Sample records for lining fluid elf

  1. Assessment of ELF magnetic fields produced by independent power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucca, G.


    In this paper, the problem of assessing the ELF (extremely low-frequency) magnetic fields produced, in a certain area characterised by the presence of more than one independent power line, is faced. The use of the incoherent summation of the single contributions, as an advantageous estimator of the total magnetic field, is proposed and justified by means of a heuristic procedure. This kind of approach can be seen as a useful and practical tool to be employed in environmental impact analysis and in assessing long-term human exposure to ELF magnetic fields. (authors)

  2. Artificial neural networks to estimate the EMF ELF on car travelling near power transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sayegh, O.A.; Qabazard, A.M. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). advanced Systems Division of Environment and Urban


    An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to determine the electromagnetic field (EMF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) intensity on a vehicle body at different distances from a high tension power line and at varying power loads. EMF radiated emissions from ELF source power transmission lines can produce interference in the electric components in vehicles traveling at variable speed near the power lines. The passengers in the vehicle may also experience EMF-related health problems. Although EMF has been recently categorized as a new form of pollution, the situation has been largely ignored by the industry. Typically, electromagnetic fields at different frequencies show the fastest growing environmental influences. All populations are now exposed to varying degrees of EMF and the levels will continue to increase as technology advances. The purpose of this work was to promote discussion and help find design solutions to manufacture a new device for measuring the EMF at variable speed. In this study, a set of near field measurements outside the vehicle were used to train ANN. Estimations of the EMF ELF for various distances from the high tension power line were presented. It was determined that the most important factors affecting the electric field model include exposure conditions; size, shape and position of the exposed body in the field; and, surface charge density. The EMF ELF was found to increase near sagging areas of the overhead power transmission line. The EMF ELF was found to be proportional to the total amps flowing through the line at the time of measurement. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF-EMF and childhood leukemia near transmission lines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kokate


    Full Text Available This article presents a systematic review of most cited studies from developed countries those shed light on the potential relation between childhood leukemia and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF. All the findings of articles critically segregated as per some neglected parameters like number of samples, exposure duration, frequency range, distance from the radiation sources, and location during measurement of magnetic field density near power lines. Literature of major 50 studies are divided according to pooled analysis / meta-analysis, residential zone assessment and case-control studies.

  4. Napsin A levels in epithelial lining fluid as a diagnostic biomarker of primary lung adenocarcinoma. (United States)

    Uchida, Akifumi; Samukawa, Takuya; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Ohshige, Masahiro; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Keiko; Higashimoto, Ikkou; Sato, Masami; Inoue, Hiromasa


    It is crucial to develop novel diagnostic approaches for determining if peripheral lung nodules are malignant, as such nodules are frequently detected due to the increased use of chest computed tomography scans. To this end, we evaluated levels of napsin A in epithelial lining fluid (ELF), since napsin A has been reported to be an immunohistochemical biomarker for histological diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma. In consecutive patients with indeterminate peripheral lung nodules, ELF samples were obtained using a bronchoscopic microsampling (BMS) technique. The levels of napsin A and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in ELF at the nodule site were compared with those at the contralateral site. A final diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma was established by surgical resection. We performed BMS in 43 consecutive patients. Among patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were markedly higher than those at the contralateral site, while there were no significant differences in CEA levels. Furthermore, in 18 patients who were undiagnosed by bronchoscopy and finally diagnosed by surgery, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were identically significantly higher than those at the contralateral site. In patients with non-adenocarcinoma, there were no differences in napsin A levels in ELF. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for identifying primary lung adenocarcinoma was 0.840 for napsin A and 0.542 for CEA. Evaluation of napsin A levels in ELF may be useful for distinguishing primary lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. Biomarker Discovery In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Using Epithelial Lining Fluid : A Proteomic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franciosi, L.; Govorukhina, N.; Fusetti, F.; Poolman, B.; Hacken, N. ten; Postma, D.; Bischoff, R.


    RATIONALE Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the third most frequent disease worldwide with increasing mortality. Cigarette smoking is the principle risk factor and 15-20% of smokers develop COPD. Epithelial Lining Fluid (ELF) covers the internal part of the airways and can be collected

  6. A simplified theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, H.G.


    An approximate theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line is developed by combining the reflection theory of Booker and Lefeuvre with Greifinger and Greifinger's treatment of the effect of ionization below the level of reflection. The theory allows for the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, for reflection from the gradient on the under side of the D-region (or, at night, of a ledge below the E-region), for reflection from the gradient on the underside of the E-region and for reflection from the gradient on the topside of the E-region. The procedure is to compare local vertical gradient with local wavelength, thereby classifying altitude into intervals where the gradient is high and ones where it is low. Where the gradient is low, the phase-integral treatment is adequate. An interval where the gradient is high may, to a first approximation, be replaced by a discontinuity. The amount of the discontinuity is the difference between the refractive indices at the top and bottom of the interval of high gradient, judged in relation to local wavelength. It is then a matter of combining reflections from the several discontinuities. This requires calculation of the complex phase-changes between the discontinuities. But there are the intervals where the phase-integral treatment is available. To a better approximation, there is a non-zero phase change associated with an interval of high gradient. The method for incorporating this is described. (author)

  7. Study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission from overhead High-Voltage Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, S.R.; Roha Tukimin; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Zulkifli Yusof; Mohd Azizi Mohd Jali


    The paper highlights the study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission performed at an overhead 275-kV High-Voltage Transmission Lines. The study comprised of assessment at the transmission lines on 3 different cases and locations in Klang Valley, specifically on a vacant land near the transmission line, inside and around the house at the vicinity of the transmission line and the area directly under the transmission line. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results showed that the measured field strengths are within the safety limit with the highest measured exposure was 10.8 % and 1.8 % of the permissible exposure limit for the electric and magnetic field respectively. Both the field strengths were found to drop significantly against distance from the transmission lines where closer distances showed higher field strengths. Furthermore, the study revealed that buildings and other object such as trees and shrubs screen out the electric field, resulting in a lower value at indoor measurements and near the stated objects. In addition, higher value of electric and magnetic field strengths were recorded when assessment was being done directly under the transmission line compared to the lateral measurement. (author)

  8. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)


    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings

  9. ELF field in the proximity of complex power line configuration measurement procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, M.; Comelli, M.; Villalta, R.


    The issue of how to measure magnetic induction fields generated by various power line configurations, when there are several power lines that run across the same exposure area, has become a matter of interest and study within the Regional Environment Protection Agency of Friuli Venezia Giulia. In classifying the various power line typologies the definition of double circuit line was given: in this instance the magnetic field is determined by knowing the electrical and geometric parameters of the line. In the case of independent lines instead, the field is undetermined. It is therefore pointed out how, in the latter case, extracting projected information from a set of measurements of the magnetic field alone is impossible. Making measurements throughout the territory of service has in several cases offered the opportunity to define standard operational procedures. (authors)

  10. Pooled population pharmacokinetic model of imipenem in plasma and the lung epithelial lining fluid. (United States)

    van Hasselt, J G Coen; Rizk, Matthew L; Lala, Mallika; Chavez-Eng, Cynthia; Visser, Sandra A G; Kerbusch, Thomas; Danhof, Meindert; Rao, Gauri; van der Graaf, Piet H


    Several clinical trials have confirmed the therapeutic benefit of imipenem for treatment of lung infections. There is however no knowledge of the penetration of imipenem into the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF), the site of action relevant for lung infections. Furthermore, although the plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) of imipenem has been widely studied, most studies have been based on selected patient groups. The aim of this analysis was to characterize imipenem plasma PK across populations and to quantify imipenem ELF penetration. A population model for imipenem plasma PK was developed using data obtained from healthy volunteers, elderly subjects and subjects with renal impairment, in order to identify predictors for inter-individual variability (IIV) of imipenem PK. Subsequently, a clinical study which measured plasma and ELF concentrations of imipenem was included in order to quantify lung penetration. A two compartmental model best described the plasma PK of imipenem. Creatinine clearance and body weight were included as subject characteristics predictive for IIV on clearance. Typical estimates for clearance, central and peripheral volume, and inter-compartmental clearance were 11.5 l h(-1) , 9.37 l, 6.41 l, 13.7 l h(-1) , respectively (relative standard error (RSE) imipenem into ELF was described using a time-independent penetration coefficient of 0.44 (RSE 14%). The identified lung penetration coefficient confirms the clinical relevance of imipenem for treatment of lung infections, while the population PK model provided insights into predictors of IIV for imipenem PK and may be of relevance to support dose optimization in various subject groups. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Evaluation of the concentration of marbofloxacin in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid after administration in dogs. (United States)

    Boothe, Harry W; Jones, Sarah A; Wilkie, W Scott; Boeckh, Albert; Stenstrom, Kristol K; Boothe, Dawn M


    To determine concentrations of marbofloxacin in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and compare those concentrations with plasma concentrations in healthy dogs. 12 adult mixed-breed and purebred hounds. 10 dogs received orally administered marbofloxacin at a dosage of 2.75 mg/kg every 24 hours for 5 days. Two dogs served as nontreated controls. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage procedures were performed while dogs were anesthetized with propofol, approximately 6 hours after the fifth dose. The concentrations of marbofloxacin in plasma and bronchoalveolar fluid (cell and supernatant fractions) were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography with detection of fluorescence. Mean +/- SD plasma marbofloxacin concentrations 2 and 6 hours after the fifth dose were 2.36 +/- 0.52 microg/mL and 1.81 +/- 0.21 microg/mL, respectively. Mean +/- SD marbofloxacin concentration 6 hours after the fifth dose in AMs (37.43 +/- 24.61 microg/mL) was significantly greater than that in plasma (1.81 +/- 0.21 microg/mL) and ELF (0.82 +/- 0.34 microg/mL), resulting in a mean AM concentration-to-plasma concentration ratio of 20.4, a mean AM:ELF ratio of 60.8, and a mean ELF-to-plasma ratio of 0.46. Marbofloxacin was not detected in any samples from control dogs. Marbofloxacin concentrations in AMs were greater than the mean inhibitory concentrations of major bacterial pathogens in dogs. Results indicated that marbofloxacin accumulates in AMs at concentrations exceeding those reached in plasma and ELF The accumulation of marbofloxacin in AMs may facilitate treatment for susceptible intracellular pathogens or infections associated with pulmonary macrophage infiltration.

  12. Comparison of Omadacycline and Tigecycline Pharmacokinetics in the Plasma, Epithelial Lining Fluid, and Alveolar Cells of Healthy Adult Subjects. (United States)

    Gotfried, Mark H; Horn, Karolyn; Garrity-Ryan, Lynne; Villano, Stephen; Tzanis, Evan; Chitra, Surya; Manley, Amy; Tanaka, S Ken; Rodvold, Keith A


    The steady-state concentrations of omadacycline and tigecycline in the plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar cells (AC) of 58 healthy adult subjects were obtained. Subjects were administered either omadacycline at 100 mg intravenously (i.v.) every 12 h for two doses followed by 100 mg i.v. every 24 h for three doses or tigecycline at an initial dose of 100 mg i.v. followed by 50 mg i.v. every 12 h for six doses. A bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed once in each subject following the start of the fifth dose of omadacycline at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 h and after the start of the seventh dose of tigecycline at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h. The value of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 24 h postdosing (AUC 0-24 ) (based on mean concentrations) in ELF and the ratio of the ELF to total plasma omadacycline concentration based on AUC 0-24 values were 17.23 mg · h/liter and 1.47, respectively. The AUC 0-24 value in AC was 302.46 mg · h/liter, and the ratio of the AC to total plasma omadacycline concentration was 25.8. In comparison, the values of the AUC from time zero to 12 h postdosing (AUC 0-12 ) based on the mean concentrations of tigecycline in ELF and AC were 3.16 and 38.50 mg · h/liter, respectively. The ratio of the ELF and AC to total plasma concentrations of tigecycline based on AUC 0-12 values were 1.71 and 20.8, respectively. The pharmacokinetic advantages of higher and sustained concentrations of omadacycline compared to those of tigecycline in plasma, ELF, and AC suggest that omadacycline is a promising antibacterial agent for the treatment of lower respiratory tract bacterial infections caused by susceptible pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Gotfried et al.

  13. Perfect fluid cosmology with geodesic world lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.K.; Maity, S.R.


    It is shown that for a perfect fluid with an equation of state p = p (rho), if the world lines are geodesics, then they are hypersurface orthogonal and the scalars p, rho, sigma 2 , and theta 2 are all constants over these hypersurfaces, irrespective of any spatial-homogeneity assumption. However, an examination of some simple cases does not reveal any spatially nonhomogeneous solution with these properties

  14. The Synovial Lining and Synovial Fluid Properties after Joint Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Shang Kung


    Full Text Available The lubrication of the cartilaginous structures in human joints is provided by a fluid from a specialized layer of cells at the surface of a delicate tissue called the synovial lining. Little is known about the characteristics of the fluids produced after a joint arthroplasty procedure. A literature review was carried out to identify papers that characterized the synovial lining and the synovial fluids formed after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Five papers about synovial lining histology and six papers about the lubricating properties of the fluids were identified. The cells making up the re-formed synovial lining, as well as the lining of interface membranes, were similar to the typical Type A and B synoviocytes of normal joints. The synovial fluids around joint replacement devices were typically lower in viscosity than pre-arthroplasty fluids but the protein concentration and phospholipid concentrations tended to be comparable, suggesting that the lining tissue function was preserved after arthroplasty. The widespread, long-term success of joint arthroplasty suggests that the lubricant formed from implanted joint synovium is adequate for good clinical performance in the majority of joints. The role the fluid plays in component wear or failure is a topic for future study.

  15. NAS investigates ELF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gledhill, M.


    A report published in October 1996 by a committee appointed by the US National Research Council has concluded that 'no conclusive and consistent evidence shows that exposures to residential electric and magnetic fields produce cancer, adverse neurobehavioural effects, or reproductive and developmental effects'. However, the committee also noted that 'an association between residential wiring configurations ... and childhood leukemia persists in multiple studies, although the causative factor responsible for that statistical association has not been identified.' The committee was set up in 1991 at the request of the US Congress, and asked to concentrate on extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic field exposures found in residential settings. The expertise of its 16 members covered the wide range of disciplines necessary to evaluate the extensive research literature. Research into the possible health effects of ELF magnetic fields has been driven largely by epidemiology, and a comprehensive meta-analysis of 11 childhood leukemia studies forms a key part of the report. These studies have used several metrics to define 'exposure' of the study subjects to ELF fields. The meta-analysis combined the studies in a number of ways to evaluate their consistency and sensitivity to individual study results. (author). 1 ref

  16. Study of interaction of ELF-ULF range (0.1-200 Hz) electromagnetic waves with the earth's crust and the ionosphere in the field of industrial power transmission lines (FENICS experiment) (United States)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Velikhov, E. P.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Kolesnikov, V. E.; Korotkova, T. G.; Ryazantsev, P. A.; Efimov, B. V.; Kolobov, V. V.; Barannik, M. B.; Prokopchuk, P. I.; Selivanov, V. N.; Kopytenko, Yu. A.; Kopytenko, E. A.; Ismagilov, V. S.; Petrishchev, M. S.; Sergushin, P. A.; Tereshchenko, P. E.; Samsonov, B. V.; Birulya, M. A.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Korja, T.; Yampolski, Yu. M.; Koloskov, A. V.; Baru, N. A.; Poljakov, S. V.; Shchennikov, A. V.; Druzhin, G. I.; Jozwiak, W.; Reda, J.; Shchors, Yu. G.


    This article is devoted to describing the theory, technique, and first experimental results of a control source electromagnetic (CSEM) study of the Earth's crust and ionosphere with the use of two mutually orthogonal industrial transmission lines 109 and 120 km in length in the frame of FENICS (Fennoscandian Electrical Conductivity from Natural and Induction Control Source Soundings) experiment. The main part of the measurements is executed on the territory of the Fennoscandian shield at distances from the first hundreds kilometers up to 856 km from the source with the purpose of the deep electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. According to the results of these studies clarifying the parameters of "normal" (standard) geoelectric section of the lithosphere to a depth of 60-70 km, the anisotropy parameters are evaluated and a geothermal and rheological interpretation in conjunction with the analysis of the seismic data is executed. Furthermore, to study the propagation of ELF-LLF waves (0.1-200 Hz) in an "Earth-Ionosphere" waveguide, the measurements are carried out apart from Fennoscandian shield at distances up to 5600 km from the source (in Ukraine, Spitsbergen, Poland, Kamchatka, and other areas). According to the results of these studies, the experimental estimates of the influence of the ionosphere and of the displacement currents on the propagation of ELF-ULF waves in the upper half-space at the different azimuths generation of the primary field are obtained.

  17. Reconnection of magnetic lines in an ideal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, H.


    The rate of reconnection of magnetic lines at an X-point, also growth of a ''tearing'' configuration have always been related to the presence of resistivity or other dissipative mechanisms. These phenomena, exhibiting nonconservation of magnetic line topology, are shown to occur in an ideal, nondissipative fluid, thereby violating beliefs, theorems, and calculations of over a century

  18. Dynamics of fluid lines, sheets, filaments and membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutris, N.


    We establish the dynamic equations of two types of fluid structures: 1) lines-filaments and 2) sheets-membranes. In the first part, we consider one-dimensional (line) and two-dimensional (sheet) fluid structures. The second part concerns the associated three- dimensional structures: filaments and membranes. In the third part, we establish the equations for thickened lines and thickened sheets. For that purpose, we introduce a thickness in the models of the first part. The fourth part concerns the thinning of the filament and the membrane. Then, by an asymptotic process, we deduce the corresponding equations from the equations of the second part in order to show the purely formal equivalence of the equations of the third and fourth parts. To obtain the equations, we make use of theorems whose proofs can be found in the appendices. The equations can be applied to many areas of interest: instabilities of liquid jets and liquid films, modelisation of interfaces between two different fluids as sheets or membranes, modelisation with the averaged equations over a cross section of single phase flows and two-phase flows in channels with a nonrectilinear axis such as bends or pump casings [fr

  19. Meniscal Tear Film Fluid Dynamics Near Marx’s Line

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.


    Extensive studies have explored the dynamics of the ocular surface fluid, though theoretical investigations are typically limited to the use of the lubrication approximation, which is not guaranteed to be uniformly valid a-priori throughout the tear meniscus. However, resolving tear film behaviour within the meniscus and especially its apices is required to characterise the flow dynamics where the tear film is especially thin, and thus most susceptible to evaporatively induced hyperosmolarity and subsequent epithelial damage. Hence, we have explored the accuracy of the standard lubrication approximation for the tear film by explicit comparisons with the 2D Navier-Stokes model, considering both stationary and moving eyelids. Our results demonstrate that the lubrication model is qualitatively accurate except in the vicinity of the eyelids. In particular, and in contrast to lubrication theory, the solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations predict a distinct absence of fluid flow, and thus convective mixing in the region adjacent to the tear film contact line. These observations not only support emergent hypotheses concerning the formation of Marx\\'s line, a region of epithelial cell staining adjacent to the contact line on the eyelid, but also enhance our understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of the flow profile near the tear film contact line. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  20. On the significance of ELF basins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    to complement to chemical intuition (see, e.g., refs. 2, 3). In a mathematically more rigorous way, such regions, ELF basins,4 were defined following the spirit of Bader's Atoms in Molecules (AIM). All points in space which lead to the a given maximum of ELF, by following the gradient of ELF, belong to the same basin. Basins ...

  1. Safety System for Controlling Fluid Flow into a Suction Line (United States)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)


    A safety system includes a sleeve fitted within a pool's suction line at its inlet. The sleeve terminates with a plate that resides within the suction line. The plate has holes formed therethrough. A housing defining distinct channels is fitted in the sleeve so that the distinct channels lie within the sleeve. Each of the distinct channels has a first opening on one end thereof and a second opening on another end thereof. The second openings reside in the sleeve. The first openings are in fluid communication with the water in the pool, and are distributed around a periphery of an area of the housing that prevents coverage of all the first openings when a human interacts therewith. A first sensor is coupled to the sleeve to sense pressure therein, and a second pressure sensor is coupled to the plate to sense pressure in one of the plates' holes.

  2. Transcript profiling of Elf5+/- mammary glands during pregnancy identifies novel targets of Elf5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee L Rogers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elf5, an epithelial specific Ets transcription factor, plays a crucial role in the pregnancy-associated development of the mouse mammary gland. Elf5(-/- embryos do not survive, however the Elf5(+/- mammary gland displays a severe pregnancy-associated developmental defect. While it is known that Elf5 is crucial for correct mammary development and lactation, the molecular mechanisms employed by Elf5 to exert its effects on the mammary gland are largely unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transcript profiling was used to investigate the transcriptional changes that occur as a result of Elf5 haploinsufficiency in the Elf5(+/- mouse model. We show that the development of the mouse Elf5(+/- mammary gland is delayed at a transcriptional and morphological level, due to the delayed increase in Elf5 protein in these glands. We also identify a number of potential Elf5 target genes, including Mucin 4, whose expression, is directly regulated by the binding of Elf5 to an Ets binding site within its promoter. CONCLUSION: We identify novel transcriptional targets of Elf5 and show that Muc4 is a direct target of Elf5, further elucidating the mechanisms through which Elf5 regulates proliferation and differentiation in the mammary gland.

  3. An integrated in-line fluid characterization system for industrial applications(In-situ fluid mechanics experiments)


    Johan, Wiklund; Reinhardt, Kotze; Beat, Birkhofer; Stefano, Ricci; Valentino, Meacci; Mats, Stading; Rainer, Haldenwang; SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden; FPRC, Cape Peninsula University of Technology; Sika Services AG; Information Engineering Department - University of Florence; Information Engineering Department - University of Florence; SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden; FPRC, Cape Peninsula University of Technology


    In this work we have presented the world's first commercially available embedded in-line fluids characterization system, "Flow-Viz". It has been specifically designed for the non-invasive, in-line, continuous, real-time velocity profile and rheological assessment of opaque, non-Newtonian industrial fluids. The Flow-Viz system has been successfully installed in pilot plants of international companies and used also for academic research. The technology has been applied to a wide range of fluids...

  4. Penetration of ELF currents and electromagnetic fields into the Earth's equatorial ionosphere (United States)

    Eliasson, B.; Papadopoulos, K.


    The penetration of extremely low frequency (ELF) transient electromagnetic fields and associated currents in the Earth's equatorial E-region plasma is studied theoretically and numerically. In the low-frequency regime, the plasma dynamics of the E-region is characterized by helicon waves since the ions are viscously coupled to neutrals while the electrons remain mobile. For typical equatorial E-region parameters, the plasma is magnetically insulated from penetration of very long timescale magnetic fields by a thin diffusive sheath. Wave penetration driven by a vertically incident pulse localized in space and time leads to both vertical penetration and the triggering of ELF helicon/whistler waves that carry currents obliquely to the magnetic field lines. The study presented here may have relevance for ELF wave generation by lightning discharges and seismic activity and can lead to new concepts in ELF/ULF injection in the earth-ionosphere waveguide.

  5. Neonatal Cytokine Profile in the Airway Mucosal Lining Fluid Is Skewed by Maternal Atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folsgaard, Nilofar V.; Chawes, Bo L.; Rasmussen, Morten A.


    on the cytokines and chemokines in the upper airway mucosal lining fluid of healthy neonates. Objectives: To study parental atopic imprinting on the cytokines and chemokines in the upper airway mucosal lining fluid of healthy neonates. Methods: Eighteen cytokines and chemokines were quantified in nasal mucosal...

  6. Concentrations in plasma, epithelial lining fluid, alveolar macrophages and bronchial mucosa after a single intravenous dose of 1.6 mg/kg of iclaprim (AR-100) in healthy men. (United States)

    Andrews, J; Honeybourne, D; Ashby, J; Jevons, G; Fraise, A; Fry, P; Warrington, S; Hawser, S; Wise, R


    A validated microbiological assay was used to measure concentrations of iclaprim (AR-100) in plasma, bronchial mucosa (BM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) after a single 1.6 mg/kg intravenous 60 min iv infusion of iclaprim. Male volunteers were randomly allocated to three nominal sampling time intervals 1-2 h (Group A), 3-4 h (Group B) and 5.5-7.0 h (Group C) after the start of the drug infusion. Mean iclaprim concentrations in plasma, BM, AM and ELF, respectively, were for Group A 0.59 mg/L (SD 0.18), 0.51 mg/kg (SD 0.17), 24.51 mg/L (SD 21.22) and 12.61 mg/L (SD 7.33); Group B 0.24 mg/L (SD 0.05), 0.35 mg/kg (SD 0.17), 7.16 mg/L (SD 1.91) and 6.38 mg/L (SD 5.17); and Group C 0.14 mg/L (SD 0.05), no detectable level in BM, 5.28 mg/L (SD 2.30) and 2.66 mg/L (SD 2.08). Iclaprim concentrations in ELF and AM exceeded the MIC(90) for penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 0.06 mg/L), penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (MIC90 2 mg/L), penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (MIC90 4 mg/L) for 7, 7 and 4 h, respectively, and Chlamydia pneumoniae (MIC90 0.5 mg/L) for 7 h. Mean iclaprim concentrations in ELF exceeded the MIC90 for Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90 4 mg/L) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90 8 mg/L) for up to 4 and 2 h, respectively; in AM the MIC90 was exceeded for up to 7 h. Furthermore, the MIC90 for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of 0.12 mg/L was exceeded at all sites for up to 7 h. These data suggest that iclaprim reaches lung concentrations that should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

  7. Fluid Line Evacuation and Freezing Experiments for Digital Radiator Concept (United States)

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Miller, Jennifer R.; Sunada, Eric T.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Stephan, Ryan; Johnson, Mark


    The digital radiator technology is one of three variable heat rejection technologies being investigated for future human-rated NASA missions. The digital radiator concept is based on a mechanically pumped fluid loop with parallel tubes carrying coolant to reject heat from the radiator surface. A series of valves actuate to start and stop fluid flow to di erent combinations of tubes, in order to vary the heat rejection capability of the radiator by a factor of 10 or more. When the flow in a particular leg is stopped, the fluid temperature drops and the fluid can freeze, causing damage or preventing flow from restarting. For this reason, the liquid in a stopped leg must be partially or fully evacuated upon shutdown. One of the challenges facing fluid evacuation from closed tubes arises from the vapor generated during pumping to low pressure, which can cause pump cavitation and incomplete evacuation. Here we present a series of laboratory experiments demonstrating fluid evacuation techniques to overcome these challenges by applying heat and pumping to partial vacuum. Also presented are results from qualitative testing of the freezing characteristics of several different candidate fluids, which demonstrate significant di erences in freezing properties, and give insight to the evacuation process.

  8. Particle motion in the ELF wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtele, J.S.; Sessler, A.M.


    Particle motion in the ELF wiggler was investigated numerically and analytically. A transport system was designed using continuous quadrupole focusing in the wiggle plane and natural wiggle focusing in the non-wiggle plane

  9. Determination of major aromatic constituents in vanilla using an on-line supercritical fluid extraction coupled with supercritical fluid chromatography. (United States)

    Liang, Yanshan; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Yao, Jinting; Huang, Taohong; Zhou, Ting


    An on-line supercritical fluid extraction coupled with supercritical fluid chromatography method was developed for the determination of four major aromatic constituents in vanilla. The parameters of supercritical fluid extraction were systematically investigated using single factor optimization experiments and response surface methodology by a Box-Behnken design. The modifier ratio, split ratio, and the extraction temperature and pressure were the major parameters which have significant effects on the extraction. While the static extraction time, dynamic extraction time, and recycle time had little influence on the compounds with low polarity. Under the optimized conditions, the relative extraction efficiencies of all the constituents reached 89.0-95.1%. The limits of quantification were in the range of 1.123-4.747 μg. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.3368-1.424 μg. The recoveries of the four analytes were in the range of 76.1-88.9%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and interday precision ranged from 4.2 to 7.6%. Compared with other off-line methods, the present method obtained higher extraction yields for all four aromatic constituents. Finally, this method has been applied to the analysis of vanilla from different sources. On the basis of the results, the on-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography method shows great promise in the analysis of aromatic constituents in natural products. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Inactivation of TGF-β signaling in lung cancer results in increased CDK4 activity that can be rescued by ELF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hye Jung; Kim, Sang Soo; Silva, Fabio May da; Volpe, Eugene A.; Evans, Stephen; Mishra, Bibhuti; Mishra, Lopa; Blair Marshall, M.


    Escape from TGF-β inhibition of proliferation is a hallmark of multiple cancers including lung cancer. We explored the role of ELF, crucial TGF-β adaptor protein identified from endodermal progenitor cells, in lung carcinogenesis and cell-cycle regulation. Interestingly, elf -/- mice develop multiple defects that include lung, liver, and cardiac abnormalities. Four out of 6 lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines displayed deficiency of ELF expression with increased CDK4 expression. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of primary human lung cancers also showed decreased ELF expression and overexpression of CDK4. Moreover, rescue of ELF in ELF-deficient cell lines decreased the expression of CDK4 and resulted in accumulation of G1/S checkpoint arrested cells. These results suggest that disruption in TGF-β signaling mediated by loss of ELF in lung cancer leads to cell-cycle deregulation by modulating CDK4 and ELF highlights a key role of TGF-β adaptor protein in suppressing early lung cancer

  11. Analysis of impulse signals with Hylaty ELF station (United States)

    Kulak, A.; Mlynarczyk, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Kubisz, J.; Michalec, A.


    Lighting discharges generate electromagnetic field pulses that propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The attenuation in the ELF range is so small that the pulses originating from strong atmospheric discharges can be observed even several thousand kilometers away from the individual discharge. The recorded waveform depends on the discharge process, the Earth-ionosphere waveguide properties on the source-receiver path, and the transfer function of the receiver. If the distance from the source is known, an inverse method can be used for reconstructing the current moment waveform and the charge moment of the discharge. In order to reconstruct the source parameters from the recorded signal a reliable model of the radio wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide as well as practical signal processing techniques are necessary. We present two methods, both based on analytical formulas. The first method allows for fast calculation of the charge moment of relatively short atmospheric discharges. It is based on peak amplitude measurement of the recorded magnetic component of the ELF EM field and it takes into account the receiver characteristics. The second method, called "inverse channel method" allows reconstructing the complete current moment waveform of strong atmospheric discharges that exhibit the continuing current phase, such as Gigantic Jets and Sprites. The method makes it possible to fully remove from the observed waveform the distortions related to the receiver's impulse response as well as the influence of the Earth-ionosphere propagation channel. Our ELF station is equipped with two magnetic antennas for Bx and By components measurement in the 0.03 to 55 Hz frequency range. ELF Data recording is carried out since 1993, with continuous data acquisition since 2005. The station features low noise level and precise timing. It is battery powered and located in the sparsely populated area, far from major electric power lines, which results in high

  12. Concentrations of garenoxacin in plasma, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid following a single oral 600 mg dose in healthy adult subjects. (United States)

    Andrews, J; Honeybourne, D; Jevons, G; Boyce, M; Wise, R; Bello, A; Gajjar, D


    A microbiological assay was used to measure concentrations of garenoxacin (BMS-284756) in plasma, bronchial mucosa (BM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF), following a single 600 mg oral dose. Twenty-four healthy subjects were allocated into four nominal time intervals after the dose, 2.5-3.5, 4.5-5.5, 10.5-11.5 and 23.5-24.5 h. Mean concentrations in plasma, BM, AM and ELF, respectively, for the four nominal time windows were for 2.5-3.5 h 10.0 mg/L (S.D. 2.8), 7.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.3), 106.1 mg/L (S.D. 60.3) and 9.2 mg/L (S.D. 3.6); 4.5-5.5 h 8.7 mg/L (S.D. 2.2), 6.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.9), 158.6 mg/L (S.D. 137.4) and 14.3 mg/L (S.D. 8.2); 10.5-11.5 h 6.1 mg/L (S.D. 1.9), 4.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.4), 76.0 mg/L (S.D. 47.7) and 7.9 mg/L (S.D. 4.6); and 23.5-24.5 h 2.1 mg/L (S.D. 0.5), 1.7 mg/kg (S.D. 0.7), 30.7 mg/L (S.D. 12.9) and 3.3 mg/L (S.D. 2.3). Concentrations at all sites exceeded MIC(90)s for the common respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae (0.03 mg/L), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.015 mg/L) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.06 mg/L). These data suggest that garenoxacin should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  13. A Novel Detection Method for Underwater Moving Targets by Measuring Their ELF Emissions with Inductive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Wang


    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a novel detection method for underwater moving targets by detecting their extremely low frequency (ELF emissions with inductive sensors. The ELF field source of the targets is modeled by a horizontal electric dipole at distances more than several times of the targets’ length. The formulas for the fields produced in air are derived with a three-layer model (air, seawater and seafloor and are evaluated with a complementary numerical integration technique. A proof of concept measurement is presented. The ELF emissions from a surface ship were detected by inductive electronic and magnetic sensors as the ship was leaving a harbor. ELF signals are of substantial strength and have typical characteristic of harmonic line spectrum, and the fundamental frequency has a direct relationship with the ship’s speed. Due to the high sensitivity and low noise level of our sensors, it is capable of resolving weak ELF signals at long distance. In our experiment, a detection distance of 1300 m from the surface ship above the sea surface was realized, which shows that this method would be an appealing complement to the usual acoustic detection and magnetic anomaly detection capability.

  14. ELF Transients and Q-bursts Detected Around the Globe: First results from Palmer Station, Antarctica (United States)

    Flint, Q. A.; Moore, R. C.


    We present the first analysis of data from the recently deployed broadband ELF (5-500 Hz) B-field receiver at Palmer Station, Antarctica together with observations at similar receivers located at Sondrestromfjord, Greenland and Arrival Heights, Antarctica. Such remote locations afford the unique opportunity to record signals that are essentially unperturbed by power line noise. As a result, using this multi-site global network of ELF/VLF receivers, we are able to easily detect a particular type of ELF transient that propagates around the world multiple times, known as the Q-burst. The Q-burst is characterized by a large increase in amplitude above the background at the Schumann Resonance modes and is believed to result from especially powerful cloud-to-ground lightning discharges. These powerful lightning discharges are likely responsible for a significant level of energetic coupling between the troposphere, the ionosphere, and the magnetosphere. The ELF and VLF waves excited by the lightning discharge propagate to great distances in the earth-ionosphere waveguide, and in fact propagate around the Earth multiple times. By measuring the received waveform at multiple distant sites around the globe, we can pinpoint the source lightning location, compare the changes in field strength and spectrum as a function of distance from the source, and evaluate modal propagation effects in the VLF range (that are not apparent in the ELF range).

  15. On-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil. (United States)

    Wicker, A Paige; Carlton, Doug D; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Nishimura, Masayuki; Chen, Vivian; Ogura, Tairo; Hedgepeth, William; Schug, Kevin A


    On-line supercritical fluid extraction - supercritical fluid chromatography - mass spectrometry (SFE-SFC-MS) has been applied for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the first on-line SFE-SFC-MS method for the quantification of PAHs in various types of soil. By coupling the sample extraction on-line with chromatography and detection, sample preparation is minimized, diminishing sample loss and contamination, and significantly decreasing the required extraction time. Parameters for on-line extraction coupled to chromatographic analysis were optimized. The method was validated for concentrations of 10-1500 ng of PAHs per gram of soil in Certified Reference Material (CRM) sediment, clay, and sand with R 2  ≥ 0.99. Limits of detection (LOD) were found in the range of 0.001-5 ng/g, and limits of quantification (LOQ) in the range of 5-15 ng/g. The method developed in this study can be effectively applied to the study of PAHs in the environment, and may lay the foundation for further applications of on-line SFE-SFC-MS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. What advice to give when ELF is classified as a possible human carcinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.


    In 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project to address the health issues associated with exposure to EMF. This Project is intended to provide independent scientific assessment of health effects from exposure to EMF (0-300 GHz); identify gaps in knowledge requiring further research in order to improve health risk assessments; encourage focused, high quality research; and conduct formal WHO/IARC/ICNIRP health risk assessments after key research has been completed. The International EMF Project is currently reviewing research results and conducting risk assessments of exposure to static and extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. WHO will be conducting an evaluation of all health effects from ELF field exposure during 2002-3. This paper summarizes what is known about ELF exposure on childhood leukaemia, what the IARC classification means and how some national authorities have responded. In addition, WHO recommendations are given to provide guidance to national authorities wanting to protect their populations against EMF exposure. Whenever electricity is conducted through transmission lines, distribution lines or is used in appliances, both electric and magnetic fields exist close to the lines or appliances. The power frequency used is 50 or 60 Hz. Use of electric power has become part of everyday life. However, questions have been raised as to whether these and other ELF fields are carcinogenic or can produce any other effects on health

  17. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Weiyan


    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  18. TOTAL FINA ELF. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document is the annual report 2002 of Total-Fina-Elf society, great company on the hydrocarbons market. According to the company objective (set the standard not only with the financial performance, but also with stringent requirements in terms of social and environmental responsibility), it presents the Chairman message, the corporate governance, the social and environmental responsibility, the future of energy, the human resources policy, the investor relations, the overview of Total-Fina-Elf fiscal year with financial information and 2002 industrial events. (A.L.B.)

  19. Dynamics, thermodynamics and structure of liquids and supercritical fluids: crossover at the Frenkel line (United States)

    Fomin, Yu D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Proctor, J. E.; Prescher, C.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.


    We review recent work aimed at understanding dynamical and thermodynamic properties of liquids and supercritical fluids. The focus of our discussion is on solid-like transverse collective modes, whose evolution in the supercritical fluids enables one to discuss the main properties of the Frenkel line separating rigid liquid-like and non-rigid gas-like supercritical states. We subsequently present recent experimental evidence of the Frenkel line showing that structural and dynamical crossovers are seen at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the line as predicted by theory and modelling. Finally, we link dynamical and thermodynamic properties of liquids and supercritical fluids by the new calculation of liquid energy governed by the evolution of solid-like transverse modes. The disappearance of those modes at high temperature results in the observed decrease of heat capacity.

  20. ELFE at DESY, status of machine studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkatchenko, A.


    In this paper, the main outlines of the ELFE at DESY project are describes and the problems associated with the scenario proposed in july 1995 are reviewed. The results of the feasibility study recently carried out are presented and the achievable performances of the extracted beam in terms of emittance, energy spread and duty factor are given. (author).

  1. ELFE at DESY, status of machine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkatchenko, A.


    In this paper, the main outlines of the ELFE at DESY project are describes and the problems associated with the scenario proposed in july 1995 are reviewed. The results of the feasibility study recently carried out are presented and the achievable performances of the extracted beam in terms of emittance, energy spread and duty factor are given. (author)

  2. Situation and perspectives in refrigerating and air-conditioning. The point of view of Elf Atochem; Situation et perspectives en refrigeration et air conditionne. Point de vue d`Elf Atochem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper is a series of transparencies which explains the engagements of Elf Atochem company in the replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): development of HFCs, production of FORANE, safety and environmental criteria, main refrigerants and their application in new installations, perspectives in reconversion, replacement of R-22, CFC-12 and R-502 fluids with respect to their applications. (J.S.)

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction-capillary gas chromatography: on-line coupling with a programmed temperature vaporizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, R.J.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Leclercq, P.A.; Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.


    A simple and versatile system is described for the on-line coupling of SFE to capillary GC. The interfacing consists of a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector. With this injector it is possible to combine solute trapping, elimination of a high flow of extraction fluid, and quantitative

  4. On-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation by photometric imaging. (United States)

    Soppela, Ira; Antikainen, Osmo; Sandler, Niklas; Yliruusi, Jouko


    This paper introduces and discusses a photometric surface imaging approach for on-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation. Five granule batches consisting of paracetamol and varying amounts of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose were manufactured with an instrumented fluid bed granulator. Photometric images and NIR spectra were continuously captured on-line and particle size information was extracted from them. Also key process parameters were recorded. The images provided direct real-time information on the growth, attrition and packing behaviour of the batches. Moreover, decreasing image brightness in the drying phase was found to indicate granule drying. The changes observed in the image data were also linked to the moisture and temperature profiles of the processes. Combined with complementary process analytical tools, photometric imaging opens up possibilities for improved real-time evaluation fluid bed granulation. Furthermore, images can give valuable insight into the behaviour of excipients or formulations during product development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))


    The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

  6. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on catalase, cytochrome P450 and nitric oxide synthase in erythro-leukemic cells. (United States)

    Patruno, Antonia; Tabrez, Shams; Pesce, Mirko; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad A; Reale, Marcella


    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) are widely employed in electrical appliances and different equipment such as television sets, mobile phones, computers and microwaves. The molecular mechanism through which ELF-EMFs can influence cellular behavior is still unclear. A hypothesis is that ELF-EMFs could interfere with chemical reactions involving free radical production. Under physiologic conditions, cells maintain redox balance through production of ROS/RNS and antioxidant molecules. The altered balance between ROS generation and elimination plays a critical role in a variety of pathologic conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, aging and cancer. Actually, there is a disagreement as to whether there is a causal or coincidental relationship between ELF-EMF exposure and leukemia development. Increased ROS levels have been observed in several hematopoietic malignancies including acute and chronic myeloid leukemias. In our study, the effect of ELF-EMF exposure on catalase, cytochrome P450 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and their expression by Western blot analysis in myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 was evaluated. A significant modulation of iNOS, CAT and Cyt P450 protein expression was recorded as a result of ELF-EMF exposure in both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and non-stimulated cell lines. Modulation in kinetic parameters of CAT, CYP-450 and iNOS enzymes in response to ELF-EMF indicates an interaction between the ELF-EMF and the enzymological system. These new insights might be important in establishing a mechanistic framework at the molecular level within which the possible effects of ELF-EMF on health can be understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure of Extremely-Low Frequency (ELF magnetic field may cause human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei


    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic exposure of non-ionizing extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-EMF is considered as a health hazard due to its adverse effects on human body such as generation of any type of cancer. Stem cells are appropriate models to assess the effects of ELF-EMF on other cell lines and human beings. Materials and methods: Adipose tissue has been known as source of multi potent stromal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs which can be obtained in less invasive method and in large amounts; so adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs were used in this study. Effect of ELF-EMF (intensities of 0.5 and 1 mT and 50 Hz on proliferation rate of hADSCs was assessed in 20 and 40 min per day for 7 days. Trypan blue assay was performed to assess cell proliferation rate. Result: The results shown that 0.5 and 1 mT magnetic fields can promote the proliferation rate of adipose derived hMSCs according to the duration of exposure. Conclusion: These outcomes could approve the effect of ELF-EMF on cancer induction; although the effective mechanisms in this process are still unknown.

  8. Changes in surfactant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after hemithorax irradiation in patients with mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, M.; Maasilta, P.; Kivisaari, L.; Mattson, K.


    Experimental studies have shown that the surfactant system of the lung is affected shortly after irradiation. It is unclear, however, whether surfactant plays a role in the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. In the present study surfactant components (saturated phosphatidylcholine, surfactant protein A, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol) and other phospholipids of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were studied in four patients with pleural mesothelioma before and during hemithorax irradiation (70 Gy) as well as zero, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months following irradiation. The concentrations of these same components and of soluble proteins were also estimated in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) using urea as a marker of dilution. After radiotherapy, the concentrations of the surfactant components in ELF decreased to 12 to 55% of the control values before radiation, whereas the concentration of sphingomyelin in ELF increased ninefold. There were small changes in the other phospholipids. The concentration of soluble protein in ELF increased sevenfold. The minimum surface activity of crude BAL increased from 12 +/- 4 to 32 +/- 6 mN/m, and that of the sediment fraction of BAL increased from 7 +/- 4 to 22 +/- 6 mN/m, p less than 0.001. The protein-rich supernatant fraction of BAL from irradiated lung had a inhibitory effect on normal surfactant. There were significant correlations between the increasing severity of the radiologic changes on the one hand and, on the other, the saturated phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio (p less than 0.001), the concentrations of soluble protein (p less than 0.001), and the concentrations of the surfactant components (p less than 0.02-0.001) in ELF

  9. Shifted knife-edge aperture digital in-line holography for fluid velocimetry. (United States)

    Palero, Virginia; Lobera, Julia; Andrés, Nieves; Arroyo, M Pilar


    We describe a digital holography technique that, with the simplicity of an in-line configuration, produces holograms where the real and virtual images are completely separated, as in an off-axis configuration. An in-line setup, in which the object is imaged near the sensor, is modified by placing a shifted knife-edge aperture that blocks half the frequency spectrum at the focal plane of the imaging lens. This simple modification of the in-line holographic configuration allows discriminating the virtual and real images. As a fluid velocimetry technique, the use of this aperture removes the minimum defocusing distance requisite and reduces the out-of-plane velocity measurement errors of classical in-line holography. Results with different test objects are shown.

  10. LPG in the Totalfina-Elf merger; Le GPL dans la fusion Totalfina-Elf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Elf Aquitaine's take-over by TotalFina was approved on February 9, by the European Commission, with substantial changes to the project initially submitted. One of the main changes involves the sale of Elf Antargaz and of a part of Elf's associated LPG logistics. Rumors say that a dozen of potential buyers were on the ranks in February to acquire this company which is the second French LPG marketer. The sale seems to question the LPG scheme set by TotalFina at the end of 1999. We published in our previous issue this scheme which was designed to give a larger span to the product, with its own management apart from other specialties. (authors)

  11. ELF waves and ion resonances produced by an electron beam emitting rocket in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winckler, J.R.; Abe, Y.; Erickson, K.N.


    Results are reported from the ECHO-6 electron-beam-injection experiment, performed in the auroral-zone ionosphere on March 30, 1983 using a sounding rocket equipped with two electron guns and a free-flying plasma-diagnostics instrument package. The data are presented in extensive graphs and diagrams and characterized in detail. Large ELF wave variations, superposed on the strong beam-sector-directed quasi-dc component, are observed in the 100-eV beam-induced plasma when the beam is injected in a transverse spiral, but not when it is injected upward parallel to the magnetic-field line. ELF activity is found to be suppressed whenever the rocket passed through field lines with auroral activity, suggesting that the waves are produced by the interaction of the beam potentials, plasma currents, and return currents neutralizing the accelerator payload. 12 references

  12. Fluid-structure interaction analysis for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Jhung, Myung Jo; Chang, Soon Heung


    Research highlights: → Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. → Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. → Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. → Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.

  13. Stability and interactions of nanocolloids at fluid interfaces: effects of capillary waves and line tensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehle, H; Oettel, M


    We analyze the effective potential for nanoparticles trapped at a fluid interface within a simple model which incorporates surface and line tensions as well as a thermal average over interface fluctuations (capillary waves). For a single colloid, a reduced steepness of the potential well hindering movements out of the interface plane compared to rigid interface models is observed, and an instability of the capillary wave partition sum in the case of negative line tensions is pointed out. For two colloids, averaging over the capillary waves leads to an effective Casimir-type interaction which is long ranged, power-like in the inverse distance, but whose power sensitively depends on possible restrictions of the colloid degrees of freedom. A nonzero line tension leads to changes in the magnitude but not in the functional form of the effective potential asymptotics

  14. Comparison of Active Drug Concentrations in the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid and Interstitial Fluid of Calves Injected with Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Ceftiofur, or Tulathromycin (United States)

    Foster, Derek M.; Martin, Luke G.; Papich, Mark G.


    Bacterial pneumonia is the most common reason for parenteral antimicrobial administration to beef cattle in the United States. Yet there is little information describing the antimicrobial concentrations at the site of action. The objective of this study was to compare the active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and interstitial fluid of four antimicrobials commonly used in cattle. After injection, plasma, interstitial fluid, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentrations and protein binding were measured to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of each drug. A cross-over design with six calves per drug was used. Following sample collection and drug analysis, pharmacokinetic calculations were performed. For enrofloxacin and metabolite ciprofloxacin, the interstitial fluid concentration was 52% and 78% of the plasma concentration, while pulmonary fluid concentrations was 24% and 40% of the plasma concentration, respectively. The pulmonary concentrations (enrofloxacin + ciprofloxacin combined) exceeded the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/mL at 48 hours after administration. For florfenicol, the interstitial fluid concentration was almost 98% of the plasma concentration, and the pulmonary concentrations were over 200% of the plasma concentrations, exceeding the breakpoint (≤ 2 μg/mL), and the MIC90 for Mannheimia haemolytica (1.0 μg/mL) for the duration of the study. For ceftiofur, penetration to the interstitial fluid was only 5% of the plasma concentration. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentration represented 40% of the plasma concentration. Airway concentrations exceeded the MIC breakpoint for susceptible respiratory pathogens (≤ 2 μg/mL) for a short time at 48 hours after administration. The plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of tulathromcyin were lower than the concentrations in pulmonary fluid throughout the study. The bronchial concentrations were higher than the plasma or interstitial concentrations, with over 900

  15. Comparison of Active Drug Concentrations in the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid and Interstitial Fluid of Calves Injected with Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Ceftiofur, or Tulathromycin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M Foster

    Full Text Available Bacterial pneumonia is the most common reason for parenteral antimicrobial administration to beef cattle in the United States. Yet there is little information describing the antimicrobial concentrations at the site of action. The objective of this study was to compare the active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and interstitial fluid of four antimicrobials commonly used in cattle. After injection, plasma, interstitial fluid, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentrations and protein binding were measured to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of each drug. A cross-over design with six calves per drug was used. Following sample collection and drug analysis, pharmacokinetic calculations were performed. For enrofloxacin and metabolite ciprofloxacin, the interstitial fluid concentration was 52% and 78% of the plasma concentration, while pulmonary fluid concentrations was 24% and 40% of the plasma concentration, respectively. The pulmonary concentrations (enrofloxacin + ciprofloxacin combined exceeded the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/mL at 48 hours after administration. For florfenicol, the interstitial fluid concentration was almost 98% of the plasma concentration, and the pulmonary concentrations were over 200% of the plasma concentrations, exceeding the breakpoint (≤ 2 μg/mL, and the MIC90 for Mannheimia haemolytica (1.0 μg/mL for the duration of the study. For ceftiofur, penetration to the interstitial fluid was only 5% of the plasma concentration. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentration represented 40% of the plasma concentration. Airway concentrations exceeded the MIC breakpoint for susceptible respiratory pathogens (≤ 2 μg/mL for a short time at 48 hours after administration. The plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of tulathromcyin were lower than the concentrations in pulmonary fluid throughout the study. The bronchial concentrations were higher than the plasma or interstitial concentrations

  16. Correlating contact line capillarity and dynamic contact angle hysteresis in surfactant-nanoparticle based complex fluids (United States)

    Harikrishnan, A. R.; Dhar, Purbarun; Agnihotri, Prabhat K.; Gedupudi, Sateesh; Das, Sarit K.


    Dynamic wettability and contact angle hysteresis can be correlated to shed insight onto any solid-liquid interaction. Complex fluids are capable of altering the expected hysteresis and dynamic wetting behavior due to interfacial interactions. We report the effect of capillary number on the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of surfactant-based nanocolloidal solutions on hydrophilic, near hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces by performing forced wetting and de-wetting experiments by employing the embedded needle method. A segregated study is performed to infer the contributing effects of the constituents and effects of particle morphology. The static contact angle hysteresis is found to be a function of particle and surfactant concentrations and greatly depends on the nature of the morphology of the particles. An order of estimate of line energy and a dynamic flow parameter called spreading factor and the transient variations of these parameters are explored which sheds light on the dynamics of contact line movement and response to perturbation of three-phase contact. The Cox-Voinov-Tanner law was found to hold for hydrophilic and a weak dependency on superhydrophobic surfaces with capillary number, and even for the complex fluids, with a varying degree of dependency for different fluids.

  17. Expressing Disagreement in ELF Business Negotiations: Theory and Practice (United States)

    Bjorge, Anne Kari


    English spoken by those who do not share their first language is increasingly referred to as English lingua franca (ELF). For ELF speakers, it can be a challenge to express conflicting opinions, as a common language and/or cultural background cannot be taken for granted. This is recognized by writers of business English textbooks, who provide…

  18. ELF radiation from the Tromsoe super heater facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, R.; Stubbe, P.


    Direct comparisons have been made of the ionospheric ELF radiation produced by the new (1 GW ERP) and old (250 MW ERP) antennas of the Tromsoe heater system, but no significant differences in the ELF signal strength have been detected. This initially surprising result is shown to require a value of unity for the index relating the received ELF signal strength to HF power input to the antenna. A series of experiments performed solely to derive more accurate values for this power index provided values ranging from 0.74 to 0.97, dependent on the ELF frequencies generated. It has been suggested that ELF radiation from the normal Tromsoe heater facility should be limited by saturation effects, even when operating well below the maximum HF power density (3mW/m 2 in the D-region). No evidence for such saturation effects has been found even at power densities greater than 10mW/m 2

  19. TotalFinaElf Factbook 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2002. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  20. Residential exposure from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Shamesh Raj; Tukimin, Roha


    ELF EMF radiation have received considerable attention as a potential threat to the safety and health of people living in the vicinity of high voltage transmission lines, electric distribution substations, power stations and even in close proximity to electronics and electrical household appliances. The paper highlights the study on the ELF EMF safety assessment performed at residences comprising of an owner-occupied house, a completed vacant house and an under construction condominium. The objectives of this study were to determine the ELF EMF radiation exposure level from the high voltage transmission line, electric distribution substation, power station and electrical household appliances in the residences, and to assess the potential exposure received by the occupants at the assessed locations. The results were logged in the electric and magnetic field strength with the units of volt per meter (V/m) and miliGauss (mG) respectively. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines.

  1. Dehydration studies using a novel multichamber microscale fluid bed dryer with in-line near-infrared measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räsänen, Eetu; Rantanen, Jukka; Mannermaa, Jukka-Pekka


    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of two process parameters (temperature and moisture content) on dehydration behavior of different materials using a novel multichamber microscale fluid bed dryer with a process air control unit and in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy....... The materials studied were disodium hydrogen phosphates with three different levels of hydrate water and wet theophylline granules. Measured process parameters of fluid bed drying were logged, including in-line NIR signals. Off-line analyses consisted of X-ray powder diffraction patterns, Fourier transform NIR...... spectra and moisture contents of studied materials. During fluid bed drying, the stepwise dehydration of materials was observed by the water content difference of inlet and outlet air, the pressure difference over the bed, and the in-line NIR spectroscopy. The off-line analysis confirmed the state...

  2. ELF magnetic therapy and oxidative balance. (United States)

    Raggi, Francesco; Vallesi, Giuseppe; Rufini, Stefano; Gizzi, Stefania; Ercolani, Enrico; Rossi, Ruggero


    Knowledge about the relationship between exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) EMF and formation (or neutralization) of free radicals in the living cells is limited. Studies performed on animals and plants have shown conflicting effects on the relation between EMF and oxidative stress. Very few experiments have been performed on humans. The present study reports on the effects of an ELF magnetic therapy device (Seqex) on oxidative scale in humans. This device supplies complex magnetic signals with specific choices of frequency, intensity, and shape that are based on Liboff's ion cyclotron resonance hypothesis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were treated using the Seqex cycle. A quantitative determination of oxidative stress was obtained at three time points by measuring Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in peripheral blood before and after the cycle and one month following completion of the cycle. A highly significant reduction in mean MDA (53.8%, p = 0.0002) was found at the end of the treatment. One month later the mean MDA had again risen, but there was still a significant overall reduction of 15.6% (p = 0.010) compared to original values.

  3. The ocean depths: Elf's target for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Elf has long since been aware of the potential of sedimentary basins in the ocean depths. For this reason, the group has been preparing to descend to these depths for many years. Today, it is setting itself the target of being ready to optimise as from 1997 a discovery made in the depth between 400 and 1500 m of water in Africa. In the Gulf of Guinea, most of the neighbouring countries have opened up their deep sea offshore areas, in order to try to renew their reserves on the verge of the third millennium. Indeed a great similarity can be seen between the West African and the Brazilian ocean depths. In the African offshore areas, Elf has acquired or renewed eight blocks, four of which are in Nigeria, one in the Congo, one in Gabon and two in Angola. The group is also interested in the ocean depths which are now accessible in the North Sea, whether in the Norwegian (Voring and More) of British (Western Shetlands) areas. (author). 1 fig

  4. Is there ELF in ELT coursebooks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vettorel


    Full Text Available This article aims to explore whether well-attested findings in the fields of World Englishes (WE and of English as a lingua franca (ELF have determined a shift in perspective in the overall approach to English language teaching (ELT, and how far this shift has permeated teaching materials and coursebooks. The research study was carried out in Italy, a country where ELT coursebooks have often played a relevant role in introducing innovations in language teaching methodology. The research design included a corpus of ten coursebooks that have been published and adopted in Italian secondary schools in the last 6 years. The coursebooks were evaluated in terms of the presence or absence of references to WE and/or ELF, of awareness-raising activities, of the promotion of using English outside the school environment and of the use of effective English communication and intercultural strategies among nonnative speakers. Findings show that there have been no significant changes in the inclusion of WE- and ELForiented materials and related tasks, apart from the area of promotion of cultural and intercultural awareness.

  5. Magnetic fluid axisymmetric volume on a horizontal plane near a vertical line conductor in case of non-wetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradova, A.S., E-mail:; Turkov, V.A.; Naletova, V.A.


    Static shapes of a magnetic fluid axisymmetric volume on a horizontal plane in the magnetic field of a vertical line conductor are studied theoretically in case of non-wetting while the current is slowly changing in a quasi-static manner. The possibility of the fluid shape hysteresis for a cyclic increase and decrease of the current and of spasmodic changes at certain values of the current is investigated. - Highlights: • Magnetic fluid on a horizontal plane near a line conductor is studied theoretically. • For fixed current and volume various static shapes are obtained. • Spasmodic and hysteresis phenomena are found.

  6. A Finite Element Method for Free-Surface Flows of Incompressible Fluids in Three Dimensions, Part II: Dynamic Wetting Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.A.; Cairncross, R.A.; Rao, R.R.; Sackinger, P.A.; Schunk, P.R.


    To date, few researchers have solved three-dimensional free-surface problems with dynamic wetting lines. This paper extends the free-surface finite element method described in a companion paper [Cairncross, R.A., P.R. Schunk, T.A. Baer, P.A. Sackinger, R.R. Rao, "A finite element method for free surface flows of incompressible fluid in three dimensions, Part I: Boundary-Fitted mesh motion.", to be published (1998)] to handle dynamic wetting. A generalization of the technique used in two dimensional modeling to circumvent double-valued velocities at the wetting line, the so-called kinematic paradox, is presented for a wetting line in three dimensions. This approach requires the fluid velocity normal to the contact line to be zero, the fluid velocity tangent to the contact line to be equal to the tangential component of web velocity, and the fluid velocity into the web to be zero. In addition, slip is allowed in a narrow strip along the substrate surface near the dynamic contact line. For realistic wetting-line motion, a contact angle which varies with wetting speed is required because contact lines in three dimensions typically advance or recede a different rates depending upon location and/or have both advancing and receding portions. The theory is applied to capillary rise of static fluid in a corner, the initial motion of a Newtonian droplet down an inclined plane, and extrusion of a Newtonian fluid from a nozzle onto a moving substrate. The extrusion results are compared to experimental visualization. Subject Categories

  7. Global dynamics of shaft lines of turbo-machineries coupled to surrounding fluids: application to the case of fluid sheets; Dynamique globale des lignes d'arbres de turbomachines couplees aux fluides environnants: application au cas des lames fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lornage, D.


    Shaft lines of turbo-machineries have to stand increasing reliability, efficiency and safety requirements. A precise modeling of the rotating parts with all possible coupling has become necessary. In this context, this work aims to develop a global modeling of rotating wheel/shaft system inside a surrounding fluid in order to foresee its dynamical behaviour. The use and advantage of Eulerian, Lagrangian and mixed (arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian - ALE) formulations is recalled first. A bibliographic synthesis of the classical techniques used in structure mechanics and of coupling techniques for rotating machines is presented. The coupling technique retained is presented. It uses fluid and structure models independently developed and validated. The structure domain is discretized by the finite-element method. The fluid domain is discretized by the finite-difference method taking into consideration the hypotheses linked with thin films. A modal base projection combined with a mesh at the fluid-structure interface allows an efficient, adaptable and evolutive coupling. Finally, the method is applied to 3 test-cases. The first two ones comprise a shaft/disc system coupled to a fluid sheet between the disc and the casing and to an hydrodynamic bearing. Both cases allow a first validation of the coupling method. The third case aims to study a structure closer to a real system made of a shaft and a wheel coupled to a fluid sheet between a flange and a casing. These three applications allow to show the trends linked with the fluid effects and the coupling between the flexible sub-parts of the structure. (J.S.)

  8. Path-integral and Ornstein-Zernike study of quantum fluid structures on the crystallization line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesé, Luis M.


    Liquid neon, liquid para-hydrogen, and the quantum hard-sphere fluid are studied with path integral Monte Carlo simulations and the Ornstein-Zernike pair equation on their respective crystallization lines. The results cover the whole sets of structures in the r-space and the k-space and, for completeness, the internal energies, pressures and isothermal compressibilities. Comparison with experiment is made wherever possible, and the possibilities of establishing k-space criteria for quantum crystallization based on the path-integral centroids are discussed. In this regard, the results show that the centroid structure factor contains two significant parameters related to its main peak features (amplitude and shape) that can be useful to characterize freezing.

  9. Path-integral and Ornstein-Zernike study of quantum fluid structures on the crystallization line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesé, Luis M., E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Fisicoquímicas, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Paseo Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Liquid neon, liquid para-hydrogen, and the quantum hard-sphere fluid are studied with path integral Monte Carlo simulations and the Ornstein-Zernike pair equation on their respective crystallization lines. The results cover the whole sets of structures in the r-space and the k-space and, for completeness, the internal energies, pressures and isothermal compressibilities. Comparison with experiment is made wherever possible, and the possibilities of establishing k-space criteria for quantum crystallization based on the path-integral centroids are discussed. In this regard, the results show that the centroid structure factor contains two significant parameters related to its main peak features (amplitude and shape) that can be useful to characterize freezing.

  10. Avoidance of Pressure Oscillations in Discrete Fluid Power Systems with Transmission Lines - An Analytical Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    Discrete fluid power technology attracts great attention because it enables energy efficiency and robust system architectures. However, the discrete nature of this technology naturally brings shifting phenomenons into the picture. For fluid power system the relative high inductance of fluid...

  11. Cohesion as interaction in ELF spoken discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Christiansen


    Full Text Available Hitherto, most research into cohesion has concentrated on texts (usually written only in standard Native Speaker English – e.g. Halliday and Hasan (1976. By contrast, following on the work in anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, Christiansen (2011 describes cohesion as an interac­tive process focusing on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. Such a consideration of cohesion from the perspective of discourse (i.e. the process of which text is the product -- Widdowson 1984, p. 100 is especially relevant within a lingua franca context as the issue of different variations of ELF and inter-cultural concerns (Guido 2008 add extra dimensions to the complex multi-code interaction. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts (approximately 1000 words each, taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions (spoken interaction set in multicultural university con­texts are analysed in depth by means of a qualitative method.

  12. Noninvasive Sampling of Mucosal Lining Fluid for the Quantification of In Vivo Upper Airway Immune-mediator Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Chawes, Bo L.; Thorsen, Jonathan


    (often used by other techniques). The mucosal lining fluid is sampled on a strip of filter paper placed at the anterior part of the inferior turbinate and left for 2 min of absorption. Analytes are eluted from the filter papers, and the extracted protein-based eluates are analyzed...

  13. On the observations of unique low latitude whistler-triggered VLF/ELF emissions (United States)

    Altaf, M.; Singh, K. K.; Singh, A. K.; Lalmani

    A detailed analysis of the VLF/ELF wave data obtained during a whistler campaign under All India Coordinated Program of Ionosphere Thermosphere Studies (AICPITS) at our low latitude Indian ground station Jammu (geomag. lat. = 22° 26‧ N, L = 1.17) has yielded two types of unusual and unique whistler-triggered VLF/ELF emissions. These include (1) whistler-triggered hook emissions and (2) whistler-triggered long enduring discrete chorus riser emissions in VLF/ELF frequency range during night time. Such types of whistler-triggered emissions have not been reported earlier from any of the ground observations at low latitudes. In the present study, the observed characteristics of these emissions are described and interpreted. Dispersion analysis of these emissions show that the whistlers as well as emissions have propagated along a higher geomagnetic field line path with L-values lying ∼L = 4, suggesting that these triggered emissions are to be regarded as mid-latitude emissions. These waves could have propagated along the geomagnetic field lines either in a ducted mode or in a pro-longitudinal (PL) mode. The measured intensity of the triggered emissions is almost equal to that of the source waves and does not vary throughout the period of observation on that day. It is speculated that these emissions may have been generated through a process of resonant interaction of the whistler waves with energetic electrons. Parameters related to this interaction are computed for different values of L and wave amplitude. The proposed mechanism explains some aspects of the dynamic spectra.

  14. Investigation of the radiation properties of magnetospheric ELF waves induced by modulated ionospheric heating (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhao, Shufan; Zhao, Guangxin; Wang, Min


    Electromagnetic extremely low frequency (ELF) waves play an important role in modulating the Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics. High-frequency (HF) modulated heating of the ionosphere acts as a viable means to generate artificial ELF waves. The artificial ELF waves can reside in two different plasma regions in geo-space by propagating in the ionosphere and penetrating into the magnetosphere. As a consequence, the entire trajectory of ELF wave propagation should be considered to carefully analyze the wave radiation properties resulting from modulated ionospheric heating. We adopt a model of full wave solution to evaluate the Poynting vector of the ELF radiation field in the ionosphere, which can reflect the propagation characteristics of the radiated ELF waves along the background magnetic field and provide the initial condition of waves for ray tracing in the magnetosphere. The results indicate that the induced ELF wave energy forms a collimated beam and the center of the ELF radiation shifts obviously with respect to the ambient magnetic field with the radiation power inversely proportional to the wave frequency. The intensity of ELF wave radiation also shows a weak correlation with the size of the radiation source or its geographical location. Furthermore, the combination of ELF propagation in the ionosphere and magnetosphere is proposed on basis of the characteristics of the ELF radiation field from the upper ionospheric boundary and ray tracing simulations are implemented to reasonably calculate magnetospheric ray paths of ELF waves induced by modulated ionospheric heating.

  15. Multiflash whistlers in ELF-band observed at low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh


    Full Text Available Multiflash whistler-like event in the ELF-band, observed during March 1998 at low latitude station Jammu, is reported. The most prominent feature of these events is the multiflash nature along with the decrease in frequency within a very short span of time resembling similar to terrestrial whistlers. The events have a significantly smaller time duration (0.5–3.5 s than those reported earlier from high, mid and low latitudes and also display a diurnal maximum occurring around 09:30 h (IST. There have been similar reportings from other latitudes, but whistlers in the ELF-band with a multiflash nature along with a precursor emission have never been reported. Lightning seems to be the dominant source for the ELF whistlers reported here.

  16. ELF4 Regulates GIGANTEA Chromatin Access through Subnuclear Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Kim


    Full Text Available Many organisms, including plants, use the circadian clock to measure the duration of day and night. Daily rhythms in the plant circadian system are generated by multiple interlocked transcriptional/translational loops and also by spatial regulations such as nuclear translocation. GIGANTEA (GI, one of the key clock components in Arabidopsis, makes distinctive nuclear bodies like other nuclear-localized circadian regulators. However, little is known about the dynamics or roles of GI subnuclear localization. Here, we characterize GI subnuclear compartmentalization and identify unexpected dynamic changes under diurnal conditions. We further identify EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4 as a regulator of GI nuclear distribution through a physical interaction. ELF4 sequesters GI from the nucleoplasm, where GI binds the promoter of CONSTANS (CO, to discrete nuclear bodies. We suggest that the subnuclear compartmentalization of GI by ELF4 contributes to the regulation of photoperiodic flowering.

  17. An active antenna for ELF magnetic fields (United States)

    Sutton, John F.; Spaniol, Craig


    The work of Nikola Tesla, especially that directed toward world-wide electrical energy distribution via excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, has stimulated interest in the study of these resonances. Not only are they important for their potential use in the transmission of intelligence and electrical power, they are important because they are an integral part of our natural environment. This paper describes the design of a sensitive, untuned, low noise active antenna which is uniquely suited to modern earth-ionosphere cavity resonance measurements employing fast-Fourier transform techniques for near-real-time data analysis. It capitalizes on a little known field-antenna interaction mechanism. Recently, the authors made preliminary measurements of the magnetic fields in the earth-ionosphere cavity. During the course of this study, the problem of designing an optimized ELF magnetic field sensor presented itself. The sensor would have to be small, light weight (for portable use), and capable of detecting the 5-50 Hz picoTesla-level signals generated by the natural excitations of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances. A review of the literature revealed that past researchers had employed very large search coils, both tuned and untuned. Hill and Bostick, for example, used coils of 30,000 turns wound on high permeability cores of 1.83 m length, weighing 40 kg. Tuned coils are unsuitable for modern fast-Fourier transform data analysis techniques which require a broad spectrum input. 'Untuned' coils connected to high input impedance voltage amplifiers exhibit resonant responses at the resonant frequency determined by the coil inductance and the coil distributed winding capacitance. Also, considered as antennas, they have effective areas equal only to their geometrical areas.

  18. ELFE: New machine proposed for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Understanding the dynamics of non-perturbative QCD (the physics of quark and gluon interactions at large coupling) is one of the most challenging problems of modern physics. The two phenomena of quark confinement, which binds quarks permanently inside hadrons, and the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry, which gives us pion physics and more massive constituent quarks of low energy QCD, define the interface of nuclear and particle physics. The Electron Laboratory for Europe project - ELFE - is the European machine initiative proposed as the optimum experimental tool to study this ''Confinement Physics'', which is virgin territory for both particle and nuclear physicists. Until recently, lack of data in the confinement domain had led to slow theoretical progress in understanding the quark structure of nuclear and hadronic matter. This situation has improved considerably, with new discoveries in high energy deep inelastic scattering experiments together with important advances in large acceptance detector technology and continuous electron beams at low energies. At high energies, the CERN muon beam experiments in deep inelastic scattering (probing the remote interior of nucleons) opened an exciting new window on nucleon structure with the discovery of three unexpected effects: the EMC (European Muon Collaboration) nuclear and spin effects, and the observation of a surprisingly large difference between the the number of anti-up and anti-down quarks in nucleons. In 1983, the EMC nuclear effect showed that the quark structure of the free nucleon is modified in the nuclear environment. The EMC spin effect (or proton spin problem) is the discovery that it looks as though quark spin contributes only 22% of that of the nucleon (July 1994, page 19)

  19. On-line fast response device and method for measuring dissolved gas in a fluid (United States)

    Tutu, Narinder Kumar [Manorville, NY


    A method and device for the measurement of dissolved gas within a fluid. The fluid, substantially a liquid, is pumped into a pipe. The flow of the fluid is temporally restricted, creating one or more low pressure regions. A measurement indicative of trapped air is taken before and after the restriction. The amount of dissolved air is calculated from the difference between the first and second measurements. Preferably measurements indicative of trapped air is obtained from one or more pressure transducers, capacitance transducers, or combinations thereof. In the alternative, other methods such as those utilizing x-rays or gamma rays may also be used to detect trapped air. Preferably, the fluid is a hydraulic fluid, whereby dissolved air in the fluid is detected.

  20. Rapid Determination of Two Triterpenoid Acids in Chaenomelis Fructus Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction On-line Coupled with Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Ji, Feng; Li, Yueqi; He, Tian; Han, Ya; Wang, Daidong; Lin, Zongtao; Chen, Shizhong


    In this study, an on-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method was developed for the rapid determination of oleanoic acid and ursolic acid in Chaenomelis Fructus. After optimization of the conditions, the two triterpenoid acids was obtained by SFE using 20% methanol as a modifier at 35°C in 8 min. They were resolved on a Shim-pack UC-X Diol column (4.6 × 150 mm, 3 μm) in 14 min (0 - 10 min, 5 - 10%; 10 - 14 min, 10% methanol in CO 2 ) with a backpressure of 15 MPa at 40°C. The on-line SFE-SFC method could be completed within 40 min (10.79 mg/g dry plant, R s = 2.36), while the ultrasound-assisted extraction and HPLC method required at least 90 min (3.55 mg/g dry plant, R s = 1.92). This on-line SFE-SFC method is powerful to simplify the pre-processing and quantitative analysis of natural products.

  1. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) (United States)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.


    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us to simultaneously measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the on-line water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the δD reliability. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 °C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water resulting in an artificial water background with well-known δD and δ18O values. The speleothem sample is placed into a copper tube, attached to the line and after system stabilisation is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain δD and δ18O isotopic composition of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5‰ for δD and 0.4‰ for δ18O for water measurement for an extended range (-210 to 0‰ for δD and -27 to 0‰ for δ18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technique.

  2. Determination of drugs in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line sample processing. (United States)

    Oertel, R; Richter, K; Gramatté, T; Kirch, W


    An automated two column HPLC system with the new packing material LiChrospher RP-18 ADS (alkyl-diol-silica) was tested for the determination of several drugs and metabolites (talinolol, celiprolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, triamterene, trimethoprim, tiracizine, articaine, detajmium, ajmaline, lamotrigine) in various biological fluids (serum, urine, intestinal aspirates, supernatants of cell cultures and supernatants after protein denaturation). The method allows the direct injection of biological fluids into a reversed-phase HPLC system and on-line clean-up and sample enrichment by a column-switching technique. Precision, accuracy and sensitivity were similar to conventional assays as described in the literature. With this new method it was possible to measure drug concentrations in various biological fluids without changing the sample preparation procedure. In some cases an additional sample preparation like protein denaturation or solid-phase extraction was advantageous to enhance the sensitivity of the method and the life-time of the ADS column.

  3. Photon tagging; considerations for an ELFE DESY proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, J.A.


    Photon Tagging in the 5-15 GeV region is considered. The advantage of performing exclusive measurements in relation to obtainable photon flux in described. Finally some technical problems in relation to implementing a photon beam in the framework of the ELFE at DESY proposal are discussed. (author)

  4. Conflict or Cooperation: The Use of Backchannelling in ELF Negotiations (United States)

    Bjorge, Anne Kari


    The international business community relies heavily on English Lingua Franca (ELF) as a shared means of communication, and English business language programmes thus feature prominently within the field of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Business ESP programmes, however, have little focus on active listening, which previous research has…

  5. Coupling Fluid and Solute Dynamics Within the Ocular Surface Tear Film: A Modelling Study of Black Line Osmolarity

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.


    We present a mathematical model describing the spatial distribution of tear film osmolarity across the ocular surface of a human eye during one blink cycle, incorporating detailed fluid and solute dynamics. Based on the lubrication approximation, our model comprises three coupled equations tracking the depth of the aqueous layer of the tear film, the concentration of the polar lipid, and the concentration of physiological salts contained in the aqueous layer. Diffusive boundary layers in the salt concentration occur at the thinnest regions of the tear film, the black lines. Thus, despite large Peclet numbers, diffusion ameliorates osmolarity around the black lines, but nonetheless is insufficient to eliminate the build-up of solute in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical saccadic eyelid motion can reduce osmolarity at the lower black line, raising the prospect that select eyeball motions more generally can assist in alleviating tear film hyperosmolarity. Finally, our results indicate that measured evaporative rates will induce excessive hyperosmolarity at the black lines, even for the healthy eye. This suggests that further evaporative retardation at the black lines, for instance due to the cellular glycocalyx at the ocular surface or increasing concentrations of mucus, will be important for controlling hyperosmolarity as the black line thins. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  6. Verification of fluid-structure-interaction algorithms through the method of manufactured solutions for actuator-line applications (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Sprague, Michael


    Demonstrating expected convergence rates with spatial- and temporal-grid refinement is the ``gold standard'' of code and algorithm verification. However, the lack of analytical solutions and generating manufactured solutions presents challenges for verifying codes for complex systems. The application of the method of manufactured solutions (MMS) for verification for coupled multi-physics phenomena like fluid-structure interaction (FSI) has only seen recent investigation. While many FSI algorithms for aeroelastic phenomena have focused on boundary-resolved CFD simulations, the actuator-line representation of the structure is widely used for FSI simulations in wind-energy research. In this work, we demonstrate the verification of an FSI algorithm using MMS for actuator-line CFD simulations with a simplified structural model. We use a manufactured solution for the fluid velocity field and the displacement of the SMD system. We demonstrate the convergence of both the fluid and structural solver to second-order accuracy with grid and time-step refinement. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind Energy Technologies Office, under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  7. Off-line supercritical fluid extraction-capillary GC applications in environmental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, F.; Verschuere, M.; Sandra, P.J.F.


    The successful application of supercrit. fluid extn. for environmental samples requires that the extn. for environmental samples requires that the extn. conditions detd. for spiked samples must be optimized in order to overcome the solute-matrix interactions that are responsible for lower recoveries

  8. Sources of Exposure to ELF Fields at Workplaces (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchia, P.


    In most workplaces people are exposed to a variety of extremely low frequency (ELF) fields. So-called 'electric jobs' have been identified, where the exposure is likely to significantly exceed average residential and occupational levels. The classification is, however, questionable, and no reliable exposure data may in general be associated with different jobs. Most recent epidemiological studies have been focused on areas where ELF fields are quite intense, sources are clearly identified, and actual field levels can be measured. Such areas include electric power generation, transmission and distribution, electric transport, and arc welding. In this paper, typical values of magnetic fields in these workplaces are presented and discussed. The time-weighted magnetic field values for the same jobs are not very consistent across the studies. This indicates that not only job titles, but also measurements of the magnetic field, are poor surrogates for the actual exposure, which is best assessed by the use of dosemeters. (author)

  9. Artificial excitation of ELF waves with frequency of Schumann resonance (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Guido, T.; Tulegenov, B.; Labenski, J.; Chang, C.-L.


    We report results from the experiment aimed at the artificial excitation of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves with frequencies corresponding to the frequency of Schumann resonance. Electromagnetic waves with these frequencies can form a standing pattern inside the spherical cavity formed by the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere. In the experiment the ELF waves were excited by heating the ionosphere with X-mode HF electromagnetic waves generated at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. The experiment demonstrates that heating of the ionosphere can excite relatively large-amplitude electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range 7.8-8.0 Hz when the ionosphere has a strong F layer, the frequency of the HF radiation is in the range 3.20-4.57 MHz, and the electric field greater than 5 mV/m is present in the ionosphere.

  10. The peculiarities of power terrestrial ELF emission in the Earth's ionosphere (United States)

    Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Fedir; Pronenko, Vira; Chvach, Valery


    The near-Earth space is saturated with electromagnetic (EM) waves of terrestrial origin in a wide frequency range. The most powerful natural sources of EM emission are thunderstorms and triggered by them Schumann resonance (SR) radiation which is the narrowband EM noise that occurs due to the global thunderstorm activity in the Earth-ionosphere cavity in frequency range about 7-100 Hz. The considerable part of the terrestrial EM emission belongs to everyday human activity which increases year by year with unpredictable consequences. At the beginning of space exploration era it was considered that high frequency EM waves freely penetrate through the Earth's ionosphere, but the terrestrial EM emission below very low frequency range is limited by ionospheric F2 layer boundary due to great EM losses in plasma. About 40 years ago the power lines harmonic radiation (multiple of 50/60 Hz) was found at satellite observations in a few kilohertz range, nevertheless the ionosphere was considered fully opaque for extremely low frequency (ELF) EM emission. However recently, in spite of theoretical estimations, the SR harmonics and power line emission (PLE) 50/60 Hz were discovered during flights of low Earth orbiting satellites C/NOFS (Simões et al., 2011) and Chibis-M (Dudkin et al., 2015) at heights 400-800 km, i.e. over F2-layer. Last results are a great challenge to the theory of ELF EM emission propagation in the Earth's ionosphere as well as for study of long-term influence of constantly increasing electric energy consumption by human civilization in the Earth's environment. We present the analysis of the space and time distribution for observed PLE and SR harmonics, their connection with power terrestrial sources of ELF emission and possible relation between measured values and ionosphere conditions. Also some electromagnetic parameters have been estimated. Simões, F. A., R. F. Pfaff, and H. T. Freudenreich (2011), Satellite observations of Schumann resonances in the

  11. In-line Microwave Warmer for Blood and Intravenous Fluids. Phase 2. (United States)


    occuring in the battlefield often requires restoring normothermia and infusion of fluids, such as saline or blood, into the patient. These two...elevation is required to restore normal body temperature in response to hypothermic cardioplegic arrest induced prior to the operation. 6 1.2 System... Microfiltration Devices," Acta Annaesth Scand, 23:40- 45, 1979. [20] K Linko, K Hynynen, "Erythrocyte Damage Caused by the Haemotherm Microwave Blood Warmer

  12. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Plan and Summary of 1982 Progress. (United States)


    Scientific studies were funded through a peer-reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982, and studies were initiated at the Wisconsin and Michigan ELF...Naval Electronic Systems Command (NESC) during and subsequent to the ELF Comunications Program environmental impact evaluation process, includ- ing the... scientific review of ELF electromagnetic field effects made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1977. This document generally describes the

  13. ULF/ELF Waves in Near-Moon Space (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tomoko


    The reflection of the solar wind protons is equivalent to a beam injection against the solar wind flow. It is expected to produce a ring beam with a 3D distribution function in many cases. The reflected protons are responsible for the generation of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves at ˜0.01 Hz and narrowband waves at ˜1 Hz in the extremely low frequency (ELF) range through resonant interaction with magnetohydrodynamic waves and whistler mode waves in the solar wind, respectively. This chapter discusses these commonly observed waves in the near-Moon space. The sinusoidal waveforms and sharp spectra of the monochromatic ELF waves are impressive, but commonly observed are non-monochromatic waves in the ELF range ˜0.03-10 Hz. Some of the solar wind protons reflected by the dayside lunar surface or crustal magnetic field gyrate around the solar wind magnetic field and can access the center of the wake owing to the large Larmour radius.

  14. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program (United States)


    transmission lines, Effects to bee orientation from fluctuations in the earth’s magnetic field due to solar events 0 and magnetic anomalies have also been...embryo: developmental stage, brain, eye, ear and branchial arches, heart, spinal cord arid somites, limb buds, and extra-embryonic membranes, as well as

  15. Utilization of genetic algorithm in on-line tuning of fluid power servos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, J.


    This study describes a robust and plausible method based on genetic algorithms suitable for tuning a regulator. The main advantages of the method presented is its robustness and easy-to-use feature. In this thesis the method is demonstrated by searching for appropriate control parameters of a state-feedback controller in a fluid power environment. To corroborate the robustness of the tuning method, two earlier studies are also presented in the appendix, where the presented tuning method is used in different kinds of regulator tuning situations. (orig.) 33 refs.

  16. Utilization of genetic algorithm in on-line tuning of fluid power servos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, J


    This study describes a robust and plausible method based on genetic algorithms suitable for tuning a regulator. The main advantages of the method presented is its robustness and easy-to-use feature. In this thesis the method is demonstrated by searching for appropriate control parameters of a state-feedback controller in a fluid power environment. To corroborate the robustness of the tuning method, two earlier studies are also presented in the appendix, where the presented tuning method is used in different kinds of regulator tuning situations. (orig.) 33 refs.

  17. Similarity Laws for the Lines of Ideal Free Energy and Chemical Potential in Supercritical Fluids. (United States)

    Apfelbaum, E M; Vorob'ev, V S


    We have found the curves on the density-temperature plane, along which the values of free energy and chemical potential correspond to ideal gas quantities. At first, we have applied the van der Waals equation to construct them and to derive their equations. Then we have shown that the same lines for real substances (Ar, N 2 , CH 4 , SF 6 , H 2 , H 2 O) and for the model Lennard-Jones system constructed on the basis of the measurements data and calculations are well matched with the derived equations. The validity and deviations from the obtained similarity laws are discussed.

  18. ELF-MF exposure affects the robustness of epigenetic programming during granulopoiesis (United States)

    Manser, Melissa; Sater, Mohamad R. Abdul; Schmid, Christoph D.; Noreen, Faiza; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Schuermann, David; Schär, Primo


    Extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have been classified as “possibly carcinogenic” to humans on the grounds of an epidemiological association of ELF-MF exposure with an increased risk of childhood leukaemia. Yet, underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. Genome instability seems an unlikely reason as the energy transmitted by ELF-MF is too low to damage DNA and induce cancer-promoting mutations. ELF-MF, however, may perturb the epigenetic code of genomes, which is well-known to be sensitive to environmental conditions and generally deranged in cancers, including leukaemia. We examined the potential of ELF-MF to influence key epigenetic modifications in leukaemic Jurkat cells and in human CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells undergoing in vitro differentiation into the neutrophilic lineage. During granulopoiesis, sensitive genome-wide profiling of multiple replicate experiments did not reveal any statistically significant, ELF-MF-dependent alterations in the patterns of active (H3K4me2) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone marks nor in DNA methylation. However, ELF-MF exposure showed consistent effects on the reproducibility of these histone and DNA modification profiles (replicate variability), which appear to be of a stochastic nature but show preferences for the genomic context. The data indicate that ELF-MF exposure stabilizes active chromatin, particularly during the transition from a repressive to an active state during cell differentiation.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics modeling patterns and force characteristics of flow over in-line four square cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yidan


    Full Text Available The flow over four square cylinders in an in-line, square arrangement was numerically investigated by using the finite volume method with CFD techniques. The working fluid is an incompressible ideal gas. The length of the sides of the array, L, is equal. The analysis is carried out for a Reynolds number of 300, with center-to-center distance ratios, L/D, ranging from 1.5 to 8.0. To fully understand the flow mechanism, details in terms of lift and drag coefficients and Strouhal numbers of the unsteady wake frequencies are analyzed, and the vortex shedding patterns around the four square cylinders are described. It is concluded that L/D has important effects on the drag and lift coefficients, vortex shedding frequencies, and flow field characteristics.

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of ketamine metabolites from dried urine and on-line quantification by supercritical fluid chromatography and single mass detection (on-line SFE-SFC-MS). (United States)

    Hofstetter, Robert; Fassauer, Georg M; Link, Andreas


    On-line solid-phase supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and chromatography (SFC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) has been evaluated for its usefulness with respect to metabolic profiling and pharmacological investigations of ketamine in humans. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid, highly selective and sensitive SFE-SFC-MS method for the quantification of ketamine and its metabolites in miniature amounts in human urine excluding liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Several conditions were optimized systematically following the requirements of the European Medicines Agency: selectivity, carry-over, calibration curve parameters (LLOQ, range and linearity), within- and between-run accuracy and precision, dilution integrity, matrix effect, and stability. The method, which required a relatively small volume of human urine (20 μL per sample), was validated for pharmacologically and toxicologically relevant concentrations ranging from 25.0 to 1000 ng/mL (r 2  > 0.995). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for all compounds was found to be as low as 0.5 ng. In addition, stability of analytes during removal of water from the urine samples using different conditions (filter paper or ISOLUTE® HM-N) was studied. In conclusion, the method developed in this study can be successfully applied to studies of ketamine metabolites in humans, and may pave the way for routine application of on-line SFE-SFC-MS in clinical investigations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29 Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Abd Ghafar


    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as β-sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars and temperature from 40 to 80°C. They were 200/40, 200/60, 200/80, 400/40, 400/60, 400/80, 600/40, 600/60, and 600/80. Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC50 of 200 µg/mL. The IC50 for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining.

  2. In-line near real time monitoring of fluid streams in separation processes for used nuclear fuel - 5146

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nee, K.; Nilsson, M.


    Applying spectroscopic tools for chemical processes has been intensively studied in various industries owing to its rapid and non-destructive analysis for detecting chemical components and determine physical characteristic in a process stream. The general complexity of separation processes for used nuclear fuel, e.g., chemical speciation, temperature variations, and prominent process security and safety concerns, require a well-secured and robust monitoring system to provide precise information of the process streams at real time without interference. Multivariate analysis accompanied with spectral measurements is a powerful statistic technique that can be used to monitor this complex chemical system. In this work, chemometric models that respond to the chemical components in the fluid samples were calibrated and validated to establish an in-line near real time monitoring system. The models show good prediction accuracy using partial least square regression analysis on the spectral data obtained from UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopies. The models were tested on a solvent extraction process using a single stage centrifugal contactor in our laboratory to determine the performance of an in-line near real time monitoring system. (authors)

  3. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29) Cell Lines. (United States)

    Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Ismail, Norsharina; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Tahir, Paridah


    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as β -sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO) was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE) at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars and temperature from 40 to 80°C. They were 200/40, 200/60, 200/80, 400/40, 400/60, 400/80, 600/40, 600/60, and 600/80. Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC50 of 200 µg/mL. The IC50 for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining.

  4. On-line preconcentration of fluorescent derivatives of catecholamines in cerebrospinal fluid using flow-gated capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyang; Gong, Maojun


    Flow-gated capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with microdialysis has become an important tool for in vivo bioanalytical measurements because it is capable of performing rapid and efficient separations of complex biological mixtures thus enabling high temporal resolution in chemical monitoring. However, the limit of detection (LOD) is often limited to a micro- or nano-molar range while many important target analytes have picomolar or sub-nanomolar levels in brain and other tissues. To enhance the capability of flow-gated CE for catecholamine detection, a novel and simple on-line sample preconcentration method was developed exclusively for fluorescent derivatives of catecholamines that were fluorogenically derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) in the presence of cyanide. The effective preconcentration coupled with the sensitive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection lowered the LOD down to 20pM for norepinephrine (NE) and 50pM for dopamine (DA) at 3-fold of S/N ratio, and the signal enhancement was estimated to be over 100-fold relative to normal injection when standard analytes were dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). The basic focusing principle is novel since the sample plug contains borate while the background electrolyte (BGE) is void of borate. This strategy took advantage of the complexation between diols and borate, through which one negative charge was added to the complex entity. The sample derivatization mixture was electrokinetically injected into a capillary via the flow-gated injection, and then NE and DA derivatives were selectively focused to a narrow zone by the reversible complexation. Separation of NE and DA derivatives was executed by incoming surfactants of cholate and deoxycholate mixed in the front BGE plug. This on-line preconcentration method was finally applied to the detection of DA in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via microdialysis and on-line derivatization. It is anticipated that the method would

  5. Generation of Elf5-Cre knockin mouse strain for trophoblast-specific gene manipulation. (United States)

    Kong, Shuangbo; Liang, Guixian; Tu, Zhaowei; Chen, Dunjin; Wang, Haibin; Lu, Jinhua


    Placental development is a complex and highly controlled process during which trophoblast stem cells differentiate to various trophoblast subtypes. The early embryonic death of systemic gene knockout models hampers the investigation of these genes that might play important roles during placentation. A trophoblast specific Cre mouse model would be of great help for dissecting out the potential roles of these genes during placental development. For this purpose, we generate a transgenic mouse with the Cre recombinase inserted into the endogenous locus of Elf5 gene that is expressed specifically in placental trophoblast cells. To analyze the specificity and efficiency of Cre recombinase activity in Elf5-Cre mice, we mated Elf5-Cre mice with Rosa26 mT/mG reporter mice, and found that Elf5-Cre transgene is expressed specifically in the trophoectoderm as early as embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5). By E12.5, the activity of Elf5-Cre transgene was detected exclusively in all derivatives of trophoblast lineages, including spongiotrophoblast, giant cells, and labyrinth trophoblasts. In addition, Elf5-Cre transgene was also active during spermatogenesis, from spermatids to mature sperms, which is consistent with the endogenous Elf5 expression in testis. Collectively, our results provide a unique tool to delete specific genes selectively and efficiently in trophoblast lineage during placentation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev


    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  7. Elf measurements in Greece conducted by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabetsos, E.; Filippopoulos, G.; Koutounidis, D.; Govari, Ch.; Skamnakis, N.


    The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (E.E.A.E.) is the competent national authority for the protection of the general public and the environment from artificially produced non-ionizing radiation. To this end, E.E.A.E. carries out measurements in the vicinity of all kinds of facilities emitting E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields (e.g. power lines, high voltage substations) and RF electromagnetic fields (e.g. audio, radio and television antennas, mobile phone base stations, radar and satellite earth stations and other microwave communication systems), in order to monitor whether the general public exposure limits are being adhered to. Regarding the electromagnetic fields emitted by antenna stations, the safety limits in Greek legislation were recently set to 70% of the I.C.N.I.R.P. values and to 60% of them if the antenna station is closer than 300 m from the perimeter of day nurseries, schools, hospitals or elder-care facilities, while in the case of extremely low frequency fields, the limit values are set exactly the same as the reference levels in I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines. Regarding the levels of E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields in Greece E.E.A.E. has conducted many measurements around the elements of the electric grid where the main interest of the public is focused. Theoretical estimations and typical values based on actual measurements of the fields in the vicinity of the power lines used in Greece are presented. Measurement results in the vicinity of substations are also presented. In general, the levels of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the power grid elements are well below the established safety limits; whereas the levels of the electric field may reach values comparable to the safety limits very close to extremely high voltage lines. However, there is no case where the measured values of elf electric or magnetic fields were higher than the safety limits. There are a few exceptional cases where measurements of RF fields conducted by E.E.A.E. in the

  8. Elf measurements in Greece conducted by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabetsos, E.; Filippopoulos, G.; Koutounidis, D.; Govari, Ch.; Skamnakis, N. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Non Ionizing Radiation Office, (Greece)


    The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (E.E.A.E.) is the competent national authority for the protection of the general public and the environment from artificially produced non-ionizing radiation. To this end, E.E.A.E. carries out measurements in the vicinity of all kinds of facilities emitting E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields (e.g. power lines, high voltage substations) and RF electromagnetic fields (e.g. audio, radio and television antennas, mobile phone base stations, radar and satellite earth stations and other microwave communication systems), in order to monitor whether the general public exposure limits are being adhered to. Regarding the electromagnetic fields emitted by antenna stations, the safety limits in Greek legislation were recently set to 70% of the I.C.N.I.R.P. values and to 60% of them if the antenna station is closer than 300 m from the perimeter of day nurseries, schools, hospitals or elder-care facilities, while in the case of extremely low frequency fields, the limit values are set exactly the same as the reference levels in I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines. Regarding the levels of E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields in Greece E.E.A.E. has conducted many measurements around the elements of the electric grid where the main interest of the public is focused. Theoretical estimations and typical values based on actual measurements of the fields in the vicinity of the power lines used in Greece are presented. Measurement results in the vicinity of substations are also presented. In general, the levels of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the power grid elements are well below the established safety limits; whereas the levels of the electric field may reach values comparable to the safety limits very close to extremely high voltage lines. However, there is no case where the measured values of elf electric or magnetic fields were higher than the safety limits. There are a few exceptional cases where measurements of RF fields conducted by E.E.A.E. in the

  9. Analytical solution for the transient wave propagation of a buried cylindrical P-wave line source in a semi-infinite elastic medium with a fluid surface layer (United States)

    Shan, Zhendong; Ling, Daosheng


    This article develops an analytical solution for the transient wave propagation of a cylindrical P-wave line source in a semi-infinite elastic solid with a fluid layer. The analytical solution is presented in a simple closed form in which each term represents a transient physical wave. The Scholte equation is derived, through which the Scholte wave velocity can be determined. The Scholte wave is the wave that propagates along the interface between the fluid and solid. To develop the analytical solution, the wave fields in the fluid and solid are defined, their analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are derived using the boundary and interface conditions, and the solutions are then decomposed into series form according to the power series expansion method. Each item of the series solution has a clear physical meaning and represents a transient wave path. Finally, by applying Cagniard's method and the convolution theorem, the analytical solutions are transformed into the time domain. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate some interesting features in the fluid layer, the interface and the semi-infinite solid. When the P-wave velocity in the fluid is higher than that in the solid, two head waves in the solid, one head wave in the fluid and a Scholte wave at the interface are observed for the cylindrical P-wave line source.

  10. Assessing occupational and domestic ELF magnetic field exposure in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study: Results of a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tongeren, M.; Mee, T.; Whatmough, P.; Broad, L.; Mashlanyj, M.; Allen, S.; Muir, K.; McKinney, P.


    The feasibility of measuring exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study (UKABTS) was examined. During the study, 81 individuals and 30 companies were approached with 79 individuals and 25 companies agreeing to participate. Exposure data were collected using EMDEX II dosemeters worn by the participants for 3-4 consecutive days. Data were collected over a total of 321 d, including non-occupational periods. The results showed occupational exposure to be the main determinant of overall exposure. Moderate to strong correlations were found between arithmetic mean exposure and all other metrics with the possible exception of maximum exposure. Significant differences in exposure were found between job categories with large variability in certain categories. Highest average exposures were found for security officers (arithmetic mean, AM: 0.78 μT), secretaries (AM: 0.48 μT) and dentists (AM: 0.42 μT). Welding and working near high-voltage power lines were associated with elevated exposure. In summary, acceptably precise measures of ELF MF exposure are feasible at relatively moderate cost. The results were used to develop a protocol for data collection from subjects in the UKABTS. (authors)

  11. In vitro toxicity test and searching the possibility of cancer cell line extermination by magnetic heating with using Fe3O4 magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Hoai Linh; Nguyen Chi Thuan; Nguyen Anh Tuan; Pham Van Thach; Nguyen Xuan Phuc; Le Van Hong; Tran Cong Yen; Nguyen Thi Quy; Hoang Thi My Nhung; Phi Thi Xuyen


    A Fe 3 O 4 based magnetic fluid with different concentrations ranged between 0.15 ng/cell to 10 ng/cell (nano gram/cell) was used in the in vitro toxicity test on several cancer cell lines, Sarcoma 180, HeLa and H358. It shows that the fluid with a concentration of Fe 3 O 4 below 1.2 ng/cell is completely non-toxic for these cell lines. Even through in the presence of the highest concentration of 10 ng/cell, the cell viability still reaches more than 60%. The magnetic fluid with Fe 3 O 4 concentration of about 0.1 ng/cell was also used to search ex-vivo the possibility of Sarcoma 180 extermination by magnetic heating with an AC field of 120Oe and 184 KHz. The result shows that after a heat treatment for 30 min., 40% of Sarcoma 180 cells was killed.

  12. Trace metals in fluids lining the respiratory system of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and diffuse lung diseases. (United States)

    Bargagli, Elena; Lavorini, Federico; Pistolesi, Massimo; Rosi, Elisabetta; Prasse, Antje; Rota, Emilia; Voltolini, Luca


    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease with a poor prognosis and an undefined etiopathogenesis. Oxidative stress contributes to alveolar injury and fibrosis development and, because transition metals are essential to the functioning of most proteins involved in redox reactions, a better knowledge of metal concentrations and metabolism in the respiratory system of IPF patients may provide a valuable complementary approach to prevent and manage a disease which is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed in later stages. The present review summarizes and discusses literature data on the elemental composition of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), induced sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from patients affected by IPF and healthy subjects. Available data are scanty and the lack of consistent methods for the collection and analysis of lung and airways lining fluids makes it difficult to compare the results of different studies. However, the elemental composition of BAL samples from IPF patients seems to have a specific profile that can be distinguished from that of patients with other interstitial lung diseases (ILD) or control subjects. Suggestions are given towards standard sampling and analytical procedures of BAL samples, in the aim to assess typical element concentration patterns and their potential role as biomarkers of IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaphora in question-answer sessions in university ELF contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen


    Full Text Available Abstract - Identity chains (Hasan 1984 ˗ strings of co-referential noun phrases ˗ constitute a lesser researched area in the field of ELF, as has the more general area of cohesion (but see Hüttner 2009, Christiansen 2011. Following on the work on anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, and on cohesion (e.g. Halliday and Hasan 1976, Halliday 2004, Christiansen (2009a/b, 2011 focuses on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. The interactive perspective of discourse (seen as the process of which text is the product: see Widdowson 1984: 100 is especially relevant to an ELF context of spontaneous spoken interaction. As Guido (2008 evidences, different inter-cultural concerns constitute a crucial dimension to the complex multi-code interaction. Consequently, the diverse ways in which speakers from different L1 backgrounds employ anaphors and construct identity chains are key elements in the co-construction of a dialogic text. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions set in multicultural contexts are analysed qualitatively. The different ways that participants construct identity chains (e.g. whether they use full forms of various kinds or anaphoric pro-forms are classified. The analysis focuses on both how individual anaphors are resolved and how relations between anaphors and antecedent triggers are encoded, and how identity chains are constructed and organized individually. The objective is to identify which kinds of noun phrase (various subtypes of full and pro-forms are used by diverse groups of EFL speakers both in relation to their own contributions and to those of other speakers (with a threefold distinction made between the same turn of the same speaker, a different turn of the same speaker, and a different turn by a different speaker.

  14. Metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines in the alveolar lining fluid of healthy adults: compartmentalization and physiological correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O Mendivil

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of hormone regulation in lung parenchyma is quite limited. We aimed to quantify a diverse array of biologically relevant protein mediators in alveolar lining fluid (ALF, compared to serum concentrations, and explore factors associated with protein compartmentalization on either side of the air-blood barrier.Participants were 24 healthy adult non-smoker volunteers without respiratory symptoms or significant medical conditions, with normal lung exams and office spirometry. Cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were analyzed for 24 proteins (including enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines using a highly sensitive multiplex ELISA. Measurements were normalized to ALF concentrations. The ALF:serum concentration ratios were examined in relation to measures of protein size, hydrophobicity, charge, and to participant clinical and spirometric values.ALF measurements from 24 individuals detected 19 proteins, including adiponectin, adipsin, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, C-reactive protein, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, and visfatin. C-peptide and serpin E1 were not detected in ALF for any individual, and IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were not detected in either ALF or serum for any individual. In general, ALF levels were similar or lower in concentration for most proteins compared to serum. However, ghrelin, resistin, insulin, visfatin and GLP-1 had ALF concentrations significantly higher compared to serum. Importantly, elevated ALF:serum ratios of ghrelin, visfatin and resistin correlated with protein net charge and isoelectric point, but not with molecular weight or hydrophobicity.Biologically relevant enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines can be detected in the ALF of

  15. Excitation of the Magnetospheric Cavity by Space-Based ELF/VLF Transmitters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Timothy F; Inan, Umran; Kulkarni, P


    During the period of performance Stanford University: 1. Developed an analytical model describing the distribution of current along a dipole antenna radiating ELF/VLF waves in the magnetospheric cavity...

  16. Phosphorylation of protein synthesis initiation factor 2 (elF-2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, D.P.


    Initiation Factor 2 (elF-2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is comprised of 3 subunits. The control of protein synthesis in mammalian cells have been shown to involve the phosphorylation of the small (alpha) subunit by a specific protein kinase. Phosphorylation results in an inhibition of protein synthesis. In order to determine whether or not an analogous system is operative in yeast, the phosphorylation state of the alpha subunit of elF-2 in Saccharomyces was determined during various growth and nongrowth conditions. Cells were radiolabelled with 32 P and 35 S, and the whole cell lysates were analyzed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. These experiments revealed that the smallest subunit (alpha, M/sub r/ = 31,000) is a phosphoprotein in vivo under a variety of growth and nongrowth conditions. This is in direct contrast to the pattern exhibited in mammalian cells. The fact that the small subunit of elF-2 in yeast is phosphorylated under a variety of physiological conditions indicates that such a covalent modification is important for some aspects of elF-2 function. In order to investigate this problem further, a protein kinase that specifically labels the alpha subunit of elF-2 in vitro was isolated. The kinase is not autophosphorylating, utilizes ATP as a phosphate donor, phosphorylates an exogenous protein, casein, modifies serine residues in elF-2, is cyclic nucleotide-independent, and is strongly inhibited by heparin

  17. DNA micro array analysis of yeast global genome expression in response to ELF-MF exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kyoh, B.


    There is wide spread public concern over the possible health risk of ELF-MF. Electromagnetic fields may produce a variety of effects in several biological systems, including the elevation of cancer risk and reduction of cell growth. Epidemiological studies have shown weak correlations between the exposure to ELF and the incidence of several cancers, but negative studies have also been reported. Moreover, there are some reports that basic biological events such as the cell cycle and DNA replication were affected by exposure to MF. However, to date the molecular mechanism of the MF effect on living organism is not clear. In this study, we used yeast DNA micro array to examine the transcriptional profile of all genes in response to ELF-MF. A few years ago it was difficult to carry out a global gene expression study to identify important genes regarding ELF-MF, however, today DNA micro arrays allow gene regulation in response to high density ELF-MF exposure. Thus we used micro array to analyze changes in mRNA abundance during ELF-MF exposure

  18. Use of C. Elegans as a model organism for sensing the effects of ELF-EMFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacchini, A H; Everington, M L; Augousti, A T; Walker, A J [School of Life Sciences, Kingston University London (United Kingdom)


    For the past two decades, there have been concerns and controversy about the effects on human health of the increased exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) resulting from electrification, in both residential and industrial settings. Several epidemiological studies have implicated ELF-EMFs averaging 0.4 {mu}mUTesla (T) or more in increased risk of cancer, especially childhood leukaemia [1,2]; there have also been many reports demonstrating effects of power-frequency EMFs on cells [outlined in 1,3]. Unfortunately, however, the precise mechanisms by which ELF-EMFs exert biological effects have proven difficult to define and results of various studies have often been hard to reproduce [1]. We believe that C. elegans offers an exciting opportunity to elucidate the effects of power-frequency EMFs on cell signalling pathways within the whole organism and are therefore investigating the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on MAPK signalling in intact worms and fertilized embryos. Through taking a targeted approach to studying the effects of ELF-EMF's on MAPK signalling in C. elegans we aim to gather data that is physiologically relevant. Presently, this research is at a preliminary stage of preparation, and more detailed results on the exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to ELF-EMF radiation will be presented at the conference itself.

  19. Analytical solution for the transient response of a fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system subjected to an impulsive line source (United States)

    Shan, Zhendong; Ling, Daosheng; Jing, Liping; Li, Yongqiang


    In this paper, transient wave propagation is investigated within a fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system with a planar interface that is subjected to a cylindrical P-wave line source. Assuming the permeability coefficient is sufficiently large, analytical solutions for the transient response of the fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system are developed. Moreover, the analytical solutions are presented in simple closed forms wherein each term represents a transient physical wave, especially the expressions for head waves. The methodology utilised to determine where the head wave can emerge within the system is also given. The wave fields within the fluid and porous medium are first defined considering the behaviour of two compressional waves and one tangential wave in the saturated porous medium and one compressional wave in the fluid. Substituting these wave fields into the interface continuity conditions, the analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are then derived. To transform the solutions into the time domain, a suitable distortion of the contour is provided to change the integration path of the solution, after which the analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are transformed into the time domain by employing Cagniard's method. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate some interesting features of the fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system. In particular, the interface wave and head waves that propagate along the interface between the fluid and saturated porous medium can be observed.

  20. Assessment of multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N


    Electromagnetic fields both in daily life and at workplaces exhibit increasingly complex frequency spectra. Present spectral assessment rules proved to be too conservative for health risk assessment. This is because they are based on the assumption that cells would react like linear systems in terms of responding to a sum of frequencies by a sum of independent responses to each individual frequency. Based on numerical investigations with the Hodgkin-Huxley and the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley nerve cell models, it could be shown that accounting for the nonlinear behaviour of cellular excitation processes avoids considerable overestimation of simultaneous exposures to multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic fields. Besides this, it could be shown that the role of phase relationships is less important than that assumed so far. The present assessment rules lead to non-compliances of marketed electric appliances. For general application, a nonlinear biology-based assessment (NBBA) rule has been proposed, validated and proven advantageous compared with ICNIRP's rule. While staying conservative it avoids unnecessary overestimation and demonstrates compliance even in cases of suspected non-conformities. It is up to responsible bodies to decide upon the adoption of this proposal and the potential need for implementing additional or reducing the already incorporated safety factors

  1. ELF-VLF communications through-the-Earth (United States)

    Buettner, H. M.; Burke, G. J.; Didwall, E. M.; Holladay, G.; Lytle, R. J.


    We use computer models and experiments to explore the feasibility of communication between points underground and on the Earth's surface. Emphasis is placed on ELF-VLF electromagnetic propagation through the Earth; nominally, we investigated propagation in the 200 Hz-30 kHz frequency range. The computer modeling included calculations of the fields of a point electric or magnetic source in a homogeneous half space or a stratified Earth. Initial results for an insulated antenna of finite length are also considered. The experiments involved through-the-Earth transmissions at two locations in Pennsylvania, both of which had large formations of limestone. Initial results indicate that information rates as high as kbits/s may be possible for subsurface depths of 300 m or less. Accuracy of these estimates depends on the electromagnetic propagation constants of the rock, the noise characteristics, and modulation scheme. Although a nuisance for evaluating through-the-Earth propagation, the existence of subsurface metal conductors can improve the transmission character of the site.

  2. Comparison of magnetic field meters used for Elf exposure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, I.; Azoulay, A.; Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M.


    Objective The question of the biological effects of E.L.F. electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz) has lead to many experimental and epidemiological works, in occupational exposure and in residential exposure. One of the main difficulties is to integrate the maximum of information about the environmental exposures during the everyday life without limitation to the exposure of the home. The objective of this study is to analyse experimentally the metrology associated with human exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field, in the optic of a study of the French population exposure. Method 4 meters were tested: the E.M.D.E.X. II, currently used in epidemiological studies, the E.M.D.E.X. L.I.T.E., which is more recent, the H.T.300, an Italian meter, and the F.D.3, which is made by Combinova A calibration was performed with an Helmoltz coil. The immunity of these meters to GSM signal was also tested. The influence of the sample rate was evaluated. Results and conclusion The meter chosen for performing the measurements of the exposure study will be selected in function of the following criteria: - easiness of use - precision - low sample rate - memory size and reliability of data stocking - immunity to GSM perturbations. (authors)

  3. Chaos control and synchronization of two neurons exposed to ELF external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiang; Zhang Ting; Che Yanqiu


    Chaos control and synchronization of two unidirectional coupled neurons exposed to ELF electrical field via nonlinear control technique is investigated. Based on results of space-time characteristics of trans-membrane voltage, the variation of cell trans-membrane voltage exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field is analyzed. The dynamical behaviors of the modified Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model are identified under the periodic ELF electric field using both analytical and numerical analysis. Then, using the results of the analysis, a nonlinear feedback linearization control scheme and a modified adaptive control strategy are designed to synchronize the two unidirectional coupled neurons and stabilize the chaotic trajectory of the slave system to desired periodic orbit of the master system. The simulation results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed algorithms

  4. Exposure estimates based on broadband elf magnetic field measurements versus the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, Jesus M.; Rufo, Montana; Jimenez, Antonio; Pachon, Fernando T.; Carrero, Julian


    The evaluation of exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields using broadband measurement techniques gives satisfactory results when the field has essentially a single frequency. Nevertheless, magnetic fields are in most cases distorted by harmonic components. This work analyses the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field in an outdoor urban context and compares the evaluation of the exposure based on broadband measurements with that based on spectral analysis. The multiple frequency rule of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory guidelines was applied. With the 1998 ICNIRP guideline, harmonics dominated the exposure with a 55 % contribution. With the 2010 ICNIRP guideline, however, the primary frequency dominated the exposure with a 78 % contribution. Values of the exposure based on spectral analysis were significantly higher than those based on broadband measurements. Hence, it is clearly necessary to determine the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field to assess exposure in urban contexts. (authors)

  5. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salines Georges


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year as well as medical interview (at 2 years and examination (at 6 years. Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.

  6. Conjunctions in ELF academic discourse: a corpus-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Centonze


    Full Text Available Abstract – Conjunctions as fundamental elements in the construction of discourse cohesion represent a relatively neglected research area, due to their complexity and the bewildering number of “conjunctive relations” (Halliday and Hasan 1976: 226 that they may express in context, as also highlighted in Christiansen (2011. In addition to this, there does not seem to be a shared view as far as the classification and denomination of the different kinds of conjunctions are concerned (cf. Halliday and Hasan 1976; Vande Kopple 1985; Martin and Rose 2003; Hyland 2005b. The selection of a specific type of conjunction acquires more importance because they are typically open to so many different interpretations, especially when the participants in the speech event come from diverse lingua-cultural backgrounds (cf. Guido 2007; Guido 2008; Cogo et al. 2011.Following the taxonomy provided by Halliday and Hasan (1976 for conjunctions, our study attempts to shed light on the usage of conjunctions by ELF speakers in specific contexts. We shall consider ten transcripts taken from the VOICE Corpus (Seidlhofer et. al 2013, namely five interviews and five conversations in multicultural academic contexts (approximately 4,000 words each, and analyze the number of instances for each type of conjunction (additive, adversative, clausal, temporal as well as continuatives in depth, by adopting a quantitative as well as a qualitative method and by using TextSTAT 2.9 (Huning 2012. We shall then move on to the analysis of conjunctions with respect to their internal properties/collocates and eventually see the occurrence of conjunctions by comparing them with the two different speech events which are chosen as the subject of our study, i.e. interviews and conversations. We shall see the extent to which certain conjunctions are more restricted than others in terms of usage (cf. Leung 2005 in both types of speech events, despite the great number of options available to the

  7. Fandom dan Konsumsi Media: Studi Etnografi Kelompok Penggemar Super Junior, ELF Jogja


    Sari, Ratna Permata


    Korean Wave (music, movie, and drama), recently, accept a lot of attention from Indonesian teenagers. Thanks to the power of mass media, Korean music, or we called it KPop, beginning to spread it virus throughout the world by the emerging of Fandom. Super Junior as one of the pioneer of Korean boy band become the group that has the largest fan club in the world named ELF. This research examines the private media consumption behavior by ELF Jogja and the interaction between its members in orga...

  8. Physics with a 15-30 GeV electron accelerator (ELFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.; Pire, B.


    Proposals for ELFE (Electron Laboratory For Europe), a 15-30 GeV high luminosity, continuous beam electron accelerator are discussed. These proposals form an extensive research program on exclusive reactions to probe the evolution of correlated quarks systems. Using the nucleus itself as a microscopic detector is one of the important ideas of this program. The same reaction is measured using nuclei of different sizes and thus the differences are observed in the evolution from quarks and gluons to hadrons in the nuclear medium. A brief overview of the physics with ELFE is presented. (R.P.) 1 tab

  9. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29) Cell Lines


    Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Ismail, Norsharina; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Tahir, Paridah


    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as ? -sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO) was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE) at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars...

  10. Intra-operative on-line discrimination of kidney cancer from normal tissue by IR ATR spectroscopy of extracellular fluid (United States)

    Urboniene, V.; Velicka, M.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Jankevicius, F.; Sablinskas, V.; Steiner, G.


    Determination of cancerous and normal kidney tissues during partial, simple or radical nephrectomy surgery was performed by using differences in the IR absorption spectra of extracellular fluid taken from the corresponding tissue areas. The samples were prepared by stamping of the kidney tissue on ATR diamond crystal. The spectral measurements were performed directly in the OR during surgery for 58 patients. It was found that intensities of characteristic spectral bands of glycogen (880-1200 cm-1) in extracellular fluid are sensitive to the type of the tissue and can be used as spectral markers of tumours. Characteristic spectral band of lactic acid (1730 cm-1) - product of the anaerobic glycolysis, taking place in the cancer cells is not suitable for use as a spectral marker of cancerous tissue, since it overlaps with the band of carbonyl stretch in phospholipids and fatty acids. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis of the spectra show that the spectra of healthy and tumour tissue films can be reliably separated into two groups. On the other hand, possibility to differentiate between tumours of different types and grades remains in question. While the fluid from highly malignant G3 tumour tissue contains highly pronounced glycogen spectral bands and can be well separated from benign and G1 tumours by principal component analysis, the variations between spectra from sample to sample prevent from obtaining conclusive results about the grouping between different tumour types and grades. The proposed method is instant and can be used in situ and even in vivo.

  11. Purification of lignans from Fructus Arctii using off-line two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Yang, Bichao; Xin, Huaxia; Wang, Feier; Cai, Jianfeng; Liu, Yanfang; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao


    As a common traditional Chinese medicine, Fructus Arctii has important clinical medical values. Its main components are lignans, which are difficult to separate and analyze because of the complex composition, similar chemical structures, and close properties. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method, as well as an effective sample pretreatment method based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography material, was developed to enrich the minor lignan fractions and obtain high-purity compounds. In total, 12 high-purity compounds were isolated from Fructus Arctii. Their structures were identified by using high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which showed that all were lignans and that most of them were isomers. The results demonstrated the effective off-line two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method for the purification of lignans from Fructus Arctii. The separation protocol established here will be beneficial for the separation of complex samples from other kinds of natural products. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.; Kelman, B.J.; Weigel, R.J. (eds.)


    Although background levels of atmospheric electric and geomagnetic field levels are extremely low, over the past several decades, human beings and other life forms on this planet have been subjected to a dramatically changing electromagnetic milieu. An exponential increase in exposure to electromagnetic fields has occurred, largely because of such technological advances as the growth of electrical power generation and transmission systems, the increased use of wireless communications, and the use of radar. In addition, electromagnetic field generating devices have proliferated in industrial plants, office buildings, homes, public transportation systems, and elsewhere. Although significant increases have occurred in electromagnetic field strenghths spanning all frequency ranges, this symposium addresses only the impact of these fields at static and extremely low frequencies (ELF), primarily 50 and 60 Hz. This volume contains the proceedings of the symposium entitled /open quotes/Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields/close quotes/. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for discussions of all aspects of research on the interaction of static and ELF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. These systems include simple biophysical models, cell and organ preparations, whole animals, and man. Dosimetry, exposure system design, and artifacts in ELF bioeffects research were also addressed, along with current investigations that examine fundamental mechanisms of interactions between the fields and biological processes. Papers are indexed separately.

  13. A survey of ELF and VLF research on lightning-ionosphere interactions and causative discharges (United States)

    Inan, U. S.; Cummer, S. A.; Marshall, R. A.


    Extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) observations have formed the cornerstone of measurement and interpretation of effects of lightning discharges on the overlying upper atmospheric regions, as well as near-Earth space. ELF (0.3-3 kHz) and VLF (3-30 kHz) wave energy released by lightning discharges is often the agent of modification of the lower ionospheric medium that results in the conductivity changes and the excitation of optical emissions that constitute transient luminous events (TLEs). In addition, the resultant ionospheric changes are best (and often uniquely) observable as perturbations of subionospherically propagating VLF signals. In fact, some of the earliest evidence for direct disturbances of the lower ionosphere in association with lightning discharges was obtained in the course of the study of such VLF perturbations. Measurements of the detailed ELF and VLF waveforms of parent lightning discharges that produce TLEs and terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) have also been very fruitful, often revealing properties of such discharges that maximize ionospheric effects, such as generation of intense electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) or removal of large quantities of charge. In this paper, we provide a review of the development of ELF and VLF measurements, both from a historical point of view and from the point of view of their relationship to optical and other observations of ionospheric effects of lightning discharges.

  14. World map of ELF/VLF emissions as observed by a low-orbiting satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrot, M.


    Statistical studies were performed of the intensities of the ELF/VLF emissions observed by the low-orbiting satellite AUREOL-3. Data were obtained from filterbanks and the frequency range of observations extends from a few tens of Hz up to 15 kHz. The most important phenomena observed are ELF hiss and VLF hiss. Electric and magnetic components are used. Thus, representation of the waves intensities in geographical coordinates was made at different frequencies. The relative ability of natural waves (whistler, hiss) and man-made waves, such as powerful VLF transmitters or powerline harmonic radiations (PLHR), to precipitate particles in the slot region, is studied. Using geomagnetical representation, it is shown that ELF hiss is maximum between 06 and 20 Magnetic Local Time and in the invariant latitude range 50 0 -70 0 as usual, but geographic representation indicates that the waves are intensified at the longitudes of VLF transmitters and near the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The SAA plays a dominant role in the localization of the strongest ELF hiss. Weakest intensities are observed to the east of the SAA. As to the VLF hiss, the maximum intensity is related to regions of enhanced thunderstorm activity, and may be influenced by powerline harmonic radiations (PLHR) over USA. Comparisons with past work, experimental as well as theoretical, are made

  15. Innovative use of ICT in schools based on the findings in ELFE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiksson, Ulf; Jedeskog, Gunilla; Plomp, T.


    The European e-Learning Forum for Education (ELFE) is a project initiated by the ETUCE (European Trade Union Committee on Education). An important objective of the project has been to study good experiences with implementing the use of ICT in schools. This objective has been broken down in seven

  16. ELF and VLF signatures of sprites registered onboard the low altitude satellite DEMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Błęcki


    Full Text Available We report the observation of ELF and VLF signature of sprites recorded on the low altitude satellite DEMETER during thunderstorm activity. At an altitude of ~700 km, waves observed on the E-field spectrograms at mid-to-low latitudes during night time are mainly dominated by up-going 0+ whistlers. During the night of 20 July 2007 two sprites have been observed around 20:10:08 UT from the observatory located on the top of the mountain Śnieżka in Poland (50°44'09" N, 15°44'21" E, 1603 m and, ELF and VLF data have been recorded by the satellite at about 1200 km from the region of thunderstorm activity. During this event, the DEMETER instruments were switched in the burst mode and it was possible to register the wave forms. It is shown that the two sprites have been triggered by two intense +CG lightning strokes (100 kA occurring during the same millisecond but not at the same location. Despite the distance DEMETER has recorded at the same time intense and unusual ELF and VLF emissions. It is shown that the whistler wave propagates from the thunderstorm regions in the Earth-ionosphere guide and enters in the ionosphere below the satellite. They last several tens of milliseconds and the intensity of the ELF waveform is close to 1 mV/m. A particularly intense proton whistler is also associated with these emissions.

  17. Fostering awareness of the pedagogical implications of World Englishes and ELF in teacher education in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vettorel


    Full Text Available Teacher education represents an essential step to raise awareness of the sociolinguistic changes brought about by the current pluralization of English and by its lingua franca role. Within the pre-service teacher education programs run at the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Verona, Italy, part of the English language course focused on issues related to World Englishes (WE and English as a lingua franca (ELF, aiming at fostering awareness of and active reflection upon their pedagogical implications. After taking into consideration recent developments in WE- and ELF-aware teacher education, we will report on findings from a research study involving trainee teachers attending the aforementioned courses for English in academic years 2012-13 to 2014-15. The main aim of the study has been to investigate whether, how and to what extent trainee teachers’ pedagogical knowledge and reasoning about a WE and ELF-informed perspective in teaching practices may undergo a change after attending these courses. Drawing upon different sets of data (questionnaires, reflections in e-learning discussion forums, interviews and final reports, the trainees’ increased awareness of and readiness to include a WE- and ELF-informed didactic approach after attending the course will be discussed, together with implications for foreign language teacher education.

  18. Angola. Petroleum discovery by Elf on the block number 17 in deep water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This article describes the petroleum discovery in deep water in Angola. The drilling was executed by 1365 meters deep and gave a petroleum of good quality. The Elf company emphasizes that it is its third discovery in deep water in the Guinea gulf after Nkossa and Moho in Congo. (N.C.)

  19. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.


    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  20. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation produced by consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Ahmad Fazli Ahmad Sanusi; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohamad Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari


    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF EMF) radiation falls under category of non-ionising radiation (NIR).ELF EMF consists of electric and magnetic fields. Excessive exposure to ELF EMF radiation may cause biological and health effects to human beings such as behavioral changes, stochastic and as initiator of cancer. In daily life, the main source of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation are consumer products in our home and office. Due to its ability to cause hazard, a study of ELF EMF radiation produced by consumer product was conducted. For this preliminary study, sample of 20 types electrical appliances were selected. The measurement was covered electric and magnetic field strength produced by the sample. PMM model EHP50A were used for measurement and data analysis. The results were compared with the permissible limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for members of public (1000 mGauss and 5000 V/m). The results showed that all tested sample produced magnetic and electric field but still under the permissible limit recommended by ICNIRP. Besides that we found that field strengths can be very high at closer distance to the sample. (Author)

  1. ELF exposure from mobile and cordless phones for the epidemiological MOBI-Kids study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderón, Carolina; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Taki, Masao; Wake, Kanako; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Maslanyj, Myron; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae Kyoung; Sim, Malcolm R.; Wiart, Joe; Cardis, Elisabeth


    This paper describes measurements and computational modelling carried out in the MOBI-Kids case-control study to assess the extremely low frequency (ELF) exposure of the brain from use of mobile and cordless phones. Four different communication systems were investigated: Global System for Mobile

  2. Cytogenetic damage in adult and newborn mice exposed to Elf magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieradi, L.A.; Udroiu, I.; Chiuchiarelli, G.; Migliorini, D.; Cristaldi, M.; Tanzarella, C.


    Data obtained in newborn mice show that the chronic exposure during intra-uterine life to a 50 Hz, 650 μT E.L.F. magnetic field induce a genetic damage. Nevertheless, the increase of DNA strand break in brain and in micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood and liver disagree with the data obtained by Abramsson-Zetterberg and Grawe (13) which did not find any genetic alterations in mice exposed to extremely low frequency (E.L.F.) magnetic field. In any case, along with other dissimilarities in the experimental design, the intensity of the field (14 μT) and the time of sampling (35 days) were different. It is important to underline the four-fold increase in C.R.E.S.T.+ micronuclei frequency in circulating erythrocytes in the exposed group in comparison with the control group. Even though this value is quite low, it could indicate that E.L.F. magnetic fields may have different properties to damage the genome integrity. This stresses the need for further investigation on the possible link between electromagnetic fields and aneuploidy in order to elucidate the relationship with carcinogenesis. Preliminary data obtained with sperm abnormality assay show a significant increase of sperm abnormalities in mice exposed to E.L.F. magnetic fields and suggest a possible alteration to the spermatogenic process after exposure. This data agrees with data obtained by Tablado et al. (1998), in mice exposed continually for 35 days to a field of 1 T. Regarding the palatal ridges alterations assay, the results obtained show that the development of the secondary palate is not affected by E.L.F. magnetic field (50 Hz, 0,65 T). Nevertheless further studies at different frequency and intensity should be carried out to detect the possible epigenetic damage induced by E.L.F. exposure (Migliorini, 2005). With regard to the mechanism of action, it is generally believed that the damage induced by the magnetic field is an oxidative damage and that free radicals are involved. Some authors

  3. Cytogenetic damage in adult and newborn mice exposed to Elf magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieradi, L.A. [Istituto per lo Studio degli Ecosistemi, CNR, Rome (Italy); Udroiu, I.; Chiuchiarelli, G.; Migliorini, D.; Cristaldi, M. [Universite La Sapienza, Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell' Uomo, Rome (Italy); Tanzarella, C. [Roma Univ., Dipt. di Biologia (Italy)


    Data obtained in newborn mice show that the chronic exposure during intra-uterine life to a 50 Hz, 650 {mu}T E.L.F. magnetic field induce a genetic damage. Nevertheless, the increase of DNA strand break in brain and in micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood and liver disagree with the data obtained by Abramsson-Zetterberg and Grawe (13) which did not find any genetic alterations in mice exposed to extremely low frequency (E.L.F.) magnetic field. In any case, along with other dissimilarities in the experimental design, the intensity of the field (14 {mu}T) and the time of sampling (35 days) were different. It is important to underline the four-fold increase in C.R.E.S.T.+ micronuclei frequency in circulating erythrocytes in the exposed group in comparison with the control group. Even though this value is quite low, it could indicate that E.L.F. magnetic fields may have different properties to damage the genome integrity. This stresses the need for further investigation on the possible link between electromagnetic fields and aneuploidy in order to elucidate the relationship with carcinogenesis. Preliminary data obtained with sperm abnormality assay show a significant increase of sperm abnormalities in mice exposed to E.L.F. magnetic fields and suggest a possible alteration to the spermatogenic process after exposure. This data agrees with data obtained by Tablado et al. (1998), in mice exposed continually for 35 days to a field of 1 T. Regarding the palatal ridges alterations assay, the results obtained show that the development of the secondary palate is not affected by E.L.F. magnetic field (50 Hz, 0,65 T). Nevertheless further studies at different frequency and intensity should be carried out to detect the possible epigenetic damage induced by E.L.F. exposure (Migliorini, 2005). With regard to the mechanism of action, it is generally believed that the damage induced by the magnetic field is an oxidative damage and that free radicals are involved. Some authors

  4. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang


    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (Pepithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  5. Numerical analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in molten zinc pot of continuous hot-dip galvanizing line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.H.


    A numerical model adopting a partially staggered grid system for the location of dependent variables has been developed to analyze the fluid flow and temperature distributions in a molten zinc pot of No. 2 CGL of POSCO K wangyang strip mills. A control volume based finite difference procedure was employed to solve the conservation equations transformed by using the boundary-fitted-coordinate (BFC) system. The calculation results have shown that a change in the steel strip velocity has little influence on the overall flow pattern developed in the pot. The overall temperature distribution was rather uniform as predicted. However, charging cold ingots directly into the pot produced a non-uniform distribution of temperature. The local temperature fluctuations will promote the formation of intermetallic dross particles. It has been proposed that the non-uniform distribution of temperature could be reduced by selecting an appropriate channel inductor position as well as by optimizing the zinc ingot loading position. (author)

  6. Investigation of the magnetic neutral line region with the frame of two-fluid equations: A possibility of anomalous resistivity inferred from MMS observations (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Kitamura, N.; Ieda, A.; Yoshizumi, M.; Imada, S.; Tsugawa, Y.; Burch, J. L.; Russell, C. T.; Moore, T. E.; Giles, B. L.; Paterson, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Machida, S.


    Magnetic reconnection is a basic physical process by which energy of magnetic field is converted into the kinetic energy of plasmas. In recent years, MMS missionconsisting of four spacecraft has been conducted aiming at elucidating the physical mechanism of merging themagnetic fields in the vicinity of the magnetic neutral linethat exists in the central part of the structure. In this paper, we examine the magnetic field frozen-in relation near the magnetic neutral line as well as the causal relationship between electron and ion dynamics in the frame of two fluid equations.Theoretically, it is shown that electrons are frozen-in to the magnetic fields while ion's frozen-in relation is broken in the ion dissipation region. However, when we examined the observational data around 1307 UT on October 16, 2015 when MMS spacecraft passed through the vicinity of the magnetic neutral line [Burch et al., Science 2016] , it was confirmed that the frozen-ion relation was not established for electrons in the ion dissipation region. In addition, we found that intense wave electric fields in this region. From the spectral analysis of the waves, it turned out that their characteristic frequencies are the lower-hybrid and electron cyclotron frequencies.In the framework of the two-fluid equation, we can evaluate the values of each term of the equations of motion for both ions and electrons except for the collision term from MMS spacecraft data. Therefore, it is possible to obtain collision terms for both species. Since magnetospheric plasma is basically collisionless, it is considered that the collision term is due to anomalous resistivity associated with the excited waves . On the other hand, in the two-fluid equation system, the two vectors corresponding to the collision terms of ions and electrons have the same absolute value. Because the force exerted between the two is the internal force, they should face in the opposite direction. However, the vectors corresponding to the

  7. Use of on-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to analyze disease biomarkers in dried serum spots compared with serum analysis using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Nishiumi, Shin; Kobayashi, Takashi; Sakai, Arata; Iwata, Yosuke; Uchikata, Takato; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Azuma, Takeshi; Bamba, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru


    The analytical stability and throughput of biomarker assays based on dried serum spots (DSS) are strongly dependent on the extraction process and determination method. In the present study, an on-line system based on supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (SFE-SFC/MS/MS) was established for analyzing the levels of disease biomarkers in DSS. The chromatographic conditions were investigated using the ODS-EP, diol, and SIL-100A columns. Then, we optimized the SFE-SFC/MS/MS method using the diol column, focusing on candidate biomarkers of oral, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer that were identified using liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS. By using this system, four hydrophilic metabolites and 17 hydrophobic metabolites were simultaneously detected within 15 min. In an experiment involving clinical samples, PC 16:0-18:2/16:1-18:1 exhibited 93.8% sensitivity and 64.3% specificity, whereas PC 17:1-18:1/17:0-18:2 showed 81.3% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity for detecting oral cancer. In addition, assessments of the creatine levels demonstrated 92.3% sensitivity and 78.6% specificity for detecting colorectal cancer. The results of this study indicate that our method has great potential for clinical diagnosis and would be suitable for large-scale screening. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Detection of oral streptococci in dental unit water lines after therapy with air turbine handpiece: biological fluid retraction more frequent than expected. (United States)

    Petti, Stefano; Moroni, Catia; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Polimeni, Antonella


    Oral streptococci detected in water from dental unit water lines (DUWLs) are a surrogate marker of patients' biological fluid retraction during therapy. We investigated oral streptococci detection rate in DUWLs in a representative sample of private offices in real-life conditions. Samples of nondisinfected water (100 ml) were collected from the DUWL designated for the air turbine handpiece in 81 dental units, immediately after dental treatment of patients with extensive air turbine handpiece use. Water was filtered and plated on a selective medium for oral streptococci and, morphologically, typical colonies of oral streptococci were counted. The lowest detection limit was 0.01 CFU/ml. The oral streptococci detection rate was 72% (95% CI: 62-81%), with a mean level of 0.7 CFU/ml. Oral streptococci detection was not affected by handpiece age or dental treatment type, but was associated with dental unit age. Biological fluid retraction into DUWLs during patient treatment and, possibly, the risk for patient-to-patient blood- or air-borne pathogen transmission are more frequent than expected.

  9. How TotalFinaElf will reinforce its downstream leadership; Comment TotalFinaElf entend renforcer son leadership en aval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, E.


    Invited by the 'para-petroleum industry club' of the French group of para-petroleum and para-gas companies (GEP) on April 2, 2002, J.P. Vettier, general director of the refining-marketing activity of TotalFinaElf company, described the new configuration of the downstream strategy of the French group, now the fourth biggest oil company in the world. This downstream activity seems to have profited from the different fusions that have led to the present day structure. (J.S.)

  10. Dunkerque`s refinery. Mobil-BP-Elf: matrimonial triangle with background anxiety; Raffinerie de Dunkerque. Mobil-BP-Elf: menage a trois sur fond d`inquietude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogue, A. de


    The annual production of the Dunkerque`s refinery (France) represents 330000 t of lubricants, 16000 t of paraffins, 17000 t of wax, 34000 t of extracts, 304000 t of diesel fuel and 300000 t of bitumens. From the legal aspect, Mobil is operator of the unit which belongs to an independent company held by BP (60%) and Elf (40%). After the BP-Mobil agreement was signed, the Dunkerque`s refinery entered into new Mobil`s network of 6 lubricants refineries which represent an overall over-capacity of 400000 t/year. This over-capacity is a consequence of export limitations due to profits reduction. (J.S.)

  11. Utility of the ELF Test for Detecting Steatohepatitis in Morbid Obese Patients with Suspicion of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. (United States)

    López, Iria Cebreiros; Aroca, Florentina Guzmán; Bernal, Maria Dolores Frutos; Mompeán, Juan Antonio Luján; Bernal, Águeda Bas; Martínez, Antonio Miguel Hernández; Barba, Enrique Martínez; Velasco, Jose Antonio Noguera; Paricio, Pascual Parilla


    Morbid obese patients have a high rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is related to the progression and poor evolution of chronic hepatopathy in NAFLD, so that its detection makes it possible to identify the subjects who are most at risk in order to prioritize treatment. The ELF test (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test; Siemens Diagnostics, NY, USA) has been assessed for its capacity to detect fibrosis in patients with NAFLD, but its capacity for diagnosing NASH has not been checked. Our objective is to determine the utility of the ELF test for detecting NASH in morbid obese patients with suspected NAFLD. ELF values were determined in a cohort of obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery with suspected NAFLD. Liver biopsy was used as the reference standard. The values of ELF were significantly higher in patients with NASH (p = 0.002) and in those who presented with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.047). An ELF cut-off point of 8.72 allows the detection of patients with NASH with a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 74.1% (AUC = 0.742, p = 0.002). The ELF test is efficient for the identification of obese patients with NAFLD and early signs of steatohepatitis and fibrosis.

  12. [Application of off-line two dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/supercritical fluid chromatography to the separation of the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim]. (United States)

    Yuan, Yun; Xin, Huaxia; Peng, Ziyue; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu


    An off-line two dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/supercritical fluid chromatography (2D RPLC/SFC) method was developed for the separation of the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim . ( T. kirilowii .). In the experiment, RPLC was used in the first dimension to analyze the samples. And 12 fractions (F 1 -F 12 ) were obtained according to the chromatographic peak collection mode, the fractions were re-analyzed in both RPLC and SFC modes. The results clearly showed that this 2D method had good orthogonality. The SFC was used as the second dimension. Ethanol- n -hexane (3:7, v/v) was used as a modifier in SFC. The modifier could provide appropriate elution power. When the sample load increased, it could also ensure the solubility of samples. The 2D RPLC/SFC method had obvious advantages for separating the compounds with similar properties, enriching and purifying the trace components. Finally, 150 peaks could be detected. The off-line 2D RPLC/SFC method will be further enlarged to a preparative level for preparation of compounds. The method can provide a practical reference for the purification of chemical constituents and material basis research of the seeds of T. kirilowii . in the future.

  13. Amplitude variations of ELF radio waves in the Earth-ionosphere cavity with the day-night non-uniformity (United States)

    Galuk, Yu P.; Nickolaenko, A. P.; Hayakawa, M.


    The real structure of lower ionosphere should be taken into account when modeling the sub-ionospheric radio propagation in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band and studying the global electromagnetic (Schumann) resonance of the Earth-ionosphere cavity. In the present work we use the 2D (two dimensional) telegraph equations (2DTE) for evaluating the effect of the ionosphere day-night non-uniformity on the electromagnetic field amplitude at the Schumann resonance and higher frequencies. Properties of the cavity upper boundary were taken into account by the full wave solution technique for realistic vertical profiles of atmosphere conductivity in the ambient day and ambient night conditions. We solved the electromagnetic problem in a cavity with the day-night non-uniformity by using the 2DTE technique. Initially, the testing of the 2DTE solution was performed in the model of the sharp day-night interface. The further computations were carried out in the model of the smooth day-night transition. The major attention was directed to the effects at propagation paths "perpendicular" or "parallel" to the solar terminator line. Data were computed for a series of frequencies, the comparison of the results was made and interpretation was given to the observed effects.

  14. Sickness absence from 1978 to 1992 of Electricite de France (EDF) workers exposed to ELF-EMF: the substation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.; Dab, W.; Lambrozo, J.; Chevalier, A.; Coing, F.


    Electromagnetic fields are suspected of many health effects, including cancers, immunity and fertility disorders, congenital malformations, suicides and depression.... Although the results of all studies are contradictory and no biological mechanism has been found, populations are concerned about this matter. This study analyzes the absence from work of some EDF employees who are a priori the most professionally exposed to ELF EMF. Absence from work is taken as an health indicator. Although it is not specific, it can be predictive of serious health problems. The specific context of EDF has made it possible to collect and analyze the medical aspect of absence from work, that is rare in France. We were interested with employees working with high voltage (over 90 kV). Three job categories have been selected: live line workers, substation maintenance workers and substation exploitation workers (called in the company the ATEX). The first group concerned the live linemen and the results were exposed previously. It appeared they had more accidents at work, but this was more related to the job of lineman rather than to the EMF exposure. Nevertheless, substation workers have an exposure less intensive but longer than live linemen. We present here the result about the absenteeism of the substation workers, maintenance and exploitation. (author)

  15. Registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiment with plasma injection (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. G.; Oraevskii, V. N.; Ruzhin, Iu. Ia.; Sobolev, Ia. P.; Skomarovskii, V. S.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Namazov, C. A.; Pokhunkov, A. A.; Nesmeianov, V. I.


    Two rocket KOMBI-SAMA experiments with plasma injection at height 100-240 km were performed in August 1987 in the region of Brazilian magnetic anomaly (L = 1.25). The launching time of the rocket was determined so that plasma injection was at the time when COSMOS 1809 satellite passed as close as possible to magnetic tube of injection. Caesium plasma jet was produced during not less than 300 s by an electric plasma generator separated from the payload. When the satellite passed the geomagnetic tube intersecting the injection region an enhancement of ELF emission at 140 Hz, 450 Hz by a factor of 2 was registered on board the satellite. An enhancement of energetic particle flux by a factor of 4-5 was registered on board the rocket. Observed ELF emission below 100 Hz is interpreted as the generation of oblique electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves due to drift plasma instability at the front of the plasma jet.

  16. On the efficiency of ELF/VLF generation using HF heating of the auroral electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Milikh, G.M.; Wallace, T.; McCarrick, M.; Yang, X.


    Using experimental measurements and theoretical analysis, it is shown that the HF/ELF conversion efficiency is controlled by the timescale for electron temperature saturation. This is a function of the ERP and frequency of the heater and the ionospheric electron density profile. For the current HAARP parameters, this corresponds to frequencies between 2 and 4 kHz. Efficiency optimization techniques as applied to the projected upgrading of the HAARP heater to its design power of 3.6 MW are discussed

  17. Phytoplankton extracellular phosphatases: investigation using the ELF (Enzyme Labelled Fluorescence) technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrojsová, Alena; Vrba, Jaroslav


    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2006), s. 715-723 ISSN 1505-2249. [Symposium on European Freshwater Sciences /4./. Krakow, 22.08.2005-26.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017202 Grant - others:FRVŠ(CZ) G4 1841 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : algae * cyanobacteria * ELF97 phosphate * cell-specific activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.306, year: 2006

  18. Rapporteur Report: Sources and Exposure Metrics for ELF Epidemiology (Part 1) (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, R.


    High quality epidemiological studies on the possible link between exposure to non-ionizing radiation and human health effects are of great importance for radiation protection in this area. The main sources of ELF fields are domestic appliances, different electrical energy distribution systems and all kinds of electrical machinery and devices at the workplace. In general, ELF fields present in the environment, show complex temporal patterns and spatial distributions, depending on the generating source. The complete characterisation of the different field sources often requires highly sophisticated instrumentation, and this is therefore not feasible within the scope of epidemiological studies. On average, individual exposure from ELF fields is low in both the working environment and in residential areas. Only at certain workplaces are people subject to significant ELF exposure with regard to biological effects. Different methods have been developed to determine levels of exposure received by study subjects, with the aim to rank exposed and non-exposed groups in epidemiological studies. These include spot measurements, calculations or modelling. The different methods used to estimate total exposure in epidemiological studies may result to a differing extent in a misclassification of the study subjects. Equally important for future studies is the selection of the appropriate exposure metric. The most widely used metric so far is the time-weighted average and thus represents a quasi standard metric for use in epidemiological studies. Beside, wire codes have been used for a long time in residential studies and job titles are often used in occupational studies. On the basis of the experience gained in previous studies, it would be desirable to develop standardised, state-of-the-art protocols to improve exposure assessment. New surrogates and metrics were proposed as the basis for further studies. But only few of these have recently undergone preliminary testing. A

  19. ELF in English language teaching: Researching attitudes of Serbian academic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ošmjanski Vera B.


    Full Text Available The aim of the empirical part of the research was to explore the attitude of the Serbian academic community towards the English language used as lingua franca (ELF, i.e. neutral variety of the English language. The results might be a starting point in considering whether to include ELF in the language policy and, consequently, into English curricula in Serbia. The research included members of Serbian academic community, students of different departments, and English language teachers in the state owned and privately owned universities in Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis. After examining their attitudes towards key postulates of ELF the conclusions are that it is necessary to start discussions about the concepts of the variety and to reassess current deeply rooted ideas about the English language from the perspective of modern linguistic trends. The need for a more liberal approach to the variety is not generated only in the needs of the market, i.e. those people to whom English is a practical means of international communication, but also the need to adjust ELT (English Language Teaching to modern linguistic tendencies and the European Council recommendations.

  20. Global thunderstorm activity estimation based on number of transients in ELF-band (United States)

    Ondraskova, Adriena; Sevcik, Sebastian


    Schumann resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic oscillations in extremely low frequency band (ELF, 3 Hz - 3 kHz), which arise in the Earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning activity in planetary range. The time records in the ELF-band consist of background signals and ELF transients/Q-bursts superimposed on the background exceeding it by a factor of 5 - 10. The former are produced by the common worldwide thunderstorm activity (100 - 150 events per second), the latter origin from individual intense distant lightning discharges (100 - 120 powerful strokes per hour). A Q-burst is produced by a combination of direct and antipodal pulses and the decisive factor for its shape follows from the source-to-observer distance. Diurnal/seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity can be deduced from spectral amplitudes of SR modes. Here we focus on diurnal/seasonal variations of the number of ELF-transients assuming that it is another way of lightning activity estimation. To search for transients, our own code was applied to the SR vertical electric component measured in October 2004 - October 2008 at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory of FMPI CU, Slovakia. Criteria for the identification of the burst are chosen on the basis of the transient amplitudes and their morphological features. Monthly mean daily variations in number of transients showed that African focus dominates at 14 - 16 h UT and it is more active in comparison with Asian source, which dominates at 5 - 8 h UT in dependence on winter or summer month. American source had surprisingly slight response. Meteorological observations in South America aiming to determine lightning hotspots on the Earth indicate that flash rate in this region is greatest during nocturnal 0 h - 3 h local standard time. This fact may be interpreted that Asian and South American sources contribute together in the same UT. Cumulative spectral amplitude of the first three SR modes compared with number of ELF-transients in

  1. Detection of endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity in intact cells by flow cytometry using the fluorogenic ELF-97 phosphatase substrate (United States)

    Telford, W. G.; Cox, W. G.; Stiner, D.; Singer, V. L.; Doty, S. B.


    BACKGROUND: The alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrate 2-(5'-chloro-2'-phosphoryloxyphenyl)-6-chloro-4-(3H)-quinazolinone (ELF((R))-97 for enzyme-labeled fluorescence) has been found useful for the histochemical detection of endogenous AP activity and AP-tagged proteins and oligonucleotide probes. In this study, we evaluated its effectiveness at detecting endogenous AP activity by flow cytometry. METHODS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate was used to detect endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 rat osteosarcoma cells and primary cultures of chick chondrocytes. Cells were labeled with the ELF-97 reagent and analyzed by flow cytometry using an argon ultraviolet (UV) laser. For comparison purposes, cells were also assayed for AP using a Fast Red Violet LB azo dye assay previously described for use in detecting AP activity by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate effectively detected endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 cells, with over 95% of the resulting fluorescent signal resulting from AP-specific activity (as determined by levamisole inhibition of AP activity). In contrast, less than 70% of the fluorescent signal from the Fast Red Violet LB (FRV) assay was AP-dependent, reflecting the high intrinsic fluorescence of the unreacted components. The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was also able to detect very low AP activity in chick chondrocytes that was undetectable by the azo dye method. CONCLUSIONS: The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was able to detect endogenous AP activity in fixed mammalian and avian cells by flow cytometry with superior sensitivity to previously described assays. This work also shows the applicability of ELF-97 to flow cytometry, supplementing its previously demonstrated histochemical applications. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Batch statistical process control of a fluid bed granulation process using in-line spatial filter velocimetry and product temperature measurements. (United States)

    Burggraeve, A; Van den Kerkhof, T; Hellings, M; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T


    Fluid bed granulation is a batch process, which is characterized by the processing of raw materials for a predefined period of time, consisting of a fixed spraying phase and a subsequent drying period. The present study shows the multivariate statistical modeling and control of a fluid bed granulation process based on in-line particle size distribution (PSD) measurements (using spatial filter velocimetry) combined with continuous product temperature registration using a partial least squares (PLS) approach. Via the continuous in-line monitoring of the PSD and product temperature during granulation of various reference batches, a statistical batch model was developed allowing the real-time evaluation and acceptance or rejection of future batches. Continuously monitored PSD and product temperature process data of 10 reference batches (X-data) were used to develop a reference batch PLS model, regressing the X-data versus the batch process time (Y-data). Two PLS components captured 98.8% of the variation in the X-data block. Score control charts in which the average batch trajectory and upper and lower control limits are displayed were developed. Next, these control charts were used to monitor 4 new test batches in real-time and to immediately detect any deviations from the expected batch trajectory. By real-time evaluation of new batches using the developed control charts and by computation of contribution plots of deviating process behavior at a certain time point, batch losses or reprocessing can be prevented. Immediately after batch completion, all PSD and product temperature information (i.e., a batch progress fingerprint) was used to estimate some granule properties (density and flowability) at an early stage, which can improve batch release time. Individual PLS models relating the computed scores (X) of the reference PLS model (based on the 10 reference batches) and the density, respectively, flowabililty as Y-matrix, were developed. The scores of the 4 test

  3. Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpinen, L.; Kuisti, H.; Tarao, H.; Paeaekkoenen, R.; Elovaara, J.


    The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements. (authors)

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction as an on-line clean-up technique for determination of riboflavin vitamins in food samples by capillary electrophoresis with fluorimetric detection. (United States)

    Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Angel


    An automatic method for the separation and determination of riboflavin (RF) vitamins (RF, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide) in food samples (chicken liver, tablet and powder milk) is proposed. The method is based on the on-line coupling of a supercritical fluid extractor (SFE) with a continuous flow-CE system with guided optical fiber fluorimetric detection (CF-CE-FD). The whole SFE-CF-CE-FD arrangement allowed the automatic treatment of food samples (clean-up of the sample followed by the extraction of the analytes), and the direct introduction of a small volume of the extracted plug to the CE-FD system for the determination of RF vitamins. Fluorescence detection introduced an appropriated sensitivity and contributed to avoid interferences of nonfluorescent polar compounds coming from the matrix samples in the extracted plug. Electrophoretic responses were linear within the 0.05-1 microg/g range, whereas the detection limits of RF vitamins were in the 0.036-0.042 microg/g range. The proposed arrangement opens up interesting prospects for the direct determination of polar analytes in complex samples with a good throughput and high level of automation.

  5. Characterisation of organic compounds in aerosol particles from a finnish forest by on-line coupled supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimmo, Masahiko; Jaentti, Jaana; Hartonen, Kari; Hyoetylaeinen, Tuulia; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, 00014, Helsinki (Finland); Aalto, Pasi; Kulmala, Markku [Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014, Helsinki (Finland)


    During the European Union project Quantification of Aerosol Nucleation in the European Boundary Layer (QUEST), which began in spring 2003, atmospheric aerosol particles were collected in a Finnish Scots pine forest using a high-volume sampler. The organic compounds in the filter samples were then analysed by on-line coupled supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SFE-LC-GC-MS). The sample was first extracted by SFE. During LC the extracts were fractionated into three fractions according to polarity. The final separation was carried out by GC-MS. A fraction volume as high as 840 {mu}L was transferred to the GC, using the partial concurrent eluent evaporation technique. The same instrumentation, with an in-situ SFE derivatisation method, was used to analyse organic acids. Major compounds such as n-alkanes and PAH were analysed quantitatively. Their concentrations were lower than those usually observed in urban areas or in other forest areas in Europe. The wind direction was one of the most important factors affecting changes in the daily concentrations of these compounds. Scots pine needles were analysed with the same system to obtain reference data for identification of biogenic compounds in aerosol particles. Other organic compounds found in this study included hopanes, steranes, n-alkanals, n-alkan-2-ones, oxy-PAH, and alkyl-PAH; some biogenic products, including oxidation products of monoterpenes, were also identified. (orig.)

  6. Fluid-line math model (United States)

    Kandelman, A.; Nelson, D. J.


    Simplified mathematical model simulates large hydraulic systems on either analog or digital computers. Models of pumps, servoactuators, reservoirs, accumulators, and valves are connected generating systems containing six hundred elements.

  7. TotalFina+Elf, how to fight against the evidence?; TotalFina+Elf, comment lutter contre l'evidence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 69 - Lyon (France)


    TotaIFina's successful bid for taking over Elf represents the victory of a certain type of 'discourse'. The strategist's ability to market his views resembles the marketer's ability to promote a product through packaging and advertising. Analyzing the publicity war between these two firms during the summer of 1999 sheds light on the strategist's ability to 'make strategy with words'. Out of the variety of explanatory factors and arguments for the success of such a takeover bid. 'managerial discourse' is not to be overlooked as a means for 'enacting' a strategy. (author)

  8. ELF-test less accurately identifies liver cirrhosis diagnosed by liver stiffness measurement in non-Asian women with chronic hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkisoen, S.; Boland, G. J.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Arends, J. E.


    The enhanced liver fibrosis test (ELF-test) has been validated for several hepatic diseases. However, its performance in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients is uncertain. This study investigates the diagnostic value of the ELF test for cirrhosis identified by liver stiffness

  9. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) reduces oxidative stress and improves functional and psychological status in ischemic stroke patients. (United States)

    Cichoń, Natalia; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Saluk, Joanna


    As a result of ischaemia/reperfusion, massive generation of reactive oxygen species occurs, followed by decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can modulate oxidative stress, but there are no clinical antioxidant studies in brain stroke patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ELF-EMF on clinical and antioxidant status in post-stroke patients. Fifty-seven patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF. Both groups underwent the same 4-week rehabilitation program. Additionally, the ELF-EMF group was exposed to an ELF-EMF field of 40 Hz, 7 mT for 15 min/day for 4 weeks (5 days a week). The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was measured in hemolysates, and total antioxidant status (TAS) determined in plasma. Functional status was assessed before and after the series of treatments using Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Applied ELF-EMF significantly increased enzymatic antioxidant activity; however, TAS levels did not change in either group. Results show that ELF-EMF induced a significant improvement in functional (ADL) and mental (MMSE, GDS) status. Clinical parameters had positive correlation with the level of enzymatic antioxidant protection. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:386-396, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Extremely Low Frequency-Magnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure and natural killer activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Bargellini, Annalisa; Scaringi, Meri; Bravo, Giulia; Borella, Paola


    Extremely Low Frequency-Magnetic Fields (ELF-MF) are possible carcinogens to humans and some data suggest that they can act as promoters or progressors. Since NK cells play a major role in the control of cancer development, an adverse effect on ELF-MF on NK function has been hypothesized. We examined NK activity in 52 workers exposed to different levels of ELF-MF in various activities. Individual exposure was monitored during 3 complete work-shifts using personal dosimeters. Environmental exposure was also monitored. ELF-MF levels in the workers were expressed as Time-Weighted Average (TWA) values. NK activity was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In the whole group the median occupational TWA was 0.21 μT. According to the TWA levels, workers were classified as low exposed (26 subjects, TWA ≤ 0.2 μT) and higher exposed workers (26 subjects; TWA > 0.2 μT). In higher exposed workers, we observed a trend to reduce NK activity compared to low exposed, but the difference was not significant. Then we selected a subgroup of highest exposed workers (12 subjects; TWA > 1 μT); no difference was observed between low and highest exposed subjects in the main personal variables. Considering both E:T ratios from 12:1 to 50:1 and Lytic Units, a significant reduction in NK activity was observed in the highest exposed workers compared to the low exposed. Multivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation between exposure and LU, while no correlation was evidenced with other personal characteristics. ELF-MF are considered possible carcinogens, and existing data suggest that they can act as promoters. Due to the role of NK activity in host defence against cancer, the results obtained in this study in workers exposed to ELF-MF levels exceeding 1 μT are in agreement with this hypothesis, and support the need for further investigation in this field

  11. Similar Data Retrieval from Enormous Datasets on ELF/VLF Wave Spectrum Observed by Akebono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kasahara


    Full Text Available As the total amount of data measured by scientific spacecraft is drastically increasing, it is necessary for researchers to develop new computation methods for efficient analysis of these enormous datasets. In the present study, we propose a new algorithm for similar data retrieval. We first discuss key descriptors that represent characteristics of the VLF/ELF waves observed by the Akebono spacecraft. Second, an algorithm for similar data retrieval is introduced. Finally, we demonstrate that the developed algorithm works well for the retrieval of the VLF spectrum with a small amount of CPU load.

  12. Attenuation bands and cut-off frequencies for ELF electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, J.L.; Lefeuvre, F.; Cerisier, J.C.; Berthelier, J.J.; Boud'ko, N.; Michailova, G.; Kapustina, O.


    The propagation characteristic of ELF (10 Hz - 1500 Hz) electromagnetic waves observed on ARCAD 3, in three different zones: low L value (L 6). Unambiguous determinations of the wave normal directions are obtained from the interpretations of the measurements of four (3 magnetic, 1 electric) wave field components. The technique that is used, is based on the Means method in the cases of highly polarized waves and on the Storey and Lefeuvre WDF method in the other cases. A particular emphasis is put on the propagation characteristics of the waves, in a multiple ion plasma, and on the cut-off frequencies which appear at and below the local proton gyrofrequency

  13. O-GlcNAc inhibits interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kihong; Chang, Hyo-Ihl


    The novel protein modification, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), plays an important role in various aspects of cell regulation. Although most of nuclear transcription regulatory factors are modified by O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAc effects on transcription remain largely undefined yet. In this study, we show that O-GlcNAc inhibits a physical interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors, and negatively regulates transcription of placenta and embryonic expression oncofetal protein gene (Pem). These findings suggest that O-GlcNAc inhibits Sp1-mediated gene transcription possibly by interrupting Sp1 interaction with its cooperative factor.

  14. ELF - An experimental programme to quantify the effects of load follow and perturbated power histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.; Hass, D.; Stora, J.P.


    Most of the ramp tests performed in national or international programmes have as main objective to define the fuel rod failure/survival limits, as a function of various parameters. Only a few of these experiments are sufficiently instrumented. The main feature of the ELF programme, described in this paper, consists in continuously measuring the cladding diameter during irradiation in OSIRIS of pre-irradiated PWR fuel rods, in order to provide strain relaxation data under various operating conditions. Power fluctuations during these OSIRIS irradiations are defined in order to obtain the conditioning and deconditioning kinetics of the fuel rods. (author)

  15. Analysis of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by on-line coupled supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (United States)

    Shimmo, Masahiko; Adler, Heidi; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Hartonen, Kari; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    An on-line supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SFE-LC-GC-MS) method was developed for the analysis of the particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The limits of detection of the system for the quantification standards were in the range of 0.25-0.57 ng, while the limits of determinations for filter samples varied from 0.02 to 0.04 ng m -3 (24 h sampling). The linearity was excellent from 5 to 300 ng ( R2>0.967). The analysis could be carried out in a closed system without tedious manual sample pretreatment and with no risk of errors by contamination or loss of the analytes. The results of the SFE-LC-GC-MS method were comparable with those for Soxhlet and shake-flask extractions with GC-MS. The new method was applied to the analysis of PAHs collected by high-volume filter in the Helsinki area to study the seasonal trend of the concentrations. The individual PAH concentrations varied from 0.015 to more than 1 ng m -3, while total PAH concentrations varied from 0.81 to 5.68 ng m -3. The concentrations were generally higher in winter than in summer. The mass percentage of the total PAHs in total suspended particulates ranged from 2.85×10 -3% in July to 15.0×10 -3% in December. Increased emissions in winter, meteorological conditions, and more serious artefacts during the sampling in summer season may explain the concentration profiles.

  16. ELFE{alpha}DESY: an electron laboratory for Europe at DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frois, B.; Brinkmann, R.; Kose, R.; Maidment, J.; Bruinsma, P.; Wu, Y.; Conto, J.M. de; Faure, J.; Gentner, M.; Husmann, D.; Tazzioli, F.


    ELFE is a project to develop a 15 to 30 GeV, high luminosity, continuous beam electron accelerator for scattering experiments from fixed nuclear targets. The goal is to explore the quark and gluon structure of matter by exclusive and semi-exclusive electron scattering from nuclei. The idea of integrating ELFE into TESLA facility is based on the fact that the superconducting linac is operated at a low duty cycle, about 0.4%, for the electron-positron collider mode and the machine is available for other tasks during the time between collider pulses. A fraction of the beam pulses produced by TESLA could be injected into the HERA ring until the ring is filled. The authors show that it is possible to extract the electrons from HERA used as a stretcher ring and produce a high luminosity quasi continuous beam suitable for nuclear physics experiments. The performances of the extracted beam in term of emittance, energy spread and duty factor have been evaluated. (N.T.).

  17. The concentrations of clinafloxacin in alveolar macrophages, epithelial lining fluid, bronchial mucosa and serum after administration of single 200 mg oral doses to patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy. (United States)

    Honeybourne, D; Andrews, J M; Cunningham, B; Jevons, G; Wise, R


    The concentrations of clinafloxacin were measured in serum, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid after single 200 mg oral doses of clinafloxacin had been administered to 15 subjects who were undergoing bronchoscopy. Concentrations were measured using a microbiological assay method. Mean concentrations in serum, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid at a mean of 1.27 h post-dose were 1.54, 2.65, 15.60 and 2.71 mg/L respectively. These site concentrations exceeded the MIC90 for common respiratory pathogens and indicate that clinafloxacin is likely to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of respiratory tract infections.

  18. The Deceiving ELF? Can Englsh fulfil the role of a Lingua Franca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chapman


    Full Text Available Abstract – The debate which surrounds the role of English as a lingua franca has been lively and extensive over the last twenty years or so. Numerous conferences and specific publications in the field testify to the interest and importance that the question of the development of a possible international functional language has stimulated. The present article aims to critically reassess the claims made for ELF and, at the same time, highlight the profound significance of the issues the debate has raised. Discussion of ELF has touched upon the perception of linguistic diversity, (inaccuracy and variation, intelligibility and the potential functions of an international language. Other topics of profound importance that are part of the debate relate to the role of any language in creating and maintaining identity, enabling social mobility and empowering its users. Some criticisms of ELF proposals have been easily rebutted, but this paper aims to underline the serious linguistic and socio-linguistic aspects of the debate in order to emphasize the need for a theoretical underpinning to our understanding of how language can operate in the global environment. Clarification of what we can and cannot know about language change and behavior will also contribute to ideas as to future research in ELF but will also bring us to the conclusion that predictions of the future development of ELF are of little purpose beyond the curiosity value they may possess. Keywords: English1; lingua franca2; non-native speaker3.     Abstract– Il dibattito intorno al ruolo di inglese intesa come lingua franca è vivace e largo da almeno venti anni. Le conferenze e pubblicazioni specifiche sull’argomento sono numerose e sono testimone di quanto è interessante e importante la questione dello sviluppo di una lingua internazionale funzionale e utile. L’articolo qui presentato ha lo scopo di valutare a rivalutare le speranze che si sono formate per l’inglese come

  19. Bespoke Language Teaching (BLT): A Proposal for a Theoretical Framework. the Case of EFL/ELF for Italians (United States)

    Santipolo, Matteo


    This paper deals with the problems of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) and as a lingua franca (ELF) in the Italian educational system and, in particular, with introducing language variation in the English class. After briefly illustrating how English teaching has changed in the last few decades, an outline is drawn of what happens in…

  20. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis (United States)

    ... Get Tested? To help diagnose the cause of peritonitis, an inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen, ... fever and your healthcare practitioner suspects you have peritonitis or ascites Sample Required? A peritoneal fluid sample ...

  1. ELF wave generation in the ionosphere using pulse modulated HF heating: initial tests of a technique for increasing ELF wave generation efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barr


    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a preliminary study to determine the effective heating and cooling time constants of ionospheric currents in a simulated modulated HF heating, `beam painting' configuration. It has been found that even and odd harmonics of the fundamental ELF wave used to amplitude modulate the HF heater are sourced from different regions of the ionosphere which support significantly different heating and cooling time constants. The fundamental frequency and its odd harmonics are sourced in a region of the ionosphere where the heating and cooling time constants are about equal. The even harmonics on the other hand are sourced from regions of the ionosphere characterised by ratios of cooling to heating time constant greater than ten. It is thought that the even harmonics are sourced in the lower ionosphere (around 65 km where the currents are much smaller than at the higher altitudes around 78 km where the currents at the fundamental frequency and odd harmonics maximise.Key words. Electromagnetics (antennae · Ionosphere (active experiments · Radio science (non linear phenomena

  2. Green line fracturing systems fluids in Campos Basin, Brazil; Sistemas de fluidos de fraturamento na Bacia de Campos: evolucao em beneficio do meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Alexandre B. de; Araujo, Cosme J.C. de; Martinho, Flavio M.; Gaspar, Fernando [BJ Services do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The constant demand for Services Companies in Oil and Gas Industry to reduce the environmental impacts has led to a race in search of new cleaner technologies. Fluids with low toxicity are the target of research and development by the companies which are committed to ensure the aspects of quality, health, safety and environment from manufacturing up to the use in the final destination of these products. The replacement of these fluids is happening at a larger speed than in the past on the based in two factors: greater awareness on the part of these companies in relation to the environmental and by new environmental laws. The fluids systems used in fracturing operations are not an exception to this rule. Service companies today are in the process of replacing their formulations with systems less aggressive to the environment so-called 'green' systems. In this context the new technological developments of fracturing fluids are of fundamental importance to assist the new environmental requirements of both operators and government regulatory bodies and also to ensure better effectiveness of these products. This paper reports the research, development and application of new environmentally acceptable fracturing fluids technology, reviews the pioneering case histories in offshore operations and the benefits experienced in the Campos Basin - Brazil. (author)

  3. Enfants conçus avec une aide médicale dans la cohorte Elfe


    Poulalhon, Claire


    Objectif : étudier les conditions entourant la naissance des enfants conçus avec une aide médicale, et explorer le rôle des facteurs sociaux et médicaux dans la prématurité et l’hypotrophie.Méthodes : l'analyse porte sur 9495 enfants de la cohorte Elfe, de terme supérieur à 33 semaines d'aménorrhée, singletons ou jumeaux, répartis en trois groupes selon leur contexte de conception, "traitement", "infertiles non traités" et "fertiles" (790, 1044 et 7661 enfants). Cinq champs ont été décrits (c...

  4. Genotoxicity and ELF-magnetic fields: a review through the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Andreu-Galvez, M.; Sanchez-Villalobos, J. M.; Achel, D. G.; Olmos, E.; Martinez-Hernandez, C. M.


    Thirty for (34) published studies, conducted from 1994 to the present to evaluate the genotoxic effect of magnetic fields using ELF-EMF and diagnostic resonance on humans by the micronucleus assay have been reviewed. some characteristics of the assay methods, their significance to genotoxicity and basic interpretations of the results of these assays are discussed. of the studies analysed 70.5% implicated genotoxic effects induced by these magnetic fields: 52.9% were due to exposure to magnetic fields only and 17,6% by exposure to magnetic fields in combination with some treatment types, resulting in additive or synergistic effect. Evidence exist to support the notion that exposure of humans to magnetic fields stimulates genotoxic effects, although the actual mechanisms of action or even the true human health consequences resulting from these exposure still remain unclear. (Author) 80 refs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Zwei 'jahrhunderthochwasser' in elf jahren - ein vergleich der hochwasserereignisse von 2002 und 2013 (in Deutschland. Worldwide floods are among the most frequent and most momentous natural disasters. They occur in unpredictable intervals and dimensions and always bring particularly devastating or catastrophic impacts, if they get into contact with people or its uses. Within eleven years only Germany was affected of two so-called 'century-floods'. The expiry of extreme high water can be influenced by technical measures only up to a certain degree. It is therefore necessary to have a high protection from the effects of floods and to keep the impact as low as possible. Both being prepared as well as possible and being capable of acting for the case of emergency are corequisite. Flood protection is a longsome and s steadily continuing process. In dealing with the consequences of floods both political measures and the commitment and solidarity of the citizens were in demand.

  6. Background ELF magnetic fields in incubators: a factor of importance in cell culture work. (United States)

    Mild, Kjell Hansson; Wilén, Jonna; Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Simko, Myrtill


    Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields in cell culture incubators have been measured. Values of the order of tens of muT were found which is in sharp contrast to the values found in our normal environment (0.05-0.1microT). There are numerous examples of biological effects found after exposure to MF at these levels, such as changes in gene expression, blocked cell differentiation, inhibition of the effect of tamoxifen, effects on chick embryo development, etc. We therefore recommend that people working with cell culture incubators check for the background magnetic field and take this into account in performing their experiments, since this could be an unrecognised factor of importance contributing to the variability in the results from work with cell cultures.

  7. Synchronization control of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons exposed to ELF electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Yanqiu; Wang Jiang; Zhou Sisi; Deng Bin


    This paper presents an adaptive neural network H ∞ control for unidirectional synchronization of modified Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field. The proposed modified HH neurons exhibit periodic and chaotic dynamics in response to sinusoidal electric field stimulation. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, we derive the updated laws of neural network for approximating the nonlinear uncertain functions of the error dynamical system. The H ∞ design technique makes the controller robust to unmodeled dynamics, disturbances and approximate errors. The proposed controller not only ensures closed-loop stability, but also guarantees an H ∞ performance for the synchronization error system. The states of the controlled slave system exponentially synchronize with that of the master one after control. The simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  8. On precursory ULF/ELF electromagnetic signatures for the Kobe earthquake on April 12, 2013 (United States)

    Schekotov, A.; Izutsu, J.; Hayakawa, M.


    After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (EQ), there have been numerous aftershocks in the eastern and Pacific Ocean of Japan, but EQs are still rare in the western part of Japan. In this situation a relatively large (magnitude (M) ∼ 6) EQ happened on April 12 (UT), 2013 at a place close to the 1995 Kobe EQ (M ∼ 7), so we have tried to find whether there existed any electromagnetic precursors to this EQ. Two precursory signatures are detected: one is the depression of ULF (ultra-low-frequency, 0.01-0.02 Hz) geomagnetic variations on April 9, and the second is wideband ELF (extremely low frequency) electromagnetic radiation on April 11. These results for the 2013 Kobe EQ are compared with the corresponding results for the former 1995 Kobe EQ.

  9. Comparison of direct sampling and brochoalveolar lavage for determining active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of calves injected with enrofloxacin or tilmicosin. (United States)

    Foster, D M; Sylvester, H J; Papich, M G


    Antibiotic distribution to interstitial fluid (ISF) and pulmonary epithelial fluid (PELF) was measured and compared to plasma drug concentrations in eight healthy calves. Enrofloxacin (Baytril ® 100) was administered at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg subcutaneously (SC), and tilmicosin (Micotil ® 300) was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg SC. PELF, sampled by two different methods-bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and direct sampling (DS)-plasma, and ISF were collected from each calf and measured for tilmicosin, enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on the concentrations in each fluid, for each drug. The enrofloxacin/ciprofloxacin concentration as measured by AUC in DS samples was 137 ± 72% higher than in plasma, but in BAL samples, this value was 535 ± 403% (p enrofloxacin/ciprofloxacin concentrations collected by DS were significantly different than those collected by BAL, but the tilmicosin concentrations were not significantly different between the two methods. Concentrations of enrofloxacin/ciprofloxacin exceeded the MIC values for bovine respiratory disease pathogens but tilmicosin did not reach MIC levels for these pathogens in any fluids. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Investigations of Relatively Easy To Construct Antennas With Efficiency in Receiving Schumann Resonances: Preparations for a Miniaturized Reconfigurable ELF Receiver (United States)

    Farmer, Brian W.; Hannan, Robert C.


    Relatively little is known about the cavity between the Earth and the ionosphere, which opens opportunities for technological advances and unique ideas. One effective means to study this cavity is with extremely low frequency (ELF) antennas. Possible applications of these antennas are global weather prediction, earthquake prediction, planetary exploration, communication, wireless transmission of power, or even a free energy source. The superconducting quantum interference device SQUID) and the coil antenna are the two most acceptable receivers discovered for picking up ELF magnetic fields. Both antennas have the potential for size reduction, allowing them to be portable enough for access to space and even for personal ware. With improvements of these antennas and signal processing, insightful analysis of Schumann resonance (SR) can give the science community a band of radio frequency (RF) signals for improving life here on Earth and exploring beyond.

  11. Prospects of hadron and quark physics with electromagnetic probes. Proceedings of the second ELFE workshop on Hadronic Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hose, N.; Frois, B.; Guichon, P.A.M.; Pire, B.; Van de Wiele, J.


    The last three days of the second ELFE workshop on confinement physics were devoted to the results of the work during the past year on the update and improvement of the physics case, the feasibility of the ELFE at DESY project (which combines the HERA ring used as a stretcher and a low duty factor 25 GeV electron linac which could be either a section of the TESLA collider or the injector of the foreseen short wave length free electron laser) as well as the development of the detectors. The participations have been decided into 5 copies: inclusive and semi-inclusive reactions; real photon physics, exclusive reactions; color transparency; detectors. (author)

  12. Prospects of hadron and quark physics with electromagnetic probes. Proceedings of the second ELFE workshop on Hadronic Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hose, N; Frois, B; Guichon, P A.M. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee; Pire, B [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Van de Wiele, J [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France). Division de Recherche Experimentale


    The last three days of the second ELFE workshop on confinement physics were devoted to the results of the work during the past year on the update and improvement of the physics case, the feasibility of the ELFE at DESY project(which combines the HERA ring used as a stretcher and a low duty factor 25 GeV electron linac which could be either a section of the TESLA collider or the injector of the foreseen short wave length free electron laser) as well as the development of the detectors. The participations have been decided into 5 copies: inclusive and semi-inclusive reactions; real photon physics, exclusive reactions; color transparency; detectors. (author)

  13. Modulation of brassinosteroid-regulated gene expression by jumonji domain-containing proteins ELF6 and REF6 in Arabidopsis


    Yu, Xiaofei; Li, Li; Li, Lei; Guo, Michelle; Chory, Joanne; Yin, Yanhai


    Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are of great importance for plant growth and development. BRs signal through a cell surface receptor kinase, BRI1, and a GSK3-like kinase, BIN2, to regulate the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which directly bind to target gene promoters to activate or repress gene expression and mediate BR responses. To understand how BES1 regulates target gene expression, we identified two BES1-interacting proteins, ELF6 (early flowering 6) and its ...

  14. ELF/VLF wave propagation at subauroral latitudes: Conjugate observation between the ground and Van Allen Probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinez‐Calderon, C.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Keika, K.; Ozaki, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Kletzing, C.; Hanzelka, Miroslav; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, W. S.


    Roč. 121, č. 6 (2016), s. 5384-5393 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : QP * conjugate event * VLF/ELF * propagation * time delay * ray tracing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016

  15. Evaluation of the effects of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF on survival of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Istiaque


    In summary, the growth rate of the irradiated S. aureus bacteria is affected by radiation of particular parameters, thus revealing resonant effects induced by the applied radiation. The decreased CFU values in all irradiated samples compared to control samples (non-exposed were observed. Findings provide important insight towards selecting the optimal parameters of ELF PEMF for possible treatment of infected tissue and thus, wound healing promotion.

  16. Quantitative analysis of higher hydrocarbons in natural gas using coupled solid-phase extraction / supercritiacal fluid extraction with on-line GC analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Meulen-Kuijk, van der L.; Smit, A.L.C.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.


    Characterisation of natural gas with respect to the hydrocarbon content is a challenging analytical problem due to the extremely low concentrations and the complexity of the matrix. In this publication a method is described for fully on-line preconcentration and analysis of n-nonane and higher

  17. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction reverse hybridization line probe assay for the detection and identification of medically important fungi in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Hurk, P.J.J.C. van den; Jannes, G.; Verweij, P.E.


    An assay system in which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS-1 region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is combined with a reverse-hybridization line probe assay (LiPA) was used for the identification of six Candida species and four Aspergillus species in pure cultures of clinical

  18. A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields. (United States)

    Baroncelli, P; Battisti, S; Checcucci, A; Comba, P; Grandolfo, M; Serio, A; Vecchia, P


    This is a cross-sectional survey on the health conditions of railways workers active in 258 interconnection and conversion substations all over Italy. Measurements performed in both kinds of substations operating at 220 kV have shown that maximum levels of the electric field strength and of the magnetic flux density at 50 Hz are of the order of 5 kV/m and 15 microT, respectively. Three subject groups, differently exposed (1, 10, 20 h/week), and an unexposed control group, for a total number of 627 workers, constitute the population at study. All subjects underwent a general medical examination, laboratory investigations, and a series of selected examinations relative to three systems (nervous, cardiovascular, and haematopoietic) considered at higher risk. No differences have been found between the exposed and the control groups. It is concluded that workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields of moderate strength do not show the presence of clear effects on their state of health.

  19. ELF-VLF communications through the Earth Project report for calendar year 1984, revision 1 (United States)

    Buettner, H. M.; Burker, G. J.; Didwall, E. M.; Holladay, G.; Lytle, R. J.


    We use computer models and experiments to explore the feasibility of communication between points underground and on the Earth's surface. Emphasis is placed on ELF-VLF electromagnetic propagation through the Earth; nominally, we investigated propagation in the 200 Hz-30 kHz frequency range. The computer modeling included calculations of the fields of a point electric or magnetic source in a homogeneous half space or a stratified earth. Initial results for an insulated antenna of finite length are also considered. The experiments involved through-the-Earth transmissions at two locations in Pennsylvania, both of which had large formations of limestone. Initial results indicate that information rates as high as kbits/s may be possible for subsurface depths of 300 m or less. Accuracy of these estimates depends on the electromagnetic propagation constant of the rock, the noise characteristics, and the modulation scheme. Although a nuisance for evaluating through-the-Earth propagation, the existence of subsurface metal conductors can improve the transmission character of the site.

  20. ELF-VLF Communications through the Earth Project report for calendar year 1984. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, H.M.; Burke, G.J.; Didwall, E.M.; Holladay, G.; Lytle, R.J.


    We use computer models and experiments to explore the feasibility of communication between points underground and on the Earth's surface. Emphasis is placed on ELF-VLF electromagnetic propagation through the Earth; nominally, we investigated propagation in the 200 Hz-30 kHz frequency range. The computer modeling included calculations of the fields of a point electric or magnetic source in a homogeneous half space or a stratified earth. Initial results for an insulated antenna of finite length are also considered. The experiments involved through-the-earth transmissions at two locations in Pennsylvania, both of which had large formations of limestone. Initial results indicate that information rates as high as kbits/s may be possible for subsurface depths of 300 m or less. Accuracy of these estimates depends on the electromagnetic propagation constant of the rock, the noise characteristics, and the modulation scheme. Although a nuisance for evaluating through-the-Earth propagation, the existence of subsurface metal conductors can improve the transmission character of the site.

  1. Calcitonin assay in wash-out fluid after fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients with a thyroid nodule and border-line value of the hormone. (United States)

    Massaro, F; Dolcino, M; Degrandi, R; Ferone, D; Mussap, M; Minuto, F; Giusti, M


    Assaying calcitonin (CT) in the wash-out fluid from fine-needle aspiration biopsies (CT-FNAB) could be useful in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The aim of this study was to correlate serum CT with cytology and CT-FNAB. Twenty-seven subjects (age range 27-75 yr) were studied. FNAB was performed in a thyroid nodule (no.=16) or lymph-node (no.=1 previously operated on for MTC) or in the prevalent nodule of multinodular goiters (no.=10). CT-FNAB values obtained in 37 subjects with normal serum CT (thyroid nodules served as a negative control. In these subjects, CTFNAB values were 8.2+/-6.4 ng/l (range 2-30 ng/l). In patients with a thyroid nodule under evaluation for MTC, serum CT and CT-FNAB values were 14.5+/-3.9 ng/l (range 10-24 ng/l) and 16.4+/-29.8 ng/l (range 2-144 ng/l), respectively. In 4 patients, CT-FNAB values were higher than the highest values found in our negative controls (30 ng/l), but cytology results were compatible with a benign thyroid lesion and pentagastrin testing was negative. In 3 cases with CT-FNAB 100 ng/l. Our data do not show any correlation between CT-FNAB and serum CT. In conclusion, borderline CT values in patients with thyroid nodules are not rare. Our experience suggests that CT-FNAB does not have the same importance as that reported in the literature for thyroglobulin and PTH assay in wash-out fluid after FNAB in malignant thyroid and hyperfunctioning parathyroid lesions.

  2. A Simplified Theory of ELF Propagation in the Earth-Ionosphere Transmission Line and Its Worldwide Application. (United States)


    1.56 1.26 153 ~.Comparison with the method of Papper and Moler (1974) The method of calculation described in Chapter 3 and applied in this chapter was...digitization of the profiles. Using their method, Papper and Moler (private communication) have kindly performed calculations corresponding to those presented

  3. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias-Viñas David


    Full Text Available Abstract Backgound The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed. Methods Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure. Results Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group. The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. No statistical differences were shown on total lipids of the liver but total cholesterol was elevated at 24 h with a significant decrease at 96 h (p = 0.026. The ELF-EMF stimulation increased the liver content of lipoperoxides at 24 h. Conclusion Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation.

  4. Properties of ELF electromagnetic waves in and above the earth's ionosphere deduced from plasma wave experiments on the OV1-17 and Ogo 6 satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Mozer, F.S.


    An analysis of ac electric field data obtained on board the OV1-17 satellite and ac magnetic field data obtained on board the Ogo 6 satellite has been made during the northern hemisphere spring and summer of 1969 with the purpose of studying extreme low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves above the earth's ionosphere. The results are in basic agreement with a number of previous ground-based and low-altitude satellite experiments in that the peak signal was observed at high latitudes outside the statistical location of the plasmapause on the day side of the earth, that ELF chorus was very often observed in conjunction with the steady ELF hiss emissions, that the winter hemisphere signal was considerably smaller than that observed in summer or in equinoctial months, and that the emission strength and region of occurrence are asymmetric about magnetic noon. Observations of such strong hiss signals outside the plasmasphere are somewhat surprising in light of Ogo 3 and Ogo 5 measurements which show steady ELF hiss to be closely confined to the plasmasphere at high altitudes during normal circumstances. The present study supports the hypothesis that hiss leaks out of the plasmasphere and refracts downward into the lower ionosphere; such a model predicts the observed summer-winter asymmetry and the poleward skewing of the ELF peak signal strength with decreasing altitude

  5. The macrophage activation marker sCD163 combined with markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) score predicts clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, T D; McGrail, R; Møller, H J


    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive identification of significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis is needed in hepatology practice. AIM: To investigate whether the combination of sCD163 as a hepatic inflammation marker and the fibrosis markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score (ELF) can...... predict portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We measured sCD163 and the ELF components (hyaluronic acid, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and procollagen-III aminopeptide) in two separate cohorts of cirrhosis patients that underwent hepatic vein catheterisation. To test...... the predictive accuracy we developed a CD163-fibrosis portal hypertension score in an estimation cohort (n = 80) and validated the score in an independent cohort (n = 80). A HVPG ≥10 mmHg was considered clinically significant. RESULTS: Both sCD163 and the ELF components increased in a stepwise manner...

  6. Klucel™ EF and ELF polymers for immediate-release oral dosage forms prepared by melt extrusion technology. (United States)

    Mohammed, Noorullah Naqvi; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Singh, Abhilasha; Deng, Weibin; Murthy, Narasimha S; Pinto, Elanor; Tewari, Divya; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A


    The objective of this research work was to evaluate Klucel™ hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) EF and ELF polymers, for solubility enhancement as well as to address some of the disadvantages associated with solid dispersions. Ketoprofen (KPR), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug with poor solubility, was utilized as a model compound. Preliminary thermal studies were performed to confirm formation of a solid solution/dispersion of KPR in HPC matrix and also to establish processing conditions for hot-melt extrusion. Extrudates pelletized and filled into capsules exhibited a carrier-dependent release with ELF polymer exhibiting a faster release. Tablets compressed from milled extrudates exhibited rapid release owing to the increased surface area of the milled extrudate. Addition of mannitol (MNT) further enhanced the release by forming micro-pores and increasing the porosity of the extrudates. An optimized tablet formulation constituting KPR, MNT, and ELF in a 1:1:1 ratio exhibited 90% release in 15 min similar to a commercial capsule formulation. HPC polymers are non-ionic hydrophilic polymers that undergo polymer-chain-length-dependent solubilization and can be used to enhance solubility or dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Dissolution/release rate could be tailored for rapid-release applications by selecting a suitable HPC polymer and altering the final dosage form. The release obtained from pellets was carrier-dependent and not drug-dependent, and hence, such a system can be effectively utilized to address solubility or precipitation issues with poorly soluble drugs in the gastrointestinal environment.

  7. Inhibition of Salmonella typhi growth using extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELF-EM) waves at resonance frequency. (United States)

    Fadel, M A; Mohamed, S A; Abdelbacki, A M; El-Sharkawy, A H


    Typhoid is a serious disease difficult to be treated with conventional drugs. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a new method for the control of Salmonella typhi growth, through the interference with the bioelectric signals generated from the microbe during cell division by extremely low frequency electromagnetic waves (ELF-EMW-ELF-EM) at resonance frequency. Isolated Salmonella typhi was subjected to square amplitude modulated waves (QAMW) with different modulation frequencies from two generators with constant carrier frequency of 10 MHz, amplitude of 10 Vpp, modulating depth ± 2 Vpp and constant field strength of 200 V m(-1) at 37°C. Both the control and exposed samples were incubated at the same conditions during the experiment. The results showed that there was highly significant inhibition effect for Salm. typhi exposed to 0·8 Hz QAMW for a single exposure for 75 min. Dielectric relaxation, TEM and DNA results indicated highly significant changes in the molecular structure of the DNA and cellular membrane resulting from the exposure to the inhibiting EM waves. It was concluded that finding out the inhibiting resonance frequency of ELF-EM waves that deteriorates Salm. typhi growth will be promising method for the treatment of Salm. typhi infection either in vivo or in vitro. This new non-invasive technique for treatment of bacterial infections is of considerable interest for the use in medical and biotechnological applications. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Directed line liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamien, R.D.


    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  9. Simultaneous observations of quasi-periodic ELF/VLF wave emissions and electron precipitation by DEMETER satellite: A case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hayosh, Mykhaylo; Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Titova, E. E.


    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2013), s. 4523-4533 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2280; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : quasi-periodic ELF/VLF emission s in the magnetosphere * wave-particle interactions * demeter spacecraft measurements * whistler-mode waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013

  10. ELF/VLF signatures of sprite-producing lightning discharges observed during the 2005 EuroSprite campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberg, E.; Price, C.; Yair, Y.


    ) discharges had peak current intensities between +8 and +130 kA whereas their charge moment changes (CMC) ranged from 500 to 3500 C km. Furthermore, the peak current reported by the Météorage lightning network are well correlated with the amplitudes of the VLF bursts, while showing poor correlation......%) an ELF transient was not associated with sprite occurrence, suggesting that long continuing current of tens of ms may not always be a necessary condition for sprite production, a finding which influences the estimation of the global sprite rate based on Schumann resonance (SR) measurements....

  11. Fluid Mechanics. (United States)

    Drazin, Philip


    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  12. Indoor transformer stations and ELF magnetic field exposure: use of transformer structural characteristics to improve exposure assessment. (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Roivainen, Päivi; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor; Juutilainen, Jukka


    Previous studies have shown that populations of multiapartment buildings with indoor transformer stations may serve as a basis for improved epidemiological studies on the relationship between childhood leukaemia and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). This study investigated whether classification based on structural characteristics of the transformer stations would improve ELF MF exposure assessment. The data included MF measurements in apartments directly above transformer stations ("exposed" apartments) in 30 buildings in Finland, and reference apartments in the same buildings. Transformer structural characteristics (type and location of low-voltage conductors) were used to classify exposed apartments into high-exposure (HE) and intermediate-exposure (IE) categories. An exposure gradient was observed: both the time-average MF and time above a threshold (0.4 μT) were highest in the HE apartments and lowest in the reference apartments, showing a statistically significant trend. The differences between HE and IE apartments, however, were not statistically significant. A simulation exercise showed that the three-category classification did not perform better than a two-category classification (exposed and reference apartments) in detecting the existence of an increased risk. However, data on the structural characteristics of transformers is potentially useful for evaluating exposure-response relationship.

  13. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  14. Effect of glutathione aerosol on oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (United States)

    Borok, Z; Buhl, R; Grimes, G J; Bokser, A D; Hubbard, R C; Holroyd, K J; Roum, J H; Czerski, D B; Cantin, A M; Crystal, R G


    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterised by alveolar inflammation, exaggerated release of oxidants, and subnormal concentrations of the antioxidant glutathione in respiratory epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Glutathione (600 mg twice daily for 3 days) was given by aerosol to 10 patients with IPF. Total ELF glutathione rose transiently, ELF oxidised glutathione concentrations increased, and there was a decrease in spontaneous superoxide anion release by alveolar macrophages. Thus, glutathione by aerosol could be a means of reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in IPF.

  15. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast. (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng


    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF.

  16. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M


    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  17. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.


    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  18. 2002 results: TotalFinaElf makes a ''much better performance'' than the overall international oil groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, E.


    T. Desmarest, head of TotalFinaElf oil and gas company, has presented the 2002 results of his company in the particular context of a moving international oil situation (the Iraq crisis and the situation in Venezuela) with important consequences on markets. At the same time, the company decided to change its name into 'Total' and to adopt a new logo. The results show a 17% drop with respect to 2001 but a 10% increase of the production. The high rate of exploration successes has led to the discovery of about 1 billion of bpe with a 0.8 US$ cost per bpe, which represents the best performance of the 5 world oil majors. The rate of reserves renewal reached 151% (11.2 billions of bpe at the end of 2002). The downstream activities (refining/distribution and basic chemistry) encountered much more problems for various reasons: low economic growth, climate warmth, international instability etc.. (J.S.)

  19. Higher Order Analysis of Turbulent Changes Found in the ELF Range Electric Field Plasma Before Major Earthquakes (United States)

    Kosciesza, M.; Blecki, J. S.; Parrot, M.


    We report the structure function analysis of changes found in electric field in the ELF range plasma turbulence registered in the ionosphere over epicenter region of major earthquakes with depth less than 40 km that took place during 6.5 years of the scientific mission of the DEMETER satellite. We compare the data for the earthquakes for which we found turbulence with events without any turbulent changes. The structure functions were calculated also for the Polar CUSP region and equatorial spread F region. Basic studies of the turbulent processes were conducted with use of higher order spectra and higher order statistics. The structure function analysis was performed to locate and check if there are intermittent behaviors in the ionospheres plasma over epicenter region of the earthquakes. These registrations are correlated with the plasma parameters measured onboard DEMETER satellite and with geomagnetic indices.

  20. Evaluation of occupational exposure to ELF magnetic fields at power plants in Greece in the context of European directives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulou, Maria; Govari, Chrysa; Tsaprouni, Panagiota; Karabetsos, Efthymios


    The scope of this paper is to comparatively present the extremely low-frequency (ELF) measurements performed at four power plants in Greece, focusing on: (a) the worst-case exposure conditions, (b) the existence of magnetic field harmonic components, (c) the technical similarities among the power plants and (d) comparison of the measured percentages of reference levels at typical working areas in the power plants. A detailed measurement methodology is proposed, including broadband on-site inspection of the working areas, weighted averaged root-mean-square and peak values of magnetic flux density, percentage of reference levels, according to 1998 ICNIRP guidelines and harmonic analysis of the multi-frequency magnetic fields. During the analysis of the occupational exposure in all power plants, the new Directive 2013/35/EU has been taken into account. The study concludes by proposing a mapping procedure of working areas into certain zones, in order to take measures for workers safety. (authors)

  1. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.


    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried within the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate the systems and technologies associated with the efficient management of cryogens in space. Cryogenic fluid management consists of the systems and technologies for: (1) liquid storage and supply, including capillary acquisition/expulsion systems which provide single-phase liquid to the user system, (2) both passive and active thermal control systems, and (3) fluid transfer/resupply systems, including transfer lines and receiver tanks. The facility contains a storage and supply tank, a transfer line and a receiver tank, configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage and transfer processes. The facility will provide design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer system applications, such as Space Station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, and ground-based and space-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV).

  2. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S


    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  3. Fluid Shifts (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide


    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  4. Measurement of electromagnetic waves in ELF and VLF bands to monitor lightning activity in the Maritime Continent (United States)

    Yamashita, Kozo; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Ohya, Hiroyo; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Sato, Mitsuteru; Matsumoto, Jun


    Data of lightning discharge has been focused on as an effective way for monitoring and nowcasting of thunderstorm activity which causes extreme weather. Spatial distribution of lightning discharge has been used as a proxy of the presence or absence of deep convection. Latest observation shows that there is extremely huge lightning whose scale is more than hundreds times bigger than that of averaged event. This result indicates that lightning observation should be carried out to estimate not only existence but also scale for quantitative evaluation of atmospheric convection. In this study, lightning observation network in the Maritime Continent is introduced. This network is consisted of the sensors which make possible to measure electromagnetic wave radiated from lightning discharges. Observation frequency is 0.1 - 40 kHz for the measurement of magnetic field and 1 - 40 kHz for that of electric field. Sampling frequency is 100 kHz. Waveform of electromagnetic wave is recorded by personal computer. We have already constructed observation stations at Tainan in Taiwan (23.1N, 121.1E), Saraburi in Thailand (14.5N, 101.0E), and Pontianak in Indonesia (0.0N, 109.4E). Furthermore, we plan to install the monitoring system at Los Banos in Philippines (14.18, 121.25E) and Hanoi in Viet Nam. Data obtained by multipoint observation is synchronized by GPS receiver installed at each station. By using data obtained by this network, location and scale of lightning discharge can be estimated. Location of lightning is determined based on time of arrival method. Accuracy of geolocation could be less than 10km. Furthermore, charge moment is evaluated as a scale of each lightning discharge. It is calculated from electromagnetic waveform in ELF range (3-30 kHz). At the presentation, we will show the initial result about geolocation for source of electromagnetic wave and derivation of charge moment value based on the measurement of ELF and VLF sferics.

  5. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.


    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  6. Euler's fluid equations: Optimal control vs optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, Darryl D.


    An optimization method used in image-processing (metamorphosis) is found to imply Euler's equations for incompressible flow of an inviscid fluid, without requiring that the Lagrangian particle labels exactly follow the flow lines of the Eulerian velocity vector field. Thus, an optimal control problem and an optimization problem for incompressible ideal fluid flow both yield the same Euler fluid equations, although their Lagrangian parcel dynamics are different. This is a result of the gauge freedom in the definition of the fluid pressure for an incompressible flow, in combination with the symmetry of fluid dynamics under relabeling of their Lagrangian coordinates. Similar ideas are also illustrated for SO(N) rigid body motion.

  7. Compilation of 1993 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program (United States)


    boundary consists of the smallest possible number of straight line segments (each S 20 a long) which connect or enclose the largest possible number of...killed and six heavily damaged by a severe windstorm (Mroz et al. 1993). This mortality appears to have reduced the amount of foliage in the canopy...In August, 1992, there was a severe windstorm at the control site with damage to a number of banded trees on the study plots. Most of the damage was

  8. An entropy regularization method applied to the identification of wave distribution function for an ELF hiss event (United States)

    Prot, Olivier; SantolíK, OndřEj; Trotignon, Jean-Gabriel; Deferaudy, Hervé


    An entropy regularization algorithm (ERA) has been developed to compute the wave-energy density from electromagnetic field measurements. It is based on the wave distribution function (WDF) concept. To assess its suitability and efficiency, the algorithm is applied to experimental data that has already been analyzed using other inversion techniques. The FREJA satellite data that is used consists of six spectral matrices corresponding to six time-frequency points of an ELF hiss-event spectrogram. The WDF analysis is performed on these six points and the results are compared with those obtained previously. A statistical stability analysis confirms the stability of the solutions. The WDF computation is fast and without any prespecified parameters. The regularization parameter has been chosen in accordance with the Morozov's discrepancy principle. The Generalized Cross Validation and L-curve criterions are then tentatively used to provide a fully data-driven method. However, these criterions fail to determine a suitable value of the regularization parameter. Although the entropy regularization leads to solutions that agree fairly well with those already published, some differences are observed, and these are discussed in detail. The main advantage of the ERA is to return the WDF that exhibits the largest entropy and to avoid the use of a priori models, which sometimes seem to be more accurate but without any justification.

  9. Assessment of every day extremely low frequency (Elf) electromagnetic fields (50-60 Hz) exposure: which metrics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souqes, M.; Lambrozo, J.


    Because electricity is encountered at every moment of the day, at home with household appliances, or in every type of transportation, people are most of the time exposed to extremely low frequency (E.L.F.) electromagnetic fields (50-60 Hz) in a various way. Due to a lack of knowledge about the biological mechanisms of 50 Hz magnetic fields, studies seeking to identify health effects of exposure use central tendency metrics. The objective of our study is to provide better information about these exposure measurements from three categories of metrics. We calculated metrics of exposure measurements from data series (79 very day exposed subjects), made up approximately 20,000 recordings of magnetic fields, measured every 30 seconds for 7 days with an E.M.D.E.X. II dosimeter. These indicators were divided into three categories : central tendency metrics, dispersion metrics and variability metrics.We use Principal Component Analysis, a multidimensional technique to examine the relations between different exposure metrics for a group of subjects. Principal component Analysis (P.C.A.) enabled us to identify from the foreground 71.7% of the variance. The first component (42.7%) was characterized by central tendency; the second (29.0%) was composed of dispersion characteristics. The third component (17.2%) was composed of variability characteristics. This study confirm the need to improve exposure measurements by using at least two dimensions intensity and dispersion. (authors)

  10. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko


    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  11. A biomonitoring study of genotoxic risk to workers of transformers and distribution line stations. (United States)

    Celikler, Serap; Aydemir, Nilufer; Vatan, Ozgur; Kurtuldu, Sevim; Bilaloglu, Rahmi


    A cytogenetic monitoring study was carried out on a group of workers from transformer and distribution line stations in the Bursa province of Turkey, to investigate the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electric (ELF) and magnetic fields (EMF). Cytogenetic analysis, namely chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleus (MN) tests were performed on a strictly selected group of 55 workers and compared to 17 controls. CA and MN frequencies in electrical workers appeared significantly higher than in controls (p electric transformer and distribution stations.

  12. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  13. Similarity law for Widom lines and coexistence lines. (United States)

    Banuti, D T; Raju, M; Ihme, M


    The coexistence line of a fluid separates liquid and gaseous states at subcritical pressures, ending at the critical point. Only recently, it became clear that the supercritical state space can likewise be divided into regions with liquidlike and gaslike properties, separated by an extension to the coexistence line. This crossover line is commonly referred to as the Widom line, and is characterized by large changes in density or enthalpy, manifesting as maxima in the thermodynamic response functions. Thus, a reliable representation of the coexistence line and the Widom line is important for sub- and supercritical applications that depend on an accurate prediction of fluid properties. While it is known for subcritical pressures that nondimensionalization with the respective species critical pressures p_{cr} and temperatures T_{cr} only collapses coexistence line data for simple fluids, this approach is used for Widom lines of all fluids. However, we show here that the Widom line does not adhere to the corresponding states principle, but instead to the extended corresponding states principle. We resolve this problem in two steps. First, we propose a Widom line functional based on the Clapeyron equation and derive an analytical, species specific expression for the only parameter from the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This parameter is a function of the acentric factor ω and compares well with experimental data. Second, we introduce the scaled reduced pressure p_{r}^{*} to replace the previously used reduced pressure p_{r}=p/p_{cr}. We show that p_{r}^{*} is a function of the acentric factor only and can thus be readily determined from fluid property tables. It collapses both subcritical coexistence line and supercritical Widom line data over a wide range of species with acentric factors ranging from -0.38 (helium) to 0.34 (water), including alkanes up to n-hexane. By using p_{r}^{*}, the extended corresponding states principle can be applied within

  14. Studies of complexity in fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Sidney R.


    This is the final report of Grant DE-FG02-92ER25119, ''Studies of Complexity in Fluids'', we have investigated turbulence, flow in granular materials, singularities in evolution of fluid surfaces and selective withdrawal fluid flows. We have studied numerical methods for dealing with complex phenomena, and done simulations on the formation of river networks. We have also studied contact-line deposition that occurs in a drying drop.

  15. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Prud'homme, M.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.


    This book constitutes at the same time theoretical and practical base relating to the phenomena associated with fluid mechanics. The concept of continuum is at the base of the approach developed in this work. The general advance proceeds of simple balances of forces as into hydrostatic to more complex situations or inertias, the internal stresses and the constraints of Reynolds are taken into account. This advance is not only theoretical but contains many applications in the form of solved problems, each chapter ending in a series of suggested problems. The major part of the applications relates to the incompressible flows

  16. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.


    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  17. Disappearing fluid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, K.; Chu, J.; Lin, P.C.


    Full text: A 78-year old male in end stage renal failure (ESRF) with a background of NIDDM retinopathy, nephropathy, and undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with anorexia, clinically unwell, decreased mobility and right scrotal swelling. There was no difficulty during CAPD exchange except there was a positive fluid balance Peritoneal dialysates remained clear A CAPD peritoneal study was requested. 100Mbq 99mTc Sulphur Colloid was injected into a standard dialysate bag containing dialysate. Anterior dynamic images were acquired over the abdomen pelvis while the dialysate was infused Static images with anatomical markers were performed 20 mins post infusion, before and after patient ambulation and then after drainage. The study demonstrated communication between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac. Patient underwent right inguinal herniaplasty with a marlex mesh. A repeat CAPD flow study was performed as follow up and no abnormal connection between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac was demonstrated post operatively. This case study shows that CAPD flow studies can be undertaken as a simple, minimally invasive method to evaluate abnormal peritoneal fluid flow dynamics in patients undergoing CAPD, and have an impact on dialysis management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi


    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...

  19. All in a day’s work ... or, ELF in a day’s work: meeting the changing needs of learners and users of English in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pullin


    Full Text Available English as a lingua franca (ELF has been described as “… the fastest-growing and at the same time the least recognised function of English in the world.” (Mauranen 2009. As a shared language used between speakers who do not have the same lingua cultural backgrounds, English has been the global language of business for some time (Charles 2008 and is increasingly used in academia, not only as the lingua franca of research, but also for teaching and administrative work. As a field of research, ELF focuses on language use in context, notably showing how flexible users of ELF are in negotiating meaning and achieving understanding, despite differences in cultural and linguistic backgrounds (Firth 1996, 2008. Yet, using English as a lingua franca can present challenges, and the research findings have implications not only for users of English in a range of contexts, but also for teachers and learners of English. The focus of this article is on the effect of change with regard to English on curriculum development and syllabus design at the University of Zurich and Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich Language Center. Drawing on Richards (2001, curriculum development refers here to an overall process of educational planning and implementation, comprising needs analysis, situation analysis, setting of aims and learning outcomes, course design, delivery and assessment. These elements are seen as a “network of interacting systems.” (Richards 2001:41. Syllabus design, on the other hand, deals with the specific content covered in a given course.

  20. ETS transcription factor ELF5 induces lumen formation in a 3D model of mammary morphogenesis and its expression is inhibited by Jak2 inhibitor TG101348. (United States)

    Chean, Jennifer; Chen, Charng-Jui; Shively, John E


    The loss of expression of a single gene can revert normal tissue to a malignant phenotype. For example, while normal breast has high lumenal expression of CEACAM1, the majority of breast cancers exhibit the early loss of this gene with the concurrent loss of their lumenal phenotype. MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1 expression and fail to form lumena in 3D culture, regain the normal phenotype when transfected with CEACAM1. In order to probe the mechanism of this gain of function, we treated these cells with the clinically relevant Jak2 inhibitor TG101348 (TG), expecting that disruption of the prolactin receptor signaling pathway would interfere with the positive effects of transfection of MCF7 cells with CEACAM1. Indeed, lumen formation was inhibited, resulting in the down regulation of a set of genes, likely involved in the complex process of lumen formation. As expected, inhibition of the expression of many of these genes also inhibited lumen formation, confirming their involvement in a single pathway. Among the genes identified by the inhibition assay, ETS transcription factor ELF5 stood out, since it has been identified as a master regulator of mammary morphogenesis, and is associated with prolactin receptor signaling. When ELF5 was transfected into the parental MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1, lumen formation was restored, indicating that ELF5 can replace CEACAM1 in this model system of lumenogenesis. We conclude that the event(s) that led to the loss of expression of CEACAM1 is epistatic in that multiple genes associated with a critical pathway were affected, but that restoration of the normal phenotype can be achieved with reactivation of certain genes at various nodal points in tissue morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A feasibility study of in-line rheological characterisation of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 4, 2014 ... to obtain in-line rheological parameters of opaque fluids with suspended ... ing, e.g., paper pulp, foods, transient flows and model mineral suspensions. ..... on Ultrasonic Doppler Methods for Fluid Mechanics and Fluid.

  2. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.


    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  3. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbel, G.D.


    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  4. Gauge freedom in perfect fluid spatially homogeneous spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, R.T.


    The class of reference systems compatible with the symmetry of a spatially homogeneous perfect fluid spacetime is discussed together with the associated class of symmetry adapted comoving ADM frames (or computational frames). The fluid equations of motion are related to the four functions on the space of fluid flow lines discovered by Taub and which characterize an isentropic flow. (Auth.)

  5. Means for preventing radioactive fluid leaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Jun-ichi.


    Object: To permit prevention of leakage of radioactive fluid from line and valve leak sections while also recovering the liquid by producing a vacuum state in a leak-off line by means of a water ejector. Structure: A portion of the water from a condenser is forced by a condensed water pump through a water ejector tank to a recovery tank while controlling an orifice and valve, whereby a vacuum state is produced in the leak-off line to withdraw the leakage fluid. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. ULF-ELF Electromagnetic Emissions Over the Fault in Kangra Valley of India and their Relation With Radon Emanation (Intercosmos 24 Satellite Data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, Yu.M.; Mikhailova, G.A.; Kapustina, O.V.


    Experimental investigations of space and spectral characteristics of the electric component of the electromagnetic waves in the outer ionosphere in the ULF (f < 30 Hz) and ELF (f < 1 kHz) ranges were carried out over north fault of the India - Australian plate. Records of the 10 narrow band filters in the frequency range from 8 to 970 Hz with NVK-receiver mounting on Intercosmos 24 satellite were used. In the day-time at sensitivity level near 2 μV/m emissions couldn't observe. In the night-time emissions, localized exactly in space above the fault, was observed in mentioned full frequency range. In spectral distribution of emission maximum in frequency range from 150 to 623 Hz allocated. In those days, when anomalous bursts of radon concentration in underground waters in Kangra Valley was observed the simultaneous amplification of electric component of field at frequency 8 Hz more on the factor more than ten and in frequency range from 150 to 623 Hz, where usually was maximum, on the factor two or three also was observed. This fact ensures statement, that the noises are generated by the lightning discharges, but amplification of their intensity on satellite heights was related with decreasing of ELF waves attenuation in the time of their penetration through lower ionosphere, modified by electric field in preparing phase of the earthquakes. (author)

  7. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls. (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang


    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  8. Design and fabrication of a microplatform for the proximity effect study of localized ELF-EMF on the growth of in vitro HeLa and PC-12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y C; Chen, C C; Cheng, Y T; Tu, W; Tseng, F G


    This paper presents a platform technology with experimental results that show the scientists and biologists a way to rapidly investigate and analyze the biological effects of localized extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field (EMF) on living cells. The proximity effect of the localized ELF-EMF on living cells is revealed using the bio-compatible microplatform on which an on-glass inductive coil array, the source of the localized ELF-EMF in micro scale, is designed, fabricated and operated with a field strength of 1.2 ± 0.1 mT at 60 Hz for cell culturing study. After a 72 h ELF-EMF exposure, HeLa (human cervical cancer) and PC-12 (rat pheochromocytoma) cells exhibit about 18.4% and 12.9% cell proliferation rate reduction, respectively. Furthermore, according to the presented dynamic model, the reduction of the proliferation can be attributed to the interference of signal transduction processes due to the tangential currents induced around the cells

  9. Synovial fluid analysis (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  10. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.


    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  11. Modern fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement


    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  12. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans


    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  13. Superconfinement tailors fluid flow at microscales.

    KAUST Repository

    Setu, Siti Aminah


    Understanding fluid dynamics under extreme confinement, where device and intrinsic fluid length scales become comparable, is essential to successfully develop the coming generations of fluidic devices. Here we report measurements of advancing fluid fronts in such a regime, which we dub superconfinement. We find that the strong coupling between contact-line friction and geometric confinement gives rise to a new stability regime where the maximum speed for a stable moving front exhibits a distinctive response to changes in the bounding geometry. Unstable fronts develop into drop-emitting jets controlled by thermal fluctuations. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics in superconfined systems is dominated by interfacial forces. Henceforth, we present a theory that quantifies our experiments in terms of the relevant interfacial length scale, which in our system is the intrinsic contact-line slip length. Our findings show that length-scale overlap can be used as a new fluid-control mechanism in strongly confined systems.

  14. World lines.


    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard


    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  15. Localized Elf Propagation Anomalies. (United States)


    the above three SPEs. Those important auxiliary data are used as inputs to air- chemistry codes to calculate the electron and ion density height...horizontal magnetic intensity H is H A ( ATAR ) 1 / 2 (9 d)- 1/2 exp(-’afL- d) e- d/ 8 " 7 coso A/m, (1) where A depends on the antenna moment, frequency...those rates are input to air- chemistry equations to obtain height profiles of electron and ion densities. Calculation of ion-pair production rates

  16. The physics of ELFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.


    This paper presents an overview of the physics program of the 15-30 GeV continuous beam electron facility proposed by the European community of nuclear physicists to study the quark and gluon structure of hadrons. The goal of this new facility is to explore the quark structure of matter by exclusive and semi-inclusive electron scattering from nuclear targets. (author)

  17. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest. (United States)

    Brenner, Howard


    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  18. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  19. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  20. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.


    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  1. Single-particle Schroedinger fluid. I. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.; Griffin, J.J.


    The problem of a single quantal particle moving in a time-dependent external potential well is formulated specifically to emphasize and develop the fluid dynamical aspects of the matter flow. This idealized problem, the single-particle Schroedinger fluid, is shown to exhibit already a remarkably rich variety of fluid dynamical features, including compressible flow and line vortices. It provides also a sufficient framework to encompass simultaneously various simplified fluidic models for nuclei which have earlier been postulated on an ad hoc basis, and to illuminate their underlying restrictions. Explicit solutions of the single-particle Schroedinger fluid problem are studied in the adiabatic limit for their mathematical and physical implications (especially regarding the collective kinetic energy). The basic generalizations for extension of the treatment to the many-body Schroedinger fluid are set forth

  2. Anomalous ELF phenomena in the Schumann resonance band as observed at Moshiri (Japan in possible association with an earthquake in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hayakawa


    Full Text Available The ELF observation at Moshiri (geographic coordinates: 44.29° N, 142.21° E in Hokkaido, Japan, was used to find anomalous phenomena in the Schumann resonance band, possibly associated with a large earthquake (magnitude of 7.8 in Taiwan on 26 December 2006. The Schumann resonance signal (fundamental (n=1, 8 Hz; 2nd harmonic, 14 Hz, 3rd harmonic, 20 Hz, 4th, 26 Hz etc. is known to be supported by electromagnetic radiation from the global thunderstorms, and the anomaly in this paper is characterized by an increase in intensity at frequencies from the third to fourth Schumann resonance modes mainly in the BEW component with a minor corresponding increase in the BNS component also. Spectral modification takes place only in the interval of 21:00 UT±1 h, which corresponds to the global lightning activity concentrated in America. While distortions were absent in other lightning-active UT intervals, in particular, around 08:00 UT±1 h (Asian thunderstorms and around 15±1 h (African lightning activity. The anomaly occurred on 23 December three days prior to the main shock. The results observed were explained in terms of ELF radio wave perturbation caused by the lower ionospheric depression around the earthquake epicenter. The difference in the path lengths between the direct radio wave from an active global thunderstorm center and the wave scattered from the non-uniformity above Taiwan causes interference at higher resonance modes, which is successful in explaining the observational data.

  3. Theoretical analysis of the binding of iron(III) protoporphyrin IX to 4-methoxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone via DFT-D3, MEP, QTAIM, NCI, ELF, and LOL studies. (United States)

    Nkungli, Nyiang Kennet; Ghogomu, Julius Numbonui


    Thiosemicarbazones display diverse pharmacological properties, including antimalarial activities. Their pharmacological activities have been studied in depth, but little of this research has focused on their antimalarial mode of action. To elucidate this antimalarial mechanism, we investigated the nature of the interactions between iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)PPIX) and the thione-thiol tautomers of 4-methoxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (MAPTSC). Dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D3), the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), the noncovalent interaction (NCI) index, the electron localization function (ELF), the localized orbital locator (LOL), and thermodynamic calculations were employed in this work. Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC binding is expected to inhibit hemozoin formation, thereby preventing Fe(III)PPIX detoxification in plasmodia. Preliminary studies geared toward the identification of atomic binding sites in the thione-thiol tautomers of MAPTSC were carried out using molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps and conceptual DFT-based local reactivity indices. The thionic sulfur and the 2 N-azomethine nitrogen/thiol sulfur of, respectively, the thione and thiol tautomers of MAPTSC were identified as the most favorable nucleophilic sites for electrophilic attack. The negative values of the computed Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC binding energies, enthalpies, and Gibbs free energies are indicative of the existence and stability of Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC complexes. MAPTSC-Fe(III) coordinate bonds and strong hydrogen bonds (N-H···O) between the NH 2 group in MAPTSC and the C=O group in one propionate side chain of Fe(III)PPIX are crucial to Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC binding. QTAIM, NCI, ELF, and LOL analyses revealed a subtle interplay of weak noncovalent interactions dominated by dispersive-like van der Waals interactions between Fe(III)PPIX and MAPTSC that stabilize the Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC complexes.

  4. Silver linings. (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn


    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Installations having pressurised fluid circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigg, S.; Grant, J.


    Reference is made to nuclear installations having pressurised coolant flow circuits. Breaches in such circuits may quickly result in much damage to the plant. Devices such as non-return valves, orifice plates, and automatically operated shut-off valves have been provided to prevent or reduce fluid flow through a breached pipe line, but such devices have several disadvantages; they may present large restrictions to normal flow of coolant, and may depend on the operation of ancillary equipment, with consequent delay in bringing them into operation in an emergency. Other expedients that have been adopted to prevent or reduce reverse flow through an upstream breach comprise various forms of hydraulic counter flow brakes. The arrangement described has at least one variable fluid brake comprising a fluidic device connected into a duct in the pressurised circuit, the device having an inlet, an outlet, a vortex chamber between the inlet and outlet, a control jet for introducing fluid into the vortex chamber, connections communicating the inlet and the outlet into one part of the circuit and the control jet into another region at a complementary pressure so that, in the event of a breach in the circuit in one region, fluid passes from the other region to enter the vortex chamber to stimulate pressure to create a flow restricting vortex in the chamber that reduces flow through the breach. The system finds particular application to stream generating pressure tube reactors, such as the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA, Winfrith. (U.K.)

  6. Observations of 50/60 Hz Power Line Radiation in the Low Latitude Ionosphere Detected by the Electric Field Instrument on the C/NOFS Satellite (United States)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Simoes, F. A.; Liebrecht, M. C.; Farrell, W.


    One of the most ubiquitous forms of EM radiation emanating from the earth's surface is that of power line radiation. Associated with AC electric power generation, such emissions are typically launched along conducting power lines that may travel hundreds, or even thousands of km, from generating stations. The fundamental frequencies of such emissions are characteristically 50 Hz or 60 Hz, depending on the regional standards for power generation/consumption. The frequency of this radiation is well below that of the plasma frequency of the ionosphere (typically several MHz) and hence is expected to reflect back to the earth and propagate in the waveguide formed by the earth's surface and the bottom ledge of the ionosphere, typically near 100 km. Given that such power lines are widespread on the exposed lithosphere, the leakage of some ELF emissions associated with electric power generation might nevertheless be expected in the ionosphere, in the same manner in which a small fraction of the power associated with ELF Schumann resonances and lightning sferics have been shown to penetrate into the ionosphere. We present direct measurements of 50/60 Hz power line radiation detected by in situ probes on an orbiting satellite in the earth's ionosphere. The data were gathered by the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) tri-axial double probe detector flown on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. C/NOFS was launched in April, 2008 into a low latitude (13 deg inclination) orbit with perigee and apogee of 400 km and 850 km, respectively. The electric field wave data were gathered by ELF receivers comprised of two orthogonal broadband channels sampled at 512 s/sec each, and digitized with 16 bit A/D converters. The data show distinct 60 Hz emissions while the satellite sampled within the Brazilian sector whereas distinct 50 Hz emissions were detected over India. Other, less distinct, emissions were observed over Africa and southeast Asia

  7. FOREWORD Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This section of the Special Issue carries selected articles from the Fluid Mechanics and Fluid. Power Conference held during 12–14 December 2013 at the National Institute of Technology,. Hamirpur (HP). The section includes three review articles and nine original research articles. These were selected on the basis of their ...

  8. Reconnection of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyn, M.F.; Gratton, F.T.; Gnavi, G.; Heindler, M.


    Magnetic field line diffusion in a plasma is studied on the basis of the non-linear boundary layer equations of dissipative, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. Non-linear steady state solutions for a class of plasma parameters have been obtained which are consistent with the boundary conditions appropriate for reconnection. The solutions are self-consistent in connecting a stagnation point flow of a plasma with reconnecting magnetic field lines. The range of the validity of the solutions, their relation to other fluid models of reconnection, and their possible applications to space plasma configurations are pointed out. (Author)

  9. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin


    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  10. Synovial Fluid Analysis (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... is being tested? Synovial fluid is a thick liquid that acts as a lubricant for the body's ...

  11. Electric fluid pump (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun


    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid culture (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF culture Images Pneumococci organism References Karcher DS, McPherson RA. Cerebrospinal, synovial, serous body fluids, and alternative specimens. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ...

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image) (United States)

    ... brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura which covers ...

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myeong, Hyeon Guk


    This book deals with computational fluid dynamics with basic and history of numerical fluid dynamics, introduction of finite volume method using one-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of two-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of Navier-Stokes equation, fluid with heat transport, turbulent flow and turbulent model, Navier-Stokes solution by generalized coordinate system such as coordinate conversion, conversion of basic equation, program and example of calculation, application of abnormal problem and high speed solution of numerical fluid dynamics.

  15. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.


    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  16. Sensors for Fluid Leak Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz


    Full Text Available Fluid leak detection represents a problem that has attracted the interest of researchers, but not exclusively because in industries and services leaks are frequently common. Indeed, in water or gas supplies, chemical or thermal plants, sea-lines or cooling/heating systems leakage rates can cause important economic losses and sometimes, what it is more relevant, environmental pollution with human, animal or plant lives at risk. This last issue has led to increased national and international regulations with different degrees of severity regarding environmental conservation.[...

  17. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    librium of a vertical slice fluid (Figure Id) of height H and again using the fact .... same fluid having the same shape and same volume as the body. This fluid volume .... example, can be caused by the heating of air near the ground by the sun ...

  18. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.


    ®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding

  19. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li


    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  20. Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Profiler for Fluid Flow

    CERN Document Server


    The ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) method, first developed in medical engineering, is now widely used in clinical settings. The fluid mechanical basis of UVP was established in investigations by the author and his colleagues with work demonstrating that UVP is a powerful new tool in experimental fluid mechanics. There are diverse examples, ranging from problems in fundamental fluid dynamics to applied problems in mechanical, chemical, nuclear, and environmental engineering. In all these problems, the methodological principle in fluid mechanics was converted from point measurements to spatio-temporal measurements along a line. This book is the first monograph on UVP that offers comprehensive information about the method, its principles, its practice, and applied examples, and which serves both current and new users. Current users can confirm that their application configurations are correct, which will help them to improve the configurations so as to make them more efficient and effective. New users will be...

  1. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J


    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  2. Fluid inclusion geothermometry (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.


    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  3. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Bhattacharya

    of renewable energy (e.g., via wind, hydrokinetic generators), creating low-cost healthcare ... multiphase flow, turbulence, bio-fluid dynamics, atmospheric flows, microfluidic flows, and ... study the challenging problem of entry of solids in water.

  4. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  5. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner


    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  6. The preparation of particle beams for experiments of hadron physics: Slow extraction at ELFE rate at DESY and ELSA, as well as beam cooling at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, M.


    Various complementary experimental approaches are possible to study hadron physics, all of which require dedicated accelerator facilities. One approach, known as the ELFE rate at DESY project, makes use of a continuous electron beam with an energy of 15 to 25 GeV, a current of at least 30 μA and very small emittance, for fixed target experiments. The formation of such a beam by stretching a pulsed LINAC beam with the help of the HERA electron ring has been studied. At lower beam energies and currents this concept is already being used at the ELSA facility of Bonn University. Here the extraction process has been studied intensively and has been compared with measurements. Another approach to study hadron physics is the use of an electron - ion collider. To achieve high integrated luminosities cooling of the ion beam is necessary, especially in the case of heavy ions. For HERA high energy beam cooling with the help of an electron storage ring has been studied. (orig.)

  7. Fullerol ionic fluids (United States)

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.


    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like).

  8. Fiber optic fluid detector (United States)

    Angel, S.M.


    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  9. Fiber optic fluid detector (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael


    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  10. Metalworking and machining fluids (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark


    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  11. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.


    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  12. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W


    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  13. Electrorheological fluids and methods (United States)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.


    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  14. Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness

  15. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K


    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  16. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  17. Percolation Line and Response Functions in Simple Supercritical Fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo


    Roč. 190, 1 Sp.I:Sl (2011), s. 133-139 ISSN 0026-8976. [Liblice Conference on the Statistical Mechanics of Liquids /8./. Brno, 13.06.2010-18.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : primitive models * clusters * voronoi polyhedra Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.819, year: 2011

  18. Meniscal Tear Film Fluid Dynamics Near Marx’s Line

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.; Breward, C. J. W.; Gaffney, E. A.


    meniscus. However, resolving tear film behaviour within the meniscus and especially its apices is required to characterise the flow dynamics where the tear film is especially thin, and thus most susceptible to evaporatively induced hyperosmolarity

  19. Space Station fluid management logistics (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.


    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  20. Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer in pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.Y.; Liu, Y.J.


    As gradually wide applications of MHD fluid, transportation as well as control with pumps and valves is unavoidable, which induces MHD fluid hammer. The paper attempts to combine MHD effect and fluid hammer effect and to investigate the characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer. A non-dimensional fluid hammer model, based on Navier–Stocks equations, coupling with Lorentz force is numerically solved in a reservoir–pipe–valve system with uniform external magnetic field. The MHD effect is represented by the interaction number which associates with the conductivity of the MHD fluid as well as the external magnetic field and can be interpreted as the ratio of Lorentz force to Joukowsky force. The transient numerical results of pressure head, average velocity, wall shear stress, velocity profiles and shear stress profiles are provided. The additional MHD effect hinders fluid motion, weakens wave front and homogenizes velocity profiles, contributing to obvious attenuation of oscillation, strengthened line packing and weakened Richardson annular effect. Studying the characteristics of MHD laminar fluid hammer theoretically supplements the gap of knowledge of rapid-transient MHD flow and technically provides beneficial information for MHD pipeline system designers to better devise MHD systems. - Highlights: • Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer are discussed by simulation. • MHD effect has significant influence on attenuation of wave. • MHD effect strengthens line packing. • MHD effect inhibits Richardson annular effect.

  1. Compressible generalized Newtonian fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, Josef; Rajagopal, K.R.


    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2010), s. 1097-1110 ISSN 0044-2275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : power law fluid * uniform temperature * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2010

  2. Pleural fluid smear (United States)

    ... into the space around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough a bit. This is because your lung re-expands to fill the space where fluid had been. This sensation lasts for a few hours after the test.

  3. Peritoneal fluid culture (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  4. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.


    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  5. Fluid control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.


    A fluid control valve is described in which it is not necessary to insert a hand or a tool into the housing to remove the valve seat. Such a valve is particularly suitable for the control of radioactive fluids since maintenance by remote control is possible. (UK)

  6. Time Independent Fluids (United States)

    Collyer, A. A.


    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  7. Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.


    The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr

  8. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.


    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  9. Leaks, Lumps, and Lines: Stigma and Women's Bodies (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.


    Women's bodies have often been positioned in art and popular culture as monstrous or defiled and women's bodily products (e.g., menstrual fluid, breast milk) as disgusting. This framing has led to the stigmatization of aspects of women's bodies (e.g., leaking fluids, lumps of fat, and lines in the skin that indicate aging), especially those…

  10. Electric fields and currents induced in organs of the human body when exposed to ELF and VLF electromagnetic fields (United States)

    King, Ronold W. P.; Sandler, Sheldon S.


    Formulas for the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields of the traveling-wave currents of three different types of three-wire, three-phase high-voltage power lines and of a typical VLF transmitter are given. From them, exposure situations for the human body are chosen which permit the analytical determination of the total current induced in that body. With this, the fraction of the total axial current, the axial current density, and the axial electric field in each organ of the body are obtained at any desired cross section. The dimensions and conductivity of these organs must be known. The electric field so obtained is the average macroscopic field in which the cells in each organ are immersed when the whole body is exposed to a known incident field. It corresponds in vivo to the electric field used in vitro to expose cells in tissues.

  11. Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling of Fluid-Induced Seismicity (United States)

    Broccardo, M.; Mignan, A.; Wiemer, S.; Stojadinovic, B.; Giardini, D.


    In this study, we present a Bayesian hierarchical framework to model fluid-induced seismicity. The framework is based on a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with a fluid-induced seismicity rate proportional to the rate of injected fluid. The fluid-induced seismicity rate model depends upon a set of physically meaningful parameters and has been validated for six fluid-induced case studies. In line with the vision of hierarchical Bayesian modeling, the rate parameters are considered as random variables. We develop both the Bayesian inference and updating rules, which are used to develop a probabilistic forecasting model. We tested the Basel 2006 fluid-induced seismic case study to prove that the hierarchical Bayesian model offers a suitable framework to coherently encode both epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability. Moreover, it provides a robust and consistent short-term seismic forecasting model suitable for online risk quantification and mitigation.

  12. An electromagnetic field measurement protocol for monitoring power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Iavazzo, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Palmieri, A.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.


    In the actions aiming to prevent risks related to the exposure to Low Frequencies Non Ionising electromagnetic Radiations (ELF-NIR), always arises the need to perform measurements in order to assess the field level existing in the considered sites. As a matter of fact very often it turns out difficult to predict, on the base of calculations, with sufficient approximation the field levels, due to extended variability of environmental conditions (e.g. coexistence of several sources, ground and building conformation, etc..). The measurement procedures must follow a methodology that could allow to minimise the interferences with the measurement set-up and the systematic and accidental errors. Risks for the operator and damages to the instrument should also be taken into account. One of the goal set for this research program was then the definition of the measurement protocol for electromagnetic field generated by low frequency non ionising radiation sources. In particular sources like power lines will be considered in order to validate the protocol by means of in-field measurements

  13. Fluid moderator control system reactor internals distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensterer, H.F.; Klassen, W.E.; Veronesi, L.; Boyle, D.E.; Salton, R.B.


    This patent describes a spectral shift pressurized water nuclear reactor employing a low neutron moderating fluid for the spectral shift including a reactor pressure vessel, a core comprising a plurality of fuel assemblies, a core support plate, apparatus comprising means for penetrating the reactor vessel for introducing the moderating fluid into the reactor vessel. Means associated with the core support plate for directly distributing the moderating fluid to and from the fuel assemblies comprises at least one inlet flow channel in the core plate; branch inlet feed lines connect to the inlet flow channel in the core plate; vertical inlet flow lines flow connected to the branch inlet feed lines; each vertical flow line communicates with a fuel assembly; the distribution means further comprise lines serving as return flow lines, each of which is connected to one of the fuel assemblies; branch exit flow lines in the core plate flow connected to the return flow lines of the fuel assembly; and at least one outlet flow channel flow connected to the branch exit flow lines; and a flow port interposed between the penetration means and the distribution means for flow connecting the penetration means with the distribution means

  14. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression. (United States)

    Tarbell, John M; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong


    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow-induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial) cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid me chanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs.

  15. Fluid sampling tool (United States)

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.


    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  16. Fluid mechanics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truckenbrodt, E.


    The second volume contains the chapter 4 to 6. Whereas chapter 1 deals with the introduction into the mechanics of fluids and chapter 2 with the fundamental laws of fluid and thermal fluid dynamics, in chapter 3 elementary flow phenomena in fluids with constant density are treated. Chapter 4 directly continues chapter 3 and describes elementary flow phenomena in fluids with varying density. Fluid statics again is treated as a special case. If compared with the first edition the treatment of unsteady laminar flow and of pipe flow for a fluid with varying density were subject to a substantial extension. In chapter 5 rotation-free and rotating potential flows are presented together. By this means it is achieved to explain the behaviour of the multidimensional fictionless flow in closed form. A subchapter describes some related problems of potential theory like the flow along a free streamline and seepage flow through a porous medium. The boundary layer flows in chapter 6 are concerned with the flow and temperature boundary layer in laminar and turbulent flows at a fired wall. In it differential and integral methods are applied of subchapter reports on boundary layer flows without a fixed boundary, occurring e.g. in an open jet and in a wake flow. The problems of intermittence and of the Coanda effect are briefly mentioned. (orig./MH)

  17. Fluid sampling tool (United States)

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.


    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah


    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  19. Assessment of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields in Hamedan High Electrical Power Stations and their Effects on Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Ghorbani Shahna


    Full Text Available Introduction: Public and occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF electric and magnetic fields induced by electrical equipment is a significant issue in the environment and at the workplace due to their potential health effects on public health. The purpose of this study was assessment of the electric and magnetic fields intensities and determination of mental and psychological effects of occupational exposure in the high voltage electric power stations in the city of Hamadan, Iran. Material and Methods: The intensities of the magnetic and electric fields were measured at eight high voltage electric power stations at three different intervals of sources using an HI-3604 instrument. A two-part questionnaire was used to assess mental and psychological effects of the exposure to these fields. Two groups of control and case workers including 30 samples were selected to determine the exposure effects. Results: The results of field measurements showed the highest average electric field intensity was related to the CVT unit with 3110 V/m at a 2 m distance from the source and the lowest average was related to the control room with 1.35 V/m next to the source. Also, the highest and lowest magnetic field intensities were close to the transformator 2 and the battery room (50.42 and 1.31 mG, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The intensities of electric and magnetic fields in the selected stations are lower than the ACGIH and ICNIRP standard levels for occupational exposures. The results obtained indicate that the distribution of these fields was nonlinear around the sources and the effects observed on exposed workers were non-thermal.

  20. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Anisimov


    Full Text Available Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  1. Fluid Dynamics for Physicists (United States)

    Faber, T. E.


    This textbook provides an accessible and comprehensive account of fluid dynamics that emphasizes fundamental physical principles and stresses connections with other branches of physics. Beginning with a basic introduction, the book goes on to cover many topics not typically treated in texts, such as compressible flow and shock waves, sound attenuation and bulk viscosity, solitary waves and ship waves, thermal convection, instabilities, turbulence, and the behavior of anisotropic, non-Newtonian and quantum fluids. Undergraduate or graduate students in physics or engineering who are taking courses in fluid dynamics will find this book invaluable.

  2. Thermal Fluid Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byeong Ju


    This book is made up of 5 chapters. They are fluid mechanics, fluid machines, Industrial thermodynamics, steam boiler and steam turbine. It introduces hydrostatics, basic theory of fluid movement and law of momentum. It also deals with centrifugal pump, axial flow pump, general hydraulic turbine, and all phenomena happening in the pump. It covers the law of thermodynamics, perfect gas, properties of steam, and flow of gas and steam and water tube boiler. Lastly it explains basic format, theory, loss and performance as well as principle part of steam turbine.

  3. Windshield washer fluid (United States)

    ... tests Chest x-ray CT (computerized tomography, or advanced imaging) scan EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...


    KAUST Repository



    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic

  5. Phoresis in fluids. (United States)

    Brenner, Howard


    This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise quiescent single-component gases and liquids and animated by a gradient in the fluid's temperature (thermophoresis), pressure (barophoresis), density (pycnophoresis), or any combination thereof. The ansatz builds upon a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 84, 046309 (2011)] concerned with slip of the fluid's mass velocity at solid surfaces--that is, with phenomena arising from violations of the classical no-slip fluid-mechanical boundary condition. Experimental and other data are cited in support of the phoretic model developed herein.

  6. Fluid flow control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rion, Jacky.


    Fluid flow control system featuring a series of grids placed perpendicular to the fluid flow direction, characterized by the fact that it is formed of a stack of identical and continuous grids, each of which consists of identical meshes forming a flat lattice. The said meshes are offset from one grid to the next. This system applies in particular to flow control of the coolant flowing at the foot of an assembly of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor [fr

  7. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob


    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  8. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis]. (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente


    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunotherapy With Magentorheologic Fluids (United States)


    anti-tumor effects are weakened by removal of the tumor antigen pool (i.e. surgery) or use of cytoreductive and immunosuppressive therapies (i.e...particles were injected as magneto -rheological fluid (MRF) into an orthotopic primary breast cancer and followed by application of a magnetic field to...SUBJECT TERMS MRF: Magneto -rehological fluid iron particles, IT: immunotherapy, necrotic death, DCs: dendritic cells, cytokines, chemokines

  10. Supercritical fluid chromatography (United States)

    Vigdergauz, M. S.; Lobachev, A. L.; Lobacheva, I. V.; Platonov, I. A.


    The characteristic features of supercritical fluid chromatography (SCFC) are examined and there is a brief historical note concerning the development of the method. Information concerning the use of supercritical fluid chromatography in the analysis of objects of different nature is presented in the form of a table. The roles of the mobile and stationary phases in the separation process and the characteristic features of the apparatus and of the use of the method in physicochemical research are discussed. The bibliography includes 364 references.

  11. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil


    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Thermostating highly confined fluids. (United States)

    Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J


    In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes.

  13. Reducing pressure oscillations in discrete fluid power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen


    Discrete fluid power systems featuring transmission lines inherently include pressure oscillations. Experimental verification of a discrete fluid power power take off system for wave energy converters has shown the cylinder pressure to oscillate as force shifts are performed. This article investi...... investigates how cylinder pressure oscillations may be reduced by shaping the valve opening trajectory without the need for closed loop pressure feedback. Furthermore the energy costs of reducing pressure oscillations are investigated....

  14. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild


    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  15. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)


    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  16. Sensing line effects on PWR-based differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.P.; Neff, G.G.


    An incorrrect configuration of the fluid-filled pressure sensing lines connecting differential pressure transducers to the pressure taps in a pressurized water reactor system can cause errors in the measurement and, during rapid pressure transients, could cause the transducer to fail. Testing was performed in both static and dynamic modes to experimentally determine the effects of sensing lines of various lengths, diameters, and materials. Testing was performed at ambient temperature with absolute line pressures at about 17 MPa using water as the pressure transmission fluid

  17. Boiler using combustible fluid (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.


    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  18. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  19. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.


    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  20. Euler's fluid equations: Optimal control vs optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, Darryl D., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    An optimization method used in image-processing (metamorphosis) is found to imply Euler's equations for incompressible flow of an inviscid fluid, without requiring that the Lagrangian particle labels exactly follow the flow lines of the Eulerian velocity vector field. Thus, an optimal control problem and an optimization problem for incompressible ideal fluid flow both yield the same Euler fluid equations, although their Lagrangian parcel dynamics are different. This is a result of the gauge freedom in the definition of the fluid pressure for an incompressible flow, in combination with the symmetry of fluid dynamics under relabeling of their Lagrangian coordinates. Similar ideas are also illustrated for SO(N) rigid body motion.

  1. Curly arrows meet electron density transfers in chemical reaction mechanisms: from electron localization function (ELF) analysis to valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) inspired interpretation. (United States)

    Andrés, Juan; Berski, Sławomir; Silvi, Bernard


    Probing the electron density transfers during a chemical reaction can provide important insights, making possible to understand and control chemical reactions. This aim has required extensions of the relationships between the traditional chemical concepts and the quantum mechanical ones. The present work examines the detailed chemical insights that have been generated through 100 years of work worldwide on G. N. Lewis's ground breaking paper on The Atom and the Molecule (Lewis, G. N. The Atom and the Molecule, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1916, 38, 762-785), with a focus on how the determination of reaction mechanisms can be reached applying the bonding evolution theory (BET), emphasizing how curly arrows meet electron density transfers in chemical reaction mechanisms and how the Lewis structure can be recovered. BET that combines the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool providing insight into molecular mechanisms of chemical rearrangements. In agreement with physical laws and quantum theoretical insights, BET can be considered as an appropriate tool to tackle chemical reactivity with a wide range of possible applications. Likewise, the present approach retrieves the classical curly arrows used to describe the rearrangements of chemical bonds for a given reaction mechanism, providing detailed physical grounds for this type of representation. The ideas underlying the valence-shell-electron pair-repulsion (VSEPR) model applied to non-equilibrium geometries provide simple chemical explanations of density transfers. For a given geometry around a central atom, the arrangement of the electronic domain may comply or not with the VSEPR rules according with the valence shell population of the considered atom. A deformation yields arrangements which are either VSEPR defective (at least a domain is missing to match the VSEPR arrangement corresponding to the geometry of the ligands), VSEPR compliant

  2. Fluid structure coupling algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.; Landram, C.S.; Quinones, D.F.


    A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm has been developed and incorporated into the two-dimensional code PELE-IC. This code combines an Eulerian incompressible fluid algorithm with a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm and incorporates the treatment of complex free surfaces. The fluid structure and coupling algorithms have been verified by the calculation of solved problems from the literature and from air and steam blowdown experiments. The code has been used to calculate loads and structural response from air blowdown and the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in water suppression pools typical of boiling water reactors. The techniques developed have been extended to three dimensions and implemented in the computer code PELE-3D

  3. Rheology of Active Fluids (United States)

    Saintillan, David


    An active fluid denotes a viscous suspension of particles, cells, or macromolecules able to convert chemical energy into mechanical work by generating stresses on the microscale. By virtue of this internal energy conversion, these systems display unusual macroscopic rheological signatures, including a curious transition to an apparent superfluid-like state where internal activity exactly compensates viscous dissipation. These behaviors are unlike those of classical complex fluids and result from the coupling of particle configurations with both externally applied flows and internally generated fluid disturbances. Focusing on the well-studied example of a suspension of microswimmers, this review summarizes recent experiments, models, and simulations in this area and highlights the critical role played by the rheological response of these active materials in a multitude of phenomena, from the enhanced transport of passive suspended objects to the emergence of spontaneous flows and collective motion.

  4. Hazardous fluid leak detector (United States)

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.


    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z


    The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

  6. Clusters in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sator, N.


    This article concerns the correspondence between thermodynamics and the morphology of simple fluids in terms of clusters. Definitions of clusters providing a geometric interpretation of the liquid-gas phase transition are reviewed with an eye to establishing their physical relevance. The author emphasizes their main features and basic hypotheses, and shows how these definitions lead to a recent approach based on self-bound clusters. Although theoretical, this tutorial review is also addressed to readers interested in experimental aspects of clustering in simple fluids

  7. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0


    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  8. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.


    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  9. Power line emission 50/60 Hz and Schumann resonances observed by microsatellite Chibis-M in the Earth's ionosphere (United States)

    Dudkin, Denys; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Dudkin, Fedir; Pronenko, Vira; Klimov, Stanislav


    The overhead power lines are the sources of intense wideband electromagnetic (EM) emission, especially in ELF-VLF range, because of significant length (up to a few thousand kilometers) and strong 50/60 Hz currents with noticeable distortion. The radiation efficiency of the power line emission (PLE) increases with the harmonic order, so they are well observed by ground-based EM sensors. However their observations by low orbiting satellites (LEO) are very rare, particularly at basic harmonic 50/60 Hz, because of the ionospheric plasma opacity in ELF band. The Schumann resonance (SR) is the narrow-band EM noise that occurs due to the global thunderstorm activity in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. The first five eigenmodes of the SR are 7.8, 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz and, thus, SR harmonics are also strongly absorbed by the Earth ionosphere. The published numerical simulations show that the penetration depth of such an ELF emission into the Earth's ionosphere is limited to 50-70 km for electric field and 120-240 km for magnetic field. From this follows, that PLE and SR can hardly ever be detected by LEO satellites, i.e. above the F-layer of ionosphere. In spite of this fact, these emissions were recently observed with use of the electric field antennas placed on the satellites C/NOFS (USA) and Chibis-M (Russia). Microsatellite Chibis-M was launched on January 24, 2012, at 23:18:30 UTC from the cargo ship "Progress M-13M" to circular orbit with altitude ~500 km and inclination ~52° . Chibis-M mass is about 40 kg where one third is a scientific instrumentation. The dimensions of the microsatellite case are 0.26x0.26x0.54 m with the outside mounted solar panels, service and scientific instrumentation. The main scientific objective of Chibis-M is the theoretical model verification for the atmospheric gamma-ray bursts. It requires the study of the accompanying EM processes such as the plasma waves produced by the lightning discharges in the VLF band. Chibis-M decayed on 15

  10. Incompressible ionized fluid mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš


    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2006), s. 493-509 ISSN 0935-1175 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : chemically reacting fluids * Navier-Stokes * Nernst-Planck * Possion equation s * heat equation s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2006

  11. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho


    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  12. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics. (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho


    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  13. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.


    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  14. Removal of unwanted fluid (United States)

    Subudhi, Sudhakar; Sreenivas, K. R.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.


    This work is concerned with the removal of unwanted fluid through the source-sink pair. The source consists of fluid issuing out of a nozzle in the form of a jet and the sink is a pipe that is kept some distance from the source pipe. Of concern is the percentage of source fluid sucked through the sink. The experiments have been carried in a large glass water tank. The source nozzle diameter is 6 mm and the sink pipe diameter is either 10 or 20 mm. The horizontal and vertical separations and angles between these source and sink pipes are adjustable. The flow was visualized using KMnO4 dye, planer laser induced fluorescence and particle streak photographs. To obtain the effectiveness (that is percentage of source fluid entering the sink pipe), titration method is used. The velocity profiles with and without the sink were obtained using particle image velocimetry. The sink flow rate to obtain a certain effectiveness increase dramatically with lateral separation. The sink diameter and the angle between source and the sink axes don't influence effectiveness as much as the lateral separation.

  15. Continuous feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; van Foreest, N.D.; Mandjes, M.R.H.


    We investigate a fluid buffer which is modulated by a stochastic background process, while the momentary behavior of the background process depends on the current buffer level in a continuous way. Loosely speaking the feedback is such that the background process behaves `as a Markov process' with

  16. Structural behavior of supercritical fluids under confinement (United States)

    Ghosh, Kanka; Krishnamurthy, C. V.


    The existence of the Frenkel line in the supercritical regime of a Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid shown through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations initially and later corroborated by experiments on argon opens up possibilities of understanding the structure and dynamics of supercritical fluids in general and of the Frenkel line in particular. The location of the Frenkel line, which demarcates two distinct physical states, liquidlike and gaslike within the supercritical regime, has been established through MD simulations of the velocity autocorrelation (VACF) and radial distribution function (RDF). We, in this article, explore the changes in the structural features of supercritical LJ fluid under partial confinement using atomistic walls. The study is carried out across the Frenkel line through a series of MD simulations considering a set of thermodynamics states in the supercritical regime (P =5000 bar, 240 K ≤T ≤1500 K ) of argon well above the critical point. Confinement is partial, with atomistic walls located normal to z and extending to "infinity" along the x and y directions. In the "liquidlike" regime of the supercritical phase, particles are found to be distributed in distinct layers along the z axis with layer spacing less than one atomic diameter and the lateral RDF showing amorphous-like structure for specific spacings (packing frustration) and non-amorphous-like structure for other spacings. Increasing the rigidity of the atomistic walls is found to lead to stronger layering and increased structural order. For confinement with reflective walls, layers are found to form with one atomic diameter spacing and the lateral RDF showing close-packed structure for the smaller confinements. Translational order parameter and excess entropy assessment confirms the ordering taking place for atomistic wall and reflective wall confinements. In the "gaslike" regime of the supercritical phase, particle distribution along the spacing and the lateral RDF exhibit features

  17. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong


    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  18. Fluid Temperature of Aero Hydraulic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov


    Full Text Available In modern supersonic aircrafts due to aerodynamic skin heating a temperature of hydraulics environment significantly exceeds that of permissible for fluids used. The same problem exists for subsonic passenger aircrafts, especially for Airbuses, which have hydraulics of high power where convective heat transfer with the environment is insufficient and there is no required temperature control of fluid. The most significant in terms of heat flow is the flow caused by the loss of power to the pump and when designing the hydraulic system (HS it is necessary to pay very serious attention to it. To use a constant capacity pump is absolutely unacceptable, since HS efficiency in this case is extremely low, and the most appropriate are variable-capacity pumps, cut-off pumps, dual-mode pumps. The HS fluid cooling system should provide high reliability, lightweight, simple design, and a specified heat transfer in all flight modes.A system cooling the fluid by the fuel of feeding lines of the aircraft engines is the most effective, and it is widely used in supersonic aircrafts, where power of cooling system is essential. Subsonic aircrafts widely use convective heat exchangers. In thermal design of the aircraft hydraulics, the focus is generally given to the maximum and minimum temperatures of the HS fluid, the choice of the type of heat exchanger (convective or flow-through, the place of its installation. In calculating the operating temperature of a hydraulic system and its cooling systems it is necessary to determine an increase of the working fluid temperature when throttling it. There are three possible formulas to calculate the fluid temperature in throttling, with the error of a calculated temperature drop from 30% to 4%.The article considers the HS stationary and noon-stationary operating conditions and their calculation, defines temperatures of fluid and methods to control its specified temperature. It also discusses various heat exchanger schemes

  19. Editorial Special Issue on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This special issue of Sadhana contains selected papers from two conferences related to fluid mechanics held in India recently, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power conference at NIT, Hamirpur, and an International Union of Theoretical ... A simple, well thought out, flow visualization experiment or a computation can sometimes ...

  20. ELF: the Electronic Learning Facilitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Mayes


    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an unprecedented increase in the use of the Internet and other 69 global networks of computers. We have seen estimates of between 100,000 and 1,000,000 new users each month joining the Internet. Predominantly these are information seekers, but the figures do also represent a significant increase in the number of information providers. For learners, we now have a significant set of information sources, albeit obscured by a lot of noise.

  1. Enhancing Comprehensibility among ELF users (United States)

    Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Teo, Adisa


    The predicted widespread use of English as a lingua franca following ASEAN's 2015 integration mushroomed intelligibility studies between and among Asean nationals including Bruneians, Burmese, Cambodians, Filipinos, Indonesians, Laotians, Malaysians, Singaporeans, Thais and Vietnamese. Previous studies regarding ASEAN nationals' intelligibility…

  2. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.


    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  3. Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Francis


    ... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...

  4. On Hall current fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, M.C.; Ebel, D.


    In this paper some new results concerning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the Hall current (HC) term in the Ohm's law are presented. For the cylindrical pinch of a compressible HC fluid, it is found that for large time and long wave length the solution to the governing equations exhibits the behavior of solitons as in the case of an ideal MHD model. In some special cases, the HC model appears to be better posed. An open question is whether a simple toroidal equilibrium of an HC fluid with resistivity and viscosity exists. The answer to this question is affirmative if the prescribed velocity on the boundary has a small norm. Furthermore, the equilibrium is also linearly and nonlinearly stable


    KAUST Repository



    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  6. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel


    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  7. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)


    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.

  8. Active chiral fluids. (United States)

    Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F


    Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.

  9. Personalised fluid resuscitation in the ICU: still a fluid concept? (United States)

    van Haren, Frank


    The administration of intravenous fluid to critically ill patients is one of the most common, but also one of the most fiercely debated, interventions in intensive care medicine. Even though many thousands of patients have been enrolled in large trials of alternative fluid strategies, consensus remains elusive and practice is widely variable. Critically ill patients are significantly heterogeneous, making a one size fits all approach unlikely to be successful.New data from basic, animal, and clinical research suggest that fluid resuscitation could be associated with significant harm. There are several important limitations and concerns regarding fluid bolus therapy as it is currently being used in clinical practice. These include, but are not limited to: the lack of an agreed definition; limited and short-lived physiological effects; no evidence of an effect on relevant patient outcomes; and the potential to contribute to fluid overload, specifically when fluid responsiveness is not assessed and when targets and safety limits are not used.Fluid administration in critically ill patients requires clinicians to integrate abnormal physiological parameters into a clinical decision-making model that also incorporates the likely diagnosis and the likely risk or benefit in the specific patient's context. Personalised fluid resuscitation requires careful attention to the mnemonic CIT TAIT: context, indication, targets, timing, amount of fluid, infusion strategy, and type of fluid.The research agenda should focus on experimental and clinical studies to: improve our understanding of the physiological effects of fluid infusion, e.g. on the glycocalyx; evaluate new types of fluids; evaluate novel fluid minimisation protocols; study the effects of a no-fluid strategy for selected patients and scenarios; and compare fluid therapy with other interventions. The adaptive platform trial design may provide us with the tools to evaluate these types of interventions in the intrinsically

  10. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E


    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  11. Recording fluid currents by holography (United States)

    Heflinger, L. O.; Wuerker, R. F.


    Convection in fluids can be studied with aid of holographic apparatus that reveals three-dimensional motion of liquid. Apparatus eliminates images of fixed particles such as dust on windows and lenses, which might mask behavior of moving fluid particles. Holographic apparatus was developed for experiments on fluid convection cells under zero gravity. Principle is adaptable to study of fluid processes-for example, electrochemical plating and combustion in automotive engines.

  12. The mixing of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino, J.M.


    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common? Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils

  13. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathi, Ramon; Sage, Michael; Slavotinek, John; Hanieh, Ahmad


    A case of an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pseudocyst in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is reported to illustrate this known but rare complication. In the setting of a VP shunt, the frequency of abdominal CSF pseudocyst formation is approximately 3.2%, often being precipitated by a recent inflammatory or infective process or recent surgery. Larger pseudocysts tend to be sterile, whereas smaller pseudocysts are more often infected. Ultrasound and CTeach have characteristic findings Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  14. Fluid conductivity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F. M.


    Apparatus for sensing the electrical conductivity of fluid which can be used to detonate an electro explosive device for operating a release mechanism for uncoupling a parachute canopy from its load upon landing in water. An operating network connected to an ignition capacitor and to a conductivity sensing circuit and connected in controlling relation to a semiconductor switch has a voltage independent portion which controls the time at which the semiconductor switch is closed to define a discharge path to detonate the electro explosive device independent of the rate of voltage rise on the ignition capacitor. The operating network also has a voltage dependent portion which when a voltage of predetermined magnitude is developed on the conductivity sensing circuit in response to fluid not having the predetermined condition of conductivity, the voltage dependent portion closes the semiconductor switch to define the discharge path when the energy level is insufficient to detonate the electro explosive device. A regulated current source is connected in relation to the conductivity sensing circuit and to the electrodes thereof in a manner placing the circuit voltage across the electrodes when the conductivity of the fluid is below a predetermined magnitude so that the sensing circuit does not respond thereto and placing the circuit voltage across the sensing circuit when the conductivity of the fluid is greater than a predetermined magnitude. The apparatus is operated from a battery, and the electrodes are of dissimilar metals so selected and connected relative to the polarity portions of the circuit to maximize utilization of the battery output voltage

  15. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.


    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  16. Perspectives in Fluid Dynamics (United States)

    Batchelor, G. K.; Moffatt, H. K.; Worster, M. G.


    With applications ranging from modelling the environment to automotive design and physiology to astrophysics, conventional textbooks cannot hope to give students much information on what topics in fluid dynamics are currently being researched, or how to choose between them. This book rectifies matters. It consists of eleven chapters that introduce and review different branches of the subject for graduate-level courses, or for specialists seeking introductions to other areas. Hb ISBN (2001): 0-521-78061-6

  17. Fluid circulation control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, Henri; Henocque, Jean.


    Horizontal fluid circulation control device, of the type having a pivoting flap. This device is intended for being fitted in the pipes of hydraulic installation, particularly in a bleed and venting system of a nuclear power station shifting radioactive or contaminated liquids. The characteristic of this device is the cut-out at the top of the flap to allow the air contained in the pipes to flow freely [fr

  18. Problems in fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasch, D.J.


    Chemical and mineral engineering students require texts which give guidance to problem solving to complement their main theoretical texts. This book has a broad coverage of the fluid flow problems which these students may encounter. The fundamental concepts and the application of the behaviour of liquids and gases in unit operation are dealt with. The book is intended to give numerical practice; development of theory is undertaken only when elaboration of treatments available in theoretical texts is absolutely necessary

  19. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph


    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  20. Astrophysical fluid dynamics (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.


    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  1. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner


    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  2. Microfluidics with fluid walls. (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R


    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  3. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph


    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  4. Dynamics of radiating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalas, D.; Weaver, R.


    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the role of radiation in the transport of energy and momentum in a combined matter-radiation fluid. The transport equation for a moving radiating fluid is presented in both a fully Eulerian and a fully Lagrangian formulation, along with conservation equations describing the dynamics of the fluid. Special attention is paid to the problem of deriving equations that are mutually consistent in each frame, and between frames, to 0(v/c). A detailed analysis is made to show that in situations of broad interest, terms that are formally of 0(v/c) actually dominate the solution, demonstrating that it is essential (1) to pay scrupulous attention to the question of the frame dependence in formulating the equations, and (2) to solve the equations to 0(v/c) in quite general circumstances. These points are illustrated in the context of the nonequilibrium radiation diffusion limit, and a sketch of how the Lagrangian equations are to be solved is presented

  5. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 4 in murine epididymis: secretion of splice variants in the luminal fluid and a role in sperm maturation. (United States)

    Patel, Ramkrishna; Al-Dossary, Amal A; Stabley, Deborah L; Barone, Carol; Galileo, Deni S; Strehler, Emanuel E; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A


    Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 4 (PMCA4) is the primary Ca(2+) efflux pump in murine sperm, where it regulates motility. In Pmca4 null sperm, motility loss results in infertility. We have shown that murine sperm PMCA4b interacts with Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent serine kinase (CASK) in regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis and motility. However, recent work indicated that the bovine PMCA4a splice variant (missing in testis) is epididymally expressed, along with 4b, and may be transferred to sperm. Here we show, via conventional and in situ RT-PCR, that both the splice variants of Pmca4 mRNA are expressed in murine testis and throughout the epididymis. Immunofluorescence localized PMCA4a to the apical membrane of the epididymal epithelium, and Western analysis not only confirmed its presence but showed for the first time that PMCA4a and PMCA4b are secreted in the epididymal luminal fluid (ELF), from which epididymosomes containing PMCA4a were isolated. Flow cytometry indicated the presence of PMCA4a on mature caudal sperm where it was increased ~5-fold compared to caput sperm (detected by Western blotting) and ~2-fold after incubation in ELF, revealing in vitro uptake and implicating PMCA4a in epididymal sperm maturation. Coimmunoprecipitation using pan-PMCA4 antibodies, revealed that both variants associate with CASK, suggesting their presence in a complex. Because they have different kinetic properties for Ca(2+) transport and different abilities to bind to CASK, our study suggests a mechanism for combining the functional attributes of both PMCA4 variants, leading to heightened efficiency of the pump in the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis, which is crucial for normal motility and male fertility.

  6. Replacement of fluid-filter elements without interruption of flow (United States)

    Kotler, R. A.; Ward, J. B.


    Gatling-type filter assembly, preloaded with several filter elements enables filter replacement without breaking into the operative fluid system. When the filter element becomes contaminated, a unit inner subassembly is rotated 60 degrees to position a clean filter in the line.

  7. Magnetic field line reconnection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gekelman, W.; Stenzel, R.L.; Wild, N.


    A laboratory experiment concerned with the basic physics of magnetic field line reconnection is discussed. Stimulated by important processes in space plasmas and anomalous transport in fusion plasmas the work addresses the following topics: Dynamic magnetic fields in a high beta plasma, magnetic turbulence, plasma dynamics and energy transport. First, the formation of magnetic neutral sheets, tearing and island coalescence are shown. Nonstationary magnetic fluctuations are statistically evaluated displaying the correlation tensor in the #betta#-k domain for mode identification. Then, the plasma properties are analyzed with particular emphasis on transport processes. Although the classical fluid flow across the separatrix can be observed, the fluctuation processes strongly modify the plasma dynamics. Direct measurements of the fluid force density and ion acceleration indicate the presence of an anomalous scattering process characterized by an effective scattering tensor. Turbulence also enhances the plasma resistivity by one to two orders of magnitude. Measurements of the three-dimensional electron distribution function using a novel energy analyzer exhibit the formation of runaway electrons in the current sheet. Associated micro-instabilities are observed. Finally, a macroscopic disruptive instability of the current sheet is observed. Excess magnetic field energy is converted at a double layer into particle kinetic energy and randomized through beam-plasma instabilities. These laboratory results are compared with related observations in space and fusion plasmas. (Auth.)

  8. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness...... of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...

  9. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  10. Nature of the bonding in the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules. Topological study on electron density and the electron localization function (ELF). (United States)

    Makarewicz, Emilia; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Berski, Slawomir


    Topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) has been carried out for the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules using the wave function approximated by the CCSD, MP2, and DFT(B3LYP, M062X) methods including zero-order regular approximation (ZORA). In the Ng-F bond, the bonding disynaptic attractor V(Ng,F) is missing; therefore, there are no signs of the covalent binding. The nature of the Au-Ng bond depends on the computational method used. Analysis of the ELF carried out for the AuArF and AuXeF molecules, with the wave function approximated by the CCSD and MP2 methods, shows the V(Au,Ng) attractor possibly corresponding to a partially covalent binding between the gold and noble gas atom. However, its very small basin population (<1e) and a very large value of the variance of the basin population suggest that the Au-Ng bond has a very delocalized character. Such bond nature may be related to the charge shift concept with a resonance of the Au(-+)NgX, Au(+-)NgX hybrids. The weakest Au-Ng bond, in terms of the smallest amount of electron density for the V(Au,Ng) basin, is found for the AuKrF molecule with the CCSD method (0.13e). The MP2 method, however, does not yield any V(Au, Ng) population; hence, the covalent Au-Kr bond is not confirmed. Because the V(Au,Ng) attractor is also not observed with the DFT method, the proper characterization of the Au-Ng bond requires proper description of correlation effects. Additional studies on the Au2 and [AuXe](+) molecules, performed at the CCSD and B3LYP levels, exhibit no V(Au,Au) and V(Au,Xe) bonding basins either.

  11. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.


    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  12. Inverse solutions for a second-grade fluid for porous medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    to the free spiraling of electrons and ions about the magnetic lines of force before ... An understanding of the dynamics of fluids in porous media has practical ... viscous term in order to account for the vorticity diffusion caused by the boundary resis- ... The governing equations that describe the flow of a Newtonian fluid is the ...

  13. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.


    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  14. Hazards of organic working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, S.


    We present several brief reviews on working fluids proposed for use in organic Rankine and bi-phase bottoming cycles. There are several general problems with many organic working fluids: flammability, toxicity, and a tendency to leak through seals. Besides, two of the proposed working fluids are to be used at temperatures above the manufacturer's maximum recommended temperature, and one is to be used in a way different from its customary usage. It may, in some cases, be more profitable to first seek alternative working fluids before committing large amounts of time and money to research projects on unsafe working fluids

  15. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  16. Universality in dynamic wetting dominated by contact-line friction. (United States)

    Carlson, Andreas; Bellani, Gabriele; Amberg, Gustav


    We report experiments on the rapid contact-line motion present in the early stages of capillary-driven spreading of drops on dry solid substrates. The spreading data fail to follow a conventional viscous or inertial scaling. By integrating experiments and simulations, we quantify a contact-line friction μ(f) which is seen to limit the speed of the rapid dynamic wetting. A scaling based on this contact-line friction is shown to yield a universal curve for the evolution of the contact-line radius as a function of time, for a range of fluid viscosities, drop sizes, and surface wettabilities.

  17. Glutathione aerosol suppresses lung epithelial surface inflammatory cell-derived oxidants in cystic fibrosis. (United States)

    Roum, J H; Borok, Z; McElvaney, N G; Grimes, G J; Bokser, A D; Buhl, R; Crystal, R G


    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by accumulation of activated neutrophils and macrophages on the respiratory epithelial surface (RES); these cells release toxic oxidants, which contribute to the marked epithelial derangements seen in CF. These deleterious consequences are magnified, since reduced glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant present in high concentrations in normal respiratory epithelial lining fluid (ELF), is deficient in CF ELF. To evaluate the feasibility of increasing ELF GSH levels and enhancing RES antioxidant protection, GSH aerosol was delivered (600 mg twice daily for 3 days) to seven patients with CF. ELF total, reduced, and oxidized GSH increased (P < 0.05, all compared with before GSH therapy), suggesting adequate RES delivery and utilization of GSH. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated superoxide anion (O2-.) release by ELF inflammatory cells decreased after GSH therapy (P < 0.002). This paralleled observations that GSH added in vitro to CF ELF inflammatory cells suppressed O2-. release (P < 0.001). No adverse effects were noted during treatment. Together, these observations demonstrate the feasibility of using GSH aerosol to restore RES oxidant-antioxidant balance in CF and support the rationale for further clinical evaluation.

  18. Magnetic power piston fluid compressor (United States)

    Gasser, Max G. (Inventor)


    A compressor with no moving parts in the traditional sense having a housing having an inlet end allowing a low pressure fluid to enter and an outlet end allowing a high pressure fluid to exit is described. Within the compressor housing is at least one compression stage to increase the pressure of the fluid within the housing. The compression stage has a quantity of magnetic powder within the housing, is supported by a screen that allows passage of the fluid, and a coil for selectively providing a magnetic field across the magnetic powder such that when the magnetic field is not present the individual particles of the powder are separated allowing the fluid to flow through the powder and when the magnetic field is present the individual particles of the powder pack together causing the powder mass to expand preventing the fluid from flowing through the powder and causing a pressure pulse to compress the fluid.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Heat Transfer in Fluid Network (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok


    Fluid network modeling with conjugate heat transfer has many applications in Aerospace engineering. In modeling unsteady flow with heat transfer, it is important to know the variation of wall temperature in time and space to calculate heat transfer between solid to fluid. Since wall temperature is a function of flow, a coupled analysis of temperature of solid and fluid is necessary. In cryogenic applications, modeling of conjugate heat transfer is of great importance to correctly predict boil-off rate in propellant tanks and chill down of transfer lines. In TFAWS 2003, the present author delivered a paper to describe a general-purpose computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program). GFSSP calculates flow distribution in complex flow circuit for compressible/incompressible, with or without heat transfer or phase change in all real fluids or mixtures. The flow circuit constitutes of fluid nodes and branches. The mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes where as momentum conservation equations are solved at the branches. The proposed paper describes the extension of GFSSP to model conjugate heat transfer. The network also includes solid nodes and conductors in addition to fluid nodes and branches. The energy conservation equations for solid nodes solves to determine the temperatures of the solid nodes simultaneously with all conservation equations governing fluid flow. The numerical scheme accounts for conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer. The paper will also describe the applications of the code to predict chill down of cryogenic transfer line and boil-off rate of cryogenic propellant storage tank.

  20. Modeling and control of magnetorheological fluid dampers using neural networks (United States)

    Wang, D. H.; Liao, W. H.


    Due to the inherent nonlinear nature of magnetorheological (MR) fluid dampers, one of the challenging aspects for utilizing these devices to achieve high system performance is the development of accurate models and control algorithms that can take advantage of their unique characteristics. In this paper, the direct identification and inverse dynamic modeling for MR fluid dampers using feedforward and recurrent neural networks are studied. The trained direct identification neural network model can be used to predict the damping force of the MR fluid damper on line, on the basis of the dynamic responses across the MR fluid damper and the command voltage, and the inverse dynamic neural network model can be used to generate the command voltage according to the desired damping force through supervised learning. The architectures and the learning methods of the dynamic neural network models and inverse neural network models for MR fluid dampers are presented, and some simulation results are discussed. Finally, the trained neural network models are applied to predict and control the damping force of the MR fluid damper. Moreover, validation methods for the neural network models developed are proposed and used to evaluate their performance. Validation results with different data sets indicate that the proposed direct identification dynamic model using the recurrent neural network can be used to predict the damping force accurately and the inverse identification dynamic model using the recurrent neural network can act as a damper controller to generate the command voltage when the MR fluid damper is used in a semi-active mode.

  1. Cleaning fluid emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikryl, J; Kotyza, R; Krulikovsky, J; Mjartan, V; Valisova, I


    Composition of cleaning fluid emulsion are presented for drilling small diameter wells in clay soils, at high drill bit rotation velocity. The emulsions have lubricating properties and the abilty to improve stability of the drilled soil. The given fluids have a high fatty acid content with 12-24 carbon atoms in a single molecule, with a predominance of resinous acids 1-5% in mass, and having been emulsified in water or clay suspension without additives, or in a clay suspension with high-molecular polymer additives (glycobate cellulose compounds and/or polysaccharides, and/or their derivatives) in an amount of 0.1-3% per mass; thinning agents - huminite or lignite compounds in the amount of 0.01 to 0.5% in mass; weighting material - barite or lime 0.01 to 50% per mass; medium stabilizers - organic poly-electrolyte with polyacrylate in the amount of 0.05 to 2% in mass, or alkaline chloride/alkaline-ground metals 1-10% per mass. A cleaning emulsion fluid was prepared in the laboratory according to the given method. Add 3 kg tall oil to a solution of 1 kg K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per 100 l of water. Dynamic viscosity was equal to 1.4 x 10-/sup 3/ Pa/s. When drilling in compacted clay soils, when the emulsions require improved stability, it is necessary to add the maximum amount of tall oil whose molecules are absorbed by the clay soil and increase its durability.

  2. Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zikanov, Oleg


    This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and

  3. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan


    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  4. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids (United States)

    Branch, Jack A.; Bartlett, Philip N.


    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide–acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs. PMID:26574527

  5. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow (United States)

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory


    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  6. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow (United States)

    Ward, Michael W.; Kaduchak, Gregory


    Disclosed herein is a acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow that includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  7. Modeling quantum fluid dynamics at nonzero temperatures (United States)

    Berloff, Natalia G.; Brachet, Marc; Proukakis, Nick P.


    The detailed understanding of the intricate dynamics of quantum fluids, in particular in the rapidly growing subfield of quantum turbulence which elucidates the evolution of a vortex tangle in a superfluid, requires an in-depth understanding of the role of finite temperature in such systems. The Landau two-fluid model is the most successful hydrodynamical theory of superfluid helium, but by the nature of the scale separations it cannot give an adequate description of the processes involving vortex dynamics and interactions. In our contribution we introduce a framework based on a nonlinear classical-field equation that is mathematically identical to the Landau model and provides a mechanism for severing and coalescence of vortex lines, so that the questions related to the behavior of quantized vortices can be addressed self-consistently. The correct equation of state as well as nonlocality of interactions that leads to the existence of the roton minimum can also be introduced in such description. We review and apply the ideas developed for finite-temperature description of weakly interacting Bose gases as possible extensions and numerical refinements of the proposed method. We apply this method to elucidate the behavior of the vortices during expansion and contraction following the change in applied pressure. We show that at low temperatures, during the contraction of the vortex core as the negative pressure grows back to positive values, the vortex line density grows through a mechanism of vortex multiplication. This mechanism is suppressed at high temperatures. PMID:24704874

  8. Deep Learning Fluid Mechanics (United States)

    Barati Farimani, Amir; Gomes, Joseph; Pande, Vijay


    We have developed a new data-driven model paradigm for the rapid inference and solution of the constitutive equations of fluid mechanic by deep learning models. Using generative adversarial networks (GAN), we train models for the direct generation of solutions to steady state heat conduction and incompressible fluid flow without knowledge of the underlying governing equations. Rather than using artificial neural networks to approximate the solution of the constitutive equations, GANs can directly generate the solutions to these equations conditional upon an arbitrary set of boundary conditions. Both models predict temperature, velocity and pressure fields with great test accuracy (>99.5%). The application of our framework for inferring and generating the solutions of partial differential equations can be applied to any physical phenomena and can be used to learn directly from experiments where the underlying physical model is complex or unknown. We also have shown that our framework can be used to couple multiple physics simultaneously, making it amenable to tackle multi-physics problems.

  9. A Fluid Mechanics Hypercourse (United States)

    Fay, James A.; Sonwalkar, Nishikant


    This CD-ROM is designed to accompany James Fay's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. An enhanced hypermedia version of the textbook, it offers a number of ways to explore the fluid mechanics domain. These include a complete hypertext version of the original book, physical-experiment video clips, excerpts from external references, audio annotations, colored graphics, review questions, and progressive hints for solving problems. Throughout, the authors provide expert guidance in navigating the typed links so that students do not get lost in the learning process. System requirements: Macintosh with 68030 or greater processor and with at least 16 Mb of RAM. Operating System 6.0.4 or later for 680x0 processor and System 7.1.2 or later for Power-PC. CD-ROM drive with 256- color capability. Preferred display 14 inches or above (SuperVGA with 1 megabyte of VRAM). Additional system font software: Computer Modern postscript fonts (CM/PS Screen Fonts, CMBSY10, and CMTT10) and Adobe Type Manager (ATM 3.0 or later). James A. Fay is Professor Emeritus and Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at MIT.

  10. Solitary waves in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Grimshaw, RHJ


    After the initial observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary wave in a canal, his insightful laboratory experiments and the subsequent theoretical work of Boussinesq, Rayleigh and Korteweg and de Vries, interest in solitary waves in fluids lapsed until the mid 1960's with the seminal paper of Zabusky and Kruskal describing the discovery of the soliton. This was followed by the rapid development of the theory of solitons and integrable systems. At the same time came the realization that solitary waves occur naturally in many physical systems, and play a fundamental role in many circumstances. The aim of this text is to describe the role that soliton theory plays in fluids in several contexts. After an historical introduction, the book is divided five chapters covering the basic theory of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the subsequent application to free-surface solitary waves in water to internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean and the atmospheric boundary layer, solitary waves in rotating flows, ...

  11. Thermal and particle size distribution effects on the ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, C.N.


    Thermal and particle size distribution effects on the ferromagnetic resonance of magnetic fluids were theoretically investigated, assuming negligible interparticle interactions and neglecting the viscosity of the carrier liquid. The model is based on the usual approach for the ferromagnetic resonance description of single-domain magnetic particle systems, which was amended in order to take into account the finite particle size effect, the particle size distribution and the orientation mobility of the particles within the magnetic fluid. Under these circumstances the shape of the resonance line, the resonance field and the line width are found to be strongly affected by the temperature and by the particle size distribution of magnetic fluids

  12. Vibration analysis of partially cracked plate submerged in fluid (United States)

    Soni, Shashank; Jain, N. K.; Joshi, P. V.


    The present work proposes an analytical model for vibration analysis of partially cracked rectangular plates coupled with fluid medium. The governing equation of motion for the isotropic plate based on the classical plate theory is modified to accommodate a part through continuous line crack according to simplified line spring model. The influence of surrounding fluid medium is incorporated in the governing equation in the form of inertia effects based on velocity potential function and Bernoulli's equations. Both partially and totally submerged plate configurations are considered. The governing equation also considers the in-plane stretching due to lateral deflection in the form of in-plane forces which introduces geometric non-linearity into the system. The fundamental frequencies are evaluated by expressing the lateral deflection in terms of modal functions. The assessment of the present results is carried out for intact submerged plate as to the best of the author's knowledge the literature lacks in analytical results for submerged cracked plates. New results for fundamental frequencies are presented as affected by crack length, fluid level, fluid density and immersed depth of plate. By employing the method of multiple scales, the frequency response and peak amplitude of the cracked structure is analyzed. The non-linear frequency response curves show the phenomenon of bending hardening or softening and the effect of fluid dynamic pressure on the response of the cracked plate.

  13. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman


    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  14. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus


    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  15. Ecotoxicological testing of performance fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallqvist, T.


    The report deals with a project comprising the testing of drilling fluids concerning ecotoxicology, biological degradation, and toxicity. Two types of drilling fluids were tested for toxic effects on marine algae and biological degradability. A fluid based on mineral oil was readily degradable (98% DOC removal in 28 days) while an ether based oil degraded more slowly (56% DOC removal in 28 days). The toxicity of both fluids was tested after emulsification of the oils in water and separating the oil and water phase after equilibration. The EC 50 values obtained with this approach were 8.15 g/l for the oil based fluid and 116 g/l for the ether fluid. 9 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Investigation of the fluid flow dynamic parameters for Newtonian and non-Newtonian materials: an approach to understanding the fluid flow-like structures within fault zones (United States)

    Tanaka, H.; Shiomi, Y.; Ma, K.-F.


    To understand the fault zone fluid flow-like structure, namely the ductile deformation structure, often observed in the geological field (e.g., Ramsay and Huber The techniques of modern structure geology, vol. 1: strain analysis, Academia Press, London, 1983; Hobbs and Ord Structure geology: the mechanics of deforming metamorphic rocks, Vol. I: principles, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2015), we applied a theoretical approach to estimate the rate of deformation, the shear stress and the time to form a streak-line pattern in the boundary layer of viscous fluids. We model the dynamics of streak lines in laminar boundary layers for Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluids and compare the results to those obtained via laboratory experiments. The structure of deformed streak lines obtained using our model is consistent with experimental observations, indicating that our model is appropriate for understanding the shear rate, flow time and shear stress based on the profile of deformed streak lines in the boundary layer in Newtonian and pseudoplastic viscous materials. This study improves our understanding of the transportation processes in fluids and of the transformation processes in fluid-like materials. Further application of this model could facilitate understanding the shear stress and time history of the fluid flow-like structure of fault zones observed in the field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Fluids in crustal deformation: Fluid flow, fluid-rock interactions, rheology, melting and resources (United States)

    Lacombe, Olivier; Rolland, Yann


    Fluids exert a first-order control on the structural, petrological and rheological evolution of the continental crust. Fluids interact with rocks from the earliest stages of sedimentation and diagenesis in basins until these rocks are deformed and/or buried and metamorphosed in orogens, then possibly exhumed. Fluid-rock interactions lead to the evolution of rock physical properties and rock strength. Fractures and faults are preferred pathways for fluids, and in turn physical and chemical interactions between fluid flow and tectonic structures, such as fault zones, strongly influence the mechanical behaviour of the crust at different space and time scales. Fluid (over)pressure is associated with a variety of geological phenomena, such as seismic cycle in various P-T conditions, hydrofracturing (including formation of sub-horizontal, bedding-parallel veins), fault (re)activation or gravitational sliding of rocks, among others. Fluid (over)pressure is a governing factor for the evolution of permeability and porosity of rocks and controls the generation, maturation and migration of economic fluids like hydrocarbons or ore forming hydrothermal fluids, and is therefore a key parameter in reservoir studies and basin modeling. Fluids may also help the crust partially melt, and in turn the resulting melt may dramatically change the rheology of the crust.

  18. Supercritical fluids processing: emerging opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovaly, K.A.


    This publication on the emerging opportunities of supercritical fluids processing reveals the latest research findings and development trends in this field. These findings and development trends are highlighted, and the results of applications of technology to the business of supercritical fluids are reported. Applications of supercritical fluids to chemical intermediates, environmental applications, chemical reactions, food and biochemistry processing, and fuels processing are discussed in some detail

  19. Series Transmission Line Transformer (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.


    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  20. Covariant electromagnetic field lines (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.


    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  1. The fluid dynamics of climate

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Elisa; Fraedrich, Klaus


    This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on different aspects of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. It will also be of interest to researchers interested in quantitatively understanding how fluid dynamics can be applied to the climate system, and to climate scientists willing to gain a deeper insight into the fluid mechanics underlying climate processes.

  2. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server


    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  3. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collection (United States)

    ... Ventricular puncture; Lumbar puncture; Cisternal puncture; Cerebrospinal fluid culture ... the meaning of your specific test results. The examples above show the common measurements for results for ...

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, M.P.; Price, A.C.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E.; Runge, V.M.


    The evaluation of CSF dynamics has been discussed utilizing nuclear medicine, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks are readily diagnosed by both CT and nuclear scintigraphy. The major advantage of CT is the exact anatomic localization of the site of CSF leakage. Contrast toxicity, as well as complex and costly technology, often limit the wide applicability of CT in the diagnosis of CSF leaks. Nuclear scintigraphy, on the other hand, offers nonexact localization of CSF leaks, but is often more readily available than Ct. Magnetic resonance resolution is presently insufficient for diagnosis of CSF leaks. The anatomic diagnosis of hydrocephalus is more readily established with CT and MRI as compared to nuclear scintigraphy. However, none of the imaging modalities discussed are clearly superior in differentiating communicating from obstructive hydrocephalus. Nuclear scintigraphy remains the imaging modality of choice in the quantitative evaluation of CSF shunts and their patency

  5. Spin and Madelung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesi, G.


    Starting from the Pauli current the decomposition of the non-relativistic local velocity has been obtained in two parts (in the ordinary tensorial language): one parallel and the other orthogonal to the impulse. The former is recognized to be the classical part, that is, the center-of-mass (CM) velocity, and the latter the quantum one, that is, the velocity of the motion in the CM frame (namely, the internal spin motion or Zitterbewegung). Inserting this complete, composite expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the classical non-relativistic (i.e. Newtonian) Lagrangian, the author straightforwardly get the appearance of the so called quantum potential associates as it is known, to the Madelung fluid. In such a way, the quantum mechanical behaviour of particles appears to be strictly correlated to the existence of spin and Zitterbewegung

  6. Self-limiting current for magnetically insulated coaxial vacuum transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.


    Existing cold fluid theories for magnetic insulation are analyzed and applied to the transmission line configuration. The relevance of these results to the propagating short pulse problem, and to DC operation, are discussed

  7. Contact line motion in confined liquid–gas systems: Slip versus phase transition

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng


    -slip boundary condition, as the latter leads to a nonintegrable stress singularity. Recently, various diffuse-interface models have been proposed to explain the contact line motion using mechanisms missing from the sharp-interface treatments in fluid mechanics

  8. Intra-slab COH fluid fluxes evidenced by fluid-mediated decarbonation of lawsonite eclogite-facies altered oceanic metabasalts (United States)

    Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Chu, Xu; Martin, Laure; Ague, Jay J.; Monié, Patrick; Groppo, Chiara; Martinez, Isabelle; Chaduteau, Carine


    The interplay between the processes controlling the mobility of H2O and C-bearing species during subduction zone metamorphism exerts a critical control on plate tectonics and global volatile recycling. Here we present the first study on fresh, carbonate-bearing, lawsonite eclogite-facies metabasalts from Alpine Corsica, France, which reached the critical depths at which important devolatilization reactions occur in subducting slabs. The studied samples indicate that the evolution of oceanic crustal sequences subducted under present-day thermal regimes is dominated by localized fluid-rock interactions that are strongly controlled by the nature and extent of inherited (sub)seafloor hydrothermal processes, and by the possibility of deep fluids to be channelized along inherited or newly-formed discontinuities. Fluid channelization along inherited discontinuities controlled local rehydration and dehydration/decarbonation reactions and the stability of carbonate and silicate minerals at the blueschist-eclogite transition. Fluid-mediated decarbonation was driven by upward, up-temperature fluid flow in the inverted geothermal gradient of a subducting oceanic slab, a process that has not been documented in natural samples to date. We estimate that the observed fluid-rock reactions released 20-60 kg CO2 per m3 of rock (i.e. 0.7-2.1 wt% CO2), which is in line with the values predicted from decarbonation of metabasalts in open systems at these depths. Conversely, the estimated time-integrated fluid fluxes (20-50 t/m2) indicate that the amount of carbon transported by channelized fluid flow within the volcanic part of subducting oceanic plates is potentially much higher than previous numerical estimates, testifying to the percolation of C-bearing fluids resulting from devolatilization/dissolution processes operative in large reservoirs.

  9. Improved Fluid Perturbation Theory: Equation of state for Fluid Xenon


    Li, Qiong; Liu, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Gong-Mu; Zhao, Yan-Hong; Tian, Ming-Feng; Song, Hai-Feng


    The traditional fluid perturbation theory is improved by taking electronic excitations and ionizations into account, in the framework of average ion spheres. It is applied to calculate the equation of state for fluid Xenon, which turns out in good agreement with the available shock data.

  10. Editorial Special Issue on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a shark is more efficient than a propeller; the notoriously complicated and nonlinear Navier–. Stokes equations governing fluid motion provide fertile ground for research to both applied and pure mathematicians. There is the phenomenon of turbulence in fluid flows. A statement in 1932, attributed to Horace Lamb, author of ...

  11. statistical fluid theory for associating fluids containing alternating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Statistical associating fluid theory of homonuclear dimerized chain fluids and homonuclear ... The proposed models account for the appropriate .... where gHNM(1,1) is the expression for the contact value of the correlation func- tion of two ...

  12. Thermophysical properties of supercritical fluids and fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengers, J.V.


    The purpose of the research is to extend the theory of critical phenomena in fluids and fluid mixtures to obtain scientifically based equations that include the crossover from the asymptotic singular behavior of the thermophysical properties close to the critical point to the regular behavior of these properties far away from the critical point

  13. Plume Splitting in a Two-layer Stratified Ambient Fluid (United States)

    Ma, Yongxing; Flynn, Morris; Sutherland, Bruce


    A line-source plume descending into a two-layer stratified ambient fluid in a finite sized tank is studied experimentally. Although the total volume of ambient fluid is fixed, lower- and upper-layer fluids are respectively removed and added at a constant rate mimicking marine outfall through diffusers and natural and hybrid ventilated buildings. The influence of the plume on the ambient depends on the value of λ, defined as the ratio of the plume buoyancy to the buoyancy loss of the plume as it crosses the ambient interface. Similar to classical filling-box experiments, the plume can always reach the bottom of the tank if λ > 1 . By contrast, if λ < 1 , an intermediate layer eventually forms as a result of plume splitting. Eventually all of the plume fluid spreads within the intermediate layer. The starting time, tv, and the ending time, tt, of the transition process measured from experiments correlate with the value of λ. A three-layer ambient fluid is observed after transition, and the mean value of the measured densities of the intermediate layer fluid is well predicted using plume theory. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was provided by NSERC.

  14. Fluid-structure interactions of photo-responsive polymer cantilevers (United States)

    Bin, Jonghoon; Oates, William S.; Yousuff Hussaini, M.


    A new class of photomechanical liquid crystal networks (LCNs) has emerged, which generate large bending deformation and fast response times that scale with the resonance of the polymer films. Here, a numerical study is presented that describes the photomechanical structural dynamic behavior of an LCN in a fluid medium; however, the methodology is also applicable to fluid-structure interactions of a broader range of adaptive structures. Here, we simulate the oscillation of photomechanical cantilevers excited by light while simultaneously modeling the effect of the surrounding fluid at different ambient pressures. The photoactuated LCN is modeled as an elastic thin cantilever plate, and gradients in photostrain from the external light are computed from the assumptions of light absorption and photoisomerization through the film thickness. Numerical approximations of the equations governing the plate are based on cubic B-spline shape functions and a second order implicit Newmark central scheme for time integration. For the fluid, three dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method, which employs a structured body-fitted curvilinear coordinate system where the solid-fluid interface is a mesh line of the system, and the complicated interface boundary conditions are accommodated in a conventional finite-volume formulation. Numerical examples are given which provide new insight into material behavior in a fluid medium as a function of ambient pressure.

  15. Fluid Creep and Over-resuscitation. (United States)

    Saffle, Jeffrey R


    Fluid creep is the term applied to a burn resuscitation, which requires more fluid than predicted by standard formulas. Fluid creep is common today and is linked to several serious edema-related complications. Increased fluid requirements may accompany the appropriate resuscitation of massive injuries but dangerous fluid creep is also caused by overly permissive fluid infusion and the lack of colloid supplementation. Several strategies for recognizing and treating fluid creep are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Petroleum and Oil Fuel Lines (Apra Harbor through Antonio B. Won Pat Intl Airport to Tanguisson Power Plant), Guam, 2016, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a line feature dataset showing the track of petroleum and oil fuel lines that transport hazardous fluids from Apra Harbor through the Antonio B. Won Pat...

  17. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  18. Database of emission lines (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.


    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  19. A study of the flow field surrounding interacting line fires (United States)

    Trevor Maynard; Marko Princevac; David R. Weise


    The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which...

  20. Materials processing using supercritical fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Aleksandar M.


    Full Text Available One of the most interesting areas of supercritical fluids applications is the processing of novel materials. These new materials are designed to meet specific requirements and to make possible new applications in Pharmaceuticals design, heterogeneous catalysis, micro- and nano-particles with unique structures, special insulating materials, super capacitors and other special technical materials. Two distinct possibilities to apply supercritical fluids in processing of materials: synthesis of materials in supercritical fluid environment and/or further processing of already obtained materials with the help of supercritical fluids. By adjusting synthesis parameters the properties of supercritical fluids can be significantly altered which further results in the materials with different structures. Unique materials can be also obtained by conducting synthesis in quite specific environments like reversed micelles. This paper is mainly devoted to processing of previously synthesized materials which are further processed using supercritical fluids. Several new methods have been developed to produce micro- and nano-particles with the use of supercritical fluids. The following methods: rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS supercritical anti-solvent (SAS, materials synthesis under supercritical conditions and encapsulation and coating using supercritical fluids were recently developed.

  1. Fluid simulation for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Bridson, Robert


    Animating fluids like water, smoke, and fire using physics-based simulation is increasingly important in visual effects, in particular in movies, like The Day After Tomorrow, and in computer games. This book provides a practical introduction to fluid simulation for graphics. The focus is on animating fully three-dimensional incompressible flow, from understanding the math and the algorithms to the actual implementation.

  2. Fluid jet electric discharge source (United States)

    Bender, Howard A [Ripon, CA


    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  3. Introduction to mathematical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Richard E


    An introduction to the behavior of liquids and gases, this volume provides excellent coverage of kinematics, momentum principle, Newtonian fluid, rotating fluids, compressibility, and more. It is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics and general science, and it requires a background in calculus and vector analysis. 1971 edition.

  4. Supercritical fluids in ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.; Plechkova, N.V.; Seddon, K.R.


    Ionic liquids and supercritical fluids are both alternative environmentally benign solvents, but their properties are very different. Ionic liquids are non-volatile but often considered highly polar compounds, whereas supercritical fluids are non-polar but highly volatile compounds. The combination

  5. Fluid diversion in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimir, Hassan B.


    In any oil recovery process, large scale heterogeneities, such as fractures, channels, or high-permeability streaks, can cause early break through of injected fluid which will reduce oil recovery efficiency. In waterflooding, enhanced oil recovery, and acidizing operations, this problem is particularly acute because of the cost of the injected fluid. On the other hand coping with excess water production is always a challenging task for field operators. The cost of handling and disposing produced water can significantly shorten the economic production life of an oil well. The hydrostatic pressure created by high fluid levels in a well (water coning) is also detrimental to oil production. In this paper, the concept of fluid diversion is explained. Different methods that are suggested to divert the fluid into the oil-bearing-zones are briefly discussed, to show their advantages and disadvantages. Methods of reducing water production in production well are also discussed. (Author)

  6. Revisiting the Landau fluid closure. (United States)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.


    Advanced fluid models that are much closer to the full kinetic description than the usual magnetohydrodynamic description are a very useful tool for studying astrophysical plasmas and for interpreting solar wind observational data. The development of advanced fluid models that contain certain kinetic effects is complicated and has attracted much attention over the past years. Here we focus on fluid models that incorporate the simplest possible forms of Landau damping, derived from linear kinetic theory expanded about a leading-order (gyrotropic) bi-Maxwellian distribution function f_0, under the approximation that the perturbed distribution function f_1 is gyrotropic as well. Specifically, we focus on various Pade approximants to the usual plasma response function (and to the plasma dispersion function) and examine possibilities that lead to a closure of the linear kinetic hierarchy of fluid moments. We present re-examination of the simplest Landau fluid closures.

  7. Fluid migration studies in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefelbine, H.C.; Raines, G.E.


    This discussion will be limited to the migration of water trapped in the rock salt under the influence of the heat field produced by nuclear waste. This is of concern because hypotheticl scenarios have been advanced in which this fluid movement allows radionuclides to escape to the biosphere. While portions of these scenarios are supported by observation, none of the complete scenarios has been demonstrated. The objectives of the present fluid migration studies are two-fold: 1. determine the character of the trapped fluid in terms of quantity, habitat and chemical constituents; and 2. define the mechanisms that cause the fluid to migrate toward heat sources. Based on the observations to date, fluid migration will not have a major impact on repository integrity. However, the above objectives will be pursued until the impacts, if any, can be quantified

  8. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  9. Heating production fluids in a wellbore (United States)

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.


    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  10. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash


    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  11. A cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdas, C.; Dominiak, M.; Kozinski, R.; Misterkiewicz, B.; Polowniak, J.; Szczepaniak, S.


    The cutting fluid (SOZh) contains 0.5 to 10 percent vegetable or animal fats, selectively sulfurized in the presence of a catalyst (Kt): 0.1 to 10 percent chlorinated C2O to C3O paraffins, which contain 10 to 50 percent Chlorine in a molecule, and 0.001 to 0.5 percent dialkyldithiocarbamic or alkylen-bis-(dithiocarbamic) acids or their salts or derivatives of the form (R(R')NC(S)SRn'', (CH2)n(NHC(S)S)2R'' or R(R')NC(S)SnC(S)(R)R', where R and R' are alkyl or cycloalkyl of the C1 to C6 fractions, R'' is Hydrogen, a metal, or aliphatic or heterocyclic amine, n = 2 to 6 and 0.001 to 0.3 percent of heterocyclic mercaptanes or disulfides of the cited formula, where A is Nitrogen or Sulfur, and up to 100 percent petroleum oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 50 square millimeters per second at 323K.

  12. Multidomain multiphase fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, W.T.; Soo, S.L.


    A set of multiphase field equations--conversion of mass, momentum and energy--based on multiphase mechanics is developed. Multiphase mechanics applies to mixtures of phases which are separated by interfaces and are mutually exclusive. Based on the multiphase mechanics formulation, additional terms appear in the field equations when the physical size of the dispersed phase (bubble or droplet) is many times larger than the inter-molecular spacing. These terms are the inertial coupling due to virtual mass and the additional viscous coupling due to unsteadiness of the flow field. The multiphase formulation given here takes into account the discreteness of particles of dispersed phases and, at the same time, the necessity of the distributive representation of field variables via space-time averaging when handling a large number of particles. The provision for multidomain transition further permits us to treat dispersed phases which are large compared to the characteristic dimension of the flow system via interdomain relations. The multidomain multiphase approach provides a framework for us to model the various flow regimes. Because some of the transport parameters associated with the system equations are not well known at the present time, an idealized two-domain two-phase solution approach is proposed as a first step. Finally, comparisons are made between the field equations formulated based on the multidomain-multiphase fluid mechanics and the pertinent existing models, and their relative significances are discussed. The desirability of consistent approximation and simplifications possible for dilute suspensions are discussed

  13. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.


    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  14. Can I Hang? Ideal Time to Replace Isotonic Crystalloid Intravenous Fluids and Sets to Prevent Fluid Contamination and Blood Stream Infection: a Knowledge Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Davis Fausak


    Full Text Available Clinical bottom lineBased on very poor veterinary and human evidence, fluid bags and IV sets should be changed every 96 hours whether on one or multiple patients. Additionally, supportive evidence suggests that creating a routine of wiping ports with alcohol prior to injection or withdrawal may significantly decrease the likelihood of fluid contamination. This certainly seems to be an area that needs more research. 

  15. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian


    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  16. Particle Formation by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Expansion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujuan Pan


    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction and expansion (SFEE patented technology combines the advantages of both supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS with on-line coupling, which makes the nanoparticle formation feasible directly from matrix such as Chinese herbal medicine. Supercritical fluid extraction is a green separation technology, which has been developed for decades and widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines or natural active components. In this paper, a SFEE patented instrument was firstly built up and controlled by LABVIEW work stations. Stearic acid was used to verify the SFEE process at optimized condition; via adjusting the preexpansion pressure and temperature one can get different sizes of particles. Furthermore, stearic acid was purified during the SFEE process with HPLC-ELSD detecting device; purity of stearic acid increased by 19%, and the device can purify stearic acid.

  17. Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir


    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation. (orig.)

  18. Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)


    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation. (orig.)

  19. On multiscale moving contact line theory. (United States)

    Li, Shaofan; Fan, Houfu


    In this paper, a multiscale moving contact line (MMCL) theory is presented and employed to simulate liquid droplet spreading and capillary motion. The proposed MMCL theory combines a coarse-grained adhesive contact model with a fluid interface membrane theory, so that it can couple molecular scale adhesive interaction and surface tension with hydrodynamics of microscale flow. By doing so, the intermolecular force, the van der Waals or double layer force, separates and levitates the liquid droplet from the supporting solid substrate, which avoids the shear stress singularity caused by the no-slip condition in conventional hydrodynamics theory of moving contact line. Thus, the MMCL allows the difference of the surface energies and surface stresses to drive droplet spreading naturally. To validate the proposed MMCL theory, we have employed it to simulate droplet spreading over various elastic substrates. The numerical simulation results obtained by using MMCL are in good agreement with the molecular dynamics results reported in the literature.

  20. Veterans Crisis Line (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  1. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent


    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  2. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  3. Electric Power Transmission Lines (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  4. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.


    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  5. Capital Improvements Business Line (United States)


    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  6. Neutron Brillouin scattering in dense fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkerk, P [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); FINGO Collaboration


    Thermal neutron scattering is a typical microscopic probe for investigating dynamics and structure in condensed matter. In contrast, light (Brillouin) scattering with its three orders of magnitude larger wavelength is a typical macroscopic probe. In a series of experiments using the improved small-angle facility of IN5 a significant step forward is made towards reducing the gap between the two. For the first time the transition from the conventional single line in the neutron spectrum scattered by a fluid to the Rayleigh-Brillouin triplet known from light-scattering experiments is clearly and unambiguously observed in the raw neutron data without applying any corrections. Results of these experiments are presented. (author).

  7. Quantum field theory of fluids. (United States)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave


    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.

  8. Wave Interactions and Fluid Flows (United States)

    Craik, Alex D. D.


    This up-to-date and comprehensive account of theory and experiment on wave-interaction phenomena covers fluids both at rest and in their shear flows. It includes, on the one hand, water waves, internal waves, and their evolution, interaction, and associated wave-driven means flow and, on the other hand, phenomena on nonlinear hydrodynamic stability, especially those leading to the onset of turbulence. This study provide a particularly valuable bridge between these two similar, yet different, classes of phenomena. It will be of value to oceanographers, meteorologists, and those working in fluid mechanics, atmospheric and planetary physics, plasma physics, aeronautics, and geophysical and astrophysical fluid dynamics.

  9. Fluid intelligence: A brief history. (United States)

    Kent, Phillip


    The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence was introduced to the psychological community approximately 75 years ago by Raymond B. Cattell, and it continues to be an area of active research and controversy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the origin of the concept, early efforts to define intelligence and uses of intelligence tests to address pressing social issues, and the ongoing controversies associated with fluid intelligence and the structure of intelligence. The putative neuropsychological underpinnings and neurological substrates of fluid intelligence are discussed.

  10. Advances in Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T


    Environmental fluid mechanics (EFM) is the scientific study of transport, dispersion and transformation processes in natural fluid flows on our planet Earth, from the microscale to the planetary scale. This book brings together scientists and engineers working in research institutions, universities and academia, who engage in the study of theoretical, modeling, measuring and software aspects in environmental fluid mechanics. It provides a forum for the participants, and exchanges new ideas and expertise through the presentations of up-to-date and recent overall achievements in this field.

  11. Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Lloyd L


    Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept

  12. Spinning fluids in general relativity (United States)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.


    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  13. The genesis of fluid mechanics, 1640-1780

    CERN Document Server

    Calero, Julián Simón


    Fluid Mechanics, as a scientific discipline in a modern sense, was established between the last third of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th one. This book analyses its genesis, following its evolution along two basic lines of research, which have been named the "problem of resistance" and the "problem of discharge". This approach highlights the existence of a remarkable experimental aspect in the aforementioned research lines, together with their link with problems of a practical nature, such as ballistics, hydraulics, fluid-using machines or naval theory. On the other hand, although previous studies usually present fluid mechanics from the point of view of mathematics, this is complemented here by an engineering viewpoint; gathering attempts made in the beginnings of fluid mechanics to see if the theory was capable of productive application in practical terms. This is nothing unusual in a time where the quality of knowledge and skill is measured largely by its usefulness. (c) Universidad Naciona...

  14. Statistical tools for ultrasonic analysis of dispersive fluids


    Martinsson, Jesper


    This thesis focuses on the possibility of using ultrasonic measurement techniques for energy gas characterization. The idea is to combine both on-line flow measurements with non-invasive fluid characterization in the same measurement setup using the same sensor(s). The long-term goal of the project is to develop measurement methods based on ultrasonic techniques that can measure; the flow rate, the energy content, detect impurities, and estimate the composition. In this thesis different probl...

  15. Nasca Lines, Peru (United States)


    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Superconfinement tailors fluid flow at microscales.

    KAUST Repository

    Setu, Siti Aminah; Dullens, Roel P A; Herná ndez-Machado, Aurora; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo


    Understanding fluid dynamics under extreme confinement, where device and intrinsic fluid length scales become comparable, is essential to successfully develop the coming generations of fluidic devices. Here we report measurements of advancing fluid

  17. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database (United States)

    Patel, Kishan


    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  18. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael


    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  19. An analytical and numerical study of peristaltic transport of a Johnson—Segalman fluid in an endoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Nadeem, S.


    In the present study, we discuss the peristaltic flow of a Johnson—Segalman fluid in an endoscope. Perturbation, homotopy, and numerical solutions are found for the non-linear differential equation. The comparative study is also made to check the validity of the solutions. The expressions for pressure rise frictional forces, pressure gradient, and stream lines are presented to interpret the behavior of various physical quantities of the Johnson—Segalman fluid. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. The Variety of Fluid Dynamics. (United States)

    Barnes, Francis; And Others


    Discusses three research topics which are concerned with eminently practical problems and deal at the same time with fundamental fluid dynamical problems. These research topics come from the general areas of chemical and biological engineering, geophysics, and pure mathematics. (HM)

  1. Fluid Mechanics Can Be Fun. (United States)

    Blanks, Robert F.


    A humanistic approach to teaching fluid mechanics is described which minimizes lecturing, increases professor-student interaction, uses group and individual problem solving sessions, and allows for student response. (BB)

  2. Electrokinetic effects and fluid permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.


    Fluid permeability of porous media depends mainly on connectivity of the pore space and two physical parameters: porosity and a pertinent length-scale parameter. Electrical imaging methods typically establish connectivity and directly measure electrical conductivity, which can then often be related to porosity by Archie's law. When electrical phase measurements are made in addition to the amplitude measurements, information about the pertinent length scale can then be obtained. Since fluid permeability controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the subsurface, inexpensive maps of permeability could improve planning strategies for remediation efforts. Detailed knowledge of fluid permeability is also important for oil field exploitation, where knowledge of permeability distribution in three dimensions is a common requirement for petroleum reservoir simulation and analysis, as well as for estimates on the economics of recovery

  3. Thermodynamic properties of cryogenic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Leachman, Jacob; Lemmon, Eric; Penoncello, Steven


    This update to a classic reference text provides practising engineers and scientists with accurate thermophysical property data for cryogenic fluids. The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties. It begins with a chapter introducing the thermodynamic relations and functional forms for equations of state, and goes on to describe the requirements for thermodynamic property formulations, needed for the complete definition of the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. The core of the book comprises extensive data tables and charts for the most commonly-encountered cryogenic fluids. This new edition sees significant updates to the data presented for air, argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, ethane, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen and xenon. The book supports and complements NIST’s REFPROP - an interactive database and tool for the calculation of thermodynamic propertie...

  4. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos; Sun, Zhonghao


    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration

  5. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics (United States)

    ... this page: // Heart failure - fluids and diuretics To use the sharing features ... to Expect at Home When you have heart failure, your heart does not pump out enough blood. This causes ...

  6. Growth kinetics in multicomponent fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Lookman, T.


    The hydrodynamic effects on the late-stage kinetics in spinodal decomposition of multicomponent fluids are examined using a lattice Boltzmann scheme with stochastic fluctuations in the fluid and at the interface. In two dimensions, the three- and four-component immiscible fluid mixture (with a 1024 2 lattice) behaves like an off-critical binary fluid with an estimated domain growth of t 0.4 +/= 0.03 rather than t 1/3 as previously estimated, showing the significant influence of hydrodynamics. In three dimensions (with a 256 3 lattice), we estimate the growth as t 0.96 +/= 0.05 for both critical and off-critical quenches, in agreement with phenomenological theory

  7. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.


    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  8. Inverted emulsion drilling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, I; Astanei, E; Mireanu, G; Orosz, M; Popescu, F; Vasile, I


    The subject of the invention is the method of obtaining inverted drilling fluid which is required during stripping of a productive bed and ending of a well where difficulties develop during drilling of the argillaceous rock. Example: in a reservoir with capacity 30 m/sup 3/, 10 m/sup 3/ of diesel fuel are added. A total of 1000 kg of emulsifier are added to the diesel fuel consisting of: 85 mass% of a mixture of sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, residues of fatty acids or naphthene acids with high molecular weight taken in proportion of 10:90; 5 mass% of a mixture of polymers with hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties obtained by mixing 75 mass% of polyethylene oxide with molecular weight 10,000 and 25 mass% of propylene oxide with molecular weight 15,000, and 10 mass% of salt on alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium chloride). The mixture is mixed into complete dissolving. Then 1200 kg of filtering accelerator are added obtained from concentrated sulfuric acid serving for sulfur oxidation, asphalt substance with softening temperature 85-104/sup 0/C and fatty acids C/sub 10/-C/sub 20/ taken in a proportion of 23.70 and 7 mass% The mixture obtained in this manner is neutralized by adding calcium hydroxide and equal quantities of alumina and activated bentonite clay in a concentration of 1-10 mass%, more preferably 5 mass% in relation to the initial mixture. The obtained mass is mixed until complete dispersion, after which 200 kg of organophilic clay are added obtained from bentonite of the type montmorillonite of sodium by processing with derivate obtained from amine of the type of the quaternary base of ammonium salt, and agent of hydrophobization of the type of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, nonion surfactants of the block-polymer type. After complete dispersion of the organophilic clay, 100 kg of stabilizer of emulsion of the surfactant type was added with molecular weight of 250010,000, more preferably 5000, in concentration of 0.1-5.0 mass%, more

  9. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.


    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  10. Variable flexure-based fluid filter (United States)

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane


    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  11. FLOWPLOT2, 2-D, 3-D Fluid Dynamic Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.K.; Tunstall, J.N.


    1 - Description of program or function: FLOWPLOT2 is a plotting program used with numerical or analytical fluid dynamics codes to create velocity vector plots, contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature), two-dimensional profile plots, three-dimensional curve plots, and/or three-dimensional surface plots for either the u or v velocity components. If the fluid dynamics code computes a transient or simulated time related solution, FLOWPLOT2 can also be used to generate these plots for any specified time interval. Multiple cases generating different plots for different time intervals may be run in one execution of the program. In addition, plots can be created for selected two- dimensional planes of three-dimensional steady-state problems. The user has the option of producing plots on CalComp or Versatec plotters or microfiche and of creating a compressed dataset before plotting. 2 - Method of solution: FLOWPLOT2 reads a dataset written by the fluid dynamics code. This dataset must be written in a specified format and must contain parametric data at the nodal points of a uniform or non-uniform rectangular grid formed by the intersection of the grid lines of the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2500 nodes, 40 y-values for 2-D profile plots and 3-D curve plots, 20 contour values, 3 fluid parameters

  12. Cosmology with moving bimetric fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-García, Carlos; Maroto, Antonio L.; Martín-Moruno, Prado, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)


    We study cosmological implications of bigravity and massive gravity solutions with non-simultaneously diagonal metrics by considering the generalized Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatzes. The scenario that we obtain is equivalent to that of General Relativity with additional non-comoving perfect fluids. We show that the most general ghost-free bimetric theory generates three kinds of effective fluids whose equations of state are fixed by a function of the ansatz. Different choices of such function allow to reproduce the behaviour of different dark fluids. In particular, the Gordon ansatz is suitable for the description of various kinds of slowly-moving fluids, whereas the Kerr-Schild one is shown to describe a null dark energy component. The motion of those dark fluids with respect to the CMB is shown to generate, in turn, a relative motion of baryonic matter with respect to radition which contributes to the CMB anisotropies. CMB dipole observations are able to set stringent limits on the dark sector described by the effective bimetric fluid.

  13. Fluid element in SAP IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.; Akkas, N.


    In previous studies a fluid element is incorporated in the widely used general purpose finite element program SAPIV. This type of problem is of interest in the design of nuclear components involving geometric complexities and nonlinearities. The elasticity matrix of a general-purpose finite element program is modified in such a way that it becomes possible to idealize fluid as a structural finite element with zero shear modulus and a given bulk modules. Using the modified version of SAPIV, several solid-fluid interactions problems are solved. The numerical solutions are compared with the available analytical solutions. They are shown to be in reasonable aggrement. It is also shown that by solving an exterior-fluid interaction problem, the pressure wave propagation in the acoustic medium can be solved with the same approach. In this study, two of the problem not studied in the previous work will be presented. These problems are namely the effects of the link elements used at solid-fluid interfaces and of the concentrated loads on the response of the fluid medium. Truss elements are used as the link elements. After these investigations, it is decided that general purpose finite element programs with slight modifications can be used in the safety analysis of nuclear reactor plants. By this procedure it is possible to handle two-dimensional plane strain and tridimensional axisymmetric problems of this type. (orig.)

  14. Thermophysical properties of supercritical fluids and fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengers, J.V.


    This research is concerned with the development of a quantitative scientific description of the thermodynamic and transport properties of supercritical and subcritical fluids and fluid mixtures. It is known that the thermophysical properties of fluids and fluid mixtures asymptotically close to the critical point satisfy scaling laws with universal critical exponents and universal scaling functions. However, the range of validity of these asymptotic scaling laws is quite small. As a consequence, the impact of the modern theory of critical phenomena on chemical engineering has been limited. On the other hand, an a priori estimate of the range of temperatures and densities, where critical fluctuations become significant, can be made on the basis of the so-called Ginzburg criterion. A recent analysis of this criterion suggests that this range is actually quite large and for a fluid like carbon dioxide can easily extend to 100 degrees or so above the critical temperature. Hence, the use of traditional engineering equations like cubic equations is not scientifically justified in a very wide range of temperatures and densities around the critical point. We have therefore embarked on a scientific approach to deal with the global effects of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties of fluids and fluid mixtures. For this purpose it is not sufficient to consider the asymptotic critical fluctuations but we need to deal also with the nonasymptotic critical fluctuations. The goal is to develop scientifically based questions that account for the crossover of the thermophysical properties from their asymptotic singular behavior in the near vicinity of the critical point to their regular behavior very far away from the critical point

  15. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.


    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  16. Along the line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross


    Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...

  17. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.


    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  18. Stokes line width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.


    The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point

  19. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  20. Emergent scar lines in chaotic advection of passive directors (United States)

    Hejazi, Bardia; Mehlig, Bernhard; Voth, Greg A.


    We examine the spatial field of orientations of slender fibers that are advected by a two-dimensional fluid flow. The orientation field of these passive directors are important in a wide range of industrial and geophysical flows. We introduce emergent scar lines as the dominant coherent structures in the orientation field of passive directors in chaotic flows. Previous work has identified the existence of scar lines where the orientation rotates by π over short distances, but the lines that were identified disappeared as time progressed. As a result, earlier work focused on topological singularities in the orientation field, which we find to play a negligible role at long times. We use the standard map as a simple time-periodic two-dimensional flow that produces Lagrangian chaos. This class of flows produces persistent patterns in passive scalar advection and we find that a different kind of persistent pattern develops in the passive director orientation field. We identify the mechanism by which emergent scar lines grow to dominate these patterns at long times in complex flows. Emergent scar lines form where the recent stretching of the fluid element is perpendicular to earlier stretching. Thus these scar lines can be labeled by their age, defined as the time since their stretching reached a maximum.