Free Falling in Stratified Fluids
Lam, Try; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva
2017-11-01
Leaves falling in air and discs falling in water are examples of unsteady descents due to complex interaction between gravitational and aerodynamic forces. Understanding these descent modes is relevant to many branches of engineering and science such as estimating the behavior of re-entry space vehicles to studying biomechanics of seed dispersion. For regularly shaped objects falling in homogenous fluids, the motion is relatively well understood. However, less is known about how density stratification of the fluid medium affects the falling behavior. Here, we experimentally investigate the descent of discs in both pure water and in stable linearly stratified fluids for Froude numbers Fr 1 and Reynolds numbers Re between 1000 -2000. We found that stable stratification (1) enhances the radial dispersion of the disc at landing, (2) increases the descent time, (3) decreases the inclination (or nutation) angle, and (4) decreases the fluttering amplitude while falling. We conclude by commenting on how the corresponding information can be used as a predictive model for objects free falling in stratified fluids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Farooq
Full Text Available This article studies MHD double stratified stagnation point flow of Carreau fluid towards a non linear stretchable surface with radiation. Features of heat and mass transfer are evaluated by using convective boundary conditions. Resulting nonlinear problems are solved and studied for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields. Heat and mass transfer rates in addition to skin friction are discussed. Besides this for the verification of the present findings, the results of presented analysis have been compared with the available works in particular situations and reasonable agreement is noted. Keywords: Convective boundary condition, Thermal radiation, Double stratification, Stagnation point flow
Inviscid incompressible limits of strongly stratified fluids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Jin, B.J.; Novotný, A.
2014-01-01
Roč. 89, 3-4 (2014), s. 307-329 ISSN 0921-7134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * anelastic approximation * stratified fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2014 http://iospress.metapress.com/content/d71255745tl50125/?p=969b60ae82634854ab8bd25505ce1f71&pi=3
Dipole formation by two interacting shielded monopoles in a stratified fluid
Beckers, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Verzicco, R.
2002-01-01
The interaction between two shielded monopolar vortices has been investigated experimentally in a nonrotating linearly stratified fluid and by full three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations. The characteristic Reynolds and Froude numbers in the experiments are approximately Re [[approximate
Visualization periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid.
Bardakov, R.; Vasiliev, A.
2012-04-01
To visualize the flow pattern of viscous continuously stratified fluid both experimental and computational methods were developed. Computational procedures were based on exact solutions of set of the fundamental equations. Solutions of the problems of flows producing by periodically oscillating disk (linear and torsion oscillations) were visualized with a high resolutions to distinguish small-scale the singular components on the background of strong internal waves. Numerical algorithm of visualization allows to represent both the scalar and vector fields, such as velocity, density, pressure, vorticity, stream function. The size of the source, buoyancy and oscillation frequency, kinematic viscosity of the medium effects were traced in 2D an 3D posing problems. Precision schlieren instrument was used to visualize the flow pattern produced by linear and torsion oscillations of strip and disk in a continuously stratified fluid. Uniform stratification was created by the continuous displacement method. The buoyancy period ranged from 7.5 to 14 s. In the experiments disks with diameters from 9 to 30 cm and a thickness of 1 mm to 10 mm were used. Different schlieren methods that are conventional vertical slit - Foucault knife, vertical slit - filament (Maksoutov's method) and horizontal slit - horizontal grating (natural "rainbow" schlieren method) help to produce supplementing flow patterns. Both internal wave beams and fine flow components were visualized in vicinity and far from the source. Intensity of high gradient envelopes increased proportionally the amplitude of the source. In domains of envelopes convergence isolated small scale vortices and extended mushroom like jets were formed. Experiments have shown that in the case of torsion oscillations pattern of currents is more complicated than in case of forced linear oscillations. Comparison with known theoretical model shows that nonlinear interactions between the regular and singular flow components must be taken
A statistical mechanics approach to mixing in stratified fluids
Venaille , Antoine; Gostiaux , Louis; Sommeria , Joël
2016-01-01
Accepted for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics; Predicting how much mixing occurs when a given amount of energy is injected into a Boussinesq fluid is a longstanding problem in stratified turbulence. The huge number of degrees of freedom involved in these processes renders extremely difficult a deterministic approach to the problem. Here we present a statistical mechanics approach yielding a prediction for a cumulative, global mixing efficiency as a function of a global Richard-son number and th...
Hydromagnetic stability of rotating stratified compressible fluid flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Srinivasan, V; Kandaswamy, P [Dept. of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India; Debnath, L [Dept. of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA
1984-09-01
The hydromagnetic stability of a radially stratified compressible fluid rotating between two coaxial cylinders is investigated. The stability with respect to axisymmetric disturbances is examined. The fluid system is found to be thoroughly stable to axisymmetric disturbances provided the fluid rotates very rapidly. The system is shown to be unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances, and the slow amplifying hydromagnetic wave modes propagate against the basic rotation. The lower and upper bounds of the azimuthal phase speeds of the amplifying waves are determined. A quadrant theorem on the slow waves characteristic of a rapidly rotating fluid is derived. Special attention is given to the effects of compressibility of the fluid. Some results concerning the stability of an incompressible fluid system are obtained as special cases of the present analysis.
Plume Splitting in a Two-layer Stratified Ambient Fluid
Ma, Yongxing; Flynn, Morris; Sutherland, Bruce
2017-11-01
A line-source plume descending into a two-layer stratified ambient fluid in a finite sized tank is studied experimentally. Although the total volume of ambient fluid is fixed, lower- and upper-layer fluids are respectively removed and added at a constant rate mimicking marine outfall through diffusers and natural and hybrid ventilated buildings. The influence of the plume on the ambient depends on the value of λ, defined as the ratio of the plume buoyancy to the buoyancy loss of the plume as it crosses the ambient interface. Similar to classical filling-box experiments, the plume can always reach the bottom of the tank if λ > 1 . By contrast, if λ < 1 , an intermediate layer eventually forms as a result of plume splitting. Eventually all of the plume fluid spreads within the intermediate layer. The starting time, tv, and the ending time, tt, of the transition process measured from experiments correlate with the value of λ. A three-layer ambient fluid is observed after transition, and the mean value of the measured densities of the intermediate layer fluid is well predicted using plume theory. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was provided by NSERC.
Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics
Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi
2016-05-01
A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.
Slip analysis of squeezing flow using doubly stratified fluid
Ahmad, S.; Farooq, M.; Javed, M.; Anjum, Aisha
2018-06-01
The non-isothermal flow is modeled and explored for squeezed fluid. The influence of velocity, thermal and solutal slip effects on transport features of squeezed fluid are analyzed through Darcy porous channel when fluid is moving due to squeezing of upper plate towards the stretchable lower plate. Dual stratification effects are illustrated in transport equations. A similarity analysis is performed and reduced governing flow equations are solved using moderated and an efficient convergent approach i.e. Homotopic technique. The significant effects of physical emerging parameters on flow velocity, temperature and fluid concentration are reporting through various plots. Graphical explanations for drag force, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are stated and examined. The results reveal that minimum velocity field occurs near the plate, whereas it increases far away from the plate for strong velocity slip parameter. Furthermore, temperature and fluid concentration significantly decreases with increased slip effects. The current analysis is applicable in some advanced technological processes and industrial fluid mechanics.
Dynamics of vortex structures in a stratified rotating fluid
Sokolovskiy, Mikhail A
2013-01-01
This book presents an extensive analysis of the dynamics of discrete and distributed baroclinic vortices in a multi-layer fluid that characterizes the main features of the large and mesoscales dynamics of the atmosphere and the ocean.
Internal wave patterns in enclosed density-stratified and rotating fluids
Manders, A.M.A.
2003-01-01
Stratified fluids support internal waves, which propagate obliquely through the fluid. The angle with respectto the stratification direction is contrained: it is purely determined by the wave frequency and the strength of the density stratification (internal gravity waves) or the rotation rate
Spinning phenomena and energetics of spherically pulsating patterns in stratified fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibragimov, Ranis N; Dameron, Michael
2011-01-01
The nonlinear solutions of the two-dimensional Boussinesq equations describing internal waves in rotating stratified fluids were obtained as group invariant solutions. The latter nonlinear solutions correspond to the rotation transformation preserving the form of the original nonlinear equations of motion. It is shown that the obtained class of exact solutions can be associated with the spherically pulsating patterns observed in uniformly stratified fluids. It is also shown that the obtained rotationally symmetric solutions are bounded functions that can be visualized as spinning patterns in stratified fluids. It is also shown that the rotational transformation provides the energy conservation law together with other conservation laws for which the spinning phenomena is observed. The effects of nonlinearity and the Earth's rotation on such a phenomenon are also discussed.
Computational Fluid Dynamics model of stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey
2015-01-01
For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on computational fluid dynamics models of the neutrally stratified surface-layer. So far, physical processes that are important to the whole atmospheric boundary-layer, such as the Coriolis effect, buoyancy forces and heat...
Local linear viscoelasticity of confined fluids.
Hansen, J S; Daivis, P J; Todd, B D
2007-04-14
In this paper the authors propose a novel method to study the local linear viscoelasticity of fluids confined between two walls. The method is based on the linear constitutive equation and provides details about the real and imaginary parts of the local complex viscosity. They apply the method to a simple atomic fluid undergoing zero mean oscillatory flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The method shows that the viscoelastic properties of the fluid exhibit dramatic spatial changes near the wall-fluid boundary due to the high density in this region. It is also shown that the real part of the viscosity converges to the frequency dependent local shear viscosity sufficiently far away from the wall. This also provides valuable information about the transport properties in the fluid, in general. The viscosity is compared with predictions from the local average density model. The two methods disagree in that the local average density model predicts larger viscosity variations near the wall-fluid boundary than what is observed through the method presented here.
Flow of two stratified fluids in an open channel with addition of fluids along the channel length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardner, G.C.
1980-01-01
It is shown that two stably stratified fluids flowing in an open channel have two critical flow conditions. The one at higher flowrates is equivalent to the choked flow condition of a single fluid over a broad-crested weir, when the Froude number is unity. The lower critical condition imposes restrictions, which define the system if fluids are added progressively along the channel length and the flowrates increase from low to high values. However, if the flowrate does not become sufficiently large to pass through the lower critical condition, this condition will then define a form of choking, which again determines the system. It is shown that an important special case, with the proportional flowrates of the two fluids kept constant, has an analytical solution in which the relative depths of the fluids is a constant along the channel. Other systems must be solved numerically. (orig.)
The effect of sediments on turbulent plume dynamics in a stratified fluid
Stenberg, Erik; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Brandt, Luca
2017-11-01
We report large eddy simulation results of sediment-loaded turbulent plumes in a stratified fluid. The configuration, where the plume is discharged from a round source, provides an idealized model of subglacial discharge from a submarine tidewater glacier and is a starting point for understanding the effect of sediments on the dynamics of the rising plume. The transport of sediments is modeled by means of an advection-diffusion equation where sediment settling velocity is taken into account. We initially follow the experimental setup of Sutherland (Phys. Rev. Fluids, 2016), considering uniformly stratified ambients and further extend the work to pycnocline-type stratifications typical of Greenland fjords. Apart from examining the rise height, radial spread and intrusion of the rising plume, we gain further insights of the plume dynamics by extracting turbulent characteristics and the distribution of the sediments inside the plume.
Murthy, P.V.S.N.
2011-12-26
Thermo-diffusion effect on free convection heat and mass transfer from a vertical surface embedded in a liquid saturated thermally stratified non - Darcy porous medium has been analyzed using a local non-similar procedure. The wall temperature and concentration are constant and the medium is linearly stratified in the vertical direction with respect to the thermal conditions. The fluid flow, temperature and concentration fields are affected by the complex interactions among the diffusion ratio Le, buoyancy ratio N, thermo-diffusion parameter Sr and stratification parameter ?. Non-linear interactions of all these parameters on the convective transport has been analyzed and variation of heat and mass transfer coefficients with thermo-diffusion parameter in the thermally stratified non-Darcy porous media is presented through computer generated plots.
Murthy, P.V.S.N.; El-Amin, Mohamed
2011-01-01
Thermo-diffusion effect on free convection heat and mass transfer from a vertical surface embedded in a liquid saturated thermally stratified non - Darcy porous medium has been analyzed using a local non-similar procedure. The wall temperature and concentration are constant and the medium is linearly stratified in the vertical direction with respect to the thermal conditions. The fluid flow, temperature and concentration fields are affected by the complex interactions among the diffusion ratio Le, buoyancy ratio N, thermo-diffusion parameter Sr and stratification parameter ?. Non-linear interactions of all these parameters on the convective transport has been analyzed and variation of heat and mass transfer coefficients with thermo-diffusion parameter in the thermally stratified non-Darcy porous media is presented through computer generated plots.
Sutherland, B. R.
2016-02-01
It is well established that two-dimensional internal plane waves and modes in uniformly stratified fluid efficiently transfer energy to smaller scale waves and ultimately turbulent mixing through parametric subharmonic instability (PSI). The numerical simulations of MacKinnon & Winters (GRL 2005) predicted PSI should act efficiently to disrupt the internal tide. However, while in situ observations showed the presence of PSI, it was not found to be appreciable. One reason for the discrepancy between simulations and observations is that the former examined an internal mode in uniformly stratified fluid whereas, in reality, the internal tide exists in non-uniform stratification and is manifest as sinusoidal oscillations of the thermocline. Through theory supported by numerical simulations, it is shown that internal modes in non-uniform stratification immediately excite superharmonics, not subharmonic disturbances. These have double the horizontal wavenumber and double the frequency of the parent mode and hence move with the same horizontal phase speed of the parent mode. As the disturbances grow in amplitude, however, they interact with the parent mode generating small-scale vertically propagating internal waves within the strongly stratified layer. The occurrence of PSI over very long times can occur, as in the simulations of Hazewinkel and Winters (JPO 2011). However, a comprehensive understanding of the energy cascade from the internal tide to small scales must consider the evolution of excited superharmonic disturbances.
Unsteady natural convection flow past an accelerated vertical plate in a thermally stratified fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deka Rudra Kt.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An exact solution to one-dimensional unsteady natural convection flow past an infinite vertical accelerated plate, immersed in a viscous thermally stratified fluid is investigated. Pressure work term and the vertical temperature advection are considered in the thermodynamic energy equation. The dimensionless governing equations are solved by Laplace Transform techniques for the Prandtl number unity. The velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer are presented graphically and discussed the effects of the Grashof number Gr, stratification parameter S at various times t.
The motions and wave fields produced by an ellipse moving through a stratified fluid
Hurlen, Erik Curtis
Solid-fluid interactions are ubiquitous in nature, from leaves falling from trees to fish swimming in the ocean. This dissertation examines a certain class of these interactions, namely asymmetric objects moving through stratified fluids. In the first part, the equations of motion are derived and subsequently solved for a displaced neutrally buoyant ellipse of varying aspect ratio. This is accomplished by using a spectral numerical algorithm, although in certain specific cases the equations can also be solved analytically using Laplace transform techniques. Experiments are conducted to which these analytical and numerical results are compared. General quantitative agreement is observed between the two sets of data. The discrepancies which are observed are consistent with both previous research and expectation. In the second part, the focus is shifted from the solid to the fluid, as the primary concern is now the wave field produced by these moving bodies. The spectral method developed in the first part is easily adapted to this second situation, in which the drag forces on the solid are also easily extracted. The results from this section are compared to previous results, and match very well. The results are then expanded to cases which have not been previously studied.
Grants, Ilmars; Gerbeth, Gunter
2010-07-01
The stability of a thermally stratified liquid metal flow is considered numerically. The flow is driven by a rotating magnetic field in a cylinder heated from above and cooled from below. The stable thermal stratification turns out to destabilize the flow. This is explained by the fact that a stable stratification suppresses the secondary meridional flow, thus indirectly enhancing the primary rotation. The instability in the form of Taylor-Görtler rolls is consequently promoted. These rolls can only be excited by finite disturbances in the isothermal flow. A sufficiently strong thermal stratification transforms this nonlinear bypass instability into a linear one reducing, thus, the critical value of the magnetic driving force. A weaker temperature gradient delays the linear instability but makes the bypass transition more likely. We quantify the non-normal and nonlinear components of this transition by direct numerical simulation of the flow response to noise. It is observed that the flow sensitivity to finite disturbances increases considerably under the action of a stable thermal stratification. The capabilities of the random forcing approach to identify disconnected coherent states in a general case are discussed.
Free convective flow of a stratified fluid through a porous medium bounded by a vertical plane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. K. Mondal
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Steady two-dimensional free convection flow of a thermally stratified viscous fluid through a highly porous medium bounded by a vertical plane surface of varying temperature, is considered. Analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and the rate of heat transfer are obtained by perturbation method. Velocity distribution and rate of heat transfer for different values of parameters are shown in graphs. Velocity distribution is also obtained for certain values of the parameters by integrating the coupled differential equations by Runge-Kutta method and compared with the analytical solution. The chief concern of the paper is to study the effect of equilibrium temperature gradient on the velocity and the rate of heat transfer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. M. Ferrière
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We review the basic approximations underlying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD theory, with special emphasis on the closure approximations, i.e. the approximations used in any fluid approach to close the hierarchy of moment equations. We then present the main closure models that have been constructed for collisionless plasmas in the large-scale regime, and we describe our own mixed MHD-kinetic model, which is designed to study low-frequency linear waves and instabilities in collisionless plasmas. We write down the full dispersion relation in a new, general form, which gathers all the specific features of our MHD-kinetic model into four polytropic indices, and which can be applied to standard adiabatic MHD and to double-adiabatic MHD through a simple change in the expressions of the polytropic indices. We study the mode solutions and the stability properties of the full dispersion relation in each of these three theories, first in the case of a uniform plasma, and then in the case of a stratified plasma. In both cases, we show how the results are affected by the collisionless nature of the plasma.
Zhang, Wei; He, Zhiguo; Jiang, Houshuo
2017-11-01
Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to measure instantaneous two-dimensional velocity vector fields of laboratory-generated turbulent buoyant plumes in linearly stratified saltwater over extended periods of time. From PIV-measured time-series flow data, characteristics of plume mean flow and turbulence have been quantified. To be specific, maximum plume penetration scaling and entrainment coefficient determined from the mean flow agree well with the theory based on the entrainment hypothesis for buoyant plumes in stratified fluids. Besides the well-known persistent entrainment along the plume stem (i.e., the 'plume-stem' entrainment), the mean plume velocity field shows persistent entrainment along the outer edge of the plume cap (i.e., the 'plume-cap' entrainment), thereby confirming predictions from previous numerical simulation studies. To our knowledge, the present PIV investigation provides the first measured flow field data in the plume cap region. As to measured plume turbulence, both the turbulent kinetic energy field and the turbulence dissipation rate field attain their maximum close to the source, while the turbulent viscosity field reaches its maximum within the plume cap region; the results also show that maximum turbulent viscosity scales as νt,max = 0.030(B/N)1/2, where B is source buoyancy flux and N is ambient buoyancy frequency. These PIV data combined with previously published numerical simulation results have implications for understanding the roles of hydrothermal plume turbulence, i.e. plume turbulence within the cap region causes the 'plume-cap' entrainment that plays an equally important role as the 'plume-stem' entrainment in supplying the final volume flux at the plume spreading level.
Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Turcotte, Donald L.; He, Ying; Lokavarapu, Harsha; Robey, Jonathan M.; Kellogg, Louise H.
2018-03-01
element code ASPECT, which we use to compute the velocity, pressure, and temperature associated with the underlying flow field. We compare the performance of these four algorithms on three problems, including computing an approximation to the solution of an initially compositionally stratified fluid at Ra =105 with buoyancy numbers B that vary from no stratification at B = 0 to stratified flow at large B .
Biogenic mixing induced by intermediate Reynolds number swimming in stratified fluids
Wang, Shiyan; Ardekani, Arezoo M.
2015-01-01
We study fully resolved motion of interacting swimmers in density stratified fluids using an archetypal swimming model called “squirmer”. The intermediate Reynolds number regime is particularly important, because the vast majority of organisms in the aphotic ocean (i.e. regions that are 200 m beneath the sea surface) are small (mm-cm) and their motion is governed by the balance of inertial and viscous forces. Our study shows that the mixing efficiency and the diapycnal eddy diffusivity, a measure of vertical mass flux, within a suspension of squirmers increases with Reynolds number. The mixing efficiency is in the range of O(0.0001–0.04) when the swimming Reynolds number is in the range of O(0.1–100). The values of diapycnal eddy diffusivity and Cox number are two orders of magnitude larger for vertically swimming cells compared to horizontally swimming cells. For a suspension of squirmers in a decaying isotropic turbulence, we find that the diapycnal eddy diffusivity enhances due to the strong viscous dissipation generated by squirmers as well as the interaction of squirmers with the background turbulence. PMID:26628288
Transport of particles, drops, and small organisms in density stratified fluids
Ardekani, Arezoo M.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Desai, Nikhil
2017-10-01
Sedimenting particles and motile organisms are ubiquitously found in oceans and lakes, where density stratification naturally occurs due to temperature or salinity gradients. We explore the effects of stratification on the fundamental hydrodynamics of settling particles, rising drops, and small organisms. The results of our direct numerical simulations of the sedimentation of particles show that the presence of vertical density gradients in the water column can substantially affect the settling dynamics of a particle, interaction between a pair of particles, and settling rates and microstructure of suspension of particles. We show that elongation of particles affects both the settling orientation and the settling rate of particles in stratified fluids, which will have direct consequences on the vertical flux of particulate matter and carbon flux in the ocean. We further demonstrate an unexpected effect of buoyancy, potentially affecting a broad range of processes at pycnoclines in oceans and lakes. In particular, stratification has a major effect on the flow field, energy expenditure, and nutrient uptake of small organisms. In addition, the role of stratification in pattern formation of bioconvection plumes of algal cells and in biogenic mixing is investigated. In particular, the numerical approach allows for considering the effects of background turbulence and hydrodynamic perturbations produced by swimming organisms, shedding light on the contribution of organisms in the mixing process in aqueous environments.
Shimizu, Kenji
2017-10-01
The 2nd-order Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and the Gardner (or extended KdV) equation are often used to investigate internal solitary waves, commonly observed in oceans and lakes. However, application of these KdV-type equations for continuously stratified fluids to geophysical problems is hindered by nonuniqueness of the higher-order coefficients and the associated correction functions to the wave fields. This study proposes to reduce arbitrariness of the higher-order KdV theory by considering its uniqueness in the following three physical senses: (i) consistency of the nonlinear higher-order coefficients and correction functions with the corresponding phase speeds, (ii) wavenumber-independence of the vertically integrated available potential energy, and (iii) its positive definiteness. The spectral (or generalized Fourier) approach based on vertical modes in the isopycnal coordinate is shown to enable an alternative derivation of the 2nd-order KdV equation, without encountering nonuniqueness. Comparison with previous theories shows that Parseval's theorem naturally yields a unique set of special conditions for (ii) and (iii). Hydrostatic fully nonlinear solutions, derived by combining the spectral approach and simple-wave analysis, reveal that both proposed and previous 2nd-order theories satisfy (i), provided that consistent definitions are used for the wave amplitude and the nonlinear correction. This condition reduces the arbitrariness when higher-order KdV-type theories are compared with observations or numerical simulations. The coefficients and correction functions that satisfy (i)-(iii) are given by explicit formulae to 2nd order and by algebraic recurrence relationships to arbitrary order for hydrostatic fully nonlinear and linear fully nonhydrostatic effects.
Stability of non-linear constitutive formulations for viscoelastic fluids
Siginer, Dennis A
2014-01-01
Stability of Non-linear Constitutive Formulations for Viscoelastic Fluids provides a complete and up-to-date view of the field of constitutive equations for flowing viscoelastic fluids, in particular on their non-linear behavior, the stability of these constitutive equations that is their predictive power, and the impact of these constitutive equations on the dynamics of viscoelastic fluid flow in tubes. This book gives an overall view of the theories and attendant methodologies developed independently of thermodynamic considerations as well as those set within a thermodynamic framework to derive non-linear rheological constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Developments in formulating Maxwell-like constitutive differential equations as well as single integral constitutive formulations are discussed in the light of Hadamard and dissipative type of instabilities.
A review on rising bubble dynamics in viscosity-stratified fluids
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kirti Chandra Sahu
Multiphase flow; non-Newtonian; immiscible fluids; bubbles; numerical simulations. 1. Introduction. The fluid dynamics of a gas bubble rising due to buoyancy in a surrounding .... Figure 2. Behaviour of a single bubble rising in quiescent liquid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, W.; Coste, P.; Bestion, D.; Boucker, M.
2003-01-01
In this paper, a local 3D two-fluid model for a turbulent stratified flow with/without condensation, which can be used to predict two-phase pressurized thermal shock, is presented. A modified turbulent K- model is proposed with turbulence production induced by interfacial friction. A model of interfacial friction based on a interfacial sublayer concept and three interfacial heat transfer models, namely, a model based on the small eddies controlled surface renewal concept (HDM, Hughes and Duffey, 1991), a model based on the asymptotic behavior of the Eddy Viscosity (EVM), and a model based on the Interfacial Sublayer concept (ISM) are implemented into a preliminary version of the NEPTUNE code based on the 3D module of the CATHARE code. As a first step to apply the above models to predict the two-phase thermal shock, the models are evaluated by comparison of calculated profiles with several experiments: a turbulent air-water stratified flow without interfacial heat transfer; a turbulent steam-water stratified flow with condensation; turbulence induced by the impact of a water jet in a water pool. The prediction results agree well with the experimental data. In addition, the comparison of three interfacial heat transfer models shows that EVM and ISM gave better prediction results while HDM highly overestimated the interfacial heat transfers compared to the experimental data of a steam water stratified flow
Non-linear seismic analysis of structures coupled with fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Descleve, P.; Derom, P.; Dubois, J.
1983-01-01
This paper presents a method to calculate non-linear structure behaviour under horizontal and vertical seismic excitation, making possible the full non-linear seismic analysis of a reactor vessel. A pseudo forces method is used to introduce non linear effects and the problem is solved by superposition. Two steps are used in the method: - Linear calculation of the complete model. - Non linear analysis of thin shell elements and calculation of seismic induced pressure originating from linear and non linear effects, including permanent loads and thermal stresses. Basic aspects of the mathematical formulation are developed. It has been applied to axi-symmetric shell element using a Fourier series solution. For the fluid interaction effect, a comparison is made with a dynamic test. In an example of application, the displacement and pressure time history are given. (orig./GL)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. M. Ajayi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of a non-Newtonian fluid flow past an upper surface of an object that is neither a perfect horizontal/vertical nor inclined/cone in which dissipation of energy is associated with temperature-dependent plastic dynamic viscosity is considered. An attempt has been made to focus on the case of two-dimensional Casson fluid flow over a horizontal melting surface embedded in a thermally stratified medium. Since the viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluid tends to take energy from the motion (kinetic energy and transform it into internal energy, the viscous dissipation term is accommodated in the energy equation. Due to the existence of internal space-dependent heat source; plastic dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the non-Newtonian fluid are assumed to vary linearly with temperature. Based on the boundary layer assumptions, suitable similarity variables are applied to nondimensionalized, parameterized and reduce the governing partial differential equations into a coupled ordinary differential equations. These equations along with the boundary conditions are solved numerically using the shooting method together with the Runge-Kutta technique. The effects of pertinent parameters are established. A significant increases in Rex1/2Cfx is guaranteed with St when magnitude of β is large. Rex1/2Cfx decreases with Ec and m.
Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Bardakov, R. N.
2018-02-01
By the methods of schlieren visualization, the evolution of elements of the fine structure of transverse vortex loops formed in the circular vortex behind the edge of a disk rotating in a continuously stratified fluid is traced for the first time. An inhomogeneous distribution of the density of a table-salt solution in a basin was formed by the continuous-squeezing method. The development of periodic perturbations at the outer boundary of the circular vortex and their transformation at the vortex-loop vertex are traced. A slow change in the angular size of the structural elements in the supercritical-flow mode is noted.
Tsamopoulos, John; Fraggedakis, Dimitris; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis
2015-11-01
We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our Volume-of-Fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results (Cohen et al. (1999)). Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our results provide deeper insights in the mechanism of the pattern transitions and are in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow (Kouris & Tsamopoulos (2001 & 2002)), segmented flow (Lac & Sherwood (2009)) and churn flow (Bai et al. (1992)). GSRT of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918, entitled ``FilCoMicrA'').
Seadawy, Aly R.
2017-12-01
In this study, we presented the problem formulations of models for internal solitary waves in a stratified shear flow with a free surface. The nonlinear higher order of extended KdV equations for the free surface displacement is generated. We derived the coefficients of the nonlinear higher-order extended KdV equation in terms of integrals of the modal function for the linear long-wave theory. The wave amplitude potential and the fluid pressure of the extended KdV equation in the form of solitary-wave solutions are deduced. We discussed and analyzed the stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making graphs of the exact solutions.
Expressions for linearized perturbations in ideal-fluid cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratra, B.
1988-01-01
We present closed-form solutions of the relativistic linear perturbation equations (in synchronous gauge) that govern the evolution of inhomogeneities in homogeneous, spatially flat, ideal-fluid, cosmological models. These expressions, which are valid for irregularities on any scale, allow one to analytically interpolate between the known approximate solutions which are valid at early times and at late times
Non-linear oscillations of fluid in a container
Verhagen, J.H.G.; van Wijngaarden, L.
1965-01-01
This paper is concerned with forced oscillations of fluid in a rectangular container. From the linearized approximation of the equations governing these oscillations, resonance frequencies are obtained for which the amplitude of the oscillations becomes infinite. Observation shows that under these
On singular limits arising in the scale analysis of stratified fluid flows
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Klein, R.; Novotný, A.; Zatorska, E.
2016-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 3 (2016), s. 419-443 ISSN 0218-2025 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) MATHEF(320078) Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : isentropic fluid flow * strong stratification * singular limit * anelastic approximation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.860, year: 2016 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/10.1142/S021820251650007X
Bilal, S.; Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.
Present study is addressed to express the implementation of Keller-Box technique on physical problem in the field of fluid rheology, for this purpose the Williamson fluid flow is considered along a cylindrical stretching surface manifested with temperature stratification. The flow model is translated mathematically in terms of differential equations. Numerical simulation is executed to trace out the solution structure of developed differential system. The graphical outcomes for the flow regime of two different geometries (i-e cylindrical and plane surface) are reported and examined towards involved physical parameters. Furthermore, the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are computed numerically. A remarkable agreement of present study is noticed with the previously published results, which confirms the implementation and validation of Keller-Box scheme and it will serve as a helping source for the future correspondence.
The Near Wake of Bluff Bodies in Stratified Fluids and the Emergence of Late Wake Characteristics
2010-10-29
The Physics of Fluids, 20:187-191, 1977. [39] L. Prandtl. Uber ttiissigkeitsbewegimg bei sehr kleiuer reibung. Int. Math. Kongr. Heidelberg, pages...Tij = UiUj — Ui Uj. (3) The form of equations (1) and (2) requires that the filtering and differentiation com- mute (Ghosal and Moin (1995...introduced an exponential filter which has an inverse in a form of a differential operator. The inverse allows to compute the SGS stress tensor from the
Linear and nonlinear analysis of fluid slosh dampers
Sayar, B. A.; Baumgarten, J. R.
1982-11-01
A vibrating structure and a container partially filled with fluid are considered coupled in a free vibration mode. To simplify the mathematical analysis, a pendulum model to duplicate the fluid motion and a mass-spring dashpot representing the vibrating structure are used. The equations of motion are derived by Lagrange's energy approach and expressed in parametric form. For a wide range of parametric values the logarithmic decrements of the main system are calculated from theoretical and experimental response curves in the linear analysis. However, for the nonlinear analysis the theoretical and experimental response curves of the main system are compared. Theoretical predictions are justified by experimental observations with excellent agreement. It is concluded finally that for a proper selection of design parameters, containers partially filled with viscous fluids serve as good vibration dampers.
On the possibility of wave-induced chaos in a sheared, stably stratified fluid layer
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W. B. Zimmermann
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Shear flow in a stable stratification provides a waveguide for internal gravity waves. In the inviscid approximation, internal gravity waves are known to be unstable below a threshold in Richardson number. However, in a viscous fluid, at low enough Reynolds number, this threshold recedes to Ri = 0. Nevertheless, even the slightest viscosity strongly damps internal gravity waves when the Richardson number is small (shear forces dominate buoyant forces. In this paper we address the dynamics that approximately govern wave propagation when the Richardson number is small and the fluid is viscous. When Ri ξ = λ1A + λ2Aξξ + λ3Aξξξ + λ4AAξ + b(ξ where ξ is the coordinate of the rest frame of the passing temperature wave whose horizontal profile is b(ξ. The parameters λi are constants that depend on the Reynolds number. The above dynamical system is know to have limit cycle and chaotic attrators when forcing is sinusoidal and wave attenuation negligible.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, B.L.
1992-01-01
A plot of lung-cancer rates versus radon exposures in 965 US counties, or in all US states, has a strong negative slope, b, in sharp contrast to the strong positive slope predicted by linear/no-threshold theory. The discrepancy between these slopes exceeds 20 standard deviations (SD). Including smoking frequency in the analysis substantially improves fits to a linear relationship but has little effect on the discrepancy in b, because correlations between smoking frequency and radon levels are quite weak. Including 17 socioeconomic variables (SEV) in multiple regression analysis reduces the discrepancy to 15 SD. Data were divided into segments by stratifying on each SEV in turn, and on geography, and on both simultaneously, giving over 300 data sets to be analyzed individually, but negative slopes predominated. The slope is negative whether one considers only the most urban counties or only the most rural; only the richest or only the poorest; only the richest in the South Atlantic region or only the poorest in that region, etc., etc.,; and for all the strata in between. Since this is an ecological study, the well-known problems with ecological studies were investigated and found not to be applicable here. The open-quotes ecological fallacyclose quotes was shown not to apply in testing a linear/no-threshold theory, and the vulnerability to confounding is greatly reduced when confounding factors are only weakly correlated with radon levels, as is generally the case here. All confounding factors known to correlate with radon and with lung cancer were investigated quantitatively and found to have little effect on the discrepancy
Liu, Tianyang; Chan, Hiu Ning; Grimshaw, Roger; Chow, Kwok Wing
2017-11-01
The spatial structure of small disturbances in stratified flows without background shear, usually named the `Taylor-Goldstein equation', is studied by employing the Boussinesq approximation (variation in density ignored except in the buoyancy). Analytical solutions are derived for special wavenumbers when the Brunt-Väisälä frequency is quadratic in hyperbolic secant, by comparison with coupled systems of nonlinear Schrödinger equations intensively studied in the literature. Cases of coupled Schrödinger equations with four, five and six components are utilized as concrete examples. Dispersion curves for arbitrary wavenumbers are obtained numerically. The computations of the group velocity, second harmonic, induced mean flow, and the second derivative of the angular frequency can all be facilitated by these exact linear eigenfunctions of the Taylor-Goldstein equation in terms of hyperbolic function, leading to a cubic Schrödinger equation for the evolution of a wavepacket. The occurrence of internal rogue waves can be predicted if the dispersion and cubic nonlinearity terms of the Schrödinger equations are of the same sign. Partial financial support has been provided by the Research Grants Council contract HKU 17200815.
Barnett, Alex H.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Mahoney, J. Matthew
2015-09-01
We apply boundary integral equations for the first time to the two-dimensional scattering of time-harmonic waves from a smooth obstacle embedded in a continuously-graded unbounded medium. In the case we solve, the square of the wavenumber (refractive index) varies linearly in one coordinate, i.e. (Δ + E +x2) u (x1 ,x2) = 0 where E is a constant; this models quantum particles of fixed energy in a uniform gravitational field, and has broader applications to stratified media in acoustics, optics and seismology. We evaluate the fundamental solution efficiently with exponential accuracy via numerical saddle-point integration, using the truncated trapezoid rule with typically 102 nodes, with an effort that is independent of the frequency parameter E. By combining with a high-order Nyström quadrature, we are able to solve the scattering from obstacles 50 wavelengths across to 11 digits of accuracy in under a minute on a desktop or laptop.
Linear and nonlinear viscous flow in two-dimensional fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravina, D.; Ciccotti, G.; Holian, B.L.
1995-01-01
We report on molecular dynamics simulations of shear viscosity η of a dense two-dimensional fluid as a function of the shear rate γ. We find an analytic dependence of η on γ, and do not find any evidence whatsoever of divergence in the Green-Kubo (GK) value that would be caused by the well-known long-time tail for the shear-stress autocorrelation function, as predicted by the mode-coupling theory. In accordance with the linear response theory, the GK value of η agrees remarkably well with nonequilibrium values at small shear rates. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matyushin, Pavel; Gushchin, Valentin
2011-01-01
The 3D separated, density stratified viscous fluid flows around a sphere are investigated by means of the direct numerical simulation (DNS) on the basis of the Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation on the supercomputers at the wide range of internal Froude (Fr) and Reynolds (Re) numbers. For DNS the Splitting on physical factors Method for Incompressible Fluid flows (SMIF) with the hybrid explicit finite difference scheme (second-order accuracy in space, minimum scheme viscosity and dispersion, monotonous) has been used. At Fr > 10 with increasing of Re we observed the flow regimes of the homogeneous viscous fluid (including the laminar-turbulent transition in the boundary layer on the sphere). With decreasing of Fr at Re < 500 the strong transformation of vortex structures in the sphere wake is demonstrated by means of the β – visualization. Thus the refined classification of the flow regimes around a sphere moving in the viscous stratified fluid is presented.
Kinematics of a Fluid Ellipse in a Linear Flow
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Jonathan M. Lilly
2018-02-01
Full Text Available A four-parameter kinematic model for the position of a fluid parcel in a time-varying ellipse is introduced. For any ellipse advected by an arbitrary linear two-dimensional flow, the rates of change of the ellipse parameters are uniquely determined by the four parameters of the velocity gradient matrix, and vice versa. This result, termed ellipse/flow equivalence, provides a stronger version of the well-known result that a linear velocity field maps an ellipse into another ellipse. Moreover, ellipse/flow equivalence is shown to be a manifestation of Stokes’ theorem. This is done by deriving a matrix-valued extension of the classical Stokes’ theorem that involves a spatial integral over the velocity gradient tensor, thus accounting for the two strain terms in addition to the divergence and vorticity. General expressions for various physical properties of an elliptical ring of fluid are also derived. The ellipse kinetic energy is found to be composed of three portions, associated respectively with the circulation, the rate of change of the moment of inertia, and the variance of parcel angular velocity around the ellipse. A particular innovation is the use of four matrices, termed the I J K L basis, that greatly facilitate the required calculations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pitta Srinivasa Rao
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to make a computational study of stratified scavenging system in two-stroke medium capacity engines to reduce or to curb the emissions from the two-stroke engines. The 3-D flows within the cylinder are simulated using computational fluid dynamics and the code Fluent 6. Flow structures in the transfer ports and the exhaust port are predicted without the stratification and with the stratification, and are well predicted. The total pressure and velocity map from computation provided comprehensive information on the scavenging and stratification phenomenon. Analysis is carried out for the transfer ports flow and the extra port in the transfer port along with the exhaust port when the piston is moving from the top dead center to the bottom dead center, as the ports are closed, half open, three forth open, and full port opening. An unstructured cell is adopted for meshing the geometry created in CATIA software. Flow is simulated by solving governing equations namely conservation of mass momentum and energy using SIMPLE algorithm. Turbulence is modeled by high Reynolds number version k-e model. Experimental measurements are made for validating the numerical prediction. Good agreement is observed between predicted result and experimental data; that the stratification had significantly reduced the emissions and fuel economy is achieved.
Peacock, Tom; Blanchette, Francois; Bush, John W. M.
2005-04-01
We present the results of an experimental investigation of the flows generated by monodisperse particles settling at low Reynolds number in a stably stratified ambient with an inclined sidewall. In this configuration, upwelling beneath the inclined wall associated with the Boycott effect is opposed by the ambient density stratification. The evolution of the system is determined by the relative magnitudes of the container depth, h, and the neutral buoyancy height, hn = c0(ρp-ρf)/|dρ/dz|, where c0 is the particle concentration, ρp the particle density, ρf the mean fluid density and dρ/dz Boycott layer transports dense fluid from the bottom to the top of the system; subsequently, the upper clear layer of dense saline fluid is mixed by convection. For sufficiently strong stratification, h > hn, layering occurs. The lowermost layer is created by clear fluid transported from the base to its neutral buoyancy height, and has a vertical extent hn; subsequently, smaller overlying layers develop. Within each layer, convection erodes the initially linear density gradient, generating a step-like density profile throughout the system that persists after all the particles have settled. Particles are transported across the discrete density jumps between layers by plumes of particle-laden fluid.
Fluid-structure interactions in one-dimensional linear cases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schumann, U.
1979-01-01
The interaction of pressure waves in a pipe with an elastic endwall (piston) is analyzed using a linear ('acoustic') model. Two transient and two periodic cases are investigated. In the transient cases the motions are initiated by either a sudden pressure drop at the opeen end (breaking membrane) or by a sudden release of the piston from a non-equilibrium position ('snapback'); in the latter case the other end of the pipe is closed. In the periodic cases harmonic oscillations of the piston and the fluid are investigated with the other end of the pipe being either closed or open (kept at constant pressure). The problem is characterized by three non-dimensional numbers (e.g.: Mach-, Strouhal-, and an interaction-number). The solution of the wave equation for the pressure accounting for the coupling to the structure can be reduced analytically to the problem of integrating one ordinary differential equation of second order in time. This differential equation in turn can be integrated analytically at least for a certain time period. At later times this ordinary differential equation is integrated numerically. For the periodic cases eigenvalue-problems arise with an infinite number of solutions. The first few eigensolutions are given. (orig./RW) [de
Two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function in the Einstein-Cartan theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gallakhmetov, A.M.
2002-01-01
In the framework of the Einstein-Cartan theory, two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function are considered. One of these modelling anisotropic matter distributions within star and the other fluid is a perfect fluid representing a source of torsion. It is shown that the solutions of the Einstein equations for anisotropic relativistic spheres in General Relativity may generate the solutions in the Einstein-Cartan theory. Some exact solutions are obtained
Linear waves in two-fluid relativistic gasdynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrikov, M.B.; Solov'ev, L.S.
1988-01-01
This paper is devoted to the development of a theory of waves propagating in a two-component gaseous medium. In all cases considered the authors use only the method of two-fluid relativistic electromagnetic gasdynamics in the framework of the special relativity theory. They pay special attention to the problem of the interaction in a mixture of both neutral and charged gases when they move relative to one another. This interaction is for charged gases responsible for the appearance of ohmic resistance to an electrical current
Revisited global drift fluid model for linear devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiser, Dirk
2012-01-01
The problem of energy conserving global drift fluid simulations is revisited. It is found that for the case of cylindrical plasmas in a homogenous magnetic field, a straightforward reformulation is possible avoiding simplifications leading to energetic inconsistencies. The particular new feature is the rigorous treatment of the polarisation drift by a generalization of the vorticity equation. The resulting set of model equations contains previous formulations as limiting cases and is suitable for efficient numerical techniques. Examples of applications on studies of plasma blobs and its impact on plasma target interaction are presented. The numerical studies focus on the appearance of plasma blobs and intermittent transport and its consequences on the release of sputtered target materials in the plasma. Intermittent expulsion of particles in radial direction can be observed and it is found that although the neutrals released from the target show strong fluctuations in their propagation into the plasma column, the overall effect on time averaged profiles is negligible for the conditions considered. In addition, the numerical simulations are utilised to perform an a-posteriori assessment of the magnitude of energetic inconsistencies in previously used simplified models. It is found that certain popular approximations, in particular by the use of simplified vorticity equations, do not significantly affect energetics. However, popular model simplifications with respect to parallel advection are found to provide significant deterioration of the model consistency.
Knotted solutions for linear and nonlinear theories: Electromagnetism and fluid dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel W.F. Alves
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We examine knotted solutions, the most simple of which is the “Hopfion”, from the point of view of relations between electromagnetism and ideal fluid dynamics. A map between fluid dynamics and electromagnetism works for initial conditions or for linear perturbations, allowing us to find new knotted fluid solutions. Knotted solutions are also found to be solutions of nonlinear generalizations of electromagnetism, and of quantum-corrected actions for electromagnetism coupled to other modes. For null configurations, electromagnetism can be described as a null pressureless fluid, for which we can find solutions from the knotted solutions of electromagnetism. We also map them to solutions of Euler's equations, obtained from a type of nonrelativistic reduction of the relativistic fluid equations.
Automated finder for the critical condition on the linear stability of fluid motions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, Kaoru
1990-03-01
An automated finder routine for the critical condition on the linear stability of fluid motions is proposed. The Newton-Raphson method was utilized for an iteration to solve nonlinear eigenvalue problems appeared in the analysis. The routine was applied to linear stability problem of a free convection between vertical parallel plates with different non-uniform temperatures as well as a plane Poiseuille flow. An efficiency of the finder routine is demonstrated for several parameter sets, numerically. (author)
Finite element procedures for coupled linear analysis of heat transfer, fluid and solid mechanics
Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.
1993-01-01
Coupled finite element formulations for fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and solid mechanics are derived from the conservation laws for energy, mass, and momentum. To model the physics of interactions among the participating disciplines, the linearized equations are coupled by combining domain and boundary coupling procedures. Iterative numerical solution strategy is presented to solve the equations, with the partitioning of temporal discretization implemented.
Wiederhold, Andreas; Ebert, Reschad; Resagk, Christian; Research Training Group: "Lorentz Force Velocimetry; Lorentz Force Eddy Current Testing" Team
2016-11-01
We report about the feasibility of Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) for various flow profiles. LFV is a contactless non-invasive technique to measure flow velocity and has been developed in the last years in our institute. This method is advantageous if the fluid is hot, aggressive or opaque like glass melts or liquid metal flows. The conducted experiments shall prove an increased versatility for industrial applications of this method. For the force measurement we use an electromagnetic force compensation balance. As electrolyte salty water is used with an electrical conductivity in the range of 0.035 which corresponds to tap water up to 20 Sm-1. Because the conductivity is six orders less than that of liquid metals, here the challenging bottleneck is the resolution of the measurement system. The results show only a slight influence in the force signal at symmetric and strongly asymmetric flow profiles. Furthermore we report about the application of LFV to stratified two-phase flows. We show that it is possible to detect interface instabilities, which is important for the dimensioning of liquid metal batteries. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunlong Shi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We solve the so-called dissipative nonlinear Schrödinger equation by means of multiple scales analysis and perturbation method to describe envelope solitary Rossby waves with dissipation effect in stratified fluids. By analyzing the evolution of amplitude of envelope solitary Rossby waves, it is found that the shear of basic flow, Brunt-Vaisala frequency, and β effect are important factors to form the envelope solitary Rossby waves. By employing trial function method, the asymptotic solution of dissipative nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived. Based on the solution, the effect of dissipation on the evolution of envelope solitary Rossby wave is also discussed. The results show that the dissipation causes a slow decrease of amplitude of envelope solitary Rossby waves and a slow increase of width, while it has no effect on the propagation velocity. That is quite different from the KdV-type solitary waves. It is notable that dissipation has certain influence on the carrier frequency.
B. Koren (Barry); M.R. Lewis; E.H. van Brummelen (Harald); B. van Leer
2001-01-01
textabstractA finite-volume method is presented for the computation of compressible flows of two immiscible fluids at very different densities. The novel ingredient in the method is a two-fluid linearized Godunov scheme, allowing for flux computations in case of different fluids (e.g., water and
Linear study of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for a viscous compressible fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hallo, L.; Gauthier, S.
1992-01-01
The linear phase of the process leading to a developed turbulence is particularly important for the study of flow stability. A Galerkin spectral method adapted to the study of the mixture layer of one fluid is proposed from a sheared initial velocity profile. An algebraic mapping is developed to improve accuracy near high gradient zone. Validation is obtained by analytic methods for non-viscous flow and multi-domain spectral methods for viscous and compressible flow. Rates of growth are presented for subsonic and slightly supersonic flow. An extension of the method is presented for the study of the linear stability of a mixture with variable concentration and transport properties
Khalil-Ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Bilal, S.; Bibi, M.
The current analysis reports the untapped characteristics of magneto-hydrodynamic dual convection boundary layer stagnation point flow of Powell-Eyring fluid by way of cylindrical surface. Flow exploration is carried out with the combined effects of thermal and solutal stratification. The strength of temperature and concentration adjacent to the cylindrical surface is assumed to be greater than the ambient fluid. Flow conducting mathematically modelled equations are fairly transformed into system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations with the aid of suitable transformations. The computations are made against these resultant coupled equations through shooting technique by the support of fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithm. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect logs of various pertinent flow controlling parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration flow regime. The achieved outcomes are validated by developing comparison with existing published literature. In addition, numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented graphically for two different geometries namely, plate and cylinder.
Simulations of fluid flow through porous media based on cellular automata and non-linear dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paulson, K V
1992-05-15
A study is being carried out to apply cellular automata and non-linear dynamics in the construction of efficient and accurate computer simulations of multiphase fluid flow through porous media, with the objective of application to reservoir modelling for hydrocarbon recovery. An algorithm based on Boolean operations has been developed which transforms a PC clone into a highly efficient vector processor capable of cellular automata simulation of single fluid flow through two-dimensional rock matrix models of varying porosities. Macroscopic flow patterns have been established through spatial and temporal averaging with no floating point operations. Permeabilities of the different models have been calculated. Hardware allows the algorithm to function on dual processors on a PC platform using a video recording and editing facility. Very encouraging results have been obtained. 4 figs.
Linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an accelerated Newtonian fluid with finite width
Piriz, S. A.; Piriz, A. R.; Tahir, N. A.
2018-04-01
The linear theory of Rayleigh-Taylor instability is developed for the case of a viscous fluid layer accelerated by a semi-infinite viscous fluid, considering that the top interface is a free surface. Effects of the surface tensions at both interfaces are taken into account. When viscous effects dominate on surface tensions, an interplay of two mechanisms determines opposite behaviors of the instability growth rate with the thickness of the heavy layer for an Atwood number AT=1 and for sufficiently small values of AT. In the former case, viscosity is a less effective stabilizing mechanism for the thinnest layers. However, the finite thickness of the heavy layer enhances its viscous effects that, in general, prevail on the viscous effects of the semi-infinite medium.
Thermal-Induced Non-linearity of Ag Nano-fluid Prepared using γ-Radiation Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esmaeil Shahriari; Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus; Zainal Abidin Talib; Elias Saion
2011-01-01
The non-linear refractive index of Ag nano-fluids prepared by γ-radiation method was investigated using a single beam z-scan technique. Under CW 532 nm laser excitation with power output of 40 mW, the Ag nano-fluids showed a large thermal-induced non-linear refractive index. In the present work it was determined that the non-linear refractive index for Ag nano-fluids is -4.80x10 -8 cm 2 / W. The value of Δn 0 was calculated to be -2.05x10 -4 . Our measurements also confirmed that the non-linear phenomenon was caused by the self-defocusing process making them good candidates for non linear optical devices. (author)
Sankararaman, Sumithra; Menon, Gautam I; Sunil Kumar, P B
2002-09-01
We study the linearized hydrodynamics of a two-component fluid membrane near a repulsive wall, using a model that incorporates curvature-concentration coupling as well as hydrodynamic interactions. This model is a simplified version of a recently proposed one [J.-B. Manneville et al., Phys. Rev. E 64, 021908 (2001)] for nonequilibrium force centers embedded in fluid membranes, such as light-activated bacteriorhodopsin pumps incorporated in phospholipid egg phosphatidyl choline (EPC) bilayers. The pump-membrane system is modeled as an impermeable, two-component bilayer fluid membrane in the presence of an ambient solvent, in which one component, representing active pumps, is described in terms of force dipoles displaced with respect to the bilayer midpoint. We first discuss the case in which such pumps are rendered inactive, computing the mode structure in the bulk as well as the modification of hydrodynamic properties by the presence of a nearby wall. These results should apply, more generally, to equilibrium fluid membranes comprised of two components, in which the effects of curvature-concentration coupling are significant, above the threshold for phase separation. We then discuss the fluctuations and mode structure in the steady state of active two-component membranes near a repulsive wall. We find that proximity to the wall smoothens membrane height fluctuations in the stable regime, resulting in a logarithmic scaling of the roughness even for initially tensionless membranes. This explicitly nonequilibrium result is a consequence of the incorporation of curvature-concentration coupling in our hydrodynamic treatment. This result also indicates that earlier scaling arguments which obtained an increase in the roughness of active membranes near repulsive walls upon neglecting the role played by such couplings may need to be reevaluated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sotnikov, V.I.; Paraschiv, I.; Makhin, V.; Bauer, B.S.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Dawson, J.M.
2002-01-01
A systematic study of the linear stage of sheared flow stabilization of Z-pinch plasmas based on the Hall fluid model with equilibrium that contains sheared flow and an axial magnetic field is presented. In the study we begin with the derivation of a general set of equations that permits the evaluation of the combined effect of sheared flow and axial magnetic field on the development of the azimuthal mode number m=0 sausage and m=1 kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities, with the Hall term included in the model. The incorporation of sheared flow, axial magnetic field, and the Hall term allows the Z-pinch system to be taken away from the region in parameter space where ideal MHD is applicable to a regime where nonideal effects tend to govern stability. The problem is then treated numerically by following the linear development in time of an initial perturbation. The numerical results for linear growth rates as a function of axial sheared flow, an axial magnetic field, and the Hall term are reported
Analytical approach to linear fractional partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Momani, Shaher; Odibat, Zaid
2006-01-01
In this Letter, we implement relatively new analytical techniques, the variational iteration method and the Adomian decomposition method, for solving linear fractional partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. The two methods in applied mathematics can be used as alternative methods for obtaining analytic and approximate solutions for different types of fractional differential equations. In these methods, the solution takes the form of a convergent series with easily computable components. The corresponding solutions of the integer order equations are found to follow as special cases of those of fractional order equations. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency and reliability of the two methods
Optimized parallel convolutions for non-linear fluid models of tokamak ηi turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milovich, J.L.; Tomaschke, G.; Kerbel, G.D.
1993-01-01
Non-linear computational fluid models of plasma turbulence based on spectral methods typically spend a large fraction of the total computing time evaluating convolutions. Usually these convolutions arise from an explicit or semi implicit treatment of the convective non-linearities in the problem. Often the principal convective velocity is perpendicular to magnetic field lines allowing a reduction of the convolution to two dimensions in an appropriate geometry, but beyond this, different models vary widely in the particulars of which mode amplitudes are selectively evolved to get the most efficient representation of the turbulence. As the number of modes in the problem, N, increases, the amount of computation required for this part of the evolution algorithm then scales as N 2 /timestep for a direct or analytic method and N ln N/timestep for a pseudospectral method. The constants of proportionality depend on the particulars of mode selection and determine the size problem for which the method will perform equally. For large enough N, the pseudospectral method performance is always superior, though some problems do not require correspondingly high resolution. Further, the Courant condition for numerical stability requires that the timestep size must decrease proportionately as N increases, thus accentuating the need to have fast methods for larger N problems. The authors have developed a package for the Cray system which performs these convolutions for a rather arbitrary mode selection scheme using either method. The package is highly optimized using a combination of macro and microtasking techniques, as well as vectorization and in some cases assembly coded routines. Parts of the package have also been developed and optimized for the CM200 and CM5 system. Performance comparisons with respect to problem size, parallelization, selection schemes and architecture are presented
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kalidas Das
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The temperament of stream characteristic, heat and mass transfer of MHD forced convective flow over a linearly expanding porous medium has been scrutinized in the progress exploration. The germane possessions of the liquid like viscosity along with thermal conductivity are believed to be variable in nature, directly influenced by the temperature of flow. As soon as gaining the system of leading equations of the stream, Lie symmetric group transformations have been employed to come across the fitting parallel conversions to alter the central PDEs into a suit of ODEs. The renovated system of ODE with appropriate boundary conditions is numerically solved with the assistance of illustrative software MAPLE 17. The consequences of the relevant factors of the system have been exemplified through charts and graphs. An analogous qualified survey has been prepared among present inquiry and subsisting reads and achieved an admirable accord between them. The variable viscosity parameter has more significant effect on nanofluid velocity than regular fluid and temporal profile as well as nanoparticle concentration is also influenced with variable viscosity. Keywords: Nanofluid, Stretching sheet, Variable viscosity, Variable thermal conductivity, Lie symmetry group
Role of size on the relative importance of fluid dynamic losses in linear cryocoolers
Kirkconnell, Carl; Ghavami, Ali; Ghiaasiaan, S. Mostafa; Perrella, Matthew
2017-12-01
Thermodynamic modeling results for a novel small satellite (SmallSat) Stirling Cryocooler, capable of delivering over 200 mW net cooling power at 80 K for less than 6 W DC input power, are used in this paper as the basis for related pulse tube computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Industry and government requirements for SmallSat infrared sensors are driving the development of ever-more miniaturized cryocooler systems. Such cryocoolers must be extremely compact and lightweight, a challenge met by this research team through operating a Stirling cryocooler at a frequency of approximately 300 Hz. The primary advantage of operating at such a high frequency is that the required compression and expansion swept volumes are reduced relative to linear coolers operating at lower frequencies, which evidently reduces the size of the motor mechanisms and the thermodynamic components. In the case of a pulse tube cryocooler, this includes a reduction in diameter of the pulse tube itself. This unfortunately leads to high boundary layer losses, as the presented results demonstrate. Using a Stirling approach with a mechanical moving expander piston eliminates this small pulse tube loss mechanism, but other challenges are introduced, such as maintaining very tight clearance gaps between moving and stationary elements. This paper focuses on CFD modelling results for a highly miniaturized pulse tube cooler.
Inviscid linear stability analysis of two fluid columns of different densities subject to gravity
Prathama, Aditya; Pantano, Carlos
2017-11-01
We investigate the inviscid linear stability of vertical interface between two fluid columns of different densities under the influence of gravity. In this flow arrangement, the two free streams are continuously accelerating, in contrast to the canonical Kelvin-Helmholtz or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities whose base flows are stationary (or weakly time dependent). In these classical cases, the temporal evolution of the interface can be expressed as Fourier or Laplace solutions in time. This is not possible in our case; instead, we employ the initial value problem method to solve the equations analytically. The results, expressed in terms of the well-known parabolic cylinder function, indicate that the instability grows as the exponential of a quadratic function of time. The analysis shows that in this accelerating Kelvin-Helmholtz configuration, the interface is unconditionally unstable at all wave modes, despite the presence of surface tension. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0002382) and the California Institute of Technology.
Seismic energy dissipation study of linear fluid viscous dampers in steel structure design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ras
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Energy dissipation systems in civil engineering structures are sought when it comes to removing unwanted energy such as earthquake and wind. Among these systems, there is combination of structural steel frames with passive energy dissipation provided by Fluid Viscous Dampers (FVD. This device is increasingly used to provide better seismic protection for existing as well as new buildings and bridges. A 3D numerical investigation is done considering the seismic response of a twelve-storey steel building moment frame with diagonal FVD that have linear force versus velocity behaviour. Nonlinear time history, which is being calculated by Fast nonlinear analysis (FNA, of Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 2003 is considered for the analysis and carried out using the SAP2000 software and comparisons between unbraced, braced and damped structure are shown in a tabulated and graphical format. The results of the various systems are studied to compare the structural response with and without this device of the energy dissipation thus obtained. The conclusions showed the formidable potential of the FVD to improve the dissipative capacities of the structure without increasing its rigidity. It is contributing significantly to reduce the quantity of steel necessary for its general stability.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar
2015-01-01
An efficient finite element scheme for solving the non-linear Reynolds equation for compressible fluid coupled to compliant structures is presented. The method is general and fast and can be used in the analysis of airfoil bearings with simplified or complex foil structure models. To illustrate...
Stability of unstably stratified shear flow between parallel plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujimura, Kaoru; Kelly, R E
1987-09-01
The linear stability of unstably stratified shear flows between two horizontal parallel plates was investigated. Eigenvalue problems were solved numerically by making use of the expansion method in Chebyshev polynomials, and the critical Rayleigh numbers were obtained accurately in the Reynolds number range of (0.01, 100). It was found that the critical Rayleigh number increases with an increase of the Reynolds number. The result strongly supports previous stability analyses except for the analysis by Makino and Ishikawa (J. Jpn. Soc. Fluid Mech. 4 (1985) 148 - 158) in which a decrease of the critical Rayleigh number was obtained.
Stability of unstably stratified shear flow between parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, Kaoru; Kelly, R.E.
1987-01-01
The linear stability of unstably stratified shear flows between two horizontal parallel plates was investigated. Eigenvalue problems were solved numerically by making use of the expansion method in Chebyshev polynomials, and the critical Rayleigh numbers were obtained accurately in the Reynolds number range of [0.01, 100]. It was found that the critical Rayleigh number increases with an increase of the Reynolds number. The result strongly supports previous stability analyses except for the analysis by Makino and Ishikawa [J. Jpn. Soc. Fluid Mech. 4 (1985) 148 - 158] in which a decrease of the critical Rayleigh number was obtained. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Michael; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny
2017-01-01
We address the task of computing solutions for a separating fluid-solid wall boundary condition model. We present an embarrassingly parallel, easy to implement, fluid LCP solver.We are able to use greater domain sizes than previous works have shown, due to our new solver. The solver exploits matr...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zubarev, N.M.; Zubareva, O.V.
2017-01-01
The magnetic shaping problem is studied for the situation where a cylindrical column of a perfectly conducting fluid is deformed by the magnetic field of a system of linear current-carrying conductors. Equilibrium is achieved due to the balance of capillary and magnetic pressures. Two two-parametric families of exact solutions of the problem are obtained with the help of conformal mapping technique. In accordance with them, the column essentially deforms in the cross section up to its disintegration.
Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.
2017-06-01
The magnetic shaping problem is studied for the situation where a cylindrical column of a perfectly conducting fluid is deformed by the magnetic field of a system of linear current-carrying conductors. Equilibrium is achieved due to the balance of capillary and magnetic pressures. Two two-parametric families of exact solutions of the problem are obtained with the help of conformal mapping technique. In accordance with them, the column essentially deforms in the cross section up to its disintegration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Masood [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hashim, E-mail: hashim_alik@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hussain, M. [Department of Sciences and Humanities, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Azam, M. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2016-08-15
This paper presents a study of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian Carreau fluid over a convectively heated surface. The analysis of heat transfer is further performed in the presence of non-linear thermal radiation. The appropriate transformations are employed to bring the governing equations into dimensionless form. The numerical solutions of the partially coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations are obtained by using the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration scheme. The influence of non-dimensional governing parameters on the velocity, temperature, local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number is studied and discussed with the help of graphs and tables. Results proved that there is significant decrease in the velocity and the corresponding momentum boundary layer thickness with the growth in the magnetic parameter. However, a quite the opposite is true for the temperature and the corresponding thermal boundary layer thickness. - Highlights: • We investigated the Magnetohydrodynamic flow of Carreau constitutive fluid model. • Impact of non-linear thermal radiation is further taken into account. • Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method is employed to obtain the numerical solutions. • Fluid velocity is higher in case of hydromagnetic flow in comparison with hydrodynamic flow. • The local Nusselt number is a decreasing function of the thermal radiation parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Ganesh Kumar
Full Text Available A mathematical analysis of two-phase boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Williamson fluid with fluid particle suspension over a stretching sheet has been carried out in this paper. The region of temperature jump and nonlinear thermal radiation is considered in the energy transfer process. The principal equations of boundary layer flow and temperature transmission are reformed to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations under suitable similarity transformations. The transfigured equalities are solved numerically with the help of RKF-45 order method. The effect of influencing parameters on velocity and temperature transfer of fluid is examined and deliberated by plotted graphs and tabulated values. Significances of the mass concentration of dust particle parameter play a key role in controlling flow and thermal behavior of non-Newtonian fluids. Further, the temperature and concern boundary layer girth are declines for increasing values of Williamson parameter. Keywords: Two-phase flow, Williamson fluid, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Magnetic field, Temperature jump
Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-D plasma with a linear magnetic field null
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.S.
1984-01-01
Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-dimensional plasma near an O type magnetic null is investigated. Specifically, an elongated Z-pinch is considered, and applied to Field Reversed Configurations at Los Alamos National Laboratory by making a cylindrical approximation of the compact torus. The orbits near an elliptical O type null are found to be very complicated; the orbits are large and some are stochastic. The kinetic corrections to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated by evaluating the expectation values of the growth rates of a Vlasov Fluid dispersion functional by using a set of trial functions based on ideal MHD. The dispersion functional involves fluid parts and orbit dependent parts. The latter involves phase integral of two time correlations. The phase integral is replaced by the time integral both for the regular and for the stochastic orbits. Two trial functions are used; one has a large displacement near the null and the other away from the null
Improving total-building seismic performance using linear fluid viscous dampers
Del Gobbo, GM; Blakeborough, A; Williams, MS
2018-01-01
Previous research has revealed that Eurocode-compliant structures can experience structural and nonstructural damage during earthquakes. Retrofitting buildings with fluid viscous dampers (FVDs) can improve interstorey drifts and floor accelerations, two structural parameters that characterize seismic demand. Previous research focusing on FVD applications for improving seismic performance has focused on structural performance. Structural parameters such as interstorey drifts and floor accelera...
On the linear problem arising from motion of a fluid around a moving rigid body
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nečasová, Šárka; Wolf, J.
2015-01-01
Roč. 140, č. 2 (2015), s. 241-259 ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : incompressible fluid * rotating rigid body * strong solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/144329
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Archambeau, C.B.
1994-01-01
A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and flow of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the flow process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid flows that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic flows of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the flows will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the flow process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the flow itself
Noise analysis of fluid-valve system in a linear compressor using CAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jun Ho; Jeong, Weui Bong; Kim, Dang Ju
2009-01-01
A linear compressor in a refrigerator uses piston motion to transfer refrigerant so its efficiency is higher than a previous reciprocal compressor. Because of interaction between refrigerant and valves system in the linear compressor, however, noise has been a main issue. In spite of doing many experimental researches, there is no way to rightly predict the noise. In order to solve this limitation, the CAE analysis is applied. For giving credit to these computational data, all of the data are experimentally validated.
A symbiotic approach to fluid equations and non-linear flux-driven simulations of plasma dynamics
Halpern, Federico
2017-10-01
The fluid framework is ubiquitous in studies of plasma transport and stability. Typical forms of the fluid equations are motivated by analytical work dating several decades ago, before computer simulations were indispensable, and can be, therefore, not optimal for numerical computation. We demonstrate a new first-principles approach to obtaining manifestly consistent, skew-symmetric fluid models, ensuring internal consistency and conservation properties even in discrete form. Mass, kinetic, and internal energy become quadratic (and always positive) invariants of the system. The model lends itself to a robust, straightforward discretization scheme with inherent non-linear stability. A simpler, drift-ordered form of the equations is obtained, and first results of their numerical implementation as a binary framework for bulk-fluid global plasma simulations are demonstrated. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, Theory Program, under Award No. DE-FG02-95ER54309.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Navarro, J. A.; Madariaga, J. A.; Santamaria, C. M.; Saviron, J. M.
1980-01-01
10 refs. Flow pattern calculations in natural convection between two vertical coaxial cylinders are reported. It is assumed trough the paper. that fluid properties, viscosity, thermal conductivity and density, depend no-linearly on temperature and that the aspects (height/radius) ratio of the cylinders is high. Velocity profiles are calculated trough a perturbative scheme and analytic results for the three first perturbation orders are presented. We outline also an iterative method to estimate the perturbations on the flow patterns which arise when a radial composition gradient is established by external forces in a two-component fluid. This procedure, based on semiempirical basis, is applied to gaseous convection. The influence of the molecules gas properties on tho flow is also discussed. (Author) 10 refs
Numerical simulations of the stratified oceanic bottom boundary layer
Taylor, John R.
Numerical simulations are used to consider several problems relevant to the turbulent oceanic bottom boundary layer. In the first study, stratified open channel flow is considered with thermal boundary conditions chosen to approximate a shallow sea. Specifically, a constant heat flux is applied at the free surface and the lower wall is assumed to be adiabatic. When the surface heat flux is strong, turbulent upwellings of low speed fluid from near the lower wall are inhibited by the stable stratification. Subsequent studies consider a stratified bottom Ekman layer over a non-sloping lower wall. The influence of the free surface is removed by using an open boundary condition at the top of the computational domain. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the outer layer stratification on the boundary layer structure. When the density field is initialized with a linear profile, a turbulent mixed layer forms near the wall, which is separated from the outer layer by a strongly stable pycnocline. It is found that the bottom stress is not strongly affected by the outer layer stratification. However, stratification reduces turbulent transport to the outer layer and strongly limits the boundary layer height. The mean shear at the top of the boundary layer is enhanced when the outer layer is stratified, and this shear is strong enough to cause intermittent instabilities above the pycnocline. Turbulence-generated internal gravity waves are observed in the outer layer with a relatively narrow frequency range. An explanation for frequency content of these waves is proposed, starting with an observed broad-banded turbulent spectrum and invoking linear viscous decay to explain the preferential damping of low and high frequency waves. During the course of this work, an open-source computational fluid dynamics code has been developed with a number of advanced features including scalar advection, subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation, and distributed memory
Londono, J.M.; Wagg, D.; Neild, S.A.
2014-01-01
Viscous fluid dampers have proved to be effective in suppressing unwanted vibrations in a range of engineering structures. When dampers are fitted in a structure, a brace is typically used to attach them to the main structure. The stiffness of this brace can significantly alter the effectiveness of the damper, and in structures with multiple dampers, this can be a complex scenario to model. In this paper, we demonstrate that the effects of the brace compliance on the damper performance can be...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of steady, laminar, thermal Marangoni convection flow of non-Newtonian power law fluid along a horizontal surface with variable surface temperature is studied. The partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using a suitable similarity transformation and analytical approximate solutions are obtained by an efficient transformation, asymptotic expansion and Padé approximants technique. The effects of power law index and Marangoni number on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and discussed.
Mustafa, M.; Mushtaq, A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.
2018-04-01
Mathematical model for Maxwell fluid flow in rotating frame induced by an isothermal stretching wall is explored numerically. Scale analysis based boundary layer approximations are applied to simplify the conservation relations which are later converted to similar forms via appropriate substitutions. A numerical approach is utilized to derive similarity solutions for broad range of Deborah number. The results predict that velocity distributions are inversely proportional to the stress relaxation time. This outcome is different from that observed for the elastic parameter of second grade fluid. Unlike non-rotating frame, the solution curves are oscillatory decaying functions of similarity variable. As angular velocity enlarges, temperature rises and significant drop in the heat transfer coefficient occurs. We note that the wall slope of temperature has an asymptotically decaying profile against the wall to ambient ratio parameter. From the qualitative view point, temperature ratio parameter and radiation parameter have similar effect on the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, radiation parameter has a definite role in improving the cooling process of the stretching boundary. A comparative study of current numerical computations and those from the existing studies is also presented in a limiting case. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of non-linear radiation in rotating viscoelastic flow due to linearly stretched plate is just modeled here.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, Tim; Brendel, Bernhard; Ziegler, Ronny; Beek, Michiel van; Uhlemann, Falk; Bontus, Claas; Koehler, Thomas
2009-01-01
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a potential new imaging modality to detect or monitor breast lesions. Recently, Philips developed a new DOT system capable of transmission and fluorescence imaging, where the investigated breast is hanging freely into the measurement cup containing scattering fluid. We present a fast and robust image reconstruction algorithm that is used for the transmission measurements. The algorithm is based on the Rytov approximation. We show that this algorithm can be used over a wide range of tissue optical properties if the reconstruction is adapted to each patient. We use estimates of the breast shape and average tissue optical properties to initialize the reconstruction, which improves the image quality significantly. We demonstrate the capability of the measurement system and reconstruction to image breast lesions by clinical examples
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Génot
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Using 5 years of Cluster data, we present a detailed statistical analysis of magnetic fluctuations associated with mirror structures in the magnetosheath. We especially focus on the shape of these fluctuations which, in addition to quasi-sinusoidal forms, also display deep holes and high peaks. The occurrence frequency and the most probable location of the various types of structures is discussed, together with their relation to local plasma parameters. While these properties have previously been correlated to the β of the plasma, we emphasize here the influence of the distance to the linear mirror instability threshold. This enables us to interpret the observations of mirror structures in a stable plasma in terms of bistability and subcritical bifurcation. The data analysis is supplemented by the prediction of a quasi-static anisotropic MHD model and hybrid numerical simulations in an expanding box aimed at mimicking the magnetosheath plasma. This leads us to suggest a scenario for the formation and evolution of mirror structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilk, R.; Syc, B.; Bajor, G.; Kluczewska, E.
2011-01-01
Currently, a few imaging methods are used in CNS diagnostics: computed tomography - CT, magnetic resonance imaging - MRI, and ultrasonography - USG. The ventricular system changes its dimensions with child's development. Linear indices commonly used in the diagnostics of hydrocephalus do not consider developmental changes of the intracranial fluid spaces. The aim of our work was to identify reference values for selected linear indices in specific age groups. Material/Methods: The material included 507 CT examinations of the head in children of different age and both sexes. There were 381 CT examinations considered as normal and they were used to establish the reference values. They were compared with 126 CTs from the observational zone (3-10 percentile and 90-97 percentile). The children were divided into 7 following age groups: 0-12 months, > 12-36 months, > 3-6 years, > 6-9 years, > 9-12 years, > 12-15 years, > 15-18 years. For every group, the 10 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th and 90 th percentile was calculated. The range between the 10 th and the 90 th percentile was described as a norm. Results: Reference values for particular indices: Huckman Number from 3.3 to 5.0 cm with correlation coefficient according to age equal to 0.34; Evans' Index from 0.218 to 0.312 with correlation coefficient of -0.12; Bifrontal Index from 0.265 to 0.380 with correlation coefficient of 0.18; Bicaudate / Frontal Index from 0.212 to 0.524 with correlation coefficient of -0,33; Bicaudate Index from 0.059 to 0.152 with correlation coefficient of -0.26; Bicaudate / Temporal Index from 0.051 to 0.138 with correlation coefficient of 0.32; Schiersmann's Index from 3.545 to 6.038 with correlation coefficient of 0.42. Conclusions: The intracerebral CSF spaces increased in a non-uniform manner with age. All indices established on the basis of linear parameters were relatively higher in younger children than in the older ones. In proportion to the cranial size, the intracranial fluid spaces
Kleczek, M.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Paci, A.; Calmer, R.; Belleudy, A.; Canonici, J.C.; Murguet, F.; Valette, V.
2014-01-01
This paper reports on a laboratory experiment in the CNRM-GAME (Toulouse) stratified water flume of a stably stratified boundary layer, in order to quantify the momentum transfer due to orographically induced gravity waves by gently undulating hills in a boundary layer flow. In a stratified fluid, a
The dynamics of small inertial particles in weakly stratified turbulence
van Aartrijk, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.
We present an overview of a numerical study on the small-scale dynamics and the large-scale dispersion of small inertial particles in stably stratified turbulence. Three types of particles are examined: fluid particles, light inertial particles (with particle-to-fluid density ratio 1Ͽp/Ͽf25) and
Hansen, J S; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D
2009-10-01
In this paper we present equilibrium molecular-dynamics results for the shear, rotational, and spin viscosities for fluids composed of linear molecules. The density dependence of the shear viscosity follows a stretched exponential function, whereas the rotational viscosity and the spin viscosities show approximately power-law dependencies. The frequency-dependent shear and spin viscosities are also studied. It is found that viscoelastic behavior is first manifested in the shear viscosity and that the real part of the spin viscosities features a maximum for nonzero frequency. The calculated transport coefficients are used together with the extended Navier-Stokes equations to investigate the effect of the coupling between the intrinsic angular momentum and linear momentum for highly confined fluids. Both steady and oscillatory flows are studied. It is shown, for example, that the fluid flow rate for Poiseuille flow is reduced by up to 10% in a 2 nm channel for a buta-triene fluid at density 236 kg m(-3) and temperature 306 K. The coupling effect may, therefore, become very important for nanofluidic applications.
Dispersion of (light) inertial particles in stratified turbulence
van Aartrijk, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Armenio, Vincenzo; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Fröhlich, Jochen
2010-01-01
We present a brief overview of a numerical study of the dispersion of particles in stably stratified turbulence. Three types of particles arc examined: fluid particles, light inertial particles ($\\rho_p/\\rho_f = \\mathcal{O}(1)$) and heavy inertial particles ($\\rho_p/\\rho_f \\gg 1$). Stratification
Thermal instability in a stratified plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermanns, D.F.M.; Priest, E.R.
1989-01-01
The thermal instability mechansism has been studied in connection to observed coronal features, like, e.g. prominences or cool cores in loops. Although these features show a lot of structure, most studies concern the thermal instability in an uniform medium. In this paper, we investigate the thermal instability and the interaction between thermal modes and the slow magneto-acoustic subspectrum for a stratified plasma slab. We fomulate the relevant system of equations and give some straightforward properties of the linear spectrum of a non-uniform plasma slab, i.e. the existence of continuous parts in the spectrum. We present a numerical scheme with which we can investigate the linear spectrum for equilibrium states with stratification. The slow and thermal subspectra of a crude coronal model are given as a preliminary result. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig
Electromagnetic waves in stratified media
Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R
2013-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne
Hydrodynamic 'memory' of binary fluid mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnik, M. V.; Ingel, L. Kh.
2006-01-01
A theoretical analysis is presented of hydrostatic adjustment in a two-component fluid system, such as seawater stratified with respect to temperature and salinity. Both linear approximation and nonlinear problem are investigated. It is shown that scenarios of relaxation to a hydrostatically balanced state in binary fluid mixtures may substantially differ from hydrostatic adjustment in fluids that can be stratified only with respect to temperature. In particular, inviscid two-component fluids have 'memory': a horizontally nonuniform disturbance in the initial temperature or salinity distribution does not vanish even at the final stage, transforming into a persistent thermohaline 'trace.' Despite stability of density stratification and convective stability of the fluid system by all known criteria, an initial temperature disturbance may not decay and may even increase in amplitude. Moreover, its sign may change (depending on the relative contributions of temperature and salinity to stable background density stratification). Hydrostatic adjustment may involve development of discontinuous distributions from smooth initial temperature or concentration distributions. These properties of two-component fluids explain, in particular, the occurrence of persistent horizontally or vertically nonuniform temperature and salinity distributions in the ocean, including discontinuous ones
Stratified medicine and reimbursement issues
Fugel, Hans-Joerg; Nuijten, Mark; Postma, Maarten
2012-01-01
Stratified Medicine (SM) has the potential to target patient populations who will most benefit from a therapy while reducing unnecessary health interventions associated with side effects. The link between clinical biomarkers/diagnostics and therapies provides new opportunities for value creation to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraunie, P.; Berrella, S.; Chashechkin, Y.D.; Velasco, D.; Redondo, M.
2008-01-01
A detailed analysis of the flow structure resulting from the combination of turbulence and internal waves is carried out and visualized by means of the Schlieren method on waves in a strongly stratified fluid at the Laboratory of the IPM in Moscow. The joint appearance of the more regular internal wave oscillations and the small-scale turbulence that is confined vertically to the Ozmidov length scale favours the use of a simple geometrical analysis to investigate their time-space span and evolution. This provides useful information on the collapse of internal wave breaking processes in the ocean and the atmosphere. The measurements were performed under a variety of linear stratifications and different grid forcing scales, combining the grid wake and velocity shear. A numerical simulation using LES on the passage of a single bar in a linearly stratified fluid medium has been compared with the experiments identifying the different influences of the environmental agents on the actual affective vertical diffusion of the wakes. The equation of state, which connects the density and salinity, is assumed to be linear, with the coefficient of the salt contraction being included into the definition of salinity or heat. The characteristic internal waves as well as the entire beam width are related to the diameter of the bar, the Richardson number and the peak-to-peak value of oscillations. The ultimate frequency of the infinitesimal periodic internal waves is limited by the maximum buoyancy frequency relating the decrease in the vertical scale with the anisotropy of the velocity turbulent r.m.s. velocity.
Dagrau, Franck; Coulouvrat, François; Marchiano, Régis; Héron, Nicolas
2008-06-01
Dassault Aviation as a civil aircraft manufacturer is studying the feasibility of a supersonic business jet with the target of an "acceptable" sonic boom at the ground level, and in particular in case of focusing. A sonic boom computational process has been performed, that takes into account meteorological effects and aircraft manoeuvres. Turn manoeuvres and aircraft acceleration create zones of convergence of rays (caustics) which are the place of sound amplification. Therefore two elements have to be evaluated: firstly the geometrical position of the caustics, and secondly the noise level in the neighbourhood of the caustics. The modelling of the sonic boom propagation is based essentially on the assumptions of geometrical acoustics. Ray tracing is obtained according to Fermat's principle as paths that minimise the propagation time between the source (the aircraft) and the receiver. Wave amplitude and time waveform result from the solution of the inviscid Burgers' equation written along each individual ray. The "age variable" measuring the cumulative nonlinear effects is linked to the ray tube area. Caustics are located as the place where the ray tube area vanishes. Since geometrical acoustics does not take into account diffraction effects, it breaks down in the neighbourhood of caustics where it would predict unphysical infinite pressure amplitude. The aim of this study is to describe an original method for computing the focused noise level. The approach involves three main steps that can be summarised as follows. The propagation equation is solved by a forward marching procedure split into three successive steps: linear propagation in a homogeneous medium, linear perturbation due to the weak heterogeneity of the medium, and non-linear effects. The first step is solved using an "exact" angular spectrum algorithm. Parabolic approximation is applied only for the weak perturbation due to the heterogeneities. Finally, non linear effects are performed by solving the
The Stratified Legitimacy of Abortions.
Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A; Freedman, Lori
2016-12-01
Roe v. Wade was heralded as an end to unequal access to abortion care in the United States. However, today, despite being common and safe, abortion is performed only selectively in hospitals and private practices. Drawing on 61 interviews with obstetrician-gynecologists in these settings, we examine how they determine which abortions to perform. We find that they distinguish between more and less legitimate abortions, producing a narrative of stratified legitimacy that privileges abortions for intended pregnancies, when the fetus is unhealthy, and when women perform normative gendered sexuality, including distress about the abortion, guilt about failure to contracept, and desire for motherhood. This stratified legitimacy can perpetuate socially-inflected inequality of access and normative gendered sexuality. Additionally, we argue that the practice by physicians of distinguishing among abortions can legitimate legislative practices that regulate and restrict some kinds of abortion, further constraining abortion access. © American Sociological Association 2016.
RADIAL STABILITY IN STRATIFIED STARS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Jonas P.; Rueda, Jorge A.
2015-01-01
We formulate within a generalized distributional approach the treatment of the stability against radial perturbations for both neutral and charged stratified stars in Newtonian and Einstein's gravity. We obtain from this approach the boundary conditions connecting any two phases within a star and underline its relevance for realistic models of compact stars with phase transitions, owing to the modification of the star's set of eigenmodes with respect to the continuous case
Propagation of acoustic waves in a stratified atmosphere, 1
Kalkofen, W.; Rossi, P.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.
1994-01-01
This work is motivated by the chromospheric 3 minute oscillations observed in the K(sub 2v) bright points. We study acoustic gravity waves in a one-dimensional, gravitationally stratified, isothermal atmosphere. The oscillations are excited either by a velocity pulse imparted to a layer in an atmosphere of infinite vertical extent, or by a piston forming the lower boundary of a semi-infinite medium. We consider both linear and non-linear waves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azadeh Hashemian
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Enhanced surface heat exchangers are commonly used all worldwide. If applicable, due to their complicated geometry, simulating corrugated plate heat exchangers is a time-consuming process. In the present study, first we simulate the heat transfer in a sharp V-shape corrugation cell with constant temperature walls; then, we use a Locally Linear Neuro-Fuzzy method based on a radial basis function (RBFs to model the temperature field in the whole channel. New approach is developed to deal with fast computational and low memory resources that can be used with the largest available data sets. The purpose of the research is to reveal the advantages of proposed Neuro-Fuzzy model as a powerful modeling system designed for predicting and to make a fair comparison between it and the successful FLUENT simulated approaches in its best structures.
Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate
Maity, Arnab; Huang, Jianhua Z.
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric
Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate
Maity, Arnab
2012-10-01
We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.
Doubly stratified MHD tangent hyperbolic nanofluid flow due to permeable stretched cylinder
Nagendramma, V.; Leelarathnam, A.; Raju, C. S. K.; Shehzad, S. A.; Hussain, T.
2018-06-01
An investigation is exhibited to analyze the presence of heat source and sink in doubly stratified MHD incompressible tangent hyperbolic fluid due to stretching of cylinder embedded in porous space under nanoparticles. To develop the mathematical model of tangent hyperbolic nanofluid, movement of Brownian and thermophoretic are accounted. The established equations of continuity, momentum, thermal and solutal boundary layers are reassembled into sets of non-linear expressions. These assembled expressions are executed with the help of Runge-Kutta scheme with MATLAB. The impacts of sundry parameters are illustrated graphically and the engineering interest physical quantities like skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood number are examined by computing numerical values. It is clear that the power-law index parameter and curvature parameter shows favorable effect on momentum boundary layer thickness whereas Weissennberg number reveals inimical influence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang-Jian, C.-W.; Chen, C.-K.
2008-01-01
This study presents a dynamic analysis of a flexible rotor supported by two porous squeeze couple stress fluid film journal bearings with non-linear suspension. The dynamics of the rotor center and bearing center are studied. The analysis of the rotor-bearing system is investigated under the assumptions of non-Newtonian fluid and a short bearing approximation. The spatial displacements in the horizontal and vertical directions are considered for various non-dimensional speed ratios. The dynamic equations are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. The analysis methods employed in this study is inclusive of the dynamic trajectories of the rotor center and bearing center, power spectra, Poincare maps and bifurcation diagrams. The maximum Lyapunov exponent analysis is also used to identify the onset of chaotic motion. The numerical results show that the stability of the system varies with the non-dimensional speed ratios, the non-dimensional parameter l* and the permeability. The modeling results thus obtained by using the method proposed in this paper can be employed to predict the stability of the rotor-bearing system and the undesirable behavior of the rotor and bearing center can be avoided
Stratified Medicine and Reimbursement Issues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hans-Joerg eFugel
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Stratified Medicine (SM has the potential to target patient populations who will most benefit from a therapy while reducing unnecessary health interventions associated with side effects. The link between clinical biomarkers/diagnostics and therapies provides new opportunities for value creation to strengthen the value proposition to pricing and reimbursement (P&R authorities. However, the introduction of SM challenges current reimbursement schemes in many EU countries and the US as different P&R policies have been adopted for drugs and diagnostics. Also, there is a lack of a consistent process for value assessment of more complex diagnostics in these markets. New, innovative approaches and more flexible P&R systems are needed to reflect the added value of diagnostic tests and to stimulate investments in new technologies. Yet, the framework for access of diagnostic–based therapies still requires further development while setting the right incentives and appropriate align stakeholders interests when realizing long- term patient benefits. This article addresses the reimbursement challenges of SM approaches in several EU countries and the US outlining some options to overcome existing reimbursement barriers for stratified medicine.
Design of dry sand soil stratified sampler
Li, Erkang; Chen, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Liao, Hongbo; Liang, Xiaodong
2018-04-01
This paper presents a design of a stratified sampler for dry sand soil, which can be used for stratified sampling of loose sand under certain conditions. Our group designed the mechanical structure of a portable, single - person, dry sandy soil stratified sampler. We have set up a mathematical model for the sampler. It lays the foundation for further development of design research.
Suppression of stratified explosive interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics
1998-01-01
Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)
Mathematical modeling of turbulent stratified flows. Application of liquid metal fast breeders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villand, M; Grand, D [CEA-Service des Transferts Thermiques, Grenoble (France)
1983-07-01
Mathematical model of turbulent stratified flow was proposed under the following assumptions: Newtonian fluid; incompressible fluid; coupling between temperature and momentum fields according to Boussinesq approximation; two-dimensional invariance for translation or rotation; coordinates cartesian or curvilinear. Solutions obtained by the proposed method are presented.
Modelling of vapour explosion in stratified geometrie
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picchi, St.
1999-01-01
When a hot liquid comes into contact with a colder volatile liquid, one can obtain in some conditions an explosive vaporization, told vapour explosion, whose consequences can be important on neighbouring structures. This explosion needs the intimate mixing and the fine fragmentation between the two liquids. In a stratified vapour explosion, these two liquids are initially superposed and separated by a vapor film. A triggering of the explosion can induce a propagation of this along the film. A study of experimental results and existent models has allowed to retain the following main points: - the explosion propagation is due to a pressure wave propagating through the medium; - the mixing is due to the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities induced by the shear velocity between the two liquids behind the pressure wave. The presence of the vapour in the volatile liquid explains experimental propagation velocity and the velocity difference between the two fluids at the pressure wave crossing. A first model has been proposed by Brayer in 1994 in order to describe the fragmentation and the mixing of the two fluids. Results of the author do not show explosion propagation. We have therefore built a new mixing-fragmentation model based on the atomization phenomenon that develops itself during the pressure wave crossing. We have also taken into account the transient aspect of the heat transfer between fuel drops and the volatile liquid, and elaborated a model of transient heat transfer. These two models have been introduced in a multi-components, thermal, hydraulic code, MC3D. Results of calculation show a qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental results and confirm basic options of the model. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vincze, Miklos; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe [Department of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) Cottbus-Senftenberg, Siemens-Halske-Ring 14, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Gal, Patrice Le, E-mail: vincze.m@lecso.elte.hu [Institut de Recherche sur les Phénomènes Hors Equilibre, CNRS—Aix-Marseille University—Ecole Centrale Marseille, 49 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13384 Marseille (France)
2016-12-15
A water-filled differentially heated rotating annulus with initially prepared stable vertical salinity profiles is studied in the laboratory. Based on two-dimensional horizontal particle image velocimetry data and infrared camera visualizations, we describe the appearance and the characteristics of the baroclinic instability in this original configuration. First, we show that when the salinity profile is linear and confined between two non-stratified layers at top and bottom, only two separate shallow fluid layers can be destabilized. These unstable layers appear nearby the top and the bottom of the tank with a stratified motionless zone between them. This laboratory arrangement is thus particularly interesting to model geophysical or astrophysical situations where stratified regions are often juxtaposed to convective ones. Then, for more general but stable initial density profiles, statistical measures are introduced to quantify the extent of the baroclinic instability at given depths and to analyze the connections between this depth-dependence and the vertical salinity profiles. We find that, although the presence of stable stratification generally hinders full-depth overturning, double-diffusive convection can lead to development of multicellular sideways convection in shallow layers and subsequently to a multilayered baroclinic instability. Therefore we conclude that by decreasing the characteristic vertical scale of the flow, stratification may even enhance the formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies (and thus, mixing) in a local sense. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vincze, Miklos; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe; Gal, Patrice Le
2016-01-01
A water-filled differentially heated rotating annulus with initially prepared stable vertical salinity profiles is studied in the laboratory. Based on two-dimensional horizontal particle image velocimetry data and infrared camera visualizations, we describe the appearance and the characteristics of the baroclinic instability in this original configuration. First, we show that when the salinity profile is linear and confined between two non-stratified layers at top and bottom, only two separate shallow fluid layers can be destabilized. These unstable layers appear nearby the top and the bottom of the tank with a stratified motionless zone between them. This laboratory arrangement is thus particularly interesting to model geophysical or astrophysical situations where stratified regions are often juxtaposed to convective ones. Then, for more general but stable initial density profiles, statistical measures are introduced to quantify the extent of the baroclinic instability at given depths and to analyze the connections between this depth-dependence and the vertical salinity profiles. We find that, although the presence of stable stratification generally hinders full-depth overturning, double-diffusive convection can lead to development of multicellular sideways convection in shallow layers and subsequently to a multilayered baroclinic instability. Therefore we conclude that by decreasing the characteristic vertical scale of the flow, stratification may even enhance the formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies (and thus, mixing) in a local sense. (paper)
PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM STRATIFIED JETS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Yamada, Shoichi; Pe'er, Asaf; Mizuta, Akira; Harikae, Seiji
2013-01-01
We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E p -L p relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources
Analysis of stratified flow mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soo, S.L.; Lyczkowski, R.W.
1985-01-01
The Creare 1/5-scale Phase II experiments which model fluid and thermal mixing of relatively cold high pressure injection (HPI) water into a cold leg of a full-scale pressurized water reactor (PWR) having loop flow are analyzed and found that they cannot achieve complete similarity with respect to characteristic Reynolds and Froude numbers and developing hydrodynamic entry length. Several analyses show that these experiments fall into two distinct regimes of mixing: momentum controlled and gravity controlled (stratification). 18 refs., 9 figs
Direct numerical simulation of homogeneous stratified rotating turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iida, O.; Tsujimura, S.; Nagano, Y. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Department of Mech. Eng., Nagoya (Japan)
2005-12-01
The effects of the Prandtl number on stratified rotating turbulence have been studied in homogeneous turbulence by using direct numerical simulations and a rapid distortion theory. Fluctuations under strong stable-density stratification can be theoretically divided into the WAVE and the potential vorticity (PV) modes. In low-Prandtl-number fluids, the WAVE mode deteriorates, while the PV mode remains. Imposing rotation on a low-Prandtl-number fluid makes turbulence two-dimensional as well as geostrophic; it is found from the instantaneous turbulent structure that the vortices merge to form a few vertically-elongated vortex columns. During the period toward two-dimensionalization, the vertical vortices become asymmetric in the sense of rotation. (orig.)
Direct contact condensation induced transition from stratified to slug flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strubelj, Luka; Ezsoel, Gyoergy; Tiselj, Iztok
2010-01-01
Selected condensation-induced water hammer experiments performed on PMK-2 device were numerically modelled with three-dimensional two-fluid models of computer codes NEPTUNE C FD and CFX. Experimental setup consists of the horizontal pipe filled with the hot steam that is being slowly flooded with cold water. In most of the experimental cases, slow flooding of the pipe was abruptly interrupted by a strong slugging and water hammer, while in the selected experimental runs performed at higher initial pressures and temperatures that are analysed in the present work, the transition from the stratified into the slug flow was not accompanied by the water hammer pressure peak. That makes these cases more suitable tests for evaluation of the various condensation models in the horizontally stratified flows and puts them in the range of the available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes. The key models for successful simulation appear to be the condensation model of the hot vapour on the cold liquid and the interfacial momentum transfer model. The surface renewal types of condensation correlations, developed for condensation in the stratified flows, were used in the simulations and were applied also in the regions of the slug flow. The 'large interface' model for inter-phase momentum transfer model was compared to the bubble drag model. The CFD simulations quantitatively captured the main phenomena of the experiments, while the stochastic nature of the particular condensation-induced water hammer experiments did not allow detailed prediction of the time and position of the slug formation in the pipe. We have clearly shown that even the selected experiments without water hammer present a tough test for the applied CFD codes, while modelling of the water hammer pressure peaks in two-phase flow, being a strongly compressible flow phenomena, is beyond the capability of the current CFD codes.
Designing Wood Supply Scenarios from Forest Inventories with Stratified Predictions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philipp Kilham
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Forest growth and wood supply projections are increasingly used to estimate the future availability of woody biomass and the correlated effects on forests and climate. This research parameterizes an inventory-based business-as-usual wood supply scenario, with a focus on southwest Germany and the period 2002–2012 with a stratified prediction. First, the Classification and Regression Trees algorithm groups the inventory plots into strata with corresponding harvest probabilities. Second, Random Forest algorithms generate individual harvest probabilities for the plots of each stratum. Third, the plots with the highest individual probabilities are selected as harvested until the harvest probability of the stratum is fulfilled. Fourth, the harvested volume of these plots is predicted with a linear regression model trained on harvested plots only. To illustrate the pros and cons of this method, it is compared to a direct harvested volume prediction with linear regression, and a combination of logistic regression and linear regression. Direct harvested volume regression predicts comparable volume figures, but generates these volumes in a way that differs from business-as-usual. The logistic model achieves higher overall classification accuracies, but results in underestimations or overestimations of harvest shares for several subsets of the data. The stratified prediction method balances this shortcoming, and can be of general use for forest growth and timber supply projections from large-scale forest inventories.
Turbulence Statistics of a Buoyant Jet in a Stratified Environment
McCleney, Amy Brooke
Using non-intrusive optical diagnostics, turbulence statistics for a round, incompressible, buoyant, and vertical jet discharging freely into a stably linear stratified environment is studied and compared to a reference case of a neutrally buoyant jet in a uniform environment. This is part of a validation campaign for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Buoyancy forces are known to significantly affect the jet evolution in a stratified environment. Despite their ubiquity in numerous natural and man-made flows, available data in these jets are limited, which constrain our understanding of the underlying physical processes. In particular, there is a dearth of velocity field data, which makes it challenging to validate numerical codes, currently used for modeling these important flows. Herein, jet near- and far-field behaviors are obtained with a combination of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and multi-scale time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) for Reynolds number up to 20,000. Deploying non-intrusive optical diagnostics in a variable density environment is challenging in liquids. The refractive index is strongly affected by the density, which introduces optical aberrations and occlusions that prevent the resolution of the flow. One solution consists of using index matched fluids with different densities. Here a pair of water solutions - isopropanol and NaCl - are identified that satisfy these requirements. In fact, they provide a density difference up to 5%, which is the largest reported for such fluid pairs. Additionally, by design, the kinematic viscosities of the solutions are identical. This greatly simplifies the analysis and subsequent simulations of the data. The spectral and temperature dependence of the solutions are fully characterized. In the near-field, shear layer roll-up is analyzed and characterized as a function of initial velocity profile. In the far-field, turbulence statistics are reported for two different scales, one
Background stratified Poisson regression analysis of cohort data.
Richardson, David B; Langholz, Bryan
2012-03-01
Background stratified Poisson regression is an approach that has been used in the analysis of data derived from a variety of epidemiologically important studies of radiation-exposed populations, including uranium miners, nuclear industry workers, and atomic bomb survivors. We describe a novel approach to fit Poisson regression models that adjust for a set of covariates through background stratification while directly estimating the radiation-disease association of primary interest. The approach makes use of an expression for the Poisson likelihood that treats the coefficients for stratum-specific indicator variables as 'nuisance' variables and avoids the need to explicitly estimate the coefficients for these stratum-specific parameters. Log-linear models, as well as other general relative rate models, are accommodated. This approach is illustrated using data from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and data from a study of underground uranium miners. The point estimate and confidence interval obtained from this 'conditional' regression approach are identical to the values obtained using unconditional Poisson regression with model terms for each background stratum. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed approach allows estimation of background stratified Poisson regression models of non-standard form, such as models that parameterize latency effects, as well as regression models in which the number of strata is large, thereby overcoming the limitations of previously available statistical software for fitting background stratified Poisson regression models.
Background stratified Poisson regression analysis of cohort data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richardson, David B.; Langholz, Bryan
2012-01-01
Background stratified Poisson regression is an approach that has been used in the analysis of data derived from a variety of epidemiologically important studies of radiation-exposed populations, including uranium miners, nuclear industry workers, and atomic bomb survivors. We describe a novel approach to fit Poisson regression models that adjust for a set of covariates through background stratification while directly estimating the radiation-disease association of primary interest. The approach makes use of an expression for the Poisson likelihood that treats the coefficients for stratum-specific indicator variables as 'nuisance' variables and avoids the need to explicitly estimate the coefficients for these stratum-specific parameters. Log-linear models, as well as other general relative rate models, are accommodated. This approach is illustrated using data from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and data from a study of underground uranium miners. The point estimate and confidence interval obtained from this 'conditional' regression approach are identical to the values obtained using unconditional Poisson regression with model terms for each background stratum. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed approach allows estimation of background stratified Poisson regression models of non-standard form, such as models that parameterize latency effects, as well as regression models in which the number of strata is large, thereby overcoming the limitations of previously available statistical software for fitting background stratified Poisson regression models. (orig.)
Modeling the Conducting Stably-Stratified Layer of the Earth's Core
Petitdemange, L.; Philidet, J.; Gissinger, C.
2017-12-01
Observations of the Earth magnetic field as well as recent theoretical works tend to show that the Earth's outer liquid core is mostly comprised of a convective zone in which the Earth's magnetic field is generated - likely by dynamo action -, but also features a thin, stably stratified layer at the top of the core.We carry out direct numerical simulations by modeling this thin layer as an axisymmetric spherical Couette flow for a stably stratified fluid embedded in a dipolar magnetic field. The dynamo region is modeled by a conducting inner core rotating slightly faster than the insulating mantle due to magnetic torques acting on it, such that a weak differential rotation (low Rossby limit) can develop in the stably stratified layer.In the case of a non-stratified fluid, the combined action of the differential rotation and the magnetic field leads to the well known regime of `super-rotation', in which the fluid rotates faster than the inner core. Whereas in the classical case, this super-rotation is known to vanish in the magnetostrophic limit, we show here that the fluid stratification significantly extends the magnitude of the super-rotation, keeping this phenomenon relevant for the Earth core. Finally, we study how the shear layers generated by this new state might give birth to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or waves impacting the secular variations or jerks of the Earth's magnetic field.
Experimental investigation on isothermal stratified flow mixing in a horizontal T-junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isaev, Alexander; Kulenovic, Rudi; Laurien, Eckart [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE)
2016-10-15
Turbulent and stratified flows can lead to thermal fatigue in piping systems of nuclear power plants (NPP). Such flows can be investigated in the University of Stuttgart Fluid-Structure-Interaction (FSI) facility with a T-Junction at thermal conditions with temperature differences of up to 255 K and at pressures of maximum 75 bars.
Grain distinct stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donatus, U., E-mail: uyimedonatus@yahoo.com [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Zhou, X.; Alias, J. [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Tsai, I.-L. [Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis, HP12 2SE, High Wycombe (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
The grains of aluminium alloys have stratified nanolayers which determine their mechanical and chemical responses. In this study, the nanolayers were revealed in the grains of AA6082 (T6 and T7 conditions), AA5083-O and AA2024-T3 alloys by etching the alloys in a solution comprising 20 g Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 30 ml HPO{sub 3} in 1 L H{sub 2}O. Microstructural examination was conducted on selected grains of interest using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction technique. It was observed that the nanolayers are orientation dependent and are parallel to the {100} planes. They have ordered and repeated tunnel squares that are flawed at the sides which are aligned in the <100> directions. These flawed tunnel squares dictate the tunnelling corrosion morphology as well as appearing to have an affect on the arrangement and sizes of the precipitation hardening particles. The inclination of the stratified nanolayers, their interpacing, and the groove sizes have significant influence on the corrosion behaviour and seeming influence on the strengthening mechanism of the investigated aluminium alloys. - Highlights: • Stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloy grains. • Relationship of the stratified nanolayers with grain orientation. • Influence of the inclinations of the stratified nanolayers on corrosion. • Influence of the nanolayers interspacing and groove sizes on hardness and corrosion.
Sina, Nima; Moosavi, Hassan; Aghaei, Hosein; Afrand, Masoud; Wongwises, Somchai
2017-01-01
In this paper, for the first time, a nonlocal Timoshenko beam model is employed for studying the wave dispersion of a fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube on Viscoelastic Pasternak foundation under high and low temperature change. In addition, the phase and group velocity for the nanotube are discussed, respectively. The influences of Winkler and Pasternak modulus, homogenous temperature change, steady flow velocity and damping factor of viscoelastic foundation on wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes are investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of the wave for carbon nanotubes conveying fluid is the normal dispersion. Moreover, implying viscoelastic foundation leads to increasing the wave frequencies.
THERMAL TIDES IN FLUID EXTRASOLAR PLANETS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arras, Phil; Socrates, Aristotle
2010-01-01
Asynchronous rotation and orbital eccentricity lead to time-dependent irradiation of the close-in gas giant exoplanets-the hot Jupiters. This time-dependent surface heating gives rise to fluid motions which propagate throughout the planet. We investigate the ability of this 'thermal tide' to produce a quadrupole moment which can couple to the stellar gravitational tidal force. While previous investigations discussed planets with solid surfaces, here we focus on entirely fluid planets in order to understand gas giants with small cores. The Coriolis force, thermal diffusion, and self-gravity of the perturbations are ignored for simplicity. First, we examine the response to thermal forcing through analytic solutions of the fluid equations which treat the forcing frequency as a small parameter. In the 'equilibrium tide' limit of zero frequency, fluid motion is present but does not induce a quadrupole moment. In the next approximation, finite frequency corrections to the equilibrium tide do lead to a nonzero quadrupole moment, the sign of which torques the planet away from synchronous spin. We then numerically solve the boundary value problem for the thermally forced, linear response of a planet with neutrally stratified interior and a stably stratified envelope. The numerical results find quadrupole moments in agreement with the analytic non-resonant result at a sufficiently long forcing period. Surprisingly, in the range of forcing periods of 1-30 days, the induced quadrupole moments can be far larger than the analytic result due to response of internal gravity waves which propagate in the radiative envelope. We discuss the relevance of our results for the spin, eccentricity, and thermal evolution of hot Jupiters.
Stratified charge rotary engine for general aviation
Mount, R. E.; Parente, A. M.; Hady, W. F.
1986-01-01
A development history, a current development status assessment, and a design feature and performance capabilities account are given for stratified-charge rotary engines applicable to aircraft propulsion. Such engines are capable of operating on Jet-A fuel with substantial cost savings, improved altitude capability, and lower fuel consumption by comparison with gas turbine powerplants. Attention is given to the current development program of a 400-hp engine scheduled for initial operations in early 1990. Stratified charge rotary engines are also applicable to ground power units, airborne APUs, shipboard generators, and vehicular engines.
LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATIONS IN DENSITY STRATIFIED AND EXPANDING SOLAR WAVEGUIDES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luna-Cardozo, M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Verth, G. [School of Computing, Engineering and Information Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Erdelyi, R., E-mail: mluna@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: robertus@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: gary.verth@northumbria.ac.uk [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)
2012-04-01
Waves and oscillations can provide vital information about the internal structure of waveguides in which they propagate. Here, we analytically investigate the effects of density and magnetic stratification on linear longitudinal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. The focus of this paper is to study the eigenmodes of these oscillations. It is our specific aim to understand what happens to these MHD waves generated in flux tubes with non-constant (e.g., expanding or magnetic bottle) cross-sectional area and density variations. The governing equation of the longitudinal mode is derived and solved analytically and numerically. In particular, the limit of the thin flux tube approximation is examined. The general solution describing the slow longitudinal MHD waves in an expanding magnetic flux tube with constant density is found. Longitudinal MHD waves in density stratified loops with constant magnetic field are also analyzed. From analytical solutions, the frequency ratio of the first overtone and fundamental mode is investigated in stratified waveguides. For small expansion, a linear dependence between the frequency ratio and the expansion factor is found. From numerical calculations it was found that the frequency ratio strongly depends on the density profile chosen and, in general, the numerical results are in agreement with the analytical results. The relevance of these results for solar magneto-seismology is discussed.
Optimal energy growth in a stably stratified shear flow
Jose, Sharath; Roy, Anubhab; Bale, Rahul; Iyer, Krithika; Govindarajan, Rama
2018-02-01
Transient growth of perturbations by a linear non-modal evolution is studied here in a stably stratified bounded Couette flow. The density stratification is linear. Classical inviscid stability theory states that a parallel shear flow is stable to exponentially growing disturbances if the Richardson number (Ri) is greater than 1/4 everywhere in the flow. Experiments and numerical simulations at higher Ri show however that algebraically growing disturbances can lead to transient amplification. The complexity of a stably stratified shear flow stems from its ability to combine this transient amplification with propagating internal gravity waves (IGWs). The optimal perturbations associated with maximum energy amplification are numerically obtained at intermediate Reynolds numbers. It is shown that in this wall-bounded flow, the three-dimensional optimal perturbations are oblique, unlike in unstratified flow. A partitioning of energy into kinetic and potential helps in understanding the exchange of energies and how it modifies the transient growth. We show that the apportionment between potential and kinetic energy depends, in an interesting manner, on the Richardson number, and on time, as the transient growth proceeds from an optimal perturbation. The oft-quoted stabilizing role of stratification is also probed in the non-diffusive limit in the context of disturbance energy amplification.
Nitrogen transformations in stratified aquatic microbial ecosystems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Revsbech, N. P.; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Schramm, A.
2006-01-01
Abstract New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about n...
MC3D modelling of stratified explosion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picchi, S.; Berthoud, G.
1999-01-01
It is known that a steam explosion can occur in a stratified geometry and that the observed yields are lower than in the case of explosion in a premixture configuration. However, very few models are available to quantify the amount of melt which can be involved and the pressure peak that can be developed. In the stratified application of the MC3D code, mixing and fragmentation of the melt are explained by the growth of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities due to the shear flow of the two phase coolant above the melt. Such a model is then used to recalculate the Frost-Ciccarelli tin-water experiment. Pressure peak, speed of propagation, bubble shape and erosion height are well reproduced as well as the influence of the inertial constraint (height of the water pool). (author)
MC3D modelling of stratified explosion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Picchi, S.; Berthoud, G. [DTP/SMTH/LM2, CEA, 38 - Grenoble (France)
1999-07-01
It is known that a steam explosion can occur in a stratified geometry and that the observed yields are lower than in the case of explosion in a premixture configuration. However, very few models are available to quantify the amount of melt which can be involved and the pressure peak that can be developed. In the stratified application of the MC3D code, mixing and fragmentation of the melt are explained by the growth of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities due to the shear flow of the two phase coolant above the melt. Such a model is then used to recalculate the Frost-Ciccarelli tin-water experiment. Pressure peak, speed of propagation, bubble shape and erosion height are well reproduced as well as the influence of the inertial constraint (height of the water pool). (author)
Equipment for extracting and conveying stratified minerals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blumenthal, G.; Kunzer, H.; Plaga, K.
1991-08-14
This invention relates to equipment for extracting stratified minerals and conveying the said minerals along the working face, comprising a trough shaped conveyor run assembled from lengths, a troughed extraction run in lengths matching the lengths of conveyor troughing, which is linked to the top edge of the working face side of the conveyor troughing with freedom to swivel vertically, and a positively guided chain carrying extraction tools and scrapers along the conveyor and extraction runs.
Nitrogen transformations in stratified aquatic microbial ecosystems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Revsbech, Niels Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Schramm, Andreas
2006-01-01
Abstract New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about n...... performing dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium have given new dimensions to the understanding of nitrogen cycling in nature, and the occurrence of these organisms and processes in stratified microbial communities will be described in detail.......Abstract New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about...... nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, and dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium, and about the microorganisms performing the processes, has been produced by use of these techniques. During the last decade the discovery of anammmox bacteria and migrating, nitrate accumulating bacteria...
Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Zhi; Zhang Zhaoshun; Cui Guixiang; Xu Chunxiao
2011-01-01
Stably stratified turbulence is a common phenomenon in atmosphere and ocean. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating homogeneous stably stratified turbulence numerically at Reynolds number Re = uL/v = 10 2 ∼10 3 and Froude number Fr = u/NL = 10 −2 ∼10 0 in which u is root mean square of velocity fluctuations, L is integral scale and N is Brunt-Vaïsälä frequency. Three sets of computation cases are designed with different initial conditions, namely isotropic turbulence, Taylor Green vortex and internal waves, to investigate the statistical properties from different origins. The computed horizontal and vertical energy spectra are consistent with observation in atmosphere and ocean when the composite parameter ReFr 2 is greater than O(1). It has also been found in this paper that the stratification turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominated in the developed stably stratified turbulence.
Dyadic Green's function of an eccentrically stratified sphere.
Moneda, Angela P; Chrissoulidis, Dimitrios P
2014-03-01
The electric dyadic Green's function (dGf) of an eccentrically stratified sphere is built by use of the superposition principle, dyadic algebra, and the addition theorem of vector spherical harmonics. The end result of the analytical formulation is a set of linear equations for the unknown vector wave amplitudes of the dGf. The unknowns are calculated by truncation of the infinite sums and matrix inversion. The theory is exact, as no simplifying assumptions are required in any one of the analytical steps leading to the dGf, and it is general in the sense that any number, position, size, and electrical properties can be considered for the layers of the sphere. The point source can be placed outside of or in any lossless part of the sphere. Energy conservation, reciprocity, and other checks verify that the dGf is correct. A numerical application is made to a stratified sphere made of gold and glass, which operates as a lens.
A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok
1995-01-01
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within ±8%
A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others
1995-09-01
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within {plus_minus}8%.
Prototypic Features of Loneliness in a Stratified Sample of Adolescents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathias Lasgaard
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Dominant theoretical approaches in loneliness research emphasize the value of personality characteristics in explaining loneliness. The present study examines whether dysfunctional social strategies and attributions in lonely adolescents can be explained by personality characteristics. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 379 Danish Grade 8 students (M = 14.1 years, SD = 0.4 from 22 geographically stratified and randomly selected schools. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that network orientation, success expectation and avoidance in affiliative situations predicted loneliness independent of personality characteristics, demographics and social desirability. The study indicates that dysfunctional strategies and attributions in affiliative situations are directly related to loneliness in adolescence. These strategies and attributions may preclude lonely adolescents from guidance and intervention. Thus, professionals need to be knowledgeable about prototypic features of loneliness in addition to employing a pro-active approach when assisting adolescents who display prototypic features.
Stratified Coastal Trapped Waves and Mean Flows
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Thompson, LuAnne
1998-01-01
Our long term goals are to identify the roles that rectified subinertial waves and mesoscale motions play in the mean-flow transport of fluid properties in the coastal ocean and to apply these ideas...
Analysis of natural convection heat transfer and flows in internally heated stratified liquid pools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubaidullin, A.A. Jr.; Dinh, T.N.; Sehgal, B.R.
1999-01-01
In this paper, natural convection flows and heat transfer in a liquid pool, with two superposed immiscible fluid layers, are analyzed. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of interfacial hydrodynamics and to develop a method which enables energy splitting to be evaluated in a stratified liquid pool. The thermal convection, with and without an internal heat source, in a rectangular cavity with different pairs of fluids was numerically simulated by a CFD code FLOW-3D. It was found that the code performs very well for prediction of heat transfer coefficients for different conditions. The hydrodynamic coupling between immiscible layers was found to have minor, if any, impact on the natural convection heat transfer for the conditions examined. Calculated results were used to develop, and validate, a new correlation for energy splitting and for heat transfer in stratified liquid pools
[Causes of emergency dizziness stratified by etiology].
Qiao, Wenying; Liu, Jianguo; Zeng, Hong; Liu, Yugeng; Jia, Weihua; Wang, Honghong; Liu, Bo; Tan, Jing; Li, Changqing
2014-06-03
To explore the causes of emergency dizziness stratified to improve the diagnostic efficiency. A total of 1 857 cases of dizziness at our emergency department were collected and their etiologies stratified by age and gender. The top three diagnoses were benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, 31.7%), hypertension (24.0%) and posterior circulation ischemia (PCI, 20.5%). Stratified by age, the main causes of dizziness included BPPV (n = 6), migraine-associated vertigo (n = 2), unknown cause (n = 1) for the group of vertigo (14.5%) and neurosis (7.3%) for 18-44 years; BPPV (36.8%), hypertension (22.4%) and migraine-associated vertigo (11.2%) for 45-59 years; hypertension (30.8%), PCI (29.8%) and BPPV (22.9%) for 60-74 years; PCI (30.7%), hypertension (28.6%) and BPPV (25.5%) for 75-92 years. BPPV, migraine and neurosis were more common in females while hypertension and PCI predominated in males (all P hypertension, neurosis and migraine showed the following significant demographic features: BPPV, PCI, hypertension, neurosis and migraine may be the main causes of dizziness. BPPV should be considered initially when vertigo was triggered repeatedly by positional change, especially for young and middle-aged women. And the other common causes of dizziness were migraine-associated vertigo, neurosis and Meniere's disease.Hypertension should be screened firstly in middle-aged and elderly patients presenting mainly with head heaviness and stretching. In elders with dizziness, BPPV is second in constituent ratio to PCI and hypertension.In middle-aged and elderly patients with dizziness, psychological factors should be considered and diagnosis and treatment should be offered timely.
White dwarf stars with chemically stratified atmospheres
Muchmore, D.
1982-01-01
Recent observations and theory suggest that some white dwarfs may have chemically stratified atmospheres - thin layers of hydrogen lying above helium-rich envelopes. Models of such atmospheres show that a discontinuous temperature inversion can occur at the boundary between the layers. Model spectra for layered atmospheres at 30,000 K and 50,000 K tend to have smaller decrements at 912 A, 504 A, and 228 A than uniform atmospheres would have. On the basis of their continuous extreme ultraviolet spectra, it is possible to distinguish observationally between uniform and layered atmospheres for hot white dwarfs.
Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.
1998-12-01
This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.
Stratified B-trees and versioning dictionaries
Twigg, Andy; Byde, Andrew; Milos, Grzegorz; Moreton, Tim; Wilkes, John; Wilkie, Tom
2011-01-01
A classic versioned data structure in storage and computer science is the copy-on-write (CoW) B-tree -- it underlies many of today's file systems and databases, including WAFL, ZFS, Btrfs and more. Unfortunately, it doesn't inherit the B-tree's optimality properties; it has poor space utilization, cannot offer fast updates, and relies on random IO to scale. Yet, nothing better has been developed since. We describe the `stratified B-tree', which beats all known semi-external memory versioned B...
Longevity of Compositionally Stratified Layers in Ice Giants
Friedson, A. J.
2017-12-01
In the hydrogen-rich atmospheres of gas giants, a decrease with radius in the mixing ratio of a heavy species (e.g. He, CH4, H2O) has the potential to produce a density stratification that is convectively stable if the heavy species is sufficiently abundant. Formation of stable layers in the interiors of these planets has important implications for their internal structure, chemical mixing, dynamics, and thermal evolution, since vertical transport of heat and constituents in such layers is greatly reduced in comparison to that in convecting layers. Various processes have been suggested for creating compositionally stratified layers. In the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn, these include phase separation of He from metallic hydrogen and dissolution of dense core material into the surrounding metallic-H envelope. Condensation of methane and water has been proposed as a mechanism for producing stable zones in the atmospheres of Saturn and the ice giants. However, if a stably stratified layer is formed adjacent to an active region of convection, it may be susceptible to progressive erosion as the convection intrudes and entrains fluid into the unstable envelope. We discuss the principal factors that control the rate of entrainment and associated erosion and present a specific example concerning the longevity of stable layers formed by condensation of methane and water in Uranus and Neptune. We also consider whether the temporal variability of such layers may engender episodic behavior in the release of the internal heat of these planets. This research is supported by a grant from the NASA Solar System Workings Program.
Investigations on flow reversal in stratified horizontal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staebler, T.; Meyer, L.; Schulenberg, T.; Laurien, E.
2005-01-01
The phenomena of flow reversal in stratified flows are investigated in a horizontal channel with application to the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). In case of a Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA), coolant can be injected through a secondary pipe within the feeding line of the primary circuit, the so called hot leg, counter-currently to the steam flow. It is essential that the coolant reaches the reactor core to prevent overheating. Due to high temperatures in such accident scenarios, steam is generated in the core, which escapes from the reactor vessel through the hot leg. In case of sufficiently high steam flow rates, only a reduced amount of coolant or even no coolant will be delivered to the reactor core. The WENKA test facility at the Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET) at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is capable to investigate the fluid dynamics of two-phase flows in such scenarios. Water and air flow counter-currently in a horizontal channel made of clear acrylic glass to allow full optical access. Flow rates of water and air can be varied independently within a wide range. Once flow reversal sets in, a strong hysteresis effect must be taken into account. This was quantified during the present investigations. Local experimental data are needed to expand appropriate models on flow reversal in horizontal two-phase flow and to include them into numerical codes. Investigations are carried out by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to obtain local flow velocities without disturbing the flow. Due to the wavy character of the flow, strong reflections at the interfacial area must be taken into account. Using fluorescent particles and an optical filter allows eliminating the reflections and recording only the signals of the particles. The challenges in conducting local investigations in stratified wavy flows by applying optical measurement techniques are discussed. Results are presented and discussed allowing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra
2003-01-01
This research thesis concerns the modelling and experimentation of biphasic liquid/gas flows (water/air) while using the two-fluid model, a six-equation model. The author first addresses the modelling of interfacial magnitudes for a known topology (problem of two-fluid model closure, closure relationships for some variables, equation for a given configuration). She reports the development of an equation system for interfacial magnitudes. The next parts deal with experiments and report the study of stratified flows in the THALC experiment, and more particularly the study of the interfacial area concentration and of the liquid velocities in such flows. Results are discussed, as well as their consistency
Soil mixing of stratified contaminated sands.
Al-Tabba, A; Ayotamuno, M J; Martin, R J
2000-02-01
Validation of soil mixing for the treatment of contaminated ground is needed in a wide range of site conditions to widen the application of the technology and to understand the mechanisms involved. Since very limited work has been carried out in heterogeneous ground conditions, this paper investigates the effectiveness of soil mixing in stratified sands using laboratory-scale augers. This enabled a low cost investigation of factors such as grout type and form, auger design, installation procedure, mixing mode, curing period, thickness of soil layers and natural moisture content on the unconfined compressive strength, leachability and leachate pH of the soil-grout mixes. The results showed that the auger design plays a very important part in the mixing process in heterogeneous sands. The variability of the properties measured in the stratified soils and the measurable variations caused by the various factors considered, highlighted the importance of duplicating appropriate in situ conditions, the usefulness of laboratory-scale modelling of in situ conditions and the importance of modelling soil and contaminant heterogeneities at the treatability study stage.
Stratified coastal ocean interactions with tropical cyclones
Glenn, S. M.; Miles, T. N.; Seroka, G. N.; Xu, Y.; Forney, R. K.; Yu, F.; Roarty, H.; Schofield, O.; Kohut, J.
2016-01-01
Hurricane-intensity forecast improvements currently lag the progress achieved for hurricane tracks. Integrated ocean observations and simulations during hurricane Irene (2011) reveal that the wind-forced two-layer circulation of the stratified coastal ocean, and resultant shear-induced mixing, led to significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling (at least 6 °C and up to 11 °C) over a wide swath of the continental shelf. Atmospheric simulations establish this cooling as the missing contribution required to reproduce Irene's accelerated intensity reduction. Historical buoys from 1985 to 2015 show that ahead-of-eye-centre cooling occurred beneath all 11 tropical cyclones that traversed the Mid-Atlantic Bight continental shelf during stratified summer conditions. A Yellow Sea buoy similarly revealed significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling during Typhoon Muifa (2011). These findings establish that including realistic coastal baroclinic processes in forecasts of storm intensity and impacts will be increasingly critical to mid-latitude population centres as sea levels rise and tropical cyclone maximum intensities migrate poleward. PMID:26953963
Stratified Simulations of Collisionless Accretion Disks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirabayashi, Kota; Hoshino, Masahiro, E-mail: hirabayashi-k@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)
2017-06-10
This paper presents a series of stratified-shearing-box simulations of collisionless accretion disks in the recently developed framework of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), which can handle finite non-gyrotropy of a pressure tensor. Although a fully kinetic simulation predicted a more efficient angular-momentum transport in collisionless disks than in the standard MHD regime, the enhanced transport has not been observed in past kinetic-MHD approaches to gyrotropic pressure anisotropy. For the purpose of investigating this missing link between the fully kinetic and MHD treatments, this paper explores the role of non-gyrotropic pressure and makes the first attempt to incorporate certain collisionless effects into disk-scale, stratified disk simulations. When the timescale of gyrotropization was longer than, or comparable to, the disk-rotation frequency of the orbit, we found that the finite non-gyrotropy selectively remaining in the vicinity of current sheets contributes to suppressing magnetic reconnection in the shearing-box system. This leads to increases both in the saturated amplitude of the MHD turbulence driven by magnetorotational instabilities and in the resultant efficiency of angular-momentum transport. Our results seem to favor the fast advection of magnetic fields toward the rotation axis of a central object, which is required to launch an ultra-relativistic jet from a black hole accretion system in, for example, a magnetically arrested disk state.
Potential Flow Model for Compressible Stratified Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Rydquist, Grant; Reckinger, Scott; Owkes, Mark; Wieland, Scott
2017-11-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is an instability that occurs when a heavy fluid lies on top of a lighter fluid in a gravitational field, or a gravity-like acceleration. It occurs in many fluid flows of a highly compressive nature. In this study potential flow analysis (PFA) is used to model the early stages of RTI growth for compressible fluids. In the localized region near the bubble tip, the effects of vorticity are negligible, so PFA is applicable, as opposed to later stages where the induced velocity due to vortices generated from the growth of the instability dominate the flow. The incompressible PFA is extended for compressibility effects by applying the growth rate and the associated perturbation spatial decay from compressible linear stability theory. The PFA model predicts theoretical values for a bubble terminal velocity for single-mode compressible RTI, dependent upon the Atwood (A) and Mach (M) numbers, which is a parameter that measures both the strength of the stratification and intrinsic compressibility. The theoretical bubble terminal velocities are compared against numerical simulations. The PFA model correctly predicts the M dependence at high A, but the model must be further extended to include additional physics to capture the behavior at low A. Undergraduate Scholars Program - Montana State University.
Ahmad, S.; Farooq, M.; Javed, M.; Anjum, Aisha
2018-03-01
A current analysis is carried out to study theoretically the mixed convection characteristics in squeezing flow of Sutterby fluid in squeezed channel. The constitutive equation of Sutterby model is utilized to characterize the rheology of squeezing phenomenon. Flow characteristics are explored with dual stratification. In flowing fluid which contains heat and mass transport, the first order chemical reaction and radiative heat flux affect the transport phenomenon. The systems of non-linear governing equations have been modulating which then solved by mean of convergent approach (Homotopy Analysis Method). The graphs are reported and illustrated for emerging parameters. Through graphical explanations, drag force, rate of heat and mass transport are conversed for different pertinent parameters. It is found that heat and mass transport rate decays with dominant double stratified parameters and chemical reaction parameter. The present two-dimensional examination is applicable in some of the engineering processes and industrial fluid mechanics.
Monte Carlo stratified source-sampling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.
1997-01-01
In 1995, at a conference on criticality safety, a special session was devoted to the Monte Carlo open-quotes eigenvalue of the worldclose quotes problem. Argonne presented a paper, at that session, in which the anomalies originally observed in that problem were reproduced in a much simplified model-problem configuration, and removed by a version of stratified source-sampling. The original test-problem was treated by a special code designed specifically for that purpose. Recently ANL started work on a method for dealing with more realistic eigenvalue of the world configurations, and has been incorporating this method into VIM. The original method has been modified to take into account real-world statistical noise sources not included in the model problem. This paper constitutes a status report on work still in progress
Ecosystem metabolism in a stratified lake
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stæhr, Peter Anton; Christensen, Jesper Philip Aagaard; Batt, Ryan D.
2012-01-01
, differences were not significant. During stratification, daily variability in epilimnetic DO was dominated by metabolism (46%) and air-water gas exchange (44%). Fluxes related to mixed-layer deepening dominated in meta- and hypolimnic waters (49% and 64%), while eddy diffusion (1% and 14%) was less important....... Although air-water gas exchange rates differed among the three formulations of gas-transfer velocity, this had no significant effect on metabolic rates....... that integrates rates across the entire depth profile and includes DO exchange between depth layers driven by mixed-layer deepening and eddy diffusivity. During full mixing, NEP was close to zero throughout the water column, and GPP and R were reduced 2-10 times compared to stratified periods. When present...
Stratified growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Werner, E.; Roe, F.; Bugnicourt, A.
2004-01-01
In this study, stratified patterns of protein synthesis and growth were demonstrated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Spatial patterns of protein synthetic activity inside biofilms were characterized by the use of two green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene constructs. One construct...... synthesis was restricted to a narrow band in the part of the biofilm adjacent to the source of oxygen. The zone of active GFP expression was approximately 60 Am wide in colony biofilms and 30 Am wide in flow cell biofilms. The region of the biofilm in which cells were capable of elongation was mapped...... by treating colony biofilms with carbenicillin, which blocks cell division, and then measuring individual cell lengths by transmission electron microscopy. Cell elongation was localized at the air interface of the biofilm. The heterogeneous anabolic patterns measured inside these biofilms were likely a result...
Information content of household-stratified epidemics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.M. Kinyanjui
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs.
Information content of household-stratified epidemics.
Kinyanjui, T M; Pellis, L; House, T
2016-09-01
Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stratified sampling design based on data mining.
Kim, Yeonkook J; Oh, Yoonhwan; Park, Sunghoon; Cho, Sungzoon; Park, Hayoung
2013-09-01
To explore classification rules based on data mining methodologies which are to be used in defining strata in stratified sampling of healthcare providers with improved sampling efficiency. We performed k-means clustering to group providers with similar characteristics, then, constructed decision trees on cluster labels to generate stratification rules. We assessed the variance explained by the stratification proposed in this study and by conventional stratification to evaluate the performance of the sampling design. We constructed a study database from health insurance claims data and providers' profile data made available to this study by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea, and population data from Statistics Korea. From our database, we used the data for single specialty clinics or hospitals in two specialties, general surgery and ophthalmology, for the year 2011 in this study. Data mining resulted in five strata in general surgery with two stratification variables, the number of inpatients per specialist and population density of provider location, and five strata in ophthalmology with two stratification variables, the number of inpatients per specialist and number of beds. The percentages of variance in annual changes in the productivity of specialists explained by the stratification in general surgery and ophthalmology were 22% and 8%, respectively, whereas conventional stratification by the type of provider location and number of beds explained 2% and 0.2% of variance, respectively. This study demonstrated that data mining methods can be used in designing efficient stratified sampling with variables readily available to the insurer and government; it offers an alternative to the existing stratification method that is widely used in healthcare provider surveys in South Korea.
Stratified charge rotary engine combustion studies
Shock, H.; Hamady, F.; Somerton, C.; Stuecken, T.; Chouinard, E.; Rachal, T.; Kosterman, J.; Lambeth, M.; Olbrich, C.
1989-07-01
Analytical and experimental studies of the combustion process in a stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) continue to be the subject of active research in recent years. Specifically to meet the demand for more sophisticated products, a detailed understanding of the engine system of interest is warranted. With this in mind the objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the controlling factors that affect the SCRE combustion process so that an efficient power dense rotary engine can be designed. The influence of the induction-exhaust systems and the rotor geometry are believed to have a significant effect on combustion chamber flow characteristics. In this report, emphasis is centered on Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements and on qualitative flow visualizations in the combustion chamber of the motored rotary engine assembly. This will provide a basic understanding of the flow process in the RCE and serve as a data base for verification of numerical simulations. Understanding fuel injection provisions is also important to the successful operation of the stratified charge rotary engine. Toward this end, flow visualizations depicting the development of high speed, high pressure fuel jets are described. Friction is an important consideration in an engine from the standpoint of lost work, durability and reliability. MSU Engine Research Laboratory efforts in accessing the frictional losses associated with the rotary engine are described. This includes work which describes losses in bearing, seal and auxillary components. Finally, a computer controlled mapping system under development is described. This system can be used to map shapes such as combustion chamber, intake manifolds or turbine blades accurately.
Second law characterization of stratified thermal storage tanks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fraidenraich, N [Departamento de Energia Nuclear-UFPE (Brazil)
2000-07-01
It is well known that fluid stratification in thermal storage tanks improves the overall performance of solar thermal systems, when compared with systems operating with uniform fluid temperature. From the point of view of the first law of thermodynamics, no difference exists between storage tanks with the same mass and average temperature, even if they have different stratified thermal structures. Nevertheless, the useful thermal energy that can be obtained from them might differ significantly. In this work, we derive an expression able to characterize the stratified configuration of thermal fluid. Using results obtained by thermodynamics of irreversible processes, the procedure adopted consists in calculating the maximum work available from the tank's thermal layer is able to develop. We arrive, then, at a dimensionless expression, the stratification parameter (SP), which depends on the mass fraction and absolute temperature of each thermal layer as well as the thermal fluid average temperature. Numerical examples for different types of tank stratification are given and it is verified that the expression obtained is sensitive to small differences in the reservoir thermal configuration. For example a thermal storage with temperatures equal to 74 Celsius degrees, 64 Celsius degrees and 54 Celsius degrees, with its mass equally distributed along the tank yields, for the parameter SP, a figure equal to 0.000294. On the other hand a storage tank with the same average temperature but with different layer's temperatures 76 Celsius degrees, 64 and 52 Celsius degrees, also with uniform mass distribution, yields for SP a value equal to quantitative evaluation of the stratification structure of thermal reservoirs. [Spanish] Es bien conocido que la estratificacion fluida en tanques de almacenamiento termico mejora el rendimiento total de los sistemas termicos solares en comparacion con sistemas que operan con temperatura uniforme del fluido. Desde el punto de vista
Fluid Dynamics And Mass Transfer In Two-Fluid Taylor-Couette Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baier, G.; Graham, M.D.
1998-01-01
The Taylor-Couette instability of a single liquid phase can be used to enhance mass transfer processes such as filtration and membrane separations. We consider here the possibility of using this instability to enhance interphase transport in a two-fluid systems, with a view toward improved liquid-liquid extractions for biotechnology applications. We investigate the centrifugal instability of a pair of radially stratified immiscible liquids in the annular gap between concentric, corotating cylinders: two-fluid Taylor-Couette flow. Experiments show that a two-layer flow with a well-defined interface and Taylor vortices in each phase can be obtained. The experimental results are in good agreement with predictions of inviscid arguments based on a two-phase extension of Rayleigh's criterion, as well as with detailed linear stability calculations. For a given geometry, the most stable configuration occurs for fluids of roughly (exactly in the inviscid limit) equal dynamic viscosities. A number of preliminary mass transfer experiments have also been performed, in the presence of axial counterflow. The onset of Taylor vortices coincides with a clear decrease in the extent of axial dispersion and an increase in the rate of interphase transport, thus suggesting that this flow geometry may provide an effective means for countercurrent chromatographic separations
A study of stratified gas-liquid pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, George W.
2005-07-01
liquid accumulation in large gas condensate pipelines. Reducing the prediction uncertainties can lead to more optimal pipeline dimensioning, thus potentially reducing both costs and technical risks. The chapters may be summarized by the following. 1) Outlines the stratified two-fluid model in pipes which provides a basis for the theoretical models of this work. Assumptions and simplifications which result in the model equations are presented. Some relationships which were used to analyze the experimental data are also presented. 2) Discusses theoretical models and experimental investigations from the literature involving stratified flow inducts. 3) Presents a new mathematical model for stratified flow in inclined pipes which allow predictive discontinuous and continuous roll wave solutions. 4) Describes the facility used for the experimental work and data reduction methods. 5) Presents experimental results from horizontal and inclined two-phase pipe flow at 8 bara. 6) Compares model predictions with experimental observations. 7) Summarizes the ability of the models to predict the observational data and suggest further improvements. Draws conclusions about the ability of the models to predict observed quantities. (Author)
Turbulent entrainment across turbulent-nonturbulent interfaces in stably stratified mixing layers
Watanabe, T.; Riley, J. J.; Nagata, K.
2017-10-01
The entrainment process in stably stratified mixing layers is studied in relation to the turbulent-nonturbulent interface (TNTI) using direct numerical simulations. The statistics are calculated with the interface coordinate in an Eulerian frame as well as with the Lagrangian fluid particles entrained from the nonturbulent to the turbulent regions. The characteristics of entrainment change as the buoyancy Reynolds number Reb decreases and the flow begins to layer. The baroclinic torque delays the enstrophy growth of the entrained fluids at small Reb, while this effect is less efficient for large Reb. The entrained particle movement within the TNTI layer is dominated by the small dissipative scales, and the rapid decay of the kinetic energy dissipation rate due to buoyancy causes the entrained particle movement relative to the interface location to become slower. Although the Eulerian statistics confirm that there exists turbulent fluid with strong vorticity or with large buoyancy frequency near the TNTI, the entrained fluid particles circumvent these regions by passing through the TNTI in strain-dominant regions or in regions with small buoyancy frequency. The multiparticle statistics show that once the nonturbulent fluid volumes are entrained, they are deformed into flattened shapes in the vertical direction and diffuse in the horizontal direction. When Reb is large enough for small-scale turbulence to exist, the entrained fluid is able to penetrate into the turbulent core region. Once the flow begins to layer with decreasing Reb, however, the entrained fluid volume remains near the outer edge of the turbulent region and forms a stably stratified layer without vertical overturning.
Layer contributions to the nonlinear acoustic radiation from stratified media.
Vander Meulen, François; Haumesser, Lionel
2016-12-01
This study presents the thorough investigation of the second harmonic generation scenario in a three fluid layer system. An emphasis is on the evaluation of the nonlinear parameter B/A in each layer from remote measurements. A theoretical approach of the propagation of a finite amplitude acoustic wave in a multilayered medium is developed. In the frame of the KZK equation, the weak nonlinearity of the media, attenuation and diffraction effects are computed for the fundamental and second harmonic waves propagating back and forth in each of the layers of the system. The model uses a gaussian expansion to describe the beam propagation in order to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of each part of the system (layers and interfaces) to its nonlinearity. The model is validated through measurements on a water/aluminum/water system. Transmission as well as reflection configurations are studied. Good agreement is found between the theoretical results and the experimental data. The analysis of the second harmonic field sources measured by the transducers from outside the stratified medium highlights the factors that favor the cumulative effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Turbulent structure of stably stratified inhomogeneous flow
Iida, Oaki
2018-04-01
Effects of buoyancy force stabilizing disturbances are investigated on the inhomogeneous flow where disturbances are dispersed from the turbulent to non-turbulent field in the direction perpendicular to the gravity force. Attaching the fringe region, where disturbances are excited by the artificial body force, a Fourier spectral method is used for the inhomogeneous flow stirred at one side of the cuboid computational box. As a result, it is found that the turbulent kinetic energy is dispersed as layered structures elongated in the streamwise direction through the vibrating motion. A close look at the layered structures shows that they are flanked by colder fluids at the top and hotter fluids at the bottom, and hence vertically compressed and horizontally expanded by the buoyancy related to the countergradient heat flux, though they are punctuated by the vertical expansion of fluids at the forefront of the layered structures, which is related to the downgradient heat flux, indicating that the layered structures are gravity currents. However, the phase between temperature fluctuations and vertical velocity is shifted by π/2 rad, indicating that temperature fluctuations are generated by the propagation of internal gravity waves.
The effect of surfactant on stratified and stratifying gas-liquid flows
Heiles, Baptiste; Zadrazil, Ivan; Matar, Omar
2013-11-01
We consider the dynamics of a stratified/stratifying gas-liquid flow in horizontal tubes. This flow regime is characterised by the thin liquid films that drain under gravity along the pipe interior, forming a pool at the bottom of the tube, and the formation of large-amplitude waves at the gas-liquid interface. This regime is also accompanied by the detachment of droplets from the interface and their entrainment into the gas phase. We carry out an experimental study involving axial- and radial-view photography of the flow, in the presence and absence of surfactant. We show that the effect of surfactant is to reduce significantly the average diameter of the entrained droplets, through a tip-streaming mechanism. We also highlight the influence of surfactant on the characteristics of the interfacial waves, and the pressure gradient that drives the flow. EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.
Shilov, Georgi E
1977-01-01
Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.
Improved patient selection by stratified surgical intervention
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Miao; Bünger, Cody E; Li, Haisheng
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Choosing the best surgical treatment for patients with spinal metastases remains a significant challenge for spine surgeons. There is currently no gold standard for surgical treatments. The Aarhus Spinal Metastases Algorithm (ASMA) was established to help surgeons choose...... the most appropriate surgical intervention for patients with spinal metastases. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of stratified surgical interventions based on the ASMA, which combines life expectancy and the anatomical classification of patients with spinal metastases...... survival times in the five surgical groups determined by the ASMA were 2.1 (TS 0-4, TC 1-7), 5.1 (TS 5-8, TC 1-7), 12.1 (TS 9-11, TC 1-7 or TS 12-15, TC 7), 26.0 (TS 12-15, TC 4-6), and 36.0 (TS 12-15, TC 1-3) months. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.5%. Postoperative neurological function was maintained...
Experimental study of unsteady thermally stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Jun; Chung, Myung Kyoon
1985-01-01
Unsteady thermally stratified flow caused by two-dimensional surface discharge of warm water into a oblong channel was investigated. Experimental study was focused on the rapidly developing thermal diffusion at small Richardson number. The basic objectives were to study the interfacial mixing between a flowing layer of warm water and an underlying body of cold water and to accumulate experimental data to test computational turbulence models. Mean velocity field measurements were carried out by using NMR-CT(Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Computerized Tomography). It detects quantitative flow image of any desired section in any direction of flow in short time. Results show that at small Richardson number warm layer rapidly penetrates into the cold layer because of strong turbulent mixing and instability between the two layers. It is found that the transfer of heat across the interface is more vigorous than that of momentum. It is also proved that the NMR-CT technique is a very valuable tool to measure unsteady three dimensional flow field. (Author)
Classification of archaeologically stratified pumice by INAA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.
2001-01-01
In the framework of the research program 'Synchronization of Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millenium B.C.' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. The widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region were used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. A remarkable quantity of pumice and pumiceous tephra (several km 3 ) was produced by the 'Minoan eruption' of Thera (Santorini), which is assumed to have happened between 1450 and 1650 B.C. Thus the discovery of the primary fallout of 'Minoan' tephra in archaeologically stratified locations can be used as a relative time mark. Additionally, pumice lumps used as abrasive can serve for dating by first appearance. Essential to an identification of the primary volcanic source is the knowledge that pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns, as previous work has shown. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. (author)
Turbulent fluxes in stably stratified boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii
2008-01-01
We present here an extended version of an invited talk we gave at the international conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond'. The dynamical and statistical description of stably stratified turbulent boundary layers with the important example of the stable atmospheric boundary layer in mind is addressed. Traditional approaches to this problem, based on the profiles of mean quantities, velocity second-order correlations and dimensional estimates of the turbulent thermal flux, run into a well-known difficulty, predicting the suppression of turbulence at a small critical value of the Richardson number, in contradiction to observations. Phenomenological attempts to overcome this problem suffer from various theoretical inconsistencies. Here, we present an approach taking into full account all the second-order statistics, which allows us to respect the conservation of total mechanical energy. The analysis culminates in an analytic solution of the profiles of all mean quantities and all second-order correlations, removing the unphysical predictions of previous theories. We propose that the approach taken here is sufficient to describe the lower parts of the atmospheric boundary layer, as long as the Richardson number does not exceed an order of unity. For much higher Richardson numbers, the physics may change qualitatively, requiring careful consideration of the potential Kelvin-Helmoholtz waves and their interaction with the vortical turbulence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerbel, G.D.
1981-01-20
A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerbel, G.D.
1981-01-01
A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch
Mixing in thermally stratified nonlinear spin-up with uniform boundary fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baghdasarian, Meline; Pacheco-Vega, Arturo; Pacheco, J. Rafael; Verzicco, Roberto
2014-01-01
Studies of stratified spin-up experiments in enclosed cylinders have reported the presence of small pockets of well-mixed fluids but quantitative measurements of the mixedness of the fluid has been lacking. Previous numerical simulations have not addressed these measurements. Here we present numerical simulations that explain how the combined effect of spin-up and thermal boundary conditions enhances or hinders mixing of a fluid in a cylinder. The energy of the system is characterized by splitting the potential energy into diabatic and adiabatic components, and measurements of efficiency of mixing are based on both, the ratio of dissipation of available potential energy to forcing and variance of temperature. The numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations for the problem with different sets of thermal boundary conditions at the horizontal walls helped shed some light on the physical mechanisms of mixing, for which a clear explanation was absent
Mixing in thermally stratified nonlinear spin-up with uniform boundary fluxes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baghdasarian, Meline; Pacheco-Vega, Arturo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90032 (United States); Pacheco, J. Rafael, E-mail: rpacheco@asu.edu [SAP Americas Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona 85251 (United States); School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Environmental Fluid Dynamics Laboratories, Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, The University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana 46556 (United States); Verzicco, Roberto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Roma (Italy); PoF, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)
2014-09-15
Studies of stratified spin-up experiments in enclosed cylinders have reported the presence of small pockets of well-mixed fluids but quantitative measurements of the mixedness of the fluid has been lacking. Previous numerical simulations have not addressed these measurements. Here we present numerical simulations that explain how the combined effect of spin-up and thermal boundary conditions enhances or hinders mixing of a fluid in a cylinder. The energy of the system is characterized by splitting the potential energy into diabatic and adiabatic components, and measurements of efficiency of mixing are based on both, the ratio of dissipation of available potential energy to forcing and variance of temperature. The numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations for the problem with different sets of thermal boundary conditions at the horizontal walls helped shed some light on the physical mechanisms of mixing, for which a clear explanation was absent.
Analysis of Turbulent Combustion in Simplified Stratified Charge Conditions
Moriyoshi, Yasuo; Morikawa, Hideaki; Komatsu, Eiji
The stratified charge combustion system has been widely studied due to the significant potentials for low fuel consumption rate and low exhaust gas emissions. The fuel-air mixture formation process in a direct-injection stratified charge engine is influenced by various parameters, such as atomization, evaporation, and in-cylinder gas motion at high temperature and high pressure conditions. It is difficult to observe the in-cylinder phenomena in such conditions and also challenging to analyze the following stratified charge combustion. Therefore, the combustion phenomena in simplified stratified charge conditions aiming to analyze the fundamental stratified charge combustion are examined. That is, an experimental apparatus which can control the mixture distribution and the gas motion at ignition timing was developed, and the effects of turbulence intensity, mixture concentration distribution, and mixture composition on stratified charge combustion were examined. As a result, the effects of fuel, charge stratification, and turbulence on combustion characteristics were clarified.
Mixed Convection Flow along a Stretching Cylinder in a Thermally Stratified Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swati Mukhopadhyay
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis for the axisymmetric laminar boundary layer mixed convection flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid towards a stretching cylinder immersed in a thermally stratified medium is presented in this paper. Similarity transformation is employed to convert the governing partial differential equations into highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by a shooting method. It is found that the heat transfer rate at the surface is lower for flow in a thermally stratified medium compared to that of an unstratified medium. Moreover, both the skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer rate at the surface are larger for a cylinder compared to that for a flat plate.
Domain growth kinetics in stratifying foam films
Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek
2015-11-01
Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness characteristic scaling laws. Though several studies have focused on the expansion dynamics of isolated domains that exhibit a diffusion-like scaling, the change in expansion kinetics observed after domains contact with the Plateau border has not been reported and analyzed before.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marichev, F N; Chernobay, L A; Teterina, O P; Yarmizin, V G
1980-01-01
Problems with oil industry equipment and pipeline corrosion have recently highlighted the problems of increased water content in oil and the presence of biogenic hydrogen sulphide in petroleum matter. These findings underscore the importance of taking these problems into consideration when formulating long-term production plans. A study of pipeline corrosion and its causes, as well as other factors, has permitted researchers to correlate hydrodynamic parameters for gas-fluid transportability and structural contour flows. The water phase simultaneously carries corrosion-active ions of dissolved hydrogen sulphide and material which interact to corrode metal in the lower sections of pipelines. In order to determine the susceptibility of pipelines to corrosion, it is necessary to establish the presence of stratified fluids in oil and water as well as the gas-fluid flow. Analysis has shown that those sections with stratified emulsion could be identified and that it is necessary to disclose the pipeline's ability to withstand such conditions. The proper selection of transport parameters permits the technological protection of the oil collection pipelines. Partially as a result of the increased flow speed guaranteeing an emulsion flow regime for the gas-water-oil flow, it was found that the operational service-life of pipelines could be prolonged by a reduction of corrosion in oil collection pipelines.
Interactive Fuzzy Goal Programming approach in multi-response stratified sample surveys
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gupta Neha
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we applied an Interactive Fuzzy Goal Programming (IFGP approach with linear, exponential and hyperbolic membership functions, which focuses on maximizing the minimum membership values to determine the preferred compromise solution for the multi-response stratified surveys problem, formulated as a Multi- Objective Non Linear Programming Problem (MONLPP, and by linearizing the nonlinear objective functions at their individual optimum solution, the problem is approximated to an Integer Linear Programming Problem (ILPP. A numerical example based on real data is given, and comparison with some existing allocations viz. Cochran’s compromise allocation, Chatterjee’s compromise allocation and Khowaja’s compromise allocation is made to demonstrate the utility of the approach.
Internal and vorticity waves in decaying stratified flows
Matulka, A.; Cano, D.
2009-04-01
Most predictive models fail when forcing at the Rossby deformation Radius is important and a large range of scales have to be taken into account. When mixing of reactants or pollutants has to be accounted, the range of scales spans from hundreds of Kilometers to the Bachelor or Kolmogorov sub milimiter scales. We present some theoretical arguments to describe the flow in terms of the three dimensional vorticity equations, using a lengthscale related to the vorticity (or enstrophy ) transport. Effect of intermittent eddies and non-homogeneity of diffusion are also key issues in the environment because both stratification and rotation body forces are important and cause anisotropy/non-homogeneity. These problems need further theoretical, numerical and observational work and one approach is to try to maximize the relevant geometrical information in order to understand and therefore predict these complex environmental dispersive flows. The importance of the study of turbulence structure and its relevance in diffusion of contaminants in environmental flows is clear when we see the effect of environmental disasters such as the Prestige oil spill or the Chernobil radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere. A series of Experiments have been performed on a strongly stratified two layer fluid consisting of Brine in the bottom and freshwater above in a 1 square meter tank. The evolution of the vortices after the passage of a grid is video recorded and Particle tracking is applied on small pliolite particles floating at the interface. The combination of internal waves and vertical vorticity produces two separate time scales that may produce resonances. The vorticity is seen to oscilate in a complex way, where the frecuency decreases with time.
Aligning the Economic Value of Companion Diagnostics and Stratified Medicines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edward D. Blair
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The twin forces of payors seeking fair pricing and the rising costs of developing new medicines has driven a closer relationship between pharmaceutical companies and diagnostics companies, because stratified medicines, guided by companion diagnostics, offer better commercial, as well as clinical, outcomes. Stratified medicines have created clinical success and provided rapid product approvals, particularly in oncology, and indeed have changed the dynamic between drug and diagnostic developers. The commercial payback for such partnerships offered by stratified medicines has been less well articulated, but this has shifted as the benefits in risk management, pricing and value creation for all stakeholders become clearer. In this larger healthcare setting, stratified medicine provides both physicians and patients with greater insight on the disease and provides rationale for providers to understand cost-effectiveness of treatment. This article considers how the economic value of stratified medicine relationships can be recognized and translated into better outcomes for all healthcare stakeholders.
Non-Darcy Mixed Convection in a Doubly Stratified Porous Medium with Soret-Dufour Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Srinivasacharya
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the nonsimilarity solutions for mixed convection heat and mass transfer along a semi-infinite vertical plate embedded in a doubly stratified fluid saturated porous medium in the presence of Soret and Dufour effects. The flow in the porous medium is described by employing the Darcy-Forchheimer based model. The nonlinear governing equations and their associated boundary conditions are initially cast into dimensionless forms and then solved numerically. The influence of pertinent parameters on dimensionless velocity, temperature, concentration, heat, and mass transfer in terms of the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers is discussed and presented graphically.
Lee, C. M.; Addy, H. E.; Bond, T. H.; Chun, K. S.; Lu, C. Y.
1987-01-01
The main objective of this report was to derive equations to estimate heat transfer coefficients in both the combustion chamber and coolant pasage of a rotary engine. This was accomplished by making detailed temperature and pressure measurements in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine under a range of conditions. For each sppecific measurement point, the local physical properties of the fluids were calculated. Then an empirical correlation of the coefficients was derived by using a multiple regression program. This correlation expresses the Nusselt number as a function of the Prandtl number and Reynolds number.
Effect of FLR correction on Rayleigh -Taylor instability of quantum and stratified plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, P.K.; Tiwari, Anita; Argal, Shraddha; Chhajlani, R.K.
2013-01-01
The Rayleigh Taylor instability of stratified incompressible fluids is studied in presence of FLR Correction and quantum effects in bounded medium. The Quantum magneto hydrodynamic equations of the problem are solved by using normal mode analysis method. A dispersion relation is carried out for the case where plasma is bounded by two rigid planes z = 0 and z = h. The dispersion relation is obtained in dimensionless form to discuss the growth rate of Rayleigh Taylor instability in presence of FLR Correction and quantum effects. The stabilizing or destabilizing behavior of quantum effect and FLR correction on the Rayleigh Taylor instability is analyzed. (author)
A Mechanism for Stratifying Lava Flows
Rice, A.
2005-12-01
Relict lava flows (e.g., komatiites) are often reported to be zoned in the vertical, each zone separated by a sharp contact. Such stratifications in igneous flows, both intrusive and extrusive, can be treated as analogues of suspended loads of sediments in rivers and streams, and hence amenable to quantitative treatment derived for the hydraulic environment as long as dynamic similitude is assured. Situations typically encountered in the hydraulic environment are streams carrying a bed load at the bottom of the stream, the bed load separated by a sharp horizon from a sediment load carried above it. This sediment load may be topped by others of decreasing density as one moves to the surface of the flow, with perhaps the uppermost layer clear of any suspended matter. Rules exist for estimating the thickness D of these loads: one of them is given by D ~ 4.4V3/rgcvs where V is the shear velocity or average velocity of the flow, r = (ρs - ρl)/ρl where ρs is the density of the suspended solid matter, ρl the density of the fluid, g the acceleration of gravity, c the concentration of the particulate content and vs the settling velocity. The settling velocity is secured through Stoke's Law and the velocity of the flow is given by V = R2/3S1/2/n where R is the hydraulic radius, S the gradient along which the fluid flows and n is the Manning Coefficient. In the igneous case, the bed load would be composed of primocrysts, i.e., of the first crystals to come out of solution as the flow cools along its run. This would leave the upper portions of the flow more evolved except perhaps for a quenched crust riding atop the flow. As the viscosity of the flow is dependent not only on temperature but on composition and crystal content, the mean velocity of each layer will be different from the layer above and below it. This requires shear at the interface of adjoining stratifications, which brings into play another mechanism: dispersive pressure (the Bagnold effect). Dispersive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suwono.
1978-01-01
A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)
Doubly stratified mixed convection flow of Maxwell nanofluid with heat generation/absorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbasi, F.M., E-mail: abbasisarkar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Ahmad, B. [NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-04-15
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) doubly stratified flow of Maxwell nanofluid in presence of mixed convection is analyzed in this article. Effects of thermophoresis, Brownian motion and heat generation/absorption are present. The flow is induced due to linear stretching of sheet. Mathematical formulation is made under boundary layer approach. Expressions of velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration are developed. The obtained results are plotted and discussed to examine the variations in temperature and nanoparticles concentration due to different physical parameters. Numerical computations are made to obtain the values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Impact of sundry parameters on the flow quantities is analyzed graphically. - Highlights: • Double stratified flow of Maxwell nanofluid with mixed convection is modeled. • Thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects are encountered. • Computations are made to obtain the solution expressions. • Numerical values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and examined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atta Ullah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In practical utilization of stratified random sampling scheme, the investigator meets a problem to select a sample that maximizes the precision of a finite population mean under cost constraint. An allocation of sample size becomes complicated when more than one characteristic is observed from each selected unit in a sample. In many real life situations, a linear cost function of a sample size nh is not a good approximation to actual cost of sample survey when traveling cost between selected units in a stratum is significant. In this paper, sample allocation problem in multivariate stratified random sampling with proposed cost function is formulated in integer nonlinear multiobjective mathematical programming. A solution procedure is proposed using extended lexicographic goal programming approach. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the computational details and to compare the efficiency of proposed compromise allocation.
Experimental and numerical investigation of stratified gas-liquid flow in inclined circular pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faccini, J.L.H.; Sampaio, P.A.B. de; Botelho, M.H.D.S.; Cunha, M.V.; Cunha Filho, J.S.; Su, J.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a stratified gas-liquid flow is experimentally and numerically investigated. Two measurement techniques, namely an ultrasonic technique and a visualization technique, are applied on an inclined circular test section using a fast single transducer pulse-echo technique and a high-speed camera. A numerical model is employed to simulate the stratified gas-liquid flow, formed by a system of non-linear differential equations consisting of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the κ-ω turbulence model. The test section used in this work is comprised mainly of a transparent circular pipe with inner diameter 1 inch, and inclination angles varying from -2.5 to -10.0 degrees. Numerical solutions are obtained for the liquid height as a function of inclination angles, and compared with our own experimental data. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vretenar, M
2014-01-01
The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics
Salinization in a stratified aquifer induced by heat transfer from well casings
van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan; Cirkel, D. Gijsbert; Raoof, Amir
2015-12-01
The temperature inside wells used for gas, oil and geothermal energy production, as well as steam injection, is in general significantly higher than the groundwater temperature at shallower depths. While heat loss from these hot wells is known to occur, the extent to which this heat loss may result in density-driven flow and in mixing of surrounding groundwater has not been assessed so far. However, based on the heat and solute effects on density of this arrangement, the induced temperature contrasts in the aquifer due to heat transfer are expected to destabilize the system and result in convection, while existing salt concentration contrasts in an aquifer would act to stabilize the system. To evaluate the degree of impact that may occur under field conditions, free convection in a 50-m-thick aquifer driven by the heat loss from penetrating hot wells was simulated using a 2D axisymmetric SEAWAT model. In particular, the salinization potential of fresh groundwater due to the upward movement of brackish or saline water in a stratified aquifer is studied. To account for a large variety of well applications and configurations, as well as different penetrated aquifer systems, a wide range of well temperatures, from 40 to 100 °C, together with a range of salt concentration (1-35 kg/m3) contrasts were considered. This large temperature difference with the native groundwater (15 °C) required implementation of a non-linear density equation of state in SEAWAT. We show that density-driven groundwater flow results in a considerable salt mass transport (up to 166,000 kg) to the top of the aquifer in the vicinity of the well (radial distance up to 91 m) over a period of 30 years. Sensitivity analysis showed that density-driven groundwater flow and the upward salt transport was particularly enhanced by the increased heat transport from the well into the aquifer by thermal conduction due to increased well casing temperature, thermal conductivity of the soil, as well as decreased
Linearization Method and Linear Complexity
Tanaka, Hidema
We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.
Stratified flows and internal waves in the Vema Fracture Zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge
Makarenko, Nikolay; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman; Demidova, Tatiana; Frey, Dmitri; Grigorenko, Klim
2017-04-01
In this paper, we study stratified flows and internal waves in the Vema fracture zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. This fracture provides intense transportation of cold abyssal waters from the West Atlantic to the equatorial region of the East Atlantic [1]. The results of measurements [2,3] carried out in the cruises of RV Akademik Sergey Vavilov in 2014-2016 are presented. The structure of the near-bottom flow is studied experimentally on the basis of CTD- and LADCP profiling. Theoretical analysis involves mathematical formulation of stratified fluid flow which uses CTD-data obtained from field observation. Spectral properties and kinematic characteristics of internal waves are calculated and discussed. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 15-01-03942, 16-35-50158). References [1] Morozov E., Demidov A., Tarakanov R. and Zenk W. Abyssal Channels in the Atlantic Ocean: Water Structure and Flows, Springer, Dordrecht, 2010. [2] Morozov E.G., Tarakanov R.Yu., and Makarenko N.I. Flows of Antarctic Bottom Water through fractures in the southern part of the North Mid Atlantic Ridge, Oceanology, 2015, 55, 796-800. [3] Grigorenko K.S., Makarenko N.I., Morozov E.G., Tarakanov R.Yu., and Frey D.I. Stratified flows and internal waves in the Central West Atlantic, J. Physics: Conf. Series, 2016, 722, 012011.
The stratified H-index makes scientific impact transparent
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Würtz, Morten; Schmidt, Morten
2017-01-01
The H-index is widely used to quantify and standardize researchers' scientific impact. However, the H-index does not account for the fact that co-authors rarely contribute equally to a paper. Accordingly, we propose the use of a stratified H-index to measure scientific impact. The stratified H......-index supplements the conventional H-index with three separate H-indices: one for first authorships, one for second authorships and one for last authorships. The stratified H-index takes scientific output, quality and individual author contribution into account....
Gas mass transfer for stratified flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.
1995-01-01
We analyzed gas absorption and release in water bodies using existing surface renewal theory. We show a new relation between turbulent momentum and mass transfer from gas to water, including the effects of waves and wave roughness, by evaluating the equilibrium integral turbulent dissipation due to energy transfer to the water from the wind. Using Kolmogoroff turbulence arguments the gas transfer velocity, or mass transfer coefficient, is then naturally and straightforwardly obtained as a non-linear function of the wind speed drag coefficient and the square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient. In dimensionless form, the theory predicts the turbulent Sherwood number to be Sh t = (2/√π)Sc 1/2 , where Sh t is based on an integral dissipation length scale in the air. The theory confirms the observed nonlinear variation of the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the wind speed; gives the correct transition with turbulence-centered models for smooth surfaces at low speeds; and predicts experimental data from both laboratory and environmental measurements within the data scatter. The differences between the available laboratory and field data measurements are due to the large differences in the drag coefficient between wind tunnels and oceans. The results also imply that the effect of direct aeration due to bubble entrainment at wave breaking is no more than a 20% increase in the mass transfer for the highest speeds. The theory has importance to mass transfer in both the geo-physical and chemical engineering literature
Nambu brackets in fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salazar, Roberto; Kurgansky, Michael V
2010-01-01
Concrete examples of the construction of Nambu brackets for equations of motion (both 3D and 2D) of Boussinesq stratified fluids and also for magnetohydrodynamical equations are given. It serves a generalization of Hamiltonian formulation for the considered equations of motion. Two alternative Nambu formulations are proposed, first by using fluid dynamical (kinetic) helicity and/or enstrophy as constitutive elements and second, by using the existing conservation laws of the governing equation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macia, R.; Correig, A.M.
1987-01-01
Seismic wave propagation is described by a second order differential equation for medium displacement. By Fourier transforming with respect to time and space, wave equation transforms into a system of first order linear differential equations for the Fourier transform of displacement and stress. This system of differential equations is solved by means of Matrix Propagator and applied to the propagation of body waves in stratified media. The matrix propagators corresponding to P-SV and SH waves in homogeneous medium are found as an intermediate step to obtain the spectral response of body waves propagating through a stratified medium with homogeneous layers. (author) 14 refs
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2017-01-01
This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...
Dysart, M; Graves, B W; Sharp, E S; Cotsonis, G
1991-09-01
The annual incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid was analyzed for changes in a total obstetric sample of 45,115 singleton, vertex, liveborn infants over a 7-year study period. The incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid for the total obstetric population was calculated for each year of the study period. The sample was then stratified by estimated gestational age, and the incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid was calculated for each gestational age group. The incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid increased 40.9% over the study period, from 18.8% in 1980 to 26.5% in 1986 (P less than .001). This increase was found to be in a consistent linear trend (P less than .05). The incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid was also found to increase significantly in a linear trend as gestational age of the fetus increased. These findings lend support to both the maturational theory and the stress theory of meconium passage in utero.
Effect of double stratification on MHD free convection in a micropolar fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Srinivasacharya
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the flow and heat and mass transfer characteristics of the free convection on a vertical plate with variable wall temperature and concentration in a doubly stratified micropolar fluid. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the plate. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Keller-box method. The numerical results are compared and found to be in good agreement with previously published results as special cases of the present investigation. The non-dimensional velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration are presented graphically for various values of magnetic parameter, coupling number, thermal and solutal stratification parameters. In addition, the Nusselt number, the Sherwood number, the skin-friction coefficient, and the wall couple stress are shown in a tabular form.
Sensitivity of the Geomagnetic Octupole to a Stably Stratified Layer in the Earth's Core
Yan, C.; Stanley, S.
2017-12-01
The presence of a stably stratified layer at the top of the core has long been proposed for Earth, based on evidence from seismology and geomagnetic secular variation. Geodynamo modeling offers a unique window to inspect the properties and dynamics in Earth's core. For example, numerical simulations have shown that magnetic field morphology is sensitive to the presence of stably stratified layers in a planet's core. Here we use the mMoSST numerical dynamo model to investigate the effects of a thin stably stratified layer at the top of the fluid outer core in Earth on the resulting large-scale geomagnetic field morphology. We find that the existence of a stable layer has significant influence on the octupolar component of the magnetic field in our models, whereas the quadrupole doesn't show an obvious trend. This suggests that observations of the geomagnetic field can be applied to provide information of the properties of this plausible stable layer, such as how thick and how stable this layer could be. Furthermore, we have examined whether the dominant thermal signature from mantle tomography at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) (a degree & order 2 spherical harmonic) can influence our results. We found that this heat flux pattern at the CMB has no outstanding effects on the quadrupole and octupole magnetic field components. Our studies suggest that if there is a stably stratified layer at the top of the Earth's core, it must be limited in terms of stability and thickness, in order to be compatible with the observed paleomagnetic record.
Mixing process of a binary gas in a density stratified layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeda, Tetsuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment
1997-09-01
This study is to investigate the effect of natural convection on the mixing process by molecular diffusion in a vertical stratified layer of a binary fluid. There are many experimental and analytical studies on natural convection in the vertical fluid layer. However, there are few studies on natural convection with molecular diffusion in the vertical stratified layer of a binary gas. Experimental study has been performed on the combined phenomena of molecular diffusion and natural convection in a binary gas system to investigate the mixing process of the binary gas in a vertical slot consisting of one side heated and the other side cooled. The range of Rayleigh number based on the slot width was about 0 < Ra{sub d} < 7.5 x 10{sup 4}. The density change of the gas mixture and the temperature distribution in the slot was obtained and the mixing process when the heavier gas ingress into the vertical slot filled with the lighter gas from the bottom side of the slot was discussed. The experimental results showed that the mixing process due to molecular diffusion was affected significantly by the natural convection induced by the slightly temperature difference between both vertical walls even if a density difference by the binary gas is larger than that by the temperature difference. (author). 81 refs.
Drazin, Philip
1987-01-01
Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)
Theory of inertial waves in rotating fluids
Gelash, Andrey; L'vov, Victor; Zakharov, Vladimir
2017-04-01
The inertial waves emerge in the geophysical and astrophysical flows as a result of Earth rotation [1]. The linear theory of inertial waves is known well [2] while the influence of nonlinear effects of wave interactions are subject of many recent theoretical and experimental studies. The three-wave interactions which are allowed by inertial waves dispersion law (frequency is proportional to cosine of the angle between wave direction and axes of rotation) play an exceptional role. The recent studies on similar type of waves - internal waves, have demonstrated the possibility of formation of natural wave attractors in the ocean (see [3] and references herein). This wave focusing leads to the emergence of strong three-wave interactions and subsequent flows mixing. We believe that similar phenomena can take place for inertial waves in rotating flows. In this work we present theoretical study of three-wave and four-wave interactions for inertial waves. As the main theoretical tool we suggest the complete Hamiltonian formalism for inertial waves in rotating incompressible fluids [4]. We study three-wave decay instability and then present statistical description of inertial waves in the frame of Hamiltonian formalism. We obtain kinetic equation, anisotropic wave turbulence spectra and study the problem of parametric wave turbulence. These spectra were previously found in [5] by helicity decomposition method. Taking this into account we discuss the advantages of suggested Hamiltonian formalism and its future applications. Andrey Gelash thanks support of the RFBR (Grant No.16-31-60086 mol_a_dk) and Dr. E. Ermanyuk, Dr. I. Sibgatullin for the fruitful discussions. [1] Le Gal, P. Waves and instabilities in rotating and stratified flows, Fluid Dynamics in Physics, Engineering and Environmental Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 25-40, 2013. [2] Greenspan, H. P. The theory of rotating fluids. CUP Archive, 1968. [3] Brouzet, C., Sibgatullin, I. N., Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E
Stoll, R R
1968-01-01
Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand
Solow, Daniel
2014-01-01
This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.
Liesen, Jörg
2015-01-01
This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...
Berberian, Sterling K
2014-01-01
Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nalesso, G.F.; Jacobson, A.R.
1991-01-01
A solution to the problem of a plane electromagnetic wave traveling parallel to a constant magnetic field in a horizontally stratified ionosphere was developed assuming that the permittivity of the medium can be represented as the sum of an unperturbed component and a perturbed component. The method is successfully applied to the case of a linearly varying permittivity of a lossless ionosphere with a superimposed Gaussian perturbing term. The feasibility of applying the method in the presence of an odd number of turning points is discussed. 13 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1991-01-01
Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general
Revisiting the Landau fluid closure.
Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.
2017-12-01
Advanced fluid models that are much closer to the full kinetic description than the usual magnetohydrodynamic description are a very useful tool for studying astrophysical plasmas and for interpreting solar wind observational data. The development of advanced fluid models that contain certain kinetic effects is complicated and has attracted much attention over the past years. Here we focus on fluid models that incorporate the simplest possible forms of Landau damping, derived from linear kinetic theory expanded about a leading-order (gyrotropic) bi-Maxwellian distribution function f_0, under the approximation that the perturbed distribution function f_1 is gyrotropic as well. Specifically, we focus on various Pade approximants to the usual plasma response function (and to the plasma dispersion function) and examine possibilities that lead to a closure of the linear kinetic hierarchy of fluid moments. We present re-examination of the simplest Landau fluid closures.
CISM Course on Rotating Fluids
1992-01-01
The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.
Olive, David J
2017-01-01
This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcaraz, J.
2001-01-01
After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs
Edwards, Harold M
1995-01-01
In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject
Application of compact finite-difference schemes to simulations of stably stratified fluid flows
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bodnár, Tomáš; Beneš, L.; Fraunie, P.; Kozel, Karel
2012-01-01
Roč. 219, č. 7 (2012), s. 3336-3353 ISSN 0096-3003 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : stratification * finite- difference * finite-volume * Runge-Kutta Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.349, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0096300311010988
1980-06-16
0 remains essentill ~y coun- stant. (The profiles are whown at lntervalm of fl, 000 mixing events) 30 .I’ i 0,1 1, 0 .0, 0fr r ,oo , ,rt .,, 4.t...ot 4 remains essentilally con- stant. (The profiles are shown at intervals of 8, 000 mixing events) 8.22 -DELTA Figure 10 (A through H) (compare the...2)(0.90) 37 ’I I ! COUNT 1S 4000 *z COUNT 16 6000 1 ’! 0 ~ ~ 3. .0M. ,0 00 01.6 IVA 0 0 , oil 3 1# AM A.0 z Figure 11. Simulated Evolution of the
Large-eddy simulation study of oil/gas plumes in stratified fluid with cross current
Yang, Di; Xiao, Shuolin; Chen, Bicheng; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles
2017-11-01
Dynamics of the oil/gas plume from a subsea blowout are strongly affected by the seawater stratification and cross current. The buoyant plume entrains ambient seawater and lifts it up to higher elevations. During the rising process, the continuously increasing density difference between the entrained and ambient seawater caused by the stable stratification eventually results in a detrainment of the entrained seawater and small oil droplets at a height of maximum rise (peel height), forming a downward plume outside the rising inner plume. The presence of a cross current breaks the plume's axisymmetry and causes the outer plume to fall along the downstream side of the inner plume. The detrained seawater and oil eventually fall to a neutral buoyancy level (trap height), and disperse horizontally to form an intrusion layer. In this study, the complex plume dynamics is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). Various laboratory and field scale cases are simulated to explore the effect of cross current and stratification on the plume dynamics. Based on the LES data, various turbulence statistics of the plume are systematically quantified, leading to some useful insights for modeling the mean plume dynamics using integral plume models. This research is made possible by a RFP-V Grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Voropayev, Sergey
2001-01-01
.... It is also shown that for vertical background shear typical for the upper ocean, the shear itself only partly suppresses the eddy formation and reduces their decay times, which still remain significantly large...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M
1979-08-30
A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.
The effect of existing turbulence on stratified shear instability
Kaminski, Alexis; Smyth, William
2017-11-01
Ocean turbulence is an essential process governing, for example, heat uptake by the ocean. In the stably-stratified ocean interior, this turbulence occurs in discrete events driven by vertical variations of the horizontal velocity. Typically, these events have been modelled by assuming an initially laminar stratified shear flow which develops wavelike instabilities, becomes fully turbulent, and then relaminarizes into a stable state. However, in the real ocean there is always some level of turbulence left over from previous events, and it is not yet understood how this turbulence impacts the evolution of future mixing events. Here, we perform a series of direct numerical simulations of turbulent events developing in stratified shear flows that are already at least weakly turbulent. We do so by varying the amplitude of the initial perturbations, and examine the subsequent development of the instability and the impact on the resulting turbulent fluxes. This work is supported by NSF Grant OCE1537173.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kan, K.K.
1983-01-01
The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)
Karloff, Howard
1991-01-01
To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...
Hydromagnetic thin film flow: Linear stability
Amaouche, Mustapha; Ait Abderrahmane, Hamid; Bourdache, Lamia
2013-01-01
. The linear stability of the problem is investigated, and the influence of electromagnetic field on the flow stability is analyzed. Two cases are considered: the applied magnetic field is either normal or parallel to the fluid flow direction, while
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Ahmad
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A current analysis is carried out to study theoretically the mixed convection characteristics in squeezing flow of Sutterby fluid in squeezed channel. The constitutive equation of Sutterby model is utilized to characterize the rheology of squeezing phenomenon. Flow characteristics are explored with dual stratification. In flowing fluid which contains heat and mass transport, the first order chemical reaction and radiative heat flux affect the transport phenomenon. The systems of non-linear governing equations have been modulating which then solved by mean of convergent approach (Homotopy Analysis Method. The graphs are reported and illustrated for emerging parameters. Through graphical explanations, drag force, rate of heat and mass transport are conversed for different pertinent parameters. It is found that heat and mass transport rate decays with dominant double stratified parameters and chemical reaction parameter. The present two-dimensional examination is applicable in some of the engineering processes and industrial fluid mechanics. Keywords: Squeezing flow, Sutterby fluid model, Mixed convection, Double stratification, Thermal radiation, Chemical reaction
Large eddy simulation of turbulent and stably-stratified flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fallon, Benoit
1994-01-01
The unsteady turbulent flow over a backward-facing step is studied by mean of Large Eddy Simulations with structure function sub grid model, both in isothermal and stably-stratified configurations. Without stratification, the flow develops highly-distorted Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, undergoing to helical pairing, with A-shaped vortices shed downstream. We show that forcing injected by recirculation fluctuations governs this oblique mode instabilities development. The statistical results show good agreements with the experimental measurements. For stably-stratified configurations, the flow remains more bi-dimensional. We show with increasing stratification, how the shear layer growth is frozen by inhibition of pairing process then of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the development of gravity waves or stable density interfaces. Eddy structures of the flow present striking analogies with the stratified mixing layer. Additional computations show the development of secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities on the vorticity layers between two primary structures. This important mechanism based on baroclinic effects (horizontal density gradients) constitutes an additional part of the turbulent mixing process. Finally, the feasibility of Large Eddy Simulation is demonstrated for industrial flows, by studying a complex stratified cavity. Temperature fluctuations are compared to experimental measurements. We also develop three-dimensional un-stationary animations, in order to understand and visualize turbulent interactions. (author) [fr
Bacterial production, protozoan grazing, and mineralization in stratified Lake Vechten
Bloem, J.
1989-01-01
The role of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN, size 2-20 μm) in grazing on bacteria and mineralization of organic matter in stratified Lake Vechten was studied.
Quantitative effects of manipulation and fixation on HNAN were checked. Considerable losses were caused by
Stability of Miscible Displacements Across Stratified Porous Media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shariati, Maryam; Yortsos, Yanis C.
2000-09-11
This report studied macro-scale heterogeneity effects. Reflecting on their importance, current simulation practices of flow and displacement in porous media were invariably based on heterogeneous permeability fields. Here, it was focused on a specific aspect of such problems, namely the stability of miscible displacements in stratified porous media, where the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of stratification.
On Internal Waves in a Density-Stratified Estuary
Kranenburg, C.
1991-01-01
In this article some field observations, made in recent years, of internal wave motions in a density-stratified estuary are presented, In order to facilitate the appreciation of the results, and to make some quantitative comparisons, the relevant theory is also summarized. Furthermore, the origins
FDTD scattered field formulation for scatterers in stratified dispersive media.
Olkkonen, Juuso
2010-03-01
We introduce a simple scattered field (SF) technique that enables finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of light scattering from dispersive objects residing in stratified dispersive media. The introduced SF technique is verified against the total field scattered field (TFSF) technique. As an application example, we study surface plasmon polariton enhanced light transmission through a 100 nm wide slit in a silver film.
Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.; Baron, D. J. G.
2004-01-01
The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow...
Dual Spark Plugs For Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine
Abraham, John; Bracco, Frediano V.
1996-01-01
Fuel efficiency of stratified-charge, rotary, internal-combustion engine increased by improved design featuring dual spark plugs. Second spark plug ignites fuel on upstream side of main fuel injector; enabling faster burning and more nearly complete utilization of fuel.
Prognosis research strategy (PROGRESS) 4: Stratified medicine research
A. Hingorani (Aroon); D.A.W.M. van der Windt (Daniëlle); R.D. Riley (Richard); D. Abrams; K.G.M. Moons (Karel); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); S. Schroter (Sara); W. Sauerbrei (Willi); D.G. Altman (Douglas); H. Hemingway; A. Briggs (Andrew); N. Brunner; P. Croft (Peter); J. Hayden (Jill); P.A. Kyzas (Panayiotis); N. Malats (Núria); G. Peat; P. Perel (Pablo); I. Roberts (Ian); A. Timmis (Adam)
2013-01-01
textabstractIn patients with a particular disease or health condition, stratified medicine seeks to identify thosewho will have the most clinical benefit or least harm from a specific treatment. In this article, thefourth in the PROGRESS series, the authors discuss why prognosis research should form
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barros, L. de
2007-12-15
Characterization of porous media parameters, and particularly the porosity, permeability and fluid properties are very useful in many applications (hydrologic, natural hazards or oil industry). The aim of my research is to evaluate the possibility to determine these properties from the full seismic wave fields. First, I am interested in the useful parameters and the specific properties of the seismic waves in the poro-elastic theory, often called Biot (1956) theory. I then compute seismic waves propagation in fluid saturated stratified porous media with a reflectivity method coupled with the discrete wavenumber integration method. I first used this modeling to study the possibilities to determine the carbon dioxide concentration and localization thanks to the reflected P-waves in the case of the deep geological storage of Sleipner (North Sea). The sensitivity of the seismic response to the poro-elastic parameters are then generalized by the analytical computation of the Frechet derivatives which are expressed in terms of the Green's functions of the unperturbed medium. The numerical tests show that the porosity and the consolidation are the main parameters to invert. The sensitivity operators are then introduced in a inversion algorithm based on iterative modeling of the full waveform. The classical algorithm of generalized least-square inverse problem is solved by the quasi-Newton technique (Tarantola, 1984). The inversion of synthetic data show that we can invert for the porosity and the fluid and solid parameters (densities and mechanical modulus, or volume rate of fluid and mineral) can be correctly rebuilt if the other parameters are well known. However, the strong seismic coupling of the porous parameters leads to difficulties to invert simultaneously for several parameters. One way to get round these difficulties is to use additional information and invert for one single parameter for the fluid properties (saturating rate) or for the lithology. An other
Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of horizontal stratified two-phase flow phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, Christophe; Hoehne, Thomas; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Suehnel, Tobias
2008-01-01
For the investigation of stratified two-phase flow, two horizontal channels with rectangular cross-section were built at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). The channels allow the investigation of air/water co-current flows, especially the slug behaviour, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The test-sections are made of acrylic glass, so that optical techniques, like high-speed video observation or particle image velocimetry (PIV), can be applied for measurements. The rectangular cross-section was chosen to provide better observation possibilities. Moreover, dynamic pressure measurements were performed and synchronised with the high-speed camera system. CFD post-test simulations of stratified flows were performed using the code ANSYS CFX. The Euler-Euler two fluid model with the free surface option was applied on grids of minimum 4 x 10 5 control volumes. The turbulence was modelled separately for each phase using the k-ω-based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The results compare very well in terms of slug formation, velocity, and breaking. The qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment is encouraging and shows that CFD can be a useful tool in studying horizontal two-phase flow
Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of horizontal stratified two-phase flow phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, Christophe; Hohne, Thomas; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Suhnel, Tobias
2007-01-01
For the investigation of stratified two-phase flow, two horizontal channels with rectangular cross-section were built at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. The channels allow the investigation of air/water co-current flows, especially the slug behaviour, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The test-sections are made of acrylic glass, so that optical techniques, like high-speed video observation or particle image velocimetry (PIV), can be applied for measurements. The rectangular cross-section was chosen to provide better observation possibilities. Moreover, dynamic pressure measurements were performed and synchronized with the high-speed camera system. CFD post test simulations of stratified flows were performed using the code ANSYS CFX. The Euler- Euler two fluid model with the free surface option was applied on grids of minimum 4.10 5 control volumes. The turbulence was modelled separately for each phase using the k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The results compare very well in terms of slug formation, velocity, and breaking. The qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment is encouraging and shows that CFD can be a useful tool in studying horizontal two-phase flow. (authors)
Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of horizontal stratified two-phase flow phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: c.vallee@fzd.de; Hoehne, Thomas; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Suehnel, Tobias [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)
2008-03-15
For the investigation of stratified two-phase flow, two horizontal channels with rectangular cross-section were built at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). The channels allow the investigation of air/water co-current flows, especially the slug behaviour, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The test-sections are made of acrylic glass, so that optical techniques, like high-speed video observation or particle image velocimetry (PIV), can be applied for measurements. The rectangular cross-section was chosen to provide better observation possibilities. Moreover, dynamic pressure measurements were performed and synchronised with the high-speed camera system. CFD post-test simulations of stratified flows were performed using the code ANSYS CFX. The Euler-Euler two fluid model with the free surface option was applied on grids of minimum 4 x 10{sup 5} control volumes. The turbulence was modelled separately for each phase using the k-{omega}-based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The results compare very well in terms of slug formation, velocity, and breaking. The qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment is encouraging and shows that CFD can be a useful tool in studying horizontal two-phase flow.
Transition of Gas-Liquid Stratified Flow in Oil Transport Pipes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Lakehal
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Large-Scale Simulation results of the transition of a gas-liquid stratified flow to slug flow regime in circular 3D oil transport pipes under turbulent flow conditions expressed. Free surface flow in the pipe is treated using the Level Set method. Turbulence is approached via the LES and VLES methodologies extended to interfacial two-phase flows. It is shown that only with the Level Set method the flow transition can be accurately predicted, better than with the two-fluid phase-average model. The transition from stratified to slug flow is found to be subsequent to the merging of the secondary wave modes created by the action of gas shear (short waves with the first wave mode (high amplitude long wave. The model is capable of predicting global flow features like the onset of slugging and slug speed. In the second test case, the model predicts different kinds of slugs, the so-called operating slugs formed upstream that fill entirely the pipe with water slugs of length scales of the order of 2-4 D, and lower size (1-1.5 D disturbance slugs, featuring lower hold-up (0.8-0.9. The model predicts well the frequency of slugs. The simulations revealed important parameter effects on the results, such as two-dimensionality, pipe length, and water holdup.
Annual review of fluid mechanics. Volume 23
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lumley, J.L.; Van Dyke, M.; Reed, H.L.
1991-01-01
Recent advances in theoretical, experimental, and computational fluid mechanics are discussed in a collection of annual review essays. Topics addressed include Lagrangian ocean studies, drag reduction in nature, the hydraulics of rotating strait and sill flow, analytical methods for the development of Reynolds-stress closures in turbulence, and exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Consideration is given to the theory of hurricanes, flow phenomena in CVD of thin films, particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics, symmetry and symmetry-breaking bifurcations in fluid dynamics, turbulent mixing in stratified fluids, numerical simulation of transition in wall-bounded shear flows, fractals and multifractals in fluid turbulence, and coherent motions in the turbulent boundary layer
Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, Woo Gun
2006-01-01
To understand fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to two-phase flow, it is essential to get detailed information about the characteristics of two-phase flow. Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates have been studied to investigate the general characteristics of the flow related to flow-induced vibration. Based on the spectral collocation method, a numerical approach has been developed for the unsteady two-phase flow. The method is validated by comparing numerical result to analytical one given for a simple harmonic two-phase flow. The flow parameters for the steady two-phase flow, such as void fraction and two-phase frictional multiplier, are evaluated. The dynamic characteristics of the unsteady two-phase flow, including the void fraction effect on the complex unsteady pressure, are illustrated
Upscaling of Two-Phase Immiscible Flows in Communicating Stratified Reservoirs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2011-01-01
A semi-analytical method for upscaling two-phase immiscible flows in heterogeneous porous media is described. This method is developed for stratified reservoirs with perfect communication between layers (the case of vertical equilibrium), in a viscous dominant regime, where the effects of capillary...... forces and gravity may be neglected. The method is discussed on the example of its basic application: waterflooding in petroleum reservoirs. We apply asymptotic analysis to a system of two-dimensional (2D) mass conservation equations for incompressible fluids. For high anisotropy ratios, the pressure...... and piston-like displacement, and it presumes non-zero exchange between layers. The method generalizes also the study of Yortsos (Transp Porous Media 18:107–129, 1995), taking into account in a more consistent way the interactions between the layers....
Analytical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Nanofluid (Stratified Flow Regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Abbasi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nanofluids have evoked immense interest from researchers all around the globe due to their numerous potential benefits and applications in important fields such as cooling electronic parts, cooling car engines and nuclear reactors. An analytical study of fluid flow of in-tube stratified regime of two-phase nanofluid has been carried out for CuO, Al2O2, TiO3, and Au as applied nanoparticles in water as the base liquid. Liquid film thickness, convective heat transfer coefficient, and dryout length have been calculated. Among the considered nano particles, Al2O3 and TiO2 because of providing more amounts of heat transfer along with longer lengths of dryout found as the most appropriate nanoparticles to achieve cooling objectives.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Navarro, J A; Madariaga, J A; Santamaria, C M; Saviron, J M
1980-07-01
10 refs. Flow pattern calculations in natural convection between two vertical coaxial cylinders are reported. It is assumed trough the paper. that fluid properties, viscosity, thermal conductivity and density, depend no-linearly on temperature and that the aspects (height/radius) ratio of the cylinders is high. Velocity profiles are calculated trough a perturbative scheme and analytic results for the three first perturbation orders are presented. We outline also an iterative method to estimate the perturbations on the flow patterns which arise when a radial composition gradient is established by external forces in a two-component fluid. This procedure, based on semiempirical basis, is applied to gaseous convection. The influence of the molecules gas properties on tho flow is also discussed. (Author) 10 refs.
Experimental study of stratified jet by simultaneous measurements of velocity and density fields
Xu, Duo; Chen, Jun
2012-07-01
Stratified flows with small density difference commonly exist in geophysical and engineering applications, which often involve interaction of turbulence and buoyancy effect. A combined particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) system is developed to measure the velocity and density fields in a dense jet discharged horizontally into a tank filled with light fluid. The illumination of PIV particles and excitation of PLIF dye are achieved by a dual-head pulsed Nd:YAG laser and two CCD cameras with a set of optical filters. The procedure for matching refractive indexes of two fluids and calibration of the combined system are presented, as well as a quantitative analysis of the measurement uncertainties. The flow structures and mixing dynamics within the central vertical plane are studied by examining the averaged parameters, turbulent kinetic energy budget, and modeling of momentum flux and buoyancy flux. At downstream, profiles of velocity and density display strong asymmetry with respect to its center. This is attributed to the fact that stable stratification reduces mixing and unstable stratification enhances mixing. In stable stratification region, most of turbulence production is consumed by mean-flow convection, whereas in unstable stratification region, turbulence production is nearly balanced by viscous dissipation. Experimental data also indicate that at downstream locations, mixing length model performs better in mixing zone of stable stratification regions, whereas in other regions, eddy viscosity/diffusivity models with static model coefficients represent effectively momentum and buoyancy flux terms. The measured turbulent Prandtl number displays strong spatial variation in the stratified jet.
Bernard, Peter S
2015-01-01
This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.
Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation
Vaserstein, Leonid N.
2006-01-01
It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.
Simulation of steam explosion in stratified melt-coolant configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leskovar, Matjaž; Centrih, Vasilij; Uršič, Mitja
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously in stratified configurations. • Considerable melt-coolant premixed layer formed in subcooled water with hot melts. • Analysis with MC3D code provided insight into stratified steam explosion phenomenon. • Up to 25% of poured melt was mixed with water and available for steam explosion. • Better instrumented experiments needed to determine dominant mixing process. - Abstract: A steam explosion is an energetic fuel coolant interaction process, which may occur during a severe reactor accident when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. In nuclear reactor safety analyses steam explosions are primarily considered in melt jet-coolant pool configurations where sufficiently deep coolant pool conditions provide complete jet breakup and efficient premixture formation. Stratified melt-coolant configurations, i.e. a molten melt layer below a coolant layer, were up to now believed as being unable to generate strong explosive interactions. Based on the hypothesis that there are no interfacial instabilities in a stratified configuration it was assumed that the amount of melt in the premixture is insufficient to produce strong explosions. However, the recently performed experiments in the PULiMS and SES (KTH, Sweden) facilities with oxidic corium simulants revealed that strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously also in stratified melt-coolant configurations, where with high temperature melts and subcooled water conditions a considerable melt-coolant premixed layer is formed. In the article, the performed study of steam explosions in a stratified melt-coolant configuration in PULiMS like conditions is presented. The goal of this analytical work is to supplement the experimental activities within the PULiMS research program by addressing the key questions, especially regarding the explosivity of the formed premixed layer and the mechanisms responsible for the melt-water mixing. To
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Chih-Hao; Liou, Meng-Sing
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new approach to compute compressible multifluid equations. Firstly, a single-pressure compressible multifluid model based on the stratified flow model is proposed. The stratified flow model, which defines different fluids in separated regions, is shown to be amenable to the finite volume method. We can apply the conservation law to each subregion and obtain a set of balance equations. Secondly, the AUSM + scheme, which is originally designed for the compressible gas flow, is extended to solve compressible liquid flows. By introducing additional dissipation terms into the numerical flux, the new scheme, called AUSM + -up, can be applied to both liquid and gas flows. Thirdly, the contribution to the numerical flux due to interactions between different phases is taken into account and solved by the exact Riemann solver. We will show that the proposed approach yields an accurate and robust method for computing compressible multiphase flows involving discontinuities, such as shock waves and fluid interfaces. Several one-dimensional test problems are used to demonstrate the capability of our method, including the Ransom's water faucet problem and the air-water shock tube problem. Finally, several two dimensional problems will show the capability to capture enormous details and complicated wave patterns in flows having large disparities in the fluid density and velocities, such as interactions between water shock wave and air bubble, between air shock wave and water column(s), and underwater explosion
Identification of major planktonic sulfur oxidizers in stratified freshwater lake.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hisaya Kojima
Full Text Available Planktonic sulfur oxidizers are important constituents of ecosystems in stratified water bodies, and contribute to sulfide detoxification. In contrast to marine environments, taxonomic identities of major planktonic sulfur oxidizers in freshwater lakes still remain largely unknown. Bacterioplankton community structure was analyzed in a stratified freshwater lake, Lake Mizugaki in Japan. In the clone libraries of 16S rRNA gene, clones very closely related to a sulfur oxidizer isolated from this lake, Sulfuritalea hydrogenivorans, were detected in deep anoxic water, and occupied up to 12.5% in each library of different water depth. Assemblages of planktonic sulfur oxidizers were specifically analyzed by constructing clone libraries of genes involved in sulfur oxidation, aprA, dsrA, soxB and sqr. In the libraries, clones related to betaproteobacteria were detected with high frequencies, including the close relatives of Sulfuritalea hydrogenivorans.
Study of MRI in stratified viscous plasma configuration
Carlevaro, Nakia; Montani, Giovanni; Renzi, Fabrizio
2017-02-01
We analyze the morphology of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) for a stratified viscous plasma disk configuration in differential rotation, taking into account the so-called corotation theorem for the background profile. In order to select the intrinsic Alfvénic nature of MRI, we deal with an incompressible plasma and we adopt a formulation of the local perturbation analysis based on the use of the magnetic flux function as a dynamical variable. Our study outlines, as consequence of the corotation condition, a marked asymmetry of the MRI with respect to the equatorial plane, particularly evident in a complete damping of the instability over a positive critical height on the equatorial plane. We also emphasize how such a feature is already present (although less pronounced) even in the ideal case, restoring a dependence of the MRI on the stratified morphology of the gravitational field.
Mixing of stratified flow around bridge piers in steady current
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjarne; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2018-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the mixing of stratified flow around bridge pier structures. In this study, which was carried out in connection with the Fehmarnbelt Fixed Link environmental impact assessment, the mixing processes of two-layer stra......This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the mixing of stratified flow around bridge pier structures. In this study, which was carried out in connection with the Fehmarnbelt Fixed Link environmental impact assessment, the mixing processes of two......-layer stratification was studied in which the lower level had a higher salinity than the upper layer. The physical experiments investigated two different pier designs. A general study was made regarding forces on the piers in which the effect of the current angle relative to the structure was also included...
Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program
Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.
1985-01-01
The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.
Analysis of photonic band-gap structures in stratified medium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tong, Ming-Sze; Yinchao, Chen; Lu, Yilong
2005-01-01
in electromagnetic and microwave applications once the Maxwell's equations are appropriately modeled. Originality/value - The method validates its values and properties through extensive studies on regular and defective 1D PBG structures in stratified medium, and it can be further extended to solving more......Purpose - To demonstrate the flexibility and advantages of a non-uniform pseudo-spectral time domain (nu-PSTD) method through studies of the wave propagation characteristics on photonic band-gap (PBG) structures in stratified medium Design/methodology/approach - A nu-PSTD method is proposed...... in solving the Maxwell's equations numerically. It expands the temporal derivatives using the finite differences, while it adopts the Fourier transform (FT) properties to expand the spatial derivatives in Maxwell's equations. In addition, the method makes use of the chain-rule property in calculus together...
Community genomics among stratified microbial assemblages in the ocean's interior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
DeLong, Edward F; Preston, Christina M; Mincer, Tracy
2006-01-01
Microbial life predominates in the ocean, yet little is known about its genomic variability, especially along the depth continuum. We report here genomic analyses of planktonic microbial communities in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, from the ocean's surface to near-sea floor depths. Sequence......, and host-viral interactions. Comparative genomic analyses of stratified microbial communities have the potential to provide significant insight into higher-order community organization and dynamics....
Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures
Brechler J.; Fuka V.
2013-01-01
We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model) to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.
Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brechler J.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.
Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures
Fuka, V.; Brechler, J.
2013-04-01
We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model) to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.
Sutudy on exchange flow under the unstably stratified field
文沢, 元雄
2005-01-01
This paper deals with the exchange flow under the unstably stratified field. The author developed the effective measurement system as well as the numerical analysis program. The system and the program are applied to the helium-air exchange flow in a rectangular channel with inclination. Following main features of the exchange flow were discussed based on the calculated results.(1) Time required for establishing a quasi-steady state exchange flow.(2) The relationship between the inclination an...
Linear determining equations for differential constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaptsov, O V
1998-01-01
A construction of differential constraints compatible with partial differential equations is considered. Certain linear determining equations with parameters are used to find such differential constraints. They generalize the classical determining equations used in the search for admissible Lie operators. As applications of this approach equations of an ideal incompressible fluid and non-linear heat equations are discussed
Stratified source-sampling techniques for Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohamed, A.
1998-01-01
In 1995, at a conference on criticality safety, a special session was devoted to the Monte Carlo ''Eigenvalue of the World'' problem. Argonne presented a paper, at that session, in which the anomalies originally observed in that problem were reproduced in a much simplified model-problem configuration, and removed by a version of stratified source-sampling. In this paper, stratified source-sampling techniques are generalized and applied to three different Eigenvalue of the World configurations which take into account real-world statistical noise sources not included in the model problem, but which differ in the amount of neutronic coupling among the constituents of each configuration. It is concluded that, in Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis of loosely-coupled arrays, the use of stratified source-sampling reduces the probability of encountering an anomalous result over that if conventional source-sampling methods are used. However, this gain in reliability is substantially less than that observed in the model-problem results
Ethanol dehydration to ethylene in a stratified autothermal millisecond reactor.
Skinner, Michael J; Michor, Edward L; Fan, Wei; Tsapatsis, Michael; Bhan, Aditya; Schmidt, Lanny D
2011-08-22
The concurrent decomposition and deoxygenation of ethanol was accomplished in a stratified reactor with 50-80 ms contact times. The stratified reactor comprised an upstream oxidation zone that contained Pt-coated Al(2)O(3) beads and a downstream dehydration zone consisting of H-ZSM-5 zeolite films deposited on Al(2)O(3) monoliths. Ethanol conversion, product selectivity, and reactor temperature profiles were measured for a range of fuel:oxygen ratios for two autothermal reactor configurations using two different sacrificial fuel mixtures: a parallel hydrogen-ethanol feed system and a series methane-ethanol feed system. Increasing the amount of oxygen relative to the fuel resulted in a monotonic increase in ethanol conversion in both reaction zones. The majority of the converted carbon was in the form of ethylene, where the ethanol carbon-carbon bonds stayed intact while the oxygen was removed. Over 90% yield of ethylene was achieved by using methane as a sacrificial fuel. These results demonstrate that noble metals can be successfully paired with zeolites to create a stratified autothermal reactor capable of removing oxygen from biomass model compounds in a compact, continuous flow system that can be configured to have multiple feed inputs, depending on process restrictions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Time-dependent quantum fluid density functional theory of hydrogen ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WINTEC
density functional theory; quantum fluid dynamics. 1. Introduction ... dynamics of strongly non-linear interaction of atoms with intense ... theory and quantum fluid dynamics in real space. .... clear evidence of bond softening since density in the.
Experimental investigation of stratified two-phase flows in the hot leg of a PWR for CFD validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Tomiyama, Akio [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Murase, Michio [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc. (INSS), Fukui (Japan)
2012-07-01
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated in two different models of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor (PWR) in order to provide experimental data for the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Therefore, the local flow structure was visualised with a high-speed video camera. Moreover, one test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section to achieve optimum observation conditions. The phenomenon of counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) was investigated, which may affect the reflux condenser cooling mode in some accident scenarios. (orig.)
Barranco, Joseph
2006-03-01
We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) spectral hydrodynamic code to study vortex dynamics in rotating, shearing, stratified systems (eg, the atmosphere of gas giant planets, protoplanetary disks around newly forming protostars). The time-independent background state is stably stratified in the vertical direction and has a unidirectional linear shear flow aligned with one horizontal axis. Superposed on this background state is an unsteady, subsonic flow that is evolved with the Euler equations subject to the anelastic approximation to filter acoustic phenomena. A Fourier-Fourier basis in a set of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates that advect with the background shear is used for spectral expansions in the two horizontal directions. For the vertical direction, two different sets of basis functions have been implemented: (1) Chebyshev polynomials on a truncated, finite domain, and (2) rational Chebyshev functions on an infinite domain. Use of this latter set is equivalent to transforming the infinite domain to a finite one with a cotangent mapping, and using cosine and sine expansions in the mapped coordinate. The nonlinear advection terms are time integrated explicitly, whereas the Coriolis force, buoyancy terms, and pressure/enthalpy gradient are integrated semi- implicitly. We show that internal gravity waves can be damped by adding new terms to the Euler equations. The code exhibits excellent parallel performance with the Message Passing Interface (MPI). As a demonstration of the code, we simulate vortex dynamics in protoplanetary disks and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the dusty midplanes of protoplanetary disks.
Ogilvie, Gordon I.
2016-06-01
> These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia Velarde, M
1977-07-01
Thermo convective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Bernard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (Author) 105 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia Velarde, M.
1977-01-01
Thermoconvective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Benard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (author) [es
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia Velarde, M.
1977-01-01
Thermo convective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Bernard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (Author) 105 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanwiwat Jaikuna
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.
Prediction of stably stratified homogeneous shear flows with second-order turbulence models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, J C F; Rocha, J M P
2010-01-01
The present study investigated the role of pressure-correlation second-order turbulence modelling schemes on the predicted behaviour of stably stratified homogeneous vertical-sheared turbulence. The pressure-correlation terms were modelled with a nonlinear formulation (Craft 1991), which was compared with a linear pressure-strain model and the 'isotropization of production' model for the pressure-scalar correlation. Two additional modelling issues were investigated: the influence of the buoyancy term in the kinetic energy dissipation rate equation and the time scale in the thermal production term in the scalar variance dissipation equation. The predicted effects of increasing the Richardson number on turbulence characteristics were compared against a comprehensive set of direct numerical simulation databases. The linear models provide a broadly satisfactory description of the major effects of the Richardson number on stratified shear flow. The buoyancy term in the dissipation equation of the turbulent kinetic energy generates excessively low levels of dissipation. For moderate and large Richardson numbers, the term yields unrealistic linear oscillations in the shear and buoyancy production terms, and therefore should be dropped in this flow (or at least their coefficient c ε3 should be substantially reduced from its standard value). The mechanical dissipation time scale provides marginal improvements in comparison to the scalar time scale in the production. The observed inaccuracy of the linear model in predicting the magnitude of the effects on the velocity anisotropy was demonstrated to be attributed mainly to the defective behaviour of the pressure-correlation model, especially for stronger stratification. The turbulence closure embodying a nonlinear formulation for the pressure-correlations and specific versions of the dissipation equations failed to predict the tendency of the flow to anisotropy with increasing stratification. By isolating the effects of the
Lee, Chi M.; Schock, Harold J.
1988-01-01
Currently, the heat transfer equation used in the rotary combustion engine (RCE) simulation model is taken from piston engine studies. These relations have been empirically developed by the experimental input coming from piston engines whose geometry differs considerably from that of the RCE. The objective of this work was to derive equations to estimate heat transfer coefficients in the combustion chamber of an RCE. This was accomplished by making detailed temperature and pressure measurements in a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) RCE under a range of conditions. For each specific measurement point, the local gas velocity was assumed equal to the local rotor tip speed. Local physical properties of the fluids were then calculated. Two types of correlation equations were derived and are described in this paper. The first correlation expresses the Nusselt number as a function of the Prandtl number, Reynolds number, and characteristic temperature ratio; the second correlation expresses the forced convection heat transfer coefficient as a function of fluid temperature, pressure and velocity.
CFD Code Validation against Stratified Air-Water Flow Experimental Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Terzuoli
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Pressurized thermal shock (PTS modelling has been identified as one of the most important industrial needs related to nuclear reactor safety. A severe PTS scenario limiting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV lifetime is the cold water emergency core cooling (ECC injection into the cold leg during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA. Since it represents a big challenge for numerical simulations, this scenario was selected within the European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations (NURESIM Integrated Project as a reference two-phase problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFDs code validation. This paper presents a CFD analysis of a stratified air-water flow experimental investigation performed at the Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse in 1985, which shares some common physical features with the ECC injection in PWR cold leg. Numerical simulations have been carried out with two commercial codes (Fluent and Ansys CFX, and a research code (NEPTUNE CFD. The aim of this work, carried out at the University of Pisa within the NURESIM IP, is to validate the free surface flow model implemented in the codes against experimental data, and to perform code-to-code benchmarking. Obtained results suggest the relevance of three-dimensional effects and stress the importance of a suitable interface drag modelling.
CFD Code Validation against Stratified Air-Water Flow Experimental Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terzuoli, F.; Galassi, M.C.; Mazzini, D.; D'Auria, F.
2008-01-01
Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) modelling has been identified as one of the most important industrial needs related to nuclear reactor safety. A severe PTS scenario limiting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lifetime is the cold water emergency core cooling (ECC) injection into the cold leg during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Since it represents a big challenge for numerical simulations, this scenario was selected within the European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations (NURESIM) Integrated Project as a reference two-phase problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) code validation. This paper presents a CFD analysis of a stratified air-water flow experimental investigation performed at the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse in 1985, which shares some common physical features with the ECC injection in PWR cold leg. Numerical simulations have been carried out with two commercial codes (Fluent and Ansys CFX), and a research code (NEPTUNE CFD). The aim of this work, carried out at the University of Pisa within the NURESIM IP, is to validate the free surface flow model implemented in the codes against experimental data, and to perform code-to-code benchmarking. Obtained results suggest the relevance of three-dimensional effects and stress the importance of a suitable interface drag modelling
REFLECT: a program to integrate the wave equation through a plane stratified plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greene, J.W.
1975-01-01
A program was developed to integrate the wave equation through a plane stratified plasma with a general density distribution. The reflection and transmission of a plane wave are computed as a function of the angle of incidence. The polarization of the electric vector is assumed to be perpendicular to the plane of incidence. The model for absorption by classical inverse bremsstrahlung avoids the improper extrapolation of underdense formulae that are singular at the plasma critical surface. Surprisingly good agreement with the geometric-optics analysis of a linear layer was found. The system of ordinary differential equations is integrated by the variable-step, variable-order Adams method in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Gear package. Parametric studies of the absorption are summarized, and some possibilities for further development of the code are discussed. (auth)
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-01-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.;
2017-01-01
Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid
The role of the complete Coriolis force in weakly stratified oceanic flows
Tort, M.; Winters, K. B.; Ribstein, B.; Zeitlin, V.
2016-02-01
Ocean dynamics is usually described using the primitive equations based on the so-called traditional approximation (TA), where the Coriolis force associated with the horizontal component of the planetary rotation is neglected (also called non-traditional (NT) part proportional to cosΦ, see Fig 1.). However, recent studies have shown that the NT part of the Coriolis force plays a non-negligible dynamical role in some particular oceanic flows (see Gerkema et al., 2008 for an extensive review of NT effects for geophysical and astrophysical flows). Here we explore the relevance of including the NT component of the Coriolis force in ocean models, by presenting particular results regarding two different mid-latitude flow configurations after relaxing the TA: Propagation of wind-induced near-inertial waves (NIWs). Under the TA, NIWs propagate toward the equator, the inertially poleward propagation being internally reflected at a depth-independent critical latitude. The combined effects of the NT Coriolis force and weak stratification in the deep ocean leads to the existence of waveguides for sub-inertial waves, which get trapped and propagate further poleward (Winters et al., 2011). Here we consider storm-induced NIWs and their evolution in a non-linear Boussinesq model on the β-plane in the NT approximation. Preliminary results are presented concerning the behavior of the waves in a weakly stratified mixed-layer, where NT effects are expected to be significant. Inertial instability. A detailed linear stability analysis of the Bickley jet at large Rossby numbers in the NT approximation on the f-plane is performed for long waves in a continuously stratified Boussinesq model. For a sufficiently weak stratification, both symmetric and asymmetric inertial instabilities have substantially higher growth rates than in the TA while no discernible differences between the two approximations are observed for strong enough stratifications (Tort et al., 2015).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, M.C.; Ebel, D.
1987-01-01
In this paper some new results concerning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the Hall current (HC) term in the Ohm's law are presented. For the cylindrical pinch of a compressible HC fluid, it is found that for large time and long wave length the solution to the governing equations exhibits the behavior of solitons as in the case of an ideal MHD model. In some special cases, the HC model appears to be better posed. An open question is whether a simple toroidal equilibrium of an HC fluid with resistivity and viscosity exists. The answer to this question is affirmative if the prescribed velocity on the boundary has a small norm. Furthermore, the equilibrium is also linearly and nonlinearly stable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granger, R.A.
1985-01-01
This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts
E25 stratified torch ignition engine emissions and combustion analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Filho, Fernando Antonio; Baêta, José Guilherme Coelho; Teixeira, Alysson Fernandes; Valle, Ramón Molina; Fonseca de Souza, José Leôncio
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A stratified torch ignition (STI) engine was built and tested. • The STI engines was tested in a wide range of load and speed. • Significant reduction on emissions was achieved by means of the STI system. • Low cyclic variability characterized the lean combustion process of the torch ignition engine. • HC emission is the main drawback of the stratified torch ignition engine. - Abstract: Vehicular emissions significantly increase atmospheric air pollution and greenhouse gases (GHG). This fact associated with fast global vehicle fleet growth calls for prompt scientific community technological solutions in order to promote a significant reduction in vehicle fuel consumption and emissions, especially of fossil fuels to comply with future legislation. To meet this goal, a prototype stratified torch ignition (STI) engine was built from a commercial existing baseline engine. In this system, combustion starts in a pre-combustion chamber, where the pressure increase pushes the combustion jet flames through calibrated nozzles to be precisely targeted into the main chamber. These combustion jet flames are endowed with high thermal and kinetic energy, being able to generate a stable lean combustion process. The high kinetic and thermal energy of the combustion jet flame results from the load stratification. This is carried out through direct fuel injection in the pre-combustion chamber by means of a prototype gasoline direct injector (GDI) developed for a very low fuel flow rate. In this work the engine out-emissions of CO, NOx, HC and CO_2 of the STI engine are presented and a detailed analysis supported by the combustion parameters is conducted. The results obtained in this work show a significant decrease in the specific emissions of CO, NOx and CO_2 of the STI engine in comparison with the baseline engine. On the other hand, HC specific emission increased due to wall wetting from the fuel hitting in the pre-combustion chamber wall.
Technetium reduction and removal in a stratified fjord
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keith-Roach, M.; Roos, P.
2002-01-01
The distribution of Tc in the water columns of a stratified fjord has been measured to investigate the behaviour and fate of Tc on reaching reducing waters. Slow mixing in the water column of the fjord results in vertical transport of the dissolved Tc to the oxic/anoxic interface. Tc is reduced just below the interface and at 21 m 60% is sorbed to particulate and colloidal material. Tc is carried to the sediments sorbed to the particulate material, where there is a current inventory of approximately 3 Bq m -2 . (LN)
Stratifying patients with peripheral neuropathic pain based on sensory profiles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine
2017-01-01
In a recent cluster analysis, it has been shown that patients with peripheral neuropathic pain can be grouped into 3 sensory phenotypes based on quantitative sensory testing profiles, which are mainly characterized by either sensory loss, intact sensory function and mild thermal hyperalgesia and...... populations that need to be screened to reach a subpopulation large enough to conduct a phenotype-stratified study. The most common phenotype in diabetic polyneuropathy was sensory loss (83%), followed by mechanical hyperalgesia (75%) and thermal hyperalgesia (34%, note that percentages are overlapping...
Technetium reduction and removal in a stratified fjord
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keith-Roach, M.; Roos, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
2002-04-01
The distribution of Tc in the water columns of a stratified fjord has been measured to investigate the behaviour and fate of Tc on reaching reducing waters. Slow mixing in the water column of the fjord results in vertical transport of the dissolved Tc to the oxic/anoxic interface. Tc is reduced just below the interface and at 21 m 60% is sorbed to particulate and colloidal material. Tc is carried to the sediments sorbed to the particulate material, where there is a current inventory of approximately 3 Bq m{sup -2}. (LN)
Development of a natural gas stratified charge rotary engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sierens, R.; Verdonck, W.
1985-01-01
A water model has been used to determine the positions of separate inlet ports for a natural gas, stratified charge rotary engine. The flow inside the combustion chamber (mainly during the induction period) has been registered by a film camera. From these tests the best locations of the inlet ports have been obtained, a prototype of this engine has been built by Audi NSU and tested in the laboratories of the university of Gent. The results of these tests, for different stratification configurations, are given. These results are comparable with the best results obtained by Audi NSU for a homogeneous natural gas rotary engine.
Sensitivity and inversion of full seismic waveforms in stratified porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barros, L. de
2007-12-01
Characterization of porous media parameters, and particularly the porosity, permeability and fluid properties are very useful in many applications (hydrologic, natural hazards or oil industry). The aim of my research is to evaluate the possibility to determine these properties from the full seismic wave fields. First, I am interested in the useful parameters and the specific properties of the seismic waves in the poro-elastic theory, often called Biot (1956) theory. I then compute seismic waves propagation in fluid saturated stratified porous media with a reflectivity method coupled with the discrete wavenumber integration method. I first used this modeling to study the possibilities to determine the carbon dioxide concentration and localization thanks to the reflected P-waves in the case of the deep geological storage of Sleipner (North Sea). The sensitivity of the seismic response to the poro-elastic parameters are then generalized by the analytical computation of the Frechet derivatives which are expressed in terms of the Green's functions of the unperturbed medium. The numerical tests show that the porosity and the consolidation are the main parameters to invert. The sensitivity operators are then introduced in a inversion algorithm based on iterative modeling of the full waveform. The classical algorithm of generalized least-square inverse problem is solved by the quasi-Newton technique (Tarantola, 1984). The inversion of synthetic data show that we can invert for the porosity and the fluid and solid parameters (densities and mechanical modulus, or volume rate of fluid and mineral) can be correctly rebuilt if the other parameters are well known. However, the strong seismic coupling of the porous parameters leads to difficulties to invert simultaneously for several parameters. One way to get round these difficulties is to use additional information and invert for one single parameter for the fluid properties (saturating rate) or for the lithology. An other way
Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko
2012-01-01
of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...
Fast fluid registration of medical images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Gramkow, Claus
1996-01-01
This paper offers a new fast algorithm for non-rigid viscous fluid registration of medical images that is at least an order of magnitude faster than the previous method by (Christensen et al., 1994). The core algorithm in the fluid registration method is based on a linear elastic deformation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kussmaul, K.; Mayinger, W.; Diem, H.; Katzenmeier, G.
1993-01-01
Startup at low reactor power may give rise to stratified flow conditions in pipes of boiling water and pressurized water reactors. Stratified flow regimes cause a steep temperature gradient between the cold and the hot fluid layer. This temperature gradient produces high axial stresses which, in the case of intermittent feeding of cold water and an appropriate number of repetitions, in principle may initiate cracking in the feedwater pipe and close to the feeding nozzle. Thermosleeves have been installed in a number of reactors to mitigate thermally induced stresses; they reduce the intensity of thermal transients by means of an insulating fluid annulus developing between the sleeve and the nozzle, in order to measure the temperature and stress gradients occurring in the region of the nozzle edge, the so-called TEMS experiments were carried out under realistic operating conditions, and with different cold water levels within the framework of German research activities in the field of reactor safety at the HDR test facility. The experiments served to simulate the physics phenomena by means of a FE-program and to verify the computational approach by comparisons of measurements and calculations
Investigation and mitigation of condensation induced water hammer by stratified flow experiments
Kadakia, Hiral J.
This research primarily focuses on the possibility of using stratified flow in preventing an occurrence of condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) in horizontal pipe involving steam and subcooled water. A two-phase flow loop simulating the passive safety systems of an advanced light water reactor was constructed and a series of stratified flow experiments were carried out involving a system of subcooled water, saturated water, and steam. Special instruments were designed to measure steam flow rate and subcooled liquid velocity. These experiments showed that when flow field conditions meet certain criteria CIWH does occur. Flow conditions used in experiments were typically observed in passive safety systems of an advanced light water cooled reactor. This research summarizes a) literature research and other experimental data that signify an occurrence of CIWH, b) experiments in an effort to show an occurrence of CIWH and the ability to prevent CIWH, c) qualitative and quantitative results to underline the mechanism of CIWH, d) experiments that show CIWH can be prevented under certain conditions, and e) guidelines for the safe operating conditions. Based on initial experiment results it was observed that Bernoulli's effect can play an important role in wave formation and instability. A separate effect table top experiment was constructed with plexi-glass. A series of entrance effect tests and stratified experiments were carried out with different fluids to study wave formation and wave bridging. Special test series experiments were carried out to investigate the presence of a saturated layer. The effect of subcooled water and steam flow on wedge length and depth were recorded. These experiments helped create a model which calculates wedge and depth of wedge for a given condition of steam and subcooled water. A very good comparison between the experiment results and the model was obtained. These experiments also showed that the presence of saturated layer can mitigate
Crystallization of a compositionally stratified basal magma ocean
Laneuville, Matthieu; Hernlund, John; Labrosse, Stéphane; Guttenberg, Nicholas
2018-03-01
Earth's ∼3.45 billion year old magnetic field is regenerated by dynamo action in its convecting liquid metal outer core. However, convection induces an isentropic thermal gradient which, coupled with a high core thermal conductivity, results in rapid conducted heat loss. In the absence of implausibly high radioactivity or alternate sources of motion to drive the geodynamo, the Earth's early core had to be significantly hotter than the melting point of the lower mantle. While the existence of a dense convecting basal magma ocean (BMO) has been proposed to account for high early core temperatures, the requisite physical and chemical properties for a BMO remain controversial. Here we relax the assumption of a well-mixed convecting BMO and instead consider a BMO that is initially gravitationally stratified owing to processes such as mixing between metals and silicates at high temperatures in the core-mantle boundary region during Earth's accretion. Using coupled models of crystallization and heat transfer through a stratified BMO, we show that very high temperatures could have been trapped inside the early core, sequestering enough heat energy to run an ancient geodynamo on cooling power alone.
Crenothrix are major methane consumers in stratified lakes.
Oswald, Kirsten; Graf, Jon S; Littmann, Sten; Tienken, Daniela; Brand, Andreas; Wehrli, Bernhard; Albertsen, Mads; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael; Kuypers, Marcel Mm; Schubert, Carsten J; Milucka, Jana
2017-09-01
Methane-oxidizing bacteria represent a major biological sink for methane and are thus Earth's natural protection against this potent greenhouse gas. Here we show that in two stratified freshwater lakes a substantial part of upward-diffusing methane was oxidized by filamentous gamma-proteobacteria related to Crenothrix polyspora. These filamentous bacteria have been known as contaminants of drinking water supplies since 1870, but their role in the environmental methane removal has remained unclear. While oxidizing methane, these organisms were assigned an 'unusual' methane monooxygenase (MMO), which was only distantly related to 'classical' MMO of gamma-proteobacterial methanotrophs. We now correct this assignment and show that Crenothrix encode a typical gamma-proteobacterial PmoA. Stable isotope labeling in combination swith single-cell imaging mass spectrometry revealed methane-dependent growth of the lacustrine Crenothrix with oxygen as well as under oxygen-deficient conditions. Crenothrix genomes encoded pathways for the respiration of oxygen as well as for the reduction of nitrate to N 2 O. The observed abundance and planktonic growth of Crenothrix suggest that these methanotrophs can act as a relevant biological sink for methane in stratified lakes and should be considered in the context of environmental removal of methane.
Random forcing of geostrophic motion in rotating stratified turbulence
Waite, Michael L.
2017-12-01
Random forcing of geostrophic motion is a common approach in idealized simulations of rotating stratified turbulence. Such forcing represents the injection of energy into large-scale balanced motion, and the resulting breakdown of quasi-geostrophic turbulence into inertia-gravity waves and stratified turbulence can shed light on the turbulent cascade processes of the atmospheric mesoscale. White noise forcing is commonly employed, which excites all frequencies equally, including frequencies much higher than the natural frequencies of large-scale vortices. In this paper, the effects of these high frequencies in the forcing are investigated. Geostrophic motion is randomly forced with red noise over a range of decorrelation time scales τ, from a few time steps to twice the large-scale vortex time scale. It is found that short τ (i.e., nearly white noise) results in about 46% more gravity wave energy than longer τ, despite the fact that waves are not directly forced. We argue that this effect is due to wave-vortex interactions, through which the high frequencies in the forcing are able to excite waves at their natural frequencies. It is concluded that white noise forcing should be avoided, even if it is only applied to the geostrophic motion, when a careful investigation of spontaneous wave generation is needed.
Improvements to TRAC models of condensing stratified flow. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Q.; Leslie, D.C.
1991-12-01
Direct contact condensation in stratified flow is an important phenomenon in LOCA analyses. In this report, the TRAC interfacial heat transfer model for stratified condensing flow has been assessed against the Bankoff experiments. A rectangular channel option has been added to the code to represent the experimental geometry. In almost all cases the TRAC heat transfer coefficient (HTC) over-predicts the condensation rates and in some cases it is so high that the predicted steam is sucked in from the normal outlet in order to conserve mass. Based on their cocurrent and countercurrent condensing flow experiments, Bankoff and his students (Lim 1981, Kim 1985) developed HTC models from the two cases. The replacement of the TRAC HTC with either of Bankoff's models greatly improves the predictions of condensation rates in the experiment with cocurrent condensing flow. However, the Bankoff HTC for countercurrent flow is preferable because it is based only on the local quantities rather than on the quantities averaged from the inlet. (author)
Internal circle uplifts, transversality and stratified G-structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babalic, Elena Mirela [Department of Theoretical Physics, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering,Str. Reactorului no.30, P.O.BOX MG-6, Postcode 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Department of Physics, University of Craiova,13 Al. I. Cuza Str., Craiova 200585 (Romania); Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu [Center for Geometry and Physics, Institute for Basic Science,Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-24
We study stratified G-structures in N=2 compactifications of M-theory on eight-manifolds M using the uplift to the auxiliary nine-manifold M̂=M×S{sup 1}. We show that the cosmooth generalized distribution D̂ on M̂ which arises in this formalism may have pointwise transverse or non-transverse intersection with the pull-back of the tangent bundle of M, a fact which is responsible for the subtle relation between the spinor stabilizers arising on M and M̂ and for the complicated stratified G-structure on M which we uncovered in previous work. We give a direct explanation of the latter in terms of the former and relate explicitly the defining forms of the SU(2) structure which exists on the generic locus U of M to the defining forms of the SU(3) structure which exists on an open subset Û of M̂, thus providing a dictionary between the eight- and nine-dimensional formalisms.
A modified stratified model for the 3C 273 jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Wenpo; Shen Zhiqiang
2009-01-01
We present a modified stratified jet model to interpret the observed spectral energy distributions of knots in the 3C 273 jet. Based on the hypothesis of the single index of the particle energy spectrum at injection and identical emission processes among all the knots, the observed difference of spectral shape among different 3C 273 knots can be understood as a manifestation of the deviation of the equivalent Doppler factor of stratified emission regions in an individual knot from a characteristic one. The summed spectral energy distributions of all ten knots in the 3C 273 jet can be well fitted by two components: a low-energy component (radio to optical) dominated by synchrotron radiation and a high-energy component (UV, X-ray and γ-ray) dominated by inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background. This gives a consistent spectral index of α = 0.88 (S v ∝ v -α ) and a characteristic Doppler factor of 7.4. Assuming the average of the summed spectrum as the characteristic spectrum of each knot in the 3C 273 jet, we further get a distribution of Doppler factors. We discuss the possible implications of these results for the physical properties in the 3C 273 jet. Future GeV observations with GLAST could separate the γ-ray emission of 3C 273 from the large scale jet and the small scale jet (i.e. the core) through measuring the GeV spectrum.
STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN THE STRATIFIED MASS CONTAINING VERTICAL ALVEOLE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bobileva Tatiana Nikolaevna
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Almost all subsurface rocks used as foundations for various types of structures are stratified. Such heterogeneity may cause specific behaviour of the materials under strain. Differential equations describing the behaviour of such materials contain rapidly fluctuating coefficients, in view of this, solution of such equations is more time-consuming when using today’s computers. The method of asymptotic averaging leads to getting homogeneous medium under study to averaged equations with fixed factors. The present article is concerned with stratified soil mass consisting of pair-wise alternative isotropic elastic layers. In the results of elastic modules averaging, the present soil mass with horizontal rock stratification is simulated by homogeneous transversal-isotropic half-space with isotropy plane perpendicular to the standing axis. Half-space is loosened by a vertical alveole of circular cross-section, and virgin ground is under its own weight. For horizontal parting planes of layers, the following two types of surface conditions are set: ideal contact and backlash without cleavage. For homogeneous transversal-isotropic half-space received with a vertical alveole, the analytical solution of S.G. Lekhnitsky, well known in scientific papers, is used. The author gives expressions for stress components and displacements in soil mass for different marginal conditions on the alveole surface. Such research problems arise when constructing and maintaining buildings and when composite materials are used.
Measuring mixing efficiency in experiments of strongly stratified turbulence
Augier, P.; Campagne, A.; Valran, T.; Calpe Linares, M.; Mohanan, A. V.; Micard, D.; Viboud, S.; Segalini, A.; Mordant, N.; Sommeria, J.; Lindborg, E.
2017-12-01
Oceanic and atmospheric models need better parameterization of the mixing efficiency. Therefore, we need to measure this quantity for flows representative of geophysical flows, both in terms of types of flows (with vortices and/or waves) and of dynamical regimes. In order to reach sufficiently large Reynolds number for strongly stratified flows, experiments for which salt is used to produce the stratification have to be carried out in a large rotating platform of at least 10-meter diameter.We present new experiments done in summer 2017 to study experimentally strongly stratified turbulence and mixing efficiency in the Coriolis platform. The flow is forced by a slow periodic movement of an array of large vertical or horizontal cylinders. The velocity field is measured by 3D-2C scanned horizontal particles image velocimetry (PIV) and 2D vertical PIV. Six density-temperature probes are used to measure vertical and horizontal profiles and signals at fixed positions.We will show how we rely heavily on open-science methods for this study. Our new results on the mixing efficiency will be presented and discussed in terms of mixing parameterization.
Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Sasaki, Youhei
2018-03-01
Penetration of steady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) disturbances into an upper strongly stratified stable layer excited by MHD thermal convection in rotating spherical shells is investigated. The theoretical model proposed by Takehiro (2015) is reexamined in the case of steady fluid motion below the bottom boundary. Steady disturbances penetrate into a density stratified MHD fluid existing in the semi-infinite region in the vertical direction. The axis of rotation of the system is tilted with respect to the vertical. The basic magnetic field is uniform and may be tilted with respect to the vertical and the rotation axis. Linear dispersion relation shows that the penetration distance with zero frequency depends on the amplitude of Alfvén wave speed. When Alfvén wave speed is small, viscous diffusion becomes dominant and penetration distance is similar to the horizontal scale of the disturbance at the lower boundary. In contrast, when Alfvén wave speed becomes larger, disturbance can penetrate deeper, and penetration distance becomes proportional to the Alfvén wave speed and inversely proportional to the geometric average of viscous and magnetic diffusion coefficients and to the total horizontal wavenumber. The analytic expression of penetration distance is in good agreement with the extent of penetration of mean zonal flow induced by finite amplitude convection in a rotating spherical shell with an upper stably stratified layer embedded in an axially uniform basic magnetic field. The theory expects that the stable layer suggested in the upper part of the outer core of the earth could be penetrated completely by mean zonal flows excited by thermal/compositional convection developing below the stable layer.
Ruban, Anatoly I
This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natal'ya V. Burmasheva
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new exact solution of an overdetermined system of Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations that describes a stationary shear flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in an infinite layer is under study. The given exact solution is a generalization of the Ostroumov–Birich class for a layered unidirectional flow. In the proposed solution, the horizontal velocities depend only on the transverse coordinate z. The temperature field and the pressure field are three-dimensional. In contradistinction to the Ostroumov–Birich solution, in the solution presented in the paper the horizontal temperature gradients are linear functions of the $z$ coordinate. This structure of the exact solution allows us to find a nontrivial solution of the Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations by means of the identity zero of the incompressibility equation. This exact solution is suitable for investigating large-scale flows of a viscous incompressible fluid by quasi-two-dimensional equations. Convective fluid motion is caused by the setting of tangential stresses on the free boundary of the layer. Inhomogeneous thermal sources are given on both boundaries. The pressure in the fluid at the upper boundary coincides with the atmospheric pressure. The paper focuses on the study of temperature and pressure fields, which are described by polynomials of three variables. The features of the distribution of the temperature and pressure profiles, which are polynomials of the seventh and eighth degree, respectively, are discussed in detail. To analyze the properties of temperature and pressure, algebraic methods are used to study the number of roots on a segment. It is shown that the background temperature and the background pressure are nonmonotonic functions. The temperature field is stratified into zones that form the thermocline and the thermal boundary layer near the boundaries of the fluid layer. Investigation of the properties of the pressure field showed that it is stratified
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paraschivoiu, I.; Prud'homme, M.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.
2003-01-01
This book constitutes at the same time theoretical and practical base relating to the phenomena associated with fluid mechanics. The concept of continuum is at the base of the approach developed in this work. The general advance proceeds of simple balances of forces as into hydrostatic to more complex situations or inertias, the internal stresses and the constraints of Reynolds are taken into account. This advance is not only theoretical but contains many applications in the form of solved problems, each chapter ending in a series of suggested problems. The major part of the applications relates to the incompressible flows
Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caviglia, G.
1999-01-01
Propagation of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified multilayers is investigated. Each layer is allowed to be inhomogeneous and the layers are separated by interfaces. The procedure is based on the representation of the electromagnetic field in the basis of the eigenvectors of the matrix characterizing the first-order system. Hence the local reflection and transmission matrices are defined and the corresponding differential equations, in the pertinent space variable are determined. The jump conditions at interfaces are also established. The present model incorporates dissipative materials and the procedure holds without any restrictions to material symmetries. Differential equations appeared in the literature are shown to hold in particular (one-dimensional) cases or to represent homogeneous layers only
Microstructure of Turbulence in the Stably Stratified Boundary Layer
Sorbjan, Zbigniew; Balsley, Ben B.
2008-11-01
The microstructure of a stably stratified boundary layer, with a significant low-level nocturnal jet, is investigated based on observations from the CASES-99 campaign in Kansas, U.S.A. The reported, high-resolution vertical profiles of the temperature, wind speed, wind direction, pressure, and the turbulent dissipation rate, were collected under nocturnal conditions on October 14, 1999, using the CIRES Tethered Lifting System. Two methods for evaluating instantaneous (1-sec) background profiles are applied to the raw data. The background potential temperature is calculated using the “bubble sort” algorithm to produce a monotonically increasing potential temperature with increasing height. Other scalar quantities are smoothed using a running vertical average. The behaviour of background flow, buoyant overturns, turbulent fluctuations, and their respective histograms are presented. Ratios of the considered length scales and the Ozmidov scale are nearly constant with height, a fact that can be applied in practice for estimating instantaneous profiles of the dissipation rate.
The Risk-Stratified Osteoporosis Strategy Evaluation study (ROSE)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel
2015-01-01
The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population....... 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX......(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15 % were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish...
Temporally stratified sampling programs for estimation of fish impingement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, K.D.; Griffith, J.S.
1977-01-01
Impingement monitoring programs often expend valuable and limited resources and fail to provide a dependable estimate of either total annual impingement or those biological and physicochemical factors affecting impingement. In situations where initial monitoring has identified ''problem'' fish species and the periodicity of their impingement, intensive sampling during periods of high impingement will maximize information obtained. We use data gathered at two nuclear generating facilities in the southeastern United States to discuss techniques of designing such temporally stratified monitoring programs and their benefits and drawbacks. Of the possible temporal patterns in environmental factors within a calendar year, differences among seasons are most influential in the impingement of freshwater fishes in the Southeast. Data on the threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) and the role of seasonal temperature changes are utilized as an example to demonstrate ways of most efficiently and accurately estimating impingement of the species
Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study
Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.
1982-01-01
A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.
The optimism trap: Migrants' educational choices in stratified education systems.
Tjaden, Jasper Dag; Hunkler, Christian
2017-09-01
Immigrant children's ambitious educational choices have often been linked to their families' high level of optimism and motivation for upward mobility. However, previous research has mostly neglected alternative explanations such as information asymmetries or anticipated discrimination. Moreover, immigrant children's higher dropout rates at the higher secondary and university level suggest that low performing migrant students could have benefitted more from pursuing less ambitious tracks, especially in countries that offer viable vocational alternatives. We examine ethnic minority's educational choices using a sample of academically low performing, lower secondary school students in Germany's highly stratified education system. We find that their families' optimism diverts migrant students from viable vocational alternatives. Information asymmetries and anticipated discrimination do not explain their high educational ambitions. While our findings further support the immigrant optimism hypothesis, we discuss how its effect may have different implications depending on the education system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges
Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI
2003-12-30
During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.
Stratified flow model for convective condensation in an inclined tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lips, Stéphane; Meyer, Josua P.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Convective condensation in an inclined tube is modelled. ► The heat transfer coefficient is the highest for about 20° below the horizontal. ► Capillary forces have a strong effect on the liquid–vapour interface shape. ► A good agreement between the model and the experimental results was observed. - Abstract: Experimental data are reported for condensation of R134a in an 8.38 mm inner diameter smooth tube in inclined orientations with a mass flux of 200 kg/m 2 s. Under these conditions, the flow is stratified and there is an optimum inclination angle, which leads to the highest heat transfer coefficient. There is a need for a model to better understand and predict the flow behaviour. In this paper, the state of the art of existing models of stratified two-phase flows in inclined tubes is presented, whereafter a new mechanistic model is proposed. The liquid–vapour distribution in the tube is determined by taking into account the gravitational and the capillary forces. The comparison between the experimental data and the model prediction showed a good agreement in terms of heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops. The effect of the interface curvature on the heat transfer coefficient has been quantified and has been found to be significant. The optimum inclination angle is due to a balance between an increase of the void fraction and an increase in the falling liquid film thickness when the tube is inclined downwards. The effect of the mass flux and the vapour quality on the optimum inclination angle has also been studied.
Experiments in stratified gas-liquid pipe flow
Birvalski, M.
2015-01-01
The growing demand for energy in the future will necessitate the production of natural gas from fields which are located farther offshore, in deep water and in very cold environments. This will confront us with difficulties in ensuring continuous production of the fluids (natural gas, condensate and
A 3D spectral anelastic hydrodynamic code for shearing, stratified flows
Barranco, Joseph A.; Marcus, Philip S.
2006-11-01
We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) spectral hydrodynamic code to study vortex dynamics in rotating, shearing, stratified systems (e.g., the atmosphere of gas giant planets, protoplanetary disks around newly forming protostars). The time-independent background state is stably stratified in the vertical direction and has a unidirectional linear shear flow aligned with one horizontal axis. Superposed on this background state is an unsteady, subsonic flow that is evolved with the Euler equations subject to the anelastic approximation to filter acoustic phenomena. A Fourier Fourier basis in a set of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates that advect with the background shear is used for spectral expansions in the two horizontal directions. For the vertical direction, two different sets of basis functions have been implemented: (1) Chebyshev polynomials on a truncated, finite domain, and (2) rational Chebyshev functions on an infinite domain. Use of this latter set is equivalent to transforming the infinite domain to a finite one with a cotangent mapping, and using cosine and sine expansions in the mapped coordinate. The nonlinear advection terms are time-integrated explicitly, the pressure/enthalpy terms are integrated semi-implicitly, and the Coriolis force and buoyancy terms are treated semi-analytically. We show that internal gravity waves can be damped by adding new terms to the Euler equations. The code exhibits excellent parallel performance with the message passing interface (MPI). As a demonstration of the code, we simulate the merger of two 3D vortices in the midplane of a protoplanetary disk.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kreider, J.F.
1985-01-01
This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leila Heidari
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Identification of populations susceptible to heat effects is critical for targeted prevention and more accurate risk assessment. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance (FEI may provide an objective indicator of heat morbidity. Data on daily ambient temperature and FEI emergency department (ED visits were collected in Atlanta, Georgia, USA during 1993–2012. Associations of warm-season same-day temperatures and FEI ED visits were estimated using Poisson generalized linear models. Analyses explored associations between FEI ED visits and various temperature metrics (maximum, minimum, average, and diurnal change in ambient temperature, apparent temperature, and heat index modeled using linear, quadratic, and cubic terms to allow for non-linear associations. Effect modification by potential determinants of heat susceptibility (sex; race; comorbid congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes; and neighborhood poverty and education levels was assessed via stratification. Higher warm-season ambient temperature was significantly associated with FEI ED visits, regardless of temperature metric used. Stratified analyses suggested heat-related risks for all populations, but particularly for males. This work highlights the utility of FEI as an indicator of heat morbidity, the health threat posed by warm-season temperatures, and the importance of considering susceptible populations in heat-health research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graney, K.; Chu, J.; Lin, P.C.
2002-01-01
Full text: A 78-year old male in end stage renal failure (ESRF) with a background of NIDDM retinopathy, nephropathy, and undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with anorexia, clinically unwell, decreased mobility and right scrotal swelling. There was no difficulty during CAPD exchange except there was a positive fluid balance Peritoneal dialysates remained clear A CAPD peritoneal study was requested. 100Mbq 99mTc Sulphur Colloid was injected into a standard dialysate bag containing dialysate. Anterior dynamic images were acquired over the abdomen pelvis while the dialysate was infused Static images with anatomical markers were performed 20 mins post infusion, before and after patient ambulation and then after drainage. The study demonstrated communication between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac. Patient underwent right inguinal herniaplasty with a marlex mesh. A repeat CAPD flow study was performed as follow up and no abnormal connection between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac was demonstrated post operatively. This case study shows that CAPD flow studies can be undertaken as a simple, minimally invasive method to evaluate abnormal peritoneal fluid flow dynamics in patients undergoing CAPD, and have an impact on dialysis management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi
2010-01-01
The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...
Dynamic Transitions and Baroclinic Instability for 3D Continuously Stratified Boussinesq Flows
Şengül, Taylan; Wang, Shouhong
2018-02-01
The main objective of this article is to study the nonlinear stability and dynamic transitions of the basic (zonal) shear flows for the three-dimensional continuously stratified rotating Boussinesq model. The model equations are fundamental equations in geophysical fluid dynamics, and dynamics associated with their basic zonal shear flows play a crucial role in understanding many important geophysical fluid dynamical processes, such as the meridional overturning oceanic circulation and the geophysical baroclinic instability. In this paper, first we derive a threshold for the energy stability of the basic shear flow, and obtain a criterion for local nonlinear stability in terms of the critical horizontal wavenumbers and the system parameters such as the Froude number, the Rossby number, the Prandtl number and the strength of the shear flow. Next, we demonstrate that the system always undergoes a dynamic transition from the basic shear flow to either a spatiotemporal oscillatory pattern or circle of steady states, as the shear strength of the basic flow crosses a critical threshold. Also, we show that the dynamic transition can be either continuous or catastrophic, and is dictated by the sign of a transition number, fully characterizing the nonlinear interactions of different modes. Both the critical shear strength and the transition number are functions of the system parameters. A systematic numerical method is carried out to explore transition in different flow parameter regimes. In particular, our numerical investigations show the existence of a hypersurface which separates the parameter space into regions where the basic shear flow is stable and unstable. Numerical investigations also yield that the selection of horizontal wave indices is determined only by the aspect ratio of the box. We find that the system admits only critical eigenmodes with roll patterns aligned with the x-axis. Furthermore, numerically we encountered continuous transitions to multiple
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabriel, Stephan Gerhard
2015-01-01
A stratified counter-current two-phase gas/liquid flow can occur in various technical systems. In the past investigations have mainly been motivated by the possible occurrence of these flows in accident scenarios of nuclear light water-reactors and in numerous applications in process engineering. However, the precise forecast of flow parameters, is still challenging, for instance due to their strong dependency on the geometric boundary conditions. A new approach which uses CFD methods (Computational Fluid Dynamics) promises a better understanding of the flow phenomena and simultaneously a higher scalability of the findings. RANS methods (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) are preferred in order to compute industrial processes and geometries. A very deep understanding of the flow behavior and equation systems based on real physics are necessary preconditions to develop the equation system for a reliable RANS approach with predictive power. Therefore, local highly resolved, experimental data is needed in order to provide and validate the required turbulence and phase interaction models. The central objective of this work is to provide the data needed for the code development for these unsteady, turbulent and three-dimensional flows. Experiments were carried out at the WENKA facility (Water Entrainment Channel Karlsruhe) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The work consists of a detailed description of the test-facility including a new bended channel, the measurement techniques and the experimental results. The characterization of the new channel was done by flow maps. A high-speed imaging study gives an impression of the occurring flow regimes, and different flow phenomena like droplet separation. The velocity distributions as well as various turbulence values were investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). In the liquid phase fluorescent tracer-particles were used to suppress optical reflections from the phase surface (fluorescent PIV, FPIV
Numerical Simulations of Upstream Propagating Solitary Waves and Wave Breaking In A Stratified Fjord
Stastna, M.; Peltier, W. R.
In this talk we will discuss ongoing numerical modeling of the flow of a stratified fluid over large scale topography motivated by observations in Knight Inlet, a fjord in British Columbia, Canada. After briefly surveying the work done on the topic in the past we will discuss our latest set of simulations in which we have observed the gener- ation and breaking of three different types of nonlinear internal waves in the lee of the sill topography. The first type of wave observed is a large lee wave in the weakly strat- ified main portion of the water column, The second is an upward propagating internal wave forced by topography that breaks in the strong, near-surface pycnocline. The third is a train of upstream propagating solitary waves that, in certain circumstances, form as breaking waves consisting of a nearly solitary wave envelope and a highly unsteady core near the surface. Time premitting, we will comment on the implications of these results for our long term goal of quantifying tidally driven mixing in Knight Inlet.
Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.
1985-01-01
A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90 0 sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.
1985-01-01
A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90/sup 0/ sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions.
A stratified percolation model for saturated and unsaturated flow through natural fractures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.
1990-01-01
The geometry of the asperities of contact between the two surfaces of a fracture and of the adjacent void spaces determines fluid flow through a fracture and the mechanical deformation across a fracture. Heuristically we have developed a stratified continuum percolation model to describe this geometry based on a fractal construction that includes scale invariance and correlation of void apertures. Deformation under stress is analyzed using conservation of rock volume to correct for asperity interpenetration. Single phase flow is analyzed using a critical path along which the principal resistance is a result of laminar flow across the critical neck in this path. Results show that flow decreases with apparent aperture raised to a variable power greater than cubic, as is observed in flow experiments on natural fractures. For two phases, flow of the non-wetting phase is likewise governed by the critical neck along the critical path of largest aperture but flow of the wetting phase is governed by tortuosity. 17 refs., 10 figs
Turbulent transport across an interface between dry and humid air in a stratified environment
Gallana, Luca; de Santi, Francesca; di Savino, Silvio; Iovieno, Michele; Ricchiardone, Renzo; Tordella, Daniela
2014-11-01
The transport of energy and water vapor across a thin layer which separates two decaying isotropic turbulent flows with different kinetic energy and humidity is considered. The interface is placed in a shearless stratified environment in temporal decay. This system reproduces a few aspects of small scale turbulent transport across a dry air/moist air interface in an atmospheric like context. In our incompressible DNS at Reλ = 250 , Boussinesq's approximation is used for momentum and energy transport while the vapor is modeled as a passive scalar (Kumar, Schumacher & Shaw 2014). We investigated different stratification levels with an initial Fr between 0.8 and 8 in presence of a kinetic energy ratio equal to 7. As the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial ones, a spatial redistribution of kinetic energy, dissipation and vapor concentration is observed. This eventually leads to the onset of a well of kinetic energy in the low energy side of the mixing layer which blocks the entrainment of dry air. Results are discussed and compared with laboratory and numerical experiments. A posteriori estimates of the eventual compression/expansion of fluid particles inside the interfacial mixing layer are given (Nance & Durran 1994).
Fast and Accurate Prediction of Stratified Steel Temperature During Holding Period of Ladle
Deodhar, Anirudh; Singh, Umesh; Shukla, Rishabh; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.
2017-04-01
Thermal stratification of liquid steel in a ladle during the holding period and the teeming operation has a direct bearing on the superheat available at the caster and hence on the caster set points such as casting speed and cooling rates. The changes in the caster set points are typically carried out based on temperature measurements at the end of tundish outlet. Thermal prediction models provide advance knowledge of the influence of process and design parameters on the steel temperature at various stages. Therefore, they can be used in making accurate decisions about the caster set points in real time. However, this requires both fast and accurate thermal prediction models. In this work, we develop a surrogate model for the prediction of thermal stratification using data extracted from a set of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, pre-determined using design of experiments technique. Regression method is used for training the predictor. The model predicts the stratified temperature profile instantaneously, for a given set of process parameters such as initial steel temperature, refractory heat content, slag thickness, and holding time. More than 96 pct of the predicted values are within an error range of ±5 K (±5 °C), when compared against corresponding CFD results. Considering its accuracy and computational efficiency, the model can be extended for thermal control of casting operations. This work also sets a benchmark for developing similar thermal models for downstream processes such as tundish and caster.
Two-phase flow through small branches in a horizontal pipe with stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smoglie, C.
1985-02-01
In the field of reactor safety the occurrence of a small break in a horizontal primary coolant pipe is of great importance. This report presents the description and results of experiments designed to determine the mass flow rate and quality through a small break at the bottom, the top or the side of a main pipe with stratified gas-liquid flow. If the interface level is far below (above) the branch, only single-phase gas (liquid) flow enters the branch. For smaller distances the interface is locally deformed because of the pressure decrease due to the fluid acceleration near the branch inlet (Bernoulli effect) and liquid (gas) can be entrained. This report contains photographs illustrating the flow phenomena as well as a general correlation to determine the beginning of entrainment. Results are presented on the branch mass flow rate and quality as a function of a normalized distance between the interface and the branch inlet. A model was developed which enables to predict the branch quality and mass flux. Results from air-water flow through horizontal branches, were extrapolated for steam water flow at high pressure with critical branch mass flux. (orig./HS) [de
Two-phase flow through small branches in a horizontal pipe with stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smoglie, C.
1984-12-01
This report presents the description and results of experiments designed to determine the mass flow rate and quality through a small break at the bottom, the top or the side of a main pipe with stratified gas-liquid flow. If the interface level is far below (above) the branch, only single-phase gas (liquid) flow enters the branch. For smaller distances the interface is locally deformed because of the pressure decrease due to the fluid acceleration near the branch inlet (Bernoulli effect) and liquid (gas) can be entrained. This report contains photographs illustrating the flow phenomena as well as a general correlation to determine the beginning of entrainment. Results are presented on the branch mass flow rate and quality as a function of a normalized distance between the interface and the branch inlet. A model was developed which enables to predict the branch quality and mass flux. Results from air-water flow through horizontal branches, were extrapolated for steam water flow at high pressure with critical branch mass flux. (orig./HP) [de
Davies, N. S.; Gosse, J. C.; Rybczynski, N.
2012-04-01
Woody debris has been an important sediment component and a significant geomorphic agent in pristine fluvial systems since the Devonian. In recent years a large volume of research has focussed on various aspects of the importance of woody debris within the fluvial realm; from the evolutionary significance of fossil wood accumulations in the rock record to studies of the biogeomorphological and ecological importance of woody debris in modern rivers. In this presentation we describe cross-stratified woody debris deposits comprising organic detritus from a boreal-type treeline forest that included species of pine, birch, poplar, alder, spruce, eastern cedar, and larch, in both shrub and tree form. The cross-stratified wood is an enigmatic subset of fine woody debris which, to our knowledge, has never before been described from either the global stratigraphic record or modern fluvial environments. The deposits we describe are located within the Pliocene Beaufort Formation on Meighen Island, Nunavut, Canada, at a latitude of 80°N, and are compared with other cross-stratified woody debris deposits that have been noted elsewhere in the Pliocene of the Canadian Arctic. We make the robust observation that these deposits appear to be geographically and stratigraphically restricted to polar latitudes from a period of warm climatic conditions during the Pliocene (15-20 °C warmer mean annual temperature than the present day). In this regard it is possible to speculate that the transport of large amounts of woody debris as bedload is potentially a unique feature of forested high latitude rivers. Such bedload deposition requires a large amount of woody debris with a greater density than the fluid transporting it. The softwood composition of the debris suggests that this was most likely attained by saturation and subsequent entrainment of extensive accumulations of deadwood, promoted by unusually high rates of tree mortality and low rates of bacterial decomposition arising from
Mixing and entrainment in hydraulically driven stratified sill flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Pratt, Larry; Helfrich, Karl
2004-01-01
The investigation involves the hydraulic behaviour of a dense layer of fluid flowing over an obstacle and subject to entrainment of mass and momentum from a dynamically inactive (but possibly moving) overlying fluid. An approach based on the use of reduced gravity, shallow-water theory with a cross......-interface entrainment velocity is compared with numerical simulations based on a model with continuously varying stratification and velocity. The locations of critical flow (hydraulic control) in the continuous model are estimated by observing the direction of propagation of small-amplitude long-wave disturbances...... that the reduced gravity model systematically underestimates inertia and overestimates buoyancy. These differences are quantified by shape coefficients that measure the vertical non-uniformities of the density and horizontal velocity that arise, in part, by incomplete mixing of entrained mass and momentum over...
The linearization method in hydrodynamical stability theory
Yudovich, V I
1989-01-01
This book presents the theory of the linearization method as applied to the problem of steady-state and periodic motions of continuous media. The author proves infinite-dimensional analogues of Lyapunov's theorems on stability, instability, and conditional stability for a large class of continuous media. In addition, semigroup properties for the linearized Navier-Stokes equations in the case of an incompressible fluid are studied, and coercivity inequalities and completeness of a system of small oscillations are proved.
Fully stratified particle-laden flow in horizontal circular pipe
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vlasák, Pavel; Kysela, Bohuš; Chára, Zdeněk
2014-01-01
Roč. 32, č. 2 (2014), s. 179-185 ISSN 0272-6351. [7th International Conference for Conveying and Handling of Particulate Solids (CHoPS). Friedrichshafen, 10.09.2013-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse-grained slurry * flow structure * liquid local velocity * particle velocity * PIV Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.523, year: 2014
Stratified flows with variable density: mathematical modelling and numerical challenges.
Murillo, Javier; Navas-Montilla, Adrian
2017-04-01
Stratified flows appear in a wide variety of fundamental problems in hydrological and geophysical sciences. They may involve from hyperconcentrated floods carrying sediment causing collapse, landslides and debris flows, to suspended material in turbidity currents where turbulence is a key process. Also, in stratified flows variable horizontal density is present. Depending on the case, density varies according to the volumetric concentration of different components or species that can represent transported or suspended materials or soluble substances. Multilayer approaches based on the shallow water equations provide suitable models but are not free from difficulties when moving to the numerical resolution of the governing equations. Considering the variety of temporal and spatial scales, transfer of mass and energy among layers may strongly differ from one case to another. As a consequence, in order to provide accurate solutions, very high order methods of proved quality are demanded. Under these complex scenarios it is necessary to observe that the numerical solution provides the expected order of accuracy but also converges to the physically based solution, which is not an easy task. To this purpose, this work will focus in the use of Energy balanced augmented solvers, in particular, the Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. References: J. Murillo , P. García-Navarro, Wave Riemann description of friction terms in unsteady shallow flows: Application to water and mud/debris floods. J. Comput. Phys. 231 (2012) 1963-2001. J. Murillo B. Latorre, P. García-Navarro. A Riemann solver for unsteady computation of 2D shallow flows with variable density. J. Comput. Phys.231 (2012) 4775-4807. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Energy balanced numerical schemes with very high order. The Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. Application to the shallow water equations, J. Comput. Phys. 290 (2015) 188-218. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Asymptotically and exactly energy balanced augmented flux
Deep silicon maxima in the stratified oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Crombet
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The silicon biogeochemical cycle has been studied in the Mediterranean Sea during late summer/early autumn 1999 and summer 2008. The distribution of nutrients, particulate carbon and silicon, fucoxanthin (Fuco, and total chlorophyll-a (TChl-a were investigated along an eastward gradient of oligotrophy during two cruises (PROSOPE and BOUM encompassing the entire Mediterranean Sea during the stratified period. At both seasons, surface waters were depleted in nutrients and the nutriclines gradually deepened towards the East, the phosphacline being the deepest in the easternmost Levantine basin. Following the nutriclines, parallel deep maxima of biogenic silica (DSM, fucoxanthin (DFM and TChl-a (DCM were evidenced during both seasons with maximal concentrations of 0.45 μmol L^{−1} for BSi, 0.26 μg L^{−1} for Fuco, and 1.70 μg L^{−1} for TChl-a, all measured during summer. Contrary to the DCM which was a persistent feature in the Mediterranean Sea, the DSM and DFMs were observed in discrete areas of the Alboran Sea, the Algero-Provencal basin, the Ionian sea and the Levantine basin, indicating that diatoms were able to grow at depth and dominate the DCM under specific conditions. Diatom assemblages were dominated by Chaetoceros spp., Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudonitzschia spp. and the association between large centric diatoms (Hemiaulus hauckii and Rhizosolenia styliformis and the cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis was observed at nearly all sites. The diatom's ability to grow at depth is commonly observed in other oligotrophic regions and could play a major role in ecosystem productivity and carbon export to depth. Contrary to the common view that Si and siliceous phytoplankton are not major components of the Mediterranean biogeochemistry, we suggest here that diatoms, by persisting at depth during the stratified period, could contribute to a
Experimental CFD grade data for stratified two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe, E-mail: c.vallee@fzd.d [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Pietruske, Heiko; Schuetz, Peter; Carl, Helmar [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)
2010-09-15
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at two test facilities with horizontal test-sections. For both, rectangular channel cross-sections were chosen to provide optimal observation possibilities for the application of optical measurement techniques. In order to show the local flow structure, high-speed video observation was applied, which delivers the high-resolution in space and time needed for CFD code validation. The first investigations were performed in the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), which is made of acrylic glass and allows the investigation of air/water co-current flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. At the channel inlet, a special device was designed for well-defined and adjustable inlet boundary conditions. For the quantitative analysis of the optical measurements performed at the HAWAC, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. This allows to make statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. As an example, the unstable wave growth leading to slug flow is shown from the test-section inlet. Moreover, the hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was investigated in this closed channel. The structure of the hydraulic jump over time is revealed by the calculation of the probability density of the water level. A series of experiments show that the hydraulic jump profile and its position from the inlet vary substantially with the inlet boundary conditions due to the momentum exchange between the phases. The second channel is built in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform air/water and steam/water experiments at pressures of up to 5.0 MPa and temperatures of up to 264 {sup o}C, but under pressure equilibrium with the vessel inside. In the present experiment, the test-section represents a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor scaled at
Experimental CFD grade data for stratified two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Pietruske, Heiko; Schuetz, Peter; Carl, Helmar
2010-01-01
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at two test facilities with horizontal test-sections. For both, rectangular channel cross-sections were chosen to provide optimal observation possibilities for the application of optical measurement techniques. In order to show the local flow structure, high-speed video observation was applied, which delivers the high-resolution in space and time needed for CFD code validation. The first investigations were performed in the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), which is made of acrylic glass and allows the investigation of air/water co-current flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. At the channel inlet, a special device was designed for well-defined and adjustable inlet boundary conditions. For the quantitative analysis of the optical measurements performed at the HAWAC, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. This allows to make statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. As an example, the unstable wave growth leading to slug flow is shown from the test-section inlet. Moreover, the hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was investigated in this closed channel. The structure of the hydraulic jump over time is revealed by the calculation of the probability density of the water level. A series of experiments show that the hydraulic jump profile and its position from the inlet vary substantially with the inlet boundary conditions due to the momentum exchange between the phases. The second channel is built in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform air/water and steam/water experiments at pressures of up to 5.0 MPa and temperatures of up to 264 o C, but under pressure equilibrium with the vessel inside. In the present experiment, the test-section represents a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor scaled at 1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Stashchuk
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We present the results of numerical experiments performed with the use of a fully non-linear non-hydrostatic numerical model to study the baroclinic response of a long narrow tank filled with stratified water to an initially tilted interface. Upon release, the system starts to oscillate with an eigen frequency corresponding to basin-scale baroclinic gravitational seiches. Field observations suggest that the disintegration of basin-scale internal waves into packets of solitary waves, shear instabilities, billows and spots of mixed water are important mechanisms for the transfer of energy within stratified lakes. Laboratory experiments performed by D. A. Horn, J. Imberger and G. N. Ivey (JFM, 2001 reproduced several regimes, which include damped linear waves and solitary waves. The generation of billows and shear instabilities induced by the basin-scale wave was, however, not sufficiently studied. The developed numerical model computes a variety of flows, which were not observed with the experimental set-up. In particular, the model results showed that under conditions of low dissipation, the regimes of billows and supercritical flows may transform into a solitary wave regime. The obtained results can help in the interpretation of numerous observations of mixing processes in real lakes.
Economic evaluation in stratified medicine: methodological issues and challenges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hans-Joerg eFugel
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Background: Stratified Medicine (SM is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health technology assessments (HTAs in many countries. However, these guidelines have initially been developed for traditional pharmaceuticals and not for complex interventions with multiple components. This raises the issue as to whether these guidelines are adequate to SM interventions or whether new specific guidance and methodology is needed to avoid inconsistencies and contradictory findings when assessing economic value in SM.Objective: This article describes specific methodological challenges when conducting health economic (HE evaluations for SM interventions and outlines potential modifications necessary to existing evaluation guidelines /principles that would promote consistent economic evaluations for SM.Results/Conclusions: Specific methodological aspects for SM comprise considerations on the choice of comparator, measuring effectiveness and outcomes, appropriate modelling structure and the scope of sensitivity analyses. Although current HE methodology can be applied for SM, greater complexity requires further methodology development and modifications in the guidelines.
Operations and Maintenance Cost for Stratified Buildings: A Critical Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Che-Ghani Nor Zaimah
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Building maintenance is essential in preserving buildings’ appearance and performance. It needs to upkeep the building performance to prolong its value and building life cycle. Malaysia is still lacking in managing cost for building operation and maintenance. It has been found that the cost for housing maintenance is high due to poor maintenance practices. In order to get better understanding on how to manage the cost, this study reviews the contributing factors that affecting operation and maintenance cost of stratified buildings in Malaysia. The research first identified the factors through extensive literature review and scrutinize on factors that affecting and can minimize operation and maintenance cost. This literature review offers insight into building maintenance scenario in Malaysia focusing on the issues and challenges. The study also finds that operation and maintenance cost for housing in Malaysia is still in poor state. Interestingly, this paper revealed that operation and maintenance cost is also influenced by three significant factors like expectation of tenants, building characteristics and building defects. Measures to reduce the housing operation and maintenance cost are also highlighted so that this study can be a stepping stone towards proposing efficient and effective facilities management strategies for affordable housing in future.
Stratified patterns of divorce: Earnings, education, and gender
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amit Kaplan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Background: Despite evidence that divorce has become more prevalent among weaker socioeconomic groups, knowledge about the stratification aspects of divorce in Israel is lacking. Moreover, although scholarly debate recognizes the importance of stratificational positions with respect to divorce, less attention has been given to the interactions between them. Objective: Our aim is to examine the relationship between social inequality and divorce, focusing on how household income, education, employment stability, relative earnings, and the intersection between them affect the risk of divorce in Israel. Methods: The data is derived from combined census files for 1995-2008, annual administrative employment records from the National Insurance Institute and the Tax Authority, and data from the Civil Registry of Divorce. We used a series of discrete-time event-history analysis models for marital dissolution. Results: Couples in lower socioeconomic positions had a higher risk of divorce in Israel. Higher education in general, and homogamy in terms of higher education (both spouses have degrees in particular, decreased the risk of divorce. The wife's relative earnings had a differential effect on the likelihood of divorce, depending on household income: a wife who outearned her husband increased the log odds of divorce more in the upper tertiles than in the lower tertile. Conclusions: Our study shows that divorce indeed has a stratified pattern and that weaker socioeconomic groups experience the highest levels of divorce. Gender inequality within couples intersects with the household's economic and educational resources.
Clinical research in small genomically stratified patient populations.
Martin-Liberal, J; Rodon, J
2017-07-01
The paradigm of early drug development in cancer is shifting from 'histology-oriented' to 'molecularly oriented' clinical trials. This change can be attributed to the vast amount of tumour biology knowledge generated by large international research initiatives such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the use of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques developed in recent years. However, targeting infrequent molecular alterations entails a series of special challenges. The optimal molecular profiling method, the lack of standardised biological thresholds, inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity, availability of enough tumour material, correct clinical trials design, attrition rate, logistics or costs are only some of the issues that need to be taken into consideration in clinical research in small genomically stratified patient populations. This article examines the most relevant challenges inherent to clinical research in these populations. Moreover, perspectives from the Academia point of view are reviewed as well as initiatives to be taken in forthcoming years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stratifying the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Otolaryngology
Shuman, Andrew G.; Hu, Hsou Mei; Pannucci, Christopher J.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Bradford, Carol R.; Bahl, Vinita
2015-01-01
Objective The consequences of perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) are devastating; identifying patients at risk is an essential step in reducing morbidity and mortality. The utility of perioperative VTE risk assessment in otolaryngology is unknown. This study was designed to risk-stratify a diverse population of otolaryngology patients for VTE events. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Single-institution academic tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods Adult patients presenting for otolaryngologic surgery requiring hospital admission from 2003 to 2010 who did not receive VTE chemoprophylaxis were included. The Caprini risk assessment was retrospectively scored via a validated method of electronic chart abstraction. Primary study variables were Caprini risk scores and the incidence of perioperative venous thromboembolic outcomes. Results A total of 2016 patients were identified. The overall 30-day rate of VTE was 1.3%. The incidence of VTE in patients with a Caprini risk score of 6 or less was 0.5%. For patients with scores of 7 or 8, the incidence was 2.4%. Patients with a Caprini risk score greater than 8 had an 18.3% incidence of VTE and were significantly more likely to develop a VTE when compared to patients with a Caprini risk score less than 8 (P otolaryngology patients for 30-day VTE events and allows otolaryngologists to identify patient subgroups who have a higher risk of VTE in the absence of chemoprophylaxis. PMID:22261490
Stratified charge rotary engine critical technology enablement. Volume 2: Appendixes
Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.
1992-01-01
This second volume of appendixes is a companion to Volume 1 of this report which summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation; and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems. A family of four-stage third-order explicit Runge-Kutta schemes is derived that required only two locations and has desirable stability characteristics. Error control is achieved by embedding a second-order scheme within the four-stage procedure. Certain schemes are identified that are as efficient and accurate as conventional embedded schemes of comparable order and require fewer storage locations.
Stratified Charge Rotary Engine Critical Technology Enablement, Volume 1
Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.
1992-01-01
This report summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation, and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems.
Local properties of countercurrent stratified steam-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H.J.
1985-10-01
A study of steam condensation in countercurrent stratified flow of steam and subcooled water has been carried out in a rectangular channel/flat plate geometry over a wide range of inclination angles (4 0 -87 0 ) at several aspect ratios. Variables were inlet water and steam flow rates, and inlet water temperature. Local condensation rates and pressure gradients were measured, and local condensation heat transfer coefficients and interfacial shear stress were calculated. Contact probe traverses of the surface waves were made, which allowed a statistical analysis of the wave properties. The local condensation Nusselt number was correlated in terms of local water and steam Reynolds or Froude numbers, as well as the liquid Prandtl number. A turbulence-centered model developed by Theofanous, et al. principally for gas absorption in several geometries, was modified. A correlation for the interfacial shear stress and the pressure gradient agreed with measured values. Mean water layer thicknesses were calculated. Interfacial wave parameters, such as the mean water layer thickness, liquid fraction probability distribution, wave amplitude and wave frequency, are analyzed
Distribution-Preserving Stratified Sampling for Learning Problems.
Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo
2017-06-09
The need for extracting a small sample from a large amount of real data, possibly streaming, arises routinely in learning problems, e.g., for storage, to cope with computational limitations, obtain good training/test/validation sets, and select minibatches for stochastic gradient neural network training. Unless we have reasons to select the samples in an active way dictated by the specific task and/or model at hand, it is important that the distribution of the selected points is as similar as possible to the original data. This is obvious for unsupervised learning problems, where the goal is to gain insights on the distribution of the data, but it is also relevant for supervised problems, where the theory explains how the training set distribution influences the generalization error. In this paper, we analyze the technique of stratified sampling from the point of view of distances between probabilities. This allows us to introduce an algorithm, based on recursive binary partition of the input space, aimed at obtaining samples that are distributed as much as possible as the original data. A theoretical analysis is proposed, proving the (greedy) optimality of the procedure together with explicit error bounds. An adaptive version of the algorithm is also introduced to cope with streaming data. Simulation tests on various data sets and different learning tasks are also provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, P.; Mukhopadyay, D.; Lele, H.G.; Gupta, S.K.
2000-08-01
Whether in process industries or nuclear industries, we come across lot of horizontal components, where two-phase or two-component fluids exist in normal or abnormal working conditions. Situations which lead to separation of the phases sees vapour pull through or liquid entrainment phenomena occurring when fluid discharges from horizontal components to the off - take branches. In order to capture the phenomena and applying it to the Indian PHWR during LOCA, a program 'BFQ' has been developed using various models for different fluids and conditions. These models have been validated with various experimental data available in the literature. Smoglie's model has been found to comply with most of the experiments even though it has been developed for air-water system. A modification of the model also been successfully used for feeders located at 45 deg. The result has been well validated with Hassan (1997) experiment for the same configuration. For a typical case of LOCA, RELAP4/MOD6, a widely used Homogenous model for simulating systems, is found to over predict the off-take flow quality from Header under stratified flow condition. (author)
Spinodal decomposition in fluid mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawasaki, Kyozi; Koga, Tsuyoshi
1993-01-01
We study the late stage dynamics of spinodal decomposition in binary fluids by the computer simulation of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. We obtain a temporary linear growth law of the characteristic length of domains in the late stage. This growth law has been observed in many real experiments of binary fluids and indicates that the domain growth proceeds by the flow caused by the surface tension of interfaces. We also find that the dynamical scaling law is satisfied in this hydrodynamic domain growth region. By comparing the scaling functions for fluids with that for the case without hydrodynamic effects, we find that the scaling functions for the two systems are different. (author)
Edge Fracture in Complex Fluids.
Hemingway, Ewan J; Kusumaatmaja, Halim; Fielding, Suzanne M
2017-07-14
We study theoretically the edge fracture instability in sheared complex fluids, by means of linear stability analysis and direct nonlinear simulations. We derive an exact analytical expression for the onset of edge fracture in terms of the shear-rate derivative of the fluid's second normal stress difference, the shear-rate derivative of the shear stress, the jump in shear stress across the interface between the fluid and the outside medium (usually air), the surface tension of that interface, and the rheometer gap size. We provide a full mechanistic understanding of the edge fracture instability, carefully validated against our simulations. These findings, which are robust with respect to choice of rheological constitutive model, also suggest a possible route to mitigating edge fracture, potentially allowing experimentalists to achieve and accurately measure flows stronger than hitherto possible.
Linearly constrained minimax optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1978-01-01
We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...
Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehrdad Massoudi
2012-01-01
Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these
The Biermann battery effect at the interfaces in stratified plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2009-10-12
The Biermann battery arises because an inhomogeneous electron pressure acts as a source term for the magnetic field. In order to better understand its effects, we consider a simplified model formed by the boundary between two fluids with different mean molecular weight and look for magnetic fields generated by the battery and localized in a band around the interface. We show that a parallel field is generated, which tends to push the original flow away from the boundary creating a rarefaction band. The specific forms of magnetic field and velocity are detailed.
Moon, Haksu; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Donderici, Burkay
2015-01-01
We present an efficient and robust semi-analytical formulation to compute the electric potential due to arbitrary-located point electrodes in three-dimensional cylindrically stratified media, where the radial thickness and the medium resistivity of each cylindrical layer can vary by many orders of magnitude. A basic roadblock for robust potential computations in such scenarios is the poor scaling of modified-Bessel functions used for computation of the semi-analytical solution, for extreme arguments and/or orders. To accommodate this, we construct a set of rescaled versions of modified-Bessel functions, which avoids underflows and overflows in finite precision arithmetic, and minimizes round-off errors. In addition, several extrapolation methods are applied and compared to expedite the numerical evaluation of the (otherwise slowly convergent) associated Sommerfeld-type integrals. The proposed algorithm is verified in a number of scenarios relevant to geophysical exploration, but the general formulation presented is also applicable to other problems governed by Poisson equation such as Newtonian gravity, heat flow, and potential flow in fluid mechanics, involving cylindrically stratified environments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manera, Annalisa; Bardet, Philippe; Petrov, Victor
2018-03-29
Fluid jets interacting with a stratified layer play an important role in the safety of several reactor designs. In the containment of nuclear power plants, fluid jets dominate the transport and mixing of gaseous species and consequent hydrogen distribution in case of a severe accident. The mixing phenomena in the containment are driven by buoyant high-momentum injections (jets) and low momentum injection plumes. Mixing near the postulated break is initially dominated by high flow velocities. Plumes with moderate flow velocities are instead relevant in the break compartment during the long-term pressurization phase, or in any of the apertures between two connected compartments if the mass flows are sufficiently high and the density differences between efflux and ambient are sufficiently low. Phenomena of interest include free plumes (as produced by the efflux from the break compartment in a larger room or directly from a break flow), wall plumes (such those produced by low mass flows through inter-compartment apertures), and propagating stratification fronts in the ambient (for any stably stratified conditions). These phenomena have been highly ranked about nuclear reactor design, especially regarding of safety protocols. During a Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) scenario, the interaction between the cold ECCS injection plume and the stratified fluid present in the cold (or hot) leg is important in order to determine the temperature at the time-dependent temperature at the inlet of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the potential to cause a thermal shock on the RPV wall. In sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), core channels are typically hydro-dynamically isolated so that there exists a considerable temperature variation at the exit of adjacent fuel assemblies. All the above phenomena are characterized by the interaction of buoyant jets with the stratified flow. In stratified layers baroclinic forces create significant redistribution of turbulent kinetic energy and
Lee, Kang Il
2012-08-01
The present study aims to provide insight into the relationships of the phase velocity with the microarchitectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 22 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a pair of transducers with a diameter of 25.4 mm and a center frequency of 0.5 MHz. The phase velocity exhibited positive correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.32 with the ratio of bone volume to total volume and the trabecular thickness, respectively, but a negative correlation coefficient of -0.62 with the trabecular separation. The best univariate predictor of the phase velocity was the trabecular separation, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of 0.36. The multivariate regression models yielded adjusted squared correlation coefficients of 0.21-0.36. The theoretical phase velocity predicted by using a stratified model for wave propagation in periodically stratified media consisting of alternating parallel solid-fluid layers showed reasonable agreements with the experimental measurements.
Experimental investigation of stratified two-phase flows in the hot leg of a PWR for CFD validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Tomiyama, Akio [Kobe Univ (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Murase, Michio [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc. (INSS), Fukui (Japan)
2012-12-15
Stratified 2-phase flows were investigated in 2 different models of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor (PWR) in order to provide experimental data for the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Therefore, the local flow structure was visualised with a high-speed video camera. Moreover, one test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section to achieve optimal observation conditions. The phenomenon of counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) was investigated, which may affect the reflux condenser cooling mode in some accident scenarios. The experiments were conducted with air and water at room temperature and maximum pressures of 3 bar as well as with steam and saturated water at boundary conditions of up to 50 bar and 264 C. The measured CCFL characteristics were compared with similar experimental data and correlations available in the literature. This shows that the channel height is the characteristic length to be used in the Wallis parameter for channels with rectangular cross-sections. Furthermore, the experimental results confirm that the Wallis similarity is appropriate to scale CCFL in the hot leg of a PWR over a wide range of pressure and temperature conditions. Finally, an image processing algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. Subsequently, the interfacial structure along the hot leg was visualised by the representation of the probability distribution of the water level. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. D. Chashechkin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of continuously stratified fluids past obstacles was studied analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The obstacles discussed here include a flat strip, aligned with the flow, inclined or transverse to the flow and a horizontal cylinder. In the flow pattern, transient and attached (lee internal waves, downstream wakes with submerged interfaces and vortices, soaring singular interfaces, soaring vortices and vortex systems are distinguished. New components of laminar flow past a horizontally towed strip are presented. Fine transverse streaky structures on the strip in the downstream wake were visualized. Soaring isolated interfaces, which are internal boundary layers forming inside the downstream attached wave field past bluff bodies were observed. With increasing of the body velocity a vortex pair was formed directly at the leading edge of this interface.
Modélisation macroscopique des milieux stratifiés conducteurs
Matagne, E.; Conard, J. Ph.
1997-11-01
Many laminated structures are recognised in Electrotechnics : magnetic cores, flat conductors windings, slotted surfaces... These structures exhibit macroscopic properties, as magnetic than electric ones. This paper shows how these characteristics can be obtained by homogenisation. It deals with linear materials but taking into account the effect of eddy currents, as well on the macroscopic magnetic permeability as on the macroscopic electric conductivity, which become then complex numbers. An example of use of the macroscopic properties is provided. On peut identifier en électrotechnique de nombreuses structures stratifiées: noyaux magnétiques, bobinages formés de conducteurs plats, surfaces encochées... Ces structures présentent des propriétés macroscopiques tant magnétiques qu'électriques. Cet article montre comment ces caractéristiques peuvent être obtenues par homogénéisation. Il se limite au cas de matériaux linéaires mais en prenant en compte l'effet des courants de Foucault aussi bien sur la perméabilité magnétique macroscopique que sur la conductivité électrique macroscopique, grandeurs qui deviennent alors des nombres complexes. Un exemple d'utilisation des caractéristiques macroscopiques est fourni.
Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Vorticity generation and evolution in shock-accelerated density-stratified interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, X.; Chern, I.; Zabusky, N.J.; Samtaney, R.; Hawley, J.F.
1992-01-01
The results of direct numerical simulations of inviscid planar shock-accelerated density-stratified interfaces in two dimensions are presented and compared with shock tube experiments of Haas [(private communication, 1988)] and Sturtevant [in Shock Tubes and Waves, edited by H. Gronig (VCH, Berlin, 1987), p. 89] . Heavy-to-light (''slow/fast or s/f) and light-to-heavy (''fast/slow,'' or f/s) gas interfaces are examined and early-time impulsive vorticity deposition and the evolution of coherent vortex structures are emphasized and quantified. The present second-order Godunov scheme yields excellent agreement with shock-polar analyses at early time. A more physical vortex interpretation explains the commonly used (i.e., linear paradigm) designations of ''unstable'' and ''stable'' for the f/s and s/f interfaces, respectively. The later time events are Rayleigh--Taylor like and can be described in terms of the evolution of a vortex layer (large-scale translation and rotation): asymmetric tip vortex ''roll-up'' and ''binding;'' layer ''instability;'' convective mixing; and baroclinic vorticity generation from secondary shock--interface interactions
Varma, Dheeraj; Mathur, Manikandan
2017-11-01
Internal tides generated by barotropic tides on bottom topography or the spatially compact near-inertial mixed layer currents excited by surface winds can be conveniently represented in the linear regime as a superposition of vertical modes at a given frequency in an arbitrarily stratified ocean of finite depth. Considering modes (m , n) at a frequency ω in the primary wave field, we derive the weakly nonlinear solution, which contains a secondary wave at 2 ω that diverges when it forms a resonant triad with the primary waves. In nonuniform stratifications, resonant triads are shown to occur when the horizontal component of the classical RTI criterion k->1 +k->2 +k->3 = 0 is satisfied along with a non-orthogonality criterion. In nonuniform stratifications with a pycnocline, infinitely more pairs of primary wave modes (m , n) result in RTI when compared to a uniform stratification. Further, two nearby high modes at around the near-inertial frequency often form a resonant triad with a low mode at 2 ω , reminiscent of the features of PSI near the critical latitude. The theoretical framework is then adapted to investigate RTI in two different scenarios: low-mode internal tide scattering over topography, and internal wave beams incident on a pycnocline. The authors thank the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India for financial support under the Monsoon Mission Grant MM/2014/IND-002.
Foundations of linear and generalized linear models
Agresti, Alan
2015-01-01
A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,
Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model
Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph
2010-01-01
A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics
A Linear Electromagnetic Piston Pump
Hogan, Paul H.
Advancements in mobile hydraulics for human-scale applications have increased demand for a compact hydraulic power supply. Conventional designs couple a rotating electric motor to a hydraulic pump, which increases the package volume and requires several energy conversions. This thesis investigates the use of a free piston as the moving element in a linear motor to eliminate multiple energy conversions and decrease the overall package volume. A coupled model used a quasi-static magnetic equivalent circuit to calculate the motor inductance and the electromagnetic force acting on the piston. The force was an input to a time domain model to evaluate the mechanical and pressure dynamics. The magnetic circuit model was validated with finite element analysis and an experimental prototype linear motor. The coupled model was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm to explore the parameter space and maximize power density and efficiency. An experimental prototype linear pump coupled pistons to an off-the-shelf linear motor to validate the mechanical and pressure dynamics models. The magnetic circuit force calculation agreed within 3% of finite element analysis, and within 8% of experimental data from the unoptimized prototype linear motor. The optimized motor geometry also had good agreement with FEA; at zero piston displacement, the magnetic circuit calculates optimized motor force within 10% of FEA in less than 1/1000 the computational time. This makes it well suited to genetic optimization algorithms. The mechanical model agrees very well with the experimental piston pump position data when tuned for additional unmodeled mechanical friction. Optimized results suggest that an improvement of 400% of the state of the art power density is attainable with as high as 85% net efficiency. This demonstrates that a linear electromagnetic piston pump has potential to serve as a more compact and efficient supply of fluid power for the human scale.
Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masella, J.M.
1997-05-29
This thesis is devoted to the numerical simulation of some two-fluid models describing gas-liquid two-phase flow in pipes. The numerical models developed here can be more generally used in the modelling of a wide class of physical models which can be put under an hyperbolic form. We introduce first two isothermal two-fluid models, composed of a mass balance equation and a momentum equation written in each phase, describing respectively a stratified two-phase flow and a dispersed two-phase flow. These models are hyperbolic under some physical assumptions and can be written under a nonconservative vectorial system. We define and analyse a new numerical finite volume scheme (v{integral}Roe) founded on a linearized Riemann solver. This scheme does not need any analytical calculation and gives good results in the tracking of shocks. We compare this new scheme with the classical Roe scheme. Then we propose and study some numerical models, with and without flux splitting method, which are adapted to the discretization of the two-fluid models. This numerical models are given by a finite volume integration of the equations, and lean on the v{integral} scheme. In order to reducing cpu time, due to the low Mach number of two-phase flows, acoustic waves are implicit. Afterwards we proposed a discretization of boundary conditions, which allows the generation of transient flows in pipe. Some numerical academic and more physical tests show the good behaviour of the numerical methods. (author) 77 refs.
Computer methods for transient fluid-structure analysis of nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belytschko, T.; Liu, W.K.
1985-01-01
Fluid-structure interaction problems in nuclear engineering are categorized according to the dominant physical phenomena and the appropriate computational methods. Linear fluid models that are considered include acoustic fluids, incompressible fluids undergoing small disturbances, and small amplitude sloshing. Methods available in general-purpose codes for these linear fluid problems are described. For nonlinear fluid problems, the major features of alternative computational treatments are reviewed; some special-purpose and multipurpose computer codes applicable to these problems are then described. For illustration, some examples of nuclear reactor problems that entail coupled fluid-structure analysis are described along with computational results
Diffusive limits for linear transport equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomraning, G.C.
1992-01-01
The authors show that the Hibert and Chapman-Enskog asymptotic treatments that reduce the nonlinear Boltzmann equation to the Euler and Navier-Stokes fluid equations have analogs in linear transport theory. In this linear setting, these fluid limits are described by diffusion equations, involving familiar and less familiar diffusion coefficients. Because of the linearity extant, one can carry out explicitly the initial and boundary layer analyses required to obtain asymptotically consistent initial and boundary conditions for the diffusion equations. In particular, the effects of boundary curvature and boundary condition variation along the surface can be included in the boundary layer analysis. A brief review of heuristic (nonasymptotic) diffusion description derivations is also included in our discussion
Numerical simulation of non-linear phenomena in geotechnical engineering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Smed
Geotechnical problems are often characterized by the non-linear behavior of soils and rock which are strongly linked to the inherent properties of the porous structure of the material as well as the presence and possible flow of any surrounding fluids. Dynamic problems involving such soil-fluid i...
Self lubricating fluid bearings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapich, D.D.
1980-01-01
The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr
Kleinstreuer, Clement
2018-01-01
Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.
Core seismic behaviour: linear and non-linear models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, M.; Van Dorsselaere, M.; Gauvain, M.; Jenapierre-Gantenbein, M.
1981-08-01
The usual methodology for the core seismic behaviour analysis leads to a double complementary approach: to define a core model to be included in the reactor-block seismic response analysis, simple enough but representative of basic movements (diagrid or slab), to define a finer core model, with basic data issued from the first model. This paper presents the history of the different models of both kinds. The inert mass model (IMM) yielded a first rough diagrid movement. The direct linear model (DLM), without shocks and with sodium as an added mass, let to two different ones: DLM 1 with independent movements of the fuel and radial blanket subassemblies, and DLM 2 with a core combined movement. The non-linear (NLM) ''CORALIE'' uses the same basic modelization (Finite Element Beams) but accounts for shocks. It studies the response of a diameter on flats and takes into account the fluid coupling and the wrapper tube flexibility at the pad level. Damping consists of one modal part of 2% and one part due to shocks. Finally, ''CORALIE'' yields the time-history of the displacements and efforts on the supports, but damping (probably greater than 2%) and fluid-structures interaction are still to be precised. The validation experiments were performed on a RAPSODIE core mock-up on scale 1, in similitude of 1/3 as to SPX 1. The equivalent linear model (ELM) was developed for the SPX 1 reactor-block response analysis and a specified seismic level (SB or SM). It is composed of several oscillators fixed to the diagrid and yields the same maximum displacements and efforts than the NLM. The SPX 1 core seismic analysis with a diagrid input spectrum which corresponds to a 0,1 g group acceleration, has been carried out with these models: some aspects of these calculations are presented here
Fluid powered linear piston motor with harmonic coupling
Raymond, David W.
2016-09-20
A motor is disclosed that includes a module assembly including a piston that is axially cycled. The piston axial motion is coupled to torque couplers that convert the axial motion into rotary motion. The torque couplers are coupled to a rotor to rotate the rotor.
Instabilities of continuously stratified zonal equatorial jets in a periodic channel model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Masina
2002-05-01
Full Text Available Several numerical experiments are performed in a nonlinear, multi-level periodic channel model centered on the equator with different zonally uniform background flows which resemble the South Equatorial Current (SEC. Analysis of the simulations focuses on identifying stability criteria for a continuously stratified fluid near the equator. A 90 m deep frontal layer is required to destabilize a zonally uniform, 10° wide, westward surface jet that is symmetric about the equator and has a maximum velocity of 100 cm/s. In this case, the phase velocity of the excited unstable waves is very similar to the phase speed of the Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs observed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The vertical scale of the baroclinic waves corresponds to the frontal layer depth and their phase speed increases as the vertical shear of the jet is doubled. When the westward surface parabolic jet is made asymmetric about the equator, in order to simulate more realistically the structure of the SEC in the eastern Pacific, two kinds of instability are generated. The oscillations that grow north of the equator have a baroclinic nature, while those generated on and very close to the equator have a barotropic nature. This study shows that the potential for baroclinic instability in the equatorial region can be as large as at mid-latitudes, if the tendency of isotherms to have a smaller slope for a given zonal velocity, when the Coriolis parameter vanishes, is compensated for by the wind effect.Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling – Oceanography: physics (fronts and jets
Stratified magnetically driven accretion-disk winds and their relations to jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, Francesco; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2014-01-01
We explore the poloidal structure of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) winds in relation to their potential association with the X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) and the highly ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in a single unifying approach. We present the density n(r, θ), ionization parameter ξ(r, θ), and velocity structure v(r, θ) of such ionized winds for typical values of their fluid-to-magnetic flux ratio, F, and specific angular momentum, H, for which wind solutions become super-Alfvénic. We explore the geometrical shape of winds for different values of these parameters and delineate the values that produce the widest and narrowest opening angles of these winds, quantities necessary in the determination of the statistics of AGN obscuration. We find that winds with smaller H show a poloidal geometry of narrower opening angles with their Alfvén surface at lower inclination angles and therefore they produce the highest line of sight (LoS) velocities for observers at higher latitudes with the respect to the disk plane. We further note a physical and spatial correlation between the X-ray WAs and UFOs that form along the same LoS to the observer but at different radii, r, and distinct values of n, ξ, and v consistent with the latest spectroscopic data of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. We also show that, at least in the case of 3C 111, the winds' pressure is sufficient to contain the relativistic plasma responsible for its radio emission. Stratified MHD disk winds could therefore serve as a unique means to understand and unify the diverse AGN outflows.
Instabilities of continuously stratified zonal equatorial jets in a periodic channel model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Masina
Full Text Available Several numerical experiments are performed in a nonlinear, multi-level periodic channel model centered on the equator with different zonally uniform background flows which resemble the South Equatorial Current (SEC. Analysis of the simulations focuses on identifying stability criteria for a continuously stratified fluid near the equator. A 90 m deep frontal layer is required to destabilize a zonally uniform, 10° wide, westward surface jet that is symmetric about the equator and has a maximum velocity of 100 cm/s. In this case, the phase velocity of the excited unstable waves is very similar to the phase speed of the Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs observed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The vertical scale of the baroclinic waves corresponds to the frontal layer depth and their phase speed increases as the vertical shear of the jet is doubled. When the westward surface parabolic jet is made asymmetric about the equator, in order to simulate more realistically the structure of the SEC in the eastern Pacific, two kinds of instability are generated. The oscillations that grow north of the equator have a baroclinic nature, while those generated on and very close to the equator have a barotropic nature.
This study shows that the potential for baroclinic instability in the equatorial region can be as large as at mid-latitudes, if the tendency of isotherms to have a smaller slope for a given zonal velocity, when the Coriolis parameter vanishes, is compensated for by the wind effect.
Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling – Oceanography: physics (fronts and jets
Turbulent jet erosion of a stably stratified gas layer in a nuclear reactor test containment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishay, Liel [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Bieder, Ulrich [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, Centre de SACLAY DEN/SAC/DANS/DM2S/STMF/LMSF, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ziskind, Gennady [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Rashkovan, Alex, E-mail: rashbgu@gmail.com [Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center Negev (NRCN), PO Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • We model stably stratified layer erosion by vertical turbulent round jet. • Separate effect studies are performed as a platform for choosing modeling approach. • A test performed in MISTRA facility, CEA, Saclay is modeled using Fluent and Trio-U codes. • The proposed modeling approach showed good agreement with the MISTRA facility LOWMA-3 test. - Abstract: A number of integral and separate effect experiments were performed in the last two decades for validation of containment computational tools. The main goal of these benchmark experiments was to assess the ability of turbulence models and computational fluid dynamics codes to predict hydrogen concentration distribution and steam condensation rate in a nuclear reactor containment in the course of severe accidents. It appears from the published literature that the predictive capability of the existing computational tools still needs to be improved. This work examines numerically the temporal evolution of helium concentration in the experiment called LOWMA-3, performed in the MISTRA facility of CEA-Saclay, France. In the experiment, helium is used to mimic hydrogen of a real-case accident. The aim of this separate effect experiment, where steam condensation was not involved, is to predict helium concentration field. The conditions of the experiment are such that both the momentum transport and molecular diffusion contributions to the mixing process are of the same order of magnitude (Fr ∼ 1). A commercial CFD code, Fluent, and a CEA in-house code, Trio-U, are used for flow and helium concentration fields temporal evolution prediction in the present study. The preliminary separate effect studies provide guidance to an optimal modeling approach for the LOWMA-3 experiment. Temporal evolution of helium concentration in the stratification layer is shown, and a comparison to the experiment is discussed. It is shown that correct modeling of the round jet flowfield is essential for a reliable
Turbulent jet erosion of a stably stratified gas layer in a nuclear reactor test containment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishay, Liel; Bieder, Ulrich; Ziskind, Gennady; Rashkovan, Alex
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We model stably stratified layer erosion by vertical turbulent round jet. • Separate effect studies are performed as a platform for choosing modeling approach. • A test performed in MISTRA facility, CEA, Saclay is modeled using Fluent and Trio-U codes. • The proposed modeling approach showed good agreement with the MISTRA facility LOWMA-3 test. - Abstract: A number of integral and separate effect experiments were performed in the last two decades for validation of containment computational tools. The main goal of these benchmark experiments was to assess the ability of turbulence models and computational fluid dynamics codes to predict hydrogen concentration distribution and steam condensation rate in a nuclear reactor containment in the course of severe accidents. It appears from the published literature that the predictive capability of the existing computational tools still needs to be improved. This work examines numerically the temporal evolution of helium concentration in the experiment called LOWMA-3, performed in the MISTRA facility of CEA-Saclay, France. In the experiment, helium is used to mimic hydrogen of a real-case accident. The aim of this separate effect experiment, where steam condensation was not involved, is to predict helium concentration field. The conditions of the experiment are such that both the momentum transport and molecular diffusion contributions to the mixing process are of the same order of magnitude (Fr ∼ 1). A commercial CFD code, Fluent, and a CEA in-house code, Trio-U, are used for flow and helium concentration fields temporal evolution prediction in the present study. The preliminary separate effect studies provide guidance to an optimal modeling approach for the LOWMA-3 experiment. Temporal evolution of helium concentration in the stratification layer is shown, and a comparison to the experiment is discussed. It is shown that correct modeling of the round jet flowfield is essential for a reliable
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh
2015-01-01
The use of stratified hot water tanks in solar energy systems - including ORC systems - as well as heat pump systems is paramount for a better performance of these systems. However, the availability of effective and reliable models to predict the annual performance of stratified hot water tanks...
Properties of the endogenous post-stratified estimator using a random forests model
John Tipton; Jean Opsomer; Gretchen G. Moisen
2012-01-01
Post-stratification is used in survey statistics as a method to improve variance estimates. In traditional post-stratification methods, the variable on which the data is being stratified must be known at the population level. In many cases this is not possible, but it is possible to use a model to predict values using covariates, and then stratify on these predicted...
Implementing content constraints in alpha-stratified adaptive testing using a shadow test approach
van der Linden, Willem J.; Chang, Hua-Hua
2001-01-01
The methods of alpha-stratified adaptive testing and constrained adaptive testing with shadow tests are combined in this study. The advantages are twofold. First, application of the shadow test allows the researcher to implement any type of constraint on item selection in alpha-stratified adaptive
Stratified turbulent Bunsen flames : flame surface analysis and flame surface density modelling
Ramaekers, W.J.S.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.
2012-01-01
In this paper it is investigated whether the Flame Surface Density (FSD) model, developed for turbulent premixed combustion, is also applicable to stratified flames. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent stratified Bunsen flames have been carried out, using the Flamelet Generated Manifold
Thermal stratification built up in hot water tank with different inlet stratifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark
2017-01-01
Thermal stratification in a water storage tank can strongly increase the thermal performance of solar heating systems. Thermal stratification can be built up in a storage tank during charge, if the heated water enters through an inlet stratifier. Experiments with a test tank have been carried out...... in order to elucidate how well thermal stratification is established in the tank with differently designed inlet stratifiers under different controlled laboratory conditions. The investigated inlet stratifiers are from Solvis GmbH & Co KG and EyeCular Technologies ApS. The inlet stratifier from Solvis Gmb...... for Solvis GmbH & Co KG had a better performance at 4 l/min. In the intermediate charge test the stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS had a better performance in terms of maintaining the thermal stratification in the storage tank while charging with a relative low temperature. [All rights reserved...
Bubble dynamics equations in Newton fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, J
2008-01-01
For the high-speed flow of Newton fluid, bubble is produced and expanded when it moves toward the surface of fluid. Bubble dynamics is a very important research field to understand the intrinsic feature of bubble production and motion. This research formulates the bubble expansion by expansion-local rotation transformation, which can be calculated by the measured velocity field. Then, the related dynamic equations are established to describe the interaction between the fluid and the bubble. The research shows that the bubble production condition can be expressed by critical vortex value and fluid pressure; and the bubble expansion rate can be obtained by solving the non-linear dynamic equation of bubble motion. The results may help the related research as it shows a special kind of fluid motion in theoretic sense. As an application example, the nanofiber radium-voltage relation and threshold voltage-surface tension relation in electrospinning process are discussed
Lim, Lam Ghai; Pao, William K. S.; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Tang, Tong Boon
2016-01-01
A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design. PMID:27384567
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lam Ghai Lim
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function, with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.
Lim, Lam Ghai; Pao, William K S; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Tang, Tong Boon
2016-07-04
A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a 'sine-like' function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.
Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.
Brenner, Howard
2012-07-01
Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.
Reduced abrasion drilling fluid
2010-01-01
A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a
Reduced abrasion drilling fluid
2012-01-01
A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.
1977-01-01
A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid
Indications for tonsillectomy stratified by the level of evidence
Windfuhr, Jochen P.
2016-01-01
Background: One of the most significant clinical trials, demonstrating the efficacy of tonsillectomy (TE) for recurrent throat infection in severely affected children, was published in 1984. This systematic review was undertaken to compile various indications for TE as suggested in the literature after 1984 and to stratify the papers according to the current concept of evidence-based medicine. Material and methods: A systematic Medline research was performed using the key word of “tonsillectomy“ in combination with different filters such as “systematic reviews“, “meta-analysis“, “English“, “German“, and “from 1984/01/01 to 2015/05/31“. Further research was performed in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network and BMJ Clinical Evidence using the same key word. Finally, data from the “Trip Database” were researched for “tonsillectomy” and “indication“ and “from: 1984 to: 2015“ in combination with either “systematic review“ or “meta-analysis“ or “metaanalysis”. Results: A total of 237 papers were retrieved but only 57 matched our inclusion criteria covering the following topics: peritonsillar abscess (3), guidelines (5), otitis media with effusion (5), psoriasis (3), PFAPA syndrome (6), evidence-based indications (5), renal diseases (7), sleep-related breathing disorders (11), and tonsillitis/pharyngitis (12), respectively. Conclusions: 1) The literature suggests, that TE is not indicated to treat otitis media with effusion. 2) It has been shown, that the PFAPA syndrome is self-limiting and responds well to steroid administration, at least in a considerable amount of children. The indication for TE therefore appears to be imbalanced but further research is required to clarify the value of surgery. 3) Abscesstonsillectomy as a routine is not justified and indicated only for cases not responding to other measures of treatment, evident complications
An Instability in Stratified Taylor-Couette Flow
Swinney, Harry
2015-11-01
In the late 1950s Russell Donnelly began conducting experiments at the University of Chicago on flow between concentric rotating cylinders, and his experiments together with complementary theory by his collaborator S. Chandrasekhar did much to rekindle interest in the flow instability discovered and studied by G.I. Taylor (1923). The present study concerns an instability in a concentric cylinder system containing a fluid with an axial density gradient. In 2005 Dubrulle et al. suggested that a `stratorotational instability' (SRI) in this system could provide insight into instability and angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks. In 2007 the stratorotational instability was observed in experiments by Le Bars and Le Gal. We have conducted an experiment on the SRI in a concentric cylinder system (radius ratio η = 0 . 876) with buoyancy frequency N / 2 π = 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75 Hz. For N = 0.75 Hz we observe the SRI onset to occur for Ωouter /Ωinner > η , contrary to the prediction of Shalybkov and Rüdiger. Research conducted with Bruce Rodenborn and Ruy Ibanez.
Direct numerical simulation of stratified gas-liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lombardi, P.; De Angelis, V.; Banerjee, S.
1996-01-01
Interactions through an interface between two turbulent flows play an important role in many environmental and industrial problems, e.g. in determining the coupling fluxes of heat mass and momentum, between the ocean and atmosphere, and in the design of gas-liquid contractors for the chemical industry, as well as in determining interactions between phases in nuclear transients that are accompanied by system voiding e.g. LOCAs. Here, the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the interaction of two turbulent fluids through a flat interface has been simulated. The flow and the temperature fields are computed using a pseudospectral method. This study shows that shear stress at the interface correlates well with the heat flux. Extensive analysis of the near interface turbulence structure has been performed using quadrant analysis. From this it is clear that gas-side sweeps dominate over the high shear stress regions. This suggests that simple parameterizations based on sweep frequency may be adequate for predictions of scalar transport rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duccio Griffini
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Since the pioneering work of Taylor, the analysis of flow regimes of incompressible, viscous fluids contained in circular Couette systems with independently rotating cylinders have charmed many researchers. The characteristics of such kind of flows have been considered for some industrial applications. Recently, Taylor-Couette flows found an innovative application in the production of optical fiber nanotips, to be used in molecular biology and medical diagnostic fields. Starting from the activity of Barucci et al., the present work concerns the numerical analysis of a Taylor-Couette system composed by two coaxial counter-rotating cylinders with low aspect ratio and radius ratio, filled with three stratified fluids. An accurate analysis of the flow regimes is performed, considering both the variation of inner and outer rotational speed and the reduction of fiber radius due to etching process. The large variety of individuated flow configurations provides useful information about the possible use of the Taylor-Couette system in a wide range of engineering applications. For the present case, the final objective is to provide accurate information to manufacturers of fiber nanotips about the expected flow regimes, thus helping them in the setup of the control process that will be used to generate high-quality products.
Numerical Modelling of Three-Fluid Flow Using The Level-set Method
Li, Hongying; Lou, Jing; Shang, Zhi
2014-11-01
This work presents a numerical model for simulation of three-fluid flow involving two different moving interfaces. These interfaces are captured using the level-set method via two different level-set functions. A combined formulation with only one set of conservation equations for the whole physical domain, consisting of the three different immiscible fluids, is employed. Numerical solution is performed on a fixed mesh using the finite volume method. Surface tension effect is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force model. Validation of the present model is made against available results for stratified flow and rising bubble in a container with a free surface. Applications of the present model are demonstrated by a variety of three-fluid flow systems including (1) three-fluid stratified flow, (2) two-fluid stratified flow carrying the third fluid in the form of drops and (3) simultaneous rising and settling of two drops in a stationary third fluid. The work is supported by a Thematic and Strategic Research from A*STAR, Singapore (Ref. #: 1021640075).
Tuey, R. C.
1972-01-01
Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.
2017-07-11
Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.
Classifying Linear Canonical Relations
Lorand, Jonathan
2015-01-01
In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.
Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.
1982-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.
XXII Fluid Mechanics Conference (KKMP2016)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
to aerodynamics, atmospheric science, bio-fluids, combustion and reacting flows, computational fluid dynamics, experimental fluid mechanics, flow machinery, general fluid dynamics, hydromechanics, heat and fluid flow, measurement techniques, micro- and nano-flow, multi-phase flow, non-Newtonian fluids, rotating and stratified flows and turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Eisner's Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisors as coauthors, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers will be delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the Scientific Committee of the Conference; reviewers were from all Polish scientific-academic centres that are involved in fluid mechanics. Accordingly, of the 67 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the Scientific Committee, all papers were selected for presentation at XXII Fluid Mechanics Conference. We hope that this publication will be used not only as a guide through the conference's programme but also help in the future to access people and topics in fluid mechanics research. (paper)
Failure and nonfailure of fluid filaments in extension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Kolte, Mette Irene; Renardy, Michael
1998-01-01
The phenomenon of ductile failure of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid filaments without surface tension is studied by a 2D finite element method and by ID non-linear analysis. The viscoelastic fluids are described by single integral constitutive equations. The main conclusions are: (1) Newtonian...... fluid filaments do not exhibit ductile failure without surface tension; (2) some viscoelastic fluids form stable filaments while other fluids exhibit ductile failure as a result of an elastic instability; (3) for large Deborah numbers, the Considere condition may be used to predict the Hencky strain...
Finite element computational fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, A.J.
1983-01-01
This book analyzes finite element theory as applied to computational fluid mechanics. It includes a chapter on using the heat conduction equation to expose the essence of finite element theory, including higher-order accuracy and convergence in a common knowledge framework. Another chapter generalizes the algorithm to extend application to the nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. Other chapters are concerned with the analysis of a specific fluids mechanics problem class, including theory and applications. Some of the topics covered include finite element theory for linear mechanics; potential flow; weighted residuals/galerkin finite element theory; inviscid and convection dominated flows; boundary layers; parabolic three-dimensional flows; and viscous and rotational flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebihara, Ken-ichi
2005-03-01
paper, first, the validity and the usefulness of the lattice-gas model and the lattice Boltzmann method for the numerical analysis of two-phase flow are examined by applying the two-phase fluid model of these methods to the phenomena of the falling droplet and the rising bubble. Next, on the basis of the examination of its numerical results, the horizontal stratified two-phase flow, which is the fundamental and important flow and often observed in a practical situation, is simulated by use of the HCZ model that is the two-phase fluid model of the lattice Boltzmann method proposed by He, Chen, and Zhang. The HCZ model can simulate Rayleigh-Taylor instability which shows complex interfacial phenomena. It is verified that the simulated interfacial growth is subject to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability theory and can reproduce the curve concerning the interfacial growth of the theoretical flow regime map proposed by Taitel and Dukler (T-D map). Furthermore, it is found that the interfacial growth in the channel with the narrow width needs more superficial flow velocity than that given by the T-D map. In the simulation of the droplet generation in the horizontal stratified two-phase flow, it is verified that the HCZ model can also reproduce the experimental correlation proposed by Ishii and Grolmes within the range of the distribution of experimental data. According to the results of this report, it is found that the HCZ model of the lattice Boltzmann method can simulate complex interfacial phenomena in the horizontal stratified two-phase flow and reproduce the theoretical flow regime map and the experimental correlation. Considering the application of this model to more practical two-phase flow, it is also seen that this model has some problems which have to be solved, such as practical density difference, thermal influence and so on. (author)
Study of linear and non-linear waves propagation. Application to fluid mechanics and plasmas physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forestier, A.
2002-01-01
This contribution's topic is the resolution of the hyperbolic system which describes a compressible flow in perfect or real situation. It is always in a compressible case and a turbulent model or a multicomponent isentropic turbulent model can be associated. Different schemes are tested as S α β scheme or TVD scheme. An extension to generalized geometry is purposed in 2D or 3D. For chemical aspects, the ZND theory is under control with connexion of second order method. In the same way, MHD or Turbulent problem are developed with computations for compressible situation. Implicit aspects are investigated that show the lost of knowledge in large CFL even if computation can be driven for all time step. At the end, for Plasma situations in which pressure effects can be neglected, there is a lost of hyperbolicity that requires investigation in generated problems. We don't present numerical simulations that are exhibited in an other paper. (author)
FOREWORD Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This section of the Special Issue carries selected articles from the Fluid Mechanics and Fluid. Power Conference held during 12–14 December 2013 at the National Institute of Technology,. Hamirpur (HP). The section includes three review articles and nine original research articles. These were selected on the basis of their ...
Characterization of forced response of density stratified reacting wake
Pawar, Samadhan A.; Sujith, Raman I.; Emerson, Benjamin; Lieuwen, Tim
2018-02-01
The hydrodynamic stability of a reacting wake depends primarily on the density ratio [i.e., ratio of unburnt gas density (ρu) to burnt gas density (ρb)] of the flow across the wake. The variation of the density ratio from high to low value, keeping ρ u / ρ b > 1 , transitions dynamical characteristics of the reacting wake from a linearly globally stable (or convectively unstable) to a globally unstable mode. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze the effect of harmonic forcing on the deterministic and synchronization characteristics of reacting wakes. Using the recurrence quantification analysis of the forced wake response, we show that the deterministic behaviour of the reacting wake increases as the amplitude of forcing is increased. Furthermore, for different density ratios, we found that the synchronization of the top and bottom branches of the wake with the forcing signal is dependent on whether the mean frequency of the natural oscillations of the wake (fn) is lesser or greater than the frequency of external forcing (ff). We notice that the response of both branches (top and bottom) of the reacting wake to the external forcing is asymmetric and symmetric for the low and high density ratios, respectively. Furthermore, we characterize the phase-locking behaviour between the top and bottom branches of the wake for different values of density ratios. We observe that an increase in the density ratio results in a gradual decrease in the relative phase angle between the top and bottom branches of the wake, which leads to a change in the vortex shedding pattern from a sinuous (anti-phase) to a varicose (in-phase) mode of the oscillations.
Tsunami Speed Variations in Density-stratified Compressible Global Oceans
Watada, S.
2013-12-01
Recent tsunami observations in the deep ocean have accumulated unequivocal evidence that tsunami traveltime delays compared with the linear long-wave tsunami simulations occur during tsunami propagation in the deep ocean. The delay is up to 2% of the tsunami traveltime. Watada et al. [2013] investigated the cause of the delay using the normal mode theory of tsunamis and attributed the delay to the compressibility of seawater, the elasticity of the solid earth, and the gravitational potential change associated with mass motion during the passage of tsunamis. Tsunami speed variations in the deep ocean caused by seawater density stratification is investigated using a newly developed propagator matrix method that is applicable to seawater with depth-variable sound speeds and density gradients. For a 4-km deep ocean, the total tsunami speed reduction is 0.45% compared with incompressible homogeneous seawater; two thirds of the reduction is due to elastic energy stored in the water and one third is due to water density stratification mainly by hydrostatic compression. Tsunami speeds are computed for global ocean density and sound speed profiles and characteristic structures are discussed. Tsunami speed reductions are proportional to ocean depth with small variations, except for in warm Mediterranean seas. The impacts of seawater compressibility and the elasticity effect of the solid earth on tsunami traveltime should be included for precise modeling of trans-oceanic tsunamis. Data locations where a vertical ocean profile deeper than 2500 m is available in World Ocean Atlas 2009. The dark gray area indicates the Pacific Ocean defined in WOA09. a) Tsunami speed variations. Red, gray and black bars represent global, Pacific, and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. b) Regression lines of the tsunami velocity reduction for all oceans. c)Vertical ocean profiles at grid points indicated by the stars in Figure 1.
Vlasov fluid model with electron pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerwin, R.
1975-11-01
The Vlasov-ion, fluid-electron model of Freidberg for studying the linear stability of hot-ion pinch configurations is here extended to include electron pressure. Within the framework of an adiabatic electron-gas picture, it is shown that this model is still amenable to the numerical methods described by Lewis and Freidberg
Fugel, Hans-Joerg; Nuijten, Mark; Postma, Maarten
2016-01-01
RATIONALE: Stratified Medicine (SM) is becoming a natural result of advances in biomedical science and a promising path for the innovation-based biopharmaceutical industry to create new investment opportunities. While the use of biomarkers to improve R&D efficiency and productivity is very much
Theoretical study of evaporation heat transfer in horizontal microfin tubes: stratified flow model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honda, H; Wang, Y S [Kyushu Univ., Inst. for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)
2004-08-01
The stratified flow model of evaporation heat transfer in helically grooved, horizontal microfin tubes has been developed. The profile of stratified liquid was determined by a theoretical model previously developed for condensation in horizontal microfin tubes. For the region above the stratified liquid, the meniscus profile in the groove between adjacent fins was determined by a force balance between the gravity and surface tension forces. The thin film evaporation model was applied to predict heat transfer in the thin film region of the meniscus. Heat transfer through the stratified liquid was estimated by using an empirical correlation proposed by Mori et al. The theoretical predictions of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient were compared with available experimental data for four tubes and three refrigerants. A good agreement was obtained for the region of Fr{sub 0}<2.5 as long as partial dry out of tube surface did not occur. (Author)
Mechanisms and Variability of Salt Transport in Partially-Stratified Estuaries
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bowen, Melissa
2000-01-01
.... Analysis of salt transport from observations in the Hudson Estuary show that stratified periods with elevated estuarine salt transport occur in five-day intervals once a month during apogean neap tides...
Visualization of mole fraction distribution of slow jet forming stably stratified field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fumizawa, Motoo; Hishida, Makoto
1990-01-01
An experimental study has been performed to investigate the behavior of flow and mass transfer in gaseous slow jet in which buoyancy force opposed the flow forming stably stratified field. The study has been performed to understand the basic features of air ingress phenomena at pipe rupture accident of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. A displacement fringe technique was adopted in Mach-Zehnder interferometer to visualize the mole fraction distribution. As the result, the followings were obtained: (1) The stably stratified fields were formed in the vicinity of the outlet of the slow jet. The penetration distance of the stably stratified fields increased with Froude number. (2) Mass fraction distributions in the stably stratified fields were well correlated with the present model using the ramp mole velocity profile. (author)
Stratifying a Risk for an Increased Variation of Airway Caliber among the Clinically Stable Asthma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atsushi Hayata
2013-01-01
Conclusions: These results indicate that ACQ, %FEV1 and FENO can stratify the risk for increased variation in airway caliber among patients with stable asthma. This may help identify subjects in whom further monitoring of lung function fluctuations is indicated.
Soft particles at a fluid interface
Mehrabian, Hadi; Harting, Jens; Snoeijer, Jacco H.
2015-11-01
Particles added to a fluid interface can be used as a surface stabilizer in the food, oil and cosmetic industries. As an alternative to rigid particles, it is promising to consider highly deformable particles that can adapt their conformation at the interface. In this study, we compute the shapes of soft elastic particles using molecular dynamics simulations of a cross-linked polymer gel, complemented by continuum calculations based on the linear elasticity. It is shown that the particle shape is not only affected by the Young's modulus of the particle, but also strongly depends on whether the gel is partially or completely wetting the fluid interface. We find that the molecular simulations for the partially wetting case are very accurately described by the continuum theory. By contrast, when the gel is completely wetting the fluid interface the linear theory breaks down and we reveal that molecular details have a strong influence on the equilibrium shape.
Mutzberg, J.
1972-01-01
Design is proposed for inexpensive accelerometer which would work by applying pressure to fluid during acceleration. Pressure is used to move shuttle, and shuttle movement is sensed and calibrated to give acceleration readings.
Mathematical models for two-phase stratified pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biberg, Dag
2005-06-01
. A 5 point resolution in each parameter would thus require 5{sup 13} =1.220.703.125 measurements. Field predictions generally involve model extrapolations. Flow models should therefore be given the best possible mechanistic basis in order to maximize their extrapolation potential. Multiphase pipe flow is a 3-D phenomenon. Flow models should thus ideally be based on a 3-D flow description. 3-D models do not contain many of the inconsistencies associated with traditional correlation based 1-D models, and do thus represent a higher extrapolation potential. The application of conventional 3-D CFD models for field predictions is limited by computer capacity. Evaluation speed is, however, not the only problem. 3-D CFD models remain to be subject to the closure issues and data tuning associated with turbulent flow models in general. They will thus not automatically yield correct flow predictions. The most pressing obstacle towards obtaining more reliable multiphase pipe flow predictions seems to be given by the closure issues related to the complex interaction of the fluids at the interface. No sufficiently general solution to this problem seems to be available at present. Closure issues could in theory be avoided by use of a direct numerical simulation of the governing equations (DNS). The seemingly insurmountable technical difficulties associated with the application of this approach for multiphase pipe flow field predictions do, however, render it out of reach at present. DNS may, however, serve as a numerical lab investigating model closure in less complicated models.
Why turbulence sustains in supercritically stratified free atmosphere?
Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2016-04-01
It is widely believed that in very stable stratifications, at Richardson numbers (Ri) exceeding critical value Ric ˜ 0.25 turbulence decays and flow becomes laminar. This is so at low Reynolds numbers (Re), e.g., in lab experiments; but this is not true in very-high-Re geophysical flows. Free atmosphere and deep ocean are turbulent in spite of strongly supercritical stratifications: 1 role of negative buoyancy flux, Fb > 0, in turbulence energetics was treated in terms of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation and understood as just consumption of TKE by the buoyancy forces. This has led to the conclusion that sufficiently strong static stability causes the negative buoyancy flux sufficiently strong to exceed the TKE generation rate and thus to kill turbulence. However, considering TKE equation together with budget equation for turbulent potential energy (TPE proportional to the squared buoyancy fluctuations) shows that the role of Fb in turbulence energetics is nothing but conversion of TKE into TPE (Fb just quantifies the rate of this conversion); so that Fb does not affect total turbulent energy (TTE = TKE + TPE). Moreover, as follows from the buoyancy-flux budget equation, TPE generates positive (directed upward) buoyancy flux irrespective of the sign of the buoyancy gradient. Indeed, the warmer fluid particles (with positive buoyancy fluctuation) rise up, whereas the cooler particles sink down, so that both contribute to the positive buoyancy flux opposing to the usual, negative flux generated by mean buoyancy gradient. In this context, strengthening the negative buoyancy flux leads to decreasing TKE and increasing TPE. The latter enhances the counter-gradient share of the total flux, thus reduces |Fb| and, eventually, increases TKE. The above negative feedback was disregarded in the conventional concept of down-gradient turbulent transport. This mechanism imposes a limit on the maximal (independent of the buoyancy gradient) value of |Fb| and thus
Non linear system become linear system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petre Bucur
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.
Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor
2009-01-01
An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially
Behaviour of Lagrangian triangular mixed fluid finite elements
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The behaviour of mixed fluid finite elements, formulated based on the Lagrangian frame of reference, is investigated to understand the effects of locking due to incompressibility and irrotational constraints. For this purpose, both linear and quadratic mixed triangular fluid elements are formulated. It is found that there exists a ...
On Love's approximation for fluid-filled elastic tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caroli, E.; Mainardi, F.
1980-01-01
A simple procedure is set up to introduce Love's approximation for wave propagation in thin-walled fluid-filled elastic tubes. The dispersion relation for linear waves and the radial profile for fluid pressure are determined in this approximation. It is shown that the Love approximation is valid in the low-frequency regime. (author)
Sanderson, R D; Bernfield, M
1988-12-01
Epithelial cells are organized into either a single layer (simple epithelia) or multiple layers (stratified epithelia). Maintenance of these cellular organizations requires distinct adhesive mechanisms involving many cell surface molecules. One such molecule is a cell surface proteoglycan, named syndecan, that contains both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains. This proteoglycan binds cells to fibrillar collagens and fibronectin and thus acts as a receptor for interstitial matrix. The proteoglycan is restricted to the basolateral surface of simple epithelial cells, but is located over the entire surface of stratified epithelial cells, even those surfaces not contacting matrix. We now show that the distinct localization in simple and stratified epithelia correlates with a distinct proteoglycan structure. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia (modal molecular size, 160 kDa) is larger than that from stratified epithelia (modal molecular size, 92 kDa), but their core proteins are identical in size and immunoreactivity. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia has more and larger heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains than the proteoglycan from stratified epithelia. Thus, the cell surface proteoglycan shows a tissue-specific structural polymorphism due to distinct posttranslational modifications. This polymorphism likely reflects distinct proteoglycan functions in simple and stratified epithelia, potentially meeting the different adhesive requirements of the cells in these different organizations.
Shinbrot, Marvin
2012-01-01
Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.
... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... is being tested? Synovial fluid is a thick liquid that acts as a lubricant for the body's ...
Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun
2015-09-29
An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.
... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF culture Images Pneumococci organism References Karcher DS, McPherson RA. Cerebrospinal, synovial, serous body fluids, and alternative specimens. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ...
Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image)
... brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura which covers ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiedemann, H.
1981-11-01
Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
Blyth, T S
2002-01-01
Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiedemann, H.
1981-11-01
Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myeong, Hyeon Guk
1999-06-01
This book deals with computational fluid dynamics with basic and history of numerical fluid dynamics, introduction of finite volume method using one-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of two-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of Navier-Stokes equation, fluid with heat transport, turbulent flow and turbulent model, Navier-Stokes solution by generalized coordinate system such as coordinate conversion, conversion of basic equation, program and example of calculation, application of abnormal problem and high speed solution of numerical fluid dynamics.
Matrices and linear transformations
Cullen, Charles G
1990-01-01
""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first
Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2006-01-01
Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....
Faraway, Julian J
2014-01-01
A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz
Carr, Joseph
1996-01-01
The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa
Fault tolerant linear actuator
Tesar, Delbert
2004-09-14
In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.
Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.
1984-01-01
A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)
Modern fluid dynamics for physics and astrophysics
Regev, Oded; Yecko, Philip A
2016-01-01
This book grew out of the need to provide students with a solid introduction to modern fluid dynamics. It offers a broad grounding in the underlying principles and techniques used, with some emphasis on applications in astrophysics and planetary science. The book comprehensively covers recent developments, methods and techniques, including, for example, new ideas on transitions to turbulence (via transiently growing stable linear modes), new approaches to turbulence (which remains the enigma of fluid dynamics), and the use of asymptotic approximation methods, which can give analytical or semi-analytical results and complement fully numerical treatments. The authors also briefly discuss some important considerations to be taken into account when developing a numerical code for computer simulation of fluid flows. Although the text is populated throughout with examples and problems from the field of astrophysics and planetary science, the text is eminently suitable as a general introduction to fluid dynamics. It...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
librium of a vertical slice fluid (Figure Id) of height H and again using the fact .... same fluid having the same shape and same volume as the body. This fluid volume .... example, can be caused by the heating of air near the ground by the sun ...
Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.
2010-01-01
®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding
Simulation model of stratified thermal energy storage tank using finite difference method
Waluyo, Joko
2016-06-01
Stratified TES tank is normally used in the cogeneration plant. The stratified TES tanks are simple, low cost, and equal or superior in thermal performance. The advantage of TES tank is that it enables shifting of energy usage from off-peak demand for on-peak demand requirement. To increase energy utilization in a stratified TES tank, it is required to build a simulation model which capable to simulate the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank precisely. This paper is aimed to develop a novel model in addressing the aforementioned problem. The model incorporated chiller into the charging of stratified TES tank system in a closed system. The model was developed in one-dimensional type involve with heat transfer aspect. The model covers the main factors affect to degradation of temperature distribution namely conduction through the tank wall, conduction between cool and warm water, mixing effect on the initial flow of the charging as well as heat loss to surrounding. The simulation model is developed based on finite difference method utilizing buffer concept theory and solved in explicit method. Validation of the simulation model is carried out using observed data obtained from operating stratified TES tank in cogeneration plant. The temperature distribution of the model capable of representing S-curve pattern as well as simulating decreased charging temperature after reaching full condition. The coefficient of determination values between the observed data and model obtained higher than 0.88. Meaning that the model has capability in simulating the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank. The model is not only capable of generating temperature distribution but also can be enhanced for representing transient condition during the charging of stratified TES tank. This successful model can be addressed for solving the limitation temperature occurs in charging of the stratified TES tank with the absorption chiller. Further, the stratified TES tank can be
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patten, B.C.
1983-04-01
Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.
Magnelok technology: a complement to magnetorheological fluids
Carlson, J. David
2004-07-01
Magnetorheological or MR fluids have been successfully used to enable highly effective semi-active control systems in automobile primary suspensions to control unwanted motions in civil engineering structures and to provide force-feedback in steer-by-wire systems. A key to the successful use of MR fluids is an appreciation and understanding of the balance and trade-off between the magnetically controlled on-state force and the ever-present off-state viscous force. In all MR fluid applications, one must deal with the fact that MR fluids never fully decouple or go to zero force in their off-state. Magnelok devices are a magnetically controlled compliment to traditional MR fluid devices that have been developed to enable a true force decoupling in the off-state. Magnelok devices may be embodied as linear or rotary dampers, brakes, lockable struts or position holding devices. They are particularly suitable for lock/un-lock applications. Unlike MR fluid devices they contain no fluid yet they do provide a variable level of friction damping that is controlled by the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. Magnelok devices are low cost as they easily accommodate relatively loose mechanical tolerances and require no seals or accumulator. A variety of controllable Magnelok devices and applications are described.
Big bang nucleosynthesis with a stiff fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutta, Sourish; Scherrer, Robert J.
2010-01-01
Models that lead to a cosmological stiff fluid component, with a density ρ S that scales as a -6 , where a is the scale factor, have been proposed recently in a variety of contexts. We calculate numerically the effect of such a stiff fluid on the primordial element abundances. Because the stiff fluid energy density decreases with the scale factor more rapidly than radiation, it produces a relatively larger change in the primordial helium-4 abundance than in the other element abundances, relative to the changes produced by an additional radiation component. We show that the helium-4 abundance varies linearly with the density of the stiff fluid at a fixed fiducial temperature. Taking ρ S10 and ρ R10 to be the stiff fluid energy density and the standard density in relativistic particles, respectively, at T=10 MeV, we find that the change in the primordial helium abundance is well-fit by ΔY p =0.00024(ρ S10 /ρ R10 ). The changes in the helium-4 abundance produced by additional radiation or by a stiff fluid are identical when these two components have equal density at a 'pivot temperature', T * , where we find T * =0.55 MeV. Current estimates of the primordial 4 He abundance give the constraint on a stiff fluid energy density of ρ S10 /ρ R10 <30.
Michell, S J
2013-01-01
Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th
Fluid inclusion geothermometry
Cunningham, C.G.
1977-01-01
Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.
Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Amitabh Bhattacharya
of renewable energy (e.g., via wind, hydrokinetic generators), creating low-cost healthcare ... multiphase flow, turbulence, bio-fluid dynamics, atmospheric flows, microfluidic flows, and ... study the challenging problem of entry of solids in water.
Molecular mechanics and structure of the fluid-solid interface in simple fluids
Wang, Gerald J.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.
2017-09-01
Near a fluid-solid interface, the fluid spatial density profile is highly nonuniform at the molecular scale. This nonuniformity can have profound effects on the dynamical behavior of the fluid and has been shown to play an especially important role when modeling a wide variety of nanoscale heat and momentum transfer phenomena. We use molecular-mechanics arguments and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations to develop a better understanding of the structure of the first fluid layer directly adjacent to the solid in the layering regime, as delineated by a nondimensional number that compares the effects of wall-fluid interaction to thermal energy. Using asymptotic analysis of the Nernst-Planck equation, we show that features of the fluid density profile close to the wall, such as the areal density of the first layer ΣFL (defined as the number of atoms in this layer per unit of fluid-solid interfacial area), can be expressed as polynomial functions of the fluid average density ρave. This is found to be in agreement with MD simulations, which also show that the width of the first layer hFL is a linear function of the average density and only a weak function of the temperature T . These results can be combined to show that, for system average densities corresponding to a dense fluid (ρave≥0.7 ), the ratio C ≡ΣFLρavehFL, representing a density enhancement with respect to the bulk fluid, depends only weakly on temperature and is essentially independent of density. Further MD simulations suggest that the above results, nominally valid for large systems (solid in contact with semi-infinite fluid), also describe fluid-solid interfaces under considerable nanoconfinement, provided ρave is appropriately defined.
Linear colliders - prospects 1985
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rees, J.
1985-06-01
We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, B.
1985-01-01
A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogner, H.H.
1989-01-01
The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.
1979-01-01
An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)
Semidefinite linear complementarity problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eckhardt, U.
1978-04-01
Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de
Axler, Sheldon
2015-01-01
This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...
Phase transitions of quadrupolar fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
OShea, S.F.; Dubey, G.S.; Rasaiah, J.C.
1997-01-01
Gibbs ensemble simulations are reported for Lennard-Jones particles with embedded quadrupoles of strength Q * =Q/(εσ 5 ) 1/2 =2.0 where ε and σ are the Lennard-Jones parameters. Calculations revealing the effect of the dispersive forces on the liquid endash vapor coexistence were carried out by scaling the attractive r -6 term in the Lennard-Jones pair potential by a factor λ ranging from 0 to 1. Liquid endash vapor coexistence is observed for all values of λ including λ=0 for Q * =2.0, unlike the corresponding dipolar fluid studied by van Leeuwen and Smit et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3991 (1993)] which showed no phase transition below λ=0.35 when the reduced dipole moment μ * =2.0. The simulation data are analyzed to estimate the critical properties of the quadrupolar fluid and their dependence on the strength λ of the dispersive force. The critical temperature and pressure show a clear quadratic dependence on λ, while the density is less confidently identified as being linear in λ. The compressibility is roughly linear in λ. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Handbook on linear motor application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-10-01
This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yong [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Zhou, Zhuang [Department of Orthopedic Oncology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Wu, Cheng' ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao [Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Beijing 100035 (China); Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chenxin [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Tian, Wei [Department of Spine Surgery, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China)
2016-11-01
To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chen Xin [Dept. of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zhuang [Dept. of Orthopedic Oncology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang (China); Wu, Cheng' ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao [Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Beijing (China); Tian, Wei [Dept. of Spine Surgery, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China)
2016-09-15
To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.
Linear ubiquitination in immunity.
Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning
2015-07-01
Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.
1994-06-01
We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs
Schneider, Hans
1989-01-01
Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t
Linearity in Process Languages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn
2002-01-01
The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....
Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N
1962-01-01
Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a
Weisberg, Sanford
2013-01-01
Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus
Forestier, M.; Haldenwang, P.
We consider free convection driven by a heated vertical plate immersed in a nonlinearly stratified medium. The plate supplies a uniform horizontal heat flux to a fluid, the bulk of which has a stable stratification, characterized by a non-uniform vertical temperature gradient. This gradient is assumed to have a typical length scale of variation, denoted Z0, while 0, and the physical properties of the medium.We then apply the new theory to the natural convection affecting the vapour phase in a liquefied pure gas tank (e.g. the cryogenic storage of hydrogen). It is assumed that the cylindrical storage tank is subject to a constant uniform heat flux on its lateral and top walls. We are interested in the vapour motion above a residual layer of liquid in equilibrium with the vapour. High-precision axisymmetric numerical computations show that the flow remains steady for a large range of parameters, and that a bulk stratification characterized by a quadratic temperature profile is undoubtedly present. The application of the theory permits a comparison of the numerical and analytic results, showing that the theory satisfactorily predicts the primary dynamical and thermal properties of the storage tank.
Magnetic properties of carbonyl iron particles in magnetorheological fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorodkin, S R; James, R O; Kordonski, W I
2009-01-01
Knowledge of the magnetic properties of dispersed magnetic particles is a prerequisite to the design an MR fluid with desired performance. A term specific susceptibility is introduced for characterization of particle susceptibility. The study was performed with the Bartington MS2B magnetic susceptibility system on small samples volume. Specific magnetic susceptibility of iron particles was found to be a linear function of median particle size. Structural change in the fluid, including particle organization, led to susceptibility drift and may affect fluid performance. It was shown that susceptibility data can be used for evaluation of the concentration of carbonyl iron particles in MR fluids.
Dissipative charged fluid in a magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali, E-mail: davody.phy@gmail.com
2016-05-10
We study the collective excitations in a dissipative charged fluid at zero chemical potential when an external magnetic field is present. While in the absence of magnetic field, four collective excitations appear in the fluid, we find five hydrodynamic modes here. This implies that the magnetic field splits the degeneracy between the transverse shear modes. Using linear response theory, we then compute the retarded response functions. In particular, it turns out that the correlation between charge and the energy fluctuations will no longer vanish, even at zero chemical potential. By use of the response functions, we also derive the relevant Kubo formulas for the transport coefficients.
The nonlinear dynamics of a spacecraft coupled to the vibration of a contained fluid
Peterson, Lee D.; Crawley, Edward F.; Hansman, R. John
1988-01-01
The dynamics of a linear spacecraft mode coupled to a nonlinear low gravity slosh of a fluid in a cylindrical tank is investigated. Coupled, nonlinear equations of motion for the fluid-spacecraft dynamics are derived through an assumed mode Lagrangian method. Unlike linear fluid slosh models, this nonlinear slosh model retains two fundamental slosh modes and three secondary modes. An approximate perturbation solution of the equations of motion indicates that the nonlinear coupled system response involves fluid-spacecraft modal resonances not predicted by either a linear, or a nonlinear, uncoupled slosh analysis. Experimental results substantiate the analytical predictions.
Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi
2014-01-01
In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable
Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.
2010-09-01
We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like).
Angel, S.M.
1987-02-27
Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.
Angel, S. Michael
1989-01-01
Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.
Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.
1991-01-01
The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taro Mikami
2015-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The collective cell migration of stratified epithelial cells is considered to be an important phenomenon in wound healing, development, and cancer invasion; however, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Furthermore, whereas Rho family proteins, including RhoA, play important roles in cell migration, the exact role of Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinases (ROCKs in cell migration is controversial and might be cell-type dependent. Here, we report the development of a novel modified scratch assay that was used to observe the collective cell migration of stratified TE-10 cells derived from a human esophageal cancer specimen. RESULTS: Desmosomes were found between the TE-10 cells and microvilli of the surface of the cell sheet. The leading edge of cells in the cell sheet formed a simple layer and moved forward regularly; these rows were followed by the stratified epithelium. ROCK inhibitors and ROCK small interfering RNAs (siRNAs disturbed not only the collective migration of the leading edge of this cell sheet, but also the stratified layer in the rear. In contrast, RhoA siRNA treatment resulted in more rapid migration of the leading rows and disturbed movement of the stratified portion. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this study suggest that ROCKs play an important role in mediating the collective migration of TE-10 cell sheets. In addition, differences between the effects of siRNAs targeting either RhoA or ROCKs suggested that distinct mechanisms regulate the collective cell migration in the simple epithelium of the wound edge versus the stratified layer of the epithelium.
Numerical simulation of stratified flows with different k-ε turbulence models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dagestad, S.
1991-01-01
The thesis comprises the numerical simulation of stratified flows with different k-ε models. When using the k-ε model, two equations are solved to describe the turbulence. The k-equation represents the turbulent kinetic energy of the turbulence and the ε-equation is the turbulent dissipation. Different k-ε models predict stratified flows differently. The standard k-ε model leads to higher turbulent mixing than the low-Reynolds model does. For lower Froude numbers, F 0 , this effect becomes enhanced. Buoyancy extension of the k-ε model also leads to less vertical mixing in cases with strong stratification. When the stratification increases, buoyancy-extension becomes larger influence. The turbulent Prandtl number effects have large impact on the transport of heat and the development of the flow. Two different formulae which express the turbulent Prandtl effects have been tested. For unstably stratified flows, the rapid mixing and three-dimensionality of the flow can in fact be computed using a k-ε model when buoyancy-extended is employed. The turbulent heat transfer and thus turbulent production in unstable stratified flows depends strongly upon the turbulent Prandtl number effect. The main conclusions are: Stable stratified flows should be computed with a buoyancy-extended low-Reynolds k-ε model; Unstable stratified flows should be computed with a buoyancy-extended standard k-ε model; The turbulent Prandtl number effects should be included in the computations; Buoyancy-extension has lead to more correct description of the physics for all of the investigated flows. 78 refs., 128 figs., 17 tabs
Metalworking and machining fluids
Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark
2010-10-12
Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, J.S.
1984-01-01
Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)
Interpretation of Fermion system equilibration by energy fluid motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, S.
1990-01-01
We study the equilibration of fermion system with the help of both linear and non-linear master equations which are originated from the extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation of motion. We show how the non-linear master equation for nucleon occupation number transforms into the Navier-Stokes type of one dimensional equation for non-stationary flow of a compressible and viscous fluid. Physical consequences of these equations are investigated by providing illustrative examples
Unit Stratified Sampling as a Tool for Approximation of Stochastic Optimization Problems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šmíd, Martin
2012-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 30 (2012), s. 153-169 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Stochastic programming * approximation * stratified sampling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/smid-unit stratified sampling as a tool for approximation of stochastic optimization problems.pdf
Hutchinson, T. M.; Awe, T. J.; Bauer, B. S.; Yates, K. C.; Yu, E. P.; Yelton, W. G.; Fuelling, S.
2018-05-01
A direct observation of the stratified electrothermal instability on the surface of thick metal is reported. Aluminum rods coated with 70 μ m Parylene-N were driven to 1 MA in 100 ns , with the metal thicker than the skin depth. The dielectric coating suppressed plasma formation, enabling persistent observation of discrete azimuthally correlated stratified thermal perturbations perpendicular to the current whose wave numbers, k , grew exponentially with rate γ (k ) =0.06 n s-1-(0.4 n s-1μ m2ra d-2 ) k2 in ˜1 g /c m3 , ˜7000 K aluminum.
Stereo imaging and random array stratified imaging for cargo radiation inspecting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jingjin; Zeng Yu
2003-01-01
This paper presents a Stereo Imaging and Random Array Stratified Imaging for cargo container radiation Inspecting. By using dual-line vertical detector array scan, a stereo image of inspected cargo can be obtained and watched with virtual reality view. The random detector array has only one-row of detectors but distributed in a certain horizontal dimension randomly. To scan a cargo container with this random array detector, a 'defocused' image is obtained. By using 'anti-random focusing', one layer of the image can be focused on the background of all defocused images from other layers. A stratified X-ray image of overlapped bike wheels is presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hutchinson, Trevor M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hutchinson, Trevor M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Awe, Thomas James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Bruno S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Yates, Kevin [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yu, Edmund p. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yelton, William G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fuelling, Stephan [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
2017-07-01
The first direct observation of the stratified electrothermal instability on the surface of thick metal is reported. Aluminum rods coated with 70 μm Parylene-N were driven to 1 MA in approximately 100 ns, with the metal thicker than the skin depth. The dielectric coating suppressed plasma formation, enabling persistent observation of discrete azimuthally-correlated stratified structures perpendicular to the current. Strata amplitudes grow rapidly, while their Fourier spectrum shifts toward longer wavelength. Assuming blackbody emission, radiometric calculations indicate strata are temperature perturbations that grow exponentially with rate γ = 0.04 ns -1 in 3000- 10,000 K aluminum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Suk Ho; Kim, Hho Jung
1992-01-01
The physical benchmark problem on the direct-contact condensation under the horizontal cocurrent stratified flow was analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD2 and /MOD3 one-dimensional model. Analysis was performed for the Northwestern experiments, which involved condensing steam/water flow in a rectangular channel. The study showed that the RELAP5 interfacial heat transfer model, under the horizontal stratified flow regime, predicted the condensation rate well though the interfacial heat transfer area was underpredicted. However, some discrepancies in water layer thickness and local heat transfer coefficient with experimental results were found especially when there is a wavy interface, and those were satisfied only within the range. (Author)
Fiszdon, W
1965-01-01
Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co
Electrorheological fluids and methods
Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.
2015-06-02
Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.