptual framework for the function of models is an important first step towards a comprehensive formal representation of the functional knowledge involved in the modelling and simulation process

  2. On the link between oil and commodity prices: a panel VAR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, Vincent; Hache, Emmanuel; Joets, Marc

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the relationships between the price of oil and a large dataset of commodity prices, relying on panel data settings. Using second generation panel co-integration tests, our findings show that the WTI and commodity prices are not linked in the long term. Nevertheless, considering our results in causality tests, we show that short-run relations exist, mainly from the price of crude oil to commodity prices. We thus implement a panel VAR estimation with an impulse response function analysis. Two main conclusions emerge: (i) fast co-movements are highlighted, while (ii) market efficiency is emphasized. (authors)

  3. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups at lower trophic levels that are structured by competition for a limited resource. The a priori prediction of keystone species has applied value for the conservation of natural areas.

  4. Use of integrin-linked kinase to extend function of encapsulated pancreatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchette, James O; Langer, Steven J; Leinwand, Leslie L; Sahai, Suchit; Topiwala, Pritesh S; Anseth, Kristi S

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the impact of overexpression of an intracellular signaling protein, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), on the survival and function of encapsulated islet tissue used for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The dimensions of the encapsulated tissue can impact the stresses placed on the tissue and ILK overexpression shows the ability to extend function of dissociated cells as well as intact islets. These results suggest that lost cell-extracellular matrix interactions in cell encapsulation systems can lead to decreased insulin secretion and ILK signaling is a target to overcome this phenomenon. (communication)

  5. Use of integrin-linked kinase to extend function of encapsulated pancreatic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchette, James O [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Langer, Steven J; Leinwand, Leslie L [Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Sahai, Suchit; Topiwala, Pritesh S [Biomedical Engineering Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Anseth, Kristi S, E-mail: blanchej@cec.sc.ed [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We have studied the impact of overexpression of an intracellular signaling protein, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), on the survival and function of encapsulated islet tissue used for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The dimensions of the encapsulated tissue can impact the stresses placed on the tissue and ILK overexpression shows the ability to extend function of dissociated cells as well as intact islets. These results suggest that lost cell-extracellular matrix interactions in cell encapsulation systems can lead to decreased insulin secretion and ILK signaling is a target to overcome this phenomenon. (communication)

  6. A unified approach to linking experimental, statistical and computational analysis of spike train data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Meng

    Full Text Available A fundamental issue in neuroscience is how to identify the multiple biophysical mechanisms through which neurons generate observed patterns of spiking activity. In previous work, we proposed a method for linking observed patterns of spiking activity to specific biophysical mechanisms based on a state space modeling framework and a sequential Monte Carlo, or particle filter, estimation algorithm. We have shown, in simulation, that this approach is able to identify a space of simple biophysical models that were consistent with observed spiking data (and included the model that generated the data, but have yet to demonstrate the application of the method to identify realistic currents from real spike train data. Here, we apply the particle filter to spiking data recorded from rat layer V cortical neurons, and correctly identify the dynamics of an slow, intrinsic current. The underlying intrinsic current is successfully identified in four distinct neurons, even though the cells exhibit two distinct classes of spiking activity: regular spiking and bursting. This approach--linking statistical, computational, and experimental neuroscience--provides an effective technique to constrain detailed biophysical models to specific mechanisms consistent with observed spike train data.

  7. Identifying Similarities in Cognitive Subtest Functional Requirements: An Empirical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Craig L.; Parkin, Jason R.

    2007-01-01

    In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually…

  8. A new approach to the logistic function with some applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rzadkowski, Grzegorz; Głażewska, Iwona; Sawińska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we propose a new approach to investigate the logistic function, commonly used in mathematical models in economics and management. The approach is based on indicating in a given time series, having a logistic trend, some characteristic points corresponding to zeroes of successive derivatives of the logistic function. We give also examples of application of this method.

  9. Green's function approach to neutron flux discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; El-Wakil, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the presentation of analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non-absorbing medium. On the basis of the central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering, in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering, is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. Placzec discontinuity associated with elastic scattering in addition to two discontinuities due to inelastic scattering are investigated. Numerical calculations for Fe 56 show that the elastic discontinuity produces about 41.8% change in the collision density whilst the ratio of the inelastic collision density discontinuity at qsub(o)sup(+) to the Placzec discontinuity at usub(o) + 1n 1/oc gives 55.7 percent change. (author)

  10. Functional coatings: the sol-gel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    CEA's sol-gel laboratory is specialized in the development of innovative sol-gel optical coatings and has extended its application field to membrane materials and coatings for energy conversion, to electric coatings for microelectronics devices and to thin films for gas sensing. This article describes, by way of examples, the laboratory's research on sol-gel functional coatings, including nano-material synthesis, organic-inorganic hybrid-based solution preparation as well as deposition process development and prototyping. (author)

  11. Reduced kinetic equations: An influence functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wio, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses a scheme for obtaining reduced descriptions of multivariate kinetic equations based on the 'influence functional' method of Feynmann. It is applied to the case of Fokker-Planck equations showing the form that results for the reduced equation. The possibility of Markovian or non-Markovian reduced description is discussed. As a particular example, the reduction of the Kramers equation to the Smoluchwski equation in the limit of high friction is also discussed

  12. Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael

    2015-02-27

    We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit.

  13. A Constructive Sharp Approach to Functional Quantization of Stochastic Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Junglen, Stefan; Luschgy, Harald

    2010-01-01

    We present a constructive approach to the functional quantization problem of stochastic processes, with an emphasis on Gaussian processes. The approach is constructive, since we reduce the infinite-dimensional functional quantization problem to a finite-dimensional quantization problem that can be solved numerically. Our approach achieves the sharp rate of the minimal quantization error and can be used to quantize the path space for Gaussian processes and also, for example, Lévy processes.

  14. Reflective functioning, physiological reactivity, and overcontrol in mothers: Links with school-aged children's reflective functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Hong, Kajung; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Smiley, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    Theorists argue that parental reflective functioning (PRF) is activated in response to emotions, potentially supporting parenting sensitivity even when arousal is high. That is, when parents become emotionally reactive when interacting with their children, those who can use PRF to understand their children's mental states should be able to parent sensitively, which, in turn, should promote children's ability to understand their own mental states. We test this theory by examining whether, in the face of physiological reactivity, mothers' PRF inhibits one form of parenting insensitivity, overcontrol (OC), and whether this process in turn predicts children's RF. A diverse sample of school-age children (N = 106, Mage = 10.27 years) completed a standardized failure paradigm while their mothers were asked to passively observe. Following the stressor, mothers and children independently completed interviews regarding the task, which were later coded for RF with respect to children's mental states. Mothers provided saliva samples before and after the stressor, and after the interview, which were later assayed for cortisol reactivity; maternal behavior during the stressor task was coded for OC. Among mothers with low levels of RF, greater increases in cortisol were associated with more displays of OC, whereas among mothers with high PRF, greater cortisol reactivity was associated with fewer OC behaviors. For low PRF mothers, higher reactivity and OC predicted lower children's PRF for their own experiences. The findings provide initial evidence for a protective function of PRF, and may point toward the importance of promoting PRF in intervention programs to reduce parental OC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Converging Molecular Mechanisms that Link Different POPs to Common Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Perlina, Ally; Mumtaz, Moiz; Fowler, Bruce A

    2016-07-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have identified statistical associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metabolic diseases, but testable hypotheses regarding underlying molecular mechanisms to explain these linkages have not been published. We assessed the underlying mechanisms of POPs that have been associated with metabolic diseases; three well-known POPs [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), 2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] were studied. We used advanced database search tools to delineate testable hypotheses and to guide laboratory-based research studies into underlying mechanisms by which this POP mixture could produce or exacerbate metabolic diseases. For our searches, we used proprietary systems biology software (MetaCore™/MetaDrug™) to conduct advanced search queries for the underlying interactions database, followed by directional network construction to identify common mechanisms for these POPs within two or fewer interaction steps downstream of their primary targets. These common downstream pathways belong to various cytokine and chemokine families with experimentally well-documented causal associations with type 2 diabetes. Our systems biology approach allowed identification of converging pathways leading to activation of common downstream targets. To our knowledge, this is the first study to propose an integrated global set of step-by-step molecular mechanisms for a combination of three common POPs using a systems biology approach, which may link POP exposure to diseases. Experimental evaluation of the proposed pathways may lead to development of predictive biomarkers of the effects of POPs, which could translate into disease prevention and effective clinical treatment strategies. Ruiz P, Perlina A, Mumtaz M, Fowler BA. 2016. A systems biology approach reveals converging molecular mechanisms that link different POPs to common metabolic diseases. Environ

  16. Linking benthic biodiversity to the functioning of coastal ecosystems subjected to river runoff (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmelin–Vivien, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Continental particulate organic matter (POM plays a major role in the functioning of coastal marine ecosystems as a disturbance as well as an input of nutrients. Relationships linking continental inputs from the Rhone River to biodiversity of the coastal benthic ecosystem and fishery production were investigated in the Golfe du Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea. Macrobenthic community diversity decreased when continen¬tal inputs of organic matter increased, whereas ecosystem production, measured by common sole (Solea solea fishery yields in the area, increased. Decreases in macrobenthic diversity were mainly related to an increasing abundance of species with specific functional traits, particularly deposit-feeding polychaetes. The decrease in macrobenthic diversity did not result in a decrease, but an increase in ecosystem production, as it enhanced the transfer of continental POM into marine food webs. The present study showed that it is necessary to consider functional traits of species, direct and indirect links between species, and feedback loops to understand the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and productivity.

  17. Novel covalently linked insulin dimer engineered to investigate the function of insulin dimerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Norrman, Mathias; Strauss, Holger M.

    2012-01-01

    An ingenious system evolved to facilitate insulin binding to the insulin receptor as a monomer and at the same time ensure sufficient stability of insulin during storage. Insulin dimer is the cornerstone of this system. Insulin dimer is relatively weak, which ensures dissociation into monomers...... in the circulation, and it is stabilized by hexamer formation in the presence of zinc ions during storage in the pancreatic ß-cell. Due to the transient nature of insulin dimer, direct investigation of this important form is inherently difficult. To address the relationship between insulin oligomerization...... and insulin stability and function, we engineered a covalently linked insulin dimer in which two monomers were linked by a disulfide bond. The structure of this covalent dimer was identical to the self-association dimer of human insulin. Importantly, this covalent dimer was capable of further oligomerization...

  18. A Multivariate Approach to Functional Neuro Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Niels J.S.

    1998-01-01

    by the application of linear and more flexible, nonlinear microscopic regression models to a real-world dataset. The dependency of model performance, as quantified by generalization error, on model flexibility and training set size is demonstrated, leading to the important realization that no uniformly optimal model......, provides the basis for a generalization theoretical framework relating model performance to model complexity and dataset size. Briefly summarized the major topics discussed in the thesis include: - An introduction of the representation of functional datasets by pairs of neuronal activity patterns...... exists. - Model visualization and interpretation techniques. The simplicity of this task for linear models contrasts the difficulties involved when dealing with nonlinear models. Finally, a visualization technique for nonlinear models is proposed. A single observation emerges from the thesis...

  19. Green functions of graphene: An analytic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, James A., E-mail: jalawlor@tcd.ie [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Ferreira, Mauro S. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2015-04-15

    In this article we derive the lattice Green Functions (GFs) of graphene using a Tight Binding Hamiltonian incorporating both first and second nearest neighbour hoppings and allowing for a non-orthogonal electron wavefunction overlap. It is shown how the resulting GFs can be simplified from a double to a single integral form to aid computation, and that when considering off-diagonal GFs in the high symmetry directions of the lattice this single integral can be approximated very accurately by an algebraic expression. By comparing our results to the conventional first nearest neighbour model commonly found in the literature, it is apparent that the extended model leads to a sizeable change in the electronic structure away from the linear regime. As such, this article serves as a blueprint for researchers who wish to examine quantities where these considerations are important.

  20. An approach to the structure function for nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Ming

    1986-01-01

    The structure function for nucleon is discussed by using the method given in a previous paper. The formula are compared with the experimental data from low Q 2 to high Q 2 . The results show that the way that the structure function for nucleon can be obtained from the hadronic wavefunction is a possible approach of investigating structure functions for hadron

  1. A Weakest-Link Approach for Fatigue Limit of 30CrNiMo8 Steels (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    34Application of a Weakest-Link Concept to the Fatigue Limit of the Bearing Steel Sae 52100 in a Bainitic Condition," Fatigue and Fracture of...AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4206 A WEAKEST-LINK APPROACH FOR FATIGUE LIMIT OF 30CrNiMo8 STEELS (PREPRINT) S. Ekwaro-Osire and H.V. Kulkarni Texas...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A WEAKEST-LINK APPROACH FOR FATIGUE LIMIT OF 30CrNiMo8 STEELS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT

  2. Culture-specific links between maternal executive function, parenting, and preschool children's executive function in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Baker, Sara; Whitebread, David

    2018-06-01

    Research on the relationships between parental factors and children's executive function (EF) has been conducted mainly in Western cultures. This study provides the first empirical test, in a non-Western context, of how maternal EF and parenting behaviours relate to child EF. South Korean mothers and their preschool children (N = 95 dyads) completed EF tasks. Two aspects of parental scaffolding were observed during a puzzle task: contingency (i.e., adjusting among levels of scaffolding according to the child's ongoing evidence of understanding) and intrusiveness (i.e., directive, mother-centred interactions). Maternal EF and maternal contingency each accounted for unique variance in child EF, above and beyond child age, child language and maternal education. Maternal intrusiveness, however, was not significantly related to child EF. Additionally, no mediating role of parenting was found in the maternal and child EF link. However, child language was found to partially mediate the link between maternal contingency and child EF. These results complement prior findings by revealing distinctive patterns in the link between maternal EF, parenting behaviours, and child EF in the Korean context. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  3. A Link between Subjective Perceptions of Memory and Physical Function: Implications for Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Devanand, Davangere; Gurland, Barry

    2018-01-01

    Subjective impairment in memory is a frequently defining feature of subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a state hypothesized to precede objectively apparent cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to hold promise as a non-invasive, inexpensive, preclinical indicator of AD. However, a full model of the factors that contribute to subjective memory (SM), and therefore to SCD, has yet to be articulated. While SM impairment is widely known to be associated with negative affect, the extent to which SM functioning may also reflect other factors, particularly subjective beliefs or perceptions about one's health, is not known. To examine the extent to which SM is associated with subjective perceptions of health more broadly, the current study investigated the link between SM and subjective physical functioning (independent of depressive affect, and objective cognitive and physical function) in an ethnically diverse sample of 471 older adults enrolled in the population-based Northern Manhattan Aging Project. 199 (42%) participants endorsed no difficulty on a 5-point SM index while 272 (58%) endorsed some degree of difficulty. As hypothesized, SM correlated with both depression and subjective physical function, but not with age, education, global cognition, or objective physical function. When objective and subjective physical function were entered in two separate, adjusted linear regressions predicting SM, only subjective physical function and depressive affect independently predicted SM. Subjective perceptions of memory appear to reflect individuals' broader health perceptions in part. Articulating the various correlates of SM will improve identification of SCD specific to preclinical AD.

  4. Children's Executive Function Attenuate the Link Between Maternal Intrusiveness and Internalizing Behaviors at School Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Bedford, Rachael; Wagner, Nicholas J; Propper, Cathi B

    2017-10-20

    The goal of this study was to examine the independent and interactive roles of harsh-intrusive maternal behaviors and children's executive function in the development of internalizing behaviors across the first years of school. A diverse sample (58% African American, 42% European American) of 137 children (48% female) was followed from kindergarten (age 5 years) through school entry (ages 6-7 years). At age 5, maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors were rated from a mother-child structured play task, and children completed 3 executive function tasks that measured inhibitory control, working memory, and attention set-shifting. Teachers reported on children's internalizing behaviors at ages 5, 6, and 7. Harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors at age 5 years were positively related to internalizing behaviors in the first years of school, whereas high executive function abilities at age 5 years were related to lower internalizing behaviors in the first years of school. In addition, executive function buffered the association between parenting behaviors and internalizing behaviors such that the link between harsh-intrusive parenting and child internalizing behaviors was evident only among children with low executive function and not among children with high executive function. Interventions that focus on reducing negative parenting behaviors and improving children's executive function may prevent internalizing behaviors from increasing during times of social and academic challenge.

  5. Non-dipolar gauge links for transverse-momentum-dependent pion wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    I discuss the factorization-compatible definitions of transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) pion wave functions which are fundamental theory inputs entering QCD factorization formulae for many hard exclusive processes. I will first demonstrate that the soft subtraction factor introduced to remove both rapidity and pinch singularities can be greatly reduced by making the maximal use of the freedom to construct the Wilson-line paths when defining the TMD wave functions. I will then turn to show that the newly proposed TMD definition with non-dipolar Wilson lines is equivalent to the one with dipolar gauge links and with a complicated soft function, to all orders of the perturbative expansion in the strong coupling, as far as the infrared behavior is concerned. (author)

  6. Cat Swarm Optimization Based Functional Link Artificial Neural Network Filter for Gaussian Noise Removal from Computed Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian noise is one of the dominant noises, which degrades the quality of acquired Computed Tomography (CT image data. It creates difficulties in pathological identification or diagnosis of any disease. Gaussian noise elimination is desirable to improve the clarity of a CT image for clinical, diagnostic, and postprocessing applications. This paper proposes an evolutionary nonlinear adaptive filter approach, using Cat Swarm Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (CS-FLANN to remove the unwanted noise. The structure of the proposed filter is based on the Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (FLANN and the Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO is utilized for the selection of optimum weight of the neural network filter. The applied filter has been compared with the existing linear filters, like the mean filter and the adaptive Wiener filter. The performance indices, such as peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, have been computed for the quantitative analysis of the proposed filter. The experimental evaluation established the superiority of the proposed filtering technique over existing methods.

  7. Toward Intelligent Hemodynamic Monitoring: A Functional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Squara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology is now available to allow a complete haemodynamic analysis; however this is only used in a small proportion of patients and seems to occur when the medical staff have the time and inclination. As a result of this, significant delays occur between an event, its diagnosis and therefore, any treatment required. We can speculate that we should be able to collect enough real time information to make a complete, real time, haemodynamic diagnosis in all critically ill patients. This article advocates for “intelligent haemodynamic monitoring”. Following the steps of a functional analysis, we answered six basic questions. (1 What is the actual best theoretical model for describing haemodynamic disorders? (2 What are the needed and necessary input/output data for describing this model? (3 What are the specific quality criteria and tolerances for collecting each input variable? (4 Based on these criteria, what are the validated available technologies for monitoring each input variable, continuously, real time, and if possible non-invasively? (5 How can we integrate all the needed reliably monitored input variables into the same system for continuously describing the global haemodynamic model? (6 Is it possible to implement this global model into intelligent programs that are able to differentiate clinically relevant changes as opposed to artificial changes and to display intelligent messages and/or diagnoses?

  8. Opening Up Climate Research: A Linked Data Approach to Publishing Data Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Shaon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the formal scientific output in most fields of natural science has been limited to peer-reviewed academic journal publications, with less attention paid to the chain of intermediate data results and their associated metadata, including provenance. In effect, this has constrained the representation and verification of the data provenance to the confines of the related publications. Detailed knowledge of a dataset’s provenance is essential to establish the pedigree of the data for its effective re-use, and to avoid redundant re-enactment of the experiment or computation involved. It is increasingly important for open-access data to determine their authenticity and quality, especially considering the growing volumes of datasets appearing in the public domain. To address these issues, we present an approach that combines the Digital Object Identifier (DOI – a widely adopted citation technique – with existing, widely adopted climate science data standards to formally publish detailed provenance of a climate research dataset as an associated scientific workflow. This is integrated with linked-data compliant data re-use standards (e.g. OAI-ORE to enable a seamless link between a publication and the complete trail of lineage of the corresponding dataset, including the dataset itself.

  9. Linking microbial and ecosystem ecology using ecological stoichiometry: a synthesis of conceptual and empirical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E.K.; Maixner, F.; Franklin, O.; Daims, H.; Richter, A.; Battin, T.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, one of the biggest challenges in microbial and ecosystem ecology is to develop conceptual models that organize the growing body of information on environmental microbiology into a clear mechanistic framework with a direct link to ecosystem processes. Doing so will enable development of testable hypotheses to better direct future research and increase understanding of key constraints on biogeochemical networks. Although the understanding of phenotypic and genotypic diversity of microorganisms in the environment is rapidly accumulating, how controls on microbial physiology ultimately affect biogeochemical fluxes remains poorly understood. We propose that insight into constraints on biogeochemical cycles can be achieved by a more rigorous evaluation of microbial community biomass composition within the context of ecological stoichiometry. Multiple recent studies have pointed to microbial biomass stoichiometry as an important determinant of when microorganisms retain or recycle mineral nutrients. We identify the relevant cellular components that most likely drive changes in microbial biomass stoichiometry by defining a conceptual model rooted in ecological stoichiometry. More importantly, we show how X-ray microanalysis (XRMA), nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (NanoSIMS), Raman microspectroscopy, and in situ hybridization techniques (for example, FISH) can be applied in concert to allow for direct empirical evaluation of the proposed conceptual framework. This approach links an important piece of the ecological literature, ecological stoichiometry, with the molecular front of the microbial revolution, in an attempt to provide new insight into how microbial physiology could constrain ecosystem processes.

  10. Linking the development and functioning of a carnivorous pitcher plant's microbial digestive community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, David W

    2017-11-01

    Ecosystem development theory predicts that successional turnover in community composition can influence ecosystem functioning. However, tests of this theory in natural systems are made difficult by a lack of replicable and tractable model systems. Using the microbial digestive associates of a carnivorous pitcher plant, I tested hypotheses linking host age-driven microbial community development to host functioning. Monitoring the yearlong development of independent microbial digestive communities in two pitcher plant populations revealed a number of trends in community succession matching theoretical predictions. These included mid-successional peaks in bacterial diversity and metabolic substrate use, predictable and parallel successional trajectories among microbial communities, and convergence giving way to divergence in community composition and carbon substrate use. Bacterial composition, biomass, and diversity positively influenced the rate of prey decomposition, which was in turn positively associated with a host leaf's nitrogen uptake efficiency. Overall digestive performance was greatest during late summer. These results highlight links between community succession and ecosystem functioning and extend succession theory to host-associated microbial communities.

  11. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates T cell effector function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonnière, Lyne; Moore, Craig S

    2007-01-01

    To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice with exper......To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice...... dramatically reduced within the CNS. Flow cytometry showed an 88-93% reduction in T cells. The proportion of TUNEL(+) apoptotic CD4(+) T cells in the CNS was increased from Neurons...... and oligodendrocytes were not affected; neither did apoptosis increase in liver, where XIAP knockdown also occurred. ASO-XIAP increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis in vitro. Our results identify XIAP as a critical controller of apoptotic susceptibility of effector T cell function...

  12. Removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution by functional ionic liquid cross-linked polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hejun; Kan, Taotao; Zhao, Siyuan; Qian, Yixia; Cheng, Xiyuan; Wu, Wenli; Wang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic of adsorption of dyes onto PDVB-IL was investigated. • PDVB-IL has a high adsorption capacity to treat dyes solution. • Higher adsorption capacity is due to the functional groups of PDVB-IL. • Molecular structure of dyes influences the adsorption capacity. -- Abstract: A novel functional ionic liquid based cross-linked polymer (PDVB-IL) was synthesized from 1-aminoethyl-3-vinylimidazolium chloride and divinylbenzene for use as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of PDVB-IL were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorptive capacity was investigated using anionic azo dyes of orange II, sunset yellow FCF, and amaranth as adsorbates. The maximum adsorption capacity could reach 925.09, 734.62, and 547.17 mg/g for orange II, sunset yellow FCF and amaranth at 25 °C, respectively, which are much better than most of the other adsorbents reported earlier. The effect of pH value was investigated in the range of 1–8. The result shows that a low pH value is found to favor the adsorption of those anionic azo dyes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a pseudo second-order model and Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption process is found to be dominated by physisorption. The introduction of functional ionic liquid moieties into cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) polymer constitutes a new and efficient kind of adsorbent

  13. Systems biological approach to investigate the lack of familial link between Down's Syndrome & Neural Tube Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragunath, Pk; Abhinand, Pa

    2013-01-01

    Systems Biology involves the study of the interactions of biological systems and ultimately their functions. Down's syndrome (DS) is one of the most common genetic disorders which are caused by complete, or occasionally partial, triplication of chromosome 21, characterized by cognitive and language dysfunction coupled with sensory and neuromotor deficits. Neural Tube Disorders (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations of the central nervous system and neighboring structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy usually occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Several studies in the past have provided considerable evidence that abnormal folate and methyl metabolism are associated with onset of DS & NTDs. There is a possible common etiological pathway for both NTDs and Down's syndrome. But, various research studies over the years have indicated very little evidence for familial link between the two disorders. Our research aimed at the gene expression profiling of microarray datasets pertaining to the two disorders to identify genes whose expression levels are significantly altered in these conditions. The genes which were 1.5 fold unregulated and having a p-value disorders were recognized and over representation analysis was carried out for each of the constituent genes. The comprehensive manual analysis of these genes yields a hypothetical understanding of the lack of familial link between DS and NTDs. There were no genes involved with folic acid present in the dense cliques. Only - CBL, EGFR genes were commonly present, which makes the allelic variants of these genes - good candidates for future studies regarding the familial link between DS and NTDs. NTD - Neural Tube Disorders, DS - Down's Syndrome, MTHFR - Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTRR- 5 - methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase.

  14. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Howes, Oliver D; Day, Fern; Chaddock, Christopher A; Allen, Paul; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Chilcott, Jack; Lappin, Julia M; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and healthy volunteers. Sixty-seven young adults, comprising 47 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the same geographic area and were matched for age, gender and substance use. Presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum was assessed using 18F-DOPA positron emission tomography. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse questionnaire. Within the sample as a whole, both severe physical or sexual abuse (T63=2.92; P=0.005), and unstable family arrangements (T57=2.80; P=0.007) in childhood were associated with elevated dopamine function in the associative striatum in adulthood. Comparison of the UHR and volunteer subgroups revealed similar incidence of childhood adverse experiences, and there was no significant group difference in dopamine function. This study provides evidence that childhood adversity is linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel covalently linked insulin dimer engineered to investigate the function of insulin dimerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine N Vinther

    Full Text Available An ingenious system evolved to facilitate insulin binding to the insulin receptor as a monomer and at the same time ensure sufficient stability of insulin during storage. Insulin dimer is the cornerstone of this system. Insulin dimer is relatively weak, which ensures dissociation into monomers in the circulation, and it is stabilized by hexamer formation in the presence of zinc ions during storage in the pancreatic β-cell. Due to the transient nature of insulin dimer, direct investigation of this important form is inherently difficult. To address the relationship between insulin oligomerization and insulin stability and function, we engineered a covalently linked insulin dimer in which two monomers were linked by a disulfide bond. The structure of this covalent dimer was identical to the self-association dimer of human insulin. Importantly, this covalent dimer was capable of further oligomerization to form the structural equivalent of the classical hexamer. The covalently linked dimer neither bound to the insulin receptor, nor induced a metabolic response in vitro. However, it was extremely thermodynamically stable and did not form amyloid fibrils when subjected to mechanical stress, underlining the importance of oligomerization for insulin stability.

  16. Linking Ecosystem Services Benefit Transfer Databases and Ecosystem Services Production Function Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quantification or estimation of the economic and non-economic values of ecosystem services can be done from a number of distinct approaches. For example, practitioners may use ecosystem services production function models (ESPFMs) for a particular location, or alternatively, ...

  17. Linking EEG signals, brain functions and mental operations: Advantages of the Laplacian transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Franck; Burle, Boris; Spieser, Laure; Carbonnell, Laurence; Meckler, Cédric; Casini, Laurence; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a very popular technique for investigating brain functions and/or mental processes. To this aim, EEG activities must be interpreted in terms of brain and/or mental processes. EEG signals being a direct manifestation of neuronal activity it is often assumed that such interpretations are quite obvious or, at least, straightforward. However, they often rely on (explicit or even implicit) assumptions regarding the structures supposed to generate the EEG activities of interest. For these assumptions to be used appropriately, reliable links between EEG activities and the underlying brain structures must be established. Because of volume conduction effects and the mixture of activities they induce, these links are difficult to establish with scalp potential recordings. We present different examples showing how the Laplacian transformation, acting as an efficient source separation method, allowed to establish more reliable links between EEG activities and brain generators and, ultimately, with mental operations. The nature of those links depends on the depth of inferences that can vary from weak to strong. Along this continuum, we show that 1) while the effects of experimental manipulation can appear widely distributed with scalp potentials, Laplacian transformation allows to reveal several generators contributing (in different manners) to these modulations, 2) amplitude variations within the same set of generators can generate spurious differences in scalp potential topographies, often interpreted as reflecting different source configurations. In such a case, Laplacian transformation provides much more similar topographies, evidencing the same generator(s) set, and 3) using the LRP as an index of response activation most often produces ambiguous results, Laplacian-transformed response-locked ERPs obtained over motor areas allow resolving these ambiguities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Is a Novel Molecular Mechanism Linking Folate Availability and Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elena; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Folate deficiency has been linked to a wide range of disorders, including cancer, neural tube defects, and fetal growth restriction. Folate regulates cellular function mediated by its involvement in the synthesis of nucleotides, which are needed for DNA synthesis, and its function as a methyl donor, which is critical for DNA methylation. Here we review current data showing that folate sensing by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) constitutes a novel and distinct pathway by which folate modulates cell functions such as nutrient transport, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial respiration. The mTOR signaling pathway responds to growth factors and changes in nutrient availability to control cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism. mTOR exists in 2 complexes, mTOR complex (mTORC) 1 and mTORC2, which have distinct upstream regulators and downstream targets. Folate deficiency in pregnant mice caused a marked inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in multiple maternal and fetal tissues, downregulation of placental amino acid transporters, and fetal growth restriction. In addition, folate deficiency in primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells resulted in inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling and decreased the activity of key amino acid transporters. Folate sensing by mTOR in PHT cells is independent of the accumulation of homocysteine and requires the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT; solute carrier 46A1). Furthermore, mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate trophoblast folate uptake by modulating the cell surface expression of folate receptor α and the reduced folate carrier. These findings, which provide a novel link between folate availability and cell function, growth, and proliferation, may have broad biological significance given the critical role of folate in normal cell function and the multiple diseases that have been associated with decreased or excessive folate availability. Low maternal folate concentrations are linked to restricted fetal growth, and we

  19. A semantic-based approach for querying linked data using natural language

    KAUST Repository

    Paredes-Valverde, Mario Andrés

    2016-01-11

    The semantic Web aims to provide to Web information with a well-defined meaning and make it understandable not only by humans but also by computers, thus allowing the automation, integration and reuse of high-quality information across different applications. However, current information retrieval mechanisms for semantic knowledge bases are intended to be only used by expert users. In this work, we propose a natural language interface that allows non-expert users the access to this kind of information through formulating queries in natural language. The present approach uses a domain-independent ontology model to represent the question\\'s structure and context. Also, this model allows determination of the answer type expected by the user based on a proposed question classification. To prove the effectiveness of our approach, we have conducted an evaluation in the music domain using LinkedBrainz, an effort to provide the MusicBrainz information as structured data on the Web by means of Semantic Web technologies. Our proposal obtained encouraging results based on the F-measure metric, ranging from 0.74 to 0.82 for a corpus of questions generated by a group of real-world end users. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A semantic-based approach for querying linked data using natural language

    KAUST Repository

    Paredes-Valverde, Mario André s; Valencia-Garcí a, Rafael; Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Alor-Herná ndez, Giner

    2016-01-01

    The semantic Web aims to provide to Web information with a well-defined meaning and make it understandable not only by humans but also by computers, thus allowing the automation, integration and reuse of high-quality information across different applications. However, current information retrieval mechanisms for semantic knowledge bases are intended to be only used by expert users. In this work, we propose a natural language interface that allows non-expert users the access to this kind of information through formulating queries in natural language. The present approach uses a domain-independent ontology model to represent the question's structure and context. Also, this model allows determination of the answer type expected by the user based on a proposed question classification. To prove the effectiveness of our approach, we have conducted an evaluation in the music domain using LinkedBrainz, an effort to provide the MusicBrainz information as structured data on the Web by means of Semantic Web technologies. Our proposal obtained encouraging results based on the F-measure metric, ranging from 0.74 to 0.82 for a corpus of questions generated by a group of real-world end users. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Functional Divergence in the Role of N-Linked Glycosylation in Smoothened Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Marada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR Smoothened (Smo is the requisite signal transducer of the evolutionarily conserved Hedgehog (Hh pathway. Although aspects of Smo signaling are conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates, significant differences have evolved. These include changes in its active sub-cellular localization, and the ability of vertebrate Smo to induce distinct G protein-dependent and independent signals in response to ligand. Whereas the canonical Smo signal to Gli transcriptional effectors occurs in a G protein-independent manner, its non-canonical signal employs Gαi. Whether vertebrate Smo can selectively bias its signal between these routes is not yet known. N-linked glycosylation is a post-translational modification that can influence GPCR trafficking, ligand responsiveness and signal output. Smo proteins in Drosophila and vertebrate systems harbor N-linked glycans, but their role in Smo signaling has not been established. Herein, we present a comprehensive analysis of Drosophila and murine Smo glycosylation that supports a functional divergence in the contribution of N-linked glycans to signaling. Of the seven predicted glycan acceptor sites in Drosophila Smo, one is essential. Loss of N-glycosylation at this site disrupted Smo trafficking and attenuated its signaling capability. In stark contrast, we found that all four predicted N-glycosylation sites on murine Smo were dispensable for proper trafficking, agonist binding and canonical signal induction. However, the under-glycosylated protein was compromised in its ability to induce a non-canonical signal through Gαi, providing for the first time evidence that Smo can bias its signal and that a post-translational modification can impact this process. As such, we postulate a profound shift in N-glycan function from affecting Smo ER exit in flies to influencing its signal output in mice.

  2. Longitudinal Links between Executive Function, Anger, and Aggression in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Helena L.; Holl, Anna K.; Kirsch, Fabian; Krahé, Barbara; Elsner, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that executive function (EF) is negatively associated with aggressive behavior in childhood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies that have examined the effect of deficits in EF on aggression over time and taken into account different forms and functions of aggression at the same time. Furthermore, only few studies have analyzed the role of underlying variables that may explain the association between EF and aggression. The present study examined the prospective paths between EF and different forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression. The habitual experience of anger was examined as a potential underlying mechanism of the link between EF and aggression, because the tendency to get angry easily has been found to be both a consequence of deficits in EF and a predictor of aggression. The study included 1,652 children (between 6 and 11 years old at the first time point), who were followed over three time points (T1, T2, and T3) covering 3 years. At T1, a latent factor of EF comprised measures of planning, rated via teacher reports, as well as inhibition, set shifting, and working-memory updating, assessed experimentally. Habitual anger experience was assessed via parent reports at T1 and T2. The forms and functions of aggression were measured via teacher reports at all three time points. Structural equation modeling revealed that EF at T1 predicted physical, relational, and reactive aggression at T3, but was unrelated to proactive aggression at T3. Furthermore, EF at T1 was indirectly linked to physical aggression at T3, mediated through habitual anger experience at T2. The results indicate that deficits in EF influence the later occurrence of aggression in middle childhood, and the tendency to get angry easily mediates this relation. PMID:29535615

  3. Longitudinal Links between Executive Function, Anger, and Aggression in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena L. Rohlf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that executive function (EF is negatively associated with aggressive behavior in childhood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies that have examined the effect of deficits in EF on aggression over time and taken into account different forms and functions of aggression at the same time. Furthermore, only few studies have analyzed the role of underlying variables that may explain the association between EF and aggression. The present study examined the prospective paths between EF and different forms (physical and relational and functions (reactive and proactive of aggression. The habitual experience of anger was examined as a potential underlying mechanism of the link between EF and aggression, because the tendency to get angry easily has been found to be both a consequence of deficits in EF and a predictor of aggression. The study included 1,652 children (between 6 and 11 years old at the first time point, who were followed over three time points (T1, T2, and T3 covering 3 years. At T1, a latent factor of EF comprised measures of planning, rated via teacher reports, as well as inhibition, set shifting, and working-memory updating, assessed experimentally. Habitual anger experience was assessed via parent reports at T1 and T2. The forms and functions of aggression were measured via teacher reports at all three time points. Structural equation modeling revealed that EF at T1 predicted physical, relational, and reactive aggression at T3, but was unrelated to proactive aggression at T3. Furthermore, EF at T1 was indirectly linked to physical aggression at T3, mediated through habitual anger experience at T2. The results indicate that deficits in EF influence the later occurrence of aggression in middle childhood, and the tendency to get angry easily mediates this relation.

  4. Defining mental disorder. Exploring the 'natural function' approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Somogy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1 will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2. In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3. I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved.

  5. Defining mental disorder. Exploring the 'natural function' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Somogy

    2011-01-21

    Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1) will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2). In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3). I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved.

  6. C2 Link Security for UAS: Technical Literature Study and Preliminary Functional Requirements. Version 0.9 (Working Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a study of the technical literature related to Command and Control (C2) link security for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for operation in the National Airspace System (NAS). Included is a preliminary set of functional requirements for C2 link security.

  7. AN ENERGY FUNCTION APPROACH FOR FINDING ROOTS OF CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Mishra; Prem K. Kalra

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an energy function approach for finding roots of a characteristic equation has been proposed. Finding the roots of a characteristics equation is considered as an optimization problem. We demonstrated that this problem can be solved with the application of feedback type neural network. The proposed approach is fast and robust against variation of parameter.

  8. Combining formal and functional approaches to topic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zellers, M.; Post, B.

    2012-01-01

    Fragmentation between formal and functional approaches to prosodic variation is an ongoing problem in linguistic research. In particular, the frameworks of the Phonetics of Talk-in-Interaction (PTI) and Empirical Phonology (EP) take very different theoretical and methodological approaches to this

  9. Combining Formal and Functional Approaches to Topic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellers, Margaret; Post, Brechtje

    2012-01-01

    Fragmentation between formal and functional approaches to prosodic variation is an ongoing problem in linguistic research. In particular, the frameworks of the Phonetics of Talk-in-Interaction (PTI) and Empirical Phonology (EP) take very different theoretical and methodological approaches to this kind of variation. We argue that it is fruitful to…

  10. Functional Role of N-Linked Glycosylation in Pseudorabies Virus Glycoprotein gH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallbracht, Melina; Rehwaldt, Sascha; Klupp, Barbara G; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2018-05-01

    Many viral envelope proteins are modified by asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation, which can influence their structure, physicochemical properties, intracellular transport, and function. Here, we systematically analyzed the functional relevance of N-linked glycans in the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV) glycoprotein H (gH), which is an essential component of the conserved core herpesvirus fusion machinery. Upon gD-mediated receptor binding, the heterodimeric complex of gH and gL activates gB to mediate fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane for viral entry. gH contains five potential N-linked glycosylation sites at positions 77, 162, 542, 604, and 627, which were inactivated by conservative mutations (asparagine to glutamine) singly or in combination. The mutated proteins were tested for correct expression and fusion activity. Additionally, the mutated gH genes were inserted into the PrV genome for analysis of function during virus infection. Our results demonstrate that all five sites are glycosylated. Inactivation of the PrV-specific N77 or the conserved N627 resulted in significantly reduced in vitro fusion activity, delayed penetration kinetics, and smaller virus plaques. Moreover, substitution of N627 greatly affected transport of gH in transfected cells, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and reduced surface expression. In contrast, mutation of N604, which is conserved in the Varicellovirus genus, resulted in enhanced in vitro fusion activity and viral cell-to-cell spread. These results demonstrate a role of the N-glycans in proper localization and function of PrV gH. However, even simultaneous inactivation of all five N-glycosylation sites of gH did not severely inhibit formation of infectious virus particles. IMPORTANCE Herpesvirus infection requires fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes, which involves the conserved fusion machinery consisting of gB and the heterodimeric gH/gL complex. The bona fide

  11. A Fine-Grained API Link Prediction Approach Supporting CMDA Mashup Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Bao, Q.; Lee, T. J.; Ramachandran, R.; Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Gatlin, P. N.; Maskey, M.

    2017-12-01

    Service (API) discovery and recommendation is key to the wide spread of service oriented architecture and service oriented software engineering. Service recommendation typically relies on service linkage prediction calculated by the semantic distances (or similarities) among services based on their collection of inherent attributes. Given a specific context (mashup goal), however, different attributes may contribute differently to a service linkage. In this work, instead of training a model for all attributes as a whole, a novel approach is presented to simultaneously train separate models for individual attributes. Our contributions are summarized in three-fold. First is that we have developed a scalable attribute-level data model, featuring scalability and extensibility. We have extended Multiplicative Attribute Graph (MAG) model to represent node profiles featuring rich categorical attributes, while relaxing its constraint of requiring a priori knowledge of predefined attributes. LDA is leveraged to dynamically identify attributes based on attribute modeling, and multiple Gaussian fit is applied to find global optimal values. The second contribution is that we have seamlessly integrated the latent relationships between API attributes as well as observed network structure based on historical API usage data. Such a layered information model enables us to predict the probability of a link between two APIs based on their attribute link affinities carrying a variety of information including meta data, semantic data, historical usage data, as well as crowdsourcing user comments and annotations. The third contribution is that we have developed a finegrained context-aware mashup-API recommendation technique. On top of individual models trained for separate attributes, a dedicated layer is trained to represent the latent attribute distribution regarding mashup purpose, i.e., sensitivity of attributes to context. Thus, given the description of an intended mashup, the

  12. Allocating structure to function: the strong links between neuroplasticity and natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A central question in brain evolution is how species-typical behaviors, and the neural function-structure mappings supporting them, can be acquired and inherited. Advocates of brain modularity, in its different incarnations across scientific subfields, argue that natural selection must target domain-dedicated, separately modifiable neural subsystems, resulting in genetically-specified functional modules. In such modular systems, specification of neuron number and functional connectivity are necessarily linked. Mounting evidence, however, from allometric, developmental, comparative, systems-physiological, neuroimaging and neurological studies suggests that brain elements are used and reused in multiple functional systems. This variable allocation can be seen in short-term neuromodulation, in neuroplasticity over the lifespan and in response to damage. We argue that the same processes are evident in brain evolution. Natural selection must preserve behavioral functions that may co-locate in variable amounts with other functions. In genetics, the uses and problems of pleiotropy, the re-use of genes in multiple networks have been much discussed, but this issue has been sidestepped in neural systems by the invocation of modules. Here we highlight the interaction between evolutionary and developmental mechanisms to produce distributed and overlapping functional architectures in the brain. These adaptive mechanisms must be robust to perturbations that might disrupt critical information processing and action selection, but must also recognize useful new sources of information arising from internal genetic or environmental variability, when those appear. These contrasting properties of robustness and evolvability have been discussed for the basic organization of body plan and fundamental cell physiology. Here we extend them to the evolution and development, evo-devo, of brain structure.

  13. Comprehensive functional analysis of N-linked glycans on Ebola virus GP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennemann, Nicholas J; Rhein, Bethany A; Ndungo, Esther; Chandran, Kartik; Qiu, Xiangguo; Maury, Wendy

    2014-01-28

    Ebola virus (EBOV) entry requires the virion surface-associated glycoprotein (GP) that is composed of a trimer of heterodimers (GP1/GP2). The GP1 subunit contains two heavily glycosylated domains, the glycan cap and the mucin-like domain (MLD). The glycan cap contains only N-linked glycans, whereas the MLD contains both N- and O-linked glycans. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed on EBOV GP1 to systematically disrupt N-linked glycan sites to gain an understanding of their role in GP structure and function. All 15 N-glycosylation sites of EBOV GP1 could be removed without compromising the expression of GP. The loss of these 15 glycosylation sites significantly enhanced pseudovirion transduction in Vero cells, which correlated with an increase in protease sensitivity. Interestingly, exposing the receptor-binding domain (RBD) by removing the glycan shield did not allow interaction with the endosomal receptor, NPC1, indicating that the glycan cap/MLD domains mask RBD residues required for binding. The effects of the loss of GP1 N-linked glycans on Ca(2+)-dependent (C-type) lectin (CLEC)-dependent transduction were complex, and the effect was unique for each of the CLECs tested. Surprisingly, EBOV entry into murine peritoneal macrophages was independent of GP1 N-glycans, suggesting that CLEC-GP1 N-glycan interactions are not required for entry into this important primary cell. Finally, the removal of all GP1 N-glycans outside the MLD enhanced antiserum and antibody sensitivity. In total, our results provide evidence that the conserved N-linked glycans on the EBOV GP1 core protect GP from antibody neutralization despite the negative impact the glycans have on viral entry efficiency. Filovirus outbreaks occur sporadically throughout central Africa, causing high fatality rates among the general public and health care workers. These unpredictable hemorrhagic fever outbreaks are caused by multiple species of Ebola viruses, as well as Marburg virus. While filovirus

  14. A Comprehensive Approach for Pectin Chemical and Functional Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa, António Felipe Gomes Teixeira

    In this work, a comprehensive approach for the chemical and functional analysis of pectin was used in order to relate the different extraction conditions used to the polymer structure and the final functional (mainly gelling) properties. A wide range of methods were utilized including chemical an...

  15. Ecological-network models link diversity, structure and function in the plankton food-web

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alelio, Domenico; Libralato, Simone; Wyatt, Timothy; Ribera D'Alcalà, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    A planktonic food-web model including sixty-three functional nodes (representing auto- mixo- and heterotrophs) was developed to integrate most trophic diversity present in the plankton. The model was implemented in two variants - which we named ‘green’ and ‘blue’ - characterized by opposite amounts of phytoplankton biomass and representing, respectively, bloom and non-bloom states of the system. Taxonomically disaggregated food-webs described herein allowed to shed light on how components of the plankton community changed their trophic behavior in the two different conditions, and modified the overall functioning of the plankton food web. The green and blue food-webs showed distinct organizations in terms of trophic roles of the nodes and carbon fluxes between them. Such re-organization stemmed from switches in selective grazing by both metazoan and protozoan consumers. Switches in food-web structure resulted in relatively small differences in the efficiency of material transfer towards higher trophic levels. For instance, from green to blue states, a seven-fold decrease in phytoplankton biomass translated into only a two-fold decrease in potential planktivorous fish biomass. By linking diversity, structure and function in the plankton food-web, we discuss the role of internal mechanisms, relying on species-specific functionalities, in driving the ‘adaptive’ responses of plankton communities to perturbations.

  16. CNA web server: rigidity theory-based thermal unfolding simulations of proteins for linking structure, (thermo-)stability, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Dennis M; Rathi, Prakash Chandra; Pfleger, Christopher; Gohlke, Holger

    2013-07-01

    The Constraint Network Analysis (CNA) web server provides a user-friendly interface to the CNA approach developed in our laboratory for linking results from rigidity analyses to biologically relevant characteristics of a biomolecular structure. The CNA web server provides a refined modeling of thermal unfolding simulations that considers the temperature dependence of hydrophobic tethers and computes a set of global and local indices for quantifying biomacromolecular stability. From the global indices, phase transition points are identified where the structure switches from a rigid to a floppy state; these phase transition points can be related to a protein's (thermo-)stability. Structural weak spots (unfolding nuclei) are automatically identified, too; this knowledge can be exploited in data-driven protein engineering. The local indices are useful in linking flexibility and function and to understand the impact of ligand binding on protein flexibility. The CNA web server robustly handles small-molecule ligands in general. To overcome issues of sensitivity with respect to the input structure, the CNA web server allows performing two ensemble-based variants of thermal unfolding simulations. The web server output is provided as raw data, plots and/or Jmol representations. The CNA web server, accessible at http://cpclab.uni-duesseldorf.de/cna or http://www.cnanalysis.de, is free and open to all users with no login requirement.

  17. Non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI: establishing functional links between two brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Schik Yoo

    Full Text Available Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI. In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat, thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI. The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer's intention to stimulate a rat's brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer's intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications.

  18. Conserved properties of Drosophila Insomniac link sleep regulation and synaptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuling; Kellner, David A; Hatch, Hayden A M; Yumita, Tomohiro; Sanchez, Sandrine; Machold, Robert P; Frank, C Andrew; Stavropoulos, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Sleep is an ancient animal behavior that is regulated similarly in species ranging from flies to humans. Various genes that regulate sleep have been identified in invertebrates, but whether the functions of these genes are conserved in mammals remains poorly explored. Drosophila insomniac (inc) mutants exhibit severely shortened and fragmented sleep. Inc protein physically associates with the Cullin-3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase, and neuronal depletion of Inc or Cul3 strongly curtails sleep, suggesting that Inc is a Cul3 adaptor that directs the ubiquitination of neuronal substrates that impact sleep. Three proteins similar to Inc exist in vertebrates-KCTD2, KCTD5, and KCTD17-but are uncharacterized within the nervous system and their functional conservation with Inc has not been addressed. Here we show that Inc and its mouse orthologs exhibit striking biochemical and functional interchangeability within Cul3 complexes. Remarkably, KCTD2 and KCTD5 restore sleep to inc mutants, indicating that they can substitute for Inc in vivo and engage its neuronal targets relevant to sleep. Inc and its orthologs localize similarly within fly and mammalian neurons and can traffic to synapses, suggesting that their substrates may include synaptic proteins. Consistent with such a mechanism, inc mutants exhibit defects in synaptic structure and physiology, indicating that Inc is essential for both sleep and synaptic function. Our findings reveal that molecular functions of Inc are conserved through ~600 million years of evolution and support the hypothesis that Inc and its orthologs participate in an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitination pathway that links synaptic function and sleep regulation.

  19. De-masking oxytocin-deficiency in craniopharyngioma and assessing its link with affective function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Dorothea; Auer, Matthias K; Stieg, Mareike R; Freitag, Martin T; Lahne, Madlén; Fuss, Johannes; Schilbach, Katharina; Schopohl, Jochen; Stalla, Günter K; Kopczak, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus in patients with craniopharyngioma (CP), little is known about the functioning of the neuropeptide oxytocin in these patients. This is of special interest as tumor-associated lesions often impair sites critical for oxytocin production and release, and affective dysfunction in CP links with elsewhere reported prosocial, antidepressant and anxiolytic oxytocin effects. Using a prospective study-design, we tested whether oxytocin is reduced in CP-patients, and whether altered oxytocin levels account for affective and emotional dysfunction. 26 adult CP-patients and 26 healthy controls matched in sex and age underwent physical exercise, a stimulus previously shown to induce oxytocin release. Baseline and stimulated salivary oxytocin levels, as well as empathy, depression and anxiety scores were measured. Results showed that patients overall did not present with lower baseline oxytocin levels than controls (F[1,30]=0.21, p=0.649), but baseline oxytocin levels were indeed reduced in patients with hypothalamic damage, as assessed by MRI-based grading (F[2,9.79]=4.54, p=0.040). In response to exercise-induced stimulation, all CP-patients showed a blunted oxytocin-release compared to controls (F[1,30]=9.36, p=0.005). DI was not associated with oxytocin levels. Regarding affective function, unexpectedly, higher baseline oxytocin was related to higher trait anxiety (b=2.885, t(43)=2.421, p=0.020, CI[.478; 5.292]); the positive link with higher depression failed to reach statistical significance (b=1.928, t(43)=1.949, p=0.058, CI[-0.070; 3.927]). A blunted oxytocin-release was linked with higher state anxiety (b=-0.133, t(43)=-2.797, p=0.008, CI[-0.230; -0.037]). Empathy was not associated with oxytocin measures. In conclusion, we observed reduced baseline oxytocin levels only in CP-patients with hypothalamic damage. Exercise-induced stimulation de-masked an oxytocin-deficiency in all CP-patients. Baseline

  20. From Field to Laboratory: A New Database Approach for Linking Microbial Field Ecology with Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Leslie; Keller, R.; Miller, S.; Jahnke, L.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Ames Exobiology Culture Collection Database (AECC-DB) has been developed as a collaboration between microbial ecologists and information technology specialists. It allows for extensive web-based archiving of information regarding field samples to document microbial co-habitation of specific ecosystem micro-environments. Documentation and archiving continues as pure cultures are isolated, metabolic properties determined, and DNA extracted and sequenced. In this way metabolic properties and molecular sequences are clearly linked back to specific isolates and the location of those microbes in the ecosystem of origin. Use of this database system presents a significant advancement over traditional bookkeeping wherein there is generally little or no information regarding the environments from which microorganisms were isolated. Generally there is only a general ecosystem designation (i.e., hot-spring). However within each of these there are a myriad of microenvironments with very different properties and determining exactly where (which microenvironment) a given microbe comes from is critical in designing appropriate isolation media and interpreting physiological properties. We are currently using the database to aid in the isolation of a large number of cyanobacterial species and will present results by PI's and students demonstrating the utility of this new approach.

  1. The Link between Dietary Protein Intake, Skeletal Muscle Function and Health in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I. Baum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass and function are progressively lost with age, a condition referred to as sarcopenia. By the age of 60, many older adults begin to be affected by muscle loss. There is a link between decreased muscle mass and strength and adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Data suggest that increasing dietary protein intake at meals may counterbalance muscle loss in older individuals due to the increased availability of amino acids, which stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1. Increased muscle protein synthesis can lead to increased muscle mass, strength and function over time. This review aims to address the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA for protein and whether or not this value meets the needs for older adults based upon current scientific evidence. The current RDA for protein is 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. However, literature suggests that consuming protein in amounts greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in older adults.

  2. Auxiliary functions of the LISA laser link: ranging, clock noise transfer and data communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, Gerhard; Esteban, Juan Jose; Barke, Simon; Otto, Markus; Wang Yan; Garcia, Antonio F; Danzmann, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is required to reduce two important noise sources by post-processing on the ground using time-delay interferometry (TDI): phase noise of the on-board reference clocks and laser frequency noise. To achieve the desired suppression, the TDI algorithm needs measurements of the differential clock noise between any two spacecraft and inter-spacecraft ranging measurements with at least 1 m accuracy, which is beyond the precision of ground-based measurements for deep space missions. Therefore, we need on-board measurements by transmitting clock noise and ranging information between the spacecraft as auxiliary functions of the laser link. This paper reports our current experimental results in clock noise transfer and ranging for noise subtraction via post-processing as well as additional data transfer.

  3. Non-linear multivariable predictive control of an alcoholic fermentation process using functional link networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto da Cruz Meleiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work a MIMO non-linear predictive controller was developed for an extractive alcoholic fermentation process. The internal model of the controller was represented by two MISO Functional Link Networks (FLNs, identified using simulated data generated from a deterministic mathematical model whose kinetic parameters were determined experimentally. The FLN structure presents as advantages fast training and guaranteed convergence, since the estimation of the weights is a linear optimization problem. Besides, the elimination of non-significant weights generates parsimonious models, which allows for fast execution in an MPC-based algorithm. The proposed algorithm showed good potential in identification and control of non-linear processes.Neste trabalho um controlador preditivo não linear multivariável foi desenvolvido para um processo de fermentação alcoólica extrativa. O modelo interno do controlador foi representado por duas redes do tipo Functional Link (FLN, identificadas usando dados de simulação gerados a partir de um modelo validado experimentalmente. A estrutura FLN apresenta como vantagem o treinamento rápido e convergência garantida, já que a estimação dos seus pesos é um problema de otimização linear. Além disso, a eliminação de pesos não significativos gera modelos parsimoniosos, o que permite a rápida execução em algoritmos de controle preditivo baseado em modelo. Os resultados mostram que o algoritmo proposto tem grande potencial para identificação e controle de processos não lineares.

  4. A longitudinal study of visual function in carriers of X-linked recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S; Fishman, G A; Anderson, R J; Lindeman, M

    2000-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the progression of visual function impairment in carriers of X-linked recessive retinitis pigmentosa. We also assessed the relationship between the retinal findings at presentation and the extent of deterioration. Observational, retrospective, case series. Twenty-seven carriers of X-linked recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Each carrier was clinically categorized into one of four grades (grades 0 through 3) depending on the presence or absence of a tapetal-like retinal reflex and the extent of peripheral pigmentary degeneration. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed and data for visual acuity, visual field area, and electroretinographic measurements were collected on the most recent visit in both eyes. These were then compared with similar data obtained on their initial visits. A comparison of visual function was carried out between the initial visit and the most recent visit on each carrier. The visual acuity was measured with Snellen's acuity charts. The visual fields to targets V-4-e and II-4-e were planimeterized and used for the analysis. The electroretinographic (ERG) measures used were light-adapted single-flash b-wave amplitudes and 30-Hz red flicker for cone function, dark-adapted maximal b-wave amplitudes, and response to a low intensity blue-flash for rod function. None of the 11 carriers with a tapetal-like reflex only (grade 1) showed any significant change in visual acuity or fields as compared with 3 of 7 (43%) carriers with diffuse peripheral pigmentary findings (grade 3) who showed significant deterioration in visual acuity in at least one eye, and 6 of 7 (86%) who showed a significant decrease in visual field area with at least one target size in at least one eye. By comparison, only 1 of 10 carriers with a grade 1 fundus finding demonstrated a significant decrease in maximal dark-adapted ERG function as compared with 5 of 6 (83%) carriers with grade 3 in response to a single-flash stimulus and

  5. A systems approach identifies networks and genes linking sleep and stress: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Scarpa, Joseph R; Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Losic, Bojan; Gao, Vance D; Hao, Ke; Summa, Keith C; Yang, He S; Zhang, Bin; Allada, Ravi; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Kasarskis, Andrew

    2015-05-05

    Sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility are comorbid complex traits that often precede and predispose patients to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we demonstrate multilevel organizations of genetic landscape, candidate genes, and molecular networks associated with 328 stress and sleep traits in a chronically stressed population of 338 (C57BL/6J × A/J) F2 mice. We constructed striatal gene co-expression networks, revealing functionally and cell-type-specific gene co-regulations important for stress and sleep. Using a composite ranking system, we identified network modules most relevant for 15 independent phenotypic categories, highlighting a mitochondria/synaptic module that links sleep and stress. The key network regulators of this module are overrepresented with genes implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Our work suggests that the interplay among sleep, stress, and neuropathology emerges from genetic influences on gene expression and their collective organization through complex molecular networks, providing a framework for interrogating the mechanisms underlying sleep, stress susceptibility, and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. On the plausibility of socioeconomic mortality estimates derived from linked data: a demographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Mathias; Spoerri, Adrian; Jasilionis, Domantas; Viciana Fernandèz, Francisco

    2017-07-14

    Reliable estimates of mortality according to socioeconomic status play a crucial role in informing the policy debate about social inequality, social cohesion, and exclusion as well as about the reform of pension systems. Linked mortality data have become a gold standard for monitoring socioeconomic differentials in survival. Several approaches have been proposed to assess the quality of the linkage, in order to avoid the misclassification of deaths according to socioeconomic status. However, the plausibility of mortality estimates has never been scrutinized from a demographic perspective, and the potential problems with the quality of the data on the at-risk populations have been overlooked. Using indirect demographic estimation (i.e., the synthetic extinct generation method), we analyze the plausibility of old-age mortality estimates according to educational attainment in four European data contexts with different quality issues: deterministic and probabilistic linkage of deaths, as well as differences in the methodology of the collection of educational data. We evaluate whether the at-risk population according to educational attainment is misclassified and/or misestimated, correct these biases, and estimate the education-specific linkage rates of deaths. The results confirm a good linkage of death records within different educational strata, even when probabilistic matching is used. The main biases in mortality estimates concern the classification and estimation of the person-years of exposure according to educational attainment. Changes in the census questions about educational attainment led to inconsistent information over time, which misclassified the at-risk population. Sample censuses also misestimated the at-risk populations according to educational attainment. The synthetic extinct generation method can be recommended for quality assessments of linked data because it is capable not only of quantifying linkage precision, but also of tracking problems in

  7. Strategic approach to outsourcing the research and development function

    OpenAIRE

    Firend, A.R

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for outsourcing the R&D function. This model is to serve as a strategic approach to outsourcing that considers number of elements with strategic competitive advantage as an ultimate objective. This paper suggest that outsourcing research and development should be planed and conducted from a strategic standpoint and have positive impact on organizational competitive position by incorporating it into the overall\\ud strategy of the organization to reduce the numbe...

  8. A review of function modeling: Approaches and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Erden, M.S.; Komoto, H.; Van Beek, T.J.; D'Amelio, V.; Echavarria, E.; Tomiyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at establishing a common frame and understanding of function modeling (FM) for our ongoing research activities. A comparative review of the literature is performed to grasp the various FM approaches with their commonalities and differences. The relations of FM with the research fields of artificial intelligence, design theory, and maintenance are discussed. In this discussion the goals are to highlight the features of various classical approaches in relation to FM, to delin...

  9. Estimating variability in functional images using a synthetic resampling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitra, R.; O'Sullivan, F.

    1996-01-01

    Functional imaging of biologic parameters like in vivo tissue metabolism is made possible by Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Many techniques, such as mixture analysis, have been suggested for extracting such images from dynamic sequences of reconstructed PET scans. Methods for assessing the variability in these functional images are of scientific interest. The nonlinearity of the methods used in the mixture analysis approach makes analytic formulae for estimating variability intractable. The usual resampling approach is infeasible because of the prohibitive computational effort in simulating a number of sinogram. datasets, applying image reconstruction, and generating parametric images for each replication. Here we introduce an approach that approximates the distribution of the reconstructed PET images by a Gaussian random field and generates synthetic realizations in the imaging domain. This eliminates the reconstruction steps in generating each simulated functional image and is therefore practical. Results of experiments done to evaluate the approach on a model one-dimensional problem are very encouraging. Post-processing of the estimated variances is seen to improve the accuracy of the estimation method. Mixture analysis is used to estimate functional images; however, the suggested approach is general enough to extend to other parametric imaging methods

  10. Neural networks for link prediction in realistic biomedical graphs: a multi-dimensional evaluation of graph embedding-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Gamal; Guo, Yufan; Pyysalo, Sampo; Korhonen, Anna

    2018-05-21

    Link prediction in biomedical graphs has several important applications including predicting Drug-Target Interactions (DTI), Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) prediction and Literature-Based Discovery (LBD). It can be done using a classifier to output the probability of link formation between nodes. Recently several works have used neural networks to create node representations which allow rich inputs to neural classifiers. Preliminary works were done on this and report promising results. However they did not use realistic settings like time-slicing, evaluate performances with comprehensive metrics or explain when or why neural network methods outperform. We investigated how inputs from four node representation algorithms affect performance of a neural link predictor on random- and time-sliced biomedical graphs of real-world sizes (∼ 6 million edges) containing information relevant to DTI, PPI and LBD. We compared the performance of the neural link predictor to those of established baselines and report performance across five metrics. In random- and time-sliced experiments when the neural network methods were able to learn good node representations and there was a negligible amount of disconnected nodes, those approaches outperformed the baselines. In the smallest graph (∼ 15,000 edges) and in larger graphs with approximately 14% disconnected nodes, baselines such as Common Neighbours proved a justifiable choice for link prediction. At low recall levels (∼ 0.3) the approaches were mostly equal, but at higher recall levels across all nodes and average performance at individual nodes, neural network approaches were superior. Analysis showed that neural network methods performed well on links between nodes with no previous common neighbours; potentially the most interesting links. Additionally, while neural network methods benefit from large amounts of data, they require considerable amounts of computational resources to utilise them. Our results indicate

  11. Exploring protein dynamics space: the dynasome as the missing link between protein structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Hensen

    Full Text Available Proteins are usually described and classified according to amino acid sequence, structure or function. Here, we develop a minimally biased scheme to compare and classify proteins according to their internal mobility patterns. This approach is based on the notion that proteins not only fold into recurring structural motifs but might also be carrying out only a limited set of recurring mobility motifs. The complete set of these patterns, which we tentatively call the dynasome, spans a multi-dimensional space with axes, the dynasome descriptors, characterizing different aspects of protein dynamics. The unique dynamic fingerprint of each protein is represented as a vector in the dynasome space. The difference between any two vectors, consequently, gives a reliable measure of the difference between the corresponding protein dynamics. We characterize the properties of the dynasome by comparing the dynamics fingerprints obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of 112 proteins but our approach is, in principle, not restricted to any specific source of data of protein dynamics. We conclude that: 1. the dynasome consists of a continuum of proteins, rather than well separated classes. 2. For the majority of proteins we observe strong correlations between structure and dynamics. 3. Proteins with similar function carry out similar dynamics, which suggests a new method to improve protein function annotation based on protein dynamics.

  12. A simple structure wavelet transform circuit employing function link neural networks and SI filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Li; Yigang, He

    2016-12-01

    Signal processing by means of analog circuits offers advantages from a power consumption viewpoint. Implementing wavelet transform (WT) using analog circuits is of great interest when low-power consumption becomes an important issue. In this article, a novel simple structure WT circuit in analog domain is presented by employing functional link neural network (FLNN) and switched-current (SI) filters. First, the wavelet base is approximated using FLNN algorithms for giving a filter transfer function that is suitable for simple structure WT circuit implementation. Next, the WT circuit is constructed with the wavelet filter bank, whose impulse response is the approximated wavelet and its dilations. The filter design that follows is based on a follow-the-leader feedback (FLF) structure with multiple output bilinear SI integrators and current mirrors as the main building blocks. SI filter is well suited for this application since the dilation constant across different scales of the transform can be precisely implemented and controlled by the clock frequency of the circuit with the same system architecture. Finally, to illustrate the design procedure, a seventh-order FLNN-approximated Gaussian wavelet is implemented as an example. Simulations have successfully verified that the designed simple structure WT circuit has low sensitivity, low-power consumption and litter effect to the imperfections.

  13. Hermite Functional Link Neural Network for Solving the Van der Pol-Duffing Oscillator Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Susmita; Chakraverty, S

    2016-08-01

    Hermite polynomial-based functional link artificial neural network (FLANN) is proposed here to solve the Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator equation. A single-layer hermite neural network (HeNN) model is used, where a hidden layer is replaced by expansion block of input pattern using Hermite orthogonal polynomials. A feedforward neural network model with the unsupervised error backpropagation principle is used for modifying the network parameters and minimizing the computed error function. The Van der Pol-Duffing and Duffing oscillator equations may not be solved exactly. Here, approximate solutions of these types of equations have been obtained by applying the HeNN model for the first time. Three mathematical example problems and two real-life application problems of Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator equation, extracting the features of early mechanical failure signal and weak signal detection problems, are solved using the proposed HeNN method. HeNN approximate solutions have been compared with results obtained by the well known Runge-Kutta method. Computed results are depicted in term of graphs. After training the HeNN model, we may use it as a black box to get numerical results at any arbitrary point in the domain. Thus, the proposed HeNN method is efficient. The results reveal that this method is reliable and can be applied to other nonlinear problems too.

  14. Integrin-Linked Kinase Is Indispensable for Keratinocyte Differentiation and Epidermal Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayedyahossein, Samar; Rudkouskaya, Alena; Leclerc, Valerie; Dagnino, Lina

    2016-02-01

    A functional permeability barrier is essential to prevent the passage of water and electrolytes, macromolecules, and pathogens through the epidermis. This is accomplished in terminally differentiated keratinocytes through formation of a cornified envelope and the assembly of tight intercellular junctions. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a scaffold protein essential for hair follicle morphogenesis and epidermal attachment to the basement membrane. However, the biological functions of ILK in differentiated keratinocytes remain poorly understood. Furthermore, whether ILK is implicated in keratinocyte differentiation and intercellular junction formation has remained an unresolved issue. Here we describe a pivotal role for ILK in keratinocyte differentiation responses to increased extracellular Ca(2+), regulation of adherens and tight junction assembly, and the formation of an outside-in permeability barrier toward macromolecules. In the absence of ILK, the calcium sensing receptor, E-cadherin, and ZO-1 fail to translocate to the cell membrane, through mechanisms that involve abnormalities in microtubules and in RhoA activation. In situ, ILK-deficient epidermis exhibits reduced tight junction formation and increased outside-in permeability to a dextran tracer, indicating reduced barrier properties toward macromolecules. Therefore, ILK is an essential component of keratinocyte differentiation programs that contribute to epidermal integrity and the establishment of its barrier properties. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine: A novel effector of cardiomyocyte metabolism and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Ball, Lauren E.; Chatham, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the O-linked attachment of the monosaccharide ß-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is emerging as an important mechanism for the regulation of numerous biological processes critical for normal cell function. Active synthesis of O-GlcNAc is essential for cell viability and acute activation of pathways resulting in increased protein O-GlcNAc levels improves the tolerance of cells to a wide range of stress stimuli. Conversely sustained increases in O-GlcNAc levels have been implicated in numerous chronic disease states, especially as a pathogenic contributor to diabetic complications. There has been increasing interest in the role of O-GlcNAc in the heart and vascular system and acute activation of O-GlcNAc levels have been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury attenuate vascular injury responses as well mediate some of the detrimental effects of diabetes and hypertension on cardiac and vascular function. Here we provide an overview of our current understanding of pathways regulating protein O-GlcNAcylation, summarize the different methodologies for identifying and characterizing O-GlcNAcylated proteins and subsequently focus on two emerging areas: 1) the role of O-GlcNAc as a potential regulator of cardiac metabolism and 2) the cross talk between O-GlcNAc and reactive oxygen species. PMID:21878340

  16. Links between plant litter chemistry, species diversity, and below-ground ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Courtney L; Bowman, William D

    2008-12-16

    Decomposition is a critical source of plant nutrients, and drives the largest flux of terrestrial C to the atmosphere. Decomposing soil organic matter typically contains litter from multiple plant species, yet we lack a mechanistic understanding of how species diversity influences decomposition processes. Here, we show that soil C and N cycling during decomposition are controlled by the composition and diversity of chemical compounds within plant litter mixtures, rather than by simple metrics of plant species diversity. We amended native soils with litter mixtures containing up to 4 alpine plant species, and we used 9 litter chemical traits to evaluate the chemical composition (i.e., the identity and quantity of compounds) and chemical diversity of the litter mixtures. The chemical composition of the litter mixtures was the strongest predictor of soil respiration, net N mineralization, and microbial biomass N. Soil respiration and net N mineralization rates were also significantly correlated with the chemical diversity of the litter mixtures. In contrast, soil C and N cycling rates were poorly correlated with plant species richness, and there was no relationship between species richness and the chemical diversity of the litter mixtures. These results indicate that the composition and diversity of chemical compounds in litter are potentially important functional traits affecting decomposition, and simple metrics like plant species richness may fail to capture variation in these traits. Litter chemical traits therefore provide a mechanistic link between organisms, species diversity, and key components of below-ground ecosystem function.

  17. Linking 1D coastal ocean modelling to environmental management: an ensemble approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussap, Giulia; Zavatarelli, Marco; Pinardi, Nadia

    2017-12-01

    The use of a one-dimensional interdisciplinary numerical model of the coastal ocean as a tool contributing to the formulation of ecosystem-based management (EBM) is explored. The focus is on the definition of an experimental design based on ensemble simulations, integrating variability linked to scenarios (characterised by changes in the system forcing) and to the concurrent variation of selected, and poorly constrained, model parameters. The modelling system used was previously specifically designed for the use in "data-rich" areas, so that horizontal dynamics can be resolved by a diagnostic approach and external inputs can be parameterised by nudging schemes properly calibrated. Ensembles determined by changes in the simulated environmental (physical and biogeochemical) dynamics, under joint forcing and parameterisation variations, highlight the uncertainties associated to the application of specific scenarios that are relevant to EBM, providing an assessment of the reliability of the predicted changes. The work has been carried out by implementing the coupled modelling system BFM-POM1D in an area of Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), considered homogeneous from the point of view of hydrological properties, and forcing it by changing climatic (warming) and anthropogenic (reduction of the land-based nutrient input) pressure. Model parameters affected by considerable uncertainties (due to the lack of relevant observations) were varied jointly with the scenarios of change. The resulting large set of ensemble simulations provided a general estimation of the model uncertainties related to the joint variation of pressures and model parameters. The information of the model result variability aimed at conveying efficiently and comprehensibly the information on the uncertainties/reliability of the model results to non-technical EBM planners and stakeholders, in order to have the model-based information effectively contributing to EBM.

  18. Cumulant approach to dynamical correlation functions at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Minhtien.

    1993-11-01

    A new theoretical approach, based on the introduction of cumulants, to calculate thermodynamic averages and dynamical correlation functions at finite temperatures is developed. The method is formulated in Liouville instead of Hilbert space and can be applied to operators which do not require to satisfy fermion or boson commutation relations. The application of the partitioning and projection methods for the dynamical correlation functions is discussed. The present method can be applied to weakly as well as to strongly correlated systems. (author). 9 refs

  19. Pediatrician's knowledge on the approach of functional constipation

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Mario C.; Negrelle, Isadora Carolina Krueger; Webber, Karla Ulaf; Gosdal, Marjorie; Truppel, Sabine Krüger; Kusma, Solena Ziemer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the pediatrician's knowledge regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of childhood functional constipation. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with the application of a self-administered questionnaire concerning a hypothetical clinical case of childhood functional constipation with fecal incontinence to physicians (n=297) randomly interviewed at the 36th Brazilian Congress of Pediatrics in 2013. Results: The majority of the p...

  20. Easy and difficult performance-approach goals : Their moderating effect on the link between task interest and performance attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaga, Monica; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the positive link between task interest and performance attainment can he negatively affected by the pursuit of difficult performance-approach goals. This was tested in a sample of 60 undergraduate Students at a Dutch university, In line with

  1. Functional renormalization group approach to the two dimensional Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, A; Kopietz, P [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Hasselmann, N [International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de BrasIlia, Caixa Postal 04667, 70910-900 BrasIlia, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: hasselma@itp.uni-frankfurt.de, E-mail: sinner@itp.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the small frequency and momentum structure of the weakly interacting Bose gas in two dimensions using a functional renormalization group approach. The flow equations are derived within a derivative approximation of the effective action up to second order in spatial and temporal variables and investigated numerically. The truncation we employ is based on the perturbative structure of the theory and is well described as a renormalization group enhanced perturbation theory. It allows to calculate corrections to the Bogoliubov spectrum and to investigate the damping of quasiparticles. Our approach allows to circumvent the divergences which plague the usual perturbative approach.

  2. The Compositional HJ-Biplot—A New Approach to Identifying the Links among Bioactive Compounds of Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Hernández Suárez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes have been described as a functional food because of their particular composition of different bioactive compounds. In this study, the proximate composition, minerals and trace elements, and antioxidant compounds were determined in two tomato cultivars (Mariana and Dunkan that were grown in Gran Canaria (Spain either conventionally or hydroponically. Although compositional data of this type require being subjected to the specific statistical techniques of compositional analysis, this approach has not usually been considered in this context. In the present case, a compositional Mann–Whitney U test of the data showed significant differences for each factor (cultivar and cultivation system in several of the compositional variables studied. For the differences between cultivars, these parameters were the protein, Mg, lycopene, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and fumaric acid contents. For the differences between cultivation systems, they were mainly those of the mineral and trace elements group. Although one-year data are insufficient to make clear relationship among compounds because more repetitions in several localities and years are necessary, the compositional HJ-biplot (in which the links provide estimates of the linear relationship among variables results agreed with other scientific results about linear relationship among some compounds analyzed.

  3. A Functional Link between the Histone Demethylase PHF8 and the Transcription Factor ZNF711 in X-Linked Mental Retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleine-Kohlbrecher, Daniela; Christensen, Jesper; Vandamme, Julien

    2010-01-01

    X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is an inherited disorder that mostly affects males and is caused by mutations in genes located on the X chromosome. Here, we show that the XLMR protein PHF8 and a C. elegans homolog F29B9.2 catalyze demethylation of di- and monomethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H......3K9me2/me1). The PHD domain of PHF8 binds to H3K4me3 and colocalizes with H3K4me3 at transcription initiation sites. Furthermore, PHF8 interacts with another XMLR protein, ZNF711, which binds to a subset of PHF8 target genes, including the XLMR gene JARID1C. Of interest, the C. elegans PHF8 homolog...... is highly expressed in neurons, and mutant animals show impaired locomotion. Taken together, our results functionally link the XLMR gene PHF8 to two other XLMR genes, ZNF711 and JARID1C, indicating that MR genes may be functionally linked in pathways, causing the complex phenotypes observed in patients...

  4. Spatial patterns and links between microbial community composition and function in cyanobacterial mats

    KAUST Repository

    Alnajjar, Mohammad Ahmad; Ramette, Alban; Kü hl, Michael; Hamza, Waleed; Klatt, Judith M.; Polerecky, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    We imaged reflectance and variable fluorescence in 25 cyanobacterial mats from four distant sites around the globe to assess, at different scales of resolution, spatial variabilities in the physiological parameters characterizing their photosynthetic capacity, including the absorptivity by chlorophyll a (Achl), maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Ymax), and light acclimation irradiance (Ik). Generally, these parameters significantly varied within individual mats on a sub-millimeter scale, with about 2-fold higher variability in the vertical than in the horizontal direction. The average vertical profiles of Ymax and Ik decreased with depth in the mat, while Achl exhibited a sub-surface maximum. The within-mat variability was comparable to, but often larger than, the between-sites variability, whereas the within-site variabilities (i.e., between samples from the same site) were generally lowest. When compared based on averaged values of their photosynthetic parameters, mats clustered according to their site of origin. Similar clustering was found when the community composition of the mats' cyanobacterial layers were compared by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), indicating a significant link between the microbial community composition and function. Although this link is likely the result of community adaptation to the prevailing site-specific environmental conditions, our present data is insufficient to identify the main factors determining these patterns. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the spatial variability in the photosynthetic capacity and light acclimation of benthic phototrophic microbial communities is at least as large on a sub-millimeter scale as it is on a global scale, and suggests that this pattern of variability scaling is similar for the microbial community composition. © 2014 Al-Najjar, Ramette, Kühl, Hamza, Klatt and Polerecky.

  5. Spatial patterns and links between microbial community composition and function in cyanobacterial mats

    KAUST Repository

    Alnajjar, Mohammad Ahmad

    2014-08-06

    We imaged reflectance and variable fluorescence in 25 cyanobacterial mats from four distant sites around the globe to assess, at different scales of resolution, spatial variabilities in the physiological parameters characterizing their photosynthetic capacity, including the absorptivity by chlorophyll a (Achl), maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Ymax), and light acclimation irradiance (Ik). Generally, these parameters significantly varied within individual mats on a sub-millimeter scale, with about 2-fold higher variability in the vertical than in the horizontal direction. The average vertical profiles of Ymax and Ik decreased with depth in the mat, while Achl exhibited a sub-surface maximum. The within-mat variability was comparable to, but often larger than, the between-sites variability, whereas the within-site variabilities (i.e., between samples from the same site) were generally lowest. When compared based on averaged values of their photosynthetic parameters, mats clustered according to their site of origin. Similar clustering was found when the community composition of the mats\\' cyanobacterial layers were compared by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), indicating a significant link between the microbial community composition and function. Although this link is likely the result of community adaptation to the prevailing site-specific environmental conditions, our present data is insufficient to identify the main factors determining these patterns. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the spatial variability in the photosynthetic capacity and light acclimation of benthic phototrophic microbial communities is at least as large on a sub-millimeter scale as it is on a global scale, and suggests that this pattern of variability scaling is similar for the microbial community composition. © 2014 Al-Najjar, Ramette, Kühl, Hamza, Klatt and Polerecky.

  6. Analysis of Anatomic and Functional Measures in X-Linked Retinoschisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine A.; Huryn, Laryssa A.; Jeffrey, Brett P.; Turriff, Amy; Sieving, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the symmetry of structural and functional parameters between eyes in patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), as well as changes in visual acuity and electrophysiology over time. Methods This is a single-center observational study of 120 males with XLRS who were evaluated at the National Eye Institute. Examinations included best-corrected visual acuity for all participants, as well as ERG recording and optical coherence tomography (OCT) on a subset of participants. Statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric Spearman correlations and linear regression. Results Our analyses demonstrated a statistically significant correlation of structural and functional measures between the two eyes of XLRS patients for all parameters. OCT central macular thickness (n = 78; Spearman r = 0.83, P < 0.0001) and ERG b/a ratio (n = 78; Spearman r = 0.82, P < 0.0001) were the most strongly correlated between a participant's eyes, whereas visual acuity was less strongly correlated (n = 120; Spearman r = 0.47, P < 0.0001). Stability of visual acuity was observed with an average change of less than one letter (n = 74; OD −0.66 and OS −0.70 letters) in a mean follow-up time of 6.8 years. There was no statistically significant change in the ERG b/a ratio within eyes over time. Conclusions Although a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes is observed across individuals with XLRS, our study demonstrates a significant correlation of structural and functional findings between the two eyes and stability of measures of acuity and ERG parameters over time. These results highlight the utility of the fellow eye as a useful reference for monocular interventional trials.

  7. Sequential approach to Colombeau's theory of generalized functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    J.F. Colombeau's generalized functions are constructed as equivalence classes of the elements of a specially chosen ultrapower of the class of the C ∞ -functions. The elements of this ultrapower are considered as sequences of C ∞ -functions, so in a sense, the sequential construction presented here refers to the original Colombeau theory just as, for example, the Mikusinski sequential approach to the distribution theory refers to the original Schwartz theory of distributions. The paper could be used as an elementary introduction to the Colombeau theory in which recently a solution was found to the problem of multiplication of Schwartz distributions. (author). Refs

  8. The Feynman-Vernon Influence Functional Approach in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryukov, Alexander; Shleenkov, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the path integral approach we describe evolution of interacting electromagnetic and fermionic fields by the use of density matrix formalism. The equation for density matrix and transitions probability for fermionic field is obtained as average of electromagnetic field influence functional. We obtain a formula for electromagnetic field influence functional calculating for its various initial and final state. We derive electromagnetic field influence functional when its initial and final states are vacuum. We present Lagrangian for relativistic fermionic field under influence of electromagnetic field vacuum

  9. A functional approach to emotion in autonomous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Ricardo; Hernández, Carlos; Gómez, Jaime; Hernando, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    The construction of fully effective systems seems to pass through the proper exploitation of goal-centric self-evaluative capabilities that let the system teleologically self-manage. Emotions seem to provide this kind of functionality to biological systems and hence the interest in emotion for function sustainment in artificial systems performing in changing and uncertain environments; far beyond the media hullabaloo of displaying human-like emotion-laden faces in robots. This chapter provides a brief analysis of the scientific theories of emotion and presents an engineering approach for developing technology for robust autonomy by implementing functionality inspired in that of biological emotions.

  10. Positive selection in octopus haemocyanin indicates functional links to temperature adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellermann, Michael; Strugnell, Jan M; Lieb, Bernhard; Mark, Felix C

    2015-07-05

    Octopods have successfully colonised the world's oceans from the tropics to the poles. Yet, successful persistence in these habitats has required adaptations of their advanced physiological apparatus to compensate impaired oxygen supply. Their oxygen transporter haemocyanin plays a major role in cold tolerance and accordingly has undergone functional modifications to sustain oxygen release at sub-zero temperatures. However, it remains unknown how molecular properties evolved to explain the observed functional adaptations. We thus aimed to assess whether natural selection affected molecular and structural properties of haemocyanin that explains temperature adaptation in octopods. Analysis of 239 partial sequences of the haemocyanin functional units (FU) f and g of 28 octopod species of polar, temperate, subtropical and tropical origin revealed natural selection was acting primarily on charge properties of surface residues. Polar octopods contained haemocyanins with higher net surface charge due to decreased glutamic acid content and higher numbers of basic amino acids. Within the analysed partial sequences, positive selection was present at site 2545, positioned between the active copper binding centre and the FU g surface. At this site, methionine was the dominant amino acid in polar octopods and leucine was dominant in tropical octopods. Sites directly involved in oxygen binding or quaternary interactions were highly conserved within the analysed sequence. This study has provided the first insight into molecular and structural mechanisms that have enabled octopods to sustain oxygen supply from polar to tropical conditions. Our findings imply modulation of oxygen binding via charge-charge interaction at the protein surface, which stabilize quaternary interactions among functional units to reduce detrimental effects of high pH on venous oxygen release. Of the observed partial haemocyanin sequence, residue 2545 formed a close link between the FU g surface and the

  11. A review of function modeling : Approaches and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erden, M.S.; Komoto, H.; Van Beek, T.J.; D'Amelio, V.; Echavarria, E.; Tomiyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at establishing a common frame and understanding of function modeling (FM) for our ongoing research activities. A comparative review of the literature is performed to grasp the various FM approaches with their commonalities and differences. The relations of FM with the research

  12. Multicomponent and Dissipative Self-Assembly Approaches : Towards functional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of self-assembly has proven to be a powerful approach to create smart and functional materials and has led to a vast variety of successful examples. However, the full potential of self-assembly has not been reached. Despite the number of successful artificial materials based on

  13. Questionnaire of Executive Function for Dancers: An Ecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alina; Rodriguez, Mabel; Quevedo, Liliana; de Cossio, Lourdes Fernandez; Borges, Ariel; Reyes, Alicia; Corral, Roberto; Blanco, Florentino; Alvarez, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    There is a current debate about the ecological validity of executive function (EF) tests. Consistent with the verisimilitude approach, this research proposes the Ballet Executive Scale (BES), a self-rating questionnaire that assimilates idiosyncratic executive behaviors of classical dance community. The BES was administrated to 149 adolescents,…

  14. From Equation to Inequality Using a Function-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verikios, Petros; Farmaki, Vassiliki

    2010-01-01

    This article presents features of a qualitative research study concerning the teaching and learning of school algebra using a function-based approach in a grade 8 class, of 23 students, in 26 lessons, in a state school of Athens, in the school year 2003-2004. In this article, we are interested in the inequality concept and our aim is to…

  15. Generalized Wigner functions in curved spaces: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrup, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that, given a quantum field in Minkowski space, one can define Wigner functions f/sub W//sup N/(x 1 ,p 1 ,...,x/sub N/,p/sub N/) which (a) are convenient to analyze since, unlike the field itself, they are c-number quantities and (b) can be interpreted in a limited sense as ''quantum distribution functions.'' Recently, Winter and Calzetta, Habib and Hu have shown one way in which these flat-space Wigner functions can be generalized to a curved-space setting, deriving thereby approximate kinetic equations which make sense ''quasilocally'' for ''short-wavelength modes.'' This paper suggests a completely orthogonal approach for defining curved-space Wigner functions which generalizes instead an object such as the Fourier-transformed f/sub W/ 1 (k,p), which is effectively a two-point function viewed in terms of the ''natural'' creation and annihilation operators a/sup dagger/(p-(12k) and a(p+(12k). The approach suggested here lacks the precise phase-space interpretation implicit in the approach of Winter or Calzetta, Habib, and Hu, but it is useful in that (a) it is geared to handle any ''natural'' mode decomposition, so that (b) it can facilitate exact calculations at least in certain limits, such as for a source-free linear field in a static spacetime

  16. A marketing-finance approach linking contracts in agricultural channels to shareholder value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.; Hoffmann, A.O.I.

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual marketing-finance framework is proposed which links channel contracting in agriculture and the use of financial facilitating services (e.g., financial derivatives) to (shareholder) value creation. The framework complements existing literature by explicitly including channel contract

  17. Linking Cultural Competence to Functional Life Outcomes in Mental Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Georgia; Falzarano, Pamela; Butkus, Michael; Zeman, Lori; Vershave, Judy; Arfken, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Minorities in the United States have well-documented health disparities. Cultural barriers and biases by health care providers may contribute to lower quality of services which may contribute to these disparities. However, evidence linking cultural competency and health outcomes is lacking. This study, part of an ongoing quality improvement effort, tested the mediation hypothesis that patients' perception of provider cultural competency indirectly influences patients' health outcomes through process of care. Data were from patient satisfaction surveys collected in seven mental health clinics (n=94 minority patients). Consistent with our hypothesis, patients' perception of clinicians' cultural competency was indirectly associated with patients' self-reported improvements in social interactions, improvements in performance at work or school, and improvements in managing life problems through the patients' experience of respect, trust, and communication with the clinician. These findings indicate that process of care characteristics during the clinical encounter influence patients' perceptions of clinicians' cultural competency and affect functional outcomes. © 2013 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Von Economo Neurons and Fork Cells: A Neurochemical Signature Linked to Monoaminergic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Anke A; Lin, Li-Chun; Nana, Alissa L; Gaus, Stephanie E; Seeley, William W

    2018-01-01

    The human anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortices are distinguished by 2 unique Layer 5 neuronal morphotypes, the von Economo neurons (VENs) and fork cells, whose biological identity remains mysterious. Insights could impact research on diverse neuropsychiatric diseases to which these cells have been linked. Here, we leveraged the Allen Brain Atlas to evaluate mRNA expression of 176 neurotransmitter-related genes and identified vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit θ (GABRQ), and adrenoreceptor α-1A (ADRA1A) expression in human VENs, fork cells, and a minority of neighboring Layer 5 neurons. We confirmed these results using immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization. VMAT2 and GABRQ expression was absent in mouse cerebral cortex. Although VMAT2 is known to package monoamines into synaptic vesicles, in VENs and fork cells its expression occurs in the absence of monoamine-synthesizing enzymes or reuptake transporters. Thus, VENs and fork cells may possess a novel, uncharacterized mode of cortical monoaminergic function that distinguishes them from most other mammalian Layer 5 neurons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Physicochemical and functional properties of ultrasonic-treated tragacanth hydrogels cross-linked to lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshani, Roya; Aminlari, Mahmoud

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare, characterize and investigate physiochemical and functional attributes of hen egg white lysozyme (LZM) cross-linked with ultrasonic-treated tragacanth (US-treated TGC) under mild Maillard reactions conditions. FT-IR spectroscopy together with OPA assay revealed that covalent attachment of LZM with TCG's. Under optimum condition (pH=8.5, 60°C, RH=79%, 8 days), only one of the free amino group of LZM was blocked by TGC whereas under the same condition, US treated-TGC's blocked about three amino groups. The thermal stability of the LZM-TGC conjugates differed depending on the lengths of the main and branch chains. The microstructure of LZM-TGC conjugates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. US-treated TGC-LZM exhibited improved solubility, emulsion properties, foam capacity and stability as compared with the native LZM. Since this gum is extensively used in food industry and application of LZM as a natural antimicrobial agents in different food systems is recommended and practiced in some countries, the results of this study indicates that a conjugated product of these two polymers combines different properties into one macromolecule and improves the property of each. These properties may make the conjugate an attractive food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An evolutionary computation approach to examine functional brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab eRoy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One common research goal in systems neurosciences is to understand how the functional relationship between a pair of regions of interest (ROIs evolves over time. Examining neural connectivity in this way is well-suited for the study of developmental processes, learning, and even in recovery or treatment designs in response to injury. For most fMRI based studies, the strength of the functional relationship between two ROIs is defined as the correlation between the average signal representing each region. The drawback to this approach is that much information is lost due to averaging heterogeneous voxels, and therefore, the functional relationship between a ROI-pair that evolve at a spatial scale much finer than the ROIs remain undetected. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a novel evolutionary computation (EC based voxel-level procedure to examine functional plasticity between an investigator defined ROI-pair by simultaneously using subject-specific BOLD-fMRI data collected from two sessions seperated by finite duration of time. This data-driven procedure detects a sub-region composed of spatially connected voxels from each ROI (a so-called sub-regional-pair such that the pair shows a significant gain/loss of functional relationship strength across the two time points. The procedure is recursive and iteratively finds all statistically significant sub-regional-pairs within the ROIs. Using this approach, we examine functional plasticity between the default mode network (DMN and the executive control network (ECN during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI; the study includes 14 TBI and 12 healthy control subjects. We demonstrate that the EC based procedure is able to detect functional plasticity where a traditional averaging based approach fails. The subject-specific plasticity estimates obtained using the EC-procedure are highly consistent across multiple runs. Group-level analyses using these plasticity estimates showed an increase in

  1. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  2. Enzymatic cross-linking of human recombinant elastin (HELP) as biomimetic approach in vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Sabrina; Giuliano, Liliana; Altomare, Lina; Petrini, Paola; Bandiera, Antonella; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Farè, Silvia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The use of polymers naturally occurring in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a promising strategy in regenerative medicine. If compared to natural ECM proteins, proteins obtained by recombinant DNA technology have intrinsic advantages including reproducible macromolecular composition, sequence and molecular mass, and overcoming the potential pathogens transmission related to polymers of animal origin. Among ECM-mimicking materials, the family of recombinant elastin-like polymers is proposed for drug delivery applications and for the repair of damaged elastic tissues. This work aims to evaluate the potentiality of a recombinant human elastin-like polypeptide (HELP) as a base material of cross-linked matrices for regenerative medicine. The cross-linking of HELP was accomplished by the insertion of cross-linking sites, glutamine and lysine, in the recombinant polymer and generating ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine links through the enzyme transglutaminase. The cross-linking efficacy was estimated by infrared spectroscopy. Freeze-dried cross-linked matrices showed swelling ratios in deionized water (≈2500%) with good structural stability up to 24 h. Mechanical compression tests, performed at 37°C in wet conditions, in a frequency sweep mode, indicated a storage modulus of 2/3 kPa, with no significant changes when increasing number of cycles or frequency. These results demonstrate the possibility to obtain mechanically resistant hydrogels via enzymatic crosslinking of HELP. Cytotoxicity tests of cross-linked HELP were performed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, by use of transwell filter chambers for 1-7 days, or with its extracts in the opportune culture medium for 24 h. In both cases no cytotoxic effects were observed in comparison with the control cultures. On the whole, the results suggest the potentiality of this genetically engineered HELP for regenerative medicine applications, particularly for vascular tissue regeneration.

  3. Linking hydrology, ecosystem function, and livelihood sustainability in African papyrus wetlands using a Bayesian Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, A.; Gettel, G. M.; Kipkemboi, J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    reduced to about 40% and in the wet season increased to about 85%. Both ecosystem functions and livelihood sustainability were most sensitive to flooding and the human pressure, notably the area of crop conversion, grazing pressure, and papyrus harvest. Flooded conditions limit cropping, livestock herding and vegetation harvesting but have a strong positive effect on ecosystem function. Preliminary results suggest that the effects of economic and policy development on ecosystem function and livelihood sustainability were negligible, but more data on these aspects will be included in further model development. The advantage of this modeling approach, which integrates data from hydrological, ecological, and socio-economic studies, is that it highlights the relative effect of hydrologic conditions and socio-economic pressures on ecosystem function. This model is static, however, with long-term changes in climate and exploitation levels superimposed on seasonal hydrology dynamics. Further work should address this issue as well as further constrain probabilities at each node as field research continues.

  4. On the Quantum Mechanical Wave Function as a Link Between Cognition and the Physical World A Role for Psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, D

    2002-01-01

    A straightforward explanation of fundamental tenets of quantum mechanics concerning the wave function results in the thesis that the quantum mechanical wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world. The reticence on the part of physicists to adopt this thesis is discussed. A comparison is made to the behaviorists' consideration of mind, and the historical roots of how the problem concerning the quantum mechanical wave function arose are discussed. The basis for an empirical demonstration that the wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world is provided through developing an experiment using methodology from psychology and physics. Based on research in psychology and physics that relied on this methodology, it is likely that Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's theoretical result that mutually exclusive wave functions can simultaneously apply to the same concrete physical circumstances can be implemented on an empirical level.

  5. A Unified Approach to Functional Principal Component Analysis and Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeh; Hwang, Heungsun; Yamamoto, Michio; Jung, Kwanghee; Woodward, Todd S

    2017-06-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) and functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis (FMCCA) are data reduction techniques for functional data that are collected in the form of smooth curves or functions over a continuum such as time or space. In FPCA, low-dimensional components are extracted from a single functional dataset such that they explain the most variance of the dataset, whereas in FMCCA, low-dimensional components are obtained from each of multiple functional datasets in such a way that the associations among the components are maximized across the different sets. In this paper, we propose a unified approach to FPCA and FMCCA. The proposed approach subsumes both techniques as special cases. Furthermore, it permits a compromise between the techniques, such that components are obtained from each set of functional data to maximize their associations across different datasets, while accounting for the variance of the data well. We propose a single optimization criterion for the proposed approach, and develop an alternating regularized least squares algorithm to minimize the criterion in combination with basis function approximations to functions. We conduct a simulation study to investigate the performance of the proposed approach based on synthetic data. We also apply the approach for the analysis of multiple-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging data to obtain low-dimensional components of blood-oxygen level-dependent signal changes of the brain over time, which are highly correlated across the subjects as well as representative of the data. The extracted components are used to identify networks of neural activity that are commonly activated across the subjects while carrying out a working memory task.

  6. Elements of a function analytic approach to probability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Roger Georges (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Red-Horse, John Robert

    2008-02-01

    We first provide a detailed motivation for using probability theory as a mathematical context in which to analyze engineering and scientific systems that possess uncertainties. We then present introductory notes on the function analytic approach to probabilistic analysis, emphasizing the connections to various classical deterministic mathematical analysis elements. Lastly, we describe how to use the approach as a means to augment deterministic analysis methods in a particular Hilbert space context, and thus enable a rigorous framework for commingling deterministic and probabilistic analysis tools in an application setting.

  7. QBCov: A Linked Data interface for Discrete Global Grid Systems, a new approach to delivering coverage data on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Toyer, S.; Brizhinev, D.; Ledger, M.; Taylor, K.; Purss, M. B. J.

    2016-12-01

    We are witnessing a rapid proliferation of geoscientific and geospatial data from an increasing variety of sensors and sensor networks. This data presents great opportunities to resolve cross-disciplinary problems. However, working with it often requires an understanding of file formats and protocols seldom used outside of scientific computing, potentially limiting the data's value to other disciplines. In this paper, we present a new approach to serving satellite coverage data on the web, which improves ease-of-access using the principles of linked data. Linked data adapts the concepts and protocols of the human-readable web to machine-readable data; the number of developers familiar with web technologies makes linked data a natural choice for bringing coverages to a wider audience. Our approach to using linked data also makes it possible to efficiently service high-level SPARQL queries: for example, "Retrieve all Landsat ETM+ observations of San Francisco between July and August 2016" can easily be encoded in a single query. We validate the new approach, which we call QBCov, with a reference implementation of the entire stack, including a simple web-based client for interacting with Landsat observations. In addition to demonstrating the utility of linked data for publishing coverages, we investigate the heretofore unexplored relationship between Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS) and linked data. Our conclusions are informed by the aforementioned reference implementation of QBCov, which is backed by a hierarchical file format designed around the rHEALPix DGGS. Not only does the choice of a DGGS-based representation provide an efficient mechanism for accessing large coverages at multiple scales, but the ability of DGGS to produce persistent, unique identifiers for spatial regions is especially valuable in a linked data context. This suggests that DGGS has an important role to play in creating sustainable and scalable linked data infrastructures. QBCov is being

  8. Abelian Chern endash Simons theory. II. A functional integral approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoliu, M.

    1998-01-01

    Following Witten, [Commun. Math. Phys. 21, 351 endash 399 (1989)] we approach the Abelian quantum Chern endash Simons (CS) gauge theory from a Feynman functional integral point of view. We show that for 3-manifolds with and without a boundary the formal functional integral definitions lead to mathematically proper expressions that agree with the results from the rigorous construction [J. Math. Phys. 39, 170 endash 206 (1998)] of the Abelian CS topological quantum field theory via geometric quantization. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  9. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  10. In search of new lead compounds for trypanosomiasis drug design: A protein structure-based linked-fragment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Rudenko, Gabrielle; Hol, Wim G. J.

    1992-04-01

    A modular method for pursuing structure-based inhibitor design in the framework of a design cycle is presented. The approach entails four stages: (1) a design pathway is defined in the three-dimensional structure of a target protein; (2) this pathway is divided into subregions; (3) complementary building blocks, also called fragments, are designed in each subregion; complementarity is defined in terms of shape, hydrophobicity, hydrogen bond properties and electrostatics; and (4) fragments from different subregions are linked into potential lead compounds. Stages (3) and (4) are qualitatively guided by force-field calculations. In addition, the designed fragments serve as entries for retrieving existing compounds from chemical databases. This linked-fragment approach has been applied in the design of potentially selective inhibitors of triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness.

  11. A minimalist functional group (MFG) approach for surrogate fuel formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani; Naser, Nimal; Issayev, Gani; Touitou, Jamal; Ghosh, Manik Kumer; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Farooq, Aamir; Dooley, Stephen; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Surrogate fuel formulation has drawn significant interest due to its relevance towards understanding combustion properties of complex fuel mixtures. In this work, we present a novel approach for surrogate fuel formulation by matching target fuel functional groups, while minimizing the number of surrogate species. Five key functional groups; paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, naphthenic CH–CH and aromatic C–CH groups in addition to structural information provided by the Branching Index (BI) were chosen as matching targets. Surrogates were developed for six FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline target fuels, namely FACE A, C, F, G, I and J. The five functional groups present in the fuels were qualitatively and quantitatively identified using high resolution H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A further constraint was imposed in limiting the number of surrogate components to a maximum of two. This simplifies the process of surrogate formulation, facilitates surrogate testing, and significantly reduces the size and time involved in developing chemical kinetic models by reducing the number of thermochemical and kinetic parameters requiring estimation. Fewer species also reduces the computational expenses involved in simulating combustion in practical devices. The proposed surrogate formulation methodology is denoted as the Minimalist Functional Group (MFG) approach. The MFG surrogates were experimentally tested against their target fuels using Ignition Delay Times (IDT) measured in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT), as specified by the standard ASTM D6890 methodology, and in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). Threshold Sooting Index (TSI) and Smoke Point (SP) measurements were also performed to determine the sooting propensities of the surrogates and target fuels. The results showed that MFG surrogates were able to reproduce the aforementioned combustion properties of the target FACE gasolines across a wide range of conditions

  12. A minimalist functional group (MFG) approach for surrogate fuel formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2018-03-20

    Surrogate fuel formulation has drawn significant interest due to its relevance towards understanding combustion properties of complex fuel mixtures. In this work, we present a novel approach for surrogate fuel formulation by matching target fuel functional groups, while minimizing the number of surrogate species. Five key functional groups; paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, naphthenic CH–CH and aromatic C–CH groups in addition to structural information provided by the Branching Index (BI) were chosen as matching targets. Surrogates were developed for six FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline target fuels, namely FACE A, C, F, G, I and J. The five functional groups present in the fuels were qualitatively and quantitatively identified using high resolution H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A further constraint was imposed in limiting the number of surrogate components to a maximum of two. This simplifies the process of surrogate formulation, facilitates surrogate testing, and significantly reduces the size and time involved in developing chemical kinetic models by reducing the number of thermochemical and kinetic parameters requiring estimation. Fewer species also reduces the computational expenses involved in simulating combustion in practical devices. The proposed surrogate formulation methodology is denoted as the Minimalist Functional Group (MFG) approach. The MFG surrogates were experimentally tested against their target fuels using Ignition Delay Times (IDT) measured in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT), as specified by the standard ASTM D6890 methodology, and in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). Threshold Sooting Index (TSI) and Smoke Point (SP) measurements were also performed to determine the sooting propensities of the surrogates and target fuels. The results showed that MFG surrogates were able to reproduce the aforementioned combustion properties of the target FACE gasolines across a wide range of conditions

  13. Assessing Cognitive Function in Older Adults Using a Videoconference Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Costa Castanho; Liliana Amorim; Pedro Silva Moreira; José Mariz; Joana Almeida Palha; Nuno Sousa; Nadine Correia Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of communication technologies is an emerging trend in healthcare and research. Despite efficient, reliable and accurate neuropsychological batteries to evaluate cognitive performance in-person, more diverse and less expensive and time consuming solutions are needed. Here we conducted a pilot study to determine the applicability of a videoconference (VC, Skype (R)) approach to assess cognitive function in older adults, using The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-Modi...

  14. A functional data analysis approach for genetic association studies

    OpenAIRE

    Reimherr, Matthew; Nicolae, Dan

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method based on Functional Data Analysis (FDA) for detecting associations between one or more scalar covariates and a longitudinal response, while correcting for other variables. Our methods exploit the temporal structure of longitudinal data in ways that are otherwise difficult with a multivariate approach. Our procedure, from an FDA perspective, is a departure from more established methods in two key aspects. First, the raw longitudinal phenotypes are assembled into functio...

  15. A zeta function approach to the semiclassical quantization of maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilansky, Uzi.

    1993-11-01

    The quantum analogue of an area preserving map on a compact phase space is a unitary (evolution) operator which can be represented by a matrix of dimension L∝ℎ -1 . The semiclassical theory for spectrum of the evolution operator will be reviewed with special emphasize on developing a dynamical zeta function approach, similar to the one introduced recently for a semiclassical quantization of hamiltonian systems. (author)

  16. Magnetic Resonance and Brain Function. Approaches from Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraviglia, B.

    1999-01-01

    In the last decade of this millennium, while, on the one hand, the international scientific community has focused with increasing endeavour on the research about the great unknown of the mechanism and the pathologies of the human brain, on the other hand, the NMR community has achieved some important results, which should widely affect, in the future, the possibility of understanding the function and disfunction of the human brain. In the early 1980's, the beginning of the application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the morphological study of the brain in vivo, has played an extraordinary role, which, since then, placed MRI in a leading position among the methodologies used for investigation and diagnostics of the Central Nervous System. In the 1990s, the objective of finding new means, based on MRI, capable of giving functional and metabolic information, with the highest possible space resolution, drove the scientists towards different approaches. Among these, the first one to generate a breakthrough in the localization of specific cerebral functions was the Blood Oxygen Level Development (BOLD) MRI. A very wide range of applications followed the discovery of BOLD imaging. Still, this method gives an indirect information of the localization of functions, via the variation of oxygen release and deoxyhemoglobin formation. Of course, a high-resolution spatial distribution of the metabolites, crucial to brain function, would give a deeper insight into the occurring processes. This finality is aimed at by the Double Magnetic Resonance methods, which are developing new procedures able to detect some metabolites with increasing sensitivity and resolution. A third new promising approach to functional MRI should derive from the use of hyperpolarized, opens a series of potential applications to the study of brain function

  17. Functional Foods and Lifestyle Approaches for Diabetes Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alkhatib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods contain biologically active ingredients associated with physiological health benefits for preventing and managing chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A regular consumption of functional foods may be associated with enhanced anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, insulin sensitivity, and anti-cholesterol functions, which are considered integral to prevent and manage T2DM. Components of the Mediterranean diet (MD—such as fruits, vegetables, oily fish, olive oil, and tree nuts—serve as a model for functional foods based on their natural contents of nutraceuticals, including polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, and unsaturated fatty acids. Polyphenols within MD and polyphenol-rich herbs—such as coffee, green tea, black tea, and yerba maté—have shown clinically-meaningful benefits on metabolic and microvascular activities, cholesterol and fasting glucose lowering, and anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation in high-risk and T2DM patients. However, combining exercise with functional food consumption can trigger and augment several metabolic and cardiovascular protective benefits, but it is under-investigated in people with T2DM and bariatric surgery patients. Detecting functional food benefits can now rely on an “omics” biological profiling of individuals’ molecular, genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, but is under-investigated in multi-component interventions. A personalized approach for preventing and managing T2DM should consider biological and behavioral models, and embed nutrition education as part of lifestyle diabetes prevention studies. Functional foods may provide additional benefits in such an approach.

  18. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable observer-independent approach to delineating volumes of interest (VOIs) for functional brain regions that are not identifiable on structural MR images. The case is made for the raphe nuclei, a collection of nuclei situated in the brain stem known...... to be densely packed with serotonin transporters (5-hydroxytryptaminic [5-HTT] system). METHODS: A template set for the raphe nuclei, based on their high content of 5-HTT as visualized in parametric (11)C-labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile PET images, was created for 10...... healthy subjects. The templates were subsequently included in the region sets used in a previously published automatic MRI-based approach to create an observer- and activity-independent probabilistic VOI map. The probabilistic map approach was tested in a different group of 10 subjects and compared...

  19. Fuzzy set approach to quality function deployment: An investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Abu S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The final report of the 1992 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship at the Space Exploration Initiative Office (SEIO) in Langley Research Center is presented. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a process, focused on facilitating the integration of the customer's voice in the design and development of a product or service. Various input, in the form of judgements and evaluations, are required during the QFD analyses. All the input variables in these analyses are treated as numeric variables. The purpose of the research was to investigate how QFD analyses can be performed when some or all of the input variables are treated as linguistic variables with values expressed as fuzzy numbers. The reason for this consideration is that human judgement, perception, and cognition are often ambiguous and are better represented as fuzzy numbers. Two approaches for using fuzzy sets in QFD have been proposed. In both cases, all the input variables are considered as linguistic variables with values indicated as linguistic expressions. These expressions are then converted to fuzzy numbers. The difference between the two approaches is due to how the QFD computations are performed with these fuzzy numbers. In Approach 1, the fuzzy numbers are first converted to their equivalent crisp scores and then the QFD computations are performed using these crisp scores. As a result, the output of this approach are crisp numbers, similar to those in traditional QFD. In Approach 2, all the QFD computations are performed with the fuzzy numbers and the output are fuzzy numbers also. Both the approaches have been explained with the help of illustrative examples of QFD application. Approach 2 has also been applied in a QFD application exercise in SEIO, involving a 'mini moon rover' design. The mini moon rover is a proposed tele-operated vehicle that will traverse and perform various tasks, including autonomous operations, on the moon surface. The output of the moon rover application exercise is a

  20. A Methodological Alternative to Media Comparison Studies: Linking Information Utilization Strategies and Instructional Approach in Hypermedia Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Catrambone, Richard; Gerjets, Peter; Scheiter, Katharina; Vollmann, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Literature reviews on hypermedia learning have yet failed to show consistent positive effects of learner-controlled nonlinear information access. We argue that a possible reason for this lack of evidence in favor of hypermedia learning results from the fact that not sufficient attention is paid to the strategies of information utilization learners deploy. The few studies that do analyze these strategies fail to link them to an instructional approach, which hampers a deeper interpretation of s...

  1. How do companies envisage the future? Functional foresight approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononiuk Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the synthesis of the results of methodological analysis conducted on examples of foresight projects executed in chosen companies representing four companies type: small and medium-sized enterprise (SME, nonprofit- organization, international corporations and consulting companies as well as to posit functional approach for the implementation of foresight research within organizations. The empirical part of the study is based on the qualitative approach. A multiple case study methodology is employed. The research objects are sixteen companies experienced in foresight research. The first part of the paper gives an overview of definitions of corporate foresight and the analysis of background that have influence on the conducting of foresight in large multinational companies on one side and SMEs on the other side. In the field of the theory of foresight research, the study demonstrates that there are different motivations for foresight introduction as well as different organizational structure of teams conducting the activities and the approaches that they use. In the practical perspective, the study and a detailed functional foresight approach proposed by authors could be valuable for SMEs who consider implementing foresight research into their strategic planning processes.

  2. Comparison of four functionalization methods of gold nanoparticles for enhancing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ciaurriz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique is based on the specific recognition ability of the molecular structure of an antigen (epitope by an antibody and is likely the most important diagnostic technique used today in bioscience. With this methodology, it is possible to diagnose illness, allergies, alimentary fraud, and even to detect small molecules such as toxins, pesticides, heavy metals, etc. For this reason, any procedures that improve the detection limit, sensitivity or reduce the analysis time could have an important impact in several fields. In this respect, many methods have been developed for improving the technique, ranging from fluorescence substrates to methods for increasing the number of enzyme molecules involved in the detection such as the biotin–streptavidin method. In this context, nanotechnology has offered a significant number of proposed solutions, mainly based on the functionalization of nanoparticles from gold to carbon which could be used as antibody carriers as well as reporter enzymes like peroxidase. However, few works have focused on the study of best practices for nanoparticle functionalization for ELISA enhancement. In this work, we use 20 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs as a vehicle for secondary antibodies and peroxidase (HRP. The design of experiments technique (DOE and four different methods for biomolecule loading were compared using a rabbit IgG/goat anti-rabbit IgG ELISA model (adsorption, directional, covalent and a combination thereof. As a result, AuNP probes prepared by direct adsorption were the most effective method. AuNPs probes were then used to detect gliadin, one of the main components of wheat gluten, the protein composite that causes celiac disease. With this optimized approach, our data showed a sensitivity increase of at least five times and a lower detection limit with respect to a standard ELISA of at least three times. Additionally, the assay time was remarkably decreased.

  3. Linking Economic Value Added, Direct Costing, and the Lean Thinking to the Balanced Scorecard in a System Dynamics Modelling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    Review, July-August, 2007], provide evidence that companies fail to see the possible benefits of combining and integrating several accounting practices into a single framework. Design/methodology/approach - We use a System Dynamics Modelling approach to the BSC-thinking. The BSC model includes the five...... Purpose - To show how three practices normally applied separately can be linked to support the strategy evaluation and the performance measurement in the balanced scorecard. Recent studies, e.g. Kaplan and Norton [Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System, Harvard Business...

  4. A conceptual model linking functional gene expression and reductive dechlorination rates of chlorinated ethenes in clay rich groundwater sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jacob; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    We used current knowledge of cellular processes involved in reductive dechlorination to develop a conceptual model to describe the regulatory system of dechlorination at the cell level; the model links bacterial growth and substrate consumption to the abundance of messenger RNA of functional gene...

  5. Specifying Links between Executive Functioning and Theory of Mind during Middle Childhood: Cognitive Flexibility Predicts Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Allison M.; Gallaway, Kristin C.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the development of and links between executive functioning and theory of mind during middle childhood. One hundred four 7- to 12-year-old children completed a battery of age-appropriate tasks measuring working memory, inhibition, flexibility, theory of mind, and vocabulary. As expected, spatial working…

  6. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  7. A multifaceted approach to maximize erectile function and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, David R; Gambone, Joseph C; Morris, Marge A; Ignarro, Louis J

    2010-12-01

    To review the role of various factors influencing vascular nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP, and consequently, erectile function and vascular health. Pertinent publications are reviewed. Daily moderate exercise stimulates vascular NO production. Maintenance of normal body weight and waist/hip ratio allows NO stimulation by insulin. Decreased intake of fat, sugar, and simple carbohydrates rapidly converted to sugar reduces the adverse effects of fatty acids and sugar on endothelial NO production. Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate endothelial NO release. Antioxidants boost NO production and prevent NO breakdown. Folic acid, calcium, vitamin C, and vitamin E support the biochemical pathways leading to NO release. Cessation of smoking and avoidance of excessive alcohol preserve normal endothelial function. Moderate use of alcohol and certain proprietary supplements may favorably influence erectile and vascular function. Treatment of any remaining testosterone deficit will both increase erectile function and reduce any associated metabolic syndrome. After production of NO and cyclic GMP are improved, use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors should result in greater success in treating remaining erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have also suggested positive effects of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors on vascular function. A multifaceted approach will maximize both erectile function and vascular health. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Zeta-function approach to Casimir energy with singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khusnutdinov, Nail R.

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of zeta-function approach the Casimir energy for three simple model system: single delta potential, step function potential and three delta potentials are analyzed. It is shown that the energy contains contributions which are peculiar to the potentials. It is suggested to renormalize the energy using the condition that the energy of infinitely separated potentials is zero which corresponds to subtraction all terms of asymptotic expansion of zeta-function. The energy obtained in this way obeys all physically reasonable conditions. It is finite in the Dirichlet limit, and it may be attractive or repulsive depending on the strength of potential. The effective action is calculated, and it is shown that the surface contribution appears. The renormalization of the effective action is discussed

  9. Scale-Dependence of Processes Structuring Dung Beetle Metacommunities Using Functional Diversity and Community Deconstruction Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  10. Linking plant functional traits and forest carbon stocks in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; Verbeeck, Hans; Hufkens, Koen; Lewis, Simon; Huygens, Dries; Beeckman, Hans; Steppe, Kathy; Boeckx, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the amount of carbon stored in tropical forests represent crucial baseline data for recent climate change mitigation policies. Such data are needed to quantify possible emissions due to deforestation and forest degradation, and to evaluate the potential of these forests to act as carbon sinks. Currently, only rough estimates of the carbon stocks for Central African tropical forests are available due to a lack of field data, and little is known about the response of these stocks to climate change. We present the first ground-based carbon stock data for the central Congo Basin in Yangambi, D. R. Congo, based on data of 20 inventory plots of 1 ha covering different forest types. We found an average aboveground carbon stock of 163 ± 19 Mg C ha-1 for intact old-growth forest, which is significantly lower than the stocks recorded in the outer regions of the Congo Basin. Commonly studied drivers for variations of carbon stocks include climatic and edaphic factors, but detailed trait-based studies are lacking. We identified a significant difference in height-diameter relations across the Congo Basin as a driver for spatial differences in carbon stocks. The study of a more detailed interaction of the environment and the available tree species pool as drivers for differences in carbon storage could have large implications. The effect of the species pool on carbon storage can be large since species differ in their ability to sequester carbon, and the collective functional characteristics of plant communities could be a major driver of carbon accumulation. The use of a trait-based approach shows high potential for identifying and quantifying carbon stocks as an ecosystem service. We test for associations between functional trait values and carbon storage across multiple regrowth and old-growth forests types in the Yangambi study area, with soil properties and climate similar for all plots. A selection of traits associated with carbon dynamics is made

  11. Determinants Linked to Family Business Sustainability in the UAE: An AHP Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Oudah; Fauzia Jabeen; Christopher Dixon

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and prioritise the various success factors linked to the sustainability of large and medium sized family businesses (FB) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A well-researched methodology was used for the synthesis of priorities and the measurement of consistencies. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model was developed with seven criteria and 15 sub-criteria gleaned from prior research. Data were collected using an interview-based survey conducted on ...

  12. Valuing Manggarai Station – Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Rail Link Using Stated Preference Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Adi, Wahyu Tamtomo

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the characteristics and preference of the SHIA airport travelers, estimate the subjective value of in-vehicle time and waiting time by providing choice experiments regarding the available modes in combination with the Airport Rail Link (ARL) service as hypothetical situation, analyze how the values vary according to the socio-demographics of respondents and forecasting the mode sharing and the elasticity based on several scenarios. Five hundred respondents as p...

  13. Linking the effects of land use change with water quality and discharge :an integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fauss, Lynn Michael

    1992-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality equilibria are greatly affected by changing land use. This study presents a methodology that integrates the use of remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS) and water-quality modeling. Archived aerial photography proved to be a valuable source of historical land use data. GIS technology was used to compile and analyze spatial data. A comprehensive watershed model was used to link the effects of land use change to water quali...

  14. Approach to kinetic energy density functionals: Nonlocal terms with the structure of the von Weizsaecker functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Aldea, David; Alvarellos, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a kinetic energy density functional scheme with nonlocal terms based on the von Weizsaecker functional, instead of the more traditional approach where the nonlocal terms have the structure of the Thomas-Fermi functional. The proposed functionals recover the exact kinetic energy and reproduce the linear response function of homogeneous electron systems. In order to assess their quality, we have tested the total kinetic energies as well as the kinetic energy density for atoms. The results show that these nonlocal functionals give as good results as the most sophisticated functionals in the literature. The proposed scheme for constructing the functionals means a step ahead in the field of fully nonlocal kinetic energy functionals, because they are capable of giving better local behavior than the semilocal functionals, yielding at the same time accurate results for total kinetic energies. Moreover, the functionals enjoy the possibility of being evaluated as a single integral in momentum space if an adequate reference density is defined, and then quasilinear scaling for the computational cost can be achieved

  15. A Multimodal Approach for Determining Brain Networks by Jointly Modeling Functional and Structural Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiong eXue

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent innovations in neuroimaging technology have provided opportunities for researchers to investigate connectivity in the human brain by examining the anatomical circuitry as well as functional relationships between brain regions. Existing statistical approaches for connectivity generally examine resting-state or task-related functional connectivity (FC between brain regions or separately examine structural linkages. As a means to determine brain networks, we present a unified Bayesian framework for analyzing FC utilizing the knowledge of associated structural connections, which extends an approach by Patel et al.(2006a that considers only functional data. We introduce an FC measure that rests upon assessments of functional coherence between regional brain activity identified from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Our structural connectivity (SC information is drawn from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data, which is used to quantify probabilities of SC between brain regions. We formulate a prior distribution for FC that depends upon the probability of SC between brain regions, with this dependence adhering to structural-functional links revealed by our fMRI and DTI data. We further characterize the functional hierarchy of functionally connected brain regions by defining an ascendancy measure that compares the marginal probabilities of elevated activity between regions. In addition, we describe topological properties of the network, which is composed of connected region pairs, by performing graph theoretic analyses. We demonstrate the use of our Bayesian model using fMRI and DTI data from a study of auditory processing. We further illustrate the advantages of our method by comparisons to methods that only incorporate functional information.

  16. Preliminary findings of altered functional connectivity of the default mode network linked to functional outcomes one year after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jaclyn A; Salorio, Cynthia F; Barber, Anita D; Risen, Sarah R; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Suskauer, Stacy J

    2017-07-10

    This study examined functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) and examined brain-behavior relationships in a pilot cohort of children with chronic mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compared to uninjured peers, children with TBI demonstrated less anti-correlated functional connectivity between DMN and right Brodmann Area 40 (BA 40). In children with TBI, more anomalous less anti-correlated) connectivity between DMN and right BA 40 was linked to poorer performance on response inhibition tasks. Collectively, these preliminary findings suggest that functional connectivity between DMN and BA 40 may relate to longterm functional outcomes in chronic pediatric TBI.

  17. Missing links between lean startup, design thinking, and experiential learning approaches in entrepreneurship education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Questions we care about • How do different pedagogical teaching approaches in entrepreneurship education construct learning outcome when comparing the underlying pedagogical models? • Where can unidentified fields and correlations of pedagogical insights between the approaches of lean startup......, design thinking, and experiential learning be identified? • How can new concepts of learning models, taking lean startup, design thinking and experiential learning approaches into account, be developed in entrepreneurship education? Approach This 3e conference paper begins as a conceptual paper...... highlighting the theories and underlying learning models behind three pedagogical approaches within entrepreneurship education, namely lean startup, design thinking and experiential learning. The paper builds this knowledge framework in order to set the design for an empirical investigation of the proposed...

  18. Correlation functions of the spin chains. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitanine, N.

    2007-09-01

    Spin chains are the basic elements of integrable quantum models. These models have direct applications in condense matter theory, in statistical physics, in quantum optics, in field theory and even in string theory but they are also important because they enable us to solve, in an exact manner, non-perturbative phenomena that otherwise would stay unresolved. The method described in this work is based on the algebraic Bethe Ansatz. It is shown how this method can be used for the computation of null temperature correlation functions of the Heisenberg 1/2 spin chain. The important point of this approach is the solution of the inverse quantum problem given by the XXZ spin chain. This solution as well as a simple formulae for the scalar product of the Bethe states, have enabled us to get the most basic correlation functions under the form of multiple integrals. The formalism of multiple integrals open the way for asymptotic analysis for a few physical quantities like the probability of vacuum formation. It is worth noticing that this formalism can give exact results for two-point functions that are the most important correlation functions for applications. A relationship has been discovered between these multiple integrals and the sum of the form factors. The results have been extended to dynamical correlation functions. (A.C.)

  19. A three-way approach for protein function classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez Ur Rehman

    Full Text Available The knowledge of protein functions plays an essential role in understanding biological cells and has a significant impact on human life in areas such as personalized medicine, better crops and improved therapeutic interventions. Due to expense and inherent difficulty of biological experiments, intelligent methods are generally relied upon for automatic assignment of functions to proteins. The technological advancements in the field of biology are improving our understanding of biological processes and are regularly resulting in new features and characteristics that better describe the role of proteins. It is inevitable to neglect and overlook these anticipated features in designing more effective classification techniques. A key issue in this context, that is not being sufficiently addressed, is how to build effective classification models and approaches for protein function prediction by incorporating and taking advantage from the ever evolving biological information. In this article, we propose a three-way decision making approach which provides provisions for seeking and incorporating future information. We considered probabilistic rough sets based models such as Game-Theoretic Rough Sets (GTRS and Information-Theoretic Rough Sets (ITRS for inducing three-way decisions. An architecture of protein functions classification with probabilistic rough sets based three-way decisions is proposed and explained. Experiments are carried out on Saccharomyces cerevisiae species dataset obtained from Uniprot database with the corresponding functional classes extracted from the Gene Ontology (GO database. The results indicate that as the level of biological information increases, the number of deferred cases are reduced while maintaining similar level of accuracy.

  20. A Functional Link between RNA Replication and Virion Assembly in the Potyvirus Plum Pox Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Araiz; Valli, Adrian; Calvo, María; García, Juan Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Potyvirus ), for instance, we have previously shown that the multitasking viral factor HCPro plays a role in the production of stable virions. Here, by using this potyvirus as a model, we move further to show that additional factors are also necessary for the efficient production of potyviral particles. More importantly, a comprehensive screening for such factors led us to the identification of a functional link between virus replication and packaging, unraveling a previously unknown connection of these two key events of the potyviral infection cycle. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Dual Approach to the Study of Land Market Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Oganesovna Oganesyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence, the structural elements and features of the mechanism of functioning of the market of agricultural land. The authors present the supplementing idea on the structural dichotomy of the agricultural land market. In contrast to neoclassical approaches, it is proposed to explore the market based on its structural dichotomy – market property rights and market rights of management. In this context, the mechanism of functioning of agricultural lands market performs the function of a basic element in the system of land relations to ensure market circulation of agricultural land through alienation and assign full or partial rights of land ownership. The use of the institutional approach to the study of market structures justifies the dual nature of the mechanism of functioning of the market of agricultural land due to the fact that on the one hand, the market is slow and limited in the market space of the rare economic good or factor of production, and on the other hand, it is a dynamic institutional and economic system within which the specification of property rights to land is implemented. The structure of the mechanism of functioning and development of agricultural land market is considered as a system of interrelated and interacting elements of state regulation and market self-regulation, based on the principles of coordination and harmonization of personalized economic interests and market law of supply and demand. The combination of elements of market self-regulation and state regulation allows in practice to justify the choice of model combinations of stable and changing elements of the mechanism. This combination complies with the institutional conditions for the functioning of the market of agricultural land considering the dominance of regulated sustainable standards at the market of property rights and in the frames of informal institutions at the market of the management rights. The authors prove the

  2. The Navier-Stokes equations an elementary functional analytic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sohr, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this monograph is to develop an elementary and self-contained approach to the mathematical theory of a viscous, incompressible fluid in a domain of the Euclidean space, described by the equations of Navier-Stokes. Moreover, the theory is presented for completely general domains, in particular, for arbitrary unbounded, nonsmooth domains. Therefore, restriction was necessary to space dimensions two and three, which are also the most significant from a physical point of view. For mathematical generality, however, the linearized theory is expounded for general dimensions higher than one. Although the functional analytic approach developed here is, in principle, known to specialists, the present book fills a gap in the literature providing a systematic treatment of a subject that has been documented until now only in fragments. The book is mainly directed to students familiar with basic tools in Hilbert and Banach spaces. However, for the readers’ convenience, some fundamental properties...

  3. Sensorimotor integration for functional recovery and the Bobath approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Mindy F; Panturin, Elia

    2011-04-01

    Bobath therapy is used to treat patients with neurological disorders. Bobath practitioners use hands-on approaches to elicit and reestablish typical movement patterns through therapist-controlled sensorimotor experiences within the context of task accomplishment. One aspect of Bobath practice, the recovery of sensorimotor function, is reviewed within the framework of current motor control theories. We focus on the role of sensory information in movement production, the relationship between posture and movement and concepts related to motor recovery and compensation with respect to this therapeutic approach. We suggest that a major barrier to the evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of the Bobath concept is the lack of a unified framework for both experimental identification and treatment of neurological motor deficits. More conclusive analysis of therapeutic effectiveness requires the development of specific outcomes that measure movement quality.

  4. Developmental Programming of Renal Function and Re-Programming Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüsken, Eva; Dötsch, Jörg; Weber, Lutz T; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life. This mini-review discusses critical developmental periods and long-term sequelae of renal programming in humans and presents studies examining the underlying mechanisms as well as interventional approaches to "re-program" renal susceptibility toward disease. Clinical manifestations of programmed kidney disease include arterial hypertension, proteinuria, aggravation of inflammatory glomerular disease, and loss of kidney function. Nephron number, regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renal sodium transport, vasomotor and endothelial function, myogenic response, and tubuloglomerular feedback have been identified as being vulnerable to environmental factors. Oxidative stress levels, metabolic pathways, including insulin, leptin, steroids, and arachidonic acid, DNA methylation, and histone configuration may be significantly altered by adverse environmental conditions. Studies on re-programming interventions focused on dietary or anti-oxidative approaches so far. Further studies that broaden our understanding of renal programming mechanisms are needed to ultimately develop preventive strategies. Targeted re-programming interventions in animal models focusing on known mechanisms will contribute to new concepts which finally will have to be translated to human application. Early

  5. Developmental Programming of Renal Function and Re-Programming Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nüsken

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life. This mini-review discusses critical developmental periods and long-term sequelae of renal programming in humans and presents studies examining the underlying mechanisms as well as interventional approaches to “re-program” renal susceptibility toward disease. Clinical manifestations of programmed kidney disease include arterial hypertension, proteinuria, aggravation of inflammatory glomerular disease, and loss of kidney function. Nephron number, regulation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, renal sodium transport, vasomotor and endothelial function, myogenic response, and tubuloglomerular feedback have been identified as being vulnerable to environmental factors. Oxidative stress levels, metabolic pathways, including insulin, leptin, steroids, and arachidonic acid, DNA methylation, and histone configuration may be significantly altered by adverse environmental conditions. Studies on re-programming interventions focused on dietary or anti-oxidative approaches so far. Further studies that broaden our understanding of renal programming mechanisms are needed to ultimately develop preventive strategies. Targeted re-programming interventions in animal models focusing on known mechanisms will contribute to new concepts which finally will have to be translated

  6. Developmental Programming of Renal Function and Re-Programming Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüsken, Eva; Dötsch, Jörg; Weber, Lutz T.; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life. This mini-review discusses critical developmental periods and long-term sequelae of renal programming in humans and presents studies examining the underlying mechanisms as well as interventional approaches to “re-program” renal susceptibility toward disease. Clinical manifestations of programmed kidney disease include arterial hypertension, proteinuria, aggravation of inflammatory glomerular disease, and loss of kidney function. Nephron number, regulation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, renal sodium transport, vasomotor and endothelial function, myogenic response, and tubuloglomerular feedback have been identified as being vulnerable to environmental factors. Oxidative stress levels, metabolic pathways, including insulin, leptin, steroids, and arachidonic acid, DNA methylation, and histone configuration may be significantly altered by adverse environmental conditions. Studies on re-programming interventions focused on dietary or anti-oxidative approaches so far. Further studies that broaden our understanding of renal programming mechanisms are needed to ultimately develop preventive strategies. Targeted re-programming interventions in animal models focusing on known mechanisms will contribute to new concepts which finally will have to be translated to human application

  7. The non-linear link between electricity consumption and temperature in Europe: A threshold panel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessec, Marie [CGEMP, Universite Paris-Dauphine, Place du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny Paris (France); Fouquau, Julien [LEO, Universite d' Orleans, Faculte de Droit, d' Economie et de Gestion, Rue de Blois, BP 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-09-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between electricity demand and temperature in the European Union. We address this issue by means of a panel threshold regression model on 15 European countries over the last two decades. Our results confirm the non-linearity of the link between electricity consumption and temperature found in more limited geographical areas in previous studies. By distinguishing between North and South countries, we also find that this non-linear pattern is more pronounced in the warm countries. Finally, rolling regressions show that the sensitivity of electricity consumption to temperature in summer has increased in the recent period. (author)

  8. Understanding Coastal Carbon Cycling by Linking Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jordan G.; Troxler, Tiffany G.; Najjar, Raymond G.

    2014-09-01

    The coastal zone, despite occupying a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, is an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Coastal wetlands, including mangrove forests, tidal marshes, and seagrass meadows, compose a domain of large reservoirs of biomass and soil C [Fourqurean et al., 2012; Donato et al., 2011; Pendleton et al., 2012; Regnier et al., 2013; Bauer et al., 2013]. These wetlands and their associated C reservoirs (2 to 25 petagrams C; best estimate of 7 petagrams C [Pendleton et al., 2012]) provide numerous ecosystem services and serve as key links between land and ocean.

  9. Linking Individual Learning Styles to Approach-Avoidance Motivational Traits and Computational Aspects of Reinforcement Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Carl Aberg

    Full Text Available Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning and avoid punishments (avoidance learning is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits.

  10. Linking Individual Learning Styles to Approach-Avoidance Motivational Traits and Computational Aspects of Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Aberg, Kristoffer; Doell, Kimberly C.; Schwartz, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning) and avoid punishments (avoidance learning) is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance) learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance) trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative) outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits. PMID:27851807

  11. A Goal-Function Approach to Analysis of Control Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The concept of situations plays a central role in all theories of meaning and context. and serve to frame or group events and other occurrences into coherent meaningful wholes. Situations are typed, may be interconnected and organized into higher level structures. In operation of industrial...... processes situations should identify operational aspects relevant for control agent’s decision making in plant supervision and control. Control situations can be understood as recurrent and interconnected patterns of control with important implications for control and HMI design. Goal-Function approaches...

  12. The fruits of a functional approach for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The current paper introduces relational frame theory (RFT) as a functional contextual approach to complex human behaviour and examines how this theory has contributed to our understanding of several key phenomena in psychological science. I will first briefly outline the philosophical foundation of RFT and then examine its conceptual basis and core concepts. Thereafter, I provide an overview of the empirical findings and applications that RFT has stimulated in a number of key domains such as language development, linguistic generativity, rule-following, analogical reasoning, intelligence, theory of mind, psychopathology and implicit cognition. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Entanglement probabilities of polymers: a white noise functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernido, Christopher C; Carpio-Bernido, M Victoria

    2003-01-01

    The entanglement probabilities for a highly flexible polymer to wind n times around a straight polymer are evaluated using white noise analysis. To introduce the white noise functional approach, the one-dimensional random walk problem is taken as an example. The polymer entanglement scenario, viewed as a random walk on a plane, is then treated and the entanglement probabilities are obtained for a magnetic flux confined along the straight polymer, and a case where an entangled polymer is subjected to the potential V = f-dot(s)θ. In the absence of the magnetic flux and the potential V, the entanglement probabilities reduce to a result obtained by Wiegel

  14. A Model-Based Approach to Constructing Music Similarity Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Kris; Lamere, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Several authors have presented systems that estimate the audio similarity of two pieces of music through the calculation of a distance metric, such as the Euclidean distance, between spectral features calculated from the audio, related to the timbre or pitch of the signal. These features can be augmented with other, temporally or rhythmically based features such as zero-crossing rates, beat histograms, or fluctuation patterns to form a more well-rounded music similarity function. It is our contention that perceptual or cultural labels, such as the genre, style, or emotion of the music, are also very important features in the perception of music. These labels help to define complex regions of similarity within the available feature spaces. We demonstrate a machine-learning-based approach to the construction of a similarity metric, which uses this contextual information to project the calculated features into an intermediate space where a music similarity function that incorporates some of the cultural information may be calculated.

  15. The Use of Modeling Approach for Teaching Exponential Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L. F.; Prates, D. B.; da Silva, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a discussion related to the teaching and learning of mathematical contents related to the study of exponential functions in a freshman students group enrolled in the first semester of the Science and Technology Bachelor’s (STB of the Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM). As a contextualization tool strongly mentioned in the literature, the modelling approach was used as an educational teaching tool to produce contextualization in the teaching-learning process of exponential functions to these students. In this sense, were used some simple models elaborated with the GeoGebra software and, to have a qualitative evaluation of the investigation and the results, was used Didactic Engineering as a methodology research. As a consequence of this detailed research, some interesting details about the teaching and learning process were observed, discussed and described.

  16. Infection Control Link Nurse Program: An interdisciplinary approach n targeting health care-acquired infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopirala, Madhuri M.; Yahle-Dunbar, Lisa; Smyer, Justin; Wellington, Linda; Dickman, Jeanne; Zikri, Nancy; Martin, Jennifer; Kulich, Pat; Taylor, David; Mekhjian, Hagop; Nash, Mary; Mansfield, Jerry; Pancholi, Preeti; Howard, Mary; Chase, Linda; Brown, Susan; Kipp, Kristopher; Lefeld, Kristen; Myers, Amber; Pan, Xueliang; Mangino, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe a successful interdisciplinary liaison program that effectively reduced health care-acquired (HCA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a university hospital setting. Methods Baseline was from January 2006 to March 2008, and intervention period was April 2008 to September 2009. Staff nurses were trained to be liaisons (link nurses) to infection prevention (IP) personnel with clearly defined goals assigned and with ongoing monthly education. HCA-MRSA incidence per 1,000 patient-days (PD) was compared between baseline and intervention period along with total and non-HCA-MRSA, HCA and non-HCA-MRSA bacteremia, and hand soap/sanitizer usage. Hand hygiene compliance was assessed. Results A reduction in MRSA rates was as follows in intervention period compared with baseline: HCA-MRSA decreased by 28% from 0.92 to 0.67 cases per 1,000 PD (incidence rate ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.62–0.83, P Hand soap/sanitizer usage and compliance with hand hygiene also increased significantly during IP. Conclusion Link nurse program effectively reduced HCA-MRSA. Goal-defined metrics with ongoing reeducation for the nurses by IP personnel helped drive these results. PMID:24548456

  17. Introductory Geology From the Liberal Arts Approach: A Geology-Sociology Linked Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E. O.; Davis, E.

    2008-12-01

    Geology can be a hard sell to college students, especially to college students attending small, liberal arts institutions in localities that lack exaggerated topography. At these schools, Geology departments that wish to grow must work diligently to attract students to the major; professors must be able to convince a wider audience of students that geology is relevant to their everyday lives. Toward this end, a Physical Geology course was linked with an introductory Sociology course through the common theme of Consumption. The same students took the two courses in sequence, beginning with the Sociology course and ending with Physical Geology; thus, students began by discussing the role of consumption in society and ended by learning about the geological processes and implications of consumption. Students were able to ascertain the importance of geology in their daily lives by connecting Earth processes to specific products they consume, such as cell phones and bottled water. Students were also able to see the connection between seemingly disparate fields of study, which is a major goal of the liberal arts. As a theme, Consumption worked well to grab the attention of students interested in diverse issues, such as environmental science or social justice. A one-hour lecture illustrating the link between sociology and geology was developed for presentation to incoming freshmen and their parents to advertise the course. Initial response has been positive, showing an increase in awareness of geological processes among students with a wide range of interests.

  18. Linking soil chemistry, treeline shifts and climate change: scenario modeling using an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Anderson, Susanne; Blum, Alex; Wells, Aaron; Dahms, Dennis; Egli, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and global warming have a strong influence on the landscape development. As cold areas become warmer, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions (a). It is widely accepted that climate changes deeply influence the treeline shifts. In addition to that, wildfires, plant diseases and insect infestation (i.e. mountain pine beetle) can promote a selective replacement of plants, inhibiting some and favoring others, thus modifying the ecosystem in diverse ways. There is little knowledge on the behavior of soil chemistry when such changes occur. Will elemental availability become a crucial factor as a function of climate changes? The Sinks Canyon and Stough Basin - SE flank of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA - offer an ideal case study. Conceptually, the areas were divided into three main subsets: tundra, forest and a subarid environment. All soils were developed on granitoid moraines (b, c). From each subset, a liquid topsoil extract was produced and mixed with the solid subsoil samples in batch reactors at 50 °C. The batch experiments were carried out over 1800 h, and the progress of the dissolution was regularly monitored by analyzing liquid aliquots using IC and ICP-OES. The nutrients were mostly released within the first hours of the experiment. Silicon and Al were continuously released into the solution, while some alkali elements - i.e. Na - showed a more complex trend. Organic acids (acetic, citric) and other ligands produced during biodegradation played an active role in mineral dissolution and nutrient release. The mineral colloids detected in the extract (X-ray diffraction) can significantly control surface reactions (adsorption/desorption) and contributed to specific cationic concentrations. The experimental set up was then compared to a computed dissolution model using SerialSTEADYQL software (d, e). Decoding the mechanisms driving mineral weathering is the key to understand the main geochemical aspects of adaptation during climate

  19. Ecological Production Functions Linking Multiple Stressors to Ecosystem Services – A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecosystem services concept is being used to frame environmental protection goals that guide management of the risks of chemicals. Ecosystem services link changes in ecological systems to the benefits received by people. The use of ecosystem services in risk assessments and th...

  20. Sleep and Cognition in Preschool Years: Specific Links to Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Carrier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective links between sleep in infancy and preschoolers' cognitive performance. Mothers of 65 infants completed a sleep diary when infants were aged 1 year, and children completed two subscales of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at 4 years, indexing general cognitive ability and complex…

  1. John Dewey’s theory of democracy and its links with the heterodox approach to economics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Hermann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available John Dewey is one of the most significant figures in pragmatist philosophy, an approach which he systematically applied to the study of economic, social and cultural structure. In our work, we will focus on the main aspects of Dewey’s approach to the study of aspects that make up “human nature” and how do they interact with the characteristics of the cultural context. We will illustrate how the concepts elaborated by Dewey can contribute to the heterodox analysis of a host of economic and social issues. Dewey highlights the crucial role of public policies for facilitating the development of volunteer associations in all areas of the social structure. In the analysis of these aspects, Dewey’s key contribution lies in removing the concepts of democracy and participation from the limbo of abstraction in which they tended to be confined by previous approaches and connecting them to the evolution of economic and social forms.

  2. Modeled hydrologic metrics show links between hydrology and the functional composition of stream assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Yuan, Lester L

    2017-07-01

    Flow alteration is widespread in streams, but current understanding of the effects of differences in flow characteristics on stream biological communities is incomplete. We tested hypotheses about the effect of variation in hydrology on stream communities by using generalized additive models to relate watershed information to the values of different flow metrics at gauged sites. Flow models accounted for 54-80% of the spatial variation in flow metric values among gauged sites. We then used these models to predict flow metrics in 842 ungauged stream sites in the mid-Atlantic United States that were sampled for fish, macroinvertebrates, and environmental covariates. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages were characterized in terms of a suite of metrics that quantified aspects of community composition, diversity, and functional traits that were expected to be associated with differences in flow characteristics. We related modeled flow metrics to biological metrics in a series of stressor-response models. Our analyses identified both drying and base flow instability as explaining 30-50% of the observed variability in fish and invertebrate community composition. Variations in community composition were related to variations in the prevalence of dispersal traits in invertebrates and trophic guilds in fish. The results demonstrate that we can use statistical models to predict hydrologic conditions at bioassessment sites, which, in turn, we can use to estimate relationships between flow conditions and biological characteristics. This analysis provides an approach to quantify the effects of spatial variation in flow metrics using readily available biomonitoring data. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. The Navier-Stokes equations an elementary functional analytic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sohr, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this monograph is to develop an elementary and self­ contained approach to the mathematical theory of a viscous incompressible fluid in a domain 0 of the Euclidean space ]Rn, described by the equations of Navier­ Stokes. The book is mainly directed to students familiar with basic functional analytic tools in Hilbert and Banach spaces. However, for readers' convenience, in the first two chapters we collect without proof some fundamental properties of Sobolev spaces, distributions, operators, etc. Another important objective is to formulate the theory for a completely general domain O. In particular, the theory applies to arbitrary unbounded, non-smooth domains. For this reason, in the nonlinear case, we have to restrict ourselves to space dimensions n = 2,3 that are also most significant from the physical point of view. For mathematical generality, we will develop the lin­ earized theory for all n 2 2. Although the functional-analytic approach developed here is, in principle, known ...

  4. The Approach for Optimization of Transmission over Power Links using the Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zohra GHERBI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The energy transportation networks can be improved by multiplying or creating new lines. This is not always the case for various reasons. The series capacities controlled by SCRs (Silicon Controlled Rectifiers represent a good alternative to optimize the existing or the new electric links, because they allow the increase of the dynamic stability, the damping of the power oscillations, while balancing the loads between the parallel circuits. This paper presents a resolution method to the power distribution by inserting the TCSC transit controller in the network. The insertion of the TCSC devices has given satisfying results that are, an increase of the transmitted active power and reduction of active losses, an improvement of the angular stability and the voltage stability without decreasing the transportation capacity.

  5. Pain and functional impairment as mediators of the link between medical symptoms and depression in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, William P; Bykowski, Cathy A; Mayhew, Laura L

    2013-03-01

    Among people with diabetes, depression is more common and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying the link between poor health and depression is needed. Pain and functional impairment may account for the effect of poor health on depression in diabetes. The purpose of the study was to examine whether pain and functional impairment mediate the association between diabetes-related medical symptoms and depression in type 2 diabetes. Adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (N = 77) completed the following measures: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), Diabetes Symptom Checklist (DSC), and Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Body mass index (BMI) was computed using height and weight data from medical records. Mediation and linear regression analyses were conducted. Pain and functional impairment made significant, independent contributions to depression. Functional impairment mediated the link between diabetes-related medical symptoms and depression. Pain mediated the association between higher BMI and depression. Pain and functional impairment appear to play important, independent roles in depression in type 2 diabetes. Mediation analyses suggest the following: 1. diabetes-related medical problems increase functional impairment, which in turn leads to greater depression; and 2. the burden of carrying greater body mass (higher BMI) increases pain, which leads to increased depression.

  6. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

  7. A multiscale analytical approach for bone remodeling simulations : linking scales from collagen to trabeculae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colloca, M.; Blanchard, R.; Hellmich, C.; Ito, K.; Rietbergen, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic and hierarchical porous material whose spatial and temporal mechanical properties can vary considerably due to differences in its microstructure and due to remodeling. Hence, a multiscale analytical approach, which combines bone structural information at multiple scales to the

  8. Linking genes to microbial growth kinetics: an integrated biochemical systems engineering approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutinas, M.; Kiparissides, A.; Silva-Rocha, R.; Lam, M.C.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Lorenzo, de V.; Pistikopoulos, E.N.; Mantalaris, A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is

  9. Exploring the Link between Mind Wandering, Mindfulness, and Creativity: A Multidimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, Sergio; Vanucci, Manila; Pelagatti, Claudia; Corazza, Giovanni Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    Even if mind wandering (MW) and mindfulness have traditionally been intended as separate and antithetical constructs, the roles of these 2 mental states on creative behavior were jointly explored in this article. In particular, MW was analyzed in light of a recent approach suggesting a differentiation between deliberate and spontaneous MW, whereas…

  10. Linking Action Learning and Inter-Organisational Learning: The Learning Journey Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents and illustrates the learning journey (LJ)--a new management development approach to inter-organisational learning based on observation, reflection and problem-solving. The LJ involves managers from different organisations and applies key concepts of action learning and systemic organisational development. Made up of…

  11. Linking Resource-Based Strategies to Customer-Focused Performance for Professional Services: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Lu Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper links professional service firms’ resource-based strategies to their customer-focused performance for formulating service quality improvement priorities. The research applies the structural equation modelling approach to survey data from Hong Kong construction consultants to test some hypotheses. The study validates the various measures of firms’ resource-based strategies and customer-focused performance and bridges the gaps in firms’ organizational learning, core competences and customer-focused performance mediated by their strategic flexibility. The research results have practical implications for professional service firms to deploy resources appropriately to first enhance different competences and then improve customerfocused performance using their different competences.

  12. A control strategy for DC-link voltage control containing PV generation and energy storage — An intelligent approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzbehi, Kumars; Miranian, Arash; Candela García, José Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, DC-link voltage control in DC microgrids with photovoltaic (PV) generation and battery, is addressed based on an intelligent approach. The proposed strategy is based on the modeling of the power interface, i.e. power electronic converter, located between the PV array, battery and DC bus, by use of measurement data. For this purpose, a local model network (LMN) is developed to model the converter and then a local linear control (LLC) strategy is designed based on the LMN. Simula...

  13. Green's function approach to the anisotropic Kondo-necklace lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezania, H.; Langari, A.; Thalmeier, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We have studied the effect of anisotropy on the quantum phase transition of the 2D anisotropic Kondo necklace lattice [1] within a Green's function approach [2]. In the disordered phase the ground state is the product of all singlet bonds between itinerant and localized spins. It is separated by a finite energy gap from the triplet excited states. The quantum phase transition to the antiferromagnetically ordered phase takes place where the gap vanishes. In this approach we use the bond operator formalism introduced in Ref.[3] where each bond is represented by the singlet and triplet operators. The Kondo necklace Hamiltonian in the bond operator representation is composed of the kinetic energy and pairing part (H2), the two particle interaction (H4) of the boson gas and a term which includes three boson operators (H3). In order to ensure that the physical states are either singlets or triplets we impose the hard-core condition by introducing an infinite on-site repulsion between triplet bosons (H U ). The scattering vertex in the ladder approximation satisfies the Bethe-Salpeter equation [4]. By calculating the scattering vertex function we obtain the self energy contribution of the Hamiltonian H U . We have added the second order contribution of the self energy of H3 to the self energy of H U . It should be noted that the non conservation of triplet boson numbers requires the inclusion of the anomalous Green's functions. We treat H 4 in mean-field theory, by splitting the quartic operator into all possible pairs. Finally we obtain the renormalization of coefficients in the H 2 Hamiltonian and calculate the energy gap. Indeed at the critical point a condensation of triplet bosons occurs. We have numerically found the critical point of this model and compared our results with the corresponding mean field values [5]. Moreover, the critical exponent of the energy gap can be obtained more accurately than the mean field results. (authors)

  14. Transfer function of multimode fiber links using an electric field propagation model: Application to Radio over Fibre Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasulla, I; Capmany, J

    2006-10-02

    We present a closed-form expression for the evaluation of the transfer function of a multimode fiber (MMF) link based on the electric field propagation model. After validating the result we investigate the potential for broadband transmission in regions far from baseband. We find that MMFs offer the potential for broadband ROF transmission in the microwave and millimetre wave regions in short and middle reach distances.

  15. Linking Brief Functional Analysis to Intervention Design in General Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishuin, Tifanie

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the utility and applicability of brief functional analysis in general education settings. The purpose of the study was to first identify the environmental variables maintaining noncompliance through a brief functional analysis, and then to design and implement a functionally equivalent intervention. The participant exhibited…

  16. [Probiotics as functional food products: manufacture and approaches to evaluating of the effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Iu M; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the issues of foodfortifications and the creation of functional foods (FF) and food supplements based on probiotics and covers an issue of approaches to the regulation of probiotic food products in various countries. The status of functional foods, optimizing GIT functions, as a separate category of FF is emphasized. Considering the strain-specificity effect of probiotics, the minimum criteria used for probiotics in food products are: 1) the need to identify a probiotics at genus, species, and strain levels, using the high-resolution techniques, 2) the viability and the presence of a sufficient amount of the probiotic in product at the end of shelf life, 3) the proof of functional characteristics inherent to probiotic strains, in the controlled experiments. The recommended by FA O/WHO three-stage evaluation procedure offunctional efficiency of FF includes: Phase I--safety assessment in in vitro and in vivo experiments, Phase II--Evaluation in the Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled trial (DBRPC) and Phase III--Post-approval monitoring. It is noted that along with the ability to obtain statistically significant results of the evaluation, there are practical difficulties of conducting DBRPC (duration, costs, difficulties in selection of target biomarkers and populations). The promising approach for assessing the functional efficacy of FF is the concept of nutrigenomics. It examines the link between the human diet and the characteristics of his genome to determine the influence of food on the expression of genes and, ultimately, to human health. Nutrigenomic approaches are promising to assess the impact of probiotics in healthy people. The focusing on the nutrigenomic response of intestinal microbial community and its individual populations (in this regard the lactobacilli can be very informative) was proposed.

  17. Probing the mutational interplay between primary and promiscuous protein functions: a computational-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Seisdedos, Hector; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2012-01-01

    Protein promiscuity is of considerable interest due its role in adaptive metabolic plasticity, its fundamental connection with molecular evolution and also because of its biotechnological applications. Current views on the relation between primary and promiscuous protein activities stem largely from laboratory evolution experiments aimed at increasing promiscuous activity levels. Here, on the other hand, we attempt to assess the main features of the simultaneous modulation of the primary and promiscuous functions during the course of natural evolution. The computational/experimental approach we propose for this task involves the following steps: a function-targeted, statistical coupling analysis of evolutionary data is used to determine a set of positions likely linked to the recruitment of a promiscuous activity for a new function; a combinatorial library of mutations on this set of positions is prepared and screened for both, the primary and the promiscuous activities; a partial-least-squares reconstruction of the full combinatorial space is carried out; finally, an approximation to the Pareto set of variants with optimal primary/promiscuous activities is derived. Application of the approach to the emergence of folding catalysis in thioredoxin scaffolds reveals an unanticipated scenario: diverse patterns of primary/promiscuous activity modulation are possible, including a moderate (but likely significant in a biological context) simultaneous enhancement of both activities. We show that this scenario can be most simply explained on the basis of the conformational diversity hypothesis, although alternative interpretations cannot be ruled out. Overall, the results reported may help clarify the mechanisms of the evolution of new functions. From a different viewpoint, the partial-least-squares-reconstruction/Pareto-set-prediction approach we have introduced provides the computational basis for an efficient directed-evolution protocol aimed at the simultaneous

  18. Pediatrician's knowledge on the approach of functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mario C; Negrelle, Isadora Carolina Krueger; Webber, Karla Ulaf; Gosdal, Marjorie; Truppel, Sabine Krüger; Kusma, Solena Ziemer

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the pediatrician's knowledge regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of childhood functional constipation. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with the application of a self-administered questionnaire concerning a hypothetical clinical case of childhood functional constipation with fecal incontinence to physicians (n=297) randomly interviewed at the 36th Brazilian Congress of Pediatrics in 2013. The majority of the participants were females, the mean age was 44.1 years, the mean time of professional practice was 18.8 years; 56.9% were Board Certified by the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. Additional tests were ordered by 40.4%; including abdominal radiography (19.5%), barium enema (10.4%), laboratory tests (9.8%), abdominal ultrasound (6.7%), colonoscopy (2.4%), manometry and rectal biopsy (both 1.7%). The most common interventions included lactulose (26.6%), mineral oil (17.5%), polyethylene glycol (14.5%), fiber supplement (9.1%) and milk of magnesia (5.4%). Nutritional guidance (84.8%), fecal disimpaction (17.2%) and toilet training (19.5%) were also indicated. Our results show that pediatricians do not adhere to current recommendations for the management of childhood functional constipation, as unnecessary tests were ordered and the first-line treatment was not prescribed. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  19. Pediatrician's knowledge on the approach of functional constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario C. Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the pediatrician's knowledge regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of childhood functional constipation. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with the application of a self-administered questionnaire concerning a hypothetical clinical case of childhood functional constipation with fecal incontinence to physicians (n=297 randomly interviewed at the 36th Brazilian Congress of Pediatrics in 2013. Results: The majority of the participants were females, the mean age was 44.1 years, the mean time of professional practice was 18.8 years; 56.9% were Board Certified by the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. Additional tests were ordered by 40.4%; including abdominal radiography (19.5%, barium enema (10.4%, laboratory tests (9.8%, abdominal ultrasound (6.7%, colonoscopy (2.4%, manometry and rectal biopsy (both 1.7%. The most common interventions included lactulose (26.6%, mineral oil (17.5%, polyethylene glycol (14.5%, fiber supplement (9.1% and milk of magnesia (5.4%. Nutritional guidance (84.8%, fecal disimpaction (17.2% and toilet training (19.5% were also indicated. Conclusions: Our results show that pediatricians do not adhere to current recommendations for the management of childhood functional constipation, as unnecessary tests were ordered and the first-line treatment was not prescribed.

  20. Neutron strength functions: the link between resolved resonances and the optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldauer, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron strength functions and scattering radii are useful as energy and channel radius independent parameters that characterize neutron scattering resonances and provide a connection between R-matrix resonance analysis and the optical model. The choice of R-matrix channel radii is discussed, as are limitations on the accuracies of strength functions. New definitions of the p-wave strength function and scattering radius are proposed. For light nuclei, where strength functions display optical model energy variations over the resolved resonances, a doubly reduced partial neutron width is introduced for more meaningful statistical analyses of widths. The systematic behavior of strength functions and scattering radii is discussed

  1. The Role of Representations in Executive Function: Investigating a Developmental Link Between Flexibility and Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eKharitonova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Young children often perseverate, engaging in previously correct, but no longer appropriate behaviors. One account posits that such perseveration results from the use of stimulus-specific representations of a situation, which are distinct from abstract, generalizable representations that support flexible behavior. Previous findings supported this account, demonstrating that only children who flexibly switch between rules could generalize their behavior to novel stimuli. However, this link between flexibility and generalization might reflect general cognitive abilities, or depend upon similarities across the measures or their temporal order. The current work examined these issues by testing the specificity and generality of this link. In two experiments with three-year-old children, flexibility was measured in terms of switching between rules in a card-sorting task, while abstraction was measured in terms of selecting which stimulus did not belong in an odd-one-out task. The link between flexibility and abstraction was general across (1 abstraction dimensions similar to or different from those in the card-sorting task and (2 abstraction tasks that preceded or followed the switching task. Good performance on abstraction and flexibility measures did not extend to all cognitive tasks, including an IQ measure, and dissociated from children’s ability to gaze at the correct stimulus in the odd-one-out task, suggesting that the link between flexibility and abstraction is specific to such measures, rather than reflecting general abilities that affect all tasks. We interpret these results in terms of the role that developing prefrontal cortical regions play in processes such as working memory, which can support both flexibility and abstraction.

  2. The use of controlled microbial cenoses in producers' link to increase steady functioning of artificial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, Lydia; Mikheeva, Galina; Somova, Lydia

    The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Simple ecosystems include 3 links: producers (plants), consumers (man, animals) and reducers (microorganisms). Microorganisms are substantial component of every link of LSS. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Controlled microbiocenoses can increase productivity of producer's link and protect plants from infections. The goal of this work was development of methodological bases of formation of stable, controlled microbiocenoses, intended for increase of productivity of plants and for obtaining ecologically pure production of plants. Main results of our investigations: 1. Experimental microbiocenoses, has been produced in view of the developed methodology on the basis of natural association of microorganisms by long cultivation on specially developed medium. Dominating groups are bacteria of genera: Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Rhodopseudomonas and yeast of genera: Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis. 2. Optimal parameters of microbiocenosis cultivation (t, pH, light exposure, biogenic elements concentrations) were experimentally established. Conditions of cultivation on which domination of different groups of microbiocenosis have been found. 3. It was shown, that processing of seeds of wheat, oats, bulbs and plants Allium cepa L. (an onions) with microbial association raised energy of germination of seeds and bulbs and promoted the increase (on 20-30 %) of growth green biomass and root system of plants in comparison with the control. This work is supported by grant, Yenissey , 07-04-96806

  3. Linking Classroom Environment with At-Risk Engagement in Science: A Mixed Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stephen Craig

    This explanatory sequential mixed-method study analyzed how the teacher created learning environment links to student engagement for students at-risk across five science classroom settings. The learning environment includes instructional strategies, differentiated instruction, positive learning environment, and an academically challenging environment. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered in the form of self-reporting surveys and a follow-up interview. The researcher aimed to use the qualitative results to explain the quantitative data. The general research question was "What are the factors of the teacher-created learning environment that were best suited to maximize engagement of students at-risk?" Specifically explaining, (1) How do the measured level of teacher created learning environment link to the engagement level of students at-risk in science class? and (2) What relationship exists between the student perception of the science classroom environment and the level of behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social engagement for students at-risk in science class? This study took place within a large school system with more than 20 high schools, most having 2000-3000 students. Participating students were sent to a panel hearing that determined them unfit for the regular educational setting, and were given the option of attending one of the two alternative schools within the county. Students in this alternative school were considered at-risk due to the fact that 98% received free and reduced lunch, 97% were minority population, and all have been suspended from the regular educational setting. Pairwise comparisons of the SPS questions between teachers using t-test from 107 students at-risk and 40 interviews suggest that each category of the learning environment affects the level of behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social engagement in science class for students at-risk in an alternative school setting. Teachers with higher student perceptions of

  4. Enhancing Enterprise 2.0 Ecosystems Using Semantic Web and Linked Data Technologies:The SemSLATES Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Alexandre; Laublet, Philippe; Breslin, John G.; Decker, Stefan

    During the past few years, various organisations embraced the Enterprise 2.0 paradigms, providing their employees with new means to enhance collaboration and knowledge sharing in the workplace. However, while tools such as blogs, wikis, and principles like free-tagging or content syndication allow user-generated content to be more easily created and shared in the enterprise, in spite of some social issues, these new practices lead to various problems in terms of knowledge management. In this chapter, we provide an approach based on Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies for (1) integrating heterogeneous data from distinct Enterprise 2.0 applications, and (2) bridging the gap between raw text and machine-readable Linked Data. We discuss the theoretical background of our proposal as well as a practical case-study in enterprise, focusing on the various add-ons that have been provided to the original information system, as well as presenting how public Linked Open Data from the Web can be used to enhance existing Enterprise 2.0 ecosystems.

  5. Biomolecular bases of the senescence process and cancer. A new approach to oncological treatment linked to ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiola, Iker; Santaolalla, Francisco; Garcia-Gallastegui, Patricia; Ana, Sánchez-Del Rey; Unda, Fernando; Ibarretxe, Gaskon

    2015-09-01

    Human ageing is associated with a gradual decline in the physiological functions of the body at multiple levels and it is a key risk factor for many diseases, including cancer. Ageing process is intimately related to widespread cellular senescence, characterised by an irreversible loss of proliferative capacity and altered functioning associated with telomere attrition, accumulation of DNA damage and compromised mitochondrial and metabolic function. Tumour and senescent cells may be generated in response to the same stimuli, where either cellular senescence or transformation would constitute two opposite outcomes of the same degenerative process. This paper aims to review the state of knowledge on the biomolecular relationship between cellular senescence, ageing and cancer. Importantly, many of the cell signalling pathways that are found to be altered during both cellular senescence and tumourigenesis are regulated through shared epigenetic mechanisms and, therefore, they are potentially reversible. MicroRNAs are emerging as pivotal players linking ageing and cancer. These small RNA molecules have generated great interest from the point of view of future clinical therapy for cancer because successful experimental results have been obtained in animal models. Micro-RNA therapies for cancer are already being tested in clinical phase trials. These findings have potential importance in cancer treatment in aged people although further research-based knowledge is needed to convert them into an effective molecular therapies for cancer linked to ageing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impaired Hippocampal Neuroligin-2 Function by Chronic Stress or Synthetic Peptide Treatment is Linked to Social Deficits and Increased Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Kooij, Michael A; Fantin, Martina; Kraev, Igor

    2014-01-01

    and are related to similar abnormalities in animal models. Chronic stress increases the likelihood for affective disorders and has been shown to induce changes in neural structure and function in different brain regions, with the hippocampus being highly vulnerable to stress. Previous studies have shown evidence......Neuroligins (NLGNs) are cell adhesion molecules that are important for proper synaptic formation and functioning and are critical regulators of the balance between neural excitation/inhibition (E/I). Mutations in NLGNs have been linked to psychiatric disorders in humans involving social dysfunction...

  7. Approach to assess consequences of hypoxia disturbance events for benthic ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogina, Mayya; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Our study challenges the functional approach for its usefulness in assessing the consequences of hypoxia disturbance events on macrofaunal communities in the south-western Baltic Sea. Time series for two decades of observations from two monitoring stations, one in the Fehmarnbelt (exposed to aperiodic hypoxia), and another in the Darss Rise (normoxic conditions) is used. Our results designate differences of functional structure of benthic fauna communities between sites based on biological traits that characterise species role in modifying the environment, behavioural strategies, morphology and life history, thus suggesting differences in functioning. Hypoxic years reveal sharp increase of the role of sedentary species, suspension filter feeders, epibenthic structures, globulose form, medium/large size of individuals, preponderance of species with long lifespan (caused for instance by remaining ocean quahog). The link of functional and species diversity to the stagnation periods is proposed for the Darss station that exhibit continuous changes and low temporal variability of traits distribution. Before the major inflow in 1993 the increased role of small size organisms, containing calcium carbonate, filter feeders and grazers, higher presence of semi-pelagic species is observed. The hypoxic events and water renewal processes impact the communities not only in respect to species composition but also functionally.

  8. Theory of the multiphoton cascade transitions with two photon links: comparison of quantum electrodynamical and quantum mechanical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalialiutdinov, T; Baukina, Yu; Solovyev, D; Labzowsky, L

    2014-01-01

    The theory of multiphoton cascade transitions with two-photon links is considered within two different approaches: quantum electrodynamical (QED) and phenomenological quantum mechanical (QM). A problem of regularization of the cascade contributions is investigated in detail. It is argued that the correct regularization should include both initial and intermediate level widths in the singular energy denominators. This result follows both from the QED and from the QM approach. Particular transitions nl → 1s + 2γ with nl = 3s, 4s, 3d, 4d and nl → 1s + 3γ with nl = 3p, 4p are considered as examples. The importance of the proper cascade regularization is also demonstrated. (paper)

  9. Integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation: effortful control, executive functioning, and links to negative affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Oddi, Kate B; Laake, Lauren M; Murdock, Kyle W; Bachmann, Melissa N

    2013-02-01

    Subdisciplines within psychology frequently examine self-regulation from different frameworks despite conceptually similar definitions of constructs. In the current study, similarities and differences between effortful control, based on the psychobiological model of temperament (Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner, 1994), and executive functioning are examined and empirically tested in three studies (n = 509). Structural equation modeling indicated that effortful control and executive functioning are strongly associated and overlapping constructs (Study 1). Additionally, results indicated that effortful control is related to the executive function of updating/monitoring information in working memory, but not inhibition (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 also demonstrates that better updating/monitoring information in working memory and better effortful control were uniquely linked to lower dispositional negative affect, whereas the executive function of low/poor inhibition was uniquely associated with an increased tendency to express negative affect. Furthermore, dispositional negative affect mediated the links between effortful control and, separately, the executive function of updating/monitoring information in working memory and the tendency to express negative affect. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed, and a potential framework for guiding future work directed at integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation is suggested. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Robotic approaches for rehabilitation of hand function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Peter S; Godfrey, Sasha B; Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Holley, Rahsaan J; Nichols, Diane

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this review was to discuss the impairments in hand function after stroke and present previous work on robot-assisted approaches to movement neurorehabilitation. Robotic devices offer a unique training environment that may enhance outcomes beyond what is possible with conventional means. Robots apply forces to the hand, allowing completion of movements while preventing inappropriate movement patterns. Evidence from the literature is emerging that certain characteristics of the human-robot interaction are preferable. In light of this evidence, the robotic hand devices that have undergone clinical testing are reviewed, highlighting the authors' work in this area. Finally, suggestions for future work are offered. The ability to deliver therapy doses far higher than what has been previously tested is a potentially key advantage of robotic devices that needs further exploration. In particular, more efforts are needed to develop highly motivating home-based devices, which can increase access to high doses of assisted movement therapy.

  11. Wetting transitions: A functional renormalization-group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.S.; Huse, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    A linear functional renormalization group is introduced as a framework in which to treat various wetting transitions of films on substrates. A unified treatment of the wetting transition in three dimensions with short-range interactions is given. The results of Brezin, Halperin, and Leibler in their three different regimes are reproduced along with new results on the multicritical behavior connecting the various regimes. In addition, the critical behavior as the coexistence curve is approached at complete wetting is analyzed. Wetting in the presence of long-range substrate-film interactions that fall off as power laws is also studied. The possible effects of the nonlinear terms in the renormalization group are examined briefly and it appears that they do not alter the critical behavior found using the truncated linear renormalization group

  12. Recent molecular approaches to understanding astrocyte function in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eDavila

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are a predominant glial cell type in the nervous systems, and are becoming recognized as important mediators of normal brain function as well as neurodevelopmental, neurological, and neurodegenerative brain diseases. Although numerous potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the role of astrocytes in the normal and diseased brain, research into the physiological relevance of these mechanisms in vivo is just beginning. In this review, we will summarize recent developments in innovative and powerful molecular approaches, including knockout mouse models, transgenic mouse models, and astrocyte-targeted gene transfer/expression, which have led to advances in understanding astrocyte biology in vivo that were heretofore inaccessible to experimentation. We will examine the recently improved understanding of the roles of astrocytes - with an emphasis on astrocyte signaling - in the context of both the healthy and diseased brain, discuss areas where the role of astrocytes remains debated, and suggest new research directions.

  13. CLARM: An integrative approach for functional modules discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Saeed M.; Alroobi, Rami; Banitaan, Shadi; Seridi, Loqmane; Brewer, James E.; Aljarah, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Functional module discovery aims to find well-connected subnetworks which can serve as candidate protein complexes. Advances in High-throughput proteomic technologies have enabled the collection of large amount of interaction data as well as gene expression data. We propose, CLARM, a clustering algorithm that integrates gene expression profiles and protein protein interaction network for biological modules discovery. The main premise is that by enriching the interaction network by adding interactions between genes which are highly co-expressed over a wide range of biological and environmental conditions, we can improve the quality of the discovered modules. Protein protein interactions, known protein complexes, and gene expression profiles for diverse environmental conditions from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used for evaluate the biological significance of the reported modules. Our experiments show that the CLARM approach is competitive to wellestablished module discovery methods. Copyright © 2011 ACM.

  14. Fragment-Linking Approach Using (19)F NMR Spectroscopy To Obtain Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors of β-Secretase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, John B; Whittington, Douglas A; Bartberger, Michael D; Sickmier, E Allen; Chen, Kui; Cheng, Yuan; Judd, Ted

    2016-04-28

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a widely used tool in small-molecule drug discovery efforts. One of the most commonly used biophysical methods in detecting weak binding of fragments is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In particular, FBDD performed with (19)F NMR-based methods has been shown to provide several advantages over (1)H NMR using traditional magnetization-transfer and/or two-dimensional methods. Here, we demonstrate the utility and power of (19)F-based fragment screening by detailing the identification of a second-site fragment through (19)F NMR screening that binds to a specific pocket of the aspartic acid protease, β-secretase (BACE-1). The identification of this second-site fragment allowed the undertaking of a fragment-linking approach, which ultimately yielded a molecule exhibiting a more than 360-fold increase in potency while maintaining reasonable ligand efficiency and gaining much improved selectivity over cathepsin-D (CatD). X-ray crystallographic studies of the molecules demonstrated that the linked fragments exhibited binding modes consistent with those predicted from the targeted screening approach, through-space NMR data, and molecular modeling.

  15. Linking occurrence and fitness to persistence: Habitat-based approach for endangered Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed empirical models predicting both species occurrence and fitness across a landscape are necessary to understand processes related to population persistence. Failure to consider both occurrence and fitness may result in incorrect assessments of habitat importance leading to inappropriate management strategies. We took a two-stage approach to identifying critical nesting and brood-rearing habitat for the endangered Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Alberta at a landscape scale. First, we used logistic regression to develop spatial models predicting the relative probability of use (occurrence) for Sage-Grouse nests and broods. Secondly, we used Cox proportional hazards survival models to identify the most risky habitats across the landscape. We combined these two approaches to identify Sage-Grouse habitats that pose minimal risk of failure (source habitats) and attractive sink habitats that pose increased risk (ecological traps). Our models showed that Sage-Grouse select for heterogeneous patches of moderate sagebrush cover (quadratic relationship) and avoid anthropogenic edge habitat for nesting. Nests were more successful in heterogeneous habitats, but nest success was independent of anthropogenic features. Similarly, broods selected heterogeneous high-productivity habitats with sagebrush while avoiding human developments, cultivated cropland, and high densities of oil wells. Chick mortalities tended to occur in proximity to oil and gas developments and along riparian habitats. For nests and broods, respectively, approximately 10% and 5% of the study area was considered source habitat, whereas 19% and 15% of habitat was attractive sink habitat. Limited source habitats appear to be the main reason for poor nest success (39%) and low chick survival (12%). Our habitat models identify areas of protection priority and areas that require immediate management attention to enhance recruitment to secure the viability of this population. This novel

  16. A Bayesian Approach to the Overlap Analysis of Epidemiologically Linked Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimit, Jennifer L; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Wheeler, Eleanor; Berndt, Sonja I; Cordell, Heather J; Morris, Andrew P; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Barroso, Inês

    2015-12-01

    Diseases often cooccur in individuals more often than expected by chance, and may be explained by shared underlying genetic etiology. A common approach to genetic overlap analyses is to use summary genome-wide association study data to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with multiple traits at a selected P-value threshold. However, P-values do not account for differences in power, whereas Bayes' factors (BFs) do, and may be approximated using summary statistics. We use simulation studies to compare the power of frequentist and Bayesian approaches with overlap analyses, and to decide on appropriate thresholds for comparison between the two methods. It is empirically illustrated that BFs have the advantage over P-values of a decreasing type I error rate as study size increases for single-disease associations. Consequently, the overlap analysis of traits from different-sized studies encounters issues in fair P-value threshold selection, whereas BFs are adjusted automatically. Extensive simulations show that Bayesian overlap analyses tend to have higher power than those that assess association strength with P-values, particularly in low-power scenarios. Calibration tables between BFs and P-values are provided for a range of sample sizes, as well as an approximation approach for sample sizes that are not in the calibration table. Although P-values are sometimes thought more intuitive, these tables assist in removing the opaqueness of Bayesian thresholds and may also be used in the selection of a BF threshold to meet a certain type I error rate. An application of our methods is used to identify variants associated with both obesity and osteoarthritis. © 2015 The Authors. *Genetic Epidemiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. New approach to training in citizen security from the social link university–community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicta Gregoria González-Leal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article bases the need for a new conception in the training approaches in the training institutions of citizen security professionals, due to the present changes in the 21st century at the state, regional and local level, where the protagonism of the same lies In responding to the new challenges, trends and challenges present in society. It also analyzes the significance of the university's social connection with the communities, so that the praxis of the students goes beyond the understanding of the problems to the search for possible alternatives for their solution, with the consequent social transformations that this bring along.

  18. Treatment wetlands in decentralised approaches for linking sanitation to energy and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Guenter; Masi, Fabio

    2018-02-01

    Treatment wetlands (TWs) are engineered systems that mimic the processes in natural wetlands with the purpose of treating contaminated water. Being a simple and robust technology, TWs are applied worldwide to treat various types of water. Besides treated water for reuse, TWs can be used in resources-oriented sanitation systems for recovering nutrients and carbon, as well as for growing biomass for energy production. Additionally, TWs provide a large number of ecosystem services. Integrating green infrastructure into urban developments can thus facilitate circular economy approaches and has positive impacts on environment, economy and health.

  19. Determinants Linked to Family Business Sustainability in the UAE: An AHP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Oudah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify and prioritise the various success factors linked to the sustainability of large and medium sized family businesses (FB in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. A well-researched methodology was used for the synthesis of priorities and the measurement of consistencies. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP model was developed with seven criteria and 15 sub-criteria gleaned from prior research. Data were collected using an interview-based survey conducted on twelve medium and large sized family firms in the UAE. The data collected were interpreted and a priority vector was assigned. The findings show that large family businesses in the UAE are aware of transition failure and have long-term planning for their future generations in place; however, they need to give more importance to family values and family capital. On the other hand, medium sized family businesses are less aware of transition failure and have limited long-term planning; they are more concerned with short-term returns. Therefore, they need to create and give more importance to succession planning, strategic planning and corporate governance to ensure their business longevity. The study highlights multi-generation family business sustainability, and identifies the major determinants that the family members and business leaders need to consider for their business continuity and survival. The model can be utilized by academics in family business sustainability studies. The findings interpreted can help policy makers and related associations develop various policies based on the specific factors found to run the family businesses in a sustainable manner. The research model had limited dimensions and the findings cannot be generalized. This study is the first to study the determinants of family business sustainability in the context of the UAE using the AHP model.

  20. A Link-Based Cluster Ensemble Approach For Improved Gene Expression Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is difficult from possibilities to select a most suitable effective way of clustering algorithm and its dataset for a defined set of gene expression data because we have a huge number of ways and huge number of gene expressions. At present many researchers are preferring to use hierarchical clustering in different forms this is no more totally optimal. Cluster ensemble research can solve this type of problem by automatically merging multiple data partitions from a wide range of different clusterings of any dimensions to improve both the quality and robustness of the clustering result. But we have many existing ensemble approaches using an association matrix to condense sample-cluster and co-occurrence statistics and relations within the ensemble are encapsulated only at raw level while the existing among clusters are totally discriminated. Finding these missing associations can greatly expand the capability of those ensemble methodologies for microarray data clustering. We propose general K-means cluster ensemble approach for the clustering of general categorical data into required number of partitions.

  1. A reduction approach to improve the quantification of linked fault trees through binary decision diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Llano, Cristina; Rauzy, Antoine; Melendez, Enrique; Nieto, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades binary decision diagrams have been applied successfully to improve Boolean reliability models. Conversely to the classical approach based on the computation of the MCS, the BDD approach involves no approximation in the quantification of the model and is able to handle correctly negative logic. However, when models are sufficiently large and complex, as for example the ones coming from the PSA studies of the nuclear industry, it begins to be unfeasible to compute the BDD within a reasonable amount of time and computer memory. Therefore, simplification or reduction of the full model has to be considered in some way to adapt the application of the BDD technology to the assessment of such models in practice. This paper proposes a reduction process based on using information provided by the set of the most relevant minimal cutsets of the model in order to perform the reduction directly on it. This allows controlling the degree of reduction and therefore the impact of such simplification on the final quantification results. This reduction is integrated in an incremental procedure that is compatible with the dynamic generation of the event trees and therefore adaptable to the recent dynamic developments and extensions of the PSA studies. The proposed method has been applied to a real case study, and the results obtained confirm that the reduction enables the BDD computation while maintaining accuracy.

  2. A reduction approach to improve the quantification of linked fault trees through binary decision diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Llano, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.ibanez@iit.upcomillas.e [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain); Rauzy, Antoine, E-mail: Antoine.RAUZY@3ds.co [Dassault Systemes, 10 rue Marcel Dassault CS 40501, 78946 Velizy Villacoublay, Cedex (France); Melendez, Enrique, E-mail: ema@csn.e [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), C/Justo Dorado 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nieto, Francisco, E-mail: nieto@iit.upcomillas.e [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Over the last two decades binary decision diagrams have been applied successfully to improve Boolean reliability models. Conversely to the classical approach based on the computation of the MCS, the BDD approach involves no approximation in the quantification of the model and is able to handle correctly negative logic. However, when models are sufficiently large and complex, as for example the ones coming from the PSA studies of the nuclear industry, it begins to be unfeasible to compute the BDD within a reasonable amount of time and computer memory. Therefore, simplification or reduction of the full model has to be considered in some way to adapt the application of the BDD technology to the assessment of such models in practice. This paper proposes a reduction process based on using information provided by the set of the most relevant minimal cutsets of the model in order to perform the reduction directly on it. This allows controlling the degree of reduction and therefore the impact of such simplification on the final quantification results. This reduction is integrated in an incremental procedure that is compatible with the dynamic generation of the event trees and therefore adaptable to the recent dynamic developments and extensions of the PSA studies. The proposed method has been applied to a real case study, and the results obtained confirm that the reduction enables the BDD computation while maintaining accuracy.

  3. The yeast THO/Sub2 complex is functionally linked to 3’-end processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Heick

    In S. cerevisiae the RNA polymerase II-associated THO complex facilitates loading of the RNA-dependent ATPase Sub2p/UAP56 onto nascent transcripts. Mutation of individual THO components or Sub2p elicits dual transcription and mRNA nuclear export phenotypes. In addition Sub2p also has been...... close proximity to cleavage/polyadenylation site sequences. Moreover, yeast extracts prepared from THO deletion- or sub2 mutant-strains are deficient for pre-mRNA 3’-end cleavage in an in vitro system uncoupled from transcription. The molecular basis for the link between THO/Sub2 and 3’ end processing...

  4. Linking Soil Microbial Ecology to Ecosystem Functioning in Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhanced soil stability, nutrient cycling and C sequestration potential are important ecosystem functions driven by soil microbial processes and are directly influenced by agricultural management. Integrated crop-livestock agroecosystems (ICL) can enhance these functions via high-residue returning c...

  5. A new bell-shaped function for idiotypic interactions based on cross-linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Boerlijst, M.C.; Sulzer, B.; Perelson, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    Most recent models of the immune network are based upon a phenomenological log bell-shaped interaction function. This function depends on a single parameter, the "field," which is the sum of all ligand concentrations weighted by their respective affinities. The typical behavior of these models is

  6. A Model-Based Approach to Constructing Music Similarity Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamere Paul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have presented systems that estimate the audio similarity of two pieces of music through the calculation of a distance metric, such as the Euclidean distance, between spectral features calculated from the audio, related to the timbre or pitch of the signal. These features can be augmented with other, temporally or rhythmically based features such as zero-crossing rates, beat histograms, or fluctuation patterns to form a more well-rounded music similarity function. It is our contention that perceptual or cultural labels, such as the genre, style, or emotion of the music, are also very important features in the perception of music. These labels help to define complex regions of similarity within the available feature spaces. We demonstrate a machine-learning-based approach to the construction of a similarity metric, which uses this contextual information to project the calculated features into an intermediate space where a music similarity function that incorporates some of the cultural information may be calculated.

  7. Analysis of temporal transcription expression profiles reveal links between protein function and developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Cen; Lees, Jonathan G; Minneci, Federico; Orengo, Christine A; Jones, David T

    2017-10-01

    Accurate gene or protein function prediction is a key challenge in the post-genome era. Most current methods perform well on molecular function prediction, but struggle to provide useful annotations relating to biological process functions due to the limited power of sequence-based features in that functional domain. In this work, we systematically evaluate the predictive power of temporal transcription expression profiles for protein function prediction in Drosophila melanogaster. Our results show significantly better performance on predicting protein function when transcription expression profile-based features are integrated with sequence-derived features, compared with the sequence-derived features alone. We also observe that the combination of expression-based and sequence-based features leads to further improvement of accuracy on predicting all three domains of gene function. Based on the optimal feature combinations, we then propose a novel multi-classifier-based function prediction method for Drosophila melanogaster proteins, FFPred-fly+. Interpreting our machine learning models also allows us to identify some of the underlying links between biological processes and developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster.

  8. Analysis of temporal transcription expression profiles reveal links between protein function and developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Wan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate gene or protein function prediction is a key challenge in the post-genome era. Most current methods perform well on molecular function prediction, but struggle to provide useful annotations relating to biological process functions due to the limited power of sequence-based features in that functional domain. In this work, we systematically evaluate the predictive power of temporal transcription expression profiles for protein function prediction in Drosophila melanogaster. Our results show significantly better performance on predicting protein function when transcription expression profile-based features are integrated with sequence-derived features, compared with the sequence-derived features alone. We also observe that the combination of expression-based and sequence-based features leads to further improvement of accuracy on predicting all three domains of gene function. Based on the optimal feature combinations, we then propose a novel multi-classifier-based function prediction method for Drosophila melanogaster proteins, FFPred-fly+. Interpreting our machine learning models also allows us to identify some of the underlying links between biological processes and developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster.

  9. Characterizing the Surface Connectivity of Depressional Wetlands: Linking Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J.; Evenson, G. R.; Vanderhoof, M.; Wu, Q.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.

    2017-12-01

    Surface connectivity of wetlands in the 700,000 km2 Prairie Pothole Region of North America (PPR) can occur through fill-spill and fill-merge mechanisms, with some wetlands eventually spilling into stream/river systems. These wetland-to-wetland and wetland-to-stream connections vary both spatially and temporally in PPR watersheds and are important to understanding hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. To explore how to best characterize spatial and temporal variability in aquatic connectivity, we compared three approaches, 1) hydrological modeling alone, 2) remotely-sensed data alone, and 3) integrating remotely-sensed data into a hydrological model. These approaches were tested in the Pipestem Creek Watershed, North Dakota across a drought to deluge cycle (1990-2011). A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was modified to include the water storage capacity of individual non-floodplain wetlands identified in the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) dataset. The SWAT-NWI model simulated the water balance and storage of each wetland and the temporal variability of their hydrologic connections between wetlands during the 21-year study period. However, SWAT-NWI only accounted for fill-spill, and did not allow for the expansion and merging of wetlands situated within larger depressions. Alternatively, we assessed the occurrence of fill-merge mechanisms using inundation maps derived from Landsat images on 19 cloud-free days during the 21 years. We found fill-merge mechanisms to be prevalent across the Pipestem watershed during times of deluge. The SWAT-NWI model was then modified to use LiDAR-derived depressions that account for the potential maximum depression extent, including the merging of smaller wetlands. The inundation maps were used to evaluate the ability of the SWAT-depression model to simulate fill-merge dynamics in addition to fill-spill dynamics throughout the study watershed. Ultimately, using remote sensing to inform and validate

  10. How do SMA-linked mutations of SMN1 lead to structural/functional deficiency of the SMA protein?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease with dysfunctional α-motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. SMA is caused by loss (∼95% of SMA cases or mutation (∼5% of SMA cases of the survival motor neuron 1 gene SMN1. As the product of SMN1, SMN is a component of the SMN complex, and is also involved in the biosynthesis of the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs, which play critical roles in pre-mRNA splicing in the pathogenesis of SMA. To investigate how SMA-linked mutations of SMN1 lead to structural/functional deficiency of SMN, a set of computational analysis of SMN-related structures were conducted and are described in this article. Of extraordinary interest, the structural analysis highlights three SMN residues (Asp44, Glu134 and Gln136 with SMA-linked missense mutations, which cause disruptions of electrostatic interactions for Asp44, Glu134 and Gln136, and result in three functionally deficient SMA-linked SMN mutants, Asp44Val, Glu134Lys and Gln136Glu. From the computational analysis, it is also possible that SMN's Lys45 and Asp36 act as two electrostatic clips at the SMN-Gemin2 complex structure interface.

  11. Linking Tree Growth Response to Measured Microclimate - A Field Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. T.; Hoylman, Z. H.; Looker, N. T.; Jencso, K. G.; Hu, J.

    2015-12-01

    climate and annual ring formation, and suggest a rather immediate growth response to critical micro-meteorological conditions occurring at different times across the landscape by linking the timing and magnitude of tree growth responses to in situ measurements of environmental conditions.

  12. Test-Retest Intervisit Variability of Functional and Structural Parameters in X-Linked Retinoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Brett G; Cukras, Catherine A; Vitale, Susan; Turriff, Amy; Bowles, Kristin; Sieving, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    To examine the variability of four outcome measures that could be used to address safety and efficacy in therapeutic trials with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. Seven men with confirmed mutations in the RS1 gene were evaluated over four visits spanning 6 months. Assessments included visual acuity, full-field electroretinograms (ERG), microperimetric macular sensitivity, and retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Eyes were separated into Better or Worse Eye groups based on acuity at baseline. Repeatability coefficients were calculated for each parameter and jackknife resampling used to derive 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The threshold for statistically significant change in visual acuity ranged from three to eight letters. For ERG a-wave, an amplitude reduction greater than 56% would be considered significant. For other parameters, variabilities were lower in the Worse Eye group, likely a result of floor effects due to collapse of the schisis pockets and/or retinal atrophy. The criteria for significant change (Better/Worse Eye) for three important parameters were: ERG b/a-wave ratio (0.44/0.23), point wise sensitivity (10.4/7.0 dB), and central retinal thickness (31%/18%). The 95% CI range for visual acuity, ERG, retinal sensitivity, and central retinal thickness relative to baseline are described for this cohort of participants with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS). A quantitative understanding of the variability of outcome measures is vital to establishing the safety and efficacy limits for therapeutic trials of XLRS patients.

  13. Dynamic links between theta executive functions and alpha storage buffers in auditory and visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2010-05-01

    Working memory (WM) tasks require not only distinct functions such as a storage buffer and central executive functions, but also coordination among these functions. Neuroimaging studies have revealed the contributions of different brain regions to different functional roles in WM tasks; however, little is known about the neural mechanism governing their coordination. Electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms, especially theta and alpha, are known to appear over distributed brain regions during WM tasks, but the rhythms associated with task-relevant regional coupling have not been obtained thus far. In this study, we conducted time-frequency analyses for EEG data in WM tasks that include manipulation periods and memory storage buffer periods. We used both auditory WM tasks and visual WM tasks. The results successfully demonstrated function-specific EEG activities. The frontal theta amplitudes increased during the manipulation periods of both tasks. The alpha amplitudes increased during not only the manipulation but also the maintenance periods in the temporal area for the auditory WM and the parietal area for the visual WM. The phase synchronization analyses indicated that, under the relevant task conditions, the temporal and parietal regions show enhanced phase synchronization in the theta bands with the frontal region, whereas phase synchronization between theta and alpha is significantly enhanced only within the individual areas. Our results suggest that WM task-relevant brain regions are coordinated by distant theta synchronization for central executive functions, by local alpha synchronization for the memory storage buffer, and by theta-alpha coupling for inter-functional integration.

  14. The application of a mathematical model linking structural and functional connectomes in severe brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuceyeski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following severe injuries that result in disorders of consciousness, recovery can occur over many months or years post-injury. While post-injury synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and functional reorganization are known to occur, the network-level processes underlying recovery are poorly understood. Here, we test a network-level functional rerouting hypothesis in recovery of patients with disorders of consciousness following severe brain injury. This hypothesis states that the brain recovers from injury by restoring normal functional connections via alternate structural pathways that circumvent impaired white matter connections. The so-called network diffusion model, which relates an individual's structural and functional connectomes by assuming that functional activation diffuses along structural pathways, is used here to capture this functional rerouting. We jointly examined functional and structural connectomes extracted from MRIs of 12 healthy and 16 brain-injured subjects. Connectome properties were quantified via graph theoretic measures and network diffusion model parameters. While a few graph metrics showed groupwise differences, they did not correlate with patients' level of consciousness as measured by the Coma Recovery Scale — Revised. There was, however, a strong and significant partial Pearson's correlation (accounting for age and years post-injury between level of consciousness and network diffusion model propagation time (r = 0.76, p < 0.05, corrected, i.e. the time functional activation spends traversing the structural network. We concluded that functional rerouting via alternate (and less efficient pathways leads to increases in network diffusion model propagation time. Simulations of injury and recovery in healthy connectomes confirmed these results. This work establishes the feasibility for using the network diffusion model to capture network-level mechanisms in recovery of consciousness after severe brain injury.

  15. Genetic and environmental links between cognitive and physical functions in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    of twins from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Cognitive function was measured using forward and backward digit span, immediate and delayed memory, and fluency tasks. Physical function was measured using self-report of ability to carry out physical activities including walking, running......In old age, cognitive and physical functions are correlated. Knowing the correlations between genetic and environmental influences underlying this correlation can help to clarify the reasons for the observable (phenotypic) correlation. We estimated these correlations in a sample of 1,053 pairs...

  16. Functional characterization of neotropical snakes peripheral blood leukocytes subsets: Linking flow cytometry cell features, microscopy images and serum corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Lourenço, Mariana Mathias; Levin, Gabriel; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Reptiles are the unique ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotes fish and amphibians, and endothermic birds and mammals; becoming an important group to study with the aim of providing significant knowledge into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity. Classification systems for reptiles' leukocytes have been described by their appearance rather than function, being still inconsistent. With the advent of modern techniques and the establishment of analytical protocols for snakes' blood by flow cytometry, we bring a qualitative and quantitative assessment of innate activities presented by snakes' peripheral blood leukocytes, thereby linking flow cytometric features with fluorescent and light microscopy images. Moreover, since corticosterone is an important immunomodulator in reptiles, hormone levels of all blood samples were measured. We provide novel and additional information which should contribute to better understanding of the development of the immune system of reptiles and vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Linking flood peak, flood volume and inundation extent: a DEM-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolho, Cédric; Furusho-Percot, Carina; Blaquière, Simon; Brettschneider, Marco; Andréassian, Vazken

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, flood inundation maps are computed based on the Shallow Water Equations (SWE) in one or two dimensions, with various simplifications that have proved to give good results. However, the complexity of the SWEs often requires a numerical resolution which can need long computing time, as well as detailed cross section data: this often results in restricting these models to rather small areas abundant with high quality data. This, along with the necessity for fast inundation mapping, are the reason why rapid inundation models are being designed, working for (almost) any river with a minimum amount of data and, above all, easily available data. Our model tries to follow this path by using a 100m DEM over France from which are extracted a drainage network and the associated drainage areas. It is based on two pre-existing methods: (1) SHYREG (Arnaud et al.,2013), a regionalized approach used to calculate the 2-year and 10-year flood quantiles (used as approximated bankfull flow and maximum discharge, respectively) for each river pixel of the DEM (below a 10 000 km2 drainage area) and (2) SOCOSE (Mailhol,1980), which gives, amongst other things, an empirical formula of a characteristic flood duration (for each pixel) based on catchment area, average precipitation and temperature. An overflow volume for each river pixel is extracted from a triangular shaped synthetic hydrograph designed with SHYREG quantiles and SOCOSE flood duration. The volume is then spread from downstream to upstream one river pixel at a time. When the entire hydrographic network is processed, the model stops and generates a map of potential inundation area associated with the 10-year flood quantile. Our model can also be calibrated using past-events inundation maps by adjusting two parameters, one which modifies the overflow duration, and the other, equivalent to a minimum drainage area for river pixels to be flooded. Thus, in calibration on a sample of 42 basins, the first draft of the

  18. Reflective Functioning, Physiological Reactivity, and Overcontrol in Mothers: Links with School-Aged Children's Reflective Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Hong, Kajung; Rasmussen, Hannah F.; Smiley, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Theorists argue that parental reflective functioning (PRF) is activated in response to emotions, potentially supporting parenting sensitivity even when arousal is high. That is, when parents become emotionally reactive when interacting with their children, those who can use PRF to understand their children's mental states should be able to parent…

  19. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Egerton, A.; Valmaggia, L. R.; Howes, O. D.; Day, F.; Chaddock, C. A.; Allen, P.; Winton-Brown, T. T.; Bloomfield, M. A. P.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Chilcott, J.; Lappin, J. M.; Murray, R. M.; McGuire, P.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and he...

  20. Linking Genes and Brain Development of Honeybee Workers: A Whole-Transcriptome Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Vleurinck

    Full Text Available Honeybees live in complex societies whose capabilities far exceed those of the sum of their single members. This social synergism is achieved mainly by the worker bees, which form a female caste. The worker bees display diverse collaborative behaviors and engage in different behavioral tasks, which are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS. The development of the worker brain is determined by the female sex and the worker caste determination signal. Here, we report on genes that are controlled by sex or by caste during differentiation of the worker's pupal brain. We sequenced and compared transcriptomes from the pupal brains of honeybee workers, queens and drones. We detected 333 genes that are differently expressed and 519 genes that are differentially spliced between the sexes, and 1760 genes that are differentially expressed and 692 genes that are differentially spliced between castes. We further found that 403 genes are differentially regulated by both the sex and caste signals, providing evidence of the integration of both signals through differential gene regulation. In this gene set, we found that the molecular processes of restructuring the cell shape and cell-to-cell signaling are overrepresented. Our approach identified candidate genes that may be involved in brain differentiation that ensures the various social worker behaviors.

  1. Radiation cross-linking of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer functionalized with m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, K.B.; Naesman, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    An ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer was functionalized with m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate using reactive processing in a mixer. The functionalization introduces pendant unsaturation to the polymer, which allows radiation cross-linked to gel contents >70% at radiation doses below 100 kGy. Unfunctionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, on the other hand, forms no gel upon irradiation. The functionalization was completed within a few minutes of reactive mixing, which was confirmed with both FTIR and 13 C-NMR measurements. The oxygen permeability of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer increased with increasing degree of functionalization, and irradiation of the samples formed trapped radicals, which act as oxygen scavengers. Consequently no oxygen permeability was detected. However, radical activity was inhibited by annealing the samples at 110 C resulting in a 24% higher oxygen permeability value for the irradiated unfunctionalized copolymer. The oxygen permeability values of the irradiated functionalized samples were approximately 13% lower. Laminates of m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer and m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer acquired improved adhesive strength both at dry and wet conditions as well as at elevated temperature upon exposure to radiation

  2. Gain-of-function mutagenesis approaches in rice for functional genomics and improvement of crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Mazahar; Bakshi, Achala; Saha, Anusree; Dutta, Mouboni; Kirti, P B

    2017-07-01

    The epitome of any genome research is to identify all the existing genes in a genome and investigate their roles. Various techniques have been applied to unveil the functions either by silencing or over-expressing the genes by targeted expression or random mutagenesis. Rice is the most appropriate model crop for generating a mutant resource for functional genomic studies because of the availability of high-quality genome sequence and relatively smaller genome size. Rice has syntenic relationships with members of other cereals. Hence, characterization of functionally unknown genes in rice will possibly provide key genetic insights and can lead to comparative genomics involving other cereals. The current review attempts to discuss the available gain-of-function mutagenesis techniques for functional genomics, emphasizing the contemporary approach, activation tagging and alterations to this method for the enhancement of yield and productivity of rice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. From Process Understanding Via Soil Functions to Sustainable Soil Management - A Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschlaeger, U.; Bartke, S.; Bartkowski, B.; Daedlow, K.; Helming, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lang, B.; Rabot, E.; Russell, D.; Stößel, B.; Weller, U.; Wiesmeier, M.; Rabot, E.; Vogel, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Fertile soils are central resources for the production of biomass and the provision of food and energy. A growing world population and latest climate targets lead to an increasing demand for both, food and bio-energy, which requires preserving and improving the long-term productivity of soils as a bio-economic resource. At the same time, other soil functions and ecosystem services need to be maintained: filter for clean water, carbon sequestration, provision and recycling of nutrients, and habitat for biological activity. All these soil functions result from the interaction of a multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes that are not yet sufficiently understood. In addition, we lack understanding about the interplay between the socio-economic system and the soil system and how soil functions benefit human wellbeing. Hence, a solid and integrated assessment of soil quality requires the consideration of the ensemble of soil functions and its relation to soil management to finally be able to develop site-specific options for sustainable soil management. We present an integrated modeling approach that investigates the influence of soil management on the ensemble of soil functions. It is based on the mechanistic relationships between soil functional attributes, each explained by a network of interacting processes as derived from scientific evidence. As the evidence base required for feeding the model is for the most part stored in the existing scientific literature, another central component of our work is to set up a public "knowledge-portal" providing the infrastructure for a community effort towards a comprehensive knowledge base on soil processes as a basis for model developments. The connection to the socio-economic system is established using the Drivers-Pressures-Impacts-States-Responses (DPSIR) framework where our improved understanding about soil ecosystem processes is linked to ecosystem services and resource efficiency via the soil functions.

  4. A close link between metabolic activity and functional connectivity in the resting human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passow, Susanne [Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen (Norway); NORMENT Center of Excellence, University of Oslo (Norway); Specht, Karsten [Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen (Norway); Department of Clinical Engineering, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Adamsen, Tom Christian [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen (Norway); Biermann, Martin; Brekke, Njål [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Craven, Alexander Richard [Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen (Norway); NORMENT Center of Excellence, University of Oslo (Norway); Ersland, Lars [Department of Clinical Engineering, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); NORMENT Center of Excellence, University of Oslo (Norway); Grüner, Renate [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); NORMENT Center of Excellence, University of Oslo (Norway); Kleven-Madsen, Nina [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Kvernenes, Ole-Heine [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Schwarzlmüller, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Olesen, Rasmus [Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience and MINDLab, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Hugdahl, Kenneth [Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen (Norway); Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); NORMENT Center of Excellence, University of Oslo (Norway)

    2015-05-18

    Default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity and its task-dependent down-regulation have attracted a lot of attention in the field of neuroscience. Nevertheless, the exact underlying mechanisms of DMN functional connectivity, or more specifically, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, are still not completely understood. To investigate more directly the association between local glucose consumption, local glutamatergic neurotransmission and DMN functional connectivity during rest, the present study combined for the first time 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoroglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Seed-based correlation analyses, using a key region of the DMN i.e. the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex as seed, revealed overall striking spatial similarities between fluctuations in FDG-uptake and the BOLD signal. More specifically, a conjunction analysis across both modalities showed that DMN areas as the inferior parietal lobe, angular gyrus, precuneus, middle and medial frontal gyrus were positively correlated with the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that local glucose consumption in the medial frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and left angular gyrus was associated with functional connectivity within the DMN. We did not find a relationship between glutamatergic neurotransmission and functional connectivity. In line with very recent findings, our results provide further evidence for a close association between local metabolic activity and functional connectivity and enable further insights towards a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the BOLD signal.

  5. A close link between metabolic activity and functional connectivity in the resting human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passow, Susanne; Specht, Karsten; Adamsen, Tom Christian; Biermann, Martin; Brekke, Njål; Craven, Alexander Richard; Ersland, Lars; Grüner, Renate; Kleven-Madsen, Nina; Kvernenes, Ole-Heine; Schwarzlmüller, Thomas; Olesen, Rasmus; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity and its task-dependent down-regulation have attracted a lot of attention in the field of neuroscience. Nevertheless, the exact underlying mechanisms of DMN functional connectivity, or more specifically, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, are still not completely understood. To investigate more directly the association between local glucose consumption, local glutamatergic neurotransmission and DMN functional connectivity during rest, the present study combined for the first time 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoroglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Seed-based correlation analyses, using a key region of the DMN i.e. the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex as seed, revealed overall striking spatial similarities between fluctuations in FDG-uptake and the BOLD signal. More specifically, a conjunction analysis across both modalities showed that DMN areas as the inferior parietal lobe, angular gyrus, precuneus, middle and medial frontal gyrus were positively correlated with the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that local glucose consumption in the medial frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and left angular gyrus was associated with functional connectivity within the DMN. We did not find a relationship between glutamatergic neurotransmission and functional connectivity. In line with very recent findings, our results provide further evidence for a close association between local metabolic activity and functional connectivity and enable further insights towards a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the BOLD signal.

  6. Phenotypic and functional characterization of earthworm coelomocyte subsets: Linking light scatter-based cell typing and imaging of the sorted populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Péter; Hayashi, Yuya; Bodó, Kornélia; Ernszt, Dávid; Somogyi, Ildikó; Steib, Anita; Orbán, József; Pollák, Edit; Nyitrai, Miklós; Németh, Péter; Molnár, László

    2016-12-01

    Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes and eleocytes) can be physically isolated with good sort efficiency and purity confirmed by downstream morphological and cytochemical applications. Immunocytochemical analysis using anti-EFCC monoclonal antibodies combined with phalloidin staining has revealed antigenically distinct, sorted subsets. Screening of lectin binding capacity indicated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) as the strongest reactor to amoebocytes. This is further evidenced by WGA inhibition assays that suggest high abundance of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine in amoebocytes. Post-sort phagocytosis assays confirmed the functional differences between amoebocytes and eleocytes, with the former being in favor of bacterial engulfment. This study has proved successful in linking flow cytometry and microscopy analysis and provides further experimental evidence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in earthworm coelomocyte subsets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rice DB: an Oryza Information Portal linking annotation, subcellular location, function, expression, regulation, and evolutionary information for rice and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Reena; Devenish, James; Castleden, Ian; Narsai, Kabir; Xu, Lin; Shou, Huixia; Whelan, James

    2013-12-01

    Omics research in Oryza sativa (rice) relies on the use of multiple databases to obtain different types of information to define gene function. We present Rice DB, an Oryza information portal that is a functional genomics database, linking gene loci to comprehensive annotations, expression data and the subcellular location of encoded proteins. Rice DB has been designed to integrate the direct comparison of rice with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), based on orthology or 'expressology', thus using and combining available information from two pre-eminent plant models. To establish Rice DB, gene identifiers (more than 40 types) and annotations from a variety of sources were compiled, functional information based on large-scale and individual studies was manually collated, hundreds of microarrays were analysed to generate expression annotations, and the occurrences of potential functional regulatory motifs in promoter regions were calculated. A range of computational subcellular localization predictions were also run for all putative proteins encoded in the rice genome, and experimentally confirmed protein localizations have been collated, curated and linked to functional studies in rice. A single search box allows anything from gene identifiers (for rice and/or Arabidopsis), motif sequences, subcellular location, to keyword searches to be entered, with the capability of Boolean searches (such as AND/OR). To demonstrate the utility of Rice DB, several examples are presented including a rice mitochondrial proteome, which draws on a variety of sources for subcellular location data within Rice DB. Comparisons of subcellular location, functional annotations, as well as transcript expression in parallel with Arabidopsis reveals examples of conservation between rice and Arabidopsis, using Rice DB (http://ricedb.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au). © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Episodes of asthma during pregnancy – link with a viral infection and treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertseva T.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma (BA is the most common respiratory disease in pregnancy. About 20% of pregnant women experience asthma exacerbations of varying severity, while 5.8 % of them require hospitalization. Objective: to study asthma course during pregnancy by determining clinical and functional cha¬racteristics of the disease, taking into account presence of exacerbations and adherence to basic therapy (BT. Materials and methods: The study included 35 pregnant females (Me ± SD aged 31±5,28 years, gestational age – 34±6,69 weeks. Anamnestic and physical data, spirometry and assessment of asthma control using Control Asthma Test were conducted. Results: In the study group 71% of pregnant women suffered from aggravation of varying severity deve¬loping on the background of symptoms of respiratory tract infection. Here with commitment to BT before and during pregnancy significantly did not differ. Inconsistency of BT to severity of the disease in 25% of women with mild and in 36% with moderate asthma course was detected.

  9. Novel aptamer-linked nanoconjugate approach for detection of waterborne bacterial pathogens: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gulshan; Manohar, Murli; Adegoke, Anthony Ayodeji; Stenström, Thor Axel; Shanker, Rishi

    2017-01-01

    The lack of microbiologically safe water in underdeveloped nations is the prime cause of infectious disease outbreaks. The need for the specific identification and detection of microorganisms encourages the development of advanced, rapid, sensitive and highly specific methods for the monitoring of pathogens and management of potential risk to human health. The rapid molecular assays based on detection of specific molecular signatures offer advantages over conventional methods in terms of specificity and sensitivity but require complex instrumentation and skilled personnel. Nanotechnology is an emerging area and provides a robust approach for the identification of pathogenic microorganism utilizing the peculiar properties of nanomaterials, i.e. small size (1–100 nm) and large surface area. This emerging technology promises to fulfill the urgent need of a novel strategy to enhance the bacterial identification and quantitation in the environment. In this context, the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles, their plasmonic shifts, and changes in magnetic properties have been utilized for the simple and cost-effective detection of bacterial nucleic acids, antigens and toxins with quite improved sensitivity. One of the promising leads to develop an advance detection method might be the coupling of nucleic acid aptamers (capable of interacting specifically with bacteria, protozoa, and viruses) with nanomaterials. Such aptamer-nano conjugate can be used for the specific recognition of infectious agents in different environmental matrices. This review summarizes the application of nanotechnology in the area of pathogen detection and discusses the prospects of coupling nucleic acid aptamers with nanoparticles for the specific detection of targeted pathogens.

  10. Novel aptamer-linked nanoconjugate approach for detection of waterborne bacterial pathogens: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Manohar, Murli; Adegoke, Anthony Ayodeji; Stenström, Thor Axel; Shanker, Rishi

    2017-01-01

    The lack of microbiologically safe water in underdeveloped nations is the prime cause of infectious disease outbreaks. The need for the specific identification and detection of microorganisms encourages the development of advanced, rapid, sensitive and highly specific methods for the monitoring of pathogens and management of potential risk to human health. The rapid molecular assays based on detection of specific molecular signatures offer advantages over conventional methods in terms of specificity and sensitivity but require complex instrumentation and skilled personnel. Nanotechnology is an emerging area and provides a robust approach for the identification of pathogenic microorganism utilizing the peculiar properties of nanomaterials, i.e. small size (1-100 nm) and large surface area. This emerging technology promises to fulfill the urgent need of a novel strategy to enhance the bacterial identification and quantitation in the environment. In this context, the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles, their plasmonic shifts, and changes in magnetic properties have been utilized for the simple and cost-effective detection of bacterial nucleic acids, antigens and toxins with quite improved sensitivity. One of the promising leads to develop an advance detection method might be the coupling of nucleic acid aptamers (capable of interacting specifically with bacteria, protozoa, and viruses) with nanomaterials. Such aptamer-nano conjugate can be used for the specific recognition of infectious agents in different environmental matrices. This review summarizes the application of nanotechnology in the area of pathogen detection and discusses the prospects of coupling nucleic acid aptamers with nanoparticles for the specific detection of targeted pathogens.

  11. Novel aptamer-linked nanoconjugate approach for detection of waterborne bacterial pathogens: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gulshan, E-mail: gsingh.gulshan@gmail.com [Durban University of Technology, Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology (IWWT) (South Africa); Manohar, Murli [Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Department of Biochemistry (India); Adegoke, Anthony Ayodeji; Stenström, Thor Axel [Durban University of Technology, Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology (IWWT) (South Africa); Shanker, Rishi [Ahmedabad University, Division of Biological & Life Sciences, School of Arts & Sciences (India)

    2017-01-15

    The lack of microbiologically safe water in underdeveloped nations is the prime cause of infectious disease outbreaks. The need for the specific identification and detection of microorganisms encourages the development of advanced, rapid, sensitive and highly specific methods for the monitoring of pathogens and management of potential risk to human health. The rapid molecular assays based on detection of specific molecular signatures offer advantages over conventional methods in terms of specificity and sensitivity but require complex instrumentation and skilled personnel. Nanotechnology is an emerging area and provides a robust approach for the identification of pathogenic microorganism utilizing the peculiar properties of nanomaterials, i.e. small size (1–100 nm) and large surface area. This emerging technology promises to fulfill the urgent need of a novel strategy to enhance the bacterial identification and quantitation in the environment. In this context, the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles, their plasmonic shifts, and changes in magnetic properties have been utilized for the simple and cost-effective detection of bacterial nucleic acids, antigens and toxins with quite improved sensitivity. One of the promising leads to develop an advance detection method might be the coupling of nucleic acid aptamers (capable of interacting specifically with bacteria, protozoa, and viruses) with nanomaterials. Such aptamer-nano conjugate can be used for the specific recognition of infectious agents in different environmental matrices. This review summarizes the application of nanotechnology in the area of pathogen detection and discusses the prospects of coupling nucleic acid aptamers with nanoparticles for the specific detection of targeted pathogens.

  12. Impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits linked to increased volume and functional connectivity within prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korponay, Cole; Pujara, Maia; Deming, Philip; Philippi, Carissa; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Studies of brain structure and function in psychopathy have frequently identified abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, findings have not yet converged to yield a clear relationship between specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and particular psychopathic traits. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of prefrontal cortex volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a sample of adult male prison inmates (N = 124). We conducted volumetric analyses in prefrontal subregions, and subsequently assessed resting-state functional connectivity in areas where volume was related to psychopathy severity. We found that overall psychopathy severity and Factor 2 scores (which index the impulsive/antisocial traits of psychopathy) were associated with larger prefrontal subregion volumes, particularly in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, Factor 2 scores were also positively correlated with functional connectivity between several areas of the prefrontal cortex. The results were not attributable to age, race, IQ, substance use history, or brain volume. Collectively, these findings provide evidence for co-localized increases in prefrontal cortex volume and intra-prefrontal functional connectivity in relation to impulsive/antisocial psychopathic traits. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to community violence and academic functioning, and if the indirect effects of community violence on academic functioning differed for boys and girls, in a community sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 491; 46.6% female). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect of exposure to community violence in grade 6 on grade 8 academic functioning. Results revealed that aggression in grade 7 mediated the association between grade 6 exposure to community violence and grade 8 academic functioning. There were no indirect effects through depressive and anxious symptoms, and gender did not moderate the indirect effect. Findings highlight the importance of targeting aggressive behavior for youth exposed to community violence to not only improve their behavioral adjustment but also their academic functioning. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23277294

  14. Linking plant functional trait plasticity and the large increase in forest water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo; Keenan, Trevor F.; Gentine, Pierre; Gough, Christopher M.; Fatichi, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce stomatal conductance, thus increasing plant water use efficiency. A recent study based on eddy covariance flux observations from Northern Hemisphere forests showed a large increase in inherent water use efficiency (IWUE). Here we used an updated version of the same data set and robust uncertainty quantification to revisit these contemporary IWUE trends. We tested the hypothesis that the observed IWUE increase could be attributed to interannual trends in plant functional traits, potentially triggered by environmental change. We found that IWUE increased by 1.3% yr-1, which is less than previously reported but still larger than theoretical expectations. Numerical simulations with the Tethys-Chloris ecosystem model using temporally static plant functional traits cannot explain this increase. Simulations with plant functional trait plasticity, i.e., temporal changes in model parameters such as specific leaf area and maximum Rubisco capacity, match the observed trends in IWUE. Our results show that trends in plant functional traits, equal to 1.0% yr-1, can explain the observed IWUE trends. Thus, at decadal or longer time scales, trait plasticity could potentially influence forest water, carbon, and energy fluxes with profound implications for both the monitoring of temporal changes in plant functional traits and their representation in Earth system models.

  15. Influence of Hypothyroidism on Separate Links of Metabolism, Structure and Function of the Heart in Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research findings of reduced thyroid function impact on the background of insulin resistance on the specific links of metabolism, structure and function of the heart. It is found that in thyroid dysfunction, the main nosological form of myocardial lesion in female patients without concomitant cardiovascular disease is the development of metabolic endocrine cardiomyopathy. Feature of cardiac lesion is the absence of cardiosclerotic, myocardial and ischemic processes in hypothyroidism. Obscure clinical symptoms of the heart both in apparent and subclinical hypothyroidism are detected. Features of clinical, instrumental and laboratory changes in female patients with impaired thyroid function are a trend to systolic blood pressure increase, the absence of significant dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, and cardiocytolysis and hepatocytolysis. Thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with increased myocardial repolarization heterogeneity: subclinical hypothyroidism is accompanied by violation of repolarization processes and the development of electrical heterogeneity of ventricular myocardium, and in the apparent hypothyroidism changes are more linked with the violation of the homogeneity of the electrical impulse to the atria.

  16. Highly Efficient Thin-Film Transistor via Cross-Linking of 1T Edge Functional 2H Molybdenum Disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanleem; Bak, Sora; An, Sung-Jin; Kim, Jung Ho; Yun, Eunbhin; Kim, Meeree; Seo, Sohyeon; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2017-12-26

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) have received great attention for their use in lightweight, large area, and wearable devices. However, low crystalline materials and inhomogeneous film formation limit the realization of high-quality electrical properties for channels in commercial TFTs, especially for flexible electronics. Here, we report a field-effect TFT fabricated via cross-linking of edge-1T basal-2H MoS 2 sheets that are prepared by edge functional exfoliation of bulk MoS 2 with soft organic exfoliation reagents. For edge functional exfoliation, the electrophilic 4-carboxy-benzenediazonium used as the soft organic reagent attacks the nucleophilic thiolates exposed at the edge of the bulk MoS 2 with the help of an amine catalyst, resulting in 1T edge-functional HOOC-benzene-2H basal MoS 2 nanosheets (e-MoS 2 ). The cross-linking via hydrogen bonding of the negatively charged HOOC of the e-MoS 2 sheets with the help of a cationic polymer, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride, results in a good film formation for a channel of the solution processing TFT. The TFT exhibits an extremely high mobility of 170 cm 2 /(V s) at 1 V (on/off ratio of 10 6 ) on SiO 2 /Si substrate and also a high mobility of 36.34 cm 2 /(V s) (on/off ratio of 10 3 ) on PDMS/PET substrate.

  17. Highly stable pyridinium-functionalized cross-linked anion exchange membranes for all vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhang, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the use of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) can reduce the migration of vanadium ions through the membrane due to the Donnan exclusion effect among the positively charged functional groups and vanadium ions. However, AEMs are plagued by low chemical stability in harsh chemical environments. Here we propose and fabricate a pyridinium-functionalized cross-linked AEM for VRFBs. The pyridinium-functionalized bromomethylated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) exhibits a superior chemical stability as a result of the strengthened internal cross-linking networks and the chemical inertness of the polymer backbone. Therefore, the membrane exhibits littler decay in a harsh environment for 20 days during the course of an ex situ immersion test. A cycling test also demonstrates that the VRFB assembled with the membrane enable to retain 80% of the initial discharge capacity over 537 cycles with a capacity decay rate of 0.037% cycle-1. Meanwhile, the membrane also shows a low vanadium permeability and a reasonably high conductivity in supporting electrolytes. Hence, all the measurements and performance tests reported in this work suggest that the membrane is a promising AEM for redox flow batteries to achieve excellent cycling stability and superior cell performance.

  18. Longitudinal and concurrent links between memory span, anxiety symptoms, and subsequent executive functioning in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eVisu-Petra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been conjectured that basic individual differences in attentional control influence higher-level executive functioning and subsequent academic performance in children. The current study sets out to complement the limited body of research on early precursors of executive functions. It provides both a cross-sectional, as well as a longitudinal exploration of the relationship between executive functions and more basic attentional control mechanisms, assessed via children’s performance on memory storage tasks, and influenced by individual differences in anxiety. Multiple measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM were administered to children between 3 and 6 years old, alongside a nonverbal measure of intelligence, and a parental report of anxiety symptoms. After 9 months, children were re-tested on the same STM measures, at which time we also administered multiple measures of executive functioning: verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM, inhibition, and shifting. A cross-sectional view of STM development indicated that between 3 and 6 years the trajectory of visuospatial STM and executive functions underwent a gradual linear improvement. However, between 5 and 6 years progress in verbal STM performance stagnated. Hierarchical regression models revealed that trait anxiety was negatively associated with WM and shifting, while nonverbal intelligence was positively related to WM span. When age, gender, nonverbal intelligence, and anxiety were controlled for, STM (measured at the first assessment was a very good predictor of overall executive performance. The models were most successful in predicting WM, followed by shifting, yet poorly predicted inhibition measures. Further longitudinal research is needed to directly address the contribution of attentional control mechanisms to emerging executive functioning and to the development of problematic behavior during early development.

  19. Functional Associations by Response Overlap (FARO, a functional genomics approach matching gene expression phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Bjørn Nielsen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The systematic comparison of transcriptional responses of organisms is a powerful tool in functional genomics. For example, mutants may be characterized by comparing their transcript profiles to those obtained in other experiments querying the effects on gene expression of many experimental factors including treatments, mutations and pathogen infections. Similarly, drugs may be discovered by the relationship between the transcript profiles effectuated or impacted by a candidate drug and by the target disease. The integration of such data enables systems biology to predict the interplay between experimental factors affecting a biological system. Unfortunately, direct comparisons of gene expression profiles obtained in independent, publicly available microarray experiments are typically compromised by substantial, experiment-specific biases. Here we suggest a novel yet conceptually simple approach for deriving 'Functional Association(s by Response Overlap' (FARO between microarray gene expression studies. The transcriptional response is defined by the set of differentially expressed genes independent from the magnitude or direction of the change. This approach overcomes the limited comparability between studies that is typical for methods that rely on correlation in gene expression. We apply FARO to a compendium of 242 diverse Arabidopsis microarray experimental factors, including phyto-hormones, stresses and pathogens, growth conditions/stages, tissue types and mutants. We also use FARO to confirm and further delineate the functions of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 in disease and stress responses. Furthermore, we find that a large, well-defined set of genes responds in opposing directions to different stress conditions and predict the effects of different stress combinations. This demonstrates the usefulness of our approach for exploiting public microarray data to derive biologically meaningful associations between experimental factors. Finally, our

  20. Linking variability in brain chemistry and circuit function through multimodal human neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Hariri, A R

    2012-01-01

    and dopamine system and its effects on threat- and reward-related brain function, we review evidence for how such a multimodal neuroimaging strategy can be successfully implemented. Furthermore, we discuss how multimodal PET-fMRI can be integrated with techniques such as imaging genetics, pharmacological......Identifying neurobiological mechanisms mediating the emergence of individual differences in behavior is critical for advancing our understanding of relative risk for psychopathology. Neuroreceptor positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used...

  1. MeMo: a hybrid SQL/XML approach to metabolomic data management for functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Nigel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome sequencing projects have shown our limited knowledge regarding gene function, e.g. S. cerevisiae has 5–6,000 genes of which nearly 1,000 have an uncertain function. Their gross influence on the behaviour of the cell can be observed using large-scale metabolomic studies. The metabolomic data produced need to be structured and annotated in a machine-usable form to facilitate the exploration of the hidden links between the genes and their functions. Description MeMo is a formal model for representing metabolomic data and the associated metadata. Two predominant platforms (SQL and XML are used to encode the model. MeMo has been implemented as a relational database using a hybrid approach combining the advantages of the two technologies. It represents a practical solution for handling the sheer volume and complexity of the metabolomic data effectively and efficiently. The MeMo model and the associated software are available at http://dbkgroup.org/memo/. Conclusion The maturity of relational database technology is used to support efficient data processing. The scalability and self-descriptiveness of XML are used to simplify the relational schema and facilitate the extensibility of the model necessitated by the creation of new experimental techniques. Special consideration is given to data integration issues as part of the systems biology agenda. MeMo has been physically integrated and cross-linked to related metabolomic and genomic databases. Semantic integration with other relevant databases has been supported through ontological annotation. Compatibility with other data formats is supported by automatic conversion.

  2. The Link between Preschoolers' Executive Function and Theory of Mind and the Role of Epistemic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Anne; Spinath, Frank M.; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the specific relation between 3- to 6-year-olds' performance on a task measuring executive function (EF), the Dimensional Change Card Sort task (DCCS), and different developmental attainments in their theory of mind (ToM) by employing a battery of scaled ToM tasks that were comparable in task format and task…

  3. Linking Library Automation Systems in the Internet: Functional Requirements, Planning, and Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    1989-01-01

    This guide to functions to consider in selecting an academic library automation system to operate in a networked environment covers (1) the current academic networking environment; (2) library automation hardware and software platforms; (3) user interface requirements for public access; and (4) security and authentication. (10 references) (MES)

  4. Selectionist and evolutionary approaches to brain function: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisantha Thomas Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman’s theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux’s theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung’s Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein’s synaptic melioration, Adam’s selfish synapse and Calvin’s replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them. All of them fit, however, a generalized selectionist framework conforming to the picture of Price’s covariance formulation, which deliberately was not specific even to selection in biology, and therefore does not imply an algorithmic picture of biological evolution. Bayesian models and reinforcement learning are formally in agreement with selection dynamics. A classification of search algorithms is shown to include Darwinian replicators (evolutionary units with multiplication, heredity and variability as the most powerful mechanism in a sparsely occupied search space. Examples of why parallel competitive search with information transfer among the units is efficient are given. Finally, we review our recent attempts to construct and analyze simple models of true Darwinian evolutionary units in the brain in terms of connectivity and activity copying of neuronal groups. Although none of the proposed neuronal replicators include miraculous mechanisms, their identification remains a challenge but also a great promise.

  5. Remodeling Functional Connectivity in Multiple Sclerosis: A Challenging Therapeutic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Gilio, Luana; Buttari, Fabio; Maffei, Pierpaolo; Marfia, Girolama A; Restivo, Domenico A; Centonze, Diego; Iezzi, Ennio

    2017-01-01

    Neurons in the central nervous system are organized in functional units interconnected to form complex networks. Acute and chronic brain damage disrupts brain connectivity producing neurological signs and/or symptoms. In several neurological diseases, particularly in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), structural imaging studies cannot always demonstrate a clear association between lesion site and clinical disability, originating the "clinico-radiological paradox." The discrepancy between structural damage and disability can be explained by a complex network perspective. Both brain networks architecture and synaptic plasticity may play important roles in modulating brain networks efficiency after brain damage. In particular, long-term potentiation (LTP) may occur in surviving neurons to compensate network disconnection. In MS, inflammatory cytokines dramatically interfere with synaptic transmission and plasticity. Importantly, in addition to acute and chronic structural damage, inflammation could contribute to reduce brain networks efficiency in MS leading to worse clinical recovery after a relapse and worse disease progression. These evidence suggest that removing inflammation should represent the main therapeutic target in MS; moreover, as synaptic plasticity is particularly altered by inflammation, specific strategies aimed at promoting LTP mechanisms could be effective for enhancing clinical recovery. Modulation of plasticity with different non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques has been used to promote recovery of MS symptoms. Better knowledge of features inducing brain disconnection in MS is crucial to design specific strategies to promote recovery and use NIBS with an increasingly tailored approach.

  6. Remodeling Functional Connectivity in Multiple Sclerosis: A Challenging Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Stampanoni Bassi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the central nervous system are organized in functional units interconnected to form complex networks. Acute and chronic brain damage disrupts brain connectivity producing neurological signs and/or symptoms. In several neurological diseases, particularly in Multiple Sclerosis (MS, structural imaging studies cannot always demonstrate a clear association between lesion site and clinical disability, originating the “clinico-radiological paradox.” The discrepancy between structural damage and disability can be explained by a complex network perspective. Both brain networks architecture and synaptic plasticity may play important roles in modulating brain networks efficiency after brain damage. In particular, long-term potentiation (LTP may occur in surviving neurons to compensate network disconnection. In MS, inflammatory cytokines dramatically interfere with synaptic transmission and plasticity. Importantly, in addition to acute and chronic structural damage, inflammation could contribute to reduce brain networks efficiency in MS leading to worse clinical recovery after a relapse and worse disease progression. These evidence suggest that removing inflammation should represent the main therapeutic target in MS; moreover, as synaptic plasticity is particularly altered by inflammation, specific strategies aimed at promoting LTP mechanisms could be effective for enhancing clinical recovery. Modulation of plasticity with different non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS techniques has been used to promote recovery of MS symptoms. Better knowledge of features inducing brain disconnection in MS is crucial to design specific strategies to promote recovery and use NIBS with an increasingly tailored approach.

  7. Improving phenolic bioactive-linked anti-hyperglycemic functions of dark germinated barley sprouts (Hordeum vulgare L.) using seed elicitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Ramnarain; Sarkar, Dipayan; Manduri, Avani; Iyer, Shreyas Ganesan; Shetty, Kalidas

    2017-10-01

    Sprouts of cereal grains, such as barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.), are a good source of beneficial phenolic bioactives. Such health relevant phenolic bioactives of cereal sprouts can be targeted to manage chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress commonly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore improving phenolic bioactives by stimulating plant endogenous defense responses such as protective pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during sprouting has significant merit. Based on this metabolic rationale, this study aimed to enhance phenolic bioactives and associated antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic functions in dark germinated barley sprouts using exogenous elicitor treatments. Dark-germinated sprouts of two malting barley cultivars (Pinnacle and Celebration), treated with chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) and marine protein hydrolysate (GP), were evaluated. Total soluble phenolic content (TSP), phenolic acid profiles, total antioxidant activity (TA) and in vitro inhibitory activities of hyperglycemia relevant α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes of the dark germinated barley sprouts were evaluated at day 2, 4, and 6 post elicitor treatments. Overall, TSP content, TA, and α-amylase inhibitory activity of dark germinated barley sprouts decreased, while α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and gallic acid content increased from day 2 to day 6. Among barley cultivars, high phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives were observed in Celebration. Furthermore, GP and COS seed elicitor treatments in selective doses improved T2D relevant phenolic-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives of barley spouts at day 6. Therefore, such seed elicitation approach can be strategically used to develop bioactive enriched functional food ingredients from cereal sprouts targeting chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress linked to T2D.

  8. Regulation of Cited2 expression provides a functional link between translational and transcriptional responses during hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beucken, Twan van den; Magagnin, Michael G.; Savelkouls, Kim; Lambin, Philippe; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Protein synthesis rates are greatly reduced under hypoxic conditions as a consequence of an overall inhibition of mRNA translation. Certain specific mRNA species have the ability to escape this general translational repression. At the cellular level this results in differential protein expression during hypoxic conditions. The objective of this study was to characterize the translational regulation of the postulated HIF-1α antagonist Cited2. Materials and methods: DU145 prostate carcinoma cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a homozygous knock-in mutation for eIF2α (S51A) or wild-type eIF2α were exposed to severe hypoxia after which both total mRNA and efficiently translated mRNA were isolated. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure and compare changes in transcription (total mRNA) with changes in translation (efficiently translated mRNA fraction). Results: We show using HIF-1α null MEF cells that transcriptional induction of Cited2 during hypoxia is dependent on HIF-1α. Although global mRNA translation is inhibited during hypoxia Cited2 mRNA remains efficiently translated. An evolutionary conserved upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the 5'UTR of Cited2 did not stimulate translation in an eIF2α dependent manner during hypoxia. Conclusions: Selective translation Cited2 by an eIF2α independent mechanism establishes a link between translation and HIF-1 dependent transcription during hypoxia

  9. Physical soil architectural traits are functionally linked to carbon decomposition and bacterial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, S. M. F.; Daniel, H.; Lockwood, P. V.; MacDonald, C.; Pereg, L.; Tighe, M.; Wilson, B. R.; Young, I. M.

    2016-09-01

    Aggregates play a key role in protecting soil organic carbon (SOC) from microbial decomposition. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of pore geometry on the organic carbon decomposition rate and bacterial diversity in both macro- (250-2000 μm) and micro-aggregates (53-250 μm) using field samples. Four sites of contrasting land use on Alfisols (i.e. native pasture, crop/pasture rotation, woodland) were investigated. 3D Pore geometry of the micro-aggregates and macro-aggregates were examined by X-ray computed tomography (μCT). The occluded particulate organic carbon (oPOC) of aggregates was measured by size and density fractionation methods. Micro-aggregates had 54% less μCT observed porosity but 64% more oPOC compared with macro-aggregates. In addition, the pore connectivity in micro-aggregates was lower than macro-aggregates. Despite both lower μCT observed porosity and pore connectivity in micro-aggregates, the organic carbon decomposition rate constant (Ksoc) was similar in both aggregate size ranges. Structural equation modelling showed a strong positive relationship of the concentration of oPOC with bacterial diversity in aggregates. We use these findings to propose a conceptual model that illustrates the dynamic links between substrate, bacterial diversity, and pore geometry that suggests a structural explanation for differences in bacterial diversity across aggregate sizes.

  10. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Ancient Bacterial Transglutaminase Sheds Light on the Minimal Requirements for Protein Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Catarina G; Plácido, Diana; Lousa, Diana; Brito, José A; Isidro, Anabela; Soares, Cláudio M; Pohl, Jan; Carrondo, Maria A; Archer, Margarida; Henriques, Adriano O

    2015-09-22

    Transglutaminases are best known for their ability to catalyze protein cross-linking reactions that impart chemical and physical resilience to cellular structures. Here, we report the crystal structure and characterization of Tgl, a transglutaminase from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Tgl is produced during sporulation and cross-links the surface of the highly resilient spore. Tgl-like proteins are found only in spore-forming bacteria of the Bacillus and Clostridia classes, indicating an ancient origin. Tgl is a single-domain protein, produced in active form, and the smallest transglutaminase characterized to date. We show that Tgl is structurally similar to bacterial cell wall endopeptidases and has an NlpC/P60 catalytic core, thought to represent the ancestral unit of the cysteine protease fold. We show that Tgl functions through a unique partially redundant catalytic dyad formed by Cys116 and Glu187 or Glu115. Strikingly, the catalytic Cys is insulated within a hydrophobic tunnel that traverses the molecule from side to side. The lack of similarity of Tgl to other transglutaminases together with its small size suggests that an NlpC/P60 catalytic core and insulation of the active site during catalysis may be essential requirements for protein cross-linking.

  11. Prefrontal cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission and cognitive function: drawing links to schizophrenia from preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Maric T; Piantadosi, Patrick T; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is one of the most pervasive and debilitating aspects of the disorder. Among the numerous neural abnormalities that may contribute to schizophrenia symptoms, perturbations in markers for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), particularly within the frontal lobes, are some of the most reliable alterations observed at postmortem examination. However, how prefrontal GABA dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia remains unclear. We provide an overview of postmortem GABAergic perturbations in the brain affected by schizophrenia and describe circumstantial evidence linking these alterations to cognitive dysfunction. In addition, we conduct a survey of studies using neurodevelopmental, genetic, and pharmacologic rodent models that induce schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments, highlighting the convergence of these mechanistically distinct approaches to prefrontal GABAergic disruption. We review preclinical studies that have directly targeted prefrontal cortical GABAergic transmission using local application of GABAA receptor antagonists. These studies have provided an important link between GABA transmission and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia because they show that reducing prefrontal inhibitory transmission induces various cognitive, emotional, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble aspects of the disorder. These converging clinical and preclinical findings provide strong support for the idea that perturbations in GABA signaling drive certain forms of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Future studies using this approach will yield information to refine further a putative "GABA hypothesis" of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining Taxonomic and Functional Approaches to Unravel the Spatial Distribution of an Amazonian Butterfly Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Márlon B; Morais, José W; Franklin, Elizabeth; Pequeno, Pedro A C L; Souza, Jorge L P; Bueno, Anderson Saldanha

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of an Amazonian fruit-feeding butterfly assemblage by linking species taxonomic and functional approaches. We hypothesized that: 1) vegetation richness (i.e., resources) and abundance of insectivorous birds (i.e., predators) should drive changes in butterfly taxonomic composition, 2) larval diet breadth should decrease with increase of plant species richness, 3) small-sized adults should be favored by higher abundance of birds, and 4) communities with eyespot markings should be able to exploit areas with higher predation pressure. Fruit-feeding butterflies were sampled with bait traps and insect nets across 25 km(2) of an Amazonian ombrophilous forest in Brazil. We measured larval diet breadth, adult body size, and wing marking of all butterflies. Our results showed that plant species richness explained most of the variation in butterfly taxonomic turnover. Also, community average diet breadth decreased with increase of plant species richness, which supports our expectations. In contrast, community average body size increased with the abundance of birds, refuting our hypothesis. We detected no influence of environmental gradients on the occurrence of species with eyespot markings. The association between butterfly taxonomic and functional composition points to a mediator role of the functional traits in the environmental filtering of butterflies. The incorporation of the functional approach into the analyses allowed for the detection of relationships that were not observed using a strictly taxonomic perspective and provided an extra insight into comprehending the potential adaptive strategies of butterflies. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Using a linked data approach to aid development of a metadata portal to support Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), EU Member States are mandated to achieve or maintain 'Good Environmental Status' (GES) in their marine areas by 2020, through a series of Programme of Measures (PoMs). The Celtic Seas Partnership (CSP), an EU LIFE+ project, aims to support policy makers, special-interest groups, users of the marine environment, and other interested stakeholders on MSFD implementation in the Celtic Seas geographical area. As part of this support, a metadata portal has been built to provide a signposting service to datasets that are relevant to MSFD within the Celtic Seas. To ensure that the metadata has the widest possible reach, a linked data approach was employed to construct the database. Although the metadata are stored in a traditional RDBS, the metadata are exposed as linked data via the D2RQ platform, allowing virtual RDF graphs to be generated. SPARQL queries can be executed against the end-point allowing any user to manipulate the metadata. D2RQ's mapping language, based on turtle, was used to map a wide range of relevant ontologies to the metadata (e.g. The Provenance Ontology (prov-o), Ocean Data Ontology (odo), Dublin Core Elements and Terms (dc & dcterms), Friend of a Friend (foaf), and Geospatial ontologies (geo)) allowing users to browse the metadata, either via SPARQL queries or by using D2RQ's HTML interface. The metadata were further enhanced by mapping relevant parameters to the NERC Vocabulary Server, itself built on a SPARQL endpoint. Additionally, a custom web front-end was built to enable users to browse the metadata and express queries through an intuitive graphical user interface that requires no prior knowledge of SPARQL. As well as providing means to browse the data via MSFD-related parameters (Descriptor, Criteria, and Indicator), the metadata records include the dataset's country of origin, the list of organisations involved in the management of the data, and links to any relevant INSPIRE

  14. Gamma power in rural Pakistani children: Links to executive function and verbal ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Tarullo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Children in low- and middle-income countries are at high risk of cognitive deficits due to environmental deprivation that compromises brain development. Despite the high prevalence of unrealized cognitive potential, very little is known about neural correlates of cognition in this population. We assessed resting EEG power and cognitive ability in 105 highly disadvantaged 48-month-old children in rural Pakistan. An increase in EEG power in gamma frequency bands (21–30 Hz and 31–45 Hz was associated with better executive function. For girls, EEG gamma power also related to higher verbal IQ. This study identifies EEG gamma power as a neural marker of cognitive function in disadvantaged children in low- and middle-income countries. Elevated gamma power may be a particularly important protective factor for girls, who may experience greater deprivation due to gender inequality.

  15. High-Frequency Promoter Firing Links THO Complex Function to Heavy Chromatin Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouaikel, John; Causse, Sébastien Z; Rougemaille, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The THO complex is involved in transcription, genome stability, and messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) formation, but its precise molecular function remains enigmatic. Under heat shock conditions, THO mutants accumulate large protein-DNA complexes that alter the chromatin density of target genes...... (heavy chromatin), defining a specific biochemical facet of THO function and a powerful tool of analysis. Here, we show that heavy chromatin distribution is dictated by gene boundaries and that the gene promoter is necessary and sufficient to convey THO sensitivity in these conditions. Single......-molecule fluorescence insitu hybridization measurements show that heavy chromatin formation correlates with an unusually high firing pace of the promoter with more than 20 transcription events per minute. Heavy chromatin formation closely follows the modulation of promoter firing and strongly correlates with polymerase...

  16. Exponential Decline of Deep-Sea Ecosystem Functioning Linked to Benthic Biodiversity Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Danovaro, Roberto; Gambi, Cristina; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Vanreusel, Ann; Vincx, Magda; Gooday, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundRecent investigations suggest that biodiversity loss might impair the functioning and sustainability of ecosystems. Although deep-sea ecosystems are the most extensive on Earth, represent the largest reservoir of biomass, and host a large proportion of undiscovered biodiversity, the data needed to evaluate the consequences of biodiversity loss on the ocean floor are completely lacking.ResultsHere, we present a global-scale study based on 116 deep-sea sites that relates benthic biodi...

  17. Balanced translocation linked to psychiatric disorder, glutamate, and cortical structure/function

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Pippa A; Duff, Barbara; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Romaniuk, Liana; Watson, Andrew; Whalley, Heather C; Li, Xiang; Dauvermann, Maria R; Moorhead, T William J; Bois, Catherine; Ryan, Niamh M; Redpath, Holly; Hall, Lynsey; Morris, Stewart W; van Beek, Edwin J R

    2016-01-01

    Rare genetic variants of large effect can help elucidate the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Here we expand the clinical and genetic analyses of a family with a (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation multiply affected by major psychiatric illness and test the effect of the translocation on the structure and function of prefrontal, and temporal brain regions. The translocation showed significant linkage (LOD score 6.1) with a clinical phenotype that included schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorde...

  18. Remote sensing of Essential Biodiversity Variables: new measurements linking ecosystem structure, function and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, D.; Pavlick, R.; Stavros, E. N.; Townsend, P. A.; Ustin, S.; Thompson, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing can inform a wide variety of essential biodiversity variables, including measurements that define primary productivity, forest structure, biome distribution, plant communities, land use-land cover change and climate drivers of change. Emerging remote sensing technologies can add significantly to remote sensing of EBVs, providing new, large scale insights on plant and habitat diversity itself, as well as causes and consequences of biodiversity change. All current biodiversity assessments identify major data gaps, with insufficient coverage in critical regions, limited observations to monitor change over time, with very limited revisit of sample locations, as well as taxon-specific biased biases. Remote sensing cannot fill many of the gaps in global biodiversity observations, but spectroscopic measurements in terrestrial and marine environments can aid in assessing plant/phytoplankton functional diversity and efficiently reveal patterns in space, as well as changes over time, and, by making use of chlorophyll fluorescence, reveal associated patterns in photosynthesis. LIDAR and RADAR measurements quantify ecosystem structure, and can precisely define changes due to growth, disturbance and land use. Current satellite-based EBVs have taken advantage of the extraordinary time series from LANDSAT and MODIS, but new measurements more directly reveal ecosystem structure, function and composition. We will present results from pre-space airborne studies showing the synergistic ability of a suite of new remote observation techniques to quantify biodiversity and ecosystem function and show how it changes during major disturbance events.

  19. Linking functional and relational service quality to customer satisfaction and loyalty: differences between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M; Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peiró, José M; Moliner, Carolina

    2010-04-01

    This study assessed differences between men and women in the association of perceptions of service quality with customer evaluations. Functional (efficiency with which the service is delivered) and relational (customers' emotional benefits, beyond the core performance, related to the social interaction of customers with employees) dimensions of service quality were measured as well as customer satisfaction and loyalty. The sample of 277 customers (191 men, 86 women), surveyed in 29 Mexican hotels, had a mean age of 38.1 yr. (SD=9.7) for men and 34.5 yr. (SD=11.0) for women. To be eligible for survey, customers had to have spent at least one night in the hotel in question. Analysis indicated that the women and men differed in the association of functional and relational dimensions of service quality with their satisfaction and loyalty. Functional service quality was higher for the men than the women, while relational service quality showed greater predictive power for women than for men, although these accounted for only 4% of the customers' satisfaction variance and 6% of the loyalty variance.

  20. DNA-based stable isotope probing: a link between community structure and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Jecna, Katerina; Leigh, Mary Beth; Mackova, Martina; Macek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    DNA-based molecular techniques permit the comprehensive determination of microbial diversity but generally do not reveal the relationship between the identity and the function of microorganisms. The first direct molecular technique to enable the linkage of phylogeny with function is DNA-based stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP). Applying this method first helped describe the utilization of simple compounds, such as methane, methanol or glucose and has since been used to detect microbial communities active in the utilization of a wide variety of compounds, including various xenobiotics. The principle of the method lies in providing 13C-labeled substrate to a microbial community and subsequent analyses of the 13C-DNA isolated from the community. Isopycnic centrifugation permits separating 13C-labeled DNA of organisms that utilized the substrate from 12C-DNA of the inactive majority. As the whole metagenome of active populations is isolated, its follow-up analysis provides successful taxonomic identification as well as the potential for functional gene analyses. Because of its power, DNA-SIP has become one of the leading techniques of microbial ecology research. But from other point of view, it is a labor-intensive method that requires careful attention to detail during each experimental step in order to avoid misinterpretation of results.

  1. Impact of Chemical Cross-Linking on Protein Structure and Function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozbeský, Daniel; Rosůlek, Michal; Kukačka, Zdeněk; Chmelík, Josef; Man, Petr; Novák, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2018), s. 1104-1113 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-24309S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15010; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15089; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015043; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : TRANSFORM MASS-SPECTROMETRY * DISTANCE GEOMETRY METHOD * TOP-DOWN APPROACH Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  2. Adenosine Receptors in Developing and Adult Mouse Neuromuscular Junctions and Functional Links With Other Metabotropic Receptor Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomàs, Josep; Garcia, Neus; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Nadal, Laura; Hurtado, Erica; Simó-Ollé, Anna; Cilleros-Mañé, Víctor; Just-Borràs, Laia

    2018-01-01

    In the last few years, we have studied the presence and involvement in synaptogenesis and mature transmitter release of the adenosine autoreceptors (AR) in the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here, we review and bring together the previously published data to emphasize the relevance of these receptors for developmental axonal competition, synaptic loss and mature NMJ functional modulation. However, in addition to AR, activity-dependent mediators originating from any of the three cells that make the synapse (nerve, muscle, and glial cells) cross the extracellular cleft to generate signals in target metabotropic receptors. Thus, the integrated interpretation of the complementary function of all these receptors is needed. We previously studied, in the NMJ, the links of AR with mAChR and the neurotrophin receptor TrkB in the control of synapse elimination and transmitter release. We conclude that AR cooperate with these receptors through synergistic and antagonistic effects in the developmental synapse elimination process. In the adult NMJ, this cooperation is manifested so as that the functional integrity of a given receptor group depends on the other receptors operating normally (i.e., the functional integrity of mAChR depends on AR operating normally). These observations underlie the relevance of AR in the NMJ function.

  3. Adenosine Receptors in Developing and Adult Mouse Neuromuscular Junctions and Functional Links With Other Metabotropic Receptor Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Tomàs

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, we have studied the presence and involvement in synaptogenesis and mature transmitter release of the adenosine autoreceptors (AR in the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ. Here, we review and bring together the previously published data to emphasize the relevance of these receptors for developmental axonal competition, synaptic loss and mature NMJ functional modulation. However, in addition to AR, activity-dependent mediators originating from any of the three cells that make the synapse (nerve, muscle, and glial cells cross the extracellular cleft to generate signals in target metabotropic receptors. Thus, the integrated interpretation of the complementary function of all these receptors is needed. We previously studied, in the NMJ, the links of AR with mAChR and the neurotrophin receptor TrkB in the control of synapse elimination and transmitter release. We conclude that AR cooperate with these receptors through synergistic and antagonistic effects in the developmental synapse elimination process. In the adult NMJ, this cooperation is manifested so as that the functional integrity of a given receptor group depends on the other receptors operating normally (i.e., the functional integrity of mAChR depends on AR operating normally. These observations underlie the relevance of AR in the NMJ function.

  4. Imbalanced functional link between reward circuits and the cognitive control system in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunming; Ma, Lisha; Jiang, Nan; Huang, Ruyan; Li, Li; Gong, Liang; He, Cancan; Xiao, Chaoyong; Liu, Wen; Xu, Shu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-08-01

    Altered reward processing and cognitive deficits are often observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, whether the imbalance in activity between reward circuits and the cognitive control (CC) system is associated with compulsive behavior remains unknown. Sixty-eight OCD patients and 33 cognitively normal (CN) healthy subjects participated in this resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Alterations in the functional connectivity between reward circuits and the CC system were quantitatively assessed and compared between the groups. A Granger causality analysis was used to determine the causal informational influence between and within reward circuits and the CC system across all subjects. OCD patients showed a dichotomous pattern of enhanced functional coupling in their reward circuits and a weakened functional coupling in their CC system when compared to CN subjects. Neural correlates of compulsive behavior were primarily located in the reward circuits and CC system in OCD patients. Importantly, the CC system exerted a reduced interregional causal influence over the reward system in OCD patients relative to its effect in CN subjects. The limitations of this study are that it was a cross-sectional study and the potential effects of environmental and genetic factors were not explored. OCD patients showed an imbalance in the functional link between reward circuits and the CC system at rest. This bias toward a loss of control may define a pathological state in which subjects are more vulnerable to engaging in compulsive behaviors.

  5. Reconstructing Regional Ionospheric Electron Density: A Combined Spherical Slepian Function and Empirical Orthogonal Function Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Saeed; Forootan, Ehsan

    2018-03-01

    The computerized ionospheric tomography is a method for imaging the Earth's ionosphere using a sounding technique and computing the slant total electron content (STEC) values from data of the global positioning system (GPS). The most common approach for ionospheric tomography is the voxel-based model, in which (1) the ionosphere is divided into voxels, (2) the STEC is then measured along (many) satellite signal paths, and finally (3) an inversion procedure is applied to reconstruct the electron density distribution of the ionosphere. In this study, a computationally efficient approach is introduced, which improves the inversion procedure of step 3. Our proposed method combines the empirical orthogonal function and the spherical Slepian base functions to describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of electron density, respectively. Thus, it can be applied on regional and global case studies. Numerical application is demonstrated using the ground-based GPS data over South America. Our results are validated against ionospheric tomography obtained from the constellation observing system for meteorology, ionosphere, and climate (COSMIC) observations and the global ionosphere map estimated by international centers, as well as by comparison with STEC derived from independent GPS stations. Using the proposed approach, we find that while using 30 GPS measurements in South America, one can achieve comparable accuracy with those from COSMIC data within the reported accuracy (1 × 1011 el/cm3) of the product. Comparisons with real observations of two GPS stations indicate an absolute difference is less than 2 TECU (where 1 total electron content unit, TECU, is 1016 electrons/m2).

  6. The Fanconi anemia proteins FAA and FAC function in different cellular compartments to protect against cross-linking agent cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyt, F A; Youssoufian, H

    1998-10-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosomal instability, bone marrow failure, and a high risk of developing malignancies. Although the disorder is genetically heterogeneous, all FA cells are defined by their sensitivity to the apoptosis-inducing effect of cross-linking agents, such as mitomycin C (MMC). The cloned FA disease genes, FAC and FAA, encode proteins with no homology to each other or to any known protein. We generated a highly specific antibody against FAA and found the protein in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of mammalian cells. By subcellular fractionation, FAA is also associated with intracellular membranes. To identify the subcellular compartment that is relevant for FAA activity, we appended nuclear export and nuclear localization signals to the carboxy terminus of FAA and enriched its localization in either the cytoplasm or the nucleus. Nuclear localization of FAA was both necessary and sufficient to correct MMC sensitivity in FA-A cells. In addition, we found no evidence for an interaction between FAA and FAC either in vivo or in vitro. Together with a previous finding that FAC is active in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus, our results indicate that FAA and FAC function in separate subcellular compartments. Thus, FAA and FAC, if functionally linked, are more likely to be in a linear pathway rather than form a macromolecular complex to protect against cross-linker cytotoxicity.

  7. Mindfulness, Authentic Functioning, and Work Engagement: A Growth Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Hannes; Anseel, Frederik; Dimitrova, Nicoletta G.; Sels, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that mindfulness helps reduce symptoms of work stress but research has yet to clarify "whether" and "how" mindfulness is linked to work engagement. Using self-determination theory we hypothesize that mindfulness is positively related to work engagement and that this relationship can be better understood through…

  8. Mindfulness, authentic functioning, and work engagement: A growth modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leroy, H.; Anseel, F.; Dimitrova, N.G.; Sels, L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that mindfulness helps reduce symptoms of work stress but research has yet to clarify whether and how mindfulness is linked to work engagement. Using self-determination theory we hypothesize that mindfulness is positively related to work engagement and that this

  9. Survey of Quantification and Distance Functions Used for Internet-based Weak-link Sociological Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    1967), pp. 360–363. [6] M. Benzi, E. Estrada, and C. Klymko, Ranking hubs and authorities using matrix functions, Linear Algebra and its Applications...PageRank, Linear Algebra Appl. 386 (2004) 51-65. [26] R.H. Keshavan, A. Montanari, and S. Oh. Matrix completion from a few entries. IEEE Transactions on...P1 = 1/N , Pk+1 = GPk, ∀k = 1, 2, · · · (5) until the difference of Pk+1 and Pk within a given tolerance. For an elementary explanation of Google

  10. How to link geography, cross-curricular approach and inquiry in science education at the primary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvánková, Petra; Popjaková, Dagmar

    2018-05-01

    Pupil research in school lessons in the sense of Inquiry-Based Education (IBE) is one of the constructivist approaches to education. Inquiry strengthens the positive approach of pupils to natural science subjects, encouraging them to study phenomena and processes taking place in the natural environment around them and use the acquired knowledge in their practical life. Geography as a school subject, due to the multidisciplinary nature of geography as a science, is close to natural sciences as well. This is because of the broadness of the subject of geographical studies, the complex (natural and cultural) landscape. The close links of geography to all cross-sectional themes make it a good support for teaching classical science subjects at schools such as mathematics, physics, chemistry or biology, environmental education. Moreover, the field teaching is one of the strong assets of the implementation of IBE in the school geography. Presented case study on the 'effect of noise on the surroundings' explores the facts mentioned above, in geography teaching. It verifies the pupils' knowledge and skills to adopt the basic principles of IBE in the practice. At the same time, it presents the concrete experiences how the children master the individual stages of IBE during the process of education.

  11. Alzheimer’s Disease and HLA-A2: Linking Neurodegenerative to Immune Processes through an In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Cifuentes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a controversial relationship between HLA-A2 and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. It has been suggested a modifier effect on the risk that depends on genetic loadings. Thus, the aims of this study were to evaluate this relationship and to reveal genes associated with both concepts the HLA-A gene and AD. Consequently, we did first a classical systematic review and a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Next, by means of an in silico approach, we used experimental knowledge of protein-protein interactions to evaluate the top ranked genes shared by both concepts, previously found through text mining. The meta-analysis did not show a significant pooled OR (1.11, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.24 in Caucasians, in spite of the fact that four of the included studies had a significant OR > 1 and none of them a significant OR < 1. In contrast, the in silico approach retrieved nonrandomly shared genes by both concepts (P = 0.02, which additionally encode truly interacting proteins. The network of proteins encoded by APP, ICAM-1, ITGB2, ITGAL, SELP, SELL, IL2, IL1B, CD4, and CD8A linked immune to neurodegenerative processes and highlighted the potential roles in AD pathogenesis of endothelial regulation, infectious diseases, specific antigen presentation, and HLA-A2 in maintaining synapses.

  12. Soft Functional Silicone Elastomers with High Dielectric Permittivty: Simple Additives vs. Cross-Linked Synthesized Copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Though dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favorable properties, the issue of high driving voltages limits the commercial viability of the technology. Improved actuation at lower voltages can be obtained by decreasing the Young’s modulus and/or decreasing the dielectric permittivity of the elas......Though dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favorable properties, the issue of high driving voltages limits the commercial viability of the technology. Improved actuation at lower voltages can be obtained by decreasing the Young’s modulus and/or decreasing the dielectric permittivity...... of the elastomer. A decrease in Young’s modulus, however, is often accompanied by the loss of mechanical stability and thereby the lifetime of the DE whereas addition of high permittivity fillers such as metal oxides often increases Young’s modulus such that improved actuation is not accomplished. New soft...... silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity were prepared through the use of chloropropyl-functional silicones. One method was through the synthesis of modular cross-linkable chloropropyl-functional copolymers that allow for a high degree of chemical freedom such that a tuneable silicone...

  13. Shaping intercellular channels of plasmodesmata: the structure-to-function missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, William J; Grison, Magali S; Bayer, Emmanuelle M

    2017-12-18

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are a hallmark of the plant kingdom and a cornerstone of plant biology and physiology, forming the conduits for the cell-to-cell transfer of proteins, RNA and various metabolites, including hormones. They connect the cytosols and endomembranes of cells, which allows enhanced cell-to-cell communication and synchronization. Because of their unique position as intercellular gateways, they are at the frontline of plant defence and signalling and constitute the battleground for virus replication and spreading. The membranous organization of PD is remarkable, where a tightly furled strand of endoplasmic reticulum comes into close apposition with the plasma membrane, the two connected by spoke-like elements. The role of these structural features is, to date, still not completely understood. Recent data on PD seem to point in an unexpected direction, establishing a close parallel between PD and membrane contact sites and defining plasmodesmal membranes as microdomains. However, the implications of this new viewpoint are not fully understood. Aided by available phylogenetic data, this review attempts to reassess the function of the different elements comprising the PD and the relevance of membrane lipid composition and biophysics in defining specialized microdomains of PD, critical for their function. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. MELAS syndrome and cardiomyopathy: linking mitochondrial function to heart failure pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Han R; Yogasundaram, Haran; Parajuli, Nirmal; Valtuille, Lucas; Sergi, Consolato; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure remains an important clinical burden, and mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in its pathogenesis. The heart has a high metabolic demand, and mitochondrial function is a key determinant of myocardial performance. In mitochondrial disorders, hypertrophic remodeling is the early pattern of cardiomyopathy with progression to dilated cardiomyopathy, conduction defects and ventricular pre-excitation occurring in a significant proportion of patients. Cardiac dysfunction occurs in approximately a third of patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, a stereotypical example of a mitochondrial disorder leading to a cardiomyopathy. We performed unique comparative ultrastructural and gene expression in a MELAS heart compared with non-failing controls. Our results showed a remarkable increase in mitochondrial inclusions and increased abnormal mitochondria in MELAS cardiomyopathy coupled with variable sarcomere thickening, heterogeneous distribution of affected cardiomyocytes and a greater elevation in the expression of disease markers. Investigation and management of patients with mitochondrial cardiomyopathy should follow the well-described contemporary heart failure clinical practice guidelines and include an important role of medical and device therapies. Directed metabolic therapy is lacking, but current research strategies are dedicated toward improving mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disorders.

  15. Isolation of N-linked glycopeptides by hydrazine-functionalized magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shisheng; Yang, Ganglong; Wang, Ting; Wang, Qinzhe; Chen, Chao; Li, Zheng

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a novel combination of magnetic particles with hydrazine chemistry, dubbed as hydrazine-functionalized magnetic particles (HFMP) for isolation of glycopeptides. Four methods have been developed and compared for the production of HFMP by hydrazine modification of the surface of the carboxyl and epoxy-silanized magnetic particles, respectively. The evaluation of the capability and specificity of HFMP as well as the optimization of the coupling condition for capturing of glycoproteins were systematically investigated. The results showed that HFMP prepared by adipic dihydrazide functionalization from carboxyl-silanized magnetic particles (HFCA) displayed the maximum capture capacity and isolated efficiency for glycoprotein. When measured with glycoproteins, the capacity of the HFCA (1 g) for coupling bovine fetuin was 130 +/- 5.3 mg. The capability of this method was also confirmed by successful isolation of all formerly glycosylated peptides from standard glycoproteins and identification of their glycosylation sites, which demonstrated the feasibility of the HFCA as an alternative solid support for isolation of glycoproteins/glycopeptides.

  16. The Fanconi anaemia components UBE2T and FANCM are functionally linked to nucleotide excision repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Kelsall

    Full Text Available The many proteins that function in the Fanconi anaemia (FA monoubiquitylation pathway initiate replicative DNA crosslink repair. However, it is not clear whether individual FA genes participate in DNA repair pathways other than homologous recombination and translesion bypass. Here we show that avian DT40 cell knockouts of two integral FA genes--UBE2T and FANCM are unexpectedly sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage. Comprehensive genetic dissection experiments indicate that both of these FA genes collaborate to promote nucleotide excision repair rather than translesion bypass to protect cells form UV genotoxicity. Furthermore, UBE2T deficiency impacts on the efficient removal of the UV-induced photolesion cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Therefore, this work reveals that the FA pathway shares two components with nucleotide excision repair, intimating not only crosstalk between the two major repair pathways, but also potentially identifying a UBE2T-mediated ubiquitin-signalling response pathway that contributes to nucleotide excision repair.

  17. Fine-Tuning Nonhomogeneous Regression for Probabilistic Precipitation Forecasts: Unanimous Predictions, Heavy Tails, and Link Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebetsberger, Manuel; Messner, Jakob W.; Mayr, Georg J.

    2017-01-01

    functions for the optimization of regression coefficients for the scale parameter. These three refinements are tested for 10 stations in a small area of the European Alps for lead times from +24 to +144 h and accumulation periods of 24 and 6 h. Together, they improve probabilistic forecasts...... to obtain automatically corrected weather forecasts. This study applies the nonhomogenous regression framework as a state-of-the-art ensemble postprocessing technique to predict a full forecast distribution and improves its forecast performance with three statistical refinements. First of all, a novel split...... for precipitation amounts as well as the probability of precipitation events over the default postprocessing method. The improvements are largest for the shorter accumulation periods and shorter lead times, where the information of unanimous ensemble predictions is more important....

  18. [Potential protective role of nitric oxide and Hsp70 linked to functional foods in the atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Alejandra B; Manucha, Walter

    Atherosclerosis, one of the main pathologic entities considered epidemic and a worldwide public health problem, is currently under constant review as regards its basic determining mechanisms and therapeutic possibilities. In this regard, all patients afflicted with the disease exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation. Interestingly, nitric oxide - a known vasoactive messenger gas - has been closely related to the inflammatory, oxidative and mitochondrial dysfunctional process that characterizes atherosclerosis. In addition, it has recently been demonstrated that alterations in the bioavailability of nitric oxide would induce the expression of heat shock proteins. This agrees with the use of functional foods as a strategy to prevent both vascular aging and the development of atherosclerosis. Finally, a greater knowledge regarding the mechanisms implied in the development of atherosclerosis will enable proposing new and possible hygiene, health and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Nuclear Receptor Function and Cholesterol Gallstone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Carmen Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol gallstone disease is highly prevalent in western countries, particularly in women and some specific ethnic groups. The formation of water-insoluble cholesterol crystals is due to a misbalance between the three major lipids present in the bile: cholesterol, bile salts, and phospholipids. Many proteins implicated in biliary lipid secretion in the liver are regulated by several transcription factors, including nuclear receptors LXR and FXR. Human and murine genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, and pharmacological evidence is consistent with the relevance of these nuclear receptors in gallstone formation. In addition, there is emerging data that also suggests a role for estrogen receptor ESR1 in abnormal cholesterol metabolism leading to gallstone disease. A better comprehension of the role of nuclear receptor function in gallstone formation may help to design new and more effective therapeutic strategies for this highly prevalent disease condition.

  20. Incorporating Data Link Messaging into a Multi-function Display for General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    One objective of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project is to increase the capacity and utilization of small non-towered, non-radar equipped airports by transferring traffic management activities to an automated system and separation responsibilities to general aviation (GA) pilots. This paper describes the development of a research multi-function display (MFD) to support the interaction between pilots and an automated Airport Management Module (AMM). Preliminary results of simulation and flight tests indicate that adding the responsibility of monitoring other traffic for self-separation does not increase pilots subjective workload levels. Pilots preferred using the enhanced MFD to execute flight procedures, reporting improved situation awareness over conventional instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures.

  1. Topical antihistamines display potent anti-inflammatory activity linked in part to enhanced permeability barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Man, Mao-Qiang; Santiago, Juan-Luis

    2013-01-01

    antagonists likely oppose mast cell-derived histamines. In four immunologically diverse, murine disease models, characterized by either inflammation alone (acute irritant contact dermatitis, acute allergic contact dermatitis) or by prominent barrier abnormalities (subacute allergic contact dermatitis, atopic...... of epidermal differentiation, leading to thickened cornified envelopes; and (ii) enhanced epidermal lipid synthesis and secretion. As barrier homeostasis was enhanced to a comparable extent in mast cell-deficient mice, with no further improvement following application of topical H1/2r antagonists, H1/2r...... dermatitis), topical H1/2r agonists aggravated, whereas H1/2r antagonists improved, inflammation and/or barrier function. The apparent ability of topical H1r/2r antagonists to target epidermal H1/2r could translate into increased efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, likely due to decreased...

  2. Linking Activity and Function to Ecosystem Dynamics in a Coastal Bacterioplankton Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Michael Gifford

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For bacterial communities containing hundreds to thousands of distinct populations, connecting functional processes and environmental dynamics at high taxonomic resolution has remained challenging. Here we use the expression of ribosomal proteins (%RP as a proxy for in situ activity of 200 taxa within 20 metatranscriptomic samples in a coastal ocean time series encompassing both seasonal variability and diel dynamics. %RP patterns grouped the taxa into seven activity clusters with distinct profiles in functional gene expression and correlations with environmental gradients. Clusters 1-3 had their highest potential activity in the winter and fall, and included some of the most active taxa, while Clusters 4-7 had their highest potential activity in the spring and summer. Cluster 1 taxa were characterized by gene expression for motility and complex carbohydrate degradation (dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Cluster 2 taxa by transcription of genes for amino acid and aromatic compound metabolism and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy (Roseobacter. Other activity clusters were enriched in transcripts for proteorhodopsin and methylotrophy (Cluster 4; SAR11 and methylotrophs, photosynthesis and attachment (Clusters 5 and 7; Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes, Verucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes, and sulfur oxidation (Cluster 7; Gammaproteobacteria. The seasonal patterns in activity were overlain, and sometimes obscured, by large differences in %RP over shorter day-night timescales. Seventy-eight taxa, many of them heterotrophs, had a higher %RP activity index during the day than night, indicating strong diel activity at this coastal site. Emerging from these taxonomically- and time-resolved estimates of in situ microbial activity are predictions of specific ecological groupings of microbial taxa in a dynamic coastal environment.

  3. A Geometric Approach to Visualization of Variability in Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Weiyi

    2016-12-19

    We propose a new method for the construction and visualization of boxplot-type displays for functional data. We use a recent functional data analysis framework, based on a representation of functions called square-root slope functions, to decompose observed variation in functional data into three main components: amplitude, phase, and vertical translation. We then construct separate displays for each component, using the geometry and metric of each representation space, based on a novel definition of the median, the two quartiles, and extreme observations. The outlyingness of functional data is a very complex concept. Thus, we propose to identify outliers based on any of the three main components after decomposition. We provide a variety of visualization tools for the proposed boxplot-type displays including surface plots. We evaluate the proposed method using extensive simulations and then focus our attention on three real data applications including exploratory data analysis of sea surface temperature functions, electrocardiogram functions and growth curves.

  4. FunctSNP: an R package to link SNPs to functional knowledge and dbAutoMaker: a suite of Perl scripts to build SNP databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson-Haigh Nathan S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome association studies using highly dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are a set of methods to identify DNA markers associated with variation in a particular complex trait of interest. One of the main outcomes from these studies is a subset of statistically significant SNPs. Finding the potential biological functions of such SNPs can be an important step towards further use in human and agricultural populations (e.g., for identifying genes related to susceptibility to complex diseases or genes playing key roles in development or performance. The current challenge is that the information holding the clues to SNP functions is distributed across many different databases. Efficient bioinformatics tools are therefore needed to seamlessly integrate up-to-date functional information on SNPs. Many web services have arisen to meet the challenge but most work only within the framework of human medical research. Although we acknowledge the importance of human research, we identify there is a need for SNP annotation tools for other organisms. Description We introduce an R package called FunctSNP, which is the user interface to custom built species-specific databases. The local relational databases contain SNP data together with functional annotations extracted from online resources. FunctSNP provides a unified bioinformatics resource to link SNPs with functional knowledge (e.g., genes, pathways, ontologies. We also introduce dbAutoMaker, a suite of Perl scripts, which can be scheduled to run periodically to automatically create/update the customised SNP databases. We illustrate the use of FunctSNP with a livestock example, but the approach and software tools presented here can be applied also to human and other organisms. Conclusions Finding the potential functional significance of SNPs is important when further using the outcomes from whole genome association studies. FunctSNP is unique in that it is the only R

  5. Links between primary occupation and functional limitations among older adults in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social inequalities in health and disability are often attributed to differences in childhood adversity, access to care, health behavior, residential environments, stress, and the psychosocial aspects of work environments. Yet, disadvantaged people are also more likely to hold jobs requiring heavy physical labor, repetitive movement, ergonomic strain, and safety hazards. We investigate the role of physical work conditions in contributing to social inequality in mobility among older adults in Mexico, using data from the Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS and an innovative statistical modeling approach. We use data on categories of primary adult occupation to serve as proxies for jobs with more or less demanding physical work requirements. Our results show that more physically demanding jobs are associated with mobility limitations at older ages, even when we control for age and sex. Inclusion of job categories attenuates the effects of education and wealth on mobility limitations, suggesting that physical work conditions account for at least part of the socioeconomic differentials in mobility limitations in Mexico.

  6. Linking Microbial Community Structure and Function During the Acidified Anaerobic Digestion of Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Joyce

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting valuable bioproducts from various renewable feedstocks is necessary for the critical development of a sustainable bioeconomy. Anaerobic digestion is a well-established technology for the conversion of wastewater and solid feedstocks to energy with the additional potential for production of process intermediates of high market values (e.g., carboxylates. In recent years, first-generation biofuels typically derived from food crops have been widely utilized as a renewable source of energy. The environmental and socioeconomic limitations of such strategy, however, have led to the development of second-generation biofuels utilizing, amongst other feedstocks, lignocellulosic biomass. In this context, the anaerobic digestion of perennial grass holds great promise for the conversion of sustainable renewable feedstock to energy and other process intermediates. The advancement of this technology however, and its implementation for industrial applications, relies on a greater understanding of the microbiome underpinning the process. To this end, microbial communities recovered from replicated anaerobic bioreactors digesting grass were analyzed. The bioreactors leachates were not buffered and acidic pH (between 5.5 and 6.3 prevailed at the time of sampling as a result of microbial activities. Community composition and transcriptionally active taxa were examined using 16S rRNA sequencing and microbial functions were investigated using metaproteomics. Bioreactor fraction, i.e., grass or leachate, was found to be the main discriminator of community analysis across the three molecular level of investigation (DNA, RNA, and proteins. Six taxa, namely Bacteroidia, Betaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Methanomicrobia, and Negativicutes accounted for the large majority of the three datasets. The initial stages of grass hydrolysis were carried out by Bacteroidia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Negativicutes in the grass biofilms, in addition to

  7. Linking functional response and bioenergetics to estimate juvenile salmon growth in a reservoir food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Beauchamp, David A.; Bollens, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) use of reservoir food webs is understudied. We examined the feeding behavior of subyearling Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and its relation to growth by estimating the functional response of juvenile salmon to changes in the density of Daphnia, an important component of reservoir food webs. We then estimated salmon growth across a broad range of water temperatures and daily rations of two primary prey, Daphnia and juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima) using a bioenergetics model. Laboratory feeding experiments yielded a Type-II functional response curve: C = 29.858 P *(4.271 + P)-1 indicating that salmon consumption (C) of Daphnia was not affected until Daphnia densities (P) were < 30 · L-1. Past field studies documented Daphnia densities in lower Columbia River reservoirs of < 3 · L-1 in July but as high as 40 · L-1 in August. Bioenergetics modeling indicated that subyearlings could not achieve positive growth above 22°C regardless of prey type or consumption rate. When feeding on Daphnia, subyearlings could not achieve positive growth above 20°C (water temperatures they commonly encounter in the lower Columbia River during summer). At 16–18°C, subyearlings had to consume about 27,000 Daphnia · day-1 to achieve positive growth. However, when feeding on juvenile American shad, subyearlings had to consume 20 shad · day-1 at 16–18°C, or at least 25 shad · day-1 at 20°C to achieve positive growth. Using empirical consumption rates and water temperatures from summer 2013, subyearlings exhibited negative growth during July (-0.23 to -0.29 g · d-1) and August (-0.05 to -0.07 g · d-1). By switching prey from Daphnia to juvenile shad which have a higher energy density, subyearlings can partially compensate for the effects of higher water temperatures they experience in the lower Columbia River during summer. However, achieving positive growth as piscivores requires subyearlings to feed at

  8. Linking Microbial Community Structure and Function During the Acidified Anaerobic Digestion of Grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Aoife; Ijaz, Umer Z; Nzeteu, Corine; Vaughan, Aoife; Shirran, Sally L; Botting, Catherine H; Quince, Christopher; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Abram, Florence

    2018-01-01

    Harvesting valuable bioproducts from various renewable feedstocks is necessary for the critical development of a sustainable bioeconomy. Anaerobic digestion is a well-established technology for the conversion of wastewater and solid feedstocks to energy with the additional potential for production of process intermediates of high market values (e.g., carboxylates). In recent years, first-generation biofuels typically derived from food crops have been widely utilized as a renewable source of energy. The environmental and socioeconomic limitations of such strategy, however, have led to the development of second-generation biofuels utilizing, amongst other feedstocks, lignocellulosic biomass. In this context, the anaerobic digestion of perennial grass holds great promise for the conversion of sustainable renewable feedstock to energy and other process intermediates. The advancement of this technology however, and its implementation for industrial applications, relies on a greater understanding of the microbiome underpinning the process. To this end, microbial communities recovered from replicated anaerobic bioreactors digesting grass were analyzed. The bioreactors leachates were not buffered and acidic pH (between 5.5 and 6.3) prevailed at the time of sampling as a result of microbial activities. Community composition and transcriptionally active taxa were examined using 16S rRNA sequencing and microbial functions were investigated using metaproteomics. Bioreactor fraction, i.e., grass or leachate, was found to be the main discriminator of community analysis across the three molecular level of investigation (DNA, RNA, and proteins). Six taxa, namely Bacteroidia, Betaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Methanomicrobia, and Negativicutes accounted for the large majority of the three datasets. The initial stages of grass hydrolysis were carried out by Bacteroidia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Negativicutes in the grass biofilms, in addition to Clostridia in the

  9. Mayer Transfer Operator Approach to Selberg Zeta Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    . In a special situation the dynamical zeta function is defined for a geodesic flow on a hyperbolic plane quotient by an arithmetic cofinite discrete group. More precisely, the flow is defined for the corresponding unit tangent bundle. It turns out that the Selberg zeta function for this group can be expressed...... in terms of a Fredholm determinant of a classical transfer operator of the flow. The transfer operator is defined in a certain space of holomorphic functions and its matrix representation in a natural basis is given in terms of the Riemann zeta function and the Euler gamma function....

  10. Functional consequences of mutations in CDKL5, an X-linked gene involved in infantile spasms and mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Ilaria; Rusconi, Laura; Bolognese, Fabrizio; Forlani, Greta; Conca, Barbara; De Monte, Lucia; Badaracco, Gianfranco; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte

    2006-10-20

    Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been identified in patients with Rett syndrome, West syndrome, and X-linked infantile spasms sharing the common features of generally intractable early seizures and mental retardation. Disease-causing mutations are distributed in both the catalytic domain and in the large COOH terminus. In this report, we examine the functional consequences of some Rett mutations of CDKL5 together with some synthetically designed derivatives useful to underline the functional domains of the protein. The mutated CDKL5 derivatives have been subjected to in vitro kinase assays and analyzed for phosphorylation of the TEY (Thr-Glu-Tyr) motif within the activation loop, their subcellular localization, and the capacity of CDKL5 to interact with itself. Whereas wild-type CDKL5 autophosphorylates and mediates the phosphorylation of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in vitro, Rett-mutated proteins show both impaired and increased catalytic activity suggesting that a tight regulation of CDKL5 is required for correct brain functions. Furthermore, we show that CDKL5 can self-associate and mediate the phosphorylation of its own TEY (Thr-Glu-Tyr) motif. Eventually, we show that the COOH terminus regulates CDKL5 properties; in particular, it negatively influences the catalytic activity and is required for its proper sub-nuclear localization. We propose a model in which CDKL5 phosphorylation is required for its entrance into the nucleus whereas a portion of the COOH-terminal domain is responsible for a stable residency in this cellular compartment probably through protein-protein interactions.

  11. The cognitive nature of action - functional links between cognitive psychology, movement science, and robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schack, Thomas; Ritter, Helge

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the cognitive architecture of human action, showing how it is organized over several levels and how it is built up. Basic action concepts (BACs) are identified as major building blocks on a representation level. These BACs are cognitive tools for mastering the functional demands of movement tasks. Results from different lines of research showed that not only the structure formation of mental representations in long-term memory but also chunk formation in working memory are built up on BACs and relate systematically to movement structures. It is concluded that such movement representations might provide the basis for action implementation and action control in skilled voluntary movements in the form of cognitive reference structures. To simulate action implementation we discuss challenges and issues that arise when we try to replicate complex movement abilities in robots. Among the key issues to be addressed is the question how structured representations can arise during skill acquisition and how the underlying processes can be understood sufficiently succinctly to replicate them on robot platforms. Working towards this goal, we translate our findings in studies of motor control in humans into models that can guide the implementation of cognitive robot architectures. Focusing on the issue of manual action control, we illustrate some results in the context of grasping with a five-fingered anthropomorphic robot hand.

  12. Personal and cultural identity development in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca, Alan; Sabet, Raha F; Farrelly, Colleen M; Benitez, Cynthia G; Schwartz, Seth J; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Picariello, Simona; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M

    2017-07-01

    This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. The sample consisted of 302 recent (identity coherence and both ethnic and U.S. identity. Ethnic and U.S. affirmation/commitment (A/C) positively and indirectly predicted optimism and negatively predicted rule breaking and aggression through coherence. However, confusion predicted lower self-esteem and optimism and higher depressive symptoms, rule breaking, unprotected sex, and cigarette use. Results further indicated significant site differences. In Los Angeles (but not Miami), ethnic A/C also negatively predicted confusion. Given the direct effects of coherence and confusion on nearly every outcome, it may be beneficial for interventions to target personal identity. However, in contexts such as Los Angeles, which has at least some ambivalence toward recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents, it may be more beneficial for interventions to also target cultural identity to reduce confusion and thus promote positive development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The link between impaired theory of mind and executive function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Kai; Wu, Jianxian; Hong, Yongfeng; Zhao, Jingpu; Feng, Xiaojun; Xu, Mei; Wang, Min; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between theory of mind (ToM) deficits and executive function (EF) impairments in children with cerebral palsy (CP), 42 CP with children and 42 typically developing (TD) children, acting as controls, were assessed on the tasks of ToM (false belief and faux pas) and EF (inhibition, updating and shifting). Results showed that CP children had deficits both in ToM and EF tasks. The correlation analyses showed that two EF components (inhibition and updating) were strongly related to false belief and faux pas in both two groups. We also found correlation between shifting and false belief and faux pas. However, this correlation was only found in TD children and not in children with CP. These findings suggest that children with CP lag behind TD children in both ToM and EF. Further, the results reveal, interestingly, that ToM deficits in CP children might be related to their inhibition and updating impairments, but not to shifting impairments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-02

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Daily Parental Knowledge of Youth Activities Is Linked to Youth Physical Symptoms and HPA functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, Mean Age Youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on eight consecutive evenings. On four study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multi-level models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own eight-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. PMID:26751757

  16. Daily parental knowledge of youth activities is linked to youth physical symptoms and HPA functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on 8 consecutive evenings. On 4 study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multilevel models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own 8-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Establishing links between alcohol intake, cognitive functions and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toarba Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we studied the associations that might exist between alcohol consumption, cognitive functions and diabetic pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. The alcohol intake of 219 patients diagnosed with diabetes was classified into 6 groups: nondrinkers, 0.1-9.9, 10.0-14.9, 15.0-29.9, 30.0-49.9 and ≥ 50.0, according to the total amount (grams/day of alcohol consumption. Our results mainly confirm that moderate alcohol consumption can reduce some of the neuropathological aspects of T2D, as demonstrated by the decrease in glycemic levels in patients that consumed higher levels of alcohol (30.0-49.9 g/day, when compared to non-drinkers (p=0.04 or groups in which individuals consumed 0.1-9.9 g/day (p=0.01 and 10.0-14.9 g/day (p=0.02. Regarding the results of cognitive testing, we noticed a significant increase in the values of the MMSE score a lower dose of alcohol intake (0.1-9.9 g/day was compared with higher doses: 30.0-49.9 g/day (p=0.008 and ≥ 50.0 g/day (p=0.047.

  18. Resilience linked to personality dimensions, alexithymia and affective symptoms in motor functional neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilianhasanpour, Rozita; Williams, Benjamin; Gilman, Isabelle; Burke, Matthew J; Glass, Sean; Fricchione, Gregory L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; LaFrance, W Curt; Perez, David L

    2018-04-01

    Reduced resilience, a construct associated with maladaptive stress coping and a predisposing vulnerability for Functional Neurological Disorders (FND), has been under-studied compared to other neuropsychiatric factors in FND. This prospective case-control study investigated self-reported resilience in patients with FND compared to controls and examined relationships between resilience and affective symptoms, personality traits, alexithymia, health status and adverse life event burden. 50 individuals with motor FND and 47 healthy controls participated. A univariate test followed by a logistic regression analysis investigated group-level differences in Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) scores. For within-group analyses performed separately in patients with FND and controls, univariate screening tests followed by multivariate linear regression analyses examined factors associated with self-reported resilience. Adjusting for age, gender, education status, ethnicity and lifetime adverse event burden, patients with FND reported reduced resilience compared to controls. Within-group analyses in patients with FND showed that individual-differences in mental health, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness positively correlated with CD-RISC scores; post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depression, anxiety, alexithymia and neuroticism scores negatively correlated with CD-RISC scores. Extraversion independently predicted resilience scores in patients with FND. In control subjects, univariate associations were appreciated between CD-RISC scores and gender, personality traits, anxiety, alexithymia and physical health; conscientiousness independently predicted resilience in controls. Patients with FND reported reduced resilience, and CD-RISC scores covaried with other important predisposing vulnerabilities for the development of FND. Future research should investigate if the CD-RISC is predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with FND. Copyright

  19. Neurobehavioural and cognitive function is linked to childhood trauma in homeless adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluck, Graham; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; David, Rajan; Macleod, Diana C; Spence, Sean A; Parks, Randolph W

    2011-03-01

    To describe levels of traumatic childhood events in a sample of homeless individuals and to assess the contribution of traumatic events to neurobehavioural traits (measured with the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale, FrSBe) and general cognitive function (IQ). A sample of 55 homeless adults was recruited from homeless services in the city of Sheffield, UK. All were interviewed to acquire substance misuse information, record experiences of childhood trauma, and assess cognitive and neurobehavioural traits. Experiences of abuse and neglect were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants also completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and the FrSBe, which was completed with respect to current behaviour and conduct prior to homelessness. Around three-quarters of the sample scored in the clinically significant range for current neurobehavioural impairment. They also reported high levels of impairment when rating retrospectively for the period before they were homeless. The mean group IQ was below average at 88. Abuse or neglect during their upbringing was reported by 89% of the sample. Emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect were all positively correlated with total FrSBe scores. Sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect were all negatively correlated with IQ. The associations between trauma and IQ and neurobehavioural traits appear generally unrelated to the presence of substance misuse in the sample. Our homeless sample displayed relatively low IQ with high levels of neurobehavioural impairment. Our evidence suggests that these neuropsychological factors may, in part, constitute a long-term consequence of childhood trauma. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Influence of different positive emotions on persuasion processing: a functional evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Shiota, Michelle N; Neufeld, Samantha L

    2010-04-01

    Much research has found that positive affect facilitates increased reliance on heuristics in cognition. However, theories proposing distinct evolutionary fitness-enhancing functions for specific positive emotions also predict important differences among the consequences of different positive emotion states. Two experiments investigated how six positive emotions influenced the processing of persuasive messages. Using different methods to induce emotions and assess processing, we showed that the positive emotions of anticipatory enthusiasm, amusement, and attachment love tended to facilitate greater acceptance of weak persuasive messages (consistent with previous research), whereas the positive emotions of awe and nurturant love reduced persuasion by weak messages. In addition, a series of mediation analyses suggested that the effects distinguishing different positive emotions from a neutral control condition were best accounted for by different mediators rather than by one common mediator. These findings build upon approaches that link affective valence to certain types of processing, documenting emotion-specific effects on cognition that are consistent with functional evolutionary accounts of discrete positive emotions. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Experimentation on accuracy of non functional requirement prioritization approaches for different complexity projects

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Kumar Chopra; Varun Gupta; Durg Singh Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Non functional requirements must be selected for implementation together with functional requirements to enhance the success of software projects. Three approaches exist for performing the prioritization of non functional requirements using the suitable prioritization technique. This paper performs experimentation on three different complexity versions of the industrial software project using cost-value prioritization technique employing three approaches. Experimentation is conducted to analy...

  2. A mechanistic approach to link biological effects of radioactive substances from molecules to populations in wildlife species - A mechanistic approach to link biological effects of radionuclides from molecules to populations in wildlife species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, Frederic; Parisot, Florian; Plaire, Delphine; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Garnier- Laplace, Jacqueline [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul- Lez-Durance, 13115 (France)

    2014-07-01

    Understanding how toxic contaminants affect wildlife species at various levels of biological organisation (sub-cellular, histological, physiological, organism, population levels) is a major research goal in both ecotoxicology and radioecology. A mechanistic understanding of the links between the different observed perturbations is necessary to predict consequences for survival, growth and reproduction which are critical for population dynamics. However, time scales at which such links are established in the laboratory are rarely relevant for natural populations. With a small size and short life cycle, the cladoceran micro-crustacean Daphnia magna is a particularly suitable biological model for studying effects of radioactive contaminants over several generations. Multi-generational exposures are much more representative of the environmental context of field populations for which contaminations can last for durations which largely exceed individual longevity and involve exposure of many successive generations. Over the last decade, multi-generational investigations of toxic effects were conducted under controlled conditions in D. magna exposed to various radionuclides including depleted uranium, americium-241 and cesium-137, representing respectively a dominantly chemo-toxic metal, an alpha internal contamination and a gamma external radiation. Results showed in all cases that toxic effects on physiology and life history (survival, body size, fecundity) increased in severity across generations. These observations demonstrated that measured effects in one generation might not be representative of toxicity in the following offspring generations, and ultimately of the population response. Reduction in somatic growth and reproduction induced by uranium were analysed using the mechanistic modelling approach known as DEBtox (model of dynamic energy budget applied to toxicology). Modelling results suggested that uranium primarily affects assimilation. This metabolic mode

  3. Influence of the linking spacer length and type on the enantioseparation ability of β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jialiang; Xiao, Yuan; Lin, Yuanjing; Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Chang, Yiqun; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-05-15

    In order to investigate the effect of the linking spacer on the enantioseparation ability of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized polymeric monoliths, three β-CD-functionalized organic polymeric monoliths with different spacer lengths were prepared by using three amino-β-CDs, i.e. mono-6-amino-6-deoxy-β-CD, mono-6-ethylenediamine-6-deoxy-β-CD, mono-6-hexamethylenediamine-6-deoxy-β-CD, as starting materials. These amino-β-CDs reacted with glycidyl methacrylate to produce functional monomers which were then copolymerized with ethylene dimethacrylate. The enantioseparation ability of the three monoliths was evaluated using 14 chiral acidic compounds, including mandelic acid derivatives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, N-derivatized amino acids, and chiral herbicides under optimum chromatographic conditions. Notably, the poly(GMA-NH2-β-CD-co-EDMA) column provides higher enantioresolution and enantioselectivity than the poly(GMA-EDA-β-CD-co-EDMA) and poly(GMA-HDA-β-CD-co-EDMA) columns for most tested chiral analytes. Furthermore, the enantioseparation performance of triazole-linker containing monoliths was compared to that of ethylenediamine-linker containing monoliths. The results indicate that the enantioselectivity of β-CD monolithic columns is strongly related to the length and type of spacer tethering β-CD to the polymeric support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Loss of FANCC function is associated with failure to inhibit late firing replication origins after DNA cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, Randall A.; Gingras, Helene; Hockenbery, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) cells are abnormally sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents with increased levels of apoptosis and chromosomal instability. Defects in eight FA complementation groups inhibit monoubiquitination of FANCD2, and subsequent recruitment of FANCD2 to DNA damage and S-phase-associated nuclear foci. The specific functional defect in repair or response to DNA damage in FA cells remains unknown. Damage-resistant DNA synthesis is present 2.5-5 h after cross-linker treatment of FANCC, FANCA and FANCD2-deficient cells. Analysis of the size distribution of labeled DNA replication strands revealed that diepoxybutane treatment suppressed labeling of early but not late-firing replicons in FANCC-deficient cells. In contrast, normal responses to ionizing radiation were observed in FANCC-deficient cells. Absence of this late S-phase response in FANCC-deficient cells leads to activation of secondary checkpoint responses

  5. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  6. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  7. Functional Roles of Neural Preparatory Processes in a Cued Stroop Task Revealed by Linking Electrophysiology with Behavioral Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Mingzhou; Kluger, Benzi M

    2015-01-01

    performance provides a functional link between neural markers and the cognitive processes they index.

  8. Functional Roles of Neural Preparatory Processes in a Cued Stroop Task Revealed by Linking Electrophysiology with Behavioral Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    performance provides a functional link between neural markers and the cognitive processes they index.

  9. Linking the spatial patterns of organisms and abiotic factors to ecosystem function and management: insights from semi-arid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Maestre

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theoretical and modeling studies have demonstrated the ecological significance of the spatial patterning of organisms on ecosystem functioning and dynamics. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence that quantitatively shows how changes in the spatial patterns of the organisms forming biotic communities are directly related to ecosystem structure and functioning. In this article, I review a series of experiments and observational studies conducted in semi-arid environments from Spain (degraded calcareous shrubland, steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima, and gypsum shrublands to: 1 evaluate whether the spatial patterns of the dominant biotic elements in the community are linked to ecosystem structure and functioning, and 2 test if these patterns, and those of abiotic factors, can be used to improve ecosystem restoration. In the semiarid steppes we found a significant positive relationship between the spatial pattern of the perennial plant community and: i the water status of S. tenacissima and ii perennial species richness and diversity. Experimental plantings conducted in these steppes showed that S. tenacissima facilitated the establishment of shrub seedlings, albeit the magnitude and direction of this effect was dependent on rainfall conditions during the first yr after planting. In the gypsum shrubland, a significant, direct relationship between the spatial pattern of the biological soil crusts and surrogates of ecosystem functioning (soil bulk density and respiration was found. In a degraded shrubland with very low vegetation cover, the survival of an introduced population of the shrub Pistacia lentiscus showed marked spatial patterns, which were related to the spatial patterns of soil properties such as soil compaction and sand content. These results provide empirical evidence on the importance of spatial patterns for maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in semi-arid ecosystems

  10. Assessing Cognitive Function in Older Adults Using a Videoconference Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Costa Castanho

    2016-09-01

    Interpretation: Findings indicate for the range of settings where videoconference approaches can be used, and for their applicability and acceptability, providing an alternative to current cognitive assessment methods. Continued validation studies and adaptation of neuropsychological instruments is warranted.

  11. Using Loss Functions for DIF Detection: An Empirical Bayes Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy; Lewis, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Studied a method for flagging differential item functioning (DIF) based on loss functions. Builds on earlier research that led to the development of an empirical Bayes enhancement to the Mantel-Haenszel DIF analysis. Tested the method through simulation and found its performance better than some commonly used DIF classification systems. (SLD)

  12. A Qualitative Approach to Sketch the Graph of a Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alson, Pedro

    1992-01-01

    Presents a qualitative and global method of graphing functions that involves transformations of the graph of a known function in the cartesian coordinate system referred to as graphic operators. Explains how the method has been taught to students and some comments about the results obtained. (MDH)

  13. Persuading by addressing: a functional approach to speech-act ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phatic function, which, according to Jakobson (1960), provides the appropriate channel for communication, is of particular importance in this respect. If the channel does not work properly, the persuasive function will never fulfil its aim. In the following paper, a small corpus of English, Spanish and German advertising ...

  14. Linking dissolution to disintegration in immediate release tablets using image analysis and a population balance modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Wren, Stephen; Reynolds, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve an improved understanding of disintegration and dissolution phenomena for an immediate release tablet formulation, a technique to monitor the number and size of particles entrained within the dissolution media was developed in combination with a population balancing model. Tablets were first characterized for crushing force, disintegration time and dissolution performance using standard USP methodologies. The performance of the tablets was then assessed using a new measurement system which links a "QicPic" particle imaging device to a USP dissolution vessel. This system enables us to measure the number and size of particles generated during tablet dissolution. The population balance mathematical model allowed a tablet erosion rate to be manipulated to fit the experimental data. Results showed that tablets with differing crushing forces showed different dissolution behaviors that could be explained by differing rates of particle release into the dissolution media. These behaviors were then successfully modeled to provide a description of the dissolution and disintegration behavior of the tablets in terms of a tablet erosion rate. A new approach was developed that allowed the description of the dissolution behaviors of the tablets in terms of the rate that they release particles into solution. This was then successfully modeled in terms of a tablet erosion rate.

  15. Constraint Network Analysis (CNA): a Python software package for efficiently linking biomacromolecular structure, flexibility, (thermo-)stability, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Christopher; Rathi, Prakash Chandra; Klein, Doris L; Radestock, Sebastian; Gohlke, Holger

    2013-04-22

    For deriving maximal advantage from information on biomacromolecular flexibility and rigidity, results from rigidity analyses must be linked to biologically relevant characteristics of a structure. Here, we describe the Python-based software package Constraint Network Analysis (CNA) developed for this task. CNA functions as a front- and backend to the graph-based rigidity analysis software FIRST. CNA goes beyond the mere identification of flexible and rigid regions in a biomacromolecule in that it (I) provides a refined modeling of thermal unfolding simulations that also considers the temperature-dependence of hydrophobic tethers, (II) allows performing rigidity analyses on ensembles of network topologies, either generated from structural ensembles or by using the concept of fuzzy noncovalent constraints, and (III) computes a set of global and local indices for quantifying biomacromolecular stability. This leads to more robust results from rigidity analyses and extends the application domain of rigidity analyses in that phase transition points ("melting points") and unfolding nuclei ("structural weak spots") are determined automatically. Furthermore, CNA robustly handles small-molecule ligands in general. Such advancements are important for applying rigidity analysis to data-driven protein engineering and for estimating the influence of ligand molecules on biomacromolecular stability. CNA maintains the efficiency of FIRST such that the analysis of a single protein structure takes a few seconds for systems of several hundred residues on a single core. These features make CNA an interesting tool for linking biomacromolecular structure, flexibility, (thermo-)stability, and function. CNA is available from http://cpclab.uni-duesseldorf.de/software for nonprofit organizations.

  16. An Improved Ensemble of Random Vector Functional Link Networks Based on Particle Swarm Optimization with Double Optimization Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Qing-Hua; Song, Yu-Qing; Han, Fei; Yang, Dan; Huang, De-Shuang

    2016-01-01

    For ensemble learning, how to select and combine the candidate classifiers are two key issues which influence the performance of the ensemble system dramatically. Random vector functional link networks (RVFL) without direct input-to-output links is one of suitable base-classifiers for ensemble systems because of its fast learning speed, simple structure and good generalization performance. In this paper, to obtain a more compact ensemble system with improved convergence performance, an improved ensemble of RVFL based on attractive and repulsive particle swarm optimization (ARPSO) with double optimization strategy is proposed. In the proposed method, ARPSO is applied to select and combine the candidate RVFL. As for using ARPSO to select the optimal base RVFL, ARPSO considers both the convergence accuracy on the validation data and the diversity of the candidate ensemble system to build the RVFL ensembles. In the process of combining RVFL, the ensemble weights corresponding to the base RVFL are initialized by the minimum norm least-square method and then further optimized by ARPSO. Finally, a few redundant RVFL is pruned, and thus the more compact ensemble of RVFL is obtained. Moreover, in this paper, theoretical analysis and justification on how to prune the base classifiers on classification problem is presented, and a simple and practically feasible strategy for pruning redundant base classifiers on both classification and regression problems is proposed. Since the double optimization is performed on the basis of the single optimization, the ensemble of RVFL built by the proposed method outperforms that built by some single optimization methods. Experiment results on function approximation and classification problems verify that the proposed method could improve its convergence accuracy as well as reduce the complexity of the ensemble system.

  17. Complex Riccati equations as a link between different approaches for the description of dissipative and irreversible systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is essentially described in terms of complex quantities like wave functions. The interesting point is that phase and amplitude of the complex wave function are not independent of each other, but coupled by some kind of conservation law. This coupling exists in time-independent quantum mechanics and has a counterpart in its time-dependent form. It can be traced back to a reformulation of quantum mechanics in terms of nonlinear real Ermakov equations or equivalent complex nonlinear Riccati equations, where the quadratic term in the latter equation explains the origin of the phase-amplitude coupling. Since realistic physical systems are always in contact with some kind of environment this aspect is also taken into account. In this context, different approaches for describing open quantum systems, particularly effective ones, are discussed and compared. Certain kinds of nonlinear modifications of the Schrödinger equation are discussed as well as their interrelations and their relations to linear approaches via non-unitary transformations. The modifications of the aforementioned Ermakov and Riccati equations when environmental effects are included can be determined in the time-dependent case. From formal similarities conclusions can be drawn how the equations of time-independent quantum mechanics can be modified to also incluce the enviromental aspects.

  18. Advances in the indirect, descriptive, and experimental approaches to the functional analysis of problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Jade; Julio, Flávia; Virués-Ortega, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Experimental functional analysis is an assessment methodology to identify the environmental factors that maintain problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities and in other populations. Functional analysis provides the basis for the development of reinforcement-based approaches to treatment. This article reviews the procedures, validity, and clinical implementation of the methodological variations of functional analysis and function-based interventions. We present six variations of functional analysis methodology in addition to the typical functional analysis: brief functional analysis, single-function tests, latency-based functional analysis, functional analysis of precursors, and trial-based functional analysis. We also present the three general categories of function-based interventions: extinction, antecedent manipulation, and differential reinforcement. Functional analysis methodology is a valid and efficient approach to the assessment of problem behavior and the selection of treatment strategies.

  19. Linking top-down and bottom-up approaches for assessing the vulnerability of a 100 % renewable energy system in Northern-Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borga, Marco; Francois, Baptiste; Hingray, Benoit; Zoccatelli, Davide; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; brown, Casey

    2016-04-01

    Due to their variable and un-controllable features, integration of Variable Renewable Energies (e.g. solar-power, wind-power and hydropower, denoted as VRE) into the electricity network implies higher production variability and increased risk of not meeting demand. Two approaches are commonly used for assessing this risk and especially its evolution in a global change context (i.e. climate and societal changes); top-down and bottom-up approaches. The general idea of a top-down approach is to drive analysis of global change or of some key aspects of global change on their systems (e.g., the effects of the COP 21, of the deployment of Smart Grids, or of climate change) with chains of loosely linked simulation models within a predictive framework. The bottom-up approach aims to improve understanding of the dependencies between the vulnerability of regional systems and large-scale phenomenon from knowledge gained through detailed exploration of the response to change of the system of interest, which may reveal vulnerability thresholds, tipping points as well as potential opportunities. Brown et al. (2012) defined an analytical framework to merge these two approaches. The objective is to build, a set of Climate Response Functions (CRFs) putting in perspective i) indicators of desired states ("success") and undesired states ("failure") of a system as defined in collaboration with stakeholders 2) exhaustive exploration of the effects of uncertain forcings and imperfect system understanding on the response of the system itself to a plausible set of possible changes, implemented a with multi-dimensionally consistent "stress test" algorithm, and 3) a set "ex post" hydroclimatic and socioeconomic scenarios that provide insight into the differential effectiveness of alternative policies and serve as entry points for the provision of climate information to inform policy evaluation and choice. We adapted this approach for analyzing a 100 % renewable energy system within a region

  20. Green's function approach to calculate spin injection in quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Liew, Thomas; Teo, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical model to study spin injection (η) through a quantum dot system sandwiched by two ferromagnetic contacts. The effect of contact magnetization on η was studied using Green's function descriptions of the density of states. Green's function models have the advantages that coherent effects of temperature, electron occupation in the QD, and lead perturbation on the state wave function and hence the current can be formally included in the calculations. In addition, self-consistent treatment of current with applied electrochemical potential or lead conductivity, a necessary step which has not been considered in previous works, has also been implemented in our model

  1. Enhancement of biodiversity in energy farming: towards a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, M.; Dekker, J.

    1997-01-01

    When biomass is a substantial sustainable energy source, and special energy crops are grown on a large scale, land use and the environment of agriculture will be affected. Of these effects, biodiversity deserves special attention. The enhancement of biodiversity in energy farming via standard setting is the overall purpose of this project. In this study, the potential functionality of biodiversity in energy farming is proposed as a way of operationalising the rather abstract and broad concept of biodiversity. Functions of biodiversity are reviewed, and examples of functions are worked out, based on the current literature of nature in energy farming systems. (author)

  2. A Geometric Approach to Visualization of Variability in Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Weiyi; Kurtek, Sebastian; Bharath, Karthik; Sun, Ying

    2016-01-01

    observed variation in functional data into three main components: amplitude, phase, and vertical translation. We then construct separate displays for each component, using the geometry and metric of each representation space, based on a novel definition

  3. Continuation of probability density functions using a generalized Lyapunov approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, S.; Viebahn, J. P.; Mulder, T. E.; Kuehn, C.; Wubs, F. W.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Techniques from numerical bifurcation theory are very useful to study transitions between steady fluid flow patterns and the instabilities involved. Here, we provide computational methodology to use parameter continuation in determining probability density functions of systems of stochastic partial

  4. Fragmentation functions approach in pQCD fragmentation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolli, S.

    1996-07-01

    Next-to-leading order parton fragmentation functions into light mesons are presented. They have been extracted from real and simulated e + e - data and used to predict inclusive single particle distributions at different machines

  5. Initial Approaches for Discovery of Undocumented Functionality in FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    perform automated test pattern generation. The model is synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler to generate a netlist to be used by the isomorphic sub...commercial pressures such as IP protection, support cost, and time to market , modern COTS devices contain many functions that are not exposed to the...undocumented modes. Keywords: FPGA; Undocumented functionality; Knowledge-based partitioning; On-chip testing ; Partial reconfiguration; Sub-circuit

  6. Path probability of stochastic motion: A functional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Masayuki; Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    The path probability of a particle undergoing stochastic motion is studied by the use of functional technique, and the general formula is derived for the path probability distribution functional. The probability of finding paths inside a tube/band, the center of which is stipulated by a given path, is analytically evaluated in a way analogous to continuous measurements in quantum mechanics. Then, the formalism developed here is applied to the stochastic dynamics of stock price in finance.

  7. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. academic research fleet is an essential mobile observing platform for ocean science. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working with the fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve data from the underway sensor systems on each vessel. The R2R facility maintains a master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, and data sets. In less than two years, the catalog has grown to over 2,000 cruises including unique identifiers for vessel deployments, project titles, chief scientists, dates, ports, survey targets, and navigation tracks. This master catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in organizing, extending, and quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources. R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems routinely harvest and reuse our content. R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

  8. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R.; Chandler, C.; Clark, P.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program is developing infrastructure to routinely document, assess, and preserve the underway sensor data from U.S. academic research vessels. The R2R master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, data sets, event logs, and field reports has grown to over 2,200 cruises in less than two years, and is now accessible via Web services. This catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large inter/national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources. R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems harvest and reuse our content. R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) on a range of Linked Data pilot applications, including production of ISO-compliant metadata and deployment of a RDF Query Language (SPARQL) interface. Our objective is to support a distributed, loosely federated network of

  9. [Clinical Approach to Abdominal Pain as Functional Origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2018-02-25

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom that patients refer to a hospital. Organic causes should be differentiated in patients with abdominal pain and treatment should be administered in accordance with the causes. A meticulous history taking and physical examination are highly useful in making a diagnosis, and blood tests, imaging modalities, and endoscopy are useful for confirming diagnosis. However, in many cases, patients have functional disorders with no obvious abnormal findings obtained even if many diagnostic tests are performed. Patients with functional disorders usually complain the vague abdominal pain located in the center and other portions of the abdominal area. Although the most representative disease is irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pain syndrome is currently researched as a new disease entity of functional abdominal pain. As various receptors related to functional abdominal pain have been discovered, drugs associated with those receptors are used to treat the disorders, and additional new drugs are vigorously developed. In addition, medical therapy with pharmacological or non-pharmacological psychiatric treatment is effective for treating functional abdominal pain.

  10. An overview of the recent approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Costantini, E.; Jones, G. V.; Mocali, S.

    2014-11-01

    Notions of terroir and their conceptualization through agri-environmental sciences have become popular in many parts of world. Originally developed for wine, terroir now encompasses many other crops including fruits, vegetables, cheese, olive oil, coffee, cacao and other crops, linking the uniqueness and quality of both beverages and foods to the environment where they are produced, giving the consumer a sense of place. Climate, geology, geomorphology, and soil are the main environmental factors which compose the terroir effect at different scales. Often considered immutable at the cultural scale, the natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Due to both a greater need to better understand regional to site variations in crop production and the growth in spatial analytic technologies, the study of terroir has shifted from a largely descriptive regional science to a more applied, technical research field. Furthermore, the explosion of spatial data availability and sensing technologies has made the within-field scale of study more valuable to the individual grower. The result has been greater adoption but also issues associated with both the spatial and temporal scales required for practical applications, as well as the relevant approaches for data synthesis. Moreover, as soil microbial communities are known to be of vital importance for terrestrial processes by driving the major soil geochemical cycles and supporting healthy plant growth, an intensive investigation of the microbial organization and their function is also required. Our objective is to present an overview of existing data and modelling approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning at local and regional scales. This review will focus on three main areas of recent terroir research: (1) quantifying the influences of terroir components on plant growth

  11. The potential-free approach to the construction of the NN-wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitsky, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The traditional approaches to the nonrelativistic NN-interaction use local and nonlocal potentials of the kind defined by different dynamical speculations. The wave functions are obtained then from the Schroedinger equation with the chosen potential. Here the author obtains the wave functions (scattering wave function and bound state wave function) directly from the scattering phases in the frame of a dispersion approach without use of potential. (Auth.)

  12. Links between theory of mind and executive function in young children with autism: clues to developmental primacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2007-07-01

    There has been much theoretical discussion of a functional link between theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF) in autism. This study sought to establish the relationship between ToM and EF in young children with autism (M = 5 years, 6 months) and to examine issues of developmental primacy. Thirty children with autism and 40 typically developing children, matched on age and ability, were assessed on a battery of tasks measuring ToM (1st- and 2nd-order false belief) and components of EF (planning, set shifting, inhibition). A significant correlation emerged between ToM and EF variables in the autism group, independent of age and ability, while ToM and higher order planning ability remained significantly related in the comparison group. Examination of the pattern of ToM-EF impairments in the autism group revealed dissociations in 1 direction only: impaired ToM with intact EF. These findings support the view that EF may be 1 important factor in the advancement of ToM understanding in autism. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2007 APA.

  13. Functional neural correlates of mindfulness meditations in comparison with psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo effect. Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Brambilla, Paolo; Serretti, Alessandro

    2010-06-01

    Chiesa A, Brambilla P, Serretti A. Functional neural correlates of mindfulness meditations in comparison with psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo effect. Is there a link? Mindfulness meditations (MM) are a group of meditation practices which are increasingly receiving attention. The aim of the present work is to review current findings about the neural correlates of MM and compare such findings with other specific and non-specific treatments. A literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, ISI web of knowledge, the Cochrane database and references of retrieved articles. Studies which focused on the functional neural correlates of MM, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo published up to August 2009 were screened in order to be considered for the inclusion. Main findings suggest that long-term MM practice allows a more flexible emotional regulation by engaging frontal cortical structures to dampen automatic amygdala activation. A large overlap exists between cerebral areas activated during MM, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and those activated by placebo. However, while MM, psychotherapy and placebo seem to act through a top-down regulation, antidepressants seem to act through a bottom-up process. MM seem to target specific brain areas related to emotions and emotional regulation. Similar mechanisms have been observed also in other interventions, particularly psychotherapy.

  14. Role of integrin-linked kinase for functional capacity of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Christian; Boehm, Michael; Friedrich, Erik B.

    2008-01-01

    Number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are down-regulated in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a signal and adaptor protein that regulates survival of mature endothelial cells and vascular development. Here we show that EPC dysfunction in patients with CAD is paralleled by down-regulation of ILK while restoration of ILK expression rescues the migratory defect of CAD-EPCs. Human EPCs transduced with dominant-negative ILK (DN-ILK) display significantly reduced expression of CD34 + /VEGFR-2 + , DiI-Ac-LDL uptake, and Ulex europaeus lectin binding. Mechanistically, DN-ILK-transfected EPCs are characterized by decreased proliferation, while proliferation is increased in wild-type ILK-transfected EPCs. These effects are paralleled by changes in cyclin D1 expression, colony forming units, and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Functionally, ILK is necessary and sufficient for SDF-1-triggered migration and adhesion in EPCs. These data extend current knowledge about the role of ILK in EPC biology and implicate ILK as a therapeutic target in CAD.

  15. Engineered disulfide bonds restore chaperone-like function of DJ-1 mutants linked to familial Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Todd; Clark, Lindsay; Ray, Soumya S

    2010-07-13

    Loss-of-function mutations such as L166P, A104T, and M26I in the DJ-1 gene (PARK7) have been linked to autosomal-recessive early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Cellular and structural studies of the familial mutants suggest that these mutations may destabilize the dimeric structure. To look for common dynamical signatures among the DJ-1 mutants, short MD simulations of up to 1000 ps were conducted to identify the weakest region of the protein (residues 38-70). In an attempt to stabilize the protein, we mutated residue Val 51 to cysteine (V51C) to make a symmetry-related disulfide bridge with the preexisting Cys 53 on the opposite subunit. We found that the introduction of this disulfide linkage stabilized the mutants A104T and M26I against thermal denaturation, improved their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), and restored a chaperone-like function of blocking alpha-synuclein aggregation. The L166P mutant was far too unstable to be rescued by introduction of the V51C mutation. The results presented here point to the possible development of pharmacological chaperones, which may eventually lead to PD therapeutics.

  16. Functional complexity and ecosystem stability: an experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Voris, P.; O' Neill, R.V.; Shugart, H.H.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    The complexity-stability hypothesis was experimentally tested using intact terrestrial microcosms. Functional complexity was defined as the number and significance of component interactions (i.e., population interactions, physical-chemical reactions, biological turnover rates) influenced by nonlinearities, feedbacks, and time delays. It was postulated that functional complexity could be nondestructively measured through analysis of a signal generated from the system. Power spectral analysis of hourly CO/sub 2/ efflux, from eleven old-field microcosms, was analyzed for the number of low frequency peaks and used to rank the functional complexity of each system. Ranking of ecosystem stability was based on the capacity of the system to retain essential nutrients and was measured by net loss of Ca after the system was stressed. Rank correlation supported the hypothesis that increasing ecosystem functional complexity leads to increasing ecosystem stability. The results indicated that complex functional dynamics can serve to stabilize the system. The results also demonstrated that microcosms are useful tools for system-level investigations.

  17. Polymer density functional theory approach based on scaling second-order direct correlation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2006-06-01

    A second-order direct correlation function (DCF) from solving the polymer-RISM integral equation is scaled up or down by an equation of state for bulk polymer, the resultant scaling second-order DCF is in better agreement with corresponding simulation results than the un-scaling second-order DCF. When the scaling second-order DCF is imported into a recently proposed LTDFA-based polymer DFT approach, an originally associated adjustable but mathematically meaningless parameter now becomes mathematically meaningful, i.e., the numerical value lies now between 0 and 1. When the adjustable parameter-free version of the LTDFA is used instead of the LTDFA, i.e., the adjustable parameter is fixed at 0.5, the resultant parameter-free version of the scaling LTDFA-based polymer DFT is also in good agreement with the corresponding simulation data for density profiles. The parameter-free version of the scaling LTDFA-based polymer DFT is employed to investigate the density profiles of a freely jointed tangent hard sphere chain near a variable sized central hard sphere, again the predictions reproduce accurately the simulational results. Importance of the present adjustable parameter-free version lies in its combination with a recently proposed universal theoretical way, in the resultant formalism, the contact theorem is still met by the adjustable parameter associated with the theoretical way.

  18. Exploring the link between innate immune activation and thymic function by measuring sCD14 and TRECs in HIV patients living in Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien De Voeght

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation is now viewed as a central event in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation during HIV infection. Thymic function failure is another crucial factor involved in HIV disease progression. The goal of this study was to explore the hypothesis of potential links between microbial translocation and thymic function in HIV-1 patients living in Belgium. The extent of microbial translocation was assessed through the measurement of soluble CD14 (sCD14. T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTRECs and dβTRECs were used as a measure of thymic function. Data were collected from 75 HIV-infected patients. Simple and complex linear regressions were done to analyze the link between these two processes. We found a statistically relevant negative correlation between thymopoiesis (sjTREC and sCD14 level (p = 0.004. These results suggest a link between thymic function failure, microbial translocation and innate immune activation.

  19. Assessment of derelict soil quality: Abiotic, biotic and functional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Quentin; Auclerc, Apolline; Beguiristain, Thierry; Leyval, Corinne

    2018-02-01

    The intensification and subsequent closing down of industrial activities during the last century has left behind large surfaces of derelict lands. Derelict soils have low fertility, can be contaminated, and many of them remain unused. However, with the increasing demand of soil surfaces, they might be considered as a resource, for example for non-food biomass production. The study of their physico-chemical properties and of their biodiversity and biological activity may provide indications for their potential re-use. The objective of our study was to investigate the quality of six derelict soils, considering abiotic, biotic, and functional parameters. We studied (i) the soil bacteria, fungi, meso- and macro-fauna and plant communities of six different derelict soils (two from coking plants, one from a settling pond, two constructed ones made from different substrates and remediated soil, and an inert waste storage one), and (ii) their decomposition function based on the decomposer trophic network, enzyme activities, mineralization activity, and organic pollutant degradation. Biodiversity levels in these soils were high, but all biotic parameters, except the mycorrhizal colonization level, discriminated them. Multivariate analysis showed that biotic parameters co-varied more with fertility proxies than with soil contamination parameters. Similarly, functional parameters significantly co-varied with abiotic parameters. Among functional parameters, macro-decomposer proportion, enzyme activity, average mineralization capacity, and microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders were useful to discriminate the soils. We assessed their quality by combining abiotic, biotic, and functional parameters: the compost-amended constructed soil displayed the highest quality, while the settling pond soil and the contaminated constructed soil displayed the lowest. Although differences among the soils were highlighted, this study shows that derelict soils may provide a

  20. Synergetic approach of norm and pathology of living system functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asqarov, B.; Oksengendler, B.L.; Turaeva, N.N.; Karimov, Z.; Rafikova, Z.B.

    2011-01-01

    Basing on fundamental idea of dynamical chaos and strict periodicity in living systems the new peculiarities in brain and heart functioning have been reveled. It has been shown that the development of pathological states of brain and heart activities occurs by means of both increase and decrease of chaos components in brain activity and heart rhythm. It has been defined the 'health range' for brain and heart functioning in norm, and the method of recovery of the health range is proposed from the electrocardiograms and electroencephalograms data (authors).

  1. Approaches to organizing public relations functions in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Bonnie; Williams, David R; Aldridge, Alicia; Roggenkamp, Susan D

    2007-01-01

    This article provides health care audiences with a framework for understanding different perspectives of the role and functions of public relations in healthcare organizations and the resultant alternatives for organizing and enacting public relations functions. Using an example of a current issue receiving much attention in US healthcare (improving rates of organ donation), the article provides examples of how these different perspectives influence public relations goals and objectives, definitions of 'public', activities undertaken, who undertakes them and where they fit into the organizational hierarchy.

  2. Pleiotropic functions of embryonic sonic hedgehog expression link jaw and taste bud amplification with eye loss during cavefish evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Byerly, Mardi S; Jackman, William R; Jeffery, William R

    2009-06-01

    This study addresses the role of sonic hedgehog (shh) in increasing oral-pharyngeal constructive traits (jaws and taste buds) at the expense of eyes in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. In cavefish embryos, eye primordia degenerate under the influence of hyperactive Shh signaling. In concert, cavefish show amplified jaw size and taste bud numbers as part of a change in feeding behavior. To determine whether pleiotropic effects of hyperactive Shh signaling link these regressive and constructive traits, shh expression was compared during late development of the surface-dwelling (surface fish) and cave-dwelling (cavefish) forms of Astyanax. After an initial expansion along the midline of early embryos, shh was elevated in the oral-pharyngeal region in cavefish and later was confined to taste buds. The results of shh inhibition and overexpression experiments indicate that Shh signaling has an important role in oral and taste bud development. Conditional overexpression of an injected shh transgene at specific times in development showed that taste bud amplification and eye degeneration are sensitive to shh overexpression during the same early developmental period, although taste buds are not formed until much later. Genetic crosses between cavefish and surface fish revealed an inverse relationship between eye size and jaw size/taste bud number, supporting a link between oral-pharyngeal constructive traits and eye degeneration. The results suggest that hyperactive Shh signaling increases oral and taste bud amplification in cavefish at the expense of eyes. Therefore, selection for constructive oral-pharyngeal traits may be responsible for eye loss during cavefish evolution via pleiotropic function of the Shh signaling pathway.

  3. Applying an ecosystem service approach to unravel links between ecosystems and society in the coast of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan, Silvia; Gelcich, Stefan; Ospina-Alvarez, Andres; Perez-Matus, Alejandro; Fernandez, Miriam

    2015-11-15

    Ecosystem-based management implies understanding feedbacks between ecosystems and society. Such understanding can be approached with the Drivers-Pressures-State change-Impacts-Response framework (DPSIR), incorporating stakeholders' preferences for ecosystem services to assess impacts on society. This framework was adapted to six locations in the central coast of Chile, where artisanal fisheries coexist with an increasing influx of tourists, and a set of fisheries management areas alternate with open access areas and a no-take Marine Protected Area (MPA). The ecosystem services in the study area were quantified using biomass and species richness in intertidal and subtidal areas as biological indicators. The demand for ecosystem services was elicited by interviews to the principal groups of users. Our results evidenced decreasing landings and a negative perception of fishermen on temporal trends of catches. The occurrence of recreational fishing was negligible, although the consumption of seafood by tourists was relatively high. Nevertheless, the consumption of organisms associated to the study system was low, which could be linked, amongst other factors, to decreasing catches. The comparison of biological indicators between management regimens provided variable results, but a positive effect of management areas and the MPA on some of the metrics was observed. The prioritising of ecosystem attributes by tourists was highly homogenous across the six locations, with "scenic beauty" consistently selected as the preferred attribute, followed by "diversity". The DPSIR framework illustrated the complex interactions existing in these locations, with weak linkages between society's priorities, existing management objectives and the state of biological communities. Overall, this work improved our knowledge on relations between components of coastal areas in central Chile, of paramount importance to advance towards an ecosystem-based management in the area. Copyright © 2015

  4. Functional brain laterality in adulthood ADHD : A dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    The present thesis aimed to address functional brain laterality and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults, from a dimensional perspective. The dimensional perspective assumes that ADHD symptoms are normally distributed in general population and those scoring at the

  5. Fresnel representation of the Wigner function: an operational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougovski, P; Solano, E; Zhang, Z M; Walther, H; Mack, H; Schleich, W P

    2003-07-04

    We present an operational definition of the Wigner function. Our method relies on the Fresnel transform of measured Rabi oscillations and applies to motional states of trapped atoms as well as to field states in cavities. We illustrate this technique using data from recent experiments in ion traps [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1796 (1996)

  6. Graph approach to the gradient expansion of density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, P.M.; Nalewajski, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    A graph representation of terms in the gradient expansion of the kinetic energy density functional is presented. They briefly discuss the implications of the virial theorem for the graph structure and relations between possible graphs at a given order of expansion

  7. A Functional Approach to Televised Political Spots: Acclaiming, Attacking, Defending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Pier, P. M.; Blaney, Joseph R.

    1997-01-01

    Articulates a theoretical framework for understanding the fundamental functions of political advertising (acclaiming, attacking, defending) which occur on the twin grounds of policy considerations and character. Applies this theory of political discourse to presidential general election television spots from 1980-1996, finding that Democrats and…

  8. Newer Approaches to Identify Potential Untoward Effects in Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Palma Ann; Birkenbach, Victoria L; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has greatly accelerated the numbers and variety of food and beverage products available worldwide. The exchange among greater numbers of countries, manufacturers, and products in the United States and worldwide has necessitated enhanced quality measures for nutritional products for larger populations increasingly reliant on functionality. These functional foods, those that provide benefit beyond basic nutrition, are increasingly being used for their potential to alleviate food insufficiency while enhancing quality and longevity of life. In the United States alone, a steady import increase of greater than 15% per year or 24 million shipments, over 70% products of which are food related, is regulated under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This unparalleled growth has resulted in the need for faster, cheaper, and better safety and efficacy screening methods in the form of harmonized guidelines and recommendations for product standardization. In an effort to meet this need, the in vitro toxicology testing market has similarly grown with an anticipatory 15% increase between 2010 and 2015 of US$1.3 to US$2.7 billion. Although traditionally occupying a small fraction of the market behind pharmaceuticals and cosmetic/household products, the scope of functional food testing, including additives/supplements, ingredients, residues, contact/processing, and contaminants, is potentially expansive. Similarly, as functional food testing has progressed, so has the need to identify potential adverse factors that threaten the safety and quality of these products. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Filling the gap between sequence and function: a bioinformatics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargsten, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on deriving function from sequence information, with the emphasis on plant sequence data. Unravelling the impact of genomic elements, in most cases genes, on the phenotype of an organism is a major challenge in biological research and modern plant

  10. A Derivational Approach to the Operational Semantics of Functional Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata

    We study the connections between different forms of operational semantics for functional programming languages and we present systematic methods of interderiving reduction semantics, abstract machines and higher-order evaluators. We first consider two methods based on program transformations: a s...

  11. The impact of legislation on divorce: a hazard function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, M P

    1995-01-01

    "The paper examines the impact of the introduction of no-fault divorce legislation in Australia. The approach used is rather novel, a hazard model of the divorce rate is estimated with the role of legislation captured via a time-varying covariate. The paper concludes that contrary to U.S. empirical evidence, no-fault divorce legislation appears to have had a positive impact upon the divorce rate in Australia." excerpt

  12. A Radial Basis Function Approach to Financial Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    consequently this approach is at the core of a large fraction of the portfolio management systems today. The Capital Asset Pricing Model ( CAPM ). due...representation used by each method. but of course a critical concern is how to actually estimate the parameters of the models. To sonic extent these...model fitting unseen data nicely depends critically on maintaining a balance between the number of data points used for estimation and the number of

  13. Teaching Mathematical Functions Using Geometric Functions Approach and Its Effect on Ninth Grade Students' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçakin, Veysel

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of using geometric functions approach on 9th grade students' motivation levels toward mathematics in functions unit. Participants of this study were 87 students who were ongoing in the first year of high school in Turkey. In this research, pretest and posttest control group quasiexperimental…

  14. A Functional Approach to Hyperspectral Image Analysis in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Lindholm, D. M.; Coddington, O.; Pilewskie, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral image volumes are very large. A hyperspectral image analysis (HIA) may use 100TB of data, a huge barrier to their use. Hylatis is a new NASA project to create a toolset for HIA. Through web notebook and cloud technology, Hylatis will provide a more interactive experience for HIA by defining and implementing concepts and operations for HIA, identified and vetted by subject matter experts, and callable within a general purpose language, particularly Python. Hylatis leverages LaTiS, a data access framework developed at LASP. With an OPeNDAP compliant interface plus additional server side capabilities, the LaTiS API provides a uniform interface to virtually any data source, and has been applied to various storage systems, including: file systems, databases, remote servers, and in various domains including: space science, systems administration and stock quotes. In the LaTiS architecture, data `adapters' read data into a data model, where server-side computations occur. Data `writers' write data from the data model into the desired format. The Hylatis difference is the data model. In LaTiS, data are represented as mathematical functions of independent and dependent variables. Domain semantics are not present at this level, but are instead present in higher software layers. The benefit of a domain agnostic, mathematical representation is having the power of math, particularly functional algebra, unconstrained by domain semantics. This agnosticism supports reusable server side functionality applicable in any domain, such as statistical, filtering, or projection operations. Algorithms to aggregate or fuse data can be simpler because domain semantics are separated from the math. Hylatis will map the functional model onto the Spark relational interface, thereby adding a functional interface to that big data engine.This presentation will discuss Hylatis goals, strategies, and current state.

  15. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure

  16. A hybrid fuzzy MCDM approach to maintenance Quality Function Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy George Valavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance Quality Function Deployment (MQFD is a model, which enhances the synergic power of Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. One of the crucial and important steps during the implementation of MQFD is the determination of the importance or weightages of the critical factors (CF and sub factors (SF. The CFs and SFs have to be compared precisely for the successful implementation of MQFD. The crisp pair-wise comparison in the conventional Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP may be insufficient to determine the degree of weightage of CFs and SFs where vagueness and uncetainties are associated. In this paper, a modification of AHP based MQFD by incorporating fuzzy operations is proposed, which can improve the accuracy of determination of the weightages. A case study showing the applicability of this method is illustrated in this paper.

  17. A genetic approach to understanding asthma and lung function development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    that are most robustly associated with persistent and severe childhood onset asthma. However, it is unknown how the 17q21 common variants are associated with the persistence of symptoms into adulthood. In paper II,we investigated the effect of the 17q21 locus on current adult asthma and related traits......Asthma is a common heritable disease of the airways with recurrent episodes of symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction that has increased dramatically in prevalence. The disease is highly heterogeneous with varying age at onset and clinical presentation and most likely represents several...... responsiveness, but were associated with lung function growth. This suggests that these loci do not exert their effects prenatally and indicate a potential window of opportunity in early childhood for preventing lung function decline and maintaining respiratory health. The 17q21 locus harbors common variants...

  18. Constructing and deriving reciprocal trigonometric relations: a functional analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed by tests of novel relations. Experiment 2 addressed training in accordance with frames of coordination (same as) and frames of opposition (reciprocal of) followed by more tests of novel relations. All assessments of derived and novel formula-to-graph relations, including reciprocal functions with diversified amplitude and frequency transformations, indicated that all 4 participants demonstrated substantial improvement in their ability to identify increasingly complex trigonometric formula-to-graph relations pertaining to same as and reciprocal of to establish mathematically complex repertoires.

  19. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcoba, Diego R. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis, E-mail: qfplapel@lg.ehu.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Massaccesi, Gustavo E. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Ciclo Básico Común, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oña, Ofelia B. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CCT La Plata, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, CC 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-06-21

    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.

  20. DevOps for network function virtualisation: an architectural approach

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, H.; Draexler, S.; Peuster, M.; Galis, A.; Bredel, M.; Ramos, A.; Martrat, J.; Siddiqui, M. S.; Van Rossem, S.; Tavernier, W.; Xilouris, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Service Programming and Orchestration for Virtualised Software Networks (SONATA) project targets both the flexible programmability of software networks and the optimisation of their deployments by means of integrating Development and Operations in order to accelerate industry adoption of software networks and reduce time-to-market for networked services. SONATA supports network function chaining and orchestration, making service platforms modular and easier to customise to the needs of di...

  1. NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT TRACEABILITY AUTOMATION-AN MOBILE MULTIMEDIA APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    J. Selvakumar; M. Rajaram

    2012-01-01

    Requirements Engineering (RE) is the area of software engineering that deals with the discovery and specification of the objectives for the system under development and the environment in which it is used including the human activities it supports. Requirement Elicitation is process of gathering requirements from stakeholders. Incorporating RE to identify non Functional Requirements (NFR) in early stages of design and implementation avoids ambiguities, conflicting requirement and other defect...

  2. Asymptotic Performance Analysis of the k-th Best Link Selection over Wireless Fading Channels: An Extreme Value Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Badarneh, Yazan Hussein

    2018-01-25

    We consider a general selection-diversity (SD) scheme in which the k-th best link is selected from a number of links. We use extreme value theory (EVT) to derive simple closed-form asymptotic expressions for the average throughput, effective throughput and average bit error probability (BEP) for the k-th best link over various channel models that are widely used to characterize fading in wireless communication systems. As an application example, we consider the Weibull fading channel model and verify the accuracy of the derived asymptotic expressions through Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Asymptotic Performance Analysis of the k-th Best Link Selection over Wireless Fading Channels: An Extreme Value Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Badarneh, Yazan Hussein; Georghiades, Costas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    We consider a general selection-diversity (SD) scheme in which the k-th best link is selected from a number of links. We use extreme value theory (EVT) to derive simple closed-form asymptotic expressions for the average throughput, effective throughput and average bit error probability (BEP) for the k-th best link over various channel models that are widely used to characterize fading in wireless communication systems. As an application example, we consider the Weibull fading channel model and verify the accuracy of the derived asymptotic expressions through Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Experimentation on accuracy of non functional requirement prioritization approaches for different complexity projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Chopra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non functional requirements must be selected for implementation together with functional requirements to enhance the success of software projects. Three approaches exist for performing the prioritization of non functional requirements using the suitable prioritization technique. This paper performs experimentation on three different complexity versions of the industrial software project using cost-value prioritization technique employing three approaches. Experimentation is conducted to analyze the accuracy of individual approaches and the variation of accuracy with the complexity of the software project. The results indicate that selecting non functional requirements separately, but in accordance with functionality has higher accuracy amongst the other two approaches. Further, likewise other approaches, it witnesses the decrease in accuracy with increase in software complexity but the decrease is minimal.

  5. Change classification in SAR time series: a functional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Markus; Thiele, Antje; Schulz, Karsten; Hinz, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Change detection represents a broad field of research in SAR remote sensing, consisting of many different approaches. Besides the simple recognition of change areas, the analysis of type, category or class of the change areas is at least as important for creating a comprehensive result. Conventional strategies for change classification are based on supervised or unsupervised landuse / landcover classifications. The main drawback of such approaches is that the quality of the classification result directly depends on the selection of training and reference data. Additionally, supervised processing methods require an experienced operator who capably selects the training samples. This training step is not necessary when using unsupervised strategies, but nevertheless meaningful reference data must be available for identifying the resulting classes. Consequently, an experienced operator is indispensable. In this study, an innovative concept for the classification of changes in SAR time series data is proposed. Regarding the drawbacks of traditional strategies given above, it copes without using any training data. Moreover, the method can be applied by an operator, who does not have detailed knowledge about the available scenery yet. This knowledge is provided by the algorithm. The final step of the procedure, which main aspect is given by the iterative optimization of an initial class scheme with respect to the categorized change objects, is represented by the classification of these objects to the finally resulting classes. This assignment step is subject of this paper.

  6. On the functional integral approach in quantum statistics. 1. Some approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xianxi.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper the susceptibility of a Kondo system in a fairly wide temperature region is calculated in the first harmonic approximation in a functional integral approach. The comparison with that of the renormalization group theory shows that in this region the two results agree quite well. The expansion of the partition function with infinite independent harmonics for the Anderson model is studied. Some symmetry relations are generalized. It is a challenging problem to develop a functional integral approach including diagram analysis, mixed mode effects and some exact relations in the Anderson system proved in the functional integral approach. These topics will be discussed in the next paper. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain - a link between brain morphology and function, imaging of the functional status of the brain on a detailed anatomic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenberger, J.; Seidl, Z.; Ruzicka, E.; Jech, R.; Krasensky, J.

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles of functional magnetic resonance imaging are outlined. The current status of knowledge and ideas for a future development are highlighted. The application fields of this technique include neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry. The method also serves as a research tool, where it may prove helpful in solving problems of sleep disorder and the generation and perception of speech. A brief overview of the requirements and the necessary background is given for those wishing to start their own activity in this field

  8. Continuation of probability density functions using a generalized Lyapunov approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baars, S., E-mail: s.baars@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Viebahn, J.P., E-mail: viebahn@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, T.E., E-mail: t.e.mulder@uu.nl [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Kuehn, C., E-mail: ckuehn@ma.tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Faculty of Mathematics, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Wubs, F.W., E-mail: f.w.wubs@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Dijkstra, H.A., E-mail: h.a.dijkstra@uu.nl [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Techniques from numerical bifurcation theory are very useful to study transitions between steady fluid flow patterns and the instabilities involved. Here, we provide computational methodology to use parameter continuation in determining probability density functions of systems of stochastic partial differential equations near fixed points, under a small noise approximation. Key innovation is the efficient solution of a generalized Lyapunov equation using an iterative method involving low-rank approximations. We apply and illustrate the capabilities of the method using a problem in physical oceanography, i.e. the occurrence of multiple steady states of the Atlantic Ocean circulation.

  9. Functional approach without path integrals to finite temperature free fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.M. de; Santos, O. Rojas; Thomaz, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    Charret et al applied the properties of Grassmann generators to develop a new method to calculate the coefficients of the high temperature expansion of the grand canonical partition function of self-interacting fermionic models on d-dimensions (d ≥1). The methodology explores the anti-commuting nature of fermionic fields and avoids the calculation of the fermionic path integral. we apply this new method to the relativistic free Dirac fermions and recover the known results in the literature without the β-independent and μindependent infinities that plague the continuum path integral formulation. (author)

  10. A novel approach to the assessment of vascular endothelial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathasivam, S; Siddiqui, Z; Greenwald, S; Phababpha, S; Sengmeuan, P; Detchaporn, P; Kukongviriyapan, U

    2011-01-01

    Impaired endothelial function (EF) is associated with atherogenesis, and its quantitative assessment has prognostic value. Currently, methods based on assessing flow-mediated dilation (FMD) are technically difficult and expensive. We tested a novel way of assessing EF by measuring the time difference between pulses arriving at the middle fingers of each hand (f-fΔT), whilst FMD is induced in one arm. We compared f-fΔT with standard methods in healthy and diseased subjects. Our findings suggest that the proposed simple and inexpensive technique gives comparable results and has the potential to qualitatively assess EF in the clinical setting, although further work is required.

  11. Processing semblances induced through inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs, presumed biological parallels of K-lines proposed for building artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjumon I Vadakkan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The internal sensation of memory, which is available only to the owner of an individual nervous system, is difficult to analyze for its basic elements of operation. We hypothesize that associative learning induces the formation of functional LINK between the postsynapses. During memory retrieval, the activation of either postsynapse re-activates the functional LINK evoking a semblance of sensory activity arriving at its opposite postsynapse, nature of which defines the basic unit of virtual internal sensation - namely, semblion. Neuronal networks that undergo continuous oscillatory activity at certain levels of their organization induce semblions enabling the system to continuously learn, self-organize, and demonstrate instantiation, features that can be utilized for developing artificial intelligence (AI. Suitability of the inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs to meet the expectations of Minsky’s K-lines, basic elements of a memory theory generated to develop AI and methods to replicate semblances outside the nervous system are explained.

  12. External field as the functional of inhomogeneous density and the density matrix functional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobrov, V.B.; Trigger, S.A.; Vlasov, Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Hohenberg-Kohn lemma and the hypotheses of the density functional existence for the external-field potential, it is shown that the strict result of the density functional theory is the equation of the external-field potential as the density functional. This result leads to the

  13. Density functional approach to the many-body problem : Key concepts and exact functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    We give an overview of the fundamental concepts of density functional theory. We give a careful discussion of the several density functionals and their differentiability properties. We show that for nondegenerate ground states we can calculate the necessary functional derivatives by means of linear

  14. Dynamic modeling approaches to characterize the functioning of health systems: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Y; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Atun, Rifat; Verguet, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is one of the targets for the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3. The impetus for UHC has led to an increased demand for time-sensitive tools to enhance our knowledge of how health systems function and to evaluate impact of system interventions. We define the field of "health system modeling" (HSM) as an area of research where dynamic mathematical models can be designed in order to describe, predict, and quantitatively capture the functioning of health systems. HSM can be used to explore the dynamic relationships among different system components, including organizational design, financing and other resources (such as investments in resources and supply chain management systems) - what we call "inputs" - on access, coverage, and quality of care - what we call "outputs", toward improved health system "outcomes", namely increased levels and fairer distributions of population health and financial risk protection. We undertook a systematic review to identify the existing approaches used in HSM. We identified "systems thinking" - a conceptual and qualitative description of the critical interactions within a health system - as an important underlying precursor to HSM, and collated a critical collection of such articles. We then reviewed and categorized articles from two schools of thoughts: "system dynamics" (SD)" and "susceptible-infected-recovered-plus" (SIR+). SD emphasizes the notion of accumulations of stocks in the system, inflows and outflows, and causal feedback structure to predict intended and unintended consequences of policy interventions. The SIR + models link a typical disease transmission model with another that captures certain aspects of the system that impact the outcomes of the main model. These existing methods provide critical insights in informing the design of HSM, and provide a departure point to extend this research agenda. We highlight the opportunity to advance modeling methods to further understand

  15. Genomic and Functional Approaches to Understanding Cancer Aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alison M; Shih, Juliann; Ha, Gavin; Gao, Galen F; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Berger, Ashton C; Schumacher, Steven E; Wang, Chen; Hu, Hai; Liu, Jianfang; Lazar, Alexander J; Cherniack, Andrew D; Beroukhim, Rameen; Meyerson, Matthew

    2018-04-09

    Aneuploidy, whole chromosome or chromosome arm imbalance, is a near-universal characteristic of human cancers. In 10,522 cancer genomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas, aneuploidy was correlated with TP53 mutation, somatic mutation rate, and expression of proliferation genes. Aneuploidy was anti-correlated with expression of immune signaling genes, due to decreased leukocyte infiltrates in high-aneuploidy samples. Chromosome arm-level alterations show cancer-specific patterns, including loss of chromosome arm 3p in squamous cancers. We applied genome engineering to delete 3p in lung cells, causing decreased proliferation rescued in part by chromosome 3 duplication. This study defines genomic and phenotypic correlates of cancer aneuploidy and provides an experimental approach to study chromosome arm aneuploidy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [System analytical approach of lung function and hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naszlady, Attila; Kiss, Lajos

    2009-02-15

    The authors critically analyse the traditional views in physiology and complete them with new statements based on computer model simulations of lung function and of hemodynamics. Conclusions are derived for the clinical practice as follows: the four-dimensional function curves are similar in both systems; there is a "waterfall" zone in the pulmonary blood perfusion; the various time constants of pulmonary regions can modify the blood gas values; pulmonary capillary pressure is equal to pulmonary arterial diastole pressure; heart is not a pressure pump, but a flow source; ventricles are loaded by the input impedance of the arterial systems and not by the total vascular (ohmlike) resistance; optimum heart rate in rest depends on the length of the aorta; this law of heart rate, based on the principle of resonance is valid along the mammalian allometric line; tachycardia decreases the input impedance; using positive end expiratory pressure respirators the blood gas of pulmonary artery should be followed; coronary circulation should be assessed in beat per milliliter, the milliliter per minute may be false. These statements are compared to related references.

  17. Polymer density functional approach to efficient evaluation of path integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brukhno, Andrey; Vorontsov-Velyaminov, Pavel N.; Bohr, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A polymer density functional theory (P-DFT) has been extended to the case of quantum statistics within the framework of Feynman path integrals. We start with the exact P-DFT formalism for an ideal open chain and adapt its efficient numerical solution to the case of a ring. We show that, similarly......, the path integral problem can, in principle, be solved exactly by making use of the two-particle pair correlation function (2p-PCF) for the ends of an open polymer, half of the original. This way the exact data for one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator are reproduced in a wide range of temperatures....... The exact solution is not, though, reachable in three dimensions (3D) because of a vast amount of storage required for 2p-PCF. In order to treat closed paths in 3D, we introduce a so-called "open ring" approximation which proves to be rather accurate in the limit of long chains. We also employ a simple self...

  18. Function and structure in social brain regions can link oxytocin-receptor genes with autistic social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2013-02-01

    Difficulties in appropriate social and communicative behaviors are the most prevalent and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although recent intensive research has focused on the neurobiological background of these difficulties, many aspects of them were not yet elucidated. Recent studies have employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices as intermediate phenotypes of this behavioral phenotype to link candidate genes with the autistic social difficulty. As MRI indices, functional MRI (fMRI), structural MRI, and MR-spectroscopy have been examined in subjects with autism spectrum disorders. As candidate genes, this mini-review has much interest in oxytocin-receptor genes (OXTR), since recent studies have repeatedly reported their associations with normal variations in social cognition and behavior as well as with their extremes, autistic social dysfunction. Through previous increasing studies, medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala have repeatedly been revealed as neural correlates of autistic social behavior by MRI multimodalities and their relationship to OXTR. For further development of this research area, this mini-review integrates recent accumulating evidence about human behavioral and neural correlates of OXTR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Novel Grey Prediction Model Combining Markov Chain with Functional-Link Net and Its Application to Foreign Tourist Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chung Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grey prediction models for time series have been widely applied to demand forecasting because only limited data are required for them to build a time series model without any statistical assumptions. Previous studies have demonstrated that the combination of grey prediction with neural networks helps grey prediction perform better. Some methods have been presented to improve the prediction accuracy of the popular GM(1,1 model by using the Markov chain to estimate the residual needed to modify a predicted value. Compared to the previous Grey-Markov models, this study contributes to apply the functional-link net to estimate the degree to which a predicted value obtained from the GM(1,1 model can be adjusted. Furthermore, the troublesome number of states and their bounds that are not easily specified in Markov chain have been determined by a genetic algorithm. To verify prediction performance, the proposed grey prediction model was applied to an important grey system problem—foreign tourist forecasting. Experimental results show that the proposed model provides satisfactory results compared to the other Grey-Markov models considered.

  20. Facile synthesis of thiol-polyethylene glycol functionalized magnetic titania nanomaterials for highly efficient enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawen; Yao, Jizong; Sun, Nianrong; Deng, Chunhui

    2017-08-25

    As protein N-glycosylation involved in generation and development of various cancers and diseases, it is vital to capture glycopeptides from complex biological samples for biomarker discovery. In this work, by taking advantages of the interaction between titania and thiol groups, thiol-polyethylene glycol functionalized magnetic titania nanomaterials (denoted as Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 @PEG) were firstly fabricated as an excellent hydrophilic adsorbent of N-linked glycopeptides. On one hand, the special interaction of titanium-thiol makes the synthetic manipulation simple and provides a new idea for design and synthesis of novel nanomaterials; on the other hand, strong magnetic response could realize rapid separation and the outstanding hydrophilicity of polyethylene glycol makes Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 @PEG nanomaterials show superior performance for glycopeptides enrichment with ultralow limit of detection (0.1mol/μL) and high selectivity (1:100). As a result, 24 and 33 glycopeptides enriched from HRP and IgG digests were identified respectively by MALDI-TOF MS, and 300 glycopeptides corresponding to 106 glycoproteins were recognized from merely 2μL human serum, indicating a great potential of Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 @PEG nanomaterials for glycoproteomic research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.